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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Acanthuridae: [ 282 ] records


acanthuroides, Balistes Curtiss [A.] 1938:128 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonymized with Teuthis lituratus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) by Curtiss 1944:22 [ref. 12574]. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

achilles, Acanthurus Shaw [G.] 1803:383 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] No locality. No types known. •Valid as Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803 -- (Randall 1956:201 [ref. 12221], Allen & Robertson 1994:272 [ref. 22193], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:842 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:45 [ref. 24545], Myers 1999:269 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:27 [ref. 25829], Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640], Randall & Frische 2000:51 [ref. 25805], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:30 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3666 [ref. 26301], Yoshigou et al. 2003:2 [ref. 26786], Myers & Donaldson 2003:646 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:574 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:485 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:420 [ref. 30952], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767], Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], Hobbs et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30769], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Pacific: Caroline Islands east to Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands and Pitcairn Group, straying to Clippeton Island and Baja California (Mexico), south to Torres Strait (Queensland, Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

aegyptius, Acronurus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:191 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea. No types known. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Acronurus aegyptius Gronow 1854 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356] with authorship as Gray). •Unidentifiable -- (J. Randall, pers. comm. 2/2004). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

agana, Zebrasoma Seale [A.] 1901:110 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Agaña, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 211. Paratypes: (6) ANSP 86312 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621]. Originally as Zebrasoma agaña. •Synonym of Zebrasoma flavescens (Bennett 1828) -- (Randall 2007:431 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Zebrasoma flavescens (Bennett 1828). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

albimento, Acanthurus Carpenter [K. E.], Williams [J. T.] & Santos [M. D.] 2017:37, Figs. 3-4, 6A [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 25; ref. 35143] Northeast Luzon, Aurora Province, Philippines, purchased at Dinadiawan City Market, exact locality unknown (vendor stated it was caught in vicinity of Dinadiawan). Holotype: PNM 15199 (ex USNM 438093). Paratypes: PNM, USNM. •Valid as Acanthurus albimento Carpenter, Williams & Santos 2017. Current status: Valid as Acanthurus albimento Carpenter, Williams & Santos 2017. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

albipectoralis, Acanthurus Allen [G. R.] & Ayling [A. M.] 1987:15, Fig. 1 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 13388] Swain Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia, 20°57'S, 152°15'E, depth 5 meters. Holotype: QM I.22341. Paratypes: WAM P.28537-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:43 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Acanthurus albipectoralis Allen & Ayling 1987 -- (Randall et al. 1990:420 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:420 [ref. 25919], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:424 [ref. 25191], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:41 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:575 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1733 [ref. 29094], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus albipectoralis Allen & Ayling 1987. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

albofasciatus, Acanthurus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:58 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only. Acanthuridae.

aliala, Acanthurus Lesson [R. P.] 1831:150 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]. Original as ali-ala. •Synonym of Acanthurus glaucopareius Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall 1956:199 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:565 [ref. 24023], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:353 [ref. 28867], Randall 2007:424 [ref. 30952], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

altivelis, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:249 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Sea of the Indies; Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN A-0595 (1), A-7079 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:56 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier 1829) -- (Fricke 1999:552 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

amboinensis, Keris Bleeker [P.] 1852:272 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Wahai, Ceram, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3). Bleeker specimens: NMV 46518-19 (2). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

anginosus, Keris Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:304, Pl. 295 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Waigeo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7036. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:62 [ref. 22195]. •Status as Naso sp. -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:62 [ref. 22195]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

annularis, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:209 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0920 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:56 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus blochii Valenciennes 1835 -- (Fricke 1999:535 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus blochii Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

annularis, Priodon Cuvier [G.] 1829:225 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Timor Island, southern Malay Archipelago. No types known. Available from brief description of genus, named in footnote 3. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

annularis, Priodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:302, Pl. 294 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Apparently an unjustified emendation of or misspelling of Priodon annulatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. •Synonym of Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Dor 1984:257 [ref. 29757], Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

annulatus, Priodon Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:377 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Timor Island, southern Malay Archipelago [Timor Sea, eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4155. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:62-63 [ref. 22195]. •Mention -- (Kuiter 1993:371 [ref. 23929]). •Valid as Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Dor 1984:257 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:229 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:819 [ref. 5706], Randall et al. 1990:429 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:429 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Myers 1999:274 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1320 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:431 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Randall 2001:172 [ref. 25459], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:114 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1320 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:205 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:590 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:493 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1739 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:433 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:227 [ref. 31256], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1029 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:184 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:355 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Madagascar, Seychelles and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian, Marquesas and Gambier islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, and Tonga; also at Clipperton Island in eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

aquilinus, Hepatus Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:353, Fig. 66 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype (unique): USNM 51759. •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:215 [ref. 12221], Randall 2005:583 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:427[ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

argenteus, Acanthurus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:372, Pl. 63 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN A-6999 (6), RMNH 1513 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:56 [ref. 22195]. First reviser selecting striatus over argenteus was Randall 1955:158 [ref. 12220]. •Synonym of Ctenochaetus striatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Randall & Clements 2001:19 [ref. 25453], Randall 2001:3676 [ref. 26301] dated 1824, Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenochaetus striatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

argenteus, Hepatus Plumier [C.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:187 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Not available; manuscript name mentioned under Gramistes hepatus. Acanthuridae.

argenteus, Hepatus Plumier [C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:457 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Not available, Plumier name mentioned in passing under Gerres plumieri Cuvier 1830. Acanthuridae.

armiger, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:234 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] No locality [= Caroline Islands]. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Randall 1956:196 [ref. 12221], Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

arnoldorum, Teuthis Curtiss [A.] 1938:127 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

aterrimus, Acanthurus Günther [A.] 1872:660 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Savai'i Island, Samoa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.9.13.199. •Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803 -- (Randall 1956:201 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

atramentatus, Hepatus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1905:393 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 1) (1903); ref. 2451] Not an original description. Based on Teuthis atrimentatus [sic] Jordan & Evermann 1903 [ref. 2450], p. 198. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 2007:425 [ref. 30952]). •In the synonymy of Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861 -- (Randall et al. 2011:265 [ref. 31249]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861. Acanthuridae.

atrimentatus, Teuthis Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:198 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50673. Paratypes: (20) AMNH 2301 (1); ANSP 24229 (1), 28144-45 (1, 1); BPBM 1707 (1); CAS 1501 (1); FMNH 3968 (1); IU 9818 (1, not found); MCZ 28909 (1); CAS-SU 7482 (1); USFC 2731 (1); USNM 126593 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:104 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:187 [ref. 12221], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2011:265 [ref. 31249]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

auranticavus, Acanthurus Randall [J. E.] 1956:210, Figs. 2u, 19 [Pacific Science v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 12221] Atulayan Island, Lagonoy Gulf, eastern coast of Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 136194. Paratypes: BMNH 1956.8.14.1 [ex USNM 136188] (1); CAS-SU 47695 [ex USNM 163619] (2); USNM 136202 (1), 163823 (1). •Valid as Acanthurus auranticavus Randall 1956 -- (Randall et al. 1990:420 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:553 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:366 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:420 [ref. 25919], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:44 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Randall et al. 2005:131 [ref. 28745], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1019 [ref. 31980], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus auranticavus Randall 1956. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles, Maldives, Indonesia, Philippines and Great Barrier Reef. Habitat: marine.

aurolineatus, Acanthurus Day [F.] 1876:204, Pl. 48 (fig. 3) [The fishes of India Part 2; ref. 1081] Waltair, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1020. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Acanthurus bleekeri Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:180 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Teuthis Gray [J. E.] 1827:435 [List of fish of Australia; ref. 18152] West coast of Australia. BMNH 2012.11.1.1. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221], Allen et al. 2006:1737 [ref. 29094]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

bahianus, Acanthurus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:24, Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7078. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:56 [ref. 22195]. •Valid as Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 1855 -- (Randall 1956:225 [ref. 12221], Robins & Ray 1986:256 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:664 [ref. 9166], Desoutter 1990:962 [ref. 18967], Cervigón 1992:251 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1994:213 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:321 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:168 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:992 [ref. 25909], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:65 [ref. 26232], Rocha et al. 2002:244 [ref. 25914], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2002:104 [ref. 26570], Collette et al. 2003:124 [ref. 26784], Randall 2003:1803 [ref. 27098], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:100 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:742 [ref. 28815], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Bernal & Rocha 2011:66 [ref. 31336] with modified range, Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:82 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:10 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:31 [ref. 34324], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:168 [ref. 36561], Rocha in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2861 [ref. 34618], Spier et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36103], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 1855. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Brazil and offshore islands; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and St. Helena islands. Invasive at Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

baixopindae, Rhinodactylus Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:686, Fig. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 9 (no. 105) (art. 86); ref. 4108] Pinda, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 433. Paratypes: (1) not researched. Additional material: mutilated specimens (probably not saved). •Synonym of Naso fageni Morrow 1954 -- (Randall 1986:821 [ref. 5706] dated 1956, Arai 1991 [ref. 20437]). Current status: Synonym of Naso fageni Morrow 1954. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

barav, Acanthurus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:457 [179] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 179 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy under Acanthurus lineatus; Woodlark I., S. Pacific. Acanthuridae.

barffi, Teuthis Curtiss [A.] 1938:123 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

bariene, Acanthurus Lesson [R. P.] 1831:150 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Offack Bay, Waigeo [Waigiou], Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]. •Valid as Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831 -- (Randall 1956:206 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:420 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:553 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:366 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:420 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:269 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:1328 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:256 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:269 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:51 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301] dated 1830, Nakabo 2002:1328 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Imamura 2009:301 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:225 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1019 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:270 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:181 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:99 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mozambique Channel, Seychelles, Maldives, east to Palau and New Guinea, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

biaculeatus, Monoceros Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:180, Pl. 42 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: whereabouts unknown. Unneeded new name for Chaetodon unicornis Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:258 [ref. 29757]). •See Fricke 1999:550 [ref. 24106] for lectotype for Naso unicornis. Current status: Synonym of Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

biafraensis, Xesurus Blache [J.] & Rossignol [M.] 1962:482, Fig. [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 33 (no. 5) (for 1961); ref. 7641] Pointe de Prayao, São Tomé Island, Gulf of Guinea, depth 10 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1961-0309. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:63 [ref. 22195]. •Valid as Prionurus biafraensis (Blache & Rossignol 1962) -- (Desoutter 1990:964 [ref. 18967], Afonso et al. 1999:79 [ref. 25466], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:138 [ref. 26232] as biafraenis, Randall 2001:161 [ref. 25804], Wirtz et al. 2007:40 [ref. 30263], Rocha in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2860 [ref. 34618], Ludt et al. 2019:4007 [ref. 36781]). Current status: Valid as Prionurus biafraensis (Blache & Rossignol 1962). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea from Cape Lopez (Gabon) to Pointe-Noire (the Congo). Habitat: marine.

bicommatus, Acanthurus Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:694, Pl. 18 (figs. C-D) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 93) (art. 82) (for Sept. 1955); ref. 12476] Shimoni, Kenya, 4°40'S, 39°30'E, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 4. Paratypes: (many) not researched. Published 5 Jan. 1956. •Synonym of Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1986:815 [ref. 5706] as tennenti). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

binotatus, Ctenochaetus Randall [J. E.] 1955:(155) 164, Fig. 1 G [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 40 (pt 4, no. 15); ref. 12220] Pagapas Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines [Batangas, Verde Island Passage, South China Sea, western Pacific]. Holotype: USNM 136125. Paratypes: CAS-SU 27174 (2); USNM 136061 (1), 136064 (2), 136073 (1), 136075-80 (1 each), 136083 (1), 136095 (4), 136099 (1), 136102-05 (1 ea.), 136109 (1), 136111 (1), 136114 (1), 136116 (1), 136119 (1). •Valid as Ctenochaetus binotatus Randall 1955 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:816 [ref. 5706], Randall et al. 1990:427 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:374 [ref. 23929], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:557 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:427 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:272 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:544 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1324 [ref. 25182], Randall & Clements 2001:7 [ref. 25453], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:258 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:77 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1324 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:402 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:584 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1738 [ref. 29094], Imamura 2009:304 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:227 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1026 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:184 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:103 [ref. 35333], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2018:353 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871] as cf. binotatus). Current status: Valid as Ctenochaetus binotatus Randall 1955. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Comoros, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marshall Islands, Tonga and Rapa, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, southern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

bipunctatus, Acanthurus Günther [A.] 1861:331 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] China Sea [in error, Malay Archipelago] and Fiji Islands. Lectotype: BMNH 1848.3.13.215. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1856.9.4.75 (1) Fiji. Randall et al. 2011:270 [ref. 31149] serve as first revisers, selecting nigros Günther 1861 over bipunctatus Günther; both published in the same publication. Lectotype selected by Randall 1956 [ref. 12221]. •Synonym of Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:187 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861 -- (Randall et al. 2011:270 [ref. 31249]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

bishopi, Teuthis Bryan [W. A.] & Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1903:134 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 15652] Marcus Island, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): BPBM 2442. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903) -- (Randall 1956:185 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Acanthurus Günther [A.] 1861:335 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] East Indies. No types known. Based on Acanthurus meta of Bleeker 1854:432, not Chaetodon mata Cuvier 1829. •Valid as Acanthurus bleekeri Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:180 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:253 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:67 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:554 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:152 [ref. 26476], Fricke 1999:534 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall et al. 1990:423 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:388 [ref. 22896], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:53 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3669 [ref. 26301], Randall 2005:578 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1735 [ref. 29094], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Acanthurus Bennett [E. T.] 1836:207 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1835 (pt 3); ref. 16792] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi, Tamil Nadu State, India, Indian Ocean]. Apparently a new name for Acanthurus velifer Bloch 1795: pl. 427 (fig. 1) [ref. 464]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Acanthurus blochii Valenciennes 1835. Kottelat (2013) reports an inland record from the Philippines. •Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795) -- (Randall 1988:59 [ref. 14257] as veliferum, Kottelat 2013:444 [ref. 32989] as veliferum). Current status: Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:209 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN (apparently lost), ZMB 1733 (3) Indian Ocean. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195], Paepke 1999:41 [ref. 24282]. Not Acanthurus blochii Bennett 1836 [8 Apr.]. •Questionably a synonym of Acanthurus mata Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall 1956:219 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Acanthurus blochii Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1986:813 [ref. 5706], Randall 1988:59 [ref. 14257], Randall et al. 1990:421 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:421 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:269 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:535 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1330 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:425 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:49 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1330 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:646 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:400 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:575 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:486 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:420 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:106 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1019 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:270 [ref. 32706], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:99 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143], Fricke et al. 2018:351 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus blochii Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Distribution: East and South Africa, Aldabra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian and Society islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

brachycentron, Naseus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:275 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Waigeo, Papua Barat, Indonesia, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7487 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:62 [ref. 22195]. •Valid as Naso brachycentron (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:229 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:820 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:430 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:557 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:372 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:430 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Myers 1999:274 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:545 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1320 [ref. 25182], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Randall 2001:172 [ref. 25459], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:104 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:112 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1320 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624] with Quoy & Gaimard 1825 as authors, Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:406 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:591 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:131 [ref. 28745] as hrachycentron, Allen et al. 2006:1739 [ref. 29094], Fricke et al. 2009:108 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:228 [ref. 31256], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1029 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:184 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] with authorship as Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, Psomadakis et al. 2015:307 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:355 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Naso brachycentron (Valenciennes 1835). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar, western Mascarenes east to Marquesas and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Naseus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:277, Pl. 291 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Molucca Islands; Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; New Guinea. Syntypes: MNHN A-7488 (1) no locality, MNHN A-7017 (2) Mauritius, MNHN A-7018 (1) New Guinea. Name dates to Cuvier 1829. •Synonym of Naso brevirostris (Cuvier 1829) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1997:430 [ref. 25919], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624] with author as Valenciennes 1835, Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:407 [ref. 28072], Allen et al. 2006:1739 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:434 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Naso brevirostris (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Naseus Cuvier [G.] 1829:225 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality stated [Indonesia]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195]. Available from footnote as, "Nas. brevirostris, N., Ren., I, xxiv, 130." Based on a figure. Also in Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:277, Pl. 291 [ref. 1004]. •Valid as Naso brevirostris (Cuvier 1829) [often with authorship wrongly as Valenciennes 1835] -- (Dor 1984:257 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:229 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:820 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:430 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:371 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195], Kuiter 1993:371 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:557 [ref. 27969] with Author as Valenciennes, Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:370 [ref. 25488], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Myers 1999:274 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:546 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1320 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:432 [ref. 25191], Lee et al. 2000:96 [ref. 25432], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Randall 2001:173 [ref. 25459], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:259 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:104 [ref. 26368], Randall 2001:3677 [ref. 26301], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:116 [ref. 26232], Nakabo 2002:1320 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:414, 669 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495] with author as Valenciennes 1835, Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576] with author as Valenciennes 1835, Randall 2005:591 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:493 [ref. 28379] with author as Valenciennes, Allen et al. 2006:1739 [ref. 29094], Fricke et al. 2009:108 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:228 [ref. 31256], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484] with author as Valenciennes 1835 but applying to Cuvier 1829, Allen & Erdmann 2012:1030 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:185 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] with authorship as Valenciennes, 1835, Al-Mamry et al. 2016:171 [ref. 34655], Fricke et al. 2018:355 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Naso brevirostris (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Galápagos Archipelago (eastern Pacific), north to southern Japan, Ogasawara and Hawaiian islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

brevis, Acanthurus Poey [F.] 1860:207 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:222 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

brevispinis, Acronurus Günther [A.] 1861:346 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] No locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH. •Status uncertain -- (Randall 1954:161 [ref. 12221]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

broussonnetii, Acanthurus Desmarest [A. G.] 1823:186 [26], Pl. 3 (fig. 1) of separate [Mémoires de la Société linnéenne de Paris v. 2; ref. 1120] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]. On p. 26 of separate, Fig. 2, unnumbered Pl. after p. 26. •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:221 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleacauda, Naso Randall [J. E.] 1994:122, Fig. 3; Pls. 1C, 2A [Copeia 1994 (no. 1); ref. 21648] Dumaguete, Negros, Philippines. Holotype: CAS-SU 13663. Paratypes: BPBM 35379 [ex CAS-SU 13663] (1). •Valid as Naso caeruleacauda Randall 1994 -- (Randall et al. 1997:538 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:126 [ref. 26232] as caeruleacaudus, Randall 2001:173 [ref. 25459], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830] as caeruleocauda, Allen et al. 2006:1740 [ref. 29094], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1030 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Naso caeruleacauda Randall 1994. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: east Indian region, Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Habitat: marine.

caeruleatus, Acronurus Poey [F.] 1875:143 [69], Pl. 7 [3] (figs. 15-17) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 4 (for 13 Jan. 1875); ref. 3509] Cuba. No types known. On p. 69 of separate. •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:222 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

caesius, Naso Randall [J. E.] & Bell [L. J.] 1992:347, Pl. 1 A-B, Figs. 1-2 [Pacific Science v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 20252] Northern side of East Channel, Eniwetak [Enewetak] Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 3-5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 29160. Paratypes: AMS I.31491-001 (1); BMNH 1991.5.20.1 (1); BPBM 4337 (1), 34528-31 (1, 1, 1, 1), 30610 (2), 34756 (1); CAS 76030 (1); USNM 140088 (1). Additional material at BPBM. •Valid as Naso caesius Randall & Bell 1992 -- (Randall et al. 1997:431 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Myers 1999:274 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:433 [ref. 25191], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:127 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:173 [ref. 25459], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:592 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:493 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1740 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:435 [ref. 30952], Ho et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1030 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Naso caesius Randall & Bell 1992. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific, antiequatorial: Micronesia and Marshall Islands east to Hawaiian Islands; Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia east to Tonga, Society Islands and Pitcairn Group. Habitat: marine.

carinatus, Acanthurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:216 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Red Sea. Unexplained new name for Chaetodon sohal Forsskål 1775. •Objective synonym of Acanthurus sohal (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:194 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus sohal (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

carneus, Acronurus Poey [F.] 1860:207 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Still researching; not found in this reference on this page. •Status uncertain -- (Randall 1954:161 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

caroli, Teuthis Curtiss [A.] 1938:124 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Near mouth of Vaiurua River, Tautira township, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

carolinarum, Aspisurus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:375, Pl. 63 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Caroline Islands; Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195]. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

cavallo, Cyphomycter Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:173, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [South African Journal of Science v. 51 (no. 6); ref. 4100] Pinda reef, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 17 (flesh removed). Paratypes: (numerous) not researched. •Synonym of Naso fageni Morrow 1954 -- (Randall 1986:821 [ref. 5706], Arai 1991 [ref. 20437]). Current status: Synonym of Naso fageni Morrow 1954. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

celebicus, Acanthurus Bleeker [P.] 1853:761 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 335] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6331. •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Randall 1956:197 [ref. 12221], Randall 2001:3673 [ref. 26301], Randall 2005:581 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:353 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

chirurgus, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:99, Pl. 208 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Martinique Island, West Indies. Types: ZMB (not found). On p. 74 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch 1787) -- (Randall 1956:223 [ref. 12221], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:406 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:256 [ref. 23100], Desoutter 1990:962 [ref. 18967], Boschung 1992:166 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:251 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1994:215 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:321 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:168 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:992 [ref. 25909], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:68 [ref. 26232], Rocha et al. 2002:244 [ref. 25914], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2002:104 [ref. 26570], Collette et al. 2003:124 [ref. 26784], Randall 2003:1804 [ref. 27098], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:100 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:743 [ref. 28815], Bernal & Rocha 2011:63 [ref. 31336], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32972], Kottelat 2013:442 [ref. 32989], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:81 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:10 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:32 [ref. 34324], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:168 [ref. 36561], Rocha in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2861 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Costa et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35684], Spier et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch 1787). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

chronixis, Acanthurus Randall [J. E.] 1960:267, Figs. 1-2 [Pacific Science v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 11941] Teawataman Ship Pass, southern side of Kapingamarangi Atoll, 1°02'09"N, 154°45'04"E, 1 mile from shore, Caroline Islands, westrern Pacific, depth to 20 feet. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 52104. Additional material: CAS-SU 52105 (2, juveniles). Juveniles somewhat tentatively regarded as this species, so they are not regarded as types. •Valid as Acanthurus chronixis Randall 1960 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Myers 1999:269 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:1329 [ref. 25182], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1329 [ref. 26193]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus chronixis Randall 1960. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

chrysosoma, Acanthurus Bleeker [P.] 1857:67 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 16866] Kajeli, Buru Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 6425 (4). •Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

chrysurus, Prionurus Randall [J. E.] 2001:161, Figs. 2-3 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 2); ref. 25804] "Blue Lagoon", just north of Padang Bai, Bali, Indonesia, depth 10 meters. Holotype: BPBM 21657. Paratypes: USNM 363483 (1). •Valid as Prionurus chrysurus Randall 2001 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1035 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Prionurus chrysurus Randall 2001. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

clarionis, Xesurus Gilbert [C. H.] & Starks [E. C.] in Gilbert 1897:445, Pl. 51 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 47001-02 (1, 1), 47047 (1), 47114-15 (1, 1), 47148-52 (5), 52850 (1). •Synonym of Prionurus laticlavius (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Randall 2001:159 [ref. 25804]). Current status: Synonym of Prionurus laticlavius (Valenciennes 1846). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

coccinatus, Hepatus von Bonde [C.] 1934:449, Pl. 23 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Natal Museum. v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 16466] West coast of Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

coeruleus, Acanthurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:214 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Carolinas, U.S.A.; Havana, Cuba; Jamaica. Types: ZMB (not found). •Valid as Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:221 [ref. 12221], Robins & Ray 1986:256 [ref. 23100], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967], Boschung 1992:166 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:252 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1994:216 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:321 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:168 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:992 [ref. 25909], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:66 [ref. 26232], Rocha et al. 2002:244 [ref. 25914], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2002:104 [ref. 26570], Collette et al. 2003:125 [ref. 26784], Randall 2003:1805 [ref. 27098], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:101 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:744 [ref. 28815], Bernal & Rocha 2011:63 [ref. 31336], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:81 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:10 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:32 [ref. 34324], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:169 [ref. 36561], Rocha in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2862 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Spier et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36103], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Invasive at Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

corniger, Acronurus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:192 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:258 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

coryphaenoides, Cyphomycter Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:173, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [South African Journal of Science v. 51 (no. 6); ref. 4100] Bazaruto Island, 21°30'S, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 18. •Synonym of Naso brevirostris (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1986:820 [ref. 5706] with wrong author/date). Current status: Synonym of Naso brevirostris (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

couaga, Chaetodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:726, 727 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] South Africa. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:132 [ref. 20718]. Based on a Commerson figure. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

crestonis, Teuthis Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:485, Pl. 47 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Astillero estuary at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: CAS-SU 2899. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.157 (1) from Jordan, CAS-SU 2899 (6, including potential lectotype), USNM 47473 [ex CAS-SU 2899] (1), ZMB 14079 [from Jordan] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:104 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 256, p. 3284 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:215 [ref. 12221], Randall 2005:583 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:428 [ref. 30952]). •Probable synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

ctenodon, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:241, Pl. 289 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Syntypes: MNHN A-7064 (1) New Guinea, A-7065 (1) Caroline Is. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:56-57 [ref. 22195]. Appeared first in Cuvier 1829:224 [ref. 995] in footnote as :"Ac. ctenodon, N., esp. nouv." without distinguishing features. Also as Acanthurus ctnedon in Cuvier 1831:165 [ref. 30376], again without distinguishing features. •Synonym of Acanthurus striatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Ctenochaetus striatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:56 [ref. 22195], Randall & Clements 2001:19 [ref. 25453], Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenochaetus striatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

cuvierii, Ctenodon Swainson [W.] 1839:256 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Unneeded new name for Acanthurus ctenodon Valenciennes 1835, pl. 289, apparently to avoid Strickland tautonymy. •Synonym of Ctenochaetus striatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Randall & Clements 2001:19 [ref. 25453]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenochaetus striatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

cyanocheilus, Ctenochaetus Randall [J. E.] & Clements [K. D.] 2001:9, Pl. 1B, 4 C-F [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 32; ref. 25453] Lagoon between Enewetak and Parry Islands, Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, depth 6 meters. Holotype: BPBM 7335. Paratypes: AMS I.40282-001 (1); ASIZT 60550 (1); BMNH 2000.6.22.1 (1); BPBM 7371 (2), 8147 (2), 11428 (2), 14563 (1), 16136 (1), 17539 (1), 31482 (2); LACM 54451-1 (1); MNHN 2000-1211 (3); NSMT-P 59706 (1); ROM 56069-70 (1, 2); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 62190 (1); USNM 162596 (1), 196258 (2), WAM P.27980-019 (1), P.31434-028 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Ctenochaetus cyanocheilus Randall & Clements 2001 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:584 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1738 [ref. 29094], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1027 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:354 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Ctenochaetus cyanocheilus Randall & Clements 2001. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Madagascar; South China Sea to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

cyanoguttatus, Ctenochaetus Randall [J. E.] 1955:(155) 160, Fig. 1 C [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 40 (pt 4, no. 15); ref. 12220] Aunteuma Island, Onotoa Atoll, Gilbert Islands. Holotype: USNM 167178. Paratypes: CAS-SU 12280 (1); USNM 115152 (1), 167179 (1). •Synonym of Ctenochaetus marginatus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Randall 1988:60 [ref. 14257], Allen & Robertson 1994:273 [ref. 22193], Randall & Clements 2001:18 [ref. 25453], Randall 2005:586 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:492 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenochaetus marginatus (Valenciennes 1835). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

delisiani, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:193 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7067. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]. The same as Acanthurus delisianus Griffith & Smith 1834. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833 -- (Randall 1956:198 [ref. 12221], Fricke 1999:536 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

delisianus, Acanthurus Griffith [E.] & Smith [C. H.] 1834:opp. 214, Pl. 35 (fig. 2) [The class Pisces, arranged by the Baron Cuvier; ref. 1908] [No locality stated] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7067. See also Acanthurus delisiani Valenciennes 1835. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

delissianus, Acanthurus Guérin-Méneville [F. E.] 1829-38:22, Pl. 35 (fig. 2) [Iconographie du Règne animal de G. Cuvier IV, Poissons; ref. 18162] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Perhaps just a new spelling for delisiani Valenciennes 1835. •Evidently the same as Acanthurus delisiani Valenciennes 1835. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

desjardinii, Acanthurus Bennett [E. T.] 1836:207 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1835 (pt 3); ref. 16792] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.12.26.444 [ex Zool. Soc.]. •Synonym of Zebrasoma veliferum (Bloch 1795), but a valid subspecies -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:65 [ref. 13251]). •Synonym of Zebrasoma veliferum (Bloch 1795) -- (Randall 1986:818 [ref. 5706], Fricke 1999:553 [ref. 24106] as velifer). •Valid as Zebrasoma desjardinii (Bennett 1836) -- (Randall et al. 1990:429 [ref. 15987], Allen & Smith-Vaniz 1994:18 [ref. 22386], Myers 1999:273 [ref. 23965], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830] as desjardini dated 1835, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377] dated 1835, Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:404 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:589 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:433 [ref. 30952], Imamura 2009:307 [ref. 30434], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1035 [ref. 31980], Bernardi et al. 2018:3 [ref. 36114], Fricke et al. 2018:357 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:168 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Zebrasoma desjardinii (Bennett 1836). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa, Socotra and Madagascar east to western Sumatra (Indonesia) and Christmas Island. Habitat: marine.

doreensis, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:220 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Doreh Harbor, New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7099. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]. •Uncertain status -- (Randall 1956:226 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

dussumieri, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:201 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-8136. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]. •Valid as Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:213 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:813 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:421 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:372 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:387 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:152 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:364 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:421 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:269 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:535 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1330 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:425 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:256 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:50 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3667 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1330 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:646 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:400 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:576 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:486 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:421 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:106 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1020 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:270 [ref. 32706], Francis & Duffy 2015:483 [ref. 36161], Struthers 2015:1592 [ref. 34302], Motomura et al. 2015:30 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:99 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2018:351 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Line Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Rowley Shoals (Western Australia), southern New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

ecornis, Monoceros Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:61 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy; from Red Sea. •In the synonymy of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801) -- (Dor 1984:258 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801). Acanthuridae.

elegans, Aspisurus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:61, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Northern Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 7644 (dry). •Synonym of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801) -- (Dor 1984:258 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Naso elegans (Rüppell 1829) -- (Randall 2001:172 [ref. 25459], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:593 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2009:108 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:305 [ref. 30434], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1031 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:355 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Naso elegans (Rüppell 1829). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Andaman Sea and western Indonesia, excluding the northwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Teuthis Garman [S.] 1899:70, Pl. L' (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off the Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean, at the surface. Syntypes: MCZ 28745 (11). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Chaetodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:454, 473, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Indo-Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN A-7506 (2, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:121 [ref. 20718], Bauchot & Randall 1996:61 [ref. 22195]. •Status uncertain -- (Randall et al. 1990:424 [ref. 15987], Bauchot & Randall 1996:61 [ref. 22195]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

eoume, Prionurus Lesson [R. P.] 1831:151 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Matavai Bay, Tahiti, Society Islands. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:68 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801) -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:68 [ref. 22195], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Synonym of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

eparai, Acanthurus Lesson [R. P.] 1831:147, Poissons Pl. 27 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195] as eparai. Appeared as eparae in text (p. 147); first reviser not researched. •Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221], Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

erythromelas, Acanthurus (Ctenodon) Swainson [W.] 1839:256 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Lesson, Atl. 27.1 -- which is Lesson 1831:Pl. 27 [ref. 2776]. Unneeded new name for Acanthurus eparei Lesson 1830. •Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fageni, Naso Morrow [J. E., Jr.] 1954:799 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 7 (no. 83) (art. 98); ref. 12658] Bugsuk Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 7829. Paratypes: USNM 122106-08 (1, 1, 1); YPM (1). •Valid as Naso fageni Morrow 1954 -- (Randall 1986:821 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Allen & Swainston 1988:158 [ref. 25477], Arai 1991 [ref. 20437], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Randall 1995:390 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:250 [ref. 23977], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1321 [ref. 25182], Randall 2001:172 [ref. 25459], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:122 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1321 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Allen et al. 2006:1740 [ref. 29094], Shao et al. 2008:263 [ref. 29952], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1031 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2017:206 [ref. 35490], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Naso fageni Morrow 1954. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra and Aldabra east to Philippines, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Acanthurus Bliss [R.] 1883:53 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ (not found). •Synonym of Acanthurus polyzona (Bleeker 1868) -- (Fricke 1999:540 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus polyzona (Bleeker 1868). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Harpurus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:215, xxxviii [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Not available, treated in synonymy of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) and not recognized as valid; from Huahaine, Society Is.; Latinized in index on p. xxxviii. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •In the synonymy of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae.

filamentosus, Prionurus Liénard [F.] in Sauvage 1891:345 [Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar; ref. 14503] No types known. Based on 'Prionure à caudale filamenteuse' of Liénard 1836:56/ [ref. 30336]; description quoted from Liénard. •Synonym of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:547 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

flavescens, Acanthurus Bennett [E. T.] 1828:40 [Zoological Journal, London v. 4 (no. 13, art. 3); ref. 16783] Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: (4) BMNH 1852.9.13.80 [ex Zool. Soc.] (2). •Valid as Zebrasoma flavescens (Bennett 1828) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:428 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1997:151 [ref. 26476], Myers 1999:273 [ref. 23965], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1323 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:260 [ref. 25480], Thomson et al. 2000:255 [ref. 25640], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:90 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3682 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1323 [ref. 26193], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Mundy 2005:496 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:430 [ref. 30952], Bernardi et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36114]). Current status: Valid as Zebrasoma flavescens (Bennett 1828). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Micronesia east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan; possibly Grande Terre and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Broadly hybridizes with Zebrasoma scopas in western Pacific [ref. 36114]. Habitat: marine.

flavicauda, Ctenochaetus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:104, Pl. 10 (fig. 24) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Takaroa Island, Tuamotu Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68450. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett 1828) -- (authors). •Valid as Ctenochaetus flavicauda Fowler 1938 -- (Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806] as flavicaudus, Randall & Clements 2001:13 [ref. 25453], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:80 [ref. 26232], Randall 2005:585 [ref. 28239], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Ctenochaetus flavicauda Fowler 1938. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

flavoguttatus, Acanthurus Kittlitz [F. H.] 1834:195, Pl. 13 (fig. 5) [Museum Senckenbergianum: Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der beschreibenden Naturgeschichte, von Mitgliedern der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main v. 1; ref. 10022] Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Apparently not treated in recent literature. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

flavus, Harpurus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:214 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Not available, manuscript name mentioned under account of Acanthurus chirurgus. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Acanthuridae.

formosus, Acronurus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:104 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Noble Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: MNHN A-7096. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-7095 (4), 1995-0960 (1); NMV 51869 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]. Lectotype selected by Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803 -- (Randall 1956:201 [ref. 12221] with question, Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fowleri, Acanthurus de Beaufort [L. F.] (ex Fowler & Bean) in Weber & de Beaufort 1951:149 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 9; ref. 16097] Buka Island; Maitara; Gomomo Island, Philippines. Syntypes: USNM (as listed in Fowler & Bean). Based on Hepatus pyroferus of Fowler & Bean 1929:232 [ref. 1476] (not Kittlitz); description taken from Fowler & Bean. •Valid as Acanthurus fowleri de Beaufort 1951 -- (Randall 1956:206 [ref. 12221], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:54 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1020 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus fowleri de Beaufort 1951. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: east Indian region, Indonesia north to Philippines, east to Solomon Islands, south to New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

fraterculus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:206 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:66 [ref. 22195]. Based on a drawing. •Unidentifiable -- (Randall 1954:160 [ref. 12221]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fronticornis, Naso Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:105, 106, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Unnecessary replacement name for Chaetodon unicornis Forsskål 1775. Also based on 'Naseus fronticornis fuscus' and 'Licornet des matelots' in manuscript description and illustration by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:114, 115 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473] •Synonym of Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:258 [ref. 29757], Mundy 2005:495 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1742 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:439 [ref. 30952], Golani & Fricke 2018:168 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fuliginosus, Acanthurus Lesson [R. P.] 1831:149 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:66 [ref. 22195] with uncertain status. Based on a drawing; no types known. •Unidentifiable -- (Randall 1954:160 [ref. 12221]). •Valid as Acanthurus fuliginosus Lesson 1831 -- (Khan 1998:230 [ref. 24980]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 2001:3675 [ref. 26301] as fulginosus, with date 1830, Mundy 2005:491 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:353 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fumosus, Etroplus Brevoort [J. C.] 1856:264 [12], Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Notes on some figures of Japanese fish taken from recent specimens by the artists of the U. S. Japan Expedition. Pp. 253-288, Pls. 3-12 (color) In: M. C. Perry, Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan.; ref. 17284] Ryukyu Islands, Japan. No types known. On p. 12 of separate. Based on a drawing. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Acanthurus Steindachner [F.] 1861:176, Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 11; ref. 18748] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (several) whereabouts unknown •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Randall 1956:197 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Acronurus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:191 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] American Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.101 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:230 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Acanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Wheeler 1958:230 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

gahhm, Chaetodon nigrofuscus var. Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:64, xiii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (Red Sea). No types known. Spelled gahm by many early authors. •Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Acanthurus gahhm (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:207 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:45 [ref. 26232], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:579 [ref. 28239], DiBattista et al. 2015:22 [ref. 35706], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[17] 255 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus gahhm (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra. Habitat: marine.

gahmoides, Acanthurus Guichenot [A.] 1863:C-8 [Faune ichthyologique 2nd Partie, Annexe C.; ref. 1943] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1315. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]. •Questionably a synonym of Acanthurus gahhm (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:206 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Fricke 1999:543 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

gallina, Chaetodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:462, 495 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:132 [ref. 20718]. •Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795) -- (Fricke 1999:553 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

garretti, Monoceros Seale [A.] 1901:112 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Agaña, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 216. Paratypes: (5) ANSP 86487 [ex BPBM 217, 220, 221] (3); BPBM 218-219 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801). Current status: Synonym of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

gemmatus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:255 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6970. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]. •Valid as Zebrasoma gemmatum (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Randall 1986:817 [ref. 5706], Fricke 1999:551 [ref. 24106], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:94 [ref. 26232], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:405 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:109 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:357 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Zebrasoma gemmatum (Valenciennes 1835). Acanthuridae. Distribution: East Africa and South Africa east to Madagascar and Mascarenes (Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues). Habitat: marine.

genimarginatus, Naso Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:461, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 34 (no. 4); ref. 10961] New Washington, Capiz Province, Panay, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 14525 (presumed destroyed). Paratypes: BSMP 14526 (1) presumed destroyed. Additional material: BSMP (7) presumed destroyed. Herre specimens: BMNH 1933.3.11.536. •Synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall 2001:170 [ref. 25459]). Current status: Synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

glaucopareius, Acanthurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:224 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Tahiti, Society Islands. BMNH 1979.6.13.8. Available from footnote as, "Ac. glauco-pareius, N., Seb., III, 1734, xxv, 3, qui paraît le vrai Chaetodon nigricans, L." •Valid as Acanthurus glaucopareius Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall 1956:199 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:423 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:272 [ref. 22193] as glaucoparieus, Chen et al. 1997:153 [ref. 26476], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:565 [ref. 24023] as glaucopareus, Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640], Randall & Frische 2000:51 [ref. 25805], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:28 [ref. 26232] dated 1831, Mundy 2005:488 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:424 [ref. 30952], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

gnophodes, Harpurus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:544, Pl. 22 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27750. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Acanthurus bleekeri Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:180 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

goramensis, Acanthurus Bleeker [P.] 1858:208 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 362] Goram-Archipel [Pulau-Pulau Gorong, Molucca Islands, Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6325. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

grammoptilus, Acanthurus Richardson [J.] 1843:176 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 11 (nos 67-8, 71-2); ref. 13395] Port Essington, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1853.1.4.5 (dry) or 1843.6.15.38 (dry). West Pacific. •Valid as Acanthurus grammoptilus Richardson 1843 -- (Randall 1956:211 [ref. 12221], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:422 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:372 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:422 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:40 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:353 [ref. 28867], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Larson et al. 2013:213 [ref. 32988], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus grammoptilus Richardson 1843. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Acanthurus Weber [M.] 1913:317 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia, Siboga station 231; Sri Lanka. Syntypes: BMNH (1), BMNH (2), ZMA (2). Based on Acanthurus nigrofuscus of Günther 1862:331 [ref. 1964] and 2 Siboga specimens. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Teuthis guentheri Jenkins 1903, replaced by Hepatus weberi Ahl 1923. •Synonym of Acanthurus bleekeri Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:180 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Teuthis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:477, Fig. 29 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50842 (not found in 1980). Paratypes: (11) CAS-SU 23329 (8). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:104 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:216 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757], Mundy 2005:491 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Acanthurus Kittlitz [F. H.] 1834:193, Pl. 13 (fig. 4) [Museum Senckenbergianum: Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der beschreibenden Naturgeschichte, von Mitgliedern der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main v. 1; ref. 10022] Luganor [Lukunor Island], Caroline Islands, western Pacific. No types known. Apparently not an original description; based on guttatus in Bloch & Schneider, but perhaps not the same species. Apparently can be deleted as a misidentification. Acanthurus marginatus Valenciennes 1835, based on Kittlitz figure, is available to use in place of guttatus Kittlitz. •In the synonymy of Ctenochaetus marginatus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Randall 1988:60 [ref. 14257], Randall & Clements 2001:18 [ref. 25453]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenochaetus marginatus (Valenciennes 1835). Acanthuridae.

guttatus, Acanthurus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:215 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Otahaitee [Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1962.12.14.6. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Author given as 'Schn.' (Schneider). •Valid as Acanthurus guttatus Forster 1801 -- (Randall 1956:184 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:422 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:422 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:28 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:536 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:27 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1326 [ref. 25182] with authors as Forster & Schneider, Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:40 [ref. 26232] dated 1802, Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1326 [ref. 26193] with authors as Forster & Schneider, Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], with authors as Forster & Schneider, Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:576 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:487 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1735 [ref. 29094] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider, Randall 2007:422 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:106 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1020 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Cambra et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36349]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus guttatus Forster 1801. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mascarenes, Maldives and Chagos Archipelago east to Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia, Australia and Rapa; eastern Pacific: Clipperton Atoll and Isla del Coco (Costa Rica). Habitat: marine.

harpurus, Acanthurus Shaw [G.] in Cuvier 1829:225 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No types known. Not available, name in synonymy of Naseus incornis Cuvier 1829, from footnote as, "Nas. incornis, N., Ren., I, f. 128, et encore moins bien, f. 147, probabl. l'Acanthurus harpuras, Shaw." See also Naseus incornis Cuvier 1829. Also appeared in Cuvier 1831:166 [ref. 30376]. •In the synonymy of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801) -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195] for Naseus incornis). Current status: Synonym of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801). Acanthuridae.

harpurus, Acanthurus Shaw [G.] 1803:381 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian Seas. •Unidentifiable. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

hawaiiensis, Ctenochaetus Randall [J. E.] 1955:(155) 161, Pl. 2 (fig. 2); Fig. 1 D [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 40 (pt 4, no. 15); ref. 12220] Entrance to Keauhou Bay, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 167180. Paratypes: CAS-SU 47661 [ex USNM 167181] (1), USNM 167181 (2). •Valid as Ctenochaetus hawaiiensis Randall 1955 -- (Myers 1999:272 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:82 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Randall & Clements 2001:16 [ref. 25453], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Senou et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27379], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:585 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:492 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:428 [ref. 30952], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Ctenochaetus hawaiiensis Randall 1955. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Mariana Islands to Marshall Islands east to Hawaiian Islands and northern Line Islands; Tuvalu, Samoa and Tonga east to Marquesas Islands and Pitcairn Group. Habitat: marine.

helioides, Teuthis Barbour [T.] 1905:127, Pl. 3 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 46 (no. 7); ref. 15336] Near Cooper's Island, Castle Sound, Bermuda. Holotype (unique): MCZ 29053. •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:222 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:321 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

hepatus, Teuthis Linnaeus [C.] 1766:507 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Mare indico [erroneous, is Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia]; Carolina, U.S.A. [erroneous]; Jamaica [erroneous]; Bahamas [erroneous], Mediterranean [erroneous]. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.101 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin), LS 84 (left half-skin). Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:205 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1958:230-231 [ref. 13434], Wheeler 1985:67-68 [ref. 20705]. Misspelled hepathus by Schöpf 1788:175 [ref. 18700]. Based on multiple sources, including the 'Teuthis mucrone reflexo utrinque prope caudam' of Gronow 1763:113 [ref. 1910], which was based on the 'Turdus rhomboidalis, The Tang' of Catesby 1743:10, Pl. 10, fig. 1 (v. 2) [ref. 774] [Bahama Islands], the 'Chaetodon caerulescens, dorso nigro ...' of Seba 1759:104, pl. 33, fig. 3 [ref. 18716] [Ambon, Indonesia], the 'Ikan Maroeke' (which is Naso lituratus), 'Ikan Toetombo' (Ctenochaetus sp.) and 'Ikan Biroe' (Acanthurus sp.) of Valentyn 1726:371, 466, 473, figs. 77, 383, 404 [ref. 30358] [Ambon, Indonesia], the 'Seserinus' of Rondelet 1554:257 [ref. 30354] [Mediterranean Sea], the 'Rhombotides obscure caeruleus ...' of Klein 1740-49:34 (v. 4) [ref. 30141], and the 'Leervisch' of Ruysch 1718:4, Pl. 3, fig. 3 [ref. 30355] [Ambon, Indonesia]; also based on the 'Teuthis fusca caeruleo nitens' of Browne 1756:454 [ref. 30188] [Jamaica]. Originally based on multiple species, now restricted to the Indo-Pacific species (part, from Ambon, Indonesia) based on the two extant syntypes out of the Gronow collection. Lectotype designation needed. •Valid as Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:817 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:65 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:428 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:371 [ref. 23929], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:560 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:155 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:368 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:428 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:273 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:550 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1324 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:429 [ref. 25191], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:69 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3681 [ref. 26301] dated 1758, Nakabo 2002:1324 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:206 [ref. 27510] dated 1758, Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:404 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:587 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:496 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1743 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:430 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:109 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:228 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1035 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Kottelat 2013:442 [ref. 32989], Wirtz et al. 2014:10 [ref. 33516] as not this species, Fricke et al. 2014:185 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:104 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:356 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766). Acanthuridae. Distribution: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Marshall and Line islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to southern Great Barrier Reef (Australia), New Caledonia and Samoa; waifs reaching Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

herrei, Naso Smith [J. L. B.] 1966:647, Fig 12A-12B [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 32; ref. 9066] Philippines. Holotype: apparently destroyed. Paratypes: (3) apparently destroyed. Based on Naso brachycentron Herre 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 34(2): 448, Pl. 5 (fig. 2); holotype established by Smith as the specimen figured in Pl. 5 (fig. 2). •Synonym of Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Randall 1986:819 [ref. 5706], Randall et al. 1990:429 [ref. 15987], Randall 2001:171 [ref. 25459], Randall 2005:590 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

hewitti, Prionolepis Smith [J. L. B.] 1931:145, Fig. [Records of the Albany Museum Grahamstown v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 4062] Great Fish Point, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): AMG (lost in fire). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

hexacanthus, Priodon Bleeker [P.] 1855:421 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (4). •Valid as Callicanthus hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Chen et al. 1997:155 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Dor 1984:257 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:229 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:531, 699 [ref. 8056], Randall 1986:821 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:430 [ref. 15987], Randall & Bell 1992:344 [ref. 20252], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:558 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:372 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:430 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Myers 1999:274 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:547 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1322 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:433 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Randall 2001:173 [ref. 25459], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:124 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3678 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1322 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:205 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:592 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:494 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1740 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:436 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:108 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:306 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:228 [ref. 31256], Ho et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1031 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:103 [ref. 33254], Fricke et al. 2014:185 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:308 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:103 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:356 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands and Ducie (Pitcairn Group), north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia; Clipperton Island in eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

hirundo, Acanthurus Bennett [J. W.] 1829:unnum. p., Pl. 11 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43 [ref. 21456]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

hoedtii, Naseus Bleeker [P.] 1853:339 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5117] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

hopkinsi, Xesurus Gilbert [C. H.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:155, Pl. 25 (fig. 48) [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences v. 4; ref. 1639] Panama. Holotype: CAS-SU 12671. Paratypes: (1) ?BMNH 1903.5.15.76 [from Jordan] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:104 [ref. 12291]. Holotype established in caption to Pl. 25. •Synonym of Prionurus laticlavius (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Randall 2001:159 [ref. 25804]). Current status: Synonym of Prionurus laticlavius (Valenciennes 1846). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

humeralis, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:231 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Carolines [actual = Tahiti]. Syntypes: MNHN A-7027 (1) Caroline Is., A-7030 (1) Tahiti; ZMB 1744 [ex MNHN] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221], Mundy 2005:490 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

hypselopterus, Acanthurus Bleeker [P.] 1854:327 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 343] Larantuka, Flores Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6427. •Synonym of Zebrasoma veliferum (Bloch 1795) -- (Mundy 2005:497 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:444 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795). Current status: Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

incipiens, Acanthurus Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:480, Fig. 32 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50707. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7726 (1, missing). •Synonym of Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Mundy 2005:493 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

incornis, Naseus Cuvier [G.] 1829:225 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality stated [Maluku, Indonesia; India]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195]. Available from footnote as, "Nas. incornis, N., Ren., I, f. 128, et encore moins bien, f. 147, probabl. l'Acanthurus harpuras, Shaw." Also appeared in Cuvier 1831:166 [ref. 30376]. •Synonym of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801) -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Naso lituratus (Forster 1801). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Hepatus aliala Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1931:102, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Pacific Committee of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. v. 1; ref. 3937] Kominato, Amami-Oshima Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZIN 23351. •Synonym of Acanthurus glaucopareius Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall 1956:199 [ref. 12221]). •Valid as Acanthurus japonicus (Schmidt 1931) -- (Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1328 [ref. 25182], Randall & Frische 2000:51 [ref. 25805], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:29 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301] dated 1930, Nakabo 2002:1328 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1021 [ref. 31980], Koeda et al. 2016:100 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus japonicus (Schmidt 1931). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia to Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Habitat: marine.

kaber, Acanthurus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:456 [178] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 178 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy under Acanthurus glaucopareius; Woodlark I., South Pacific. Acanthuridae.

ketlitzii, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:222 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:66 [ref. 22195]. Based on a drawing; no types known. •Synonym of Chaetochaetus striatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Randall & Clements 2001:19 [ref. 25453] but as kettlitzii). Current status: Synonym of Ctenochaetus striatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

kingii, Acanthurus Bennett [E. T.] 1835:119 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1835 (pt 3); ref. 16797] Port Praya, Cape Verde Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831 -- (Randall 1956:206 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

kipas, Acanthurus Bleeker [P.] 1854:327 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 343] Ambon, Indonesia. No types known. Based on "Ikan Kipas djantan" (Zebrasoma velifer) of Valentyn 1726:493, fig. 449 [ref. 30358]. •Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795) -- (Kottelat 2013:444 [ref. 32989] spelled veliferum). Current status: Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lamarrii, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:236 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN A-0596 (1), A-7503 (1, dry), A-7765 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:211 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Fricke 1999:543 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lambdurus, Colocopus Gill [T. N.] 1884:279 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 435); ref. 1726] Based on Acanthurus hepatus (Bloch & Schneider) of Günther 1875:115, Pl. 75 [ref. 2005] (not Teuthis hepatus Linnaeus). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

laticlavius, Naseus Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7493 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:63 [ref. 22195]. Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:335 [ref. 4504] with genus as Prionurus. •Valid as Prionurus laticlavius (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:274 [ref. 22193], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:844 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:45 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:566 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:255 [ref. 25640], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:136 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:161 [ref. 25804], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Cambra et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36349], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248], Ludt et al. 2019:4008 [ref. 36781]). Current status: Valid as Prionurus laticlavius (Valenciennes 1846). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

leucocheilus, Acanthurus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:419, Pl. 12 (fig. 3) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 34 (no. 4); ref. 10961] Bantayan, Cebu, and Agutaya, Philippines. Syntypes: BSMP (5) presumed destroyed. •Valid as Acanthurus leucocheilus Herre 1927 -- (Randall 1956:195 [ref. 12221], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:48 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2005:132 [ref. 28745], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1021 [ref. 31980], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus leucocheilus Herre 1927. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Socotra east to Caroline Islands, Palau and Line Islands. Habitat: marine.

leucopareius, Teuthis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:476, Fig. 28 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50841. Paratypes: (8) CAS-SU 23324 (3), 23327 (5); USNM 50712 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:104 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903) -- (Randall 1956:185 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:27 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1328 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:425 [ref. 25191], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:32 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1328 [ref. 26193], Myers & Donaldson 2003:646 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall 2005:577 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:487 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:422 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:100 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Hong Kong and Taiwan east to Hawaiian Islands and Easter Island, north to southern Japan, south to Grande Terre, Loyalty Islands, Matthew and Hunter Islands (New Caledonia) and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

leucosternon, Acanthurus Bennett [E. T.] 1833:183 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1832 (pt 2); ref. 16789] Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean. Holotype or syntypes: BMNH 1855.12.26.442 (1). •Valid as Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833 -- (Randall 1956:198 [ref. 12221], Randall 1986:813 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall 1995:387 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Fricke 1999:536 [ref. 24106], Randall & Frische 2000:51 [ref. 25805], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:26 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301] dated 1832, Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:401 [ref. 28072], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767], Fricke et al. 2009:106 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:302 [ref. 30434], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1021 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:270 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:351 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Cocos-Keeling Islands, Christmas Island and western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

leucosternum, Acanthurus Day [F.] 1889:138 [The fauna of British India v. 2; ref. 4888] Apparently an unjustified emendation of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett (which is cited). •Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

liberatae, Teuthis Curtiss [A.] 1938:125 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Acanthurus (Ctenodon) Swainson [W.] 1839:256 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Benn. pl. 2 -- which is Bennett 1828:Pl. 2 [ref. 16785]. Probably a new combination for Chaetodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:191 [ref. 12221], Randall 2001:3668 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Chaetodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:274 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Indies. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:537 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:193 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:813 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:422 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:373 [ref. 23929], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:554 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:153 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:368 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:422 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:537 [ref. 24106], Mishra et al. 1999:88 [ref. 25315], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1327 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:426 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:62 [ref. 26232] dated 1756, Nakabo 2002:1327 [ref. 26193], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:202 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:577 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:487 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1735 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:423 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:106 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:302 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1022 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:100 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:16 [ref. 35354], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2018:351 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to southern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

lineolatus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:207 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Sea of the Indies. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Valenciennes specimens: ZMB 1635 [ex MNHN] (1) Vanicolo. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:66 [ref. 22195]. •Questionably a synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:190 [ref. 12221], Randall et al. 1990:424 [ref. 15987], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:424 [ref. 30952], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lineolatus, Acronurus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:511 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 8011 (1). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). •Status uncertain -- (Randall 1954:161 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lishenus, Acanthurus Shen [S.-C.] & Lim [P.-C.] 1973:121, Fig. 28 [Report of the Institute of Fishery Biology of Ministry of Economic Affairs and National Taiwan Unversity, Taipei v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 52] Hong-tsai-keng, southwestern tip of Taiwan, South China Sea, depth 7 meters. Holotype (unique): NTUM 7312501. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lituratus, Acanthurus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:216 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality stated [Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Syntypes: BMNH 1962.12.14.7-9 (3). Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Valid as Callicanthus lituratus (Forster 1801) -- (Chen et al. 1997:156 [ref. 26476], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:593 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:494 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1741 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:437 [ref. 30952], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1032 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:214 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:185 [ref. 33932]). •Valid as Naso lituratus (Forster 1801) -- (Dor 1984:257 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:821 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:431 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:390 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:558 [ref. 27969] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Yokogawa & Abe 1997:2 [ref. 24373], Kuiter 1997:370 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:431 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Myers 1999:274 [ref. 25488], Fricke 1999:547 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1322 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:434 [ref. 25191], Lee et al. 2000:96 [ref. 25432], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25858], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:104 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:104 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:172 [ref. 25489], Randall 2001:3679 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1322 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:415, 669 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Motomura et al. 2010:228 [ref. 31256], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider 1801, Koeda et al. 2016:103 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354]). Current status: Valid as Naso lituratus (Forster 1801). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific: Indonesia and Cocos-Keeling Islands east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

longicornis, Naseus Guérin-Méneville [F. E.] 1829-38:22, Pl. 35 (fig. 3) [Iconographie du Règne animal de G. Cuvier IV, Poissons; ref. 18162] Indian Ocean, near Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: whereabouts unknown. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:546 [ref. 24106] as the specimen figured in original Pl. 35 (fig. 3). •Synonym of Naso brevirostris (Cuvier 1829) -- (Fricke 1999:546 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Naso brevirostris (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lopezi, Naso Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:467, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 34 (no. 4); ref. 10961] Ambil Island, China Sea, southwest of Manila Bay, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 14084 (presumed destroyed). Paratypes: BSMP (1) presumed destroyed. Additional material: BSMP (2) presumed destroyed. •Valid as Naso lopezi Herre 1927 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:229 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:431 [ref. 15987], Randall & Bell 1992:351 [ref. 20252], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:559 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:372 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:431 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Myers 1999:275 [ref. 23965], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1321 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:434 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:123 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:173 [ref. 25459], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1321 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:206 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:594 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1741 [ref. 29094], Motomura et al. 2010:228 [ref. 31256], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1032 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:185 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Naso lopezi Herre 1927. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean: South China Sea to Vanuatu and New Caledonia, north to Japan, and south to Australia. Habitat: marine.

lucillae, Hepatus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:231, Pl. 10 (fig. 23) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: ANSP 68447. Paratypes: ANSP 68448-49 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:191 [ref. 12221], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lydiae, Teuthis Curtiss [A.] 1938:124 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

machaeropterus, Acronurus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:172, Fig. 23 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1451] Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71377. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621]. •Postlarval Acanthurus. •Status uncertain -- (Randall 1954:161 [ref. 12221]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Naso Randall [J. E.] & Struhsaker [P. J.] 1981:554, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1981 (no. 3); ref. 8558] Northern shore off Haleiwa, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, 21°40'N, 158°07'W, depth 100 meters. Holotype: USNM 204941. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.10.24.1 (1); BPBM 9177 (2), 15381 (1), 22589 (3); CAS 44529 (1); USNM 227488 (1). •Valid as Naso maculatus Randall & Struhsaker 1981 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:229 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:531, 699 [ref. 8056], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:124 [ref. 20996], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1322 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:435 [ref. 25191], Randall 2001:173 [ref. 25459], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:127 [ref. 26232], Nakabo 2002:1322 [ref. 26193], Randall 2005:594 [ref. 28239], Shinohara et al. 2005:438 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:494 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1741 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:438 [ref. 30952], Shao et al. 2008:263 [ref. 29952], Motomura et al. 2010:228 [ref. 31256], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Motomura et al. 2015:30 [ref. 34709]). Current status: Valid as Naso maculatus Randall & Struhsaker 1981. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific: Western Australia to Indonesia; East China Sea to Japan and Hawaiian Islands; Lord Howe Island, Chesterfield Islands, Grande Terre Group and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Prionurus Ogilby [J. D.] 1887:395 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 2); ref. 18488] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1033. •Valid as Prionurus maculatus Ogilby 1887 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:226 [ref. 24556], Randall et al. 1990:433 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:370 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Kuiter 1997:372 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:433 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:437 [ref. 25191], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:134 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:161 [ref. 25804], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Randall 2005:597 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1743 [ref. 29094], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:117 [ref. 36167], Struthers 2015:1596 [ref. 34302]). Current status: Valid as Prionurus maculatus Ogilby 1887. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

maculiceps, Hepatus Ahl [E.] 1923:36, Fig. 4 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 19931] Talassia, New Pomerania [Kikiwiei/Comet Harbour, New Britain, Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Sea, western Pacific, ca. 5°32'S, 149°43'E]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 20366. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:96 [ref. 21847]. •Valid as Acanthurus maculiceps (Ahl 1923) -- (Randall 1956:209 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:538 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:28 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1329 [ref. 25182], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:55 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1329 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:578 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:488 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1735 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:423 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1022 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2015:10 [ref. 33930], Koeda et al. 2016:100 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus maculiceps (Ahl 1923). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives east to Marshall Islands and Line Islands, south to Queensland (Australia), Solomon Islands and Samoa, waifs reaching Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

magnus, Ctenochaetus Randall [J. E.] 1955:(155) 162, Fig. 1 E [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 40 (pt 4, no. 15); ref. 12220] Malden Island, Line Islands, central Pacific, 4°03'S, 154°59'W. Holotype: USNM 163614. Paratypes: BPBM 4308 (1); CAS-SU 47662 [ex USNM 163615] (1); USNM 163615 (now 0), 163659 (1). •Synonym of Ctenochaetus marginatus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Randall & Clements 2001:18 [ref. 25453]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenochaetus marginatus (Valenciennes 1835). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:221 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Luganor [Lukunor Island], Caroline Islands, western Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:66 [ref. 22195]. Replacement name for Acanthurus guttatus Kittlitz 1834, preoccupied by Acanthurus guttatus Forster 1801. •Valid as Ctenochaetus marginatus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Randall 1988:60 [ref. 14257], Allen & Robertson 1994:273 [ref. 22193], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:843 [ref. 22829], Myers 1999:272 [ref. 23965], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:81 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Randall & Clements 2001:18 [ref. 25453], Randall 2005:586 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:492 [ref. 28379], Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Ctenochaetus marginatus (Valenciennes 1835). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Central and eastern Pacific: Micronesia and Marshall Islands east to Johnston Atoll; Rapa, Tuamotu Archipelago, Marquesas Islands; offshore eastern Pacific islands, and Costa Rica to Colombia. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Naseus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:280 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Tongatabu, Friendly Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-7020 (1), A-7021 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:62 [ref. 22195] but wrongly with a holotype. •Synonym of Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Current status: Synonym of Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

marisrubri, Chaetodon Hasselquist [F.] 1762:379 [Reise nach Palästina; ref. 18250] Red Sea. Original spelling 'maris rubri'. Based on 'Chaetodon (maris rubri) aculeis in utroque latere ...' of Hasselquist 1757:332 [ref. 30181], also a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). Listed as Chaetodon aculeis in utroque latere ... of Hasselquist in the synonymy of Chaetodon nigricans Linnaeus 1758. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae.

maristarum, Acanthurus Thiollière [V. J. de l'I.] in Montrouzier 1857:458 [180] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 180 of reprint. •Synonym of Acanthurus velifer (Bloch 1795) -- (Kottelat 2013:444 [ref. 32989] but spelled velifer). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus velifer (Bloch 1795). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

marquesensis, Acanthurus triostegus Schultz [L. P.] & Woods [L. P.] 1948:250, Figs. 1 c-f [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 38 (no. 7); ref. 13076] Ua Huka, Marquesas Islands. Holotype: USNM 89771. Paratypes: FMNH 23062-64 (3), 23065-66 (2); USNM 143447 (13). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:4 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:174 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

mata, Chaetodon Cuvier [G.] 1829:224 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality stated (Coromandel coast, India, eastern Indian Ocean). No types known. Available from footnote as, "Chaetodon meta, Russel, 82." Original spelling as meta regarded as a misspelling of Russell's "mata" (see Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257]); spelled mata by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:202 [ref. 1004]; also mota by de Beaufort in Weber & de Beaufort 1951:162 [ref. 16097]. The spelling mata should be conserved. •Valid as Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1956:218 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:814 [ref. 5706] with species as meta, Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:423 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:372 [ref. 23929], Randall 1995:387 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:226 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:364 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:423 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:538 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1326 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:426 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:53 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3669 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1326 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:400 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:578 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:303 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1022 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:306 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:100 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Motomura et al. 2017:205 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:351 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:121 [ref. 36262], Suresh et al. 2018:303 [ref. 36495], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Tuamotu Archipelago and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

matoides, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:204 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0597. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus fuliginosus Lesson 1831 -- (Khan 1998:230 [ref. 24980]). •Valid as Acanthurus matoides Valenciennes 1835 -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1994:297 [ref. 24014], Chen et al. 1997:153 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 2001:3675 [ref. 26301], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:190 [ref. 12221], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:257 [ref. 25480], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

mcdadei, Naso Johnson [J. W.] 2002:295, Figs. 1 (a-d), 2a [Australian Journal of Zoology v. 50 (no. 3); ref. 26390] Flat Rock, off Stradbroke Island, Queensland 27°23'S, 153°33'E, depth 5-10 meters. Holotype: QM I. 31183. Paratypes: BPBM 29396 (1); CSIRO H 1076-1 (1), H 3745-01 (1); NMNH [USNM] 364991 (1); QM I. 30832 (1), 31182 (1), 32636 (1). Published by Randall in June, 2002; but paper does not meet the criteria of Art. 16.1 of the Code. •Valid as Naso mcdadei Johnson 2002 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1741 [ref. 29094], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1032 [ref. 31980], Sinou et al. 2013:91 [ref. 32682]). Current status: Valid as Naso mcdadei Johnson 2002. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Natal, Mauritius, Chagos Archipelago, east to Western Australia, Timor Sea, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

melanopterus, Acanthurus Shen [S.-C.] & Lim [P.-C.] 1973:122, Fig. 29 [Report of the Institute of Fishery Biology of Ministry of Economic Affairs and National Taiwan Unversity, Taipei v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 52] Wan-li-tung, southwestern tip of Taiwan, South China Sea, depth 5-10 meters. Holotype: NTUM 72121801. Paratypes: NTUM 72111702 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

melanosternon, Acanthurus Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:693, Pl. 18 (fig. B) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 93) (art. 82) (for Sept. 1955); ref. 12476] Aldabra Islands, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 435. Paratypes: (many) not researched. Published 5 Jan. 1956. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucocheilus Herre 1927 -- (Kuiter & Debelius 2001:48 [ref. 26232]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucocheilus Herre 1927. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

melanurus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:240 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0851 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. •Status uncertain -- (Randall 1954:161 [ref. 12221], Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

melas, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:241 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Sri Lanka. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0834 (1) Sri Lanka, 0000-1399 (1) Puducherry. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195] with a holotype and paratype. •Status uncertain -- (Randall 1954:161 [ref. 12221], Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

meleagris, Acanthurus Shaw [G.] 1803:385 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian and American seas. •Unidentifiable -- (Randall 1954:160 [ref. 12221]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

meta, Acanthurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:224 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] See Chaetodon mata Cuvier 1829. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae.

metoposophron, Callicanthus Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:481, Fig. 31 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50706. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7727 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:104 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Mundy 2005:494 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

microlepidotus, Prionurus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1804:205, 211 [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 12515] No locality [= New South Wales, Australia, Voyage of Péron]., Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7004. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:63 [ref. 22195]. •Valid as Prionurus microlepidotus Lacepède 1804 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:240 [ref. 7348], Randall et al. 1990:433 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:370 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Kuiter 1997:372 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:433 [ref. 25919], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:13 [ref. 24670], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:132 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:161 [ref. 25804], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Allen et al. 2006:1743 [ref. 29094]). •Synonym of Prionurus scalprus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Youn 2002:670 [ref. 26218]). Current status: Valid as Prionurus microlepidotus Lacepède 1804. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

militaris, Acanthurus Shaw [G.] 1803:380 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian and American seas. No types known. •Unidentifiable -- (Randall 1954:160 [ref. 12221]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

mindorensis, Acanthurus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:433, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 34 (no. 4); ref. 10961] Calapan, [northeastern] Mindoro Island [Oriental Mindoro], Philippines [Verde Island Passage, Sibuyan Sea and South China Sea, western Pacific]. Holotype and paratype at BSMP were destroyed. Neotype (UPZM) designated by de la Paz et al. 1988:267 [ref. 20217] is probably invalid -- not done in a revisionary work but in a checklist. •Unidentifiable -- (J. Randall, pers. comm. 2/04). •Valid as Acanthurus mindorensis Herre 1927 -- (Randall 1956:183 [ref. 12221], Carpenter et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35143] with question). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus mindorensis Herre 1927. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

minor, Axinurus Smith [J. L. B.] 1966:640, Fig. 1A [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 32; ref. 9066] Pinda Reef, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean, depth 25-30 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 15. •Synonym of Naso unicolor (Liénard 1861) -- (Fricke 1999:546 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:109 [ref. 30213] [but see Randall 2001:171 [ref. 25459]]). •Valid as Naso minor (Smith 1966) -- (Randall 1986:822 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom 1992 [ref. 19825], Randall 1994:120 [ref. 21648], Randall et al. 1997:539 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1319 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:104 [ref. 26368], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:129 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:173 [ref. 25459], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1319 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Allen et al. 2006:1741 [ref. 29094], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1033 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Naso minor (Smith 1966). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and western Mascarenes east to Philippines, and east Indian region. Habitat: marine.

monoceros, Harpurus Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:219 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] Tahiti, Society Islands. Also reported from Babayoo near Waighew [Waigeo, Papua, Indonesia]. Holotype (?): BMNH 2009.2.11.2 (stuffed, very old). Lichtenstein (editor, p. 219, footnote) treats as a synonym of "Monoceros biaculeatus Bl. Schn. p. 180" and "Naseus fronticornis Cuv. Val. X. p. 259." •Synonym of Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

monroviae, Acanthurus Steindachner [F.] 1876:208 [160] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Monrovia, Liberia. Holotype (unique): NMW 58842. On p. 160 of separate. Spelled munroviae by Gill 1895:188 [ref. 17662]. •Valid as Acanthurus monroviae Steindachner 1876 -- (Randall 1956:220 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1973:455 [ref. 7203], Desoutter in Whitehead et al. 1986:962 [ref. 13676], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967], Golani & Sonin 1996:2 [ref. 22790], Afonso et al. 1999:79 [ref. 25466], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:64 [ref. 26232], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:101 [ref. 27192], Luiz et al. 2004:1173 [ref. 27860], Wirtz et al. 2007:40 [ref. 30263], Zenetos et al. 2010:411 [ref. 31201], Bernal & Rocha 2011:63 [ref. 31336], Wirtz et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32972], Psomadakis et al. 2015:306 [ref. 34104], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:169 [ref. 36561], Rocha in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2859 [ref. 34618], Agius Darmanin et al. 2017:338 [ref. 35033]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus monroviae Steindachner 1876. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (Brazil, possibly a waif) and off Pakistan [a waif or misidentification]; Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Angola, including offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

nasus, Acanthurus Shaw [G.] 1803:376, Pl. 51 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; and Indian Seas. No types known. Based in part on Naso tuberosus Lacepède 1801 •Synonym of Naso tuberosus Lacepède 1801 -- (Johnson 2002:303 [ref. 26390]). Current status: Synonym of Naso tuberosus Lacepède 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

nepotei, Teuthis Curtiss [A.] 1938:126 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonymized with Teuthis lituratus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) by Curtiss 1944:22 [ref. 12574]. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

niger, Acanthurus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:236 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Not available, name mentioned in text in passing; from the Red Sea. Acanthuridae.

niger, Acanthurus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:58 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae.

nigricans, Chaetodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:274 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Red Sea; unknown locality (probably Indonesia). No types known. Species with composite sources, based on Chaetodon nigrescens of Artedi 1738:90 [ref. 30529], and the 'Chætodon (maris rubri) aculeis in utroque latere ad caudam duobus' of Hasselquist 1757:332 [ref. 30181]. The Red Sea material desribed by Hasselquist belongs to another species, so a neotype to fix the current usage following Artedi is needed. •Valid as Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Randall 1988:54 [ref. 14257], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:423 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:272 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:842 [ref. 22829], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:565 [ref. 24023], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:46 [ref. 24545], Randall et al. 1997:423 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1328 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:426 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640], Randall & Frische 2000:51 [ref. 25805], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:28 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1328 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:203 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:579 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:488 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1736 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:424 [ref. 30952], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767], Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1023 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:307 [ref. 34104], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:101 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:16 [ref. 35354], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871] as cf. nigricans). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, Pacific: Andaman Sea and Cocos-Keeling Islands east to Panama, north to southern Japan and Hawaiian Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga and Austral Islands. Eastern Pacific Clipperton and Revillagigedo Islands, Galapagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Harpurus Forster [J. R.] 1795:15 [Zoologia Indica, sistens descriptiones animalium selectorum; ref. 18091] India. Name only, no description. Based on Bloch, (1787, ref. 468, pl. 203). Family may be incorrect. Acanthuridae.

nigricauda, Acanthurus gahm var. Duncker [G.] & Mohr [E.] 1929:75 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Staatsinstitut und Zoologischen Museum in Hamburg. v. 44; ref. 15892] Massau Island, St. Matthias Islands, northeast of New Ireland Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Lectotype: ZMH H149 [ex 11759, 1 of 2]. Paralectotypes: ZMH H150 [ex 11759] (1); ZMH 11760 (1) and 11761 (1) ? = ZMH 8229 (1) and 8230 (1). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:407 [ref. 21161] as syntypes. Lectotype selected by Ladiges et al. 1958:166 [ref. 19181] as ZMH 144 [sic 149]. •Synonym of Acanthurus gahhm (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:207 [ref. 12221]). •Valid as Acanthurus nigricaudus Duncker & Mohr 1929 -- (Nakabo 2000:1329 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:46 [ref. 26232], Nakabo 2002:1329 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:203 [ref. 27510], Motomura et al. 2017:205 [ref. 35490]). •Valid as Acanthurus nigricauda Duncker & Mohr 1929 -- (Randall 1986:814 [ref. 5706], Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:423 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:555 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:366 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:423 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:535 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:427 [ref. 25191], Randall et al. 2001:115 [ref. 25316], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3670 [ref. 26301], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495] with first author as Dunker, Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576] with first author as Dunker, Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:579 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:488 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1736 [ref. 29094], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1023 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:101 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Fricke et al. 2018:352 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nigricauda Duncker & Mohr 1929. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

nigriculus, Acronurus Poey [F.] 1875:143 [69], Pl. 7 [3] (figs. 18-19) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 4 (for 13 Jan. 1875); ref. 3509] Cuba. No types known. On p. 69 of separate. •Synonym of Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 1855 -- (Randall 1956:225 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860 -- (Bernal & Rocha 2011:64 [ref. 31336]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

nigrofuscus, Chaetodon Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:64, xiii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. Spelled nigro-fuscus on p. xiii. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:540 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Kottelat (2013) cites inland records. •Valid as Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:190 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:814 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:424 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:373 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:154 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:424 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:539 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1327 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:256 [ref. 25480], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187 [ref. 25703], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:63 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3671 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1327 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:401 [ref. 28072], Larson & Pidgeon 2004:197 [ref. 28107], Randall 2005:580 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1736 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:424 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Randall et al. 2011:272 [ref. 31249], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1023 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Struthers 2015:1593 [ref. 34302], Koeda et al. 2016:101 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:16 [ref. 35354], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2018:352 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), southern New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

nigroris, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:208 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Hawaiian Island. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0593. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. References before 31249 are referable to Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861. •Valid as Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:187 [ref. 12221], Randall et al. 1990:424 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:424 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:32 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:580 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:353 [ref. 28867], Allen et al. 2006:1736 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:425 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll endemic [on ref. 31249]. Habitat: marine.

nigros, Acanthurus Günther [A.] 1861:332 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Aneiteum Island, Vanuatu. Lectotype: BMNH 1861.5.31.29 (dry). Paralectotypes: (2) BMNH 1861.5.31.41 (1, stuffed). Regarded as an original description, Acanthurus nigroris included in synonymy with question; an alternate interpretation is that this is an unjustified emendation of Acanthurus nigroris. Lectotype selected by Randall 1956:100 [ref. 12221]. •Synonym of Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:187 [ref. 12221], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379]). •Valid as Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861 -- (Randall et al. 2011:267 [ref. 31249], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

novaecaledoniae, Zebrasoma veliforum Borodin [N. A.] 1932:88 [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 3); ref. 16361] Nouméa, New Caledonia. Holotype (unique): VMM 929 (now at AMNH). Species apparently intended as veliferum. Originally as novae caledoniae. •Synonym of Zebrasoma veliferum (Bloch 1795) -- (Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:354 [ref. 28867], Kottelat 2013:444 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795). Current status: Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

nubilus, Hepatus Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1929:253, Fig. 15 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 8; ref. 1476] Dodepo Island, Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, Indonesia, Albatross. Holotype: USNM 89980. •Valid as Acanthurus nubilus (Fowler & Bean 1929) -- (Randall 1956:179 [ref. 12221], Randall 1986:814 [ref. 5706], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:43 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall 2005:580 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1024 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nubilus (Fowler & Bean 1929). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Melanesia, to Tuamotu and Pitcairn Islands. Habitat: marine.

nummifer, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:234 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Waigeo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6986. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831 -- (Randall 1956:206 [ref. 12221], Randall et al. 1990:420 [ref. 15987]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

oculocoeruleus, Ctenochaetus Fourmanoir [P.] 1966:217, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 38 (no. 3); ref. 9029] Nha-Trang, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1965-0709. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:61 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Ctenochaetus binotatus Randall 1955 -- (Randall & Clements 2001:7 [ref. 25453], Randall 2005:584 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenochaetus binotatus Randall 1955. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

olivaceus, Acanthurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Forster) 1801:214 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Otahaitee [Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1962.12.14.5. Name spelled olivacei on p. 213, as olivaceus on p. xxxviii; correct spelling is olivaceus, while olivacei is the genitive. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Author given as 'Schn.' (Schneider). •Valid as Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:424 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:371 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:555 [ref. 27969] with author as Forster, Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:154 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:364 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:424 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Randall & Earle 1999:473 [ref. 24181], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1329 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:427 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:257 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Shinohara et al. 2000:183 [ref. 25987], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:104 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:58 [ref. 26232], Randall et al. 2001:115 [ref. 25316], Randall 2001:3672 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1329 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830] as olivaceous, with author as Foster, Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495] with authors as Forster & Schneider, Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:203 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624] with author as Forster, Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:581 [ref. 28239] with author as Forster, Mundy 2005:490 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1736 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:425 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1024 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:183 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:101 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35354], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Christmas and Cocos Keeling Islands east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, southern New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

olivaceus, Chaetodon Solander [D. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:288 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Naseus olivaceus Valenciennes 1835. Locality Tahiti. Acanthuridae.

olivaceus, Naseus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:288 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype: BMNH 1962.12.14.3. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

orbicularis, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Quoy & Gaimard) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:237 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0845 (1), A-6979 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

paroticus, Harpurus Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:183 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] Otahaitee [= Tahiti, Society Islands]. Not available; Lichtenstein (editor, p. 183, footnote) treats as a synonym of "Acanthurus olivaceus Bl. Schn. p. 213" and "Acanthurus humeralis Cuv. Val. X. p. 231". Specimen from Tahiti, Society Is., BMNH 1962.12.14.5. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae.

pawnee, Hepatus Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1927:73, Fig. 32 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 635] Glovers Reef, Belize. Holotype: YPM 302. Paratypes: YPM 303 (44), 304 (5, stained). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:6-7 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:222 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

pentazona, Acanthurus Bleeker [P.] 1850:13 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 10); ref. 16905] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 10563 [ex SMNS 760 cg]. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 6322 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:7 [ref. 13474] and Fricke 2005:11 [ref. 29864] with SMNS 10563 as holotype, not RMNH 6322. Also appeared in Bleeker 1850:107 [ref. 16888]. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

philippinus, Acanthurus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:434, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 34 (no. 4); ref. 10961] Calapan, [northeastern] Mindoro Island [Oriental Mindoro], Philippines [Verde Island Passage, Sibuyan Sea and South China Sea, western Pacific]. Syntypes: BSMP (9) presumed destroyed. •Synonym of Acanthurus thompsoni (Fowler 1923) -- (Randall 1956:182 [ref. 12221], Randall et al. 1990:425 [ref. 15987], Randall 2005:582 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:426 [ref. 30952], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus thompsoni (Fowler 1923). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

phlebotomus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:176, Pl. 287 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Martinique Island, West Indies; Brazil; Havana, Cuba; Guadeloupe; Santo Domingo; New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN A-6969 (1) Brazil, MNHN A-6873 (1) Guadeloupe, A-6974 (1) Gorée, A-6975 (1) Santo Domingo, A-6976 (1) Martinique, A-6977 (1) New York. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:59 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch 1787) -- (Randall 1956:223 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:962 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch 1787). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

plagiatus, Acanthurus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:439 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 18495] Mauritius [Île aux Fouquets, 8 kilometers east of Mahébourg], Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: ZMB 9451 (1). Type locality see Möbius 1880 [ref. 30489]. •Synonym of Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:205 [ref. 12221], as tennenti Fricke 1999:541 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

polyzona, Rhombotides Bleeker [P.] 1868:277 [Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles v. 3; ref. 17052] Mayotte Island, Comoro Islands; Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (6) RMNH 4396 (1), 6366 (3). •Valid as Acanthurus polyzona (Bleeker 1868) -- (Randall 1956:179 [ref. 12221], Fricke 1999:540 [ref. 24106], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:39 [ref. 26232], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2018:352 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus polyzona (Bleeker 1868). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Mayotte (Comoros), Madagascar, Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues (Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Prionurus Gill [T. N.] 1862:242 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1665] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: CAS 79587 [ex OU 6099], MCZ 35896 [ex USNM 9306] (4), USNM 9306 (24). •Valid as Prionurus punctatus Gill 1862 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:274 [ref. 22193], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:844 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:255 [ref. 25640], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:137 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:161 [ref. 25804], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923]). •Synonym of Prionurus laticlavius (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Ludt et al. 2019:4008 [ref. 36781]). Current status: Synonym of Prionurus laticlavius (Valenciennes 1846). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

punctulatus, Naseus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:289 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] East Indies. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195]. •Questionably a synonym of Naso tuberosus Lacepède 1801 -- (Johnson 2002:303 [ref. 26390]). Current status: Uncertain as Naso tuberosus Lacepède 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

punikar, Naseus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:460 [182] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 182 of reprint. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

punikar, Prionurus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:460 [182] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 182 of reprint. Name mentioned in synonymy under Naseus punikar; validly proposed as Naseus punikar; Woodlark I., South Pacific. Acanthuridae.

pyroferus, Acanthurus Kittlitz [F. H.] 1834:193, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Museum Senckenbergianum: Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der beschreibenden Naturgeschichte, von Mitgliedern der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main v. 1; ref. 10022] Uléa, Caroline Islands, western Pacific, ca. 7°22'N, 143°54'E. No types preserved. Based on a drawing by Kittlitz (Friedrich Heinrich Freiherr von Kittlitz, 1799-1874, German ornithologist and naturalist). •Valid as Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Randall 1956:196 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:425 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:372 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:366 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:425 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1327 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:427 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Randall et al. 2001:115 [ref. 25316], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:36 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3673 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1327 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:204 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:581 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1737 [ref. 29094], Motomura et al. 2010:227 [ref. 31256], Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1024 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:183 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:102 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: Cocos-Keeling and Christmas islands and Indonesia, east to Marquesas and Tuamotu islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

rackliffei, Acanthurus Schultz [L. P.] 1943:163, Fig. 13 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Pool on reef of Hull Island, Phoenix Islands. Holotype: USNM 115174. Paratypes: MCZ 37227 [ex USNM 115175] (1), USNM 115175-76 (1, 1). •A hybrid of Acanthurus achilles Shaw and Acanthurus glaucopareius Cuvier -- (Randall 1956:160 [ref. 12221], Randall et al. 2001:115 [ref. 25316], Mundy 2005:490 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

raii, Monoceros Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:181 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Holotype: ex Museum of the Royal Society of London. Based on the "Monoceros minor" of Willughby 1686:216, Pl. O4 [ref. 30164]. •Synonym of Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Acanthurus Briggs [J. C.] & Caldwell [D. K.] 1957:43, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 12135] Jetties on west side of inlet, St. Andrews State Park, Panama City, Bay County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: UF 5394. Paratypes: ANSP 75167 [ex UF 5416] (1); FMNH 62060 [ex UF 5416] (1); CAS-SU 49254 [ex UF 5416] (1); UF 5400 (2), 5416 (orig. 18, now 14); USNM 174925 [ex UF 5416] (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:114 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:4 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Acanthurus randalli Briggs & Caldwell 1957 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:256 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:167 [ref. 23239], Musick 2000:19 [ref. 24959], Rocha et al. 2002:244 [ref. 25914], Randall 2003:1802 [ref. 27098]). •Synonym of Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 1855 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 2002:104 [ref. 26570]). •Synonym of Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860 -- (Pers. Comm., W. F. Smith-Vaniz, 11 Nov. 2014). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Eastern Gulf of Mexico (if valid). Habitat: marine.

rasi, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:203 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Puducherry, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0599. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:59 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus mata Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall 1956:219 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:59 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Acanthurus Shen [S.-C.] & Lim [P.-C.] 1973:119, Fig. 27 [Report of the Institute of Fishery Biology of Ministry of Economic Affairs and National Taiwan Unversity, Taipei v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 52] Hai-koa, southwestern tip of Taiwan, South China Sea, depth 6 meters. Holotype: NTUM 7011901. Paratypes: NTUM 7011902-03 (2). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 2005:583 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:428 [ref. 30952], Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Naso Randall [J. E.] 2001:173, Figs. 1-2 [Zoological Studies v. 40 (no. 2); ref. 25459] Southern end at Nanwan, middle of bay directly east of fishing boat harbor at Houpihu, Taiwan, depth 15 meters. Holotype: BPBM 23428. Paratypes: USNM 364025 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Naso reticulatus Randall 2001 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1033 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2015:308 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Naso reticulatus Randall 2001. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean and western Pacific: Pakistan, Taiwan, Philippines and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

reversus, Acanthurus Randall [J. E.] & Earle [J. L.] 1999:475, Figs. 2-6 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 51 (no. 14); ref. 24181] Nuku Hiva, off point at southern end of Marquisienne Bay, Marquesas Islands, depth 15 meters. Holotype: BPBM 12474. Paratypes: BPBM 12441 (1), CAS 204429 (1), MNHN 1999-0060 (1), USNM 169871 (1). •Valid as Acanthurus reversus Randall & Earle 1999 -- (Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Randall 2005:582 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:425 [ref. 30952], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus reversus Randall & Earle 1999. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands; stray in Tuamotu Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

rhombeus, Acanthurus Kittlitz [F. H.] 1834:196, Pl. 13 (fig. 16) [Museum Senckenbergianum: Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der beschreibenden Naturgeschichte, von Mitgliedern der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main v. 1; ref. 10022] Uléa, Caroline Islands, western Pacific, ca. 7°22'N, 143°54'E. No types preserved. Based on a drawing by Kittlitz (Friedrich Heinrich Freiherr von Kittlitz, 1799-1874, German ornithologist and naturalist). Apparently not treated in current literature. •Mention -- (Mundy 2005:496 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Uncertain as Zebrasoma flavescens (Bennett 1828). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

rigoletto, Naso Smith [J. L. B.] 1951:1128, Fig. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 4 (no. 47) (art. 105); ref. 12919] Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 16 (1 juv., 1 skin, 1 head). •Synonym of Naso brachycentron (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Randall 1986:820 [ref. 5706], Randall 2005:591 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Naso brachycentron (Valenciennes 1835). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Acanthurus Günther [A.] 1875:117, Pl. 66 (fig. B) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 2 (no. 9); ref. 14204] Society Islands [French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Holotype (unique): BMNH (skin, not seen). •Valid as Zebrasoma rostratum (Günther 1875) -- (Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall et al. 2001:120 [ref. 25316], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:95 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301] dated 1873, Randall 2005:588 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:496 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:432 [ref. 30952], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] dated 1873, Bernardi et al. 2018:3 [ref. 36114]). Current status: Valid as Zebrasoma rostratum (Günther 1875). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Line Islands, Marquesas Islands, Society Islands, Rapa, Tuamotu Archipelago; waifs reaching Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

rubropunctatus, Acanthurus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:59, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Northern Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 1944 (4). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:190 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

rueppellii, Acanthurus (Ctenodon) Swainson [W.] 1839:256, Fig. 74 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Red Sea. Possible types: BMNH 1845.10.29.54. Based on Rüpp. 16 -- which is Rüppell 1828:Pl. 16 [ref. 3843]. Originally spelled Rüppelii, corrected to rueppellii Kullander 2016:94 [ref. 34436]. •Synonym of Acanthurus sohal (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:194 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus sohal (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

ruppelii, Acanthurus Bennett [E. T.] 1836:207 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1835 (pt 3); ref. 16792] Red Sea. Possible types: SMF 1939 (2), 9828 (1, dry) Mohilla. Apparently based on Acanthurus velifer of Rüppell 1829:Pl. 15 (fig. 2) [ref. 3843]. Name sometimes wrongly emended to ruppellii Kullander 2016:96 [ref. 34436]. •Synonym of Zebrasoma veliferum (Bloch 1795) -- (Dor 1984:256 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier 1829) -- (Fricke 1999:551 [ref. 24106] as ruppellii). Current status: Synonym of Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

sandvicensis, Acanthurus triostegus var. Streets [T. H.] 1877:67 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum v.1 (no. 7); ref. 4290] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 15398. Paratypes: MCZ 35991 [ex USNM 15398] (2), USNM 143446 (20). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Myers 1999:272 [ref. 23965], Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640], Mundy 2005:491 [ref. 28379]). •Valid as Acanthurus sandvicensis Streets 1877. Current status: Valid as Acanthurus sandvicensis Streets 1877. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian Ridge and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

scalprum, Acanthurus Langsdorff [G. H. von] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:298 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Not available, name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Prionurus scalprum Valenciennes 1835; from Japan. Acanthuridae.

scalprum, Prionurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:298 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8582. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:68 [ref. 22195] as Prionurus scalprum. Type from H. Papke in letter 15 Nov. 2005. •Synonym of Prionurus microlepidotus Lacepède 1804 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:240 [ref. 7348]). •Valid as Prionurus scalprum Valenciennes 1835 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:228 [ref. 6441] as scalprus, Kuiter 1993:370 [ref. 23929] as sculprus, Chen et al. 1997:155 [ref. 26476] as scalprus, Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122] as scalprus, Nakabo 2000:1319 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:259 [ref. 25480] as scalprus, Shinohara et al. 2000:183 [ref. 25987], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:134 [ref. 26232] as scalprus, Randall 2001:161 [ref. 25804], Nakabo 2002:1319 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:415, 670 [ref. 26218] as scalprus, Parin 2003:S25 [ref. 28536], Motomura et al. 2010:228 [ref. 31256], Parin et al. 2014:507 [ref. 33547], Motomura et al. 2015:30 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:104 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Prionurus scalprum Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan, Korea and China. Habitat: marine.

scarpellonis, Teuthis Curtiss [A.] 1938:122 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

scopas, Acanthurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:224 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Bandaneira, Banda Islands, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No type material. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:66 [ref. 22195]. Available from footnote, as "Ac. scopas, Renard, I, pl. xl, f. 201." Also in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:245, Pl. 290 [ref. 1004]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:553 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:818 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:65 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:428 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:133 [ref. 20996], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:560 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:151 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:428 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:273 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:551 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1323 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:430 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Randall et al. 2001:120 [ref. 25316], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:88 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1323 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:206 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:405 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:588 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1744 [ref. 29094], Fricke et al. 2009:109 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:307 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:229 [ref. 31256], Hubert et al. 2012:6 [ref. 31846], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1036 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:186 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:105 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Bernardi et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36114], Fricke et al. 2018:357 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871] as cf. scopas). Current status: Valid as Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Rapa and Pitcairn. Broadly hybridizes with Zebrasoma flavescens in western Pacific [ref. 36114]. Habitat: marine.

sohal, Chaetodon Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:63, xiii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P6749 (dry skin). Paralectotypes: ZMUC P6750 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:72 [ref. 9588]. Spelled sohar in Gmelin 1789:1268 [ref. 18139] and Lacepède 1802:556, 557 [ref. 4929]; sohab in Cuvier 1816:331 [ref. 993]. Lectotype selected by Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:24 [ref. 20847]. Lectotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 34 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Acanthurus sohal (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:194 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:388 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:218 [ref. 23922], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:60 [ref. 26232], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Kottelat 2013:442 [ref. 32989], Ali et al. 2018:339 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus sohal (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf. One specimen recorded from Mediterranean Sea, probably an aquarium release. Habitat: marine.

sophiae, Teuthis Curtiss [A.] 1938:124 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonymized with Teuthis lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) by Curtiss 1944:22 [ref. 12574]. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

spinifrons, Teuthis Whitley [G. P.] 1953:137, Fig. 3, 4 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 23 (no. 3); ref. 4718] Maroubra Beach, near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.6419. Paratypes: AMS IA.707 (1), IA.3822 (1), IA.6039 (1), IA.6453 (1), IB.2519 (1), IB.2909 (1), IB.2931 (1), IB.2935 (1). •Status uncertain -- (Randall 1954:161 [ref. 12221]). •Incertae sedis in Acanthuridae [juveniles] -- (Allen et al. 2006:1744 [ref. 29094]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

stellati, Chaetodonton Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1269 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Name only, not available; perhaps vernacular only; from Friendly Is. Acanthuridae.

striatus, Acanthurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:224 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. Available from footnote as, "Ac. striatus, N.; Paningu, Renard, I, pl. i, f. 8." Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Acanthurus striatus Quoy & Gaiard 1825. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Acanthurus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:373, Pl. 63 (fig. 3) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: MNHN A-7039. Possible types: ?RMNH 1513 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:59 [ref. 22195]; see also Randall & Clements 2001:21 [ref. 25453] •Valid as Ctenochaetus striatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:816 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:427 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:374 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:389 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:427 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:272 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:544 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1325 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:429 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Randall & Clements 2001:19 [ref. 25453], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:74 [ref. 26232], Nakabo 2002:1325 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:205 [ref. 27510] dated 1824, Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:403 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:586 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1738 [ref. 29094], Fricke et al. 2009:108 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:305 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:227 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1027 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:184 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:103 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:206 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:354 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Ctenochaetus striatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to southern Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

strigatus, Naseus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:539 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Queensland coast, Australia. No types known. •Incertae sedis in Acanthuridae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1744 [ref. 29094]). •Questionably a synonym of Acanthurus velifer (Bloch 1795) -- (Kottelat 2013:444 [ref. 32989] but spelled veliferum). Current status: Uncertain as Acanthurus velifer (Bloch 1795). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

strigosus, Acanthurus Bennett [E. T.] 1828:41 [Zoological Journal, London v. 4 (no. 13, art. 3); ref. 16783] Hawaiian Islands; Johnston Atoll, central Pacific. Possible type: In BMNH 1852.9.13.71-72 [ex Zool. Soc.]. There should be a unique holotype based on statement on p. 34 that only one specimen of each species exists except for Acanthurus flavescens. •Valid as Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett 1828) -- (Randall 1986:817 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:428 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:374 [ref. 23929], Randall 1995:389 [ref. 22896], Senou et al. 1997:6 [ref. 24368], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:428 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:273 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:545 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1325 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:429 [ref. 25191], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:104 [ref. 26368], Randall & Clements 2001:23 [ref. 25453], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:78 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1325 [ref. 26193], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715] with remark on range, Mundy 2005:492 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:429 [ref. 30952], Ali et al. 2018:339 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett 1828). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Other records are based on different species. Habitat: marine.

subarmatus, Acanthurus Bennett [F. D.] 1840:278, fig'd. [Narrative of a whaling voyage round the globe v. 2; ref. 260] Raiatea, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

suillus, Acanthurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:224 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:66 [ref. 22195]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:553 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier 1829) -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:66 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

supraalba, Zebrasoma Fowler [H. W.] 1946:198, Fig. 70 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 98; ref. 1456] Aguni Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): ANSP 72076. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621]. Originally as supra-alba. •Synonym of Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

tandock, Naseus Cuvier [G.] 1829:225 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality [Indonesia]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:68 [ref. 22195]. Available from footnote as, "Nas. tandock, Renard., I, iv, 23; et Valent., 518" ('Ikan mata anam' of Valentyn 1726:507, fig. 518 [ref. 30358] from Indonesia). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

tapeinosoma, Naseus Bleeker [P.] 1854:457 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 344] Name only from Ambona; also mentioned in passing in Bleeker 1855:306 [ref. 16847]; on RMNH 6345. Perhaps corresponds to Priodon tapeinosoma on p. 494. •Probably a synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall & Bell 1992:351 [ref. 20252], Randall 2001:171 [ref. 25459]). Current status: Synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

tapeinosoma, Priodon Bleeker [P.] 1854:494 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 344] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Perhaps Naseus tapeinosoma on p. 457 refers to this species. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

tennentii, Acanthurus Günther [A.] 1861:337 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1857.6.13.48 (skin). •Valid as Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861 [often as tennenti] -- (Randall 1956:205 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757], Randall 1986:815 [ref. 5706] as tennenti, Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356] as tennenti, Randall 1995:388 [ref. 22896], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:541 [ref. 24106], Randall et al. 2001:117 [ref. 25316], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:56 [ref. 26232], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830] as tennenti, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:303 [ref. 30434], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:82 [ref. 35264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1025 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Fricke et al. 2018:352 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Sri Lanka, Andaman Sea and western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

tergus, Naso Ho [H.-C.], Shen [K.-N.] & Chang [C.-W.] 2011:206, Figs. 1-3 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 59 (no. 2); ref. 31484] Off Nanfangao, Ilan, northeastern Taiwan, depth 70-80 meters. Holotype: NMMB-P10808. Paratypes: NMMB-P2373 (1), 10480 (1), 10809 (1), 10810 (1), 10811 (1), 10812 (1), 10813 (1), 10814 (1), 10815 (1), 10816 (1), 10817 (1); QM I.38837 (1) •Valid as Naso tergus Ho, Shen & Chang 2011 -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:103 [ref. 33254], Motomura et al. 2017:207 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Naso tergus Ho, Shen & Chang 2011. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Taiwan, Japan and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

teuthis, Acanthurus Shaw [G.] 1803:377 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195]. Substitute name for Teuthis hepatus Gmelin and Teuthis hepatus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

theresae, Teuthis Curtiss [A.] 1938:123 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonymized with Teuthis lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) by Curtiss 1944:22 [ref. 12574]. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

theuthis, Acanthurus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:547, 549 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Caroline Islands, western Pacific. •Synonym of Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Randall 1986:817 [ref. 5706]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

thompsoni, Hepatus Fowler [H. W.] 1923:386 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 8 (no. 7); ref. 1398] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 3394 (not found in 1996). Kottelat (2013) cites inland record. •Valid as Acanthurus thompsoni (Fowler 1923) -- (Randall 1956:182 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:815 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:425 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:425 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:541 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1326 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:428 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:42 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1326 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:402 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:582 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:490 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1737 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:426 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:303 [ref. 30434], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1025 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:183 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:102 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:353 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus thompsoni (Fowler 1923). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands and Ducie (Pitcairn Group), north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia, New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

thorpei, Naso (Atulonotus) Smith [J. L. B.] 1966:670, Fig. 9B [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 32; ref. 9066] Durban, KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 603. •Valid as Naso thorpei Smith 1966 -- (Randall 1986:822 [ref. 5706], Randall et al. 1990:431 [ref. 15987], Allen et al. 2006:1741 [ref. 29094]). •Questionably distinct from Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall & Bell 1992:346 [ref. 20252], Randall 2001:171 [ref. 25459], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841]). •Questionable synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall 2001:3678 [ref. 26301], Randall 2005:593 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:436 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Beeker 1855) -- (Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:354 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

thynnoides, Axinurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:225 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Dorey harbor, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7092. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:61 [ref. 22195]. Appeared first in footnote with distinguishing features tied to genus account. Also appeared in Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:299, Pl. 293 [ref. 1004]. •Valid as Naso thynnoides (Cuvier 1829) [sometimes with author as Valenciennes 1835] -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:822 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom 1992 [ref. 19825], Randall 1994:118 [ref. 21648], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:559 [ref. 27969] with author as Valenciennes, Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:539 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Myers 1999:275 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:548 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1319 [ref. 25182], Randall 2001:173 [ref. 25459], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:128 [ref. 26232] with author as Valenciennes, Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301] with author and date as Valenciennes 1835, Nakabo 2002:1319 [ref. 26193], Randall et al. 2002:163 [ref. 26192], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830] with author as Valenciennes 1835, Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495] with author as Valenciennes 1835, Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624] with author as Valenciennes 1835, Randall 2005:595 [ref. 28239] with author as Valenciennes 1835, Randall et al. 2005:131 [ref. 28745] with aurhor as Valenciennes 1835, Allen et al. 2006:1742 [ref. 29094], Fricke et al. 2009:109 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:306 [ref. 30434], Ho et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1033 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:185 [ref. 33932], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Naso thynnoides (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles and western Mascarenes east to Caroline Islands (Micronesia), north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

tominiensis, Ctenochaetus Randall [J. E.] 1955:(155) 163, Fig. 1 F [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 40 (pt 4, no. 15); ref. 12220] Sadaa Island, Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype: USNM 136112. Paratypes: CAS-SU 47663 [ex USNM 136093] (1), USNM 136093 (4). •Valid as Ctenochaetus tominiensis Randall 1955 -- (Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:538 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:273 [ref. 23965], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:73 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Randall & Clements 2001:24 [ref. 25453], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:587 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1739 [ref. 29094], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1028 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:184 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Ctenochaetus tominiensis Randall 1955. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Palau and Fiji, north to Philippines, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

tonganus, Naseus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Quoy & Gaimard) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:292 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Tongatapu, Tonga Islands, South Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7491. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:62 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Naso tuberosus Lacepède 1801 -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:62 [ref. 22195]). •Valid as Naso tonganus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kuiter & Debelius 2001:120 [ref. 26232], Johnson 2002:306 [ref. 26390], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:595 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1742 [ref. 29094], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1034 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Naso tonganus (Valenciennes 1835). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: east Africa to Micronesia, Samoa and Australia, to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

tractus, Acanthurus Poey [F.] 1860:208 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 21856. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:206 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 21856 as holotype. •Synonym of Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 1855 -- (Randall 1956:225 [ref. 12221]). •Valid as Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860 -- (Bernal & Rocha 2011:64 [ref. 31336], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:182 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:82 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic, Massachusetts (U.S.A.) and Bermuda to Trinidad and Tobago, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean islands [on ref. 31336]. Habitat: marine.

triangulus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:189 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195]. Based on a figure; no types known. •Synonym of Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

triostegus, Chaetodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:274 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Indies. Holotype (unique): NRM 55. Type catalog: Goode & Bean 1885:198 [ref. 1841], Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:269 [ref. 20707], Wheeler 1985:62-63 [ref. 20705]. •Valid as Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:172 [ref. 12221], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:236 [ref. 7348], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:816 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Desoutter 1990:964 [ref. 18967], Randall et al. 1990:426 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:373 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:272 [ref. 22193], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:843 [ref. 22829], AMohsin & Ambak 1996:556 [ref. 27969], llen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:47 [ref. 24545], Chen et al. 1997:154 [ref. 26476], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:565 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:368 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:426 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:542 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1326 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:428 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:255 [ref. 25640], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:294 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:122 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:38 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3674 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1326 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:204 [ref. 27510], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377] as a valid subspecies, Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495] as a valid subspecies, Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:402 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:583 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:491 [ref. 28379] with subspecies, Allen et al. 2006:1737 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:426 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:304 [ref. 30434], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957] as subspecies, Motomura et al. 2010:227 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1025 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:184 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:117 [ref. 36167], Struthers 2015:1594 [ref. 34302], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:102 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:353 [ref. 35805], Suresh et al. 2018:304 [ref. 36495], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Clipperton Island, Mexico and Panama (eastern Pacific), north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Sydney (New South Wales, Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Kermadec Islands, Rapa and Ducie (Pitcairn Group). Habitat: marine.

tripeltis, Naseus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:276 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] East Indies. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:68 [ref. 22195]. Spelled tripeltes by Fowler & Bean 1929:287 [ref. 1476]. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

tristis, Acanthurus Tickell [S. R.] in Day 1888:788 [The fishes of India Suppl.; ref. 1082] Published in synonymy. See Acanthurus tristis Randall 1993. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus tristis Randall 1993. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus tristis Randall 1993. Acanthuridae.

tristis, Acanthurus Randall [J. E.] 1993:4, Figs. 1-3 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 54; ref. 21092] Lively Rocks, Trincomalee, east coast of Sri Lanka, depth 10-12 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18802. Paratypes or non-types: BPBM 35043 (1), 34752 (1); ROM 39948 (1), 40376 (1); SMF 17869 (1). Tickell names published in synonymy by Day 1888:788 [ref. 1082] were not made available before 1961 (see Eschmeyer 1990:647 [ref. 20647]) (contra Myers 1951:26 [ref. 13464]) and therefore cannot date to Tickell in Day 1888. In the case of Acanthurus tristis Tickell, Day is unclear if he treats it as valid, but he calls it a "form" which is infrasubspecific. Therefore, the species dates to Randall's use of tristis as above. We regard Randall's "neotype" to be the holotype of the species [Art. 71.1 of the Code]; his additional specimens can be regarded as either paratypes or non-types. •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Randall 1956:197 [ref. 12221]). •Valid as Acanthurus tristis Randall 1993 -- (Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965] as trisits, Kuiter & Debelius 2001:34 [ref. 26232] with author and date as Tickell 1888, Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Randall et al. 2001:115 [ref. 25316], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1026 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus tristis Randall 1993. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific Ocean: Maldives to Sri Lanka, Andaman Sea, western Sumatra, Java and Bali. Habitat: marine.

troughtoni, Teuthis Whitley [G. P.] 1928:233, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 4661] Naunaha Island, Vanikoro Lagoon, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Holotype: AMS IA.2860. Paratypes: AMS IA.2851 (1), IA.2844 (1). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:174 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

truncatus, Ctenochaetus Randall [J. E.] & Clements [K. D.] 2001:25, Pls. 3C, 6 F-H [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 32; ref. 25453] Off point just north of main settlement, La Digue, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean, depth 3 meters. Holotype: BPBM 21657. Paratypes: AMS I.40283-001 (1); ASIZT 60549 (1); BMNH 2000.6.22.2 (1); BPBM 18922 (2), 20221 (1), 22845 (1); CAS 58677 (2); LACM 54452-1 (1); NSMT-P 59707 (1); ROM 39968 (8), 39970 (9), 66879 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 9755 (1), 30862 (3), 48310 (2), 51896 (3); USNM 247294 (2), 357406-08 (3, 1, 10), 357409 (2); WAM P.25010-001 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Ctenochaetus truncatus Randall & Clements 2001 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:403 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:108 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:305 [ref. 30434], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1028 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:355 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Ctenochaetus truncatus Randall & Clements 2001. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Aldabra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Andaman Sea, Christmas Island, Cocos Keeling Islands and western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

tuber, Naseus Commerson [P.] in Cuvier 1829:225 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7764. Available from footnote, as "Nas. tuber Commers., ou Nason-Loupe, Lacép., III, vii, 3, ou Acanthurus nasus Shaw ..." •Synonym of Naso tuberosus Lacepède 1801 -- (Fricke 1999:548 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Naso tuberosus Lacepède 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

tuberosus, Naso Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:105, 111, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7764 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:62 [ref. 22195]. Based on 'Licorne à loupe' and 'Naseus, naso ad rostrum connato, tuberiformi' in manuscript description and illustration of Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:114, 121 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Valid as Cyphomycter tuberosus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:322 [ref. 19756]). •Valid as Naso tuberosus Lacepède 1801 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:229 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:823 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:432 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:371 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:432 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Myers 1999:275 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:548 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1321 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:435 [ref. 25191], Randall 2001:172 [ref. 25459], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:118 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301] dated 1802, Nakabo 2002:1321 [ref. 26193], Johnson 2002:303 [ref. 26390], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:44 [ref. 27712], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:407 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:595 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2009:109 [ref. 30213], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:356 [ref. 35805], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871] as cf. tuberosus). Current status: Valid as Naso tuberosus Lacepède 1801. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Seychelles, Madagascar, Saint Brandon's Shoals and Mascarenes. Habitat: marine.

tumifrons, Naseus Cuvier [G.] 1829:225 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:68 [ref. 22195]. Available from footnote as, "Nas. tumifrons, N., mal rendu, Ren., I, f.178." Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

umbra, Teuthis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:477 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50841. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903) -- (Randall 1956:185 [ref. 12221], Mundy 2005:487 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

umbratus, Acanthurus Shaw [G.] 1803:384 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian Seas. No types known. •Unidentifiable -- (Randall 1954:160 [ref. 12221]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

undulatus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:205 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Indian seas. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7456. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:59 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:211 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Naseus Günther [A.] (ex Liénard) 1861:347 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Based on 'Nason unicolore' of Liénard 1839:38 [ref. 17536]. Considered as a senior synonym of Naso minor (Smith 1966) by Fricke 1999:549 [ref. 24106], but Randall 2001:171 [ref. 25459] disagreed and treated Naso unicolor as indeterminable. •Valid as Naso unicolor (Liénard 1861) -- (Fricke 1999:549 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:109 [ref. 30213]). Current status: Synonym of Naso minor (Smith 1966). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

unicornis, Chaetodon Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:63, xiii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: whereabouts unknown. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:549 [ref. 24106] as the specimen illustrated in Forsskål 1776, Pl. 23 as reproduced by Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965, fig. 3. Species unnecessarily renamed Monoceros biaculeatus by Bloch & Schneider 1801:180 [ref. 471]. •Valid as Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:238 [ref. 7348], Dor 1984:258 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:923 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:432 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:370 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:390 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:559 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:370 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:432 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Myers 1999:275 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1320 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:436 [ref. 25191], Lee et al. 2000:96 [ref. 25432], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:104 [ref. 26368], Randall 2001:172 [ref. 25459], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:110 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3680 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1320 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:415, 669 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:596 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:495 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1742 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:439 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:109 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:228 [ref. 31256], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1034 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:214 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:442 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:185 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Struthers 2015:1595 [ref. 34302], Koeda et al. 2016:104 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2018:356 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:168 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Naso unicornis (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Jervis Bay (A.C.T., Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Zealand and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

vedar, Axinurus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:459 [181] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 181 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy under Acanthurus triostegus; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. Acanthuridae.

velifer, Acanthurus Bloch [M. E.] 1795:106, Pl. 427 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] No locality [India, Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1753. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:41 [ref. 24282]. On p. 106 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. Tranquebar given as locality in Bloch & Schneider 1801:214 [ref. 471]. Most authors currently use veliferum, but the correct spelling should be Zebrasoma velifer -- see Art. 31.2.2 of the Code. Kottelat (2013) lists the species, but he spells it veliferum but correctly cites it as a noun in apposition (which would be velifer). Spelled velifex by Bringham 1902 (not researched). Kottelat (2013) cites an inland record from the Philippines. •Valid as Zebrasoma veliferum (Bloch 1795) -- (Dor 1984:256 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:818 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:429 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:374 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:561 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:152 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:368 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:429 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:273 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1323 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:430 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:260 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:84 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3683 [ref. 26301] dated 1797, Nakabo 2002:1323 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830] dated 1797, Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:207 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576] dated 1797, Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624] dated 1797, Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:405 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:589 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:497 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1744 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:432 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:229 [ref. 31256], Kottelat 2013:444 [ref. 32989], Koeda et al. 2016:105 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Bernardi et al. 2018:3 [ref. 36114], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). •Valid as Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795) -- (Fricke 1999:553 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:110 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1036 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:186 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:357 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Sydney (New South Wales, Australia), New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

viaged, Acanthurus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:458 [180], 459 [181] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 180-181 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy of two species; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. Acanthuridae.

violaceus, Acanthurus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:25, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-7066 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]. Figure caption listed as "Acanthurus coeruleus ? B." •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:222 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

virgatus, Acanthurus Vaillant [L. L.] & Sauvage [H.-E.] 1875:283 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 3; ref. 17853] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: BMNH 1883.7.4.36 [ex MNHN] (1); MNHN 0000-9014 (1), 0000-9015 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Zebrasoma veliferum (Bloch 1795) -- (Mundy 2005:497 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:444 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795). Current status: Synonym of Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch 1795). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

vittatus, Acanthurus Bennett [J. W.] 1828:unnum. p., Pl. 2 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. •Synonym of Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:191 [ref. 12221], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43 [ref. 21456]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

vlamingii, Naseus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Molucca Island, Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:68 [ref. 22195]. •Valid as Naso vlamingii (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:229 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:823 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:432 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:560 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:156 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:370 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:432 [ref. 25919], Borden 1998:105 [ref. 23309], Myers 1999:275 [ref. 23965], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1321 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:436 [ref. 25191], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:104 [ref. 26368], Randall 2001:172 [ref. 25459], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:108 [ref. 26232] with errors, Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1321 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:596 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:495 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1742 [ref. 29094], Fricke et al. 2009:109 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:306 [ref. 30434], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Ho et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31484], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1034 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706] as vlamingi, Fricke et al. 2014:185 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:104 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2018:356 [ref. 35805], Kwun & Jung 2018:545 [ref. 36084], Randall et al. 2019:37 [ref. 36852], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Naso vlamingii (Valenciennes 1835). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian, Line, Marquesas and Tuamotu islands, north to southern Korea and southern Japan, south to Jervis Bay (A.C.T., Australia) and New Caledonia; waifs reaching Galápagos Islands (eastern Pacific). Habitat: marine.

vomer, Naseus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:514 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea, 26°06'N, 34°17'E. Holotype: SMNS 2751. Additional Klunzinger material: ZMB 8181 (1, dry), 18583 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:4 [ref. 20296] and Fricke 2005:11 [ref. 29864] with holotype at SMNS. •Valid as Naso vomer (Klunzinger 1871) -- (Dor 1984:258 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356]). •Probably a synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall & Bell 1992:351 [ref. 20252], Randall 2001:171 [ref. 25459], Randall 2005:593 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:436 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:354 [ref. 28867], Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker 1855). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

vulnertor, Acanthurus Ranzani [C.] 1842:350, Pl. 33 (fig. 1) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 9017] Brazilian seas. Holotype (unique): MZUB 945. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

weberi, Hepatus Ahl [E.] 1923:37 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 19931] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia, Siboga Sta. 231; and Sri Lanka. Syntypes: BMNH (3), ZMA 116476 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:105 [ref. 19236]. Replacement name for Acanthurus guentheri Weber 1913 [ref. 4602], secondarily preoccupied by Teuthis guentheri Jenkins 1903 [ref. 2341] when both are in Hepatus. •Mentioned: Paepke 1995:96 [ref. 21847]. •Synonym of Acanthurus bleekeri Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:180 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

xanthopterus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:215 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN A-7087. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-0745 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]. Lectotype selected by Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus fuliginosus Lesson 1831 -- (Khan 1998:230 [ref. 24980] as xanthopternus). •Valid as Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:215 [ref. 12221], Kyushin et al. 1977:320 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:816 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:426 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:273 [ref. 22193], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:843 [ref. 22829], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:556 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:45 [ref. 24545], Larson & Williams 1997:372 [ref. 23967], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:566 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:364 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:426 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:543 [ref. 24106], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:458 [ref. 24550], Myers 1999:272 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1330 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:428 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Sakai et al. 2001:122 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:52 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3675 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1330 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:204 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:583 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:491 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:427 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:108 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:304 [ref. 30434], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:82 [ref. 35264], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:227 [ref. 31256], Ho & Shao 2011: 59 [ref. 31432], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1026 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:214 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:442 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:184 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:307 [ref. 34104], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:102 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35354], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Motomura et al. 2017:206 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:353 [ref. 35805], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35859], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Panama and Mexico (eastern Pacific), north to southern Japan, Ogasawara Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

xanthosoma, Rhombotides Bleeker [P.] 1865:288 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 415] Not available; appeared as "Rhombotides xanthosoma Blkr = Acanthurus xanthosoma Blkr." but Bleeker did not treat an A. xanthosoma; de Beaufort 1951:165 [ref. 12403] suggested that this was a lapsis for chrysosoma; from Ambon I., Moluccas Is., Indonesia. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221] with question). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae.

xanthurus, Acanthurus Blyth [E.] 1852:50 [Report on Ceylon mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes; ref. 16969] Sri Lanka. No types known. •Valid as Zebrasoma xanthurum (Blyth 1852) -- (Dor 1984:256 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:389 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:218 [ref. 23922], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187 [ref. 25703], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:92 [ref. 26232], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Al-Badri & Jawad 2014:434 [ref. 33633], Bernardi et al. 2018:3 [ref. 36114], Ali et al. 2018:340 [ref. 36183], Jawad et al. 2018:122 [ref. 36262], Golani & Fricke 2018:168 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Zebrasoma xanthurum (Blyth 1852). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf to Maldives and Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Acanthurus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:546, 548, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Indonesia. Lectotype: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195]. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:543 [ref. 24106] as the specimen illustrated in the original Pl. 6 (fig. 3). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221], Fricke 1999:542 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Acanthurus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:447 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] Duke of York Island, western Pacific. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Acanthurus zebra Lacepède 1802. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.