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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Aspredinidae: [ 77 ] records


akamai, Micromyzon Friel [J. P.] & Lundberg [J. G.] 1996:643, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1996 (no. 3); ref. 22226] Rio Tocantins, above confluence with Rio Pará, 2°02'S, 49°17'W, Pará, Brazil, elevation 10-14 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 48550. Paratypes: FMNH 105106 (2); MCP 18169 (1); MZUSP 48551 (2), 48552 (1, c&s); USNM 337566 (5, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Micromyzon akamai Friel & Lundberg 1996 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], de Pinna 1998:318 [ref. 23847], Costa & Le Bail 1999:1028 [ref. 24187], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:268 [ref. 28992], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155], Carvalho et al. 2016:51 [ref. 35024]). Current status: Valid as Micromyzon akamai Friel & Lundberg 1996. Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae. Distribution: Lower Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

albifasciatus, Bunocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:2, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 120; ref. 1442] Todos Santos, Río Chapare, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69193. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:22 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Bunocephalus albifasciatus Fowler 1943 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860] as albofasciatus). •Synonym of Dysichthys depressus (Haseman 1911) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:233 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Synonym of Pterobunocephalus depressus (Haseman 1911) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:265 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pterobunocephalus depressus (Haseman 1911). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

aleuropsis, Bunocephalus Cope [E. D.] 1870:568 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pebas, eastern Ecuador [= eastern Peru]. Syntypes: ANSP 8286-88 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:22 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dysichthys aleuropsis (Cope 1870) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:204 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Valid as Bunocephalus aleuropsis Cope 1870 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:612 [ref. 30972], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:138, 189 [ref. 35004], Carvalho et al. 2015:509 [ref. 33972], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Esguícero et al. 2020:114 [ref. 37313]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus aleuropsis Cope 1870. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

aloikae, Bunocephalus amaurus Hoedeman [J. J.] 1961:130 [Bulletin of Aquatic Biology v. 2 (no. 23); ref. 11969] Litany River, Aloiké village, French Guiana. Holotype: ZMA 102229. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:39 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Bunocephalus amaurus Eigenmann 1912, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus amaurus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:612 [ref. 30972]). •Valid as Bunocephalus aloikae Hoedeman 1961 -- (Mol et al. 2012:287 [ref. 32867], Carvalho et al. 2015:509 [ref. 33972], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:76 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus aloikae Hoedeman 1961. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

amaurus, Bunocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:126, Fig. 24; Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Konawaruk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53121 [ex CM 1555]. Paratypes: CAS 35242 [ex IU 11973] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:79 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:19 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:380 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Dysichthys amaurus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401]). •Synonym of Dysichthys coracoideus Cope 1874, but a valid subspecies -- (Mees 1989:216 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •See Le Bail et al. 2000:162 [ref. 24549]. •Valid as Bunocephalus amaurus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:612 [ref. 30972], Carvalho et al. 2015:509 [ref. 33972], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[21] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus amaurus Eigenmann 1912. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Coastal rivers between Orinoco and Amazon River mouths: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonicus, Dysichthys Mees [G. F.] 1989:241, Fig. 21 [Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (Series C, Biological and Medical Sciences) v. 92 (no. 2); ref. 13383] Creek near Todos Santos, upper course of Río Mamoré, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Holotype: ZMA 109264 (larger specimen). Paratypes: BMNH 1938.3.31.34 (2); MCZ 7968 (1), 7979-80 (6, 1); NMW 47618 (1); MZUSP 9678 (3), 27628 (1); ZMA 109264 (smaller specimen), 114217 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dysichthys amazonicus Mees 1989 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Valid as Bunocephalus amazonicus (Mees 1989) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Pseudobunocephalus amazonicus (Mees 1989) -- (Friel 2008:294 [ref. 29834], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:189 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633], Leão et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36648]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobunocephalus amazonicus (Mees 1989). Aspredinidae: Pseudobunocephalinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

anachoretes, Xyliphius Figueiredo [C. A.] & Britto [M. R.] 2010:106, Figs. 1, 2b, 3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 30760] Rio Tocantins below dam of Serra da Mesa Hydropower Plant, affluent of right bank of rio Tocantins, 13°37'51"S, 48°07'01"W, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 31923. Paratypes: MZUSP 89546 (1). •Valid as Xyliphius anachoretes Figueiredo & Britto 2010 -- (Carvalho et al. 2017:26 [ref. 35187]). Current status: Valid as Xyliphius anachoretes Figueiredo & Britto 2010. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Upper rio Tocantins and upper rio Araguaia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

anduzei, Ernstichthys Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1953:5, Fig. 1 [Novedades Cientificas, Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Serie Zoológica No. 11; ref. 1322] Río Salinas, northeast of El Baúl, Estado Cojedes, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MHNLS 28 [not MHNLS 7779]. Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:44 [ref. 23639], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ernstichthys anduzei Fernández-Yépez 1953 -- (Mees 1988:91 [ref. 6401], Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Ernstichthys anduzei Fernández-Yépez 1953. Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

aspredo, Silurus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:304 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] South America. Syntypes: ZMUU Linn. Coll. 48 (1). Type catalog: Wheeler 1991:164, Fig. 7 [ref. 20102], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]. Type information: Wheeler 1989:214 [ref. 21873]. •Valid as Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860], Cervigón 1992:261 [ref. 23827], Le Bail et al. 2000:158 [ref. 24549], Diogo et al. 2001:471 [ref. 25997], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Ferraris 2003:862 [ref. 26999], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155], Phillip et al. 2013:18 [ref. 32896], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], DoNascimiento 2016:530 [ref. 34727], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Lower portions of coastal rivers from Venezuela to northern Brazil: Brazil, French Guiana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

atrizona, Hoplomyzon Myers [G. S.] 1942:95, Fig. 3 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 3121] Brook tributary to Río Zulia, at Estacion Tachira, 60 kilometers north of San Cristobal, Venezuela, elevation about 150 meters. Holotype: CAS-SU 36494. Paratypes: CAS-SU 36495 (5, now 4), USNM 130639 [ex CAS-SU 36495] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:45 [ref. 12291], Ferraris & Vari 1992:9 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Hoplomyzon atrizona Myers 1942 -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860], Taphorn & Marrero 1990:3 [ref. 19839], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155], Carvalho et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35228]). Current status: Valid as Hoplomyzon atrizona Myers 1942. Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

australe, Dysichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] & Ward [D. P.] in Eigenmann, McAtee & Ward 1907:113, Pl. 31 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2) (art. 7); ref. 1261] Corumba, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 35240 [ex IU 10123]. Paratypes: BMNH 1909.6.15.12 (1); CAS 35241 [ex IU 10124] (orig. 10, now 3); NMW 77259 (1), 46685 (2); ZMB 16865 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Dysichthys rugosus (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401]). •Valid as Dysichthys australe Eigenmann & Ward 1907 -- (Mees 1989:229 [ref. 13383]). •Valid as Dycichthys australis Eigenmann & Ward 1907 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Valid as Bunocephalus australis (Eigenmann & Ward 1907) -- (Britski et al. 1999:111 [ref. 24147]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus rugosus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Pseudobunocephalus rugosus (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903) -- (Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobunocephalus rugosus (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903). Aspredinidae: Pseudobunocephalinae. Habitat: freshwater.

barbatus, Xyliphius Alonso de Arámburu [A. S.] & Arámburu [R. H.] 1962:219, Figs. 1-2 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 23 (no. 65); ref. 5772] Río Paraná at Rosario, Province Santa Fe, Argentina. Holotype: MLP 6798 [ex 12-VII-60-26]. Paratypes: MLP 2799 [29-V-40-56] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:15 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Xyliphius barbatus Alonso de Arámburu & Arámburu 1962 -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:57 [ref. 23791], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:265 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:64 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155], Calviño & Castello 2008:55 [ref. 29670], Figueiredo & Britto 2010:105 [ref. 30760], Koerber & Litz 2014:3 [ref. 34967], Mirande & Koerber 2015:36 [ref. 35117], Koerber & Litz 2016:4 [ref. 35098], Carvalho et al. 2017:26 [ref. 35187], Koerber et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36736], Koerber et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37480]). Current status: Valid as Xyliphius barbatus Alonso de Arámburu & Arámburu 1962. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: South America: Paraguay-Paraná River basin (Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay). Habitat: freshwater.

batrachus, Aspredo Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:137 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Tropical American rivers. Holotype (?): ZMUU Linnaean coll. 78 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

batrachus, Aspredo Bleeker [P.] 1864:93 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 20; ref. 14181] Based on Linnaeus 1754, and other literature sources; Linnaeus species named Silurus aspredo by Linnaeus 1758 (see Boeseman 1972:317 [ref. 19698]). Primary homonym of Aspredo batrachus Gronow 1854, probably independently described, permanently invalid. •Synonym of Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Mees 1987:184 [ref. 11510], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bicolor, Bunocephalus Steindachner [F.] 1882:176 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Río Huallaga, Peru. Holotype (unique): MTD F345. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:8, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-1b) [ref. 14353]. •Synonym of Dysichthys coracoideus Cope 1874 -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:208 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus coracoideus (Cope 1874) -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Bunocephalus coracoideus (Cope 1874). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

bifidus, Bunocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Allen 1942:86, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Yurimaguas, Río Huallaga, Peruvian Amazon, Peru. Holotype: CAS 35105 [ex IU 15412]. Paratypes: CAS 35106 [ex IU 15412] (4). Additional original material: CAS 31466 [ex IU 15413] (2, now 1), CAS 31467 [ex IU 15414] (1); UMMZ 66329 [ex IU 15413] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Pearson 1924:9 [ref. 3396]. Holotype established in Pl. 2. •Valid as Dysichthys bifidus (Eigenmann 1942) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:240 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Valid as Bunocephalus bifidus Eigenmann 1942 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Lasso et al. 2001:97 [ref. 25928], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Pseudobunocephalus bifidus (Eigenmann 1942) -- (Friel 2008:294 [ref. 29834], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:189 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633], Leão et al. 2019:120 [ref. 36648]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobunocephalus bifidus (Eigenmann 1942). Aspredinidae: Pseudobunocephalinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

blochii, Cotylephorus Swainson [W.] 1838:354, Fig. 90 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] South American [not stated]. Syntypes: ZMB 3157 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]. Also in Swainson 1839:308 [ref. 4303]. Unneeded new name for Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch to avoid Strickland tautonymy. •Synonym of Aspredo cotylephorus (Bloch 1794) -- (Mees 1987:186 [ref. 11510]). •Synonym of Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cardosoi, Hoplomyzon Carvalho [T. P.], Reis [R. E.] & Friel [J. P.] 2017:[2], Figs. 1-11 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 35228] Caño La Raya tributary to Río Escalante, Hacienda San Jose, Colon, Zulia, Venezuela, approximately 08°50'N, 71°45'W. Holotype: MCNG 375. Paratypes: MCNG. •Valid as Hoplomyzon cardosoi Carvalho, Reis & Friel 2017. Current status: Valid as Hoplomyzon cardosoi Carvalho, Reis & Friel 2017. Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Zulia, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

carvalhoi, Bunocephalus Miranda Ribeiro [P. de] 1944:1, Fig. [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Zoologia, Nova Série No. 13; ref. 13176] Magé, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 1060. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1958:4 [ref. 22034], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Bunocephalus carvalhoi Miranda Ribeiro 1944 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Dysichthys iheringii (Boulenger 1891) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:222 [ref. 13383]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus iheringii Boulenger 1891 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Pseudobunocephalus iheringii (Boulenger 1891) -- (Friel 2008:294 [ref. 29834] by inference, Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobunocephalus iheringii (Boulenger 1891). Aspredinidae: Pseudobunocephalinae. Habitat: freshwater.

chamaizelus, Bunocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:127, Fig 24; Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Erukin, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53122 [ex CM 1556]. Paratypes: (18, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.123 (1); CAS 35243 [ex IU 11976] (2), 35244 [ex IU 11975] (2), 35245 [ex IU 11974] (2); FMNH 7370 (1), 53123-25 (2, 2, 2); MCZ 30088 (1); CAS-SU 21778 (1); USNM 66122 [ex CM] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:79 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:45 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:19 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:9 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dysichthys chamaizelus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:236 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Valid as Bunocephalus chamaizelus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:612 [ref. 30972], Carvalho et al. 2015:509 [ref. 33972] as chaimazelus in one place, see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[21] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus chamaizelus Eigenmann 1912. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

colombianus, Bunocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:10 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Boca de Raspadura, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56038 [ex CM 4828]. Paratypes: CAS 35249 [ex IU 12687] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:79 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:19 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dysichthys colombianus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:237 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Valid as Bunocephalus colombianus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:612 [ref. 30972], Carvalho et al. 2015:509 [ref. 33972], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus colombianus Eigenmann 1912. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

coracoideus, Dysichthys Cope [E. D.] 1874:133 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 26; ref. 931] Nauta, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 21212-15 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:24 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dysichthys coracoideus Cope 1874 -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:207 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Le Bail et al. 2000:162 [ref. 24549]). •Valid as Bunocephalus coracoideus (Cope 1874) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:64 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:612 [ref. 30972], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:137, 189 [ref. 35004], Carvalho et al. 2015:510 [ref. 33972], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Esguícero et al. 2020:114 [ref. 37313]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus coracoideus (Cope 1874). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cotylephorus, Platystacus Bloch [M. E.] 1794:54, Pl. 372 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 8; ref. 463] No locality. Syntypes: ZMB 3157 (2) America plus specimens associated with literature references. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:46 [ref. 24282], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]. On p. 44 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 11 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Aspredo cotylephorus (Bloch 1794) -- (Mees 1987:186 [ref. 11510], Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:160 [ref. 24549]). •Valid as Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794 -- (Cervigón 1992:262 [ref. 23827], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Ferraris 2003:863 [ref. 26999], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155], Phillip et al. 2013:18 [ref. 32896]). Current status: Valid as Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Venezuela to Brazil, including lower portions of coastal rivers: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

depressus, Bunocephalus Haseman [J. D.] 1911:319, Pls. 48 (fig. 1), 49 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (17); ref. 2047] Río Machupo near San Joaquín, Amazon system, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): FMNH 54338 [ex CM 2984]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:79 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:19 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Bunocephalus depressus Haseman 1911 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Dysichthys depressus (Haseman 1911) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:233 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Valid as Pterobunocephalus depressus (Haseman 1911) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155], Koerber 2011:4 [ref. 31122], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:189 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pterobunocephalus depressus (Haseman 1911). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Amazon, Orinoco, Paraná and Paraguay River basins: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

dolichurus, Bunocephalus Delsman [N. C.] 1941:77, Fig. 12 [Mémoires du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique (Ser. 2) No. 21; ref. 13171] Rio Trombetas, near Obidos, Amazon River basin, Brazil. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 359. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:17 [ref. 20755], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Petacara dolichura (Delsman 1941) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Mees 1988:91 [ref. 6401], Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pterobunocephalus dolichurus (Delsman 1941) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:265 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Pterobunocephalus dolichurus (Delsman 1941). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

doriae, Bunocephalus Boulenger [G. A.] 1902:286 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 9 (no. 52) (art. 47); ref. 14846] Villa Rica (Villarrica), Paraguay; Posadas, Río Paraná, Argentina. Syntypes: BMNH 1902.2.10.22-23 (2); MSNG 14274 (1), 14275 (3). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:310 [ref. 10351], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Dysichthys doriae (Boulenger 1902) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:226 [ref. 13383], Gómez & Chebez 1996:57 [ref. 23791] as doriai, Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Casciotta et al. 2003:135 [ref. 28130]). •Valid as Bunocephalus doriae Boulenger 1902 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:112 [ref. 24147], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:64 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131] as doriai, Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:611 [ref. 30972], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:137, 189 [ref. 35004], Carvalho et al. 2015:510 [ref. 33972], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:415 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565] author with parentheses, Koerber et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35267], Esguícero et al. 2020:115 [ref. 37313]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus doriae Boulenger 1902. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Paraguay-Paraná and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia (needs confirmation), Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

erondinae, Bunocephalus Cardoso [A. R.] 2010:608, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 30972] Pelotas, canal São Gonçalo, laguna dos Patos system, 31°46'18"S, 51°18'04"W, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 40877. Paratypes: Many at MCN and MCP. •Valid as Bunocephalus erondinae Cardoso 2010 -- (Carvalho et al. 2015:510 [ref. 33972], Bertaco et al. 2016:415 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus erondinae Cardoso 2010. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos system, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

filamentosus, Aspredo Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:437, Pl. 450 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Cayenne, French Guiana. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4401 (4), B-0594 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:77 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:57 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Aspredinichthys filamentosus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Mees 1987:190 [ref. 11510], Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860], Cervigón 1992:261 [ref. 23827], Le Bail et al. 2000:154 [ref. 24549], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Ferraris 2003:862 [ref. 26999], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:57 [ref. 29155], Phillip et al. 2013:17 [ref. 32896], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Aspredinichthys filamentosus (Valenciennes 1840). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Lower portions of coastal rivers and coastal waters of Venezuela and northern Brazil: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

gronovii, Aspredo Swainson [W.] 1838:332, Fig. 80 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Bunocephalichthys verrucosus (Bloch 1794) -- (Mees 1988:93 [ref. 6401]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Bloch 1794) -- current authors. •Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155], Carvalho et al. 2015:510 [ref. 33972]). Current status: Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

gronovii, Bunocephalichthys Bleeker [P.] 1858:329 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 4 (art. 2); ref. 365] South America. No types known. Type catalog: Boeseman 1972:308 [ref. 19698], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. Based on Gronovius no. 153, Pl. 5 (fig. 3). •Valid as Bunocephalus gronovii (Bleeker 1858) -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

haggini, Bunocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:86, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Upper Amazon system at Iquitos, Peru. Holotype: CAS 35107 [IU 15408]. Paratypes: CAS 35110 [ex IU 15979] (4). Additional original material: CAS 35108 [IU 15409] (2), CAS 35109 [ex IU 15410] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Dysichthys coracoideus Cope 1874 -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:208 [ref. 13383]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus coracoideus (Cope 1874) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Bunocephalus coracoideus (Cope 1874). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

hartti, Bunocephalus Carvalho [T. P.], Cardoso [A. R.], Friel [J. P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2015:499, Figs. 1, 2a-b, 3a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 33972] Minas Gerais, Presidente Juscelino, rio Cipó at Fazenda Duas Barras, Brazil, 18°41'04"S, 43°59'18"W. Holotype: MZUSP 62745. Paratypes: CAS, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP. Corrected species in text. •Valid as Bunocephalus hartti Carvalho, Cardoso, Friel & Reis 2015. Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus hartti Carvalho, Cardoso, Friel & Reis 2015. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Middle rio São Francisco basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hertzi, Bunocephalus Esguícero [A. L. H.], Castro [R. M. C.] & Pereira [T. N. A.] 2020:110, Figs. 2A, 4 [Zootaxa 4742 (no. 1); ref. 37313] Rio Pardo, Rio Mogi-Guaçú, near the Estação Ecológica de Jataí, upper Rio Paraná, Luis Antônio Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, 21°36'44"S, 47°49'09"W. Holotype: LIRP 9861. Paratypes: DZSJRP, LIRP, MZUEL, NUP. •Valid as Bunocephalus hertzi Esguícero, Castro & Pereira 2020. Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus hertzi Esguícero, Castro & Pereira 2020. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hexadactylus, Silurus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:58, 82 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Dutch collection [no locality]. Holotype: MNHN B-0029 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Aspredo cotylephorus (Bloch 1794) -- (Mees 1987:186 [ref. 11510]). •Synonym of Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hypsiurus, Bunocephalus Kner [R.] 1855:98 [9], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Rio Branco, Amazonas. Syntypes: NMW 47626 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:57 [ref. 29155]. On p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Bunocephalus hypsiurus Kner 1855 -- (Mees 1988:89, 91 [ref. 6401]). •Valid as Amaralia hypsiurus (Kner 1855) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Ferraris 1991:225 [ref. 19536], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Britski et al. 1999:111 [ref. 24147], López et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Amaralia hypsiura (Kner 1855) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:261 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:57 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:137, 189 [ref. 35004], Roberts 2015:121 [ref. 33905], Friel & Carvalho 2016:541 [ref. 34327], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Amaralia hypsiura (Kner 1855). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

iheringii, Bunocephalus Boulenger [G. A.] 1891:235, Pl. 26 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891 (pt 2); ref. 17039] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1891.3.16.77-78 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dysichthys iheringii (Boulenger 1891) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:222 [ref. 13383], Gómez & Chebez 1996:57 [ref. 23791], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901] as iheringi). •Valid as Bunocephalus iheringii Boulenger 1891 -- (Malabarba 1989:145 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:64 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131] as iheringi, Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Pseudobunocephalus iheringii (Boulenger 1891) -- (Friel 2008:294 [ref. 29834], Koerber 2011:4 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:189 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:415 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565] as iheringi, Koerber et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35267], Leão et al. 2019:120 [ref. 36648]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobunocephalus iheringii (Boulenger 1891). Aspredinidae: Pseudobunocephalinae. Distribution: Atlantic, Paraguay and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

intonsus, Ernstichthys Stewart [D. J.] 1985:16, Figs. 1f, 3, 9. [Fieldiana Zoology (New Series) No. 25; ref. 5239] Río Napo at Añangu, Napo Province, 0°30.8'S, 76°24.0'W, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): FMNH 94603. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:35 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ernstichthys intonsus Stewart 1985 -- (Mees 1988:91 [ref. 6401], Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Ernstichthys intonsus Stewart 1985. Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae. Distribution: Napo River basin, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

knerii, Bunocephalus Steindachner [F.] 1882:176 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Canelos, eastern Ecuador. Syntypes: (several) NMW 47628 [? formerly NMW 10976-77] (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:9, Pl. 2 (figs. 2-2b) [ref. 14353]. •Valid as Dysichthys knerii (Steindachner 1882) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:220 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901] as kneri). •Valid as Bunocephalus knerii Steindachner 1882 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Diogo et al. 2001:471 [ref. 25997], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:612 [ref. 30972], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Carvalho et al. 2015:510 [ref. 33972], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus knerii Steindachner 1882. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

kryptos, Xiliphius Taphorn [D. C.] & Lilyestrom [C. G.] 1983:43, Fig. 1 [Revista Unellez de Ciencia y Tecnologia v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 19838] Río Aricuaisá, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 1224. Paratypes: Univ. de Los Andes V-2521 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155]. Genus should have been spelled Xyliphius. •Synonym of Xyliphius magdalenae Eigenmann 1912 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23651] as Xiliphius). •Valid as Xyliphius kryptos Taphorn & Lilyestrom 1983 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:265 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155], Calviño & Castello 2008:55 [ref. 29670], Figueiredo & Britto 2010:105 [ref. 30760], Carvalho et al. 2017:26 [ref. 35187], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Xyliphius kryptos Taphorn & Lilyestrom 1983. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

labrosus, Xyliphius Risso [F. J. J.] & Risso [E. N. P. de] 1964:11 [Notas del Museo de Ciencias Naturales del Chaco v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 21159] Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155]. •In the synonymy of Xyliphius barbatus Alonso de Arámburu & Arámburu 1962 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:265 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155], Calviño & Castello 2008:58 [ref. 29760], Carvalho et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35187]). Current status: Synonym of Xyliphius barbatus Alonso de Arámburu & Arámburu 1962. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae.

laevis, Platystacus Bloch [M. E.] 1794:58 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 8; ref. 463] America [Brazil]. Syntypes: ZMB 3153 (3). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:46 [ref. 24282], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155] On p. 47 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 11 [ref. 21381], with reference to pl. 372, apparently in error. •Synonym of Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Mees 1987:184 [ref. 11510], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

larai, Bunocephalus Ihering [R. von] 1930:101, Pl. 13 (figs. 3-3A) [not 4] [Archivos do Instituto Biológico, São Paulo v. 3; ref. 16237] Rio Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Syntypes: (3) Instituto Biológico de São Paulo, lost. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dysichthys larai (Ihering 1930) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:238 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Valid as Bunocephalus larai Ihering 1930 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:611 [ref. 30972], Carvalho et al. 2015:510 [ref. 33972], Esguícero et al. 2020:106 [ref. 37313]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus larai Ihering 1930. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lepturus, Xyliphius Orcés V. [G.] 1962:50, Figs. 1-2 [Ciencia y Naturaleza (Quito) v. 5 (no. 2); ref. 5121] Pastaza: río Pucayacu at confluence with rio Bobonaza (Pastaza-Marañon Dr.), Ecuador, 1°54'21.4"S, 77°13'16.3"W. Holotype: Author's coll. 1307 (wherabaouts unknown). Paratypes: Author's coll. 2020 (1); EPN 870-871 (1, 1), 902 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155]. Locality corrected by Mark Sabaj Pérez, 13 Jan. 2016. •Valid as Xyliphius lepturus Orcés V. 1962 -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:265 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155], Calviño & Castello 2008:55 [ref. 29670], Figueiredo & Britto 2010:105 [ref. 30760], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Carvalho et al. 2017:26 [ref. 35187], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Xyliphius lepturus Orcés V. 1962. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Upper Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

lombarderoi, Xyliphius Risso [F. J. J.] & Risso [E. N. P. de] 1964:12, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Notas del Museo de Ciencias Naturales del Chaco v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 21159] Riacho Barranqueras, Rio Paraná, Argentina. Holotype (unique): personal collection of authors. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155] as location of holotype unknown. Carvalho et al. 2017:26 [ref. 35187] report the holotype lost. •Valid as Xyliphius lombarderoi Risso & Risso 1964 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:265 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155], Calviño & Castello 2008:55 [ref. 29670], Figueiredo & Britto 2010:105 [ref. 30760], Mirande & Koerber 2015:36 [ref. 35117]). •Synonym of Xyliphius barbatus Alonso de Arámburu & Arámburu 1962 -- (Carvalho et al. 2017:26 [ref. 35187], Koerber et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Xyliphius barbatus Alonso de Arámburu & Arámburu 1962. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

lundbergi, Pseudobunocephalus Friel [J. P.] 2008:295, Figs. 3-4 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29834] Caño Barranca, about 1.25 hours downstream from Jabillal (opposite bank) on río Caura, 7°08'N, 65°04'W, Bolivar, Venezuela. Holotype: ANSP 168817. Paratypes: ANSP 172504 (10), 172505 (375, 5 c&s); AUM 47713 (6); CUMV 94217 (8); FMNH 117789 (6); INPA 29030 (6); MBUCV-V-35369 (6); MCNG 21122 (3); MCP 42737 (6); MZUSP 99617; USNM 393553 (6). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Pseudobunocephalus lundbergi Friel 2008 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633], Leão et al. 2019:123 [ref. 36648]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobunocephalus lundbergi Friel 2008. Aspredinidae: Pseudobunocephalinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

lyriformis, Agmus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:128, Fig. 25; Pl. 3 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Gluck Island, Rupununi River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53120 [ex CM 1554]. Paratypes: CAS 46357 [ex IU 11972] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:79 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:6 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Bunocephalichthys verrucosus (Bloch 1794) -- (Mees 1988:93 [ref. 6401]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Bloch 1794) -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Valid as Agmus lyriformis Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenae, Xyliphius Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:10 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Girardot, Colombia. Holotype (unique): FMNH 56039 [ex CM 4829]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:79 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:85 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Xyliphius magdalenae Eigenmann 1912 -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:69 [ref. 23651] as Xiliphius, Diogo et al. 2001:471 [ref. 25997], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:265 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155], Calviño & Castello 2008:55 [ref. 29670], Figueiredo & Britto 2010:105 [ref. 30760], Carvalho et al. 2017:26 [ref. 35187], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Xyliphius magdalenae Eigenmann 1912. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

megistus, Hoplomyzon Orcés V. [G.] 1961:3, Figs. 1-2 [Ciencia y Naturaleza (Quito) v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 6358] Small river off of the Río Chicherota, Río Bobonaza system, Province Pastaza, eastern Ecuador. Holotype: Author's coll. 4305 (whereabouts unknown). Paratypes: Univ. Cent. Ecuador 270 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ernstichthys megistus (Orcés V. 1961) -- (Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Ernstichthys megistus (Orcés V. 1961). Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae. Distribution: Bobonaza and Marañón River basins: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

melanopterus, Xyliphius Orcés V. [G.] 1962:52, Figs. 3-4 [Ciencia y Naturaleza (Quito) v. 5 (no. 2); ref. 5121] Bajo Pucayacu no lejos de su desembocadura en el Bobonaza, Amazon system, Colombia. Holotype: Author's coll. 2021. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Xyliphius melanopterus Orcés V. 1962 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:265 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:62 [ref. 29155], Calviño & Castello 2008:55 [ref. 29670], Figueiredo & Britto 2010:105 [ref. 30760], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:189 [ref. 35004], Carvalho et al. 2017:26 [ref. 35187], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Xyliphius melanopterus Orcés V. 1962. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Upper Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

melas, Bunocephalus Cope [E. D.] 1874:132 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 26; ref. 931] Nauta, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21235 (in pieces). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:22 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Benocephalus melas Cope 1874 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Dysichthys aleuropsis (Cope 1870) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:204 [ref. 13383]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus aleuropsis Cope 1870 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Bunocephalus aleuropsis Cope 1870. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

minerim, Bunocephalus Carvalho [T. P.], Cardoso [A. R.], Friel [J. P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2015:505, Figs. 2c, 3b, 5, 6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 33972] Minas Gerais, Guarda-Mor municipality, córrego Guarda-Mor, near the town of Guarda-Mor on highway BR-364, Brazil, 17°44’52"S, 47°05’40"W. Holotype: MCP 47087. Paratypes: ANSP, UFRGS, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP. •Valid as Bunocephalus minerim Carvalho, Cardoso, Friel & Reis 2015 -- (Esguícero et al. 2020:115 [ref. 37313]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus minerim Carvalho, Cardoso, Friel & Reis 2015. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Upper and middle rio São Francisco basins, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Bunocephalus Güntert [H.] 1942:28, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 138 (nos 1/2); ref. 12954] Small running marshy waters in Dept. Villetta, Paraguay. Syntypes: NMBA 5296-98 (3), 5299-5300 (2). Type catalog: Kottelat & Sutter 1988:55 [ref. 13796], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Bunocephalus minutus Güntert 1942 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Dysichthys iheringii (Boulenger 1891) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:222 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901] as iheringi). •Synonym of Bunocephalus iheringii Boulenger 1891 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Pseudobunocephalus iheringii (Boulenger 1891) -- (Friel 2008:294 [ref. 29834] by inference, Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobunocephalus iheringii (Boulenger 1891). Aspredinidae: Pseudobunocephalinae. Habitat: freshwater.

mystus, Aspredo Meuschen [F. C.] 1778:34 [Museum Gronovianum; ref. 17682] Original not seen. Not available, published in a rejected work (Opinion 260). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae.

nematophorus, Platystacus Bleeker [P.] 1862:371 [1] [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 14; ref. 390] Suriname. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3105. Type catalog: Boeseman 1972:308 [ref. 19698], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155] On p. 1 of separate. Type information: Van der Stigchel 1947:14 [ref. 13094]. •Synonym of Aspredo cotylephorus (Bloch 1794) -- (Mees 1987:186 [ref. 11510]). •Synonym of Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

nicoi, Acanthobunocephalus Friel [J. P.] 1995:90, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 21676] Río Sipapo, 200 meters from Salto Remo, 4°34'N, 67°18'W, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 29000. Paratypes: ANSP 160698 (1), 168816 (3); MCNG 21843 (9, 2 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:57 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Acanthobunocephalus nicoi Friel 1995 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Costa & Le Bail 1999:1028 [ref. 24187], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:261 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:57 [ref. 29155], Reis et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34496]). Current status: Valid as Acanthobunocephalus nicoi Friel 1995. Aspredinidae: Pseudobunocephalinae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco River basin, including Sipapo, Ramoni and Casiquiare rivers, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

orinoco, Micromyzon Carvalho [T. P.], Lundberg [J. G.], Baskin [J. N.], Friel [J. P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2016:39, Figs. 1-10 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 165 (no. 1); ref. 35024] Río Orinoco, deep channel upstream of Los Barrancos, circa 183 nautical miles from sea buoy in Boca Grande navigation channel, Anzoátegui, Venezuela, 08°21'N, 62°43'W. Holotype: ANSP 198335. Paratypes: ANSP. •Valid as Micromyzon orinoco Carvalho, Lundberg, Baskin, Friel & Reis 2016. Current status: Valid as Micromyzon orinoco Carvalho, Lundberg, Baskin, Friel & Reis 2016. Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae. Distribution: Lower Orinoco River, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

oviraptor, Amaralia Friel [J. P.] & Carvalho [T. P.] 2016:533, Figs. 1, 2, 3A, 4-6, 7A [Zootaxa 4088 (no. 4); ref. 34327] Rio Cuiabá, Santo Antônio do Leverger municipality, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 15°52'S, 56°05'W. Holotype: MZUSP 4423. Paratypes: ANSP, MNRJ, MZUSP, NRM, UMMZ. •Valid as Amaralia oviraptor Friel & Carvalho 2016 -- (Koerber et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Amaralia oviraptor Friel & Carvalho 2016. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: South America: Paraná-Paraguay River system, Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

papillatus, Hoplomyzon Stewart [D. J.] 1985:8, Figs. 1b, 2b, 4b, 5 [Fieldiana Zoology (New Series) No. 25; ref. 5239] Río Aguarico, 1 kilometer upstream from confluence with Río Shushufindi, Napo Province, 0°17'S, 76°24.5'W, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): FMNH 94908. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:47 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hoplomyzon papillatus Stewart 1985 -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860], Taphorn & Marrero 1990:3 [ref. 19839], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Carvalho et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35228], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hoplomyzon papillatus Stewart 1985. Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

petroleus, Hoplomyzon atrizona Schultz [L. P.] 1944:248, Pl. 4 (fig. C); Fig. 4a [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Motatán, 4 kilometers above Motatán, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121070. Paratypes: USNM 121071 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:10 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Hoplomyzon atrizona Myers 1942, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Hoplomyzon atrizona Myers 1942 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155], Carvalho et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35228]). Current status: Synonym of Hoplomyzon atrizona Myers 1942. Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

quadriradiatus, Dysichthys Mees [G. F.] 1989:244, Fig. 23 [Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (Series C, Biological and Medical Sciences) v. 92 (no. 2); ref. 13383] Río Samiria, Chinguito [=Cocha Shinguita or Shirguita], Peru. Holotype: MHNG 2157.21. Paratypes: MHNG 2430.18 (4). Type catalog: Weber 1998:9 [ref. 23532], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dysichthys quadriradiatus Mees 1989 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Valid as Bunocephalus quadriradiatus (Mees 1989) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745]). •Valid as Pseudobunocephalus quadriradiatus (Mees 1989) -- (Friel 2008:294 [ref. 29834], Leão et al. 2019:123 [ref. 36648]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobunocephalus quadriradiatus (Mees 1989). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

retropinnis, Bunocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Allen 1942:85, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Cacequi, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 35246 [ex IU 15332, not 14332]. Paratypes: CAS 35247 [ex IU 15332] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. Holotype established in Pl. 2. •Valid as Bunocephalus retropinnis Eigenmann 1942 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Dysichthys doriae (Boulenger 1902) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:226 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus doriae Boulenger 1902 - (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:611 [ref. 30972], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Bunocephalus doriae Boulenger 1902. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

rugosus, Bunocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:498 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] Laguna near Arroyo Chagalalina, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS [ex IU 9819] (apparently lost). Eigenmann specimens (possibly types): CAS 76888 [ex IU 10131] (1), ZMB 16868 (1), 17051 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dysichthys rugosus (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Gómez & Chebez 1996:57 [ref. 23791], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Status uncertain and type lost -- (Mees 1989:247 [ref. 13383]). •Valid as Bunocephalus rugosus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:64 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Pseudobunocephalus rugosus (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903) -- (Friel 2008:294 [ref. 29834], Koerber 2011:4 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:189 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35267], Leão et al. 2019:123 [ref. 36648]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobunocephalus rugosus (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903). Aspredinidae: Pseudobunocephalinae. Distribution: Paraguay-Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

salathei, Bunocephalus Myers [G. S.] 1927:125 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 3096] About 100 kilometers from Rio de Janeiro, Morro Ajudo, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 31583. Paratypes: MNHN 1932-0202 [ex CAS-SU] (1), CAS-SU 24072 (1), USNM 92975 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:77 [ref. 19575], Ferraris & Vari 1992:9 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Bunocephalus salathei Myers 1927 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Dysichthys iheringii (Boulenger 1891) -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Mees 1989:222 [ref. 13383], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901] as iheringi). •Synonym of Bunocephalus iheringii Boulenger 1891 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:59 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Pseudobunocephalus iheringii (Boulenger 1891) -- (Friel 2008:294 [ref. 29834] by inference, Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobunocephalus iheringii (Boulenger 1891). Aspredinidae: Pseudobunocephalinae. Habitat: freshwater.

sapito, Dupouyichthys Schultz [L. P.] 1944:245, Pl. 4 (fig. D); Fig. 4b [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Motatán, at the bridge 22 kilometers north of Motatán, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121072. Paratypes: MCZ 37295 [ex USNM 121074] (1); USNM 121073 (3), 121074 (3, now 2), 121122 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:9 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dupouyichthys sapito Schultz 1944 -- (Mees 1988:90 [ref. 6401], Burgess 1989:304 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:76 [ref. 23651], Mojica et al. 2000:353 [ref. 25593], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155], Reis et al. 2016:15 [ref. 34496], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Dupouyichthys sapito Schultz 1944. Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae. Distribution: Magdalena River and Lake Maracaibo basins: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

scabriceps, Bunocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:49 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Jutahy, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 7967 (42-mm specimen). Paralectotypes: MCZ 7967 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype established by Eigenmann 1912:Pl. 4 (caption). •Synonym of Bunocephalichthys verrucosus (Bloch 1794), but a valid subspecies -- (Mees 1988:89, 93 [ref. 6401], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901]). •Valid as Bunocephalus scabriceps Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Bunocephalus scabriceps or as a subspecies Bunocephalus verrucosus scabriceps -- (Ferraris 1991:224 [ref. 19536]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

sexcirrhis, Aspredo Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:441 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Suriname. Syntypes: MNHN A-9313 (1), B-0029 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:77 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Aspredo cotylephorus (Bloch 1794) -- (Mees 1987:186 [ref. 11510]). •Synonym of Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

sexpapilostoma, Hoplomyzon Taphorn [D. C.] & Marrero [C.] 1990:4, Figs. 1-4 [Fieldiana Zoology (New Series) No. 61; ref. 19839] Río Masparro at site of Masparro Dam, Estado Barinas, Venezuela, 8°50'40"N, 70°06'00"W. Holotype: MCNG 18669. Paratypes: AMNH 97232SW [ex MCNG 5376] (1, c&s); MCNG 5376 (orig. 70), 381 (6), 382 (12), 5480 (4), 6439 (2), 8530 (4), 8968 (1), 9805 (5), 11825 (1), 15507 (2), 18741 (2), 18906 (7), 19279 (1), 19780 (4); FMNH 97762 (5); MBUCV-V-17791 (5); NRM A88/1983457.4231 (5); UF 47525 [ex MCNG 5376] (4). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hoplomyzon sexpapilostoma Taphorn & Marrero 1990 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155], Carvalho et al. 2017:[15] [ref. 35228], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:76 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Hoplomyzon sexpapilostoma Taphorn & Marrero 1990. Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

sicuephorus, Aspredo Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:439 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] La Mana River, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6362. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:76 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155] •Synonym of Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Mees 1987:184 [ref. 11510], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

sicyephorus, Aspredo Günther [A.] 1864:269 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Unjustified emendation of Aspredo sicuephorus Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840. •Synonym of Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus 1758). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

sipaliwini, Bunocephalus amaurus Hoedeman [J. J.] 1961:130, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Aquatic Biology v. 2 (no. 23); ref. 11969] Sipaliwini, Suriname, 20 kilometers from frontier with Brazil. Holotype: ZMA 102228. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:40 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Bunocephalus amaurus Eigenmann 1912, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Dysichthys coracoideus Cope 1874 -- (Mees 1989:216 [ref. 13383]). •Synonym of Bunocephalus amaurus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:612 [ref. 30972], Carvalho et al. 2015:509 [ref. 33972]). Current status: Synonym of Bunocephalus amaurus Eigenmann 1912. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

sofiae, Xyliphius Sabaj Pérez [M. H.], Carvalho [T. P.] & Reis [R. E.] in Carvalho, Reis & Sabaj 2017:15, Figs. 1, 3A, 4-7, 8A, 9C [Copeia v. 105 (no. 1); ref. 35187] Río Amazonas, main channel in vicinity of Iquitos, Maynas, Loreto, Peru, 03°42'21"S, 073°12'14"W. Holotype (unique): ANSP 182322. •Valid as Xyliphius sofiae Sabaj Pérez, Carvalho & Reis 2017. Current status: Valid as Xyliphius sofiae Sabaj Pérez, Carvalho & Reis 2017. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Iquitos, Río Amazonas, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

spectrum, Aspredo Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:137 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Tropical America. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]. Based on Gronovius 1763, no. 324 and Seba 1734-65, Pl. 29 (fig. 9). •Synonym of Aspredo cotylephorus (Bloch 1794) -- (Mees 1987:186 [ref. 11510]). •Synonym of Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794 -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:264 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:61 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch 1794. Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tibicen, Aspredo Valenciennes [A.] (ex Temminck) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:438 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Suriname. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3111. Type information: Boeseman 1972:304 [ref. 19698]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155]. For locality information see Boeseman 1972:304 [ref. 19698]. •Valid as Aspredinichthys tibicen (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Mees 1987:188 [ref. 11510], Cervigón 1992:261 [ref. 23827], Le Bail et al. 2000:156 [ref. 24549], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Ferraris 2003:862 [ref. 26999], Friel in Reis et al. 2003:262 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:58 [ref. 29155], Phillip et al. 2013:18 [ref. 32896], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Aspredinichthys tibicen (Valenciennes 1840). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Lower portions of coastal rivers and in coastal waters in Venezuela to northern Brazil: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

timbira, Pseudobunocephalus Leão [M. D. V.], Carvalho [T. P.], Reis [R. E.] & Wosiacki [W. B.] 2019:111, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4586 (no. 1); ref. 36648] Jundiá Creek, Mearim River basin, Alto Alegre do Pindaré, Maranhão, Brazil, 3°39'14"S, 45°42'19"W. Holotype: MPEG 21057. Paratypes: INPA, MCN, MCP, MHNG, MPEG, MZUSP. •Valid as Pseudobunocephalus timbira Leão, Carvalho, Reis & Wosiacki 2019. Current status: Valid as Pseudobunocephalus timbira Leão, Carvalho, Reis & Wosiacki 2019. Aspredinidae: Pseudobunocephalinae. Distribution: Lower Tocantins and Mearim River drainages, north and northeast Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

verrucosa, Aspredo Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:137 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Tropical America. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Bunocephalus verucosus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

verrucosus, Platystacus Bloch [M. E.] 1794:63, Pl. 373 (fig. 3) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 8; ref. 463] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. On p. 51 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 11 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Bunocephalus verrucosus (Bloch 1794) -- (Mees 1988:89, 93 [ref. 6401], Burgess 1989:303 [ref. 12860], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Ferraris 1991:224 [ref. 19536]). •Secondary homonym of Silurus verrucosus Walbaum 1792; synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Habitat: freshwater.

verrucosus, Silurus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:574 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155]. Based on Gronovius 1754, Pl. 5 (fig. 3). •Valid as Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Friel in Reis et al. 2003:263 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:60 [ref. 29155], Cardoso 2010:612 [ref. 30972], Barriga S. 2014:110 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35633], Esguícero et al. 2020:115 [ref. 37313]). Current status: Valid as Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792). Aspredinidae: Aspredininae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.