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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Apteronotidae: [ 105 ] records


acidops, Apteronotus Triques [M. L.] 2011:300, Figs. 1-2 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 61 (no. 3); ref. 31671] Rio Paraná at Ilha Solteira, 20°30'S, 51°00'W, between states of São Paula and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 45685. Paratypes: MZUSP 2646 (1), 22944 (1), 23094 (9, 1 c&s), 24463 (11); DZUFMG 040 (1). Plus 2 non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus acidops Triques 2011 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus acidops Triques 2011. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

albifrons, Gymnotus Linnaeus [C.] 1766:428 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Suriname. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:28 [ref. 21320], Planquette et al. 1996:404 [ref. 22818], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:430 [ref. 23853], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853], Britski et al. 1999:90 [ref. 24147], Albert 2001:109 [ref. 25614], de Santana 2003:8 [ref. 26978], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:85 [ref. 28131], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], de Santana & Lehmann A. 2006:261 [ref. 28847], de Santana et al. 2006:277 [ref. 28848], Triques 2011:300 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053] also as cf. albifrons on p. 290, Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Litz & Koerber 2014:28 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:579 [ref. 35449], Mirande & Koerber 2015:47 [ref. 35117], de Santana & Vari 2015:592 [ref. 33165], Nión et al. 2016:35 [ref. 35565] dated 1758, Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236], Koerber et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35773], Bernt et al. 2018:472 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus 1766). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Northern and central South America, Amazon and Orinoco basins: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela [this range now reduced]. Habitat: freshwater.

amaru, Melanosternarchus Bernt [M. J.], Crampton [W. G. R.], Orfinger [A. B.] & Albert [J. S.] 2018:457, Figs. 1-11, 17A, 18A [Zootaxa 4378 (no. 4); ref. 35797] Rio Nanay at Pampachica, Maynas, Loreto, Peru, 03°45'10.8"S,73°16'54.2"W. Holotype: MUSM 59405. Paratypes: ANSP. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Melanosternarchus amaru Bernt, Crampton, Orfinger & Albert 2018. Current status: Valid as Melanosternarchus amaru Bernt, Crampton, Orfinger & Albert 2018. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon basin, Peru and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonensis, Pariosternarchus Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2006:270, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 3); ref. 28841] Paraná Maiana, Mamirauá Lake System, municipality of Alvarães, 3°06.74'S, 64°47.53'W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 34916. Paratypes: MCP 34917 (1, c&s). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Pariosternarchus amazonensis Albert & Crampton 2006 -- (Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:579 [ref. 35449], Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Pariosternarchus amazonensis Albert & Crampton 2006. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River, Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

anas, Apteronotus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:321, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Iquitos, Amazon system, Peru. Holotype (unique): CAS 56510 [ex IU 15433]. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus anas Eigenmann & Allen 1942 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:28 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:432 [ref. 23853] but genus uncertain). •Synonym of Apteronotus hasemani Ellis 1913 -- (Cox Fernandes et al. 2002:57 [ref. 25889]). •Synonym of Parapteronotus bonapartii (Castelnau 1855) -- (Triques 2007:84 [ref. 29060]). •Synonym of Parapteronotus hasemani (Ellis 1913) -- (Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Synonym of Parapteronotus hasemani (Ellis 1913). Apteronotidae. Habitat: freshwater.

anu, Apteronotus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2013:570, Figs. 3-4 [Journal of the Linnaean Society v. 168; ref. 33165] Zulia, Rio Negro, 12 km south of Machiques on way to Tokuko at the bridge, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 24991. Paratypes: INHS, MCZ, USNM. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus anu de Santana & Vari 2013 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus anu de Santana & Vari 2013. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

apurensis, Apteronotus Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:[6], Pl. 5 (unnumb.) [Evencias No. 20; ref. 7318] Río Bucaral, Paso Mirabal, Río Apure system, Orinoco basin, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MBUCV-V-10840 [ex AFY 51253]. Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:4 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]. On sixth unnumbered page. •Valid as Apteronotus apurensis Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:109 [ref. 25614] as "Apteronotus", Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], Triques 2007:85 [ref. 29060], Triques 2011:301 [ref. 31671], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35633], Bernt et al. 2018:472 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus apurensis Fernández-Yépez 1968. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Ecuador, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

axelrodi, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:275, Figs. 26-27 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Rio Tocantins, at future site of Usina Hidroeléctrica Serra da Mesa (ca, 13°44'S, 48°08'W), Município de Minaçu/Cavalcante, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 31279. Paratypes: MNRJ 12168 (8), USNM 391570 (1). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus axelrodi de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus axelrodi de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Tocantins River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

balaenops, Sternarchus Cope [E. D.] 1878:682 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Pebas, Amazon system, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21462 (poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:21 [ref. 13621], Ferraris et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Adontosternarchus balaenops (Cope 1878) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:30 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:109 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], Lundberg & Cox Fernandes 2007:35 [ref. 29255], de Santana & Vari 2012:535 [ref. 32200], Lundberg et al. 2013:158 [ref. 32552], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ferraris et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35633], Bernt et al. 2018:472 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Adontosternarchus balaenops (Cope 1878). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

baniwa, Apteronotus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2013:575, Figs.7-8 [Journal of the Linnaean Society v. 168; ref. 33165] Amazonas, Río Orinoco, 147 km east-south-east of San Fernando de Atabapo, 3°45'23"N, 66°36'12"W, Venezuela. Holotype: AUM 43275. Paratypes: AUM, FMNH, MCNG, USNM. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus baniwa de Santana & Vari 2013 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus baniwa de Santana & Vari 2013. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

bonapartii, Sternarchus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:92, Pl. 45 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Lake emptying into Río Ucayali, Peru. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3807. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:43-44 [ref. 19577]. •See Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853]. •Valid as Parapteronotus bonapartii (Castelnau 1855) -- (Triques 2007:84 [ref. 29060], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745] as cf. bonapartii). •Valid as Apteronotus bonapartii (Castelnau 1855) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320], Cox Fernandes 1998:730 [ref. 23422], Albert 2001:109 [ref. 25614] as cf. bonarpartii, Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], Hilton & Cox Fernandes 2006:826 [ref. 28924], Albert & Crampton 2009:90 [ref. 30049], Triques 2011:300 [ref. 31671], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:579 [ref. 35449], Melo et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35773], Bernt et al. 2018:472 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus bonapartii (Castelnau 1855). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, ?Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

brasiliensis, Sternarchus Reinhardt [J. T.] 1852:148 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1852; ref. 18619] Rio das Velhas, Brazil. Syntypes: ?NMW 65015 (1); ZMB 9185 and/or 9195 (1 or 1 + 1); ZMUC 35-36 (2), 41 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:48 [ref. 9588], Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus brasiliensis (Reinhardt 1852) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320], Gómez & Chebez 1996:56 [ref. 23791], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:109 [ref. 25614], Britski 2001:21 [ref. 26046], de Santana 2003:8 [ref. 26978], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:85 [ref. 28131], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], Triques 2011:300 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], Litz & Koerber 2014:28 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:47 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:35 [ref. 35565] dated 1853, Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236], Koerber et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus brasiliensis (Reinhardt 1852). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Das Velhas River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay [ref. 33622]. Habitat: freshwater.

britskii, Sternarchorhynchus Campos-da-Paz [R.] 2000:528, Fig. 9 [Copeia 2000 (no. 2); ref. 24452] Rio Paramá at Ilha Solteira dam (right margin), about 20°30'S, 51°00'W, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 52923. Paratypes: MCP 12123 (1); MNRJ 17590 (1); MZUSP 24464 (6), 43277 (3, c&s). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus britskii Campos-da-Paz 2000 -- (Albert 2001:112 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Crampton 2006:58 [ref. 28619], de Santana & Nogueira 2006:85 [ref. 28638], de Santana & Vari 2010:281 [ref. 30785], Triques 2011:304 [ref. 31671], Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus britskii Campos-da-Paz 2000. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

caboclo, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Nogueira [A.] 2006:89, Figs. 1b, 2b-c [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 1); ref. 28638] Rio Mucajaí, below Cachoeira Paredão 2, Roraima, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 22894. Paratypes: INPA 10578 (1), 10592 (2), 10594 (60, 2 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]. Name appeared first in an earlier paper in the same journal issue: de Santana & Taphorn 2006:3 [ref. 28632]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus caboclo de Santana & Nogueira 2006 -- (de Santana & Vari 2010:284 [ref. 30785], Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus caboclo de Santana & Nogueira 2006. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Mucajaí River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

calhamazon, Sternarchella Lundberg [J. G.], Cox Fernandes [C.], Campos-da-Paz [R.] & Sullivan [J. P.] 2013:159, Figs. 1-2, 6A-B, 7A [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 162; ref. 32552] Rio Maderia, 35 km above confluence with rio Amazonas, 3°35'44.2"S, 58°57'45.8"W, depth 14-16 meters. Holotype: INPA 37898. Paratypes: Many at ANSP, CAS 234725, CUMV, FMNH, INPA, LACM, MZUSP, USNM. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchella calhamazon Lundberg, Cox Fernandes, Campos-da-Paz & Sullivan 2013 -- (Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:572 [ref. 35449], Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236], Evans et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35357], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchella calhamazon Lundberg, Cox Fernandes, Campos-da-Paz & Sullivan 2013. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Deep river channels of the Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

camposdapazi, Apteronotus de Santana [C. D.] & Lehmann A. [P.] 2006:262, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 3); ref. 28847] Niquelandia, Arroio Arara, 500 meters from mouth of Rio Maranhão at Rosariana, 14°01'S, 48°26'W, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 40046. Paratypes: MCP 16062 (6, 1 c&s). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus camposdapazi de Santana & Lehmann A. 2006 -- (Triques 2011:301 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:593 [ref. 33165] as cf. camposdapazi, Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus camposdapazi de Santana & Lehmann A. 2006. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

capanemae, Sternarchus Steindachner [F.] 1868:176 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 5 (no. 20) (for 23 July 1868); ref. 20464] Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236]. Objective synonym of Sternarchus schotti Steindachner 1868, based on the same specimen. Lundberg et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32552] treat Sternarchus capanemae as a nomen oblitum according to ICZN Art. 23.9.1, reversal of precedence; they treat Sternarchus schotti Steindachner 1868 as valid. •Synonym of Sternarchella schotti (Steindachner 1868:252 [ref. 14082]) -- (Lundberg 2012:171 [ref. 32552], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236], Evans et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35357]). Current status: Synonym of Sternarchella schotti (Steindachner 1868). Apteronotidae. Habitat: freshwater.

caudimaculosus, Apteronotus de Santana [C. D.] 2003:2, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 252; ref. 26978] Aquapap Pantanal, 19°36.64'S, 56°24.87'W, Aquidauna, Rio Novo, Brejo de Santa Sofia, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 79359. Paratypes: ANSP 178659 (1), CAS 216788 (1), INHS 94260 (1), FMNH 108537 (2), GMNH 3435 (1), INPA 20066 (1), MCZ 161831 (1), MZUSP 59295-26 (22, 4), UMMZ 240249 (1), USNM 371234 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus caudimaculosus de Santana 2003 -- (de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], de Santana & Lehmann A. 2006:261 [ref. 28847], Triques 2007:85 [ref. 29060], Triques 2011:301 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:592 [ref. 33165], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus caudimaculosus de Santana 2003. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

chaoi, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:286, Fig. 31 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Rio Jamari, Porto Velho, diversion canal of Usina Hidroeléctica, Samuel (ca. 8°27'S, 63°30'W), Rondônia, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 28357. Paratypes: INPA 20851 (11), USNM 391713 (1). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus chaoi de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus chaoi de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Jamari River basin, Rondônia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

clarkae, Adontosternarchus Mago-Leccia [F.], Lundberg [J. G.] & Baskin [J. N.] 1985:14, Figs. 1c, 16 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 358; ref. 5732] Raudal (Rapids) de Mavahate, Río Negro near San Carlos de Río Negro, Amazonas Territory, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-12703. Paratypes: FMNH 94263-64 (5, 1); LACM 43645-1 (3); MACPAY 0369 (3); MBUCV-V-11218 (2), V-11293 (1), V-11936 (1, not 2); MCZ 46872 (41), 46877 (orig. 141, now 134, 1 c&s missing, 3 not found); MZUSP uncat (2); USNM 266551 [ex MCZ 46877] (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:5 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:4 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:2 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Adontosternarchus clarkae Mago-Leccia, Lundberg & Baskin 1985 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:31 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:109 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], Lundberg & Cox Fernandes 2007:35 [ref. 29255], de Santana & Vari 2012:535 [ref. 32200], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ferraris et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Adontosternarchus clarkae Mago-Leccia, Lundberg & Baskin 1985. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

compsus, Porotergus Mago-Leccia [F.] 1994:82, Figs. 90, 91 [Electric fishes of the continental waters of America; ref. 21320] Río Orinoco, at Isla Iguana, between kilometers 152 and 153, Delta Amacuro, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-11010. Paratypes: AMNH 58644 (2); ANSP 160194 (1), 162132 (1), MBUCV-V-10378 (2, not 2), V-10382 (2), V-10421 (2), V-10425 (2), V-10427 (1), V-10510 (2), V-10551 (5), V-10561 (2), V-10882 (4), V-11130 (1), V-11294 (1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Porotergus compsus Mago-Leccia 1994 -- (Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:432 [ref. 23853] but genus uncertain). •Valid as Compsaraia compsa (Mago-Leccia 1994) -- (Albert 2001:78, 110 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Crampton 2010:173 [ref. 30762], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745] as compsus, Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:579 [ref. 35449] as compsus, Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236], Bernt & Albert 2017:218 [ref. 35327], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633] as compsus, Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35773], Bernt et al. 2018:473 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Compsaraia compsa (Mago-Leccia 1994). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

cramptoni, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:288, Figs. 32-33 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Rio Solimões, downstream from mouth of Río Purus, 3°27'27"S, 60°45'26"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 115489. Paratypes: many at FMNH, INPA, MCP. Plus many non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus cramptoni de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus cramptoni de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River: Peru and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

crypticus, Platyurosternarchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2009:236, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2009 (no. 2); ref. 30206] Moco-Moco Creek, upper Takutu River, Rio Branco basin, north slope of Kanuku Mountains, approximately 30°18'52.95"N, 59↑39'38.69"W, approximately 16 kilometers east of Lethem, Rupununi (Region 9), Guyana. Holotype: CUMV 93433. Paratypes: ANSP 179153 (1); AUM 35545 (1); CUMV 93432 (1), 93434-37 (1, 1, 1, 1); MBUCV 10981 (1); MCZ 46889 (2, c&s), 50983 (4), 98431 (1 c&s); USNM 209203 (2). Plus non-type specimen. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Platyurosternarchus crypticus de Santana & Vari 2009 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Platyurosternarchus crypticus de Santana & Vari 2009. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Upper Branco River system, Amazon basin, Brazil and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

cuchillejo, Sternarchogiton Schultz [L. P.] 1949:72, Pl. 3 (fig. B) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 99 (no. 3235); ref. 3967] Río Motatán, 8 kilometers below Motatán, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121600. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-6975 [ex USNM 121601] (1); MCZ 37290 (2); UMMZ 157673 (3); USNM 121598 (7), 121599 (47, now 39, 2 to MCZ, 2 to ZMA, 2 to G. Dahl, 2 missing), 121601 (5, now 4), 121602 (10), 121603 (now 0, 2 to UMMZ), ZMA 102119 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:25 [ref. 19236], Ferraris & Vari 1992:4 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:18 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchogiton cuchillejo Schultz 1949 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:35 [ref. 21320], Galvis et al. 1997:104 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Apteronotus cuchillejo (Schultz 1949) -- (Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:430-431 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:109 [ref. 25614], de Santana 2003:8 [ref. 26978], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2005:229 [ref. 28331], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], Triques 2011:300 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus cuchillejo (Schultz 1949). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Catatumbo River basin, Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cuchillo, Apteronotus Schultz [L. P.] 1949:69, Pl. 3 (fig. A) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 99 (no. 3235); ref. 3967] Río Socuy, 3 kilometers above mouth, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121591. Paratypes: G. Dahl coll. [ex USNM 12159] (2); MBUCV-V-7554 [ex USNM 121590] (1); MCZ 37218 [ex USNM 121589] (1), 52010 [ex USNM 121589 and MCZ 37218] (1, c&s); UMMZ 157673 (3); USNM 121587-89 (13, now 0, now 7), 121590 (7, now 6, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:4 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:4 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus cuchillo Schultz 1949 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:30 [ref. 21320], Galvis et al. 1997:103 [ref. 23651], de Santana 2003:6 [ref. 26978], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2005:229 [ref. 28331], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], Triques 2011:300 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus cuchillo Schultz 1949. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

curumim, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2006:59, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 1166; ref. 28619] Rio Tefé, Toco Preto, Municipality of Tefé, 3°47.31'S, 64°59.91'W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 38304. Paratypes: INPA 25256 (1, c&s), MCP 38305 (2). •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus curumim de Santana & Crampton 2006 -- (de Santana & Vari 2010:291 [ref. 30785]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus curumim de Santana & Crampton 2006. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Rio Tefé, Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

curvioperculata, Sternarchella Godoy [M. P. de] 1968:352, Figs. 3-5 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 7886] Affluent of the Rio Mogi Guassu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): EEBP 336. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchella curvioperculata Godoy 1968 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:34 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:111 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], Triques 2011:304 [ref. 31671], Lundberg et al. 2013:158 [ref. 32552], Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236]). •Possibly a species of Apteronotus -- (Evans et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35357]). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

curvirostris, Sternarchus (Rhamphosternarchus) Boulenger [G. A.] 1887:282, Pl. 24 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 1 Mar. 1887); ref. 532] Río Bobanaza basin, eastern Ecuador. Syntypes: ? BMNH 1880.12.8.90-91 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus curvirostris (Boulenger 1887) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:37 [ref. 21320], Campos-da-Paz 1995:34 [ref. 22512], Britski et al. 1999:90 [ref. 24147], Campos-da-Paz 2000:528 [ref. 24452], Albert 2001:112 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Crampton 2006:58 [ref. 28619] as cf. curvirostris, de Santana & Nogueira 2006:85 [ref. 28638], de Santana & Vari 2010:000 [ref. 30785], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus curvirostris (Boulenger 1887). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Bobanaza River, upper Amazon River basin: Bolivia and Ecuador; perhaps northeastern Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cuyuniense, Megadontognathus Mago-Leccia [F.] 1994:81, Figs. 58, 89a, 89b [Electric fishes of the continental waters of America; ref. 21320] Río Cuyuni at Paruruvaca rapids, Bolivar, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-9499. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-17940 (1), MCNG 10956 (2). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:12 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236]. Megadontognathus is masculine, therefore mandatory correction to cuyuniensis. •Valid as Apteronotus cuyuniense (Mago-Leccia 1994) -- (Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:430 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:109 [ref. 25614]). •Valid as Megadontognathus cuyuniensis Mago-Leccia 1994 (often as cuyuniense) -- (Campos-da-Paz 1999:1041 [ref. 24190], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236] as cuyuniense, Bernt et al. 2018:473 [ref. 35797] as cuyuniense). Current status: Valid as Megadontognathus cuyuniensis Mago-Leccia 1994. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Cuyuni and Caroní River basins, Bolivar, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

devenanzii, Adontosternarchus Mago-Leccia [F.], Lundberg [J. G.] & Baskin [J. N.] 1985:11, Figs. 1b, 2-6, 14 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 358; ref. 5732] Caño Cuajarito, tributary of Río Portuguesa, 3 kilometers above La Unión, Estado Guárico, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV V-7513. Paratypes: AMNH 57143 (1); ANSP 128203 (8), 131836 (1), 138859 (1); CAS 54328 (24); FMNH 94909 (now 11); LACM 43103-1 (75), 43295-1 (27); MBUCV-V-4772 (20), V-5139 (1), V-5984 (1), V-7516 (4), V-9301 (5), V-10385 (3), V-10486 (1), V-10497 (6), V-10528 (1), V-10535 (3), V-10580 (1), V-10588 (2), V-10595 (3), V-12701 (4), V-12779 (3); USNM 264839 (68). Additional material: (89 lots, 4594) at AMNH, ANSP, LACM, FMNH, MCZ, UMMZ, and USNM. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:5 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:4 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:3 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Adontosternarchus devenanzii Mago-Leccia, Lundberg & Baskin 1985 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:31 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:109 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], Lundberg & Cox Fernandes 2007:35 [ref. 29255], de Santana & Vari 2012:535 [ref. 32200], Ferraris et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35773], Bernt et al. 2018:472 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Adontosternarchus devenanzii Mago-Leccia, Lundberg & Baskin 1985. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Portuguesa and Orinoco rivers, and Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

duartei, Adontosternarchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2012:536, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2012 (no. 3); ref. 32200] Beruri, beach in front of channel connecting with Lago Ayapuá, 4°28'57"S, 62°03'52"W, Rio Purus basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 34648. Paratypes: INPA, MPEG, USNM. Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Adontosternarchus duartei de Santana & Vari 2012 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Adontosternarchus duartei de Santana & Vari 2012. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Rio Purus system, Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

duccis, Magosternarchus Lundberg [J. G.], Cox Fernandes [C.] & Albert [J. S.] in Lundberg et al. 1996:664, Fig. 2 [Copeia 1996 (no. 3); ref. 22227] Rio Branco, 3-11 kilometers upriver from confluence with Rio Negro, 1°17'S, 61°51'W, Roraima State, Brazil, depth 6-7 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 48439. Paratypes: ANSP 173506 (1); FMNH 105093 (1); INPA 8533 (2), 10444-45 (1, 1); MCP 17698 (1); MZUSP 48440 (2), 48457 (1); USNM 337449 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Magosternarchus duccis Lundberg, Cox Fernandes & Albert 1996 -- (Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Sternarchella duccis (Lundberg, Cox Fernandes & Albert 1996) -- (Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:572 [ref. 35449], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236], Evans et al. 2017:16 [ref. 35357]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchella duccis (Lundberg, Cox Fernandes & Albert 1996). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Deep river channels of the Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

duende, Porotergus de Santana [C. D.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2010:166, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2010 (no. 1); ref. 30762] Rio Solimões, beach on north bank of Ilha Cuera, near Tefé, Municipality of Alvarães, 3°21.21'S, 64°39.59'W, Amazonas Brazil. Holotype: MCP 37357. Paratypes: Many at INPA, MCP, MZUSP. Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Porotergus duende de Santana & Crampton 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Porotergus duende de Santana & Crampton 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Main channel of Amazon River in rios Negro, Solimõs and Ucayali: Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

ellisi, Porotergus Alonso de Arámburu [A. S.] 1957:154, Fig. 1 [Notas del Museo de La Plata v. 19 (no. 177); ref. 12128] Lower Río Paraná, San Pedro, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Holotype: MLP 1-V-37-3. Paratypes: MLP 4674 [ex 11-III-46-23] (1), 4021 [ex 5-V-47-4] (1),1664 [ex 5-VI-35-34] (1). Type catalog: Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:18 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Porotergus ellisi Alonso de Arámburu 1957 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:33 [ref. 21320], Gómez & Chebez 1996:56 [ref. 23791], López et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27366], Triques 2011:304 [ref. 31671]). •Valid as Apteronotus ellisi (Alonso de Arámburu 1957) -- (Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614], de Santana 2003:8 [ref. 26978], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:85 [ref. 28131], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765] as elisi, Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Mirande & Koerber 2015:47 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:422 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35267], Bernt et al. 2018:473 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus ellisi (Alonso de Arámburu 1957). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

eschmeyeri, Apteronotus de Santana [C. D.], Maldonado-Ocampo [J. A.], Severi [W.] & Mendes [G. N.] 2004:3, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 410; ref. 27412] Rio Magdalena Basin, Las Juntas de Apulo, Rio Bogotá along railway between Girardot and Facatativa, Departamento Cundinamarca, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 72115 (IU 13377). Paratypes: FMNH 56775-76 (2, 1); IAVHP 3304 (8); ICN-MHN 6741 (3); IMCN 2000 (3); USNM 120473 (1). Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:403 [ref. 34787], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:6 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Apteronotus eschmeyeri de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, Severi & Mendes 2004 -- (de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2005:227 [ref. 28331], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], Triques 2011:301 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:593 [ref. 33165], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus eschmeyeri de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, Severi & Mendes 2004. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Bogotá River and Luisa River, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

exodon, Oedemognathus Myers [G. S.] 1936:115 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 49; ref. 3114] Río Ampiyacu, Amazon system, eastern Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 102040. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:4 [ref. 19771], Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Oedemognathus exodon Myers 1936 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:31 [ref. 21320]). •Synonym of Sternarchogiton natterei (Steindachner 1868) -- (Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:432 [ref. 23853], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], Cox Fernandes et al. 2009:204 [ref. 30178], Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Synonym of Sternarchogiton nattereri (Steindachner 1868). Apteronotidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ferrarisi, Apteronotus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2013:577, Figs. 9-10 [Journal of the Linnaean Society v. 168; ref. 33165] Yaracuy, Río Yaracuy basin (Caribbean Coast), Quebrada Guaquira on Hacienda Guaquira, southeast of El Peñon azil, Reservoir, 10°17'40"N, 68°39"35"W, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 55635. Paratypes: MCNG 54584 (1), 52077 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus ferrarisi de Santana & Vari 2013 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus ferrarisi de Santana & Vari 2013. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Río Yaracuy and adjoining Río Aroa, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

freemani, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:296, Fig. 38 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Essequibo River basin, Lower Potaro River at Amatuk (ca. 5°18'N, 59°18'W), Guyana. Holotype: CAS 72246. Paratypes: CAS 72248 (1), 227622 [ex CAS 72246] (1, plus one lost). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus freemani de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus freemani de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Lower portions of Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

galibi, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:298, Fig. 39 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Lawa River at Stroomafwaarts Rapids near Anapaikekondre (= Anapaike country, Anapaika at 3°34'N, 109°39'W), Marowijne District, Suriname. Holotype: ZMA 109366. Paratypes: ANSP 187155 (1), IRSCNB 16793 (7), ZMA 124524 (1). Plus one non-type specimen. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus galibi de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus galibi de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Lawa River, Marowijne River basin, along border of Suriname and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

galvisi, Apteronotus de Santana [C. D.], Maldonado-Ocampo [J. A.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2007:118, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 29198] Río Meta drainage, Río Cusiana, bridge El Venado, 5°00'50"N, 72°41.30.9"W, Casanare, Colombia, elevation 305 meters. Holotype: IAvHP 8133. Paratypes: IAvHP 8129 (6), 8130 (2), 8131 (2), 8132 (2), 8167 (3). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:403 [ref. 34787], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus galvisi de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo & Crampton 2007 -- (Triques 2011:300 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:578 [ref. 33165], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus galvisi de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo & Crampton 2007. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Meta River basin, Orinoco River system, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

gimbeli, Porotergus Ellis [M. D.] in Eigenmann 1912:441 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Pará, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54566 [ex CM 3197]. Paratypes: FMNH 54567 [ex CM 3198] (2), Ellis Coll. (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:70 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367], Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236]. Also appeared as new in Ellis 1913:154, Pl. 23 (fig. 3) [ref. 1271]. •Valid as Porotergus gimbeli Ellis 1912 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:33 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:433 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:111 [ref. 25614] as "Porotergus" gimbeli, Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], Cox Fernandes et al. 2009:206 [ref. 30178], de Santana & Crampton 2010:169 [ref. 30762], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:579 [ref. 35449], Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Porotergus gimbeli Ellis 1912. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

gnomus, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2006:2, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 1); ref. 28632] Río Caroní, at the confluence with the Río Claro, 7°54'30"N, 63°02'50"W, Bolivar, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 53963. Paratypes: ANSP 182798 (1), INPA 25636 (3, 1 c&s), MCNG 18435 (5). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus gnomus de Santana & Taphorn 2006 -- (de Santana & Vari 2010:299 [ref. 30785], Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus gnomus de Santana & Taphorn 2006. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Caroní River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

goeldii, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:301, Fig. 41 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Rio Purus, 3°50'06"S, 61°23'59"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 115520. Paratypes: FMNH 115520 (1); INPA 17633 (4), 24109 (5); USNM 373081 (1). Plus many non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus goeldii de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus goeldii de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Peru and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnotus, Porotergus Ellis [M. D.] in Eigenmann 1912:441 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Amatuk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53575 [ex CM 1759]. Paratypes: BMNH 1911.10.31.543 (1), CAS 62305 [ex IU 12636] (1), FMNH 53291 [ex CM 1758] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:71 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367], Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236]. Also appeared in Ellis 1913:153, Pl. 23 (fig. 4) [ref. 1271]. •Valid as Porotergus gymnotus Ellis 1912 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:32 [ref. 21320], Planquette et al. 1996:408 [ref. 22818], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:433 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:111 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], Cox Fernandes et al. 2009:204 [ref. 30178] as cf. gymnotus, de Santana & Crampton 2010:172 [ref. 30762], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Porotergus gymnotus Ellis 1912. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Essequibi River drainage, Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

hagedornae, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:305, Figs. 43-44 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Manu Marine Biosphere Reserve, Quebrada Pachija, tributary emptying into Río Manu, 3 kilometers upstream of Pakitza (= 11°55'48"S,71°15'18"W), Madre de Dios, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 30534. Paratypes: MBUCV 33742 (2); MUSM 30534 (1), 30535 (1); USNM 391574 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus hagedornae de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus hagedornae de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Upper Madeira River basin, southeastern Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Sternarchus Ellis [M. M.] 1913:147, Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 1271] Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54562 [ex CM 3191]. Paratypes: CAS 62555 [ex IU 13413, CM 3192] (4); FMNH 15199-200 (1, 1), 92070 (13). Type catalog: Henn 1928:71 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:81 [ref. 12367], Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus hasemani (Ellis 1913) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320], Cox Fernandes 1998:730 [ref. 23422], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:430 [ref. 23853] but genus uncertain, Cox Fernandes et al. 2002:57 [ref. 25889]). •Synonym of Parapteronotus bonapartii (Castelnau 1855) -- (Triques 2007:85 [ref. 29060]). •Valid as Parapteronotus hasemani (Ellis 1913) -- (Albert 2001:73, 110 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:579 [ref. 35449], Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633], Bernt et al. 2018:473 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Parapteronotus hasemani (Ellis 1913). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

higuchii, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:307, Figs. 45-46 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Rio Uatumã, Cachoeira do Miriti, Presidente Figueredo, ca. 2°01'S, 59°28W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 28358. Paratypes: INPA 20855 (1), USNM 391724 (1). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus higuchii de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus higuchii de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Uatumã River, Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

iara, Compsaraia Bernt [M. J.] & Albert [J. S.] 2017:212, Figs. 1, 3, 4, 5B [Copeia v. 105 (no. 2); ref. 35327] Brazil, Pará, Rio Amazonas, between Rio Mojui and Furo do Tajapuru, between towns Gurupá and Serraria, 01°12'26"S, 51°19'09"W. Holotype: MZUSP 121514. Paratypes: ANSP, FMNH, MZUSP. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Compsaraia iara Bernt & Albert 2017 -- (Bernt et al. 2018:473 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Compsaraia iara Bernt & Albert 2017. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River and near the mouths of large tributaries. Habitat: freshwater.

inpai, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:310, Figs. 47-48 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Rio Mapuera, Cachoeira Porteira, last fall before Rio Trombetas, ca. 1°05'S, 57°02'W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 22895. Paratypes: INPA 22899 (10, 1 c&s), USNM 391715 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus inpai de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus inpai de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Mapuera River, Trombetas River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jaimei, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:312, Fig. 49 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Rio Uatumã, Cachoeira do Miriti, Presidente Figueredo, ca. 2°01'S, 59°28'W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 28359. Paratypes: INPA 22122 (10, 1 c&s), 22902 (2); USNM 391716 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus jaimei de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus jaimei de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Uatumã River, Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jurubidae, Sternarchus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:242, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1452] Río Jurubidá, Nuquí, Pacific Slope, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71435. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:21 [ref. 13621], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus jurubidae (Fowler 1944) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:30 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853] but possibly a synonym of mariae, de Santana 2003:8 [ref. 26978], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2004:9 [ref. 27837], de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2005:229 [ref. 28331], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], Triques 2011:301 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:593 [ref. 33165], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus jurubidae (Fowler 1944). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Jurubidá River basin, Arato River system, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

kaitukaensis, Megadontognathus Campos-da-Paz [R.] 1999:1043, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1999 (no. 4); ref. 24190] Cachoeiras de Kaituká (="Caitucá"), about 5°15'S, 52°50'W, Rio Xingú, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 14074. Paratypes: INPA 3936 (4, 1 c&s, broken tail), MNRJ 17090 (1, regenerated tail), MZUSP 52901 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Megadontognathus kaitukaensis Campos-da-Paz 1999 -- (Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:473 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Megadontognathus kaitukaensis Campos-da-Paz 1999. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Xingú River basin, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kokraimoro, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:314, Figs. 51-52 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Cachoeira de Kaituká, at Altamira, 3°12'S, 52°12'W, Rio Xingú, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 28360. Paratypes: INPA 3932 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus kokraimoro de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus kokraimoro de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Xingú River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

labiatus, Sternarchogiton de Santana [C. D.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2007:397, Figs. 6-7 [Copeia 2007 (no. 2); ref. 29144] Toco Preto, Município de Tefé, 3°47.31'S, 64°59.91'W, Rio Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 37544. Paratypes: INPA 18296 (1); MCP 37543 (1), 37545 (1, c&s), 37546 (2); UF 147994 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchogiton labiatus de Santana & Crampton 2007 -- (Cox Fernandes et al. 2009:206 [ref. 30178], de Santana & Vari 2010:161 [ref. 30740], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchogiton labiatus de Santana & Crampton 2007. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil and Peru, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

lacepedii, Sternarchus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:93, Pl. 45 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Suriname. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]. •Synonym of Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:28 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:47 [ref. 35117], Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236], Koerber et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus 1766). Apteronotidae. Habitat: freshwater.

leptorhynchus, Sternarchus Ellis [M. D.] in Eigenmann 1912:439 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Amatuk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53294 [ex CM 1762, not 1763a]. Paratypes: CAS 62333 [ex IU 12588] (1), FMNH 53295 (1) [? ex CM 1764a]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:71 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:81 [ref. 12367], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus leptorhynchus (Ellis 1912) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320], Galvis et al. 1997:104 [ref. 23651], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614], de Santana 2003:8 [ref. 26978], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], Triques 2007:85 [ref. 29060], de Santana et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29198], Triques 2011:300 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:582 [ref. 33165], DoNascimiento 2016:534 [ref. 34727], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus leptorhynchus (Ellis 1912). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Essequibo River drainage, Guyana [some records above are in error]. Habitat: freshwater.

lindalvae, Apteronotus de Santana [C. D.] & Cox Fernandes [C.] 2012:286, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2012 (no. 2); ref. 32053] Rio Uatumã, Cochoeira do Mirití, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 27688. Paratypes: ANSP 192180 (6); INPA 15977 (2 c&s), 16076 (4), 16077 (36); MPEG 21687 (2); USNM 404358 (2). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus lindalvae de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus lindalvae de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Uatumã River basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Sternarchus Steindachner [F.] 1881:98 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 11) (for 5 May 1881); ref. 20484] Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 65333 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236]. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:14, Pl. 5 (fig. 7) [ref. 14299]. •Synonym of Apteronotus bonapartii (Castelnau 1855) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320]). •Valid as "Apteronotus" macrolepis (Steindachner 1881) -- (Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], Triques 2007:85 [ref. 29060], Triques 2011:301 [ref. 31671], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Ferraris et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus macrolepis (Steindachner 1881). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

macrostoma, Sternarchus Günther [A.] 1870:4 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Xeberos [Jeberos], Río Marañon drainage, Amazon River system, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.6.13.76. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236]. Specific name is an indeclinable noun. •Valid as Sternarchorhamphus macrostoma (Günther 1870) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708] as macrostomus). •Valid as Platyurosternarchus macrostoma (Günther 1870) (often seen as macrostomus) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:38 [ref. 21320], Campos-da-Paz 1995:40 [ref. 22512], Chang & Ortega 1995:6 [ref. 24302], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:430 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:111 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Vari 2009:240 [ref. 30206], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004] as macrostomus, DoNascimiento 2016:535 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633] as macrostomus, Ferraris et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797] as macrostomus, Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Platyurosternarchus macrostoma (Günther 1870). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazona, Orinoco and Essequibo basins: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

macrostomus, Sternarchus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:263, Fig. 63 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Villavicencio, Río Meta basin, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70528. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:22 [ref. 13621], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236]. Apparently preoccupied by Sternarchus macrostoma [us] Günther 1870, name apparently should be replaced. •Treated as valid -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:30 [ref. 21320]). •See Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853]. •Valid as Parapteronotus macrostomus (Fowler 1943) -- (Triques 2005:144 [ref. 28939], Triques 2007:85 [ref. 29060], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745]). •Valid as Apteronotus macrostomus (Fowler 1943) -- (Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], de Santana et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29198], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:584 [ref. 33165], DoNascimiento 2016:540 [ref. 34727], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus macrostomus (Fowler 1943). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Meta River basin, Orinoco River system: Colombia, Ecuador and ?Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenensis, Ubidia Miles [C.] 1945:461, Figs. 11-12 [Caldasia v. 3 (no. 15); ref. 2998] Río Magdalena, Honda, Tolima, Colombia. Holotype: Sec. Caza y Pesca, Min. Nat. Econ. Bogotá. Paratypes: BMNH 1947.7.1.138 (1), USNM 123795 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:5 [ref. 19771], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Ubidia magdalenensis Miles 1945 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:37 [ref. 21320]). •Valid as Apteronotus magdalenensis (Miles 1945) -- (Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:430-431 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614], de Santana 2003:6 [ref. 26978], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], de Santana et al. 2004:2 [ref. 27412], de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2005:227 [ref. 28331], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], Maldonado-Ocampo et al. 2011:505 [ref. 31518], Triques 2011:301 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:593 [ref. 33165], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus magdalenensis (Miles 1945). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

magoi, Apteronotus de Santana [C. D.], Castillo [O.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2006:276, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 3); ref. 28848] Río Apure drainage, Caño Bravo, 8°00'S, 67°59'W, Barinas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 54795. Paratypes: MCNG 49291 (1), 49316 (1), 54112 (3); USNM 388024 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus magoi de Santana, Castillo & Taphorn 2006 -- (Triques 2011:301 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus magoi de Santana, Castillo & Taphorn 2006. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Apure River drainage, Orinoco River system, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

marauna, Tembeassu Triques [M. L.] 1998:6, Figs. 1-3 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 25 (nos 102); ref. 23407] Ilha Solteira, Rio Paraná, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, about 20°30'S, 51°00'W. Holotype: MZUSP 48510. Paratypes: MZUSP 23090 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus marauna (Triques 1998) -- (Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614], de Santana 2003:8 [ref. 26978], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Tembeassu marauna Triques 1998 -- (Campos-da-Paz 2005:395 [ref. 28359], Triques 2011:304 [ref. 31671], Reis et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34496], Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:475 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Tembeassu marauna Triques 1998. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mareikeae, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:317, Figs. 53-54 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Rio Trombetas, Cachoeira Porteira, last fall before Rio Trombetas, ca. 1°05'S, 57°02'W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 22896. Paratypes: INPA 22900 (9, 1 c&s), USNM 391717 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus mareikeae de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus mareikeae de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Trombetas River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mariae, Sternarchus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Fisher [H. G.] 1914:236 [Indiana University Studies v. 2 (no. 25); ref. 11068] Girardot, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56774 [ex CM 5594]. Paratypes: CAS 62345 [ex IU 13375] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:71 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:81 [ref. 12367], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus mariae (Eigenmann & Fisher 1914) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614], de Santana 2003:8 [ref. 26978], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], de Santana et al. 2004:2 [ref. 27412], de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2004:3 [ref. 27837], de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2005:228 [ref. 28331], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], Triques 2007:85 [ref. 29060], Triques 2011:301 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:593 [ref. 33165], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus mariae (Eigenmann & Fisher 1914). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

marreroi, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:318, Fig. 55 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Río Apure, in front of Isla Apurito, left bank (8°00'N, 67°31'W), Apure, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV 15806. Paratypes: MBUCV 33750 [ex. MBUCV 15806] (1), 10637 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus marreroi de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus marreroi de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Orinoco River, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

maximilliani, Sternarchus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:93, Pl. 45 (fig. 4) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Río Urubamba, Peru. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]. •Synonym of Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:28 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:47 [ref. 35117], Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236] with question, Koerber et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus 1766). Apteronotidae. Habitat: freshwater.

mendesi, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:320, Fig. 56 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Morichal Largo, Río Guanipa, 5 kilometers south of Aguasay (Aguasay is 9°25'N, 63°44'W), Golfo de Paria drainage, Department of Marurín, Monagas,, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 29129. Paratypes: INHS 31374 (3), 31453 (1); MCNG 29166 (1) 29194 (1), 55850 [ex. MCNG 29129] (1) Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus mendesi de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus mendesi de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: San Juan River and Guanipa River basins, Gulf of Paria drainage, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

mesensis, Sternarchorhynchus Campos-da-Paz [R.] 2000:531, Figs. 6, 10 [Copeia 2000 (no. 2); ref. 24452] Rio Tocantins (upper River Tocantins region), at Serra da Mesa dam, municípios Minaçu/Uruaçu, about 13°50'S, 48°19'W, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 17591. Paratypes: MCP 21122 (1); MNRJ 11611 (4, c&s), 11612 (11, 1 c&s), 11613 (7); MZUSP 57597 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus mesensis Campos-da-Paz 2000 -- (Albert 2001:112 [ref. 25614] as mesaensis, Albert in Reis et al. 2003:501 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Crampton 2006:58 [ref. 28619], de Santana & Nogueira 2006:85 [ref. 28638], de Santana & Vari 2010:322 [ref. 30785], Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus mesensis Campos-da-Paz 2000. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

milesi, Apteronotus de Santana [C. D.] & Maldonado-Ocampo [J. A.] 2005:224, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 16 (no. 3); ref. 28331] Municipio de Ancermanuevo, Hacienda el Amparo, Río Chanco, Departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia, elevation 950 meters. Holotype: IAVHP 3996. Paratypes: CAS 72249 [ex IU 13379] (2), 72250 [ex IU 13379] (2); IAVHP 3997 (13); ICMN 2500 (3); ICNMNH 3155 (3); FMNH 56775 (2), 56776 (1), 56777 (4), 56778 (3). Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:405 [ref. 34787], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:6 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Apteronotus milesi de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2005 -- (de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], Triques 2011:301 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:593 [ref. 33165], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus milesi de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2005. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

montanus, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:324, Fig. 59 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Río Marañon, pongo above Borja, 35.5 kilometers northeast of Juan Velasco, Santa Maria de Nieva (4°27'36"S, 77°34'53"W), Amazonas, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 31312. Paratypes: UF uncat. (2). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus montanus de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus montanus de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

mormyrus, Sternarchus Steindachner [F.] 1868:176 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 5 (no. 20) (for 23 July 1868); ref. 20464] Maribitanos, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 65336 (1), 65345 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]. Species was later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1868:253, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 14082]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus mormyrus (Steindachner 1868) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:37 [ref. 21320], Campos-da-Paz 2000:528 [ref. 24452], Albert 2001:112 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:501 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Crampton 2006:58 [ref. 28619], de Santana & Nogueira 2006:85 [ref. 28638], de Santana & Vari 2010:326 [ref. 30785], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633], Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:475 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus mormyrus (Steindachner 1868). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

muelleri, Sternarchus (Rhamphosternarchus) Steindachner [F.] 1881:99 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 11) (for 5 May 1881); ref. 20484] Amazon River near Pará, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 65328:1. Paralectotypes: (several) NMW 65328 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]. Species originally spelled as Mülleri, change mandatory; later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:15, Pl. 5 (fig. 4) [ref. 14299]. Not the same as Sternarchus mulleri Castelnau 1855, and probably preoccupied by Castelnau's mulleri. •Valid as Sternarchorhamphus muelleri (Steindachner 1881) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:36 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:429 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:112 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:269 [ref. 28992], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633], Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:475 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhamphus muelleri (Steindachner 1881). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

mulleri, Sternarchorhynchus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:95 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Essequibo River, Guyana [probably in error]. No types known. Unneeded new name for Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhynchus (Müller & Troschel 1849). For problems with the type locality, see de Santana & Vari 2010:333 [ref. 30785]. •Objective synonym of Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhynchus (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:36 [ref. 21320], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:501 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Vari 2010:331 [ref. 30785], Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Synonym of Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhynchus (Müller & Troschel 1849). Apteronotidae. Habitat: freshwater.

nattereri, Sternarchus Steindachner [F.] 1868:176 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 5 (no. 20) (for 23 July 1868); ref. 20464] Barra do Rio Negro, Manaus, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 65014. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236]. Species was later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1868:251, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [ref. 14082]. •Valid as Sternarchogiton nattereri (Steindachner 1868) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:35 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:433 [ref. 23853], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:423 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:111 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Crampton 2007:388 [ref. 29144], Cox Fernandes et al. 2009:204 [ref. 30178], de Santana & Vari 2010:161 [ref. 30740], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:579 [ref. 35449], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento 2016:540 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchogiton nattereri (Steindachner 1868). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

nebulosus, Adontosternarchus Lundberg [J. G.] & Cox Fernandes [C.] 2007:28, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 156; ref. 29255] Rio Madeira, 2 kilometers below Vila Urucurituba, about 3°33'05.6"S, 58°54'56.4"W, Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 26410. Paratypes: many at AMNH, ANSP, FMNH, IAvHP, INPA, MBUCV, MNHN, MZUSP, and USNM. Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:402 [ref. 34787], Ferraris et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Adontosternarchus nebulosus Lundberg & Cox Fernandes 2007 -- (de Santana & Vari 2012:535 [ref. 32200], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ferraris et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Adontosternarchus nebulosus Lundberg & Cox Fernandes 2007. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

orinoco, Sternarchella Mago-Leccia [F.] 1994:97, Figs. 94a-b, 95 [Electric fishes of the continental waters of America; ref. 21320] Río Orinoco, at Isla Iguana, between kilometer 152 and 153, Estado Delta Amacuro, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-10514. Paratypes: AMNH 58656 [ex MBUCV-V-10514] (1), MBUCV-V-10420 (1), V-10459 (9 not 5), V-10559 [or 10551] (1), V-12174 (2), V-15710 (8), V-19848 (2), V-20766 (1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:18 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchella orinoco Mago-Leccia 1994 -- (Lundberg et al. 2013:158 [ref. 32552], Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:572 [ref. 35449], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236], Evans et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35357], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchella orinoco Mago-Leccia 1994. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

orthos, Sternarchella Mago-Leccia [F.] 1994:84, Fig. 93 [Electric fishes of the continental waters of America; ref. 21320] Río Apure near Río Boquerones mouth, east of San Fernando de Apure, Apure, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-14173. Paratypes: AMNH 58646 (2); ANSP 162131 (3); MBUCV-V-10249 (3), V-10413 (1), V-10543 (3), V-10650 (2), V-12211 (5), V-12627 (5), V-14174 (5). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:18 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchella orthos Mago-Leccia 1994 -- (Albert 2001:111 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], Lundberg et al. 2013:158 [ref. 32552], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:572 [ref. 35449], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236], Evans et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35357], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchella orthos Mago-Leccia 1994. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Orinoco and Amazon River basins: Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

oxyrhynchus, Sternarchus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:640 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Essequibo River, Guyana [probably in error]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4086. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236] with date as 1848. For problems with the type locality, see de Santana & Vari 2010:333 [ref. 30785]. Also described in Müller & Troschel 1849:16, pl. 2 (figs. 1-2) [ref. 3073]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhynchus (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:36 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:423 [ref. 23853], Campos-da-Paz 2000:528 [ref. 24452], Albert 2001:112 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:501 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Crampton 2006:58 [ref. 28619], de Santana & Vari 2010:330 [ref. 30785], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento 2016:535 [ref. 34727], Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236] as 1848, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhynchus (Müller & Troschel 1849). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia, Venezuela and Bolivia [doubtfully Guyana]. Habitat: freshwater.

paranaensis, Sternarchus Schindler [O.] 1940:104, Figs. 5-6 [Ibero-Amerikanische Studien v. 13; ref. 31257] Small tributary on right side of Rio Paraná, 34 km upstream of Porto Tibiriçá (Presidente Epitácio), Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, ca. 21°29'S, 52°07E. Syntypes: ZSM 5901 [ex 21/1938] (1), 5902 [ex 20/1938] (1). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:237 [ref. 31652], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236]. Neumann 2011:237 [ref. 31652] treats a holotype (ZSM 5902) and paratype. •Tentatively valid as Apteronotus paranaensis (Schindler 1940) -- (Neumann 2011:237 [ref. 31652], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus paranaensis (Schindler 1940). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Paraná River Basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

passan, Apteronotus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:209, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Suriname. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3808. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:43 [ref. 19577], Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]. Unnecessary replacement name for Gymnotus albifrons Linnaeus 1766. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:23 (vol. 6) [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:28 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:47 [ref. 35117], Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236], Koerber et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus 1766). Apteronotidae. Habitat: freshwater.

patriciae, Sternarchella Evans [K. M.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2017:7, Figs. 2a, 3a, 6f, 7 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 2) e160168; ref. 35357] Río Madre de Dios 2 km upstream bridge at Puerto Maldonado, Madre de Dios state, Peru, 12°32'44"S, 69°10'34"W, elevation 178 meters. Holotype: MUSM 45239. Paratypes: ANSP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Sternarchella patriciae Evans, Crampton & Albert 2017. Current status: Valid as Sternarchella patriciae Evans, Crampton & Albert 2017. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Deep river channels of the Madre de Dios river basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

pemon, Apteronotus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2013:586, Figs. 17-18 [Journal of the Linnaean Society v. 168; ref. 33165] Bolivar, Techiné-meru waterfall, tributary of upper Río Caroni, about 5°01'N, 62°17'60"W, Venezuela. Holotype: FMNH 70012. Paratypes: FMNH 121159 (4, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus pemon de Santana & Vari 2013 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus pemon de Santana & Vari 2013. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Upper Río Caroni basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

porcinum, Sternarchogiton Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:325, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Río Huallaga at Yurimaguas, Amazon system, Peru. Holotype: CAS 28810 [ex IU 15740]. Paratypes: CAS 52834 [ex IU 15722] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]. See Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853]. •Valid as Sternarchogiton porcinum Eigenmann & Allen 1942 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:35 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:111 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Crampton 2007:391 [ref. 29144], de Santana & Vari 2010:161 [ref. 30740], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchogiton porcinum Eigenmann & Allen 1942. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

preto, Sternarchogiton de Santana [C. D.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2007:393, Fig. 5 [Copeia 2007 (no. 2); ref. 29144] Toco Preto, Município de Tefé, 3°47.31'S, 64°59.91'W, Rio Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 37553. Paratypes: at BMNH, FMNH, INPA, MCP, USNM. Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchogiton preto de Santana & Crampton 2007 -- (Cox Fernandes et al. 2009:206 [ref. 30178], de Santana & Vari 2010:161 [ref. 30740], Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchogiton preto de Santana & Crampton 2007. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco basins: Brazil, Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

raptor, Magosternarchus Lundberg [J. G.], Cox Fernandes [C.] & Albert [J. S.] in Lundberg et al. 1996:661, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1996 (no. 3); ref. 22227] Rio Solimões, 17 kilometers downriver from confluence or Rio Purus, 3°36'S, 61°21'W, Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 48436. Paratypes: ANSP 173505 (1); FMNH 105092 (2); INPA 8534-35 (2, 2), 0439-40 (2, 1); 10441 (1), 10443 (2); MCP 17697 (2); MZUSP 48437-38 (1, 2); USNM 337448 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Magosternarchus raptor Lundberg, Cox Fernandes & Albert 1996 -- (Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:432 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:269 [ref. 28992]). •Valid as Sternarchella raptor (Lundberg, Cox Fernandes & Albert 1996) -- (Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:572 [ref. 35449], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236], Evans et al. 2017:22 [ref. 35357], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchella raptor (Lundberg, Cox Fernandes & Albert 1996). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Deep river channels of the Amazon River basin, Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

retzeri, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:334, Figs. 64-65 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Rio Téfe, Toco Preto, Tefé (3°47'19"S, 64°59'54"W), Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 42636. Paratypes: MCP 41635 (10). Plus non-type speciimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus retzeri de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus retzeri de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Broadly distributed in Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

rex, Sternarchella Evans [K. M.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2017:10, Figs. 11, 12a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 2) e160168; ref. 35357] Mamirauá Lake system, Paraná Maiana station A, Tefé, Brazil, 03°06'44"S, 64°47'32"W. Holotype: MCP 49422. Paratypes: INPA, MCP, ZUEC. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Sternarchella rex Evans, Crampton & Albert 2017. Current status: Valid as Sternarchella rex Evans, Crampton & Albert 2017. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

roseni, Sternarchorhynchus Mago-Leccia [F.] 1994:99, Fig. 92 [Electric fishes of the continental waters of America; ref. 21320] Río Apure at Jarina, near San Fernando de Apure, Río Orinoco basin, Apure, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-20037. Paratypes: AMNH 58665 (2), MBUCV-V-5491 (1), V-7562 (1), V-10411 (1), V-10622 (1), V-12201 (3), V-15697 (1), V-15722 (1), V-15807-11 (7 not 5, 2, 6, 1, 1), V-15813 (1), V-19839 (8), V-20025 (2), V-20066 (1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:18 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus roseni Mago-Leccia 1994 -- (Campos-da-Paz 2000:528 [ref. 24452], Albert 2001:112 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:501 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Crampton 2006:58 [ref. 28619], de Santana & Nogueira 2006:85 [ref. 28638], de Santana & Vari 2010:336 [ref. 30785], Ferraris et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus roseni Mago-Leccia 1994. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

rostratus, Stenarchus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:85 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Río Grande near Cana, Panama. Holotype (unique): FMNH 7592. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:81 [ref. 12367], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236]. Original genus should have been Sternarchus. •Valid as Apteronotus rostratus (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614], de Santana 2003:8 [ref. 26978], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], de Santana et al. 2004:2 [ref. 27412], de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2005:228 [ref. 28331], de Santana & Crampton 2006:115 [ref. 28765], Triques 2007:85 [ref. 29060], de Santana et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29198], Triques 2011:300 [ref. 31671], d Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:589 [ref. 33165], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:280 [ref. 34894], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:473 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus rostratus (Meek & Hildebrand 1913). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Colombia, Panama and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

sachsi, Sternarchus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:473, Unnumbered plate following p. 556 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1877; ref. 18538] San Fernando de Apure, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela. Holotype: ZMB 10044. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Adontosternarchus sachsi (Peters 1877) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:30 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:433 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:109 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:498 [ref. 27061], Lundberg & Cox Fernandes 2007:35 [ref. 29255], de Santana & Vari 2012:535 [ref. 32200], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ferraris et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35633], Bernt et al. 2018:472 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Adontosternarchus sachsi (Peters 1877). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Orinoco River and Amazon basin: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

samueli, Compsaraia Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2009:83, Figs. 1-4 [Systematics and Biodiversity v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 30049] Rio Amazonas near Iquitos, 3.77°S, 73.25°W, Loreto, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 26093. Paratypes: ANSP 182209 (2), 182214 (1); CAS 223382 (1, c&s), 223383 (1); UF 122826 (1); MUSM 26904 (5). Plus nontype material at MZUSP and UMMZ. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Compsaraia samueli Albert & Crampton 2009 -- (de Santana & Crampton 2010:173 [ref. 30762], Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236], Bernt & Albert 2017:218 [ref. 35327], Bernt et al. 2018:473 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Compsaraia samueli Albert & Crampton 2009. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Peru and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

schotti, Sternarchus Steindachner [F.] 1868:252, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 58 (nos 3-4); ref. 14082] Manaus, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 65335. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236]. This species was not included in the earlier abstract of the main work [ref. 20464], but as pointed out by Lundberg et al. 2013 [ref. 32552] it was described there as Sternarchus capanemae; the two species are based on the same specimen. See the account of Sternarchus capanemae Steindachner 1868. •Valid as Sternarchella schotti (Steindachner 1868) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:34 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:111 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], Lundberg et al. 2013:171 [ref. 32552], Sarmiento et al. 2014:188 [ref. 35004], Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:572 [ref. 35449], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236], Evans et al. 2017:24 [ref. 35357], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchella schotti (Steindachner 1868). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

schwassmanni, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:341, Fig. 69 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Rio Araguaia, small stream between Rio João do Araguaia (5°23'S, 48°46'W) and São Bento (5°28'S, 48°20'W), Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MHNG 95633 [ex MHNG 2566.093]. Paratypes: MHNG 2566.093 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus schwassmanni de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus schwassmanni de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Araguaia River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

severii, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Nogueira [A.] 2006:86, Figs. 1a, 2a [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 1); ref. 28638] Rio Mucajaí, below Cachoeira Paredão 2, Roraima, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 22893. Paratypes: INPA 22898 (13, 2 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]. Name appeared first in an earlier paper in the same journal issue: de Santana & Taphorn 2006:3 [ref. 28632]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus severii de Santana & Nogueira 2006 -- (de Santana & Vari 2010:342 [ref. 30785], Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus severii de Santana & Nogueira 2006. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Mucajaí River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sima, Sternarchella Starks [E. C.] 1913:22, Pl. 4 [Leland Stanford Jr. University Publications, University Series; ref. 4197] Pará, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 22220 (1 of 3). Paratypes: AMNH 3864 (1), CAS-SU 22220 (2 of 3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:27 [ref. 12291] as simus, Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236]. Type designated in Pl. 4. •Valid as Sternarchella sima Starks 1913 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:34 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:432 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:111 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], Lundberg et al. 2013:158 [ref. 32552], Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:572 [ref. 35449], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236], Evans et al. 2017:26 [ref. 35357], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35679], Bernt et al. 2018:474 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchella sima Starks 1913. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

spurrellii, Sternarchus Regan [C. T.] 1914:32 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 14 (no. 79); ref. 14172] Río Condoto, Colombia. Syntypes: BMNH 1914.5.18.90-93 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Apteronotus spurrellii (Regan 1914) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:29 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:431 [ref. 23853] but possibly a synonym of mariae, Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614] as cf. spurrelii, Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo 2005:229 [ref. 28331], de Santana & Crampton 2006:116 [ref. 28765], de Santana et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29198], Triques 2011:300 [ref. 31671], de Santana & Cox Fernandes 2012:284 [ref. 32053], de Santana & Vari 2013:591 [ref. 33165], Ferraris et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apteronotus spurrellii (Regan 1914). Apteronotidae. Distribution: San Juan River basin and Pacific versant rivers, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

starksi, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:344, Fig. 71 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Rio Pará between Rio Boa Vista and Rio Tocantins, between towns of Boa Vista and Abaetetuba (1°45'30"S., 49°29'17"W), Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 28377 [ex. FMNH 115485]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 22193 (10), MZUSP 58196 (1), USNM 52542 (2). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus starksi de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus starksi de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Lower Amazon River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

stewarti, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:346, Fig. 72 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Río Marañon, log riffle, 1.57 kilometers east-north-east of Juan Velasco Santa Maria de Nieva (4°50'S, 77°51'W), Amazonas, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 30409. Paratypes: many at ANSP, AUM, CUMV, UF, MUSM, USNM. Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus stewarti de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus stewarti de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

tamandua, Sternarchus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:427, Pl. 42 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 14 (pt 7, no. 2); ref. 543] Rio Juruá, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1897.12.1.208. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Orthosternarchus tamandua (Boulenger 1898) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:32 [ref. 21320], Campos-da-Paz 1995:41 [ref. 22512], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:429 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:110 [ref. 25614], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:499 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:269 [ref. 28992], Hilton et al. 2007:3 [ref. 29267], Ferraris et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35236], Bernt et al. 2018:473 [ref. 35797]). Current status: Valid as Orthosternarchus tamandua (Boulenger 1898). Apteronotidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

taphorni, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:349, Fig. 74 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Río Huallaga, Uchiza (ca. 8°29'59"S, 76°22'59"W), Departamento de San Martin, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 6635. Paratypes: ROM 55530 (1), 55531 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus taphorni de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus taphorni de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Huallaga River and left bank tributaries of Ucayali River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

terminalis, Porotergus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:324 [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Upper Amazon, Iquitos, Peru. Holotype: CAS 54912 [ex IU 15994]. Paratypes: CAS 2833 [ex IU 15720] (2). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236]. See Sternarchella calhamazon Lundberg et al. 2013: 171 [ref. 32552]. •Valid as Sternarchella terminalis (Eigenmann & Allen 1942) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:34 [ref. 21320], Albert in Reis et al. 2003:500 [ref. 27061], Lundberg et al. 2013:158 [ref. 32552], Ivanyisky & Albert 2014:572 [ref. 35449], Ferraris et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35236]). •Synonym of Sternarchella schotti (Steindachner 1868) -- (Evans et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35357]). Current status: Synonym of Sternarchella schotti (Steindachner 1868). Apteronotidae. Habitat: freshwater.

villasboasi, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:354, Fig. 77 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Cochoeira de Kaituká, at Altamira (3°12'S, 52°12'W), Rio Xingú, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 28361. Paratypes: INPA 3934 (1), 32084 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus villasboasi de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus villasboasi de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Xingú River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

yepezi, Sternarchorhynchus de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:351, Figs. 75-76 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 159 (no. 1); ref. 30785] Río Portuguesa, fort at Nueva Florida, Santa Rosalía (ca. 8°57'N, 69°01'W), Portuguesa, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 44286. Paratypes: ANSP 165222 (2). Plus one non-type specimen. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchorhynchus yepezi de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchorhynchus yepezi de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Central portions of Orinoco River, Venezuela; possibly Peruvian Amazon. Habitat: freshwater.

zuanoni, Sternarchogiton de Santana [C. D.] & Vari [R. P.] 2010:160, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2010 (no. 1); ref. 30740] Rio Xingú, Município de Altamira, Cachoeira de Kaituká, 3°12'S, 52°12'W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 28356. Paratypes: INPA 3937 (7, 2 c&s), USNM 391712 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Sternarchogiton zuanoni de Santana & Vari 2010 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Valid as Sternarchogiton zuanoni de Santana & Vari 2010. Apteronotidae. Distribution: Kaituká Falls, lower Xingú River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.