Characters for Entelegynae Matrix
Introduction       Legs       Carapace       Abdomen       Spinneret       Male Genitalia       Female Genitalia       Behavior and Silk
Character Data to accompany  "Towards a phylogeny of entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Entelegynae)"   by Griswold, C., J. Coddington, N. Platnick, and R. Forster. 1999. J. Arachnol. 27: 53--63.
Charles E. Griswold and Xin-Ping Wang

Department of Entomology, California Academy of Sciences
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118

      In 1999 Griswold, Coddington, Platnick and Forster presented a provisional phylogeny for most entelegyne families with cribellate members based on a matrix of 137 characters scored for 43 exemplar taxa and analyzed under parsimony. That phylogeny tested many suprafamilial hypotheses of the last 30 years and was the first attempt to relate them using quantitative phylogenetic techniques: Amaurobioidea (sensu Forster & Wilton 1973), Amaurobiidae and included subfamilies (sensu Lehtinen 1967), Dictynoidea and Desidae (sensu Forster 1970), Entelegynae (sensu Coddington 1990, Coddington & Levi 1991), Lycosoidea (Homann 1971, sensu Griswold 1993); Orbiculariae (sensu Coddington 1986, 1990a, b); and the 'RTA clade' (sensu Coddington & Levi 1991). That cladogram confirmed some accepted groupings, refuted others, and proposed several novel phylogenetic and nomenclatural changes. Confirmed were the monophyly of Neocribellatae, Araneoclada, Entelegynae, and Orbiculariae. The Lycosoidea, Amaurobiidae and some included subfamilies, Dictynoidea, and Amaurobioidea (sensu Forster & Wilton 1973) proved to be polyphyletic. Phyxelididae Lehtinen was raised to family level and Zorocratidae Dahl, 1913 was revalidated. A group including all other entelegynes other than Eresoidea was weakly supported as the sister group of Orbiculariae and several new, informative, informal clades were proposed or redefined: the "Canoe Tapetum Clade," "Divided Cribellum Clade, the "Titanoecoids," the "RTA Clade," the "Fused Paracribellar Clade," the "Stiphidioids" and the "Agelenoids".
      Time and space constraints in the Congress volume made it impossible to present and discuss the data fully. The data were presented as a matrix, and characters and character state descriptions were abbreviated. Here we hope to partially remedy that shortcoming, reproducing the preferred 327 step cladogram, spelling out the characters and their states, presenting images of many states, especially those not previously discussed in the literature, and presenting character state trees derived in MacClade (Maddison & Maddison 1992) on the cladogram. We have made one modification to the data. Character 56, epiandrous spigots present or absent, was inadvertently miscoded for as present in Maniho, Metaltella, Matachia, Badumna c. and Badumna l. These spigots are absent in these taxa. When correctly scored the same tree, needing one less step (326), was preferred under the same search strategies employed in the original analysis. We don't intend to present a new analysis here, although continuing discoveries have called some homologies into question. A large paper is in preparation that presents depicts many of the new data and discusses in detail the characters, their states, and the implications of the cladogram for their evolution. We hope that the 1999 analysis, this web publication, and the large paper in preparation will provide a springboard to further, more detailed and/or more comprehensive analyses of araneomorph phylogeny.
Literature cited
Coddington, J. A.
  1990a. Ontogeny and homology in the male palpus of orb-weaving spiders and their relatives, with comments on phylogeny (Araneoclada: Araneoidea, Deinopoidea). Smithsonian Contrib. Zool., 496: 1–52.
Coddington, J. A.
  1990b. Cladistics and spider classification: araneomorph phylogeny and the monophyly of orbweavers (Araneae: Araneomorphae; Orbiculariae). Acta Zool. Fennica, 190: 75–87.
Coddington, J. A. & H. W. Levi.
  1991. Systematics and evolution of spiders (Araneae). Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 22: 565–592.
Forster, R. R.
  1970. The Spiders of New Zealand, III. Otago Museum Bulletin, 3: 1–184.
Forster, R. R. & C. L. Wilton.
  1973. The Spiders of New Zealand, Part IV. Otago Museum Bulletin, 4: 1–309.
Griswold, C. E.
  1993. Investigations into the phylogeny of the lycosoid spiders and their kin (Arachnida, Araneae, Lycosoidea). Smithsonian Contrib. Zool., 539: 1–39.
Griswold, C., J. Coddington, N. Platnick, and R. Forster.
  1999. Towards a phylogeny of entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Entelegynae). J. Arachnol. 27: 53--63.
Homann, H. 1971.
  1971. Die Augen der Araneae: Anatomie, Ontogenese und Bedeutung für die Systematik (Chelicerata, Arachnida). Zeitschr. Morph. Tiere, 69: 201–272.
Lehtinen, P. T.
  1967. Classification of the cribellate spiders and some allied families. Ann. Zool. Fennici, 4: 199–468.
Maddison, W. P. & D. R. Maddison.
  1992. MacClade, ver. 3.0. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.
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