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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Genera in the family or subfamily Cichlinae: [ 109 ] records


Acara Heckel [J. J.] 1840:338 Masc. Acara crassipinnis Heckel 1840. Type by subsequent designation. Type apparently first restricted by Gill 1858:19 [ref. 1750] (see Eigenmann 1910:470-471 [ref. 1224]). •Synonym of Astronotus Swainson 1839 -- (Kullander 1986:60 [ref. 12439], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:617 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Astronotus Swainson 1839. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Acarichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:483, 500 Masc. Acara heckelii Müller & Troschel 1849. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Acarichthys Eigenmann 1912 -- (Kullander 1980:23 [ref. 5526], Kullander 1986:134 [ref. 12439], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:607 [ref. 27061], Kottelat 2013:373 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Acarichthys Eigenmann 1912. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Acaronia Myers [G. S.] 1940:170 Fem. Acara nassa Heckel 1840. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Acaropsis Steindachner 1875, preoccupied by Acaropsis Moquin-Tandon 1863 in Arachnida. •Valid as Acaronia Myers 1940 -- (Kullander 1986:78 [ref. 12439], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:607 [ref. 27061], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518]). Current status: Valid as Acaronia Myers 1940. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Acaropsis (subgenus of Acara) Steindachner [F.] 1875:80 Fem. Acara nassa Heckel 1840. Type by monotypy. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Acaropsis Moquin-Tandon 1863 in Arachnida, replaced by Acaronia Myers 1940. •Synonym of Acaronia Myers 1940 -- (Kullander 1986:78 [ref. 12439], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:607 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Acaronia Myers 1940. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Acharnes Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:622 Masc. Acharnes speciosus Müller & Troschel 1849. Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Cichla Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Kullander 1986:50 [ref. 12439], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:5 [ref. 14136], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:620 [ref. 27061], Kullander & Ferreira 2006:294 [ref. 28883]). Current status: Synonym of Cichla Bloch & Schneider 1801. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Aequidens (subgenus of Astronotus) Eigenmann [C. H.] & Bray [W. L.] 1894:616 Masc. Acara tetramerus Heckel 1840. Type by monotypy in subgenus. •Valid as Aequidens Eigenmann & Bray 1894 -- (Kullander 1986:338 [ref. 12439], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:134 [ref. 14136], Kullander 1995 [ref. 21877], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Britski et al. 1999:148 [ref. 24147], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:607 [ref. 27061], Allen et al. 2006:1437 [ref. 29081], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518], Kullander 2012:52 [ref. 31798], Kottelat 2013:373 [ref. 32989], Hernández-Acevedo et al. 2015:96 [ref. 34438]). Current status: Valid as Aequidens Eigenmann & Bray 1894. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Amatitlania Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2007:48 Fem. Heros nigrofasciatus Günther 1867. Type by original designation. •Valid as Amatitlania Schmitter-Soto 2007 -- (Scharpf 2009:3 [ref. 30400], Esmaeili et al. 2013:225 [ref. 32957], Kottelat 2013:373 [ref. 32989], Mcmahan et al. 2014:633 [ref. 33605], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:896 [ref. 34062], Říčan et al. 2016:34 [ref. 34357], Esmaeili et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:69 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Amatitlania Schmitter-Soto 2007. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Amphilophus Agassiz [L.] 1859:408 Masc. Amphilophus froebelii Agassiz 1859. Type by monotypy. Description very brief. •Valid as Amphilophus but polyphyletic -- (Chakrabarty 2007:21 [ref. 29359]). •Valid as Amphilophus Agassiz 1859 -- (Loiselle 1997:3 [ref. 23115], Kullander & Hartel 1997:199 [ref. 22732], Burgess 2000:54 [ref. 24818], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:609 [ref. 27061], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Scharpf 2009:3 [ref. 30400], Oldfield 2009:1 [ref. 30478], Geiger et al. 2010:159 [ref. 30923], Recknagel et al. 2013:207 [ref. 32956], Kottelat 2013:373 [ref. 32989], Říčan et al. 2016:37 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Amphilophus Agassiz 1859. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Andinoacara Musilová [Z.], Říčan [O.] & Novák [J.] 2009:6 Masc. Acara latifrons Steindachner 1878. Type by original designation. The genus has masculine gender attributed to it by the authors. •Valid as Andinoacara Musilová, Říčan & Novák 2009 -- (Musilová, et al. 2009:131 [ref. 30601], Kullander 2012:51 [ref. 31798], Steele et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32810]). Current status: Valid as Andinoacara Musilová, Říčan & Novák 2009. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Apistogramma Regan [C. T.] 1913:282 Fem. Mesops taeniatus Günther 1862. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Heterogramma Regan 1906, preoccupied by Heterogramma Guenée 1854 in moths, see Kullander 1980:22 [ref. 5526]. Kullander treats as feminine, and we follow him. •Valid as Apistogramma Regan 1913 -- (Kullander 1980 [ref. 5526], Kullander 1986:155 [ref. 12439], Kullander 1987 [ref. 9163], Kullander & Staeck 1988 [ref. 6866], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:74 [ref. 14136], Staeck 1991:139 [ref. 18966], Römer 1994 [ref. 21306], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Britski et al. 1999:144 [ref. 24147], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:611 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:10 [ref. 27488], Römer et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27792], Ready & Kullander 2004:1 [ref. 27843], Kullander & Ferreira 2005:361 [ref. 28385], Römer et al. 2006:749 [ref. 28966], Römer et al. 2006:524 [ref. 28967], Römer et al. 2006:663 [ref. 28969], Römer 2006:168 [ref. 28970], Staeck & Schindler 2008:197 [ref. 29916], Römer & Hahn 2008:50 [ref. 30725], Römer et al. 2011:4 [ref. 31288], Kullander 2011:35 [ref. 31677], Römer et al. 2011:321 [ref. 31674], Römer et al. 2012:189 [ref. 32047], Schindler & Staeck 2013:301 [ref. 33110], Britzke et al. 2014:409 [ref. 33522], Varella & Sabaj Pérez 2014:243 [ref. 33624], Römer et al. 2015:305 [ref. 34003], Varella & Britzke 2016:81 [ref. 34364], Bertaco et al. 2016:425 [ref. 34561], Staeck & Schindler 2016:141 [ref. 34777], Römer et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35309], Staeck & Schindler 2019:103 [ref. 36531]). Current status: Valid as Apistogramma Regan 1913. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Apistogrammoides Meinken [H.] 1965:48 Masc. Apistogrammoides pucallpaensis Meinken 1965. Type by original designation. •Valid as Apistogrammoides Meinken 1965 -- (Kullander 1986:194 [ref. 12439], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:616 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:120 [ref. 27488]). Current status: Valid as Apistogrammoides Meinken 1965. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Archocentrus (subgenus of Heros) Gill [T. N.] in Gill & Bransford 1877:186 Masc. Heros centrarchus Gill 1877. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Archocentrus Gill 1877 -- (Allgayer 1994:7 [ref. 21370], Loiselle 1997:3 [ref. 23115], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Burgess 2000:52 [ref. 24818], Allgayer 2001:13 [ref. 26904], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:616 [ref. 27061], Schmitter-Soto 2007:10 [ref. 29310], Schmitter-Soto 2007:3 [ref. 29317], Chakrabarty 2007:23 [ref. 29359], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Minckley & Marsh 2009:263 [ref. 31114], Říčan et al. 2016:36 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Archocentrus Gill 1877. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Astatheros (subgenus of Cichlasoma) Pellegrin [J.] 1904:203 Neut. Heros (Cichlasoma) heterodontus Vaillant & Pellegrin 1902. Type by monotypy. Misspelled Astotheros by Eigenmann 1910:475 [ref. 1224]. •Synonym of Amphilophus Agassiz 1859 -- (Kullander & Hartel 1996:199 [ref. 22732], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:609 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astatheros Pellegrin 1904 -- (Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Říčan et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Astatheros Pellegrin 1904. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Astronotus (subgenus of Crenilabrus) Swainson [W.] 1839:173, 229 Masc. Lobotes ocellatus Agassiz 1831. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Astronotus Swainson 1839 -- (Kullander 1986:60 [ref. 12439], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Britski et al. 1999:149 [ref. 24147], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:617 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2009:4 [ref. 30400], Kottelat 2013:373 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Astronotus Swainson 1839. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Australoheros Říčan [O.] & Kullander [S. O.] 2006:139 Masc. Chromis facetus Jenyns 1842. Type by original designation. •Valid as Australoheros Říčan & Kullander 2006 -- (Casciotta et al. 2006:77 [ref. 28756], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:540 [ref. 29996], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518], Říčan & Kullander 2008:2 [ref. 29548], Ottoni et al. 2008:75 [ref. 29616], Ottoni & Costa 2008:208 [ref. 29909], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Ottoni 2010:19 [ref. 30818], Schindler et al. 2010:140 [ref. 31744], Ottoni et al. 2011:138 [ref. 31378], Říčan et al. 2011:1 [ref. 31455], Ottoni 2012:83 [ref. 31900], Říčan et al. 2016:28 [ref. 34357], Bertaco et al. 2016:425 [ref. 34561], Říčan & Říčanová 2017:1 [ref. 35635]). Current status: Valid as Australoheros Říčan & Kullander 2006. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Batrachops Heckel [J. J.] 1840:432 Masc. Batrachops reticulatus Heckel 1840. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Eigenmann & Bray 1894:620 [ref. 1248]. •Synonym of Crenicichla Heckel 1840 -- (Kullander 1986:82 [ref. 12439], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:207 [ref. 14136], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:626 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:133 [ref. 27488] as Batrachos, Varella 2011:8 [ref. 37216]). Current status: Synonym of Crenicichla Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Biotodoma Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:533 Neut. Geophagus cupido Heckel 1840. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Mesops Günther 1862, apparently preoccupied by Mesops Billberg 1820 in Coleoptera and by Mesops Audinet-Serville 1831 [details not researched]. •Valid as Biotodoma Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Gosse 1976:98 [ref. 7029], Kullander 1980:23 [ref. 5526], Kullander 1986:128 [ref. 12439], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:617 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Biotodoma Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Biotoecus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:533 Masc. Saraca opercularis Steindachner 1875. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Saraca Steindachner 1875, preoccupied by Saraca Walker 1865 in Lepidoptera. Misspelled Biotaecus by Jordan 1920:502 [ref. 4905]. •Valid as Biotoecus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Kullander 1980:23 [ref. 5526], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:618 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:125 [ref. 27488]). Current status: Valid as Biotoecus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Boggiania Perugia [A.] 1897:148 Fem. Boggiania ocellata Perugia 1897. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Crenicichla Heckel 1840 -- (Kullander 1986:82 [ref. 12439], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:207 [ref. 14136], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:626 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:133 [ref. 27488], Varella 2011:8 [ref. 37216]). Current status: Synonym of Crenicichla Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Bujurquina Kullander [S. O.] 1986:244 Fem. Bujurquina moriorum Kullander 1986. Type by original designation. •Valid as Bujurquina Kullander 1986 -- (Kullander 1987:195 [ref. 6749], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Britski et al. 1999:147 [ref. 24147], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:618 [ref. 27061], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518], Kullander 2012:51 [ref. 31798], Steele et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32810], Arbour et al. 2014:79 [ref. 33331]). Current status: Valid as Bujurquina Kullander 1986. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Bussingius Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2007:41 Masc. Cichlosoma septemfasciatum Regan 1908. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Cryptoheros Allgayer 2001, but a valid subgenus Bussingius as described. •Synonym of Amatitlania Schmitter-Soto 2007 -- (Říčan et al. 2016:34 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Synonym of Amatitlania Schmitter-Soto 2007. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Caquetaia Fowler [H. W.] 1945:133 Fem. Caquetaia amploris Fowler 1945. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Petenia Günther 1862 -- (Burgess 2000:56 [ref. 24818]). •Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (see Kullander in Böhlke 1984:56 [ref. 13621]). •Valid as Caquetaia Fowler 1945 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:619 [ref. 27061], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Říčan et al. 2016:29 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Caquetaia Fowler 1945. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Chaetobranchopsis (subgenus of Chaetobranchus) Steindachner [F.] 1875:133 Fem. Chaetobranchus orbicularis Steindachner 1875. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Chaetobranchopsis Steindachner 1875 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Britski et al. 1999:149 [ref. 24147], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:620 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Chaetobranchopsis Steindachner 1875. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Chaetobranchus Heckel [J. J.] 1840:401 Masc. Chaetobranchus flavescens Heckel 1840. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Eigenmann 1910:469 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Chaetobranchus Heckel 1840 -- (Kullander 1986:72 [ref. 12439], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:620 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Chaetobranchus Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Chiapaheros McMahan [C. D.] & Piller [K. R.] in McMahan et al. 2015:226 Masc. Cichlasoma grammodes Taylor & Miller 1980. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Chiapaheros McMahan & Piller 2015 -- (Říčan et al. 2016:38 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Chiapaheros McMahan & Piller 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Chocoheros Říčan [O.] & Piálek [L.] in Říčan, Piálek, Dragová & Novák 2016:22 Masc. Cichlasoma microlepis Dahl 1960. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Chocoheros Říčan & Piálek 2016. Current status: Valid as Chocoheros Říčan & Piálek 2016. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Chortiheros Říčan [O.] & Dragová [K.] in Říčan, Piálek, Dragová & Novák 2016:26 Masc. Theraps wesseli Miller 1996. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Chortiheros Říčan & Dragová 2016. Current status: Valid as Chortiheros Říčan & Dragová 2016. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Chuco Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1969:[4] Neut. Cichlasoma milleri Meek 1907. Type by original designation. Appeared in an obscure publication, apparently available. Treated as neuter by Fernández-Yépez. •Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (authors). •Synonym of Vieja Fernández-Yépez 1969 -- (Burgess 2000:50 [ref. 24818], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:645 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Theraps Günther 1862. •Valid as Chuco Fernández-Yépez 1969 -- (Allgayer 1989:25 [ref. 20696], Říčan et al. 2016:43 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Chuco Fernández-Yépez 1969. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Cichla Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:336 Fem. Cichla ocellaris Bloch & Schneider 1801. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Eigenmann & Bray 1894:611 [ref. 1248]. Misspelled Cychla by Griffith & Smith 1834:262 [ref. 1908]. •Valid as Cichla Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Kullander 1986:50 [ref. 12439], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:5 [ref. 14136], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Carpenter 2001:3334 [ref. 26131], Carpenter 2003:1691 [ref. 27092], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:620 [ref. 27061], Kullander & Ferreira 2006:294 [ref. 28883] with author as Schneider, Staeck 2005:3 [ref. 28482], Scharpf 2009:4 [ref. 30400], Reiss et al. 2012:59 [ref. 31910], Kottelat 2013:373 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Cichla Bloch & Schneider 1801. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Cichlasoma (subgenus of Plesiops) Swainson [W.] 1839:230 Neut. Labrus bimaculatus Linnaeus 1758. Type by designation of the ICZN in Opinion 1954. As Cichlaurus on p. 173; Swain 1882:284 [ref. 5966] acts as first reviser selecting Cichlasoma (see Bailey 1957:303 [ref. 6478]). Cychlasoma is a misspelling; Cichlosoma Regan 1905:61 [ref. 3622] is an unjustified emendation. For a discussion of problems involving the type species, see Kullander 1983:9 [ref. 8319]. However, Opinion 1954 (Case 2905) set aside previous type species designations and designated Labrus bimaculatus Linnaeus 1758 as the type species of Cichlasoma, thereby insuring that Cichlasoma is a genus of cichlid fishes. On the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. •Mention -- (Dyer 2000:89 [ref. 26678]). •Valid as Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (Kullander 1983 [ref. 8319], Kullander 1986:335 [ref. 12439], Malabarba 1989:163 [ref. 14217], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:131 [ref. 14136], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Britski et al. 1999:151 [ref. 24147], Burgess 2000:44 [ref. 24818], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:621 [ref. 27061], Allen et al. 2006:1437 [ref. 29081], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518], Scharpf 2009:4 [ref. 30400], Ottoni 2011:335 [ref. 31675], Kottelat 2013:373 [ref. 32989], Bertaco et al. 2016:425 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Cichlasoma Swainson 1839. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Cichlaurus (subgenus of Plesiops) Swainson [W.] 1839:173 Masc. Labrus bimaculatus Linnaeus 1758. Type by being a replacement name. Without species but clear from text that this was another name for Cichlasoma Swainson 1839:230 [ref. 4303]; Swain 1882:284 [ref. 5966], acts as first reviser selecting Cichlasoma (see Bailey 1957:304 [ref. 6478]). •Objective synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (Kullander 1986:335 [ref. 12439], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:131 [ref. 14136], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:621 [ref. 27061], Kottelat 2013:373 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Cichlosoma Regan [C. T.] 1905:61 Fem. Labrus bimaculatus Linnaeus 1758. See Cichlasoma. Treated as a replacement name by Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:621 [ref. 27061] but it is technically an unjustified emendation. •Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:621 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Cincelichthys McMahan [C. D.] & Piller [K. R.] in McMahan et al. 2015:223 Masc. Neetroplus bocourti Vaillant & Pellegrin 1902. Type by original designation. •Valid as Cincelichthys McMahan & Piller 2015 -- (Říčan et al. 2016:42 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Cincelichthys McMahan & Piller 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Cleithracara Kullander [S. O.] & Nijssen [H.] 1989:173 Fem. Acara maronii Steindachner 1881. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Cleithracara Kullander & Nijssen 1989 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:625 [ref. 27061], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518]). Current status: Valid as Cleithracara Kullander & Nijssen 1989. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Copora Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1969:[4] Neut. Heros nicaraguensis Günther 1864. Type by original designation. Treated as neuter by author. See Kullander & Hartel 1996:200 [ref. 22732] and genus Hypsophrys. •Valid as Copora Fernández-Yépez 1969 -- (Burgess 2000:50 [ref. 24818]). •Synonym of Hypsophrys Agassiz 1859 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:637 [ref. 27061], Schmitter-Soto 2007:62 [ref. 29310], Říčan et al. 2016:35 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Synonym of Hypsophrys Agassiz 1859. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Crenacara Regan [C. T.] 1905:152 Neut. Crenicara elegans Steindachner 1875. Type by being an unjustified emendation. See Crenicara; Crenacara is an unjustified emendation. •Synonym of Crenicara Steindachner 1875 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:626 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Crenicara Steindachner 1875. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Crenicara Steindachner [F.] 1875:99 Fem. Crenicara elegans Steindachner 1875. Type by monotypy. Unjustifiably emended to Crenacara by Regan 1905:152 [ref. 12256]. Erroneously treated as neuter by Kullander 1986:140 [ref. 12439] who provided incorrect etymology (Mary Bailey, personal communication, July 2015). •Valid as Crenicara Steindachner 1875 -- (Kullander 1986:140 [ref. 12439], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:626 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:130 [ref. 27488], Schindler & Staeck 2008:67 [ref. 29623], Kullander 2011:73 [ref. 31290]). Current status: Valid as Crenicara Steindachner 1875. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Crenicichla Heckel [J. J.] 1840:416 Fem. Crenicichla macrophthalma Heckel 1840. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Eigenmann & Bray 1894:620 [ref. 1248]. •Valid as Crenicichla Heckel 1840 -- (Casciotta 1987 [ref. 6772], Kullander 1986:82 [ref. 12439], Kullander 1988 [ref. 6232], Malabarba 1989:164 [ref. 14217], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:207 [ref. 14136], Kullander 1990 [ref. 13601], Kullander 1990 [ref. 16011], Ploeg 1991:1 [ref. 20196], Lucena & Kullander 1992:97 [ref. 20004], Kullander 1997:279 [ref. 22746], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Britski et al. 1999:146 [ref. 24147], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:626 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:133 [ref. 27488], Kullander & Lucena 2006:127 [ref. 28747], Casciotta et al. 2006:107 [ref. 28986], Casciotta et al. 2007:1 [ref. 29372], Lucena 2007:449 [ref. 29467], Montaña et al. 2008:33 [ref. 29783], Kullander 2009:41 [ref. 30051], Kullander et al. 2009:248 [ref. 31178], Piálek et al. 2010:33 [ref. 30903], Casciotta et al. 2010:643 [ref. 30975], Serra et al. 2011:357 [ref. 31355], Varella 2011:8 [ref. 37216], Varella et al. 2012:233 [ref. 32030], Kullander & Lucena 2013:149 [ref. 32675], Casciotta et al. 2013:379 [ref. 32938], Mattos et al. 2014:35 [ref. 33306], Kullander & Varella 2015:512 [ref. 33921], Ito & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015:478 [ref. 33978], Piálek et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33984], Bertaco et al. 2016:425 [ref. 34561], Říčan et al. 2017:1 [ref. 35070], Varella et al. 2018:361 [ref. 35777], Varella & Ito 2018:1 [ref. 35884], Piálek et al. 2019:377 [ref. 36110], Steinhäuser 2019:229 [ref. 36998]). Current status: Valid as Crenicichla Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Cribroheros Říčan [O.] & Piálek [L.] in Říčan, Piálek, Dragová & Novák 2016:23 Masc. Heros rostratus Gill 1877. Type by original designation. •Valid as Cribroheros Říčan & Piálek 2016. Current status: Valid as Cribroheros Říčan & Piálek 2016. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Cryptoheros Allgayer [R.] 2001:14 Masc. Heros spilurus Günther 1862. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Archocentrus Gill 1877 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:616 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Cryptoheros Allgayer 2001 -- (Schmitter-Soto 2007:31 [ref. 29310], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Říčan et al. 2016:33 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Cryptoheros Allgayer 2001. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Curraichthys Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1969:[3] Masc. Heros lobochilus Günther 1867. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Amphilophus Agassiz 1859 -- (Kullander & hartel 1996:199 [ref. 22732], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:609 [ref. 27061], Říčan et al. 2016:37 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Synonym of Amphilophus Agassiz 1859. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Darienheros Říčan [O.] & Novák [J.] in Říčan, Piálek, Dragová & Novák 2016:24 Masc. Cichlasoma calobrense Meek & Hildebrand 1913. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Darienheros Říčan & Novák 2016. Current status: Valid as Darienheros Říčan & Novák 2016. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Dicrossus Steindachner [F.] (ex Agassiz) 1875:102 Masc. Dicrossus maculatus Steindachner 1875. Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Crenicara Steindachner 1875 -- (Kullander 1986:140 [ref. 12439]). •Valid as Dicrossus Steindachner 1875 -- (Kullander 1990:8 [ref. 16010], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:632 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:133 [ref. 27488], Schindler & Staeck 2008:67 [ref. 29623], Römer et al. 2010:124 [ref. 30947], Kullander 2011:73 [ref. 31290]). Current status: Valid as Dicrossus Steindachner 1875. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Erythrichthus (subgenus of Cichlasoma) Meek [S. E.] 1907:118, 121 Masc. Heros citrinellus Günther 1864. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Amphilophus Agassiz 1859 -- (Kullander & Hartel 1996:199 [ref. 22732], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:609 [ref. 27061], Říčan et al. 2016:37 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Synonym of Amphilophus Agassiz 1859. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Geophagus Heckel [J. J.] 1840:383 Masc. Geophagus altifrons Heckel 1840. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Eigenmann & Bray 1894:621 [ref. 1248], not Sparus surinamensis Bloch as designated by Eigenmann 1910:478 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Geophagus Heckel 1840 -- (Gosse 1976 [ref. 7029], Kullander 1980:23 [ref. 5526], Kullander 1986:120 [ref. 12439], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:30 [ref. 14136], Malabarba 1989:166 [ref. 14217], Kullander 1991:129 [ref. 20053], Kullander et al. 1992:359 [ref. 20002], see Leibel 1995:217 [ref. 22415], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:632 [ref. 27061], López-Fernández & Taphorn 2004:3 [ref. 27573], Staeck & Schindler 2006:69 [ref. 28755], Schindler & Staeck 2006:91 [ref. 29420], Scharpf 2009:6 [ref. 30400], Lucinda et al. 2010:29 [ref. 30771], Hauser & López-Fernández 2013:279 [ref. 32965], Kottelat 2013:374 [ref. 32989], Deprá et al. 2014:737 [ref. 33631], Mattos et al. 2015:209 [ref. 34048], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Mattos & Costa 2018:325 [ref. 36009], Benitez et al. 2018:1053 [ref. 36343]). Current status: Valid as Geophagus Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Guianacara Kullander [S. O.] & Nijssen [H.] 1989:90, 92 Fem. Guianacara owroewefi Kullander & Nijssen 1989. Type by original designation. •Valid as Guianacara Kullander & Nijssen 1989 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:634 [ref. 27061], López-Fernández et al. 2006:385 [ref. 28792]). Current status: Valid as Guianacara Kullander & Nijssen 1989. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Gymnogeophagus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:790 Masc. Gymnogeophagus cyanopterus Miranda Ribeiro 1918. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus Miranda Ribeiro 1918 -- (Gosse 1976:109 [ref. 7029], Kullander 1980:23 [ref. 5526], Reis & Malabarba 1988 [ref. 6638], Malabarba 1989:167 [ref. 14217], Reis et al. 1992 [ref. 20011], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Wimburger et al. 1998:509 [ref. 23857], Britski et al. 1999:146 [ref. 24147], Casciotta et al. 2000:53 [ref. 24908], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:634 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2006:99 [ref. 29421], González-Bergonzoni et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30455] with author as Ribeiro, Malabarba et al. 2015:637 [ref. 34105], Loureiro et al. 2016:[1] [ref. 34384], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], García et al. 2017:1 [ref. 35261], Casciotta et al. 2017:1 [ref. 35497], Říčan et al. 2017:1 [ref. 35634], Casciotta et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35727], Turcati et al. 2018:1 [ref. 36363], Alonso et al. 2019:1 [ref. 36529]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus Miranda Ribeiro 1918. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Herichthys Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1854:25 Masc. Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird & Girard 1854. Type by monotypy. With restriction of Cichlasoma and Heros, Burgess & Walls 1993 [ref. 20876] suggest using Herichthys for the remaining species formerly placed in Cichlasoma. •Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (authors). •Valid as Herichthys Baird & Girard 1854 -- (Burgess 2000:46 [ref. 24818], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:634 [ref. 27061], Chakrabarty 2007:22 [ref. 29359], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Scharpf 2009:6 [ref. 30400], Minckley & Marsh 2009:264 [ref. 31114], De la Maza-Benignos & Lozano-Vilano 2013:101 [ref. 32982], Kottelat 2013:374 [ref. 32989], Paepke et al. 2014:46, 55 [ref. 33351], Mejía et al. 2015:61 [ref. 33860], McMahan et al. 2015:219 [ref. 33920], Říčan et al. 2016:40 [ref. 34357], Pérez-Miranda et al. 2017:1 [ref. 35682]). Current status: Valid as Herichthys Baird & Girard 1854. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Heroina Kullander [S. O.] 1996:151 Fem. Heroina isonycterina Kullander 1996. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Heroina Kullander 1996 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:636 [ref. 27061], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Říčan et al. 2016:28 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Heroina Kullander 1996. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Heros Heckel [J. J.] 1840:362 Masc. Heros severus Heckel 1840. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Jordan & Gilbert 1883:608 [ref. 2476]. •Valid as Heros Heckel 1840 -- (Kullander 1986:219 [ref. 12439], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:636 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2009:8 [ref. 30400], Allgayer 2010:27 [ref. 31541], Staeck & Schindler 2015:121 [ref. 33952]). Current status: Valid as Heros Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Herotilapia Pellegrin [J.] 1904:(165) 247 Fem. Heros multispinosus Günther 1867. Type by monotypy. Misspelled Heterotilapia by Regan in Zoological Record for 1904. •Synonym of Archocentrus Gill & Bransford 1877 -- (Burgess 2000:52 [ref. 24818], Schmitter-Soto 2007:10 [ref. 29137], Schmitter-Soto 2007:43 [ref. 29317]). •Valid as Herotilapia Pellegrin 1904 -- (Allgayer 2001:13 [ref. 26904], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:637 [ref. 27061], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:540 [ref. 29996], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Dunz & Schliewen 2013:78 [ref. 32672], McMahan et al. 2015:230 [ref. 33920], Říčan et al. 2016:30 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Herotilapia Pellegrin 1904. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Heterogramma Regan [C. T.] 1906:60 Fem. Mesops taeniatus Günther 1862. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Eigenmann 1910:473 [ref. 1224] (not H. borelli listed by Jordan 1920:530 [ref. 4905]; see Myers & Harry 1948:7 [ref. 5458]). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Heterogramma Guenée 1854 in moths, replaced by Apistogramma Regan 1913. The name is feminine, based in part on the greek word line and referring to two different lateral lines. •Synonym of Apistogramma Regan 1913 -- (Kullander 1980:21 [ref. 5526], Kullander 1986:155 [ref. 12439], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:74 [ref. 14136], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:611 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:10 [ref. 27488]). Current status: Synonym of Apistogramma Regan 1913. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Hoplarchus Kaup [J. J.] 1860:128 Masc. Hoplarchus pentacanthus Kaup 1860. Type by subsequent designation. Two included species, apparently neither designated as type [article not fully translated]; earliest subsequent designation probably Eigenmann 1910:475 [ref. 1224]. •Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (authors). •Valid as Hoplarchus Kaup 1860 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:637 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Hoplarchus Kaup 1860. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Hygrogonus Günther [A.] 1862:303 Masc. Lobotes ocellatus Agassiz 1831. Type by monotypy. •Objective synonym of Astronotus Swainson 1839 -- (Kullander 1986:60 [ref. 12439], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:617 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Astronotus Swainson 1839. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Hypselecara Kullander [S. O.] 1986:232 Fem. Heros temporalis Günther 1862. Type by original designation. •Valid as Hypselecara Kullander 1986 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:637 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Hypselecara Kullander 1986. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Hypsophrys Agassiz [L.] 1859:408 Fem. Hypsophrys unimaculatus Agassiz 1859. Type by monotypy. The entire description of the genus and species is, "A second [genus], resembling Chrysophrys, he called Hypsophrys unimaculatus." Typically this would be regarded as not available, no distinguishing features provided (from Lake Nicaragua). However, Kullander & Hartel 1996:200 [ref. 22732] treat as available and valid. There were so few cichlid species described at that time, that the is considered available. •Valid as Hypsophrys Agassiz 1859 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:637 [ref. 27061], Chakrabarty & Sparks 2007:60 [ref. 29184], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Říčan et al. 2016:34 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Hypsophrys Agassiz 1859. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Isthmoheros Říčan [O.] & Novák [J.] in Říčan, Piálek, Dragová & Novák 2016:26 Masc. Cichlasoma tuyrense Meek & Hildebrand 1913. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Isthmoheros Říčan & Novák 2016. Current status: Valid as Isthmoheros Říčan & Novák 2016. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Ivanacara Römer [U.] & Hahn [I.] 2006:1190 Fem. Nannacara adoketa Kullander & Prada-Pedreros 1993. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Nannacara Regan 1905 -- (authors). •Valid as Ivanacara Römer & Hahn 2006 -- (Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518]). Current status: Valid as Ivanacara Römer & Hahn 2006. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Kihnichthys McMahan [C. D.] & Matamoros [W. A.] in McMahan et al. 2015:222 Masc. Vieja ufermanni Allgayer 2002. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Kihnichthys McMahan & Matamoros 2015 -- (Říčan et al. 2016:42 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Kihnichthys McMahan & Matamoros 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Krobia Kullander [S. O.] & Nijssen [H.] 1989:148 Fem. Acara guianensis Regan 1905. Type by original designation. •Valid as Krobia Kullander & Nijssen 1989 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:637 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:154 [ref. 27488], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518], Kullander 2012:43 [ref. 31798], Steele et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32810]). Current status: Valid as Krobia Kullander & Nijssen 1989. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Kronoheros Říčan [O.] & Piálek [L.] in Říčan, Piálek, Dragová & Novák 2016:22 Masc. Cichlasoma umbriferum Meek & Hildebrand 1913. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Kronoheros Říčan & Piálek 2016. Current status: Valid as Kronoheros Říčan & Piálek 2016. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Laetacara Kullander [S. O.] 1986:321 Fem. Acara flavilabris Cope 1870. Type by original designation. See Parvacara Whitley 1951. •Valid as Laetacara Kullander 1986 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:638 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:155 [ref. 27488], Staeck & Schindler 2007:63 [ref. 29233], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518], Ottoni & Costa 2009:41 [ref. 30198], Ottoni et al. 2009:123 [ref. 30600], Ottoni et al. 2012:181 [ref. 32046], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Ottoni 2018:47 [ref. 35872]). Current status: Valid as Laetacara Kullander 1986. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Maskaheros McMahan [C. D.] & Piller [K. R.] in McMahan et al. 2015:217 Masc. Vieja argentea Allgayer 1991. Type by original designation. •Valid as Maskaheros McMahan & Piller 2015 -- (Říčan et al. 2016:45 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Maskaheros McMahan & Piller 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Mayaheros Říčan [O.] & Piálek [L.] in Říčan, Piálek, Dragová & Novák 2016:27 Masc. Heros urophthalmus Günther 1862. Type by original designation. •Valid as Mayaheros Říčan & Piálek 2016 -- (Barrientos-Villalobos et al. 2018:268 [ref. 35933]). Current status: Valid as Mayaheros Říčan & Piálek 2016. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Mazarunia Kullander [S. O.] 1990:4 Fem. Mazarunia mazarunii Kullander 1990. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Mazarunia Kullander 1990 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:638 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:164 [ref. 27488], López-Fernández et al. 2011:465, 470 [ref. 32205]). Current status: Valid as Mazarunia Kullander 1990. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Mesoheros McMahan [C. D.] & Chakrabarty [P.] in McMahan et al. 2015:228 Masc. Heros festae Boulenger 1899. Type by original designation. •Valid as Mesoheros McMahan & Chakrabarty 2015 -- (Říčan et al. 2016:29 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Mesoheros McMahan & Chakrabarty 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Mesonauta Günther [A.] 1862:300 Masc. Heros insignis Heckel 1840. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Mesonauta Günther 1862 -- (Kullander 1986:200 [ref. 12439], Kullander & Silfvergrip 1991:407 [ref. 16014], Schindler 1998:1 [ref. 23480], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Britski et al. 1999:151 [ref. 24147], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:638 [ref. 27061], Schindler & Ottoni 2016:84 [ref. 34465]). Current status: Valid as Mesonauta Günther 1862. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Mesops Günther [A.] 1862:311 Masc. Geophagus cupido Heckel 1840. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Eigenmann & Bray 1894:621 [ref. 1248]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Mesops Billberg 1820 in Coleoptera and by Mesops Audinet-Serville 1831 in Orthoptera; replaced by Biotoma Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. •Synonym of Biotodoma Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Kullander 1986:128 [ref. 12439], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:617 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Apistogramma Regan 1913 -- (Staeck 2003:10 [ref. 27488]). Current status: Synonym of Biotodoma Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Microgeophagus Frey [H.] 1957:56 Masc. See Mikrogeophagus. Regarded by Isbrücker 1984:38 [ref. 30868] as available; predates Mikrogeophagus. But it is regarded as not available from Frey as it was not treated as valid (Art. 11.5) by him, along with other reasons (see Kullander 2011:35 [ref. 31677]). Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madsen [J.] in Schiøtz & Christensen 1968:268 Masc. Apistogramma ramirezi Myers & Harry 1948. Type by monotypy. Robins & Bailey 1982:208 [ref. 6548] regard the genus as unavailable from Frey 1957:56, 375 [ref. 5455] and attribute it to Axelrod 1971. See also Kullander 1983 [ref. 14221] and Papiliochromis Kullander 1977 with same type. Dated to Meulengracht-Madsen 1968 by recent authors as Mikrogeophagus [but reference not given in Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:639 [ref. 27061]]. Isbrücker 1984:38 [ref. 30868] treats Microgeophagus Frey 1957 as the available name, with ramirezi as the type species. See also Géry 1983:71 [ref. 31279] who says that the spelling Microgeophagus is the correct form in Latin. •Synonym of Papiliochromis Kullander 1977 -- (Staeck 2003:181 [ref. 27488]). •Valid as Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madsen 1968 -- (Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:639 [ref. 27061], Isbrücker 2011:10 [ref. 31274] as Microgeophagus, author and year as Frey 1957, Geerts 2011:82 [ref. 31534] as Microgeophagus, Kullander 2011:35 [ref. 31677]). Current status: Valid as Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madsen 1968. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Nandopsis (subgenus of Cichlasoma) Gill [T. N.] 1862:238 Fem. Chromis tetracanthus of Poey (= Centrarchus tetracanthus Valenciennes 1831). Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (authors). •Valid as Nandopsis Gill 1862 -- (Burgess 2000:48 [ref. 24818], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:639 [ref. 27061], Chakrabarty 2007:23 [ref. 29359], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Říčan et al. 2016:30 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Nandopsis Gill 1862. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Nannacara Regan [C. T.] 1905:344 Fem. Nannacara anomala Regan 1905. Type by monotypy. Treated as feminine by author. Nannacara Miranda-Riberio 1918:14 [ref. 7320] sometimes cited as an original description (e.g. by Jordan 1920:564), but it is a subsequent use of Nannacara Regan [see p. 4 in Miranda-Ribeiro 1918]; see Parvacara Whitley. •Valid as Nannacara Regan 1905 -- (Kullander & Nijssen 1989:194 [ref. 14136], Kullander & Prada-Pedreros 1993:357 [ref. 21108], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:639 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:168 [ref. 27488], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518]). Current status: Valid as Nannacara Regan 1905. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Nannacara Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:14 See Nannacara Regan. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Neetroplus Günther [A.] 1867:603 Masc. Neetroplus nematopus Günther 1867. Type by monotypy. Also appeared in Günther (15 Sept.) 1868:469 [ref. 1994]. •Synonym of Hypsophrys Agassiz 1859 -- (Chakrabarty & Sparks 2007:59 [ref. 29184], Schmitter-Soto 2007:62 [ref. 29310], Schmitter-Soto 2007:45 [ref. 29317]). •Valid as Neetroplus Günther 1867 -- (see Rogers 1981 [ref. 5502], Burgess 2000:54 [ref. 24818], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:640 [ref. 27061], Říčan et al. 2016:35 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Neetroplus Günther 1867. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Nosferatu De la Maza-Benignos [M.], Ornelas-García [C. P.], Lozano-Vilano [M. de L.], García-Ramírez et al. 2015:210 Masc. Herichthys pame De la Maza-Benignos & Lozano-Vilano 2013. Type by original designation. •Valid as Nosferatu De la Maza-Benignos, Ornelas-García, Lozano-Vilano, García-Ramírez & Doadrio 2015 -- (McMahan et al. 2015:220 [ref. 33920]). •Synonym of Herichthys Baird & Girard 1854 -- (Mejía et al. 2015:71 [ref. 33860], Říčan et al. 2016:40 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Synonym of Herichthys Baird & Girard 1854. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Oelemaria (subgenus of Guianacara) Kullander [S. O.] & Nijssen [H.] 1989:92 Fem. Guianacara oelemariensis Kullander & Nijssen 1989. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Guianacara Kullander & Nijssen 1989 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:634 [ref. 27061] but a valid subgenus Oelemaria as described, López-Fernández et al. 2006:385 [ref. 28792], Arbour & López-Fernández 2011:94 [ref. 31237]). Current status: Synonym of Guianacara Kullander & Nijssen 1989. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Oscura McMahan [C. D.] & Chakrabarty [P.] in McMahan et al. 2015:225 Fem. Cichlasoma heterospilum Hubbs 1936. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Oscura McMahan & Chakrabarty 2015 -- (Říčan et al. 2016:44 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Oscura McMahan & Chakrabarty 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Panamius (subgenus of Cryptoheros) Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2007:33 Masc. Neetroplus panamensis Meek & Hildebrand 1913. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Cryptoheros Allgayer 2001, but a valid subgenus Panamius as described. •Valid as Panamius Schmitter-Soto 2007 -- (Říčan et al. 2016:38 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Panamius Schmitter-Soto 2007. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Papiliochromis Kullander [S. O.] 1977:253 Fem. Apistogramma ramirezi Myers & Harry 1948. Type by original designation (also monotypic). Genus designated feminine by author. Possibly a junior objective synonym and homonym of Papiliochromis Meulengracht-Madsen 1968, ref. 5455 (if available) as well as an objective synonym of Mikrogeophagus. •Objective synonym of Microgeophagus Axelrod 1971 -- (see Robins & Bailey 1982:209 [ref. 6548], Poll 1986:117 [ref. 6136]). •Valid as Papiliochromis Kullander 1977 -- (Staeck 2003:181 [ref. 27488]). •Junior objective synonym of Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madsen 1968 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:639 [ref. 27061], Kullander 2011:37 [ref. 31677]). Current status: Synonym of Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madsen 1968. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Parachromis Agassiz [L.] 1859:408 Masc. Parachromis gulosus Agassiz 1859. Type by monotypy. Regarded as not available, no distinguishing features provided in 1998 edition of the Catalog of Fishes. However, Kullander & Hartel 1997:196 [ref. 22732] treated the genus as available and valid and we now follow them. Also see Bussing 1998:372 [ref. 24179]. Parachromis Regan 1922 was replaced by Tristramella Trewavas 1942 and Tristramella continues in use for Middle Eastern cichlids. •Valid as Parachromis Agassiz 1859 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:640 [ref. 27061], Chakrabarty 2007:23 [ref. 29359], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Scharpf 2009:9 [ref. 30400], Minckley & Marsh 2009:268 [ref. 31114], Kottelat 2013:374 [ref. 32989], Říčan et al. 2016:32 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Parachromis Agassiz 1859. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Paraneetroplus Regan [C. T.] 1905:436 Masc. Paraneetroplus bulleri Regan 1905. Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (authors). •Valid as Paraneetroplus Regan 1905 -- (Burgess 2000:56 [ref. 24818], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:640 [ref. 27061], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Scharpf 2009:9 [ref. 30400], McMahan et al. 2010:1298 [ref. 31111], McMahan et al. 2011:1 [ref. 33481], Kottelat 2013:375 [ref. 32989], Paepke et al. 2014:50 [ref. 33351], McMahan et al. 2015:218 [ref. 33920], Říčan et al. 2016:46 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Paraneetroplus Regan 1905. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Parapetenia (subgenus of Cichlasoma) Regan [C. T.] 1905:324 Fem. Acara adspersa Günther 1862. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Eigenmann 1910:476 [ref. 1224]. •Synonym of Nandopsis Gill 1862 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:639 [ref. 27061], Říčan et al. 2016:30 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Synonym of Nandopsis Gill 1862. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Paratheraps Werner [U.] & Stawikowski [R.] 1987:20 Masc. Paratheraps breidohri Werner & Stawikowski 1987. no original type species. Apparently not available from this publication as a second species was mentioned and no type designated (the use of Nov. g. nov. s. not sufficient). Name can date to these authors in 1989:10 [ref. 14232] (Kottelat, pers. comm. July 1990). See also this genus in Appendix A in Eschmeyer 1990 [ref. 20647]. Sometimes seen as Paratheraps Hohl 1988. •Valid as Paratheraps Werner & Stawikowski 1989 -- (Allgayer 1989:27 [ref. 20696], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419]). •Synonym of Paraneetroplus Regan 1905 -- (Paepke et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33351]). •Synonym of Vieja Fernández-Yépez 1969 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:645 [ref. 27061], Říčan et al. 2016:44 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Synonym of Vieja Fernández-Yépez 1969. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Parvacara Whitley [G. P.] 1951:68 Fem. Acara dorsiger Heckel 1840. Type by being a replacement name. Unneeded replacement for Nannacara Miranda-Ribeiro 1918 (not an original description), regarded as preoccupied by Nannacara Regan 1905 in fishes. Perhaps Parvacara is not available from Whitley 1951 on technical grounds as it is not technically a replacement name and must stand on its own as a generic description. •Apparently a senior synonym of Laetacara Kullander 1986. Current status: Synonym of Laetacara Kullander 1986. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Petenia Günther [A.] 1862:301 Fem. Petenia splendida Günther 1862. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Petenia Günther 1862 -- (Burgess 2000:56 [ref. 24818], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:641 [ref. 27061], Chakrabarty 2007:21 [ref. 29359], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Říčan et al. 2016:32 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Petenia Günther 1862. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Pintoichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1954:316, 386 Masc. Biotodoma trifasciatus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Apistogramma Regan 1913 -- (Kullander 1980:21 [ref. 5526], Kullander 1986:155 [ref. 12439], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:74 [ref. 14136], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:611 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:10 [ref. 27488]). Current status: Synonym of Apistogramma Regan 1913. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Plataxoides Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:21 Masc. Plataxoides dumerilii Castelnau 1855. Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Pterophyllum Heckel 1840 -- (Kullander 1986:210 [ref. 12439], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:641 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pterophyllum Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Pseudoapistogramma Axelrod [H. R.] 1971:244 Not available; name only, name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Microgeophagus Axelrod 1971 -- (see Robins & Bailey 1982:209 [ref. 6548]). Microgeopagus Axelrod 1971 is itself not an original description -- (Isbrücker, pers. comm., 6/23/2010). See also Kullander 2011:43 [ref. 31677]. •In the synonymy of Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madsen 1968 -- (Kullander 2011:37 [ref. 31677]). Current status: Synonym of Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madsen 1968. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Pseudogeophagus Hoedeman [J. J.] 1974:1041 Masc. Apistogramma ramirezi Myers & Harry 1948. Technically this is a name published in synonymy and unavailable; appeared as "This [differences from Apistogramma] was reason enough for Wickler (1963) to establish the genus Pseudogeophagus for this species." Wickler 1963 is not listed in Hoedeman's literature cited, and the genus was not treated as valid by Hoedeman. We do not find a Wickler paper containing Pseudogeophagus; see also Géry 1983:71 [ref. 31279]. •In the synonymy of Microgeophagus Axelrod 1971 -- (see Robins & Bailey 1982:209 [ref. 6548]). •In the synonymy of Papiliochromis Kullander 1977 -- (Staeck 2003:181 [ref. 27488]). •In the synonymy of Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madsen 1968 (Kullander 2011:37 [ref. 31677]). Current status: Synonym of Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madsen 1968. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Pterophyllum Heckel [J. J.] 1840:334 Neut. Platax scalaris Cuvier 1831 (= Zeus scalaris Lichtenstein 1823). Type by monotypy. Not preoccupied (see Myers 1940:36 [ref. 3118]). Species scalaris as senior objective synonym from Myers [ref. 3118], not verified. •Valid as Pterophyllum Heckel 1840 -- (Kullander 1986:210 [ref. 12439], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:641 [ref. 27061], Schindler 2003:73 [ref. 27489]). Current status: Valid as Pterophyllum Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Retroculus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Bray [W. L.] 1894:614 Masc. Retroculus boulengeri Eigenmann & Bray 1894. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Retroculus Eigenmann & Bray 1894 -- (Gosse 1971:1 [ref. 7679], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:641 [ref. 27061], Landim et al. 2015:370 [ref. 33850]). Current status: Valid as Retroculus Eigenmann & Bray 1894. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Rheoheros McMahan [C. D.] & Matamoros [W. A.] in McMahan et al. 2015:224 Masc. Heros lentiginosus Steindachner 1864. Type by original designation. •Valid as Rheoheros McMahan & Matamoros 2015 -- (Říčan et al. 2016:43 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Rheoheros McMahan & Matamoros 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Rocio Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2007:56 Fem. Heros octofasciatus Regan 1903. Type by original designation. •Valid as Rocio Schmitter-Soto 2007 -- (Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Scharpf 2009:9 [ref. 30400], Kottelat 2013:375 [ref. 32989], Říčan et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Rocio Schmitter-Soto 2007. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Rondonacara Ottoni [F. P.] & Mattos [J. L. O.] 2015:72 Fem. Nannacara hoehnei Mirando Ribeiro 1918 (Type by original designation (also monotypic)). •Valid as Rondonacara Ottoni & Mattos 2015. Current status: Valid as Rondonacara Ottoni & Mattos 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Saraca Steindachner [F.] 1875:125 Fem. Saraca opercularis Steindachner 1875. Type by monotypy. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Saraca Walker 1865 in Lepidoptera, replaced by Biotoecus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. •In the synonymy of Biotoecus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:618 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Biotoecus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Satanoperca Günther [A.] 1862:312 Fem. Geophagus daemon Heckel 1840. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Jordan & Evermann 1898:1542 [ref. 2444]. •Valid as Satanoperca Günther 1862 -- (Kullander 1986:146 [ref. 12439], Kullander & Ferreira 1988 [ref. 12825], Kullander & Nijssen 1989:66 [ref. 14136], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Britski et al. 1999:146 [ref. 24147], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:642 [ref. 27061], Willis et al. 2012:798 [ref. 32444], Kullander 2012:247 [ref. 31969], Kottelat 2013:375 [ref. 32989], Ota et al. 2018:103 [ref. 35801]). Current status: Valid as Satanoperca Günther 1862. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Symphysodon Heckel [J. J.] 1840:332 Masc. Symphysodon discus Heckel 1840. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Symphysodon Heckel 1840 -- (Kullander 1986:226 [ref. 12439], Mazeroll & Weiss 1995:77 [ref. 21861], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:642 [ref. 27061], Bleher et al. 2007:154 [ref. 29227], Bleher & Bailey 2011:1306 [ref. 31397]). Current status: Valid as Symphysodon Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Taeniacara Myers [G. S.] 1935:11 Fem. Taeniacara candidi Myers 1935. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Taeniacara Myers 1935 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:642 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:198 [ref. 27488]). Current status: Valid as Taeniacara Myers 1935. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Tahuantinsuyoa Kullander [S. O.] 1986:308 Fem. Tahuantinsuyoa macantzatza Kullander 1986. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Tahuantinsuyoa Kullander 1986 -- (Kullander 1991:3 [ref. 20150], Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:643 [ref. 27061], Musilová et al. 2008:660 [ref. 29518], Kullander 2012:51 [ref. 31798], Steele et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32810]). Current status: Valid as Tahuantinsuyoa Kullander 1986. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Talamancaheros Říčan [O.] & Novák [J.] in Říčan, Piálek, Dragová & Novák 2016:25 Masc. Heros sieboldii Kner 1863. Type by original designation. •Valid as Talamancaheros Říčan & Novák 2016. Current status: Valid as Talamancaheros Říčan & Novák 2016. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Teleocichla Kullander [S. O.] 1988:196 Fem. Teleocichla centrarchus Kullander 1988. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Crenicichla Heckel 1840 -- (Ploeg 1991:122 [ref. 20196]). •Valid as Teleocichla Kullander 1988 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Zuanon & Sazima 2002:373 [ref. 26543], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:643 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2003:199 [ref. 27488], Varella et al. 2012:233 [ref. 32030], Varella & Moreira 2013:177 [ref. 32674], Varella et al. 2016:1551 [ref. 34728]). Current status: Valid as Teleocichla Kullander 1988. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Theraps Günther [A.] 1862:284 Masc. Theraps irregularis Günther 1862. Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (authors). •Valid as Theraps Günther 1862 -- (Allgayer 1989:5 [ref. 20696], Burgess 2000:50 [ref. 24818], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:643 [ref. 27061], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], McMahan et al. 2010:1299 [ref. 31111], McMahan et al. 2015:221 [ref. 33920], Říčan et al. 2016:41 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Theraps Günther 1862. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Thorichthys Meek [S. E.] 1904:222 Masc. Thorichthys ellioti Meek 1904. Type by original designation. As a group of Cichlasoma species (Miller & Taylor 1984:933 [ref. 6809]). •Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (authors). •Valid as Thorichthys Meek 1904 -- (Burgess 2000:54 [ref. 24818], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:644 [ref. 27061], Chakrabarty 2007:21 [ref. 29359], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Scharpf 2009:10 [ref. 30400], Minckley & Marsh 2009:268 [ref. 31116], Allgayer 2010:28 [ref. 31541], McMahan et al. 2015:227 [ref. 33920], Říčan et al. 2016:39 [ref. 34357], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35275]). Current status: Valid as Thorichthys Meek 1904. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Tomocichla Regan [C. T.] 1908:463 Fem. Tomocichla underwoodi Regan 1908. Type by monotypy; only one definitely-included species. •Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (authors). •Valid as Tomocichla Regan 1908 -- (Allgayer 1989:27 [ref. 20696], Burgess 2000:54 [ref. 24818], Allgayer 2002:32 [ref. 26900], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:644 [ref. 27061], Chakrabarty 2007:22 [ref. 29359], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], McMahan et al. 2015:229 [ref. 33920], Říčan et al. 2016:30 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Tomocichla Regan 1908. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Trichromis McMahan [C. D.] & Chakrabarty [P.] in McMahan et al. 2015:231 Masc. Heros salvini Günther 1862. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Trichromis McMahan & Chakrabarty 2015 -- (Říčan et al. 2016:39 [ref. 34357]). Current status: Valid as Trichromis McMahan & Chakrabarty 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Uaru Heckel [J. J.] 1840:330 Masc. Uaru amphiacanthoides Heckel 1840. Type by monotypy. Unjustifiably emended to Uarus by Cope 1872:254. •Valid as Uaru Heckel 1840 -- (Kullander 1998:494 [ref. 23855], Farias et al. 1998:502 [ref. 23856], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:645 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Uaru Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Uarus Cope [E. D.] 1872:254 Masc. Uaru amphiacanthoides Heckel 1840. Type by being an unjustified emendation. Unjustified emendation of Uaru Heckel 1840. •Synonym of Uaru Heckel 1840 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:645 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Uaru Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Vieja Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1969:[5] Fem. Vieja panamensis Fernández-Yépez 1969. Type by original designation. Treated as feminine by author. •Synonym of Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 -- (authors). •Synonym of Paraneetroplus (Regan 1905) -- (McMahan et al. 2010:1293 [ref. 31111], Kottelat 2013:375 [ref. 32989], Paepke et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33351]). •Valid as Vieja Fernández-Yépez 1969 -- (Allgayer 1989:26 [ref. 20696], Burgess 2000:50 [ref. 24818], Allgayer 2002:14 [ref. 26901], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:645 [ref. 27061], Chakrabarty 2007:22 [ref. 29359], Říĉan et al. 2008:952 [ref. 31419], Scharpf 2009:10 [ref. 30400], McMahan et al. 2015:216 [ref. 33920], Říčan et al. 2016:44 [ref. 34357], Gómez-González et al. 2018:371 [ref. 35762], Moral-Flores et al. 2018:1 [ref. 36020], McMahan et al. 2019:1 [ref. 36816]). Current status: Valid as Vieja Fernández-Yépez 1969. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

Wajpamheros Říčan [O.] & Piálek [L.] in Říčan, Piálek, Dragová & Novák 2016:24 Masc. Theraps nourissati Allgayer 1989. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Wajpamheros Říčan & Piálek 2016. Current status: Valid as Wajpamheros Říčan & Piálek 2016. Cichlidae: Cichlinae.