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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Batrachoididae: [ 135 ] records


afuerae, Porichthys Evermann [B. W.] & Radcliffe [L.] 1917:152, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 95; ref. 1284] Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 77552. •Synonym of Aphos porosus (Valenciennes 1837). Current status: Synonym of Aphos porosus (Valenciennes 1837). Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Habitat: marine.

albofasciatus, Batrichthys Smith [J. L. B.] 1934:99, Pl. 5 (fig. B) [Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa v. 22 (pt 1); ref. 4064] Great Fish Point, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] [ex AMG] 98. •Valid as Batrichthys albofasciatus Smith 1934 -- (Hutchins 1986:359 [ref. 5673], Greenfield et al. 2008:681 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Batrichthys albofasciatus Smith 1934. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

albolineatus, Bathybatrachus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & von Bonde [C.] 1924:21, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa v. 3 (no. 7) (1922); ref. 1649] South Africa, Pickle station 470, depth 250 fathoms. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Considered unidentifiable and description inadequate, near Batrichthys Smith 1934 -- (Hutchins 1986:358 [ref. 5673]). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: marine.

algeriensis, Batrachus Guichenot [A.] 1850:[81], Pl. 5 [Histoire naturelle des reptiles et poissons; ref. 1940] Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Reference to this plate on text page 81 suggests that it is described as Batrachus planifrons in the text; technically, if the plates appeared at the same time as the text then the valid name is determined by a first reviser. •Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) based on placement of Batachus planifrons Guechinot on p. 81 -- (Monod 1973:657 [ref. 7193], Roux 1990:471 [ref. 15312]). Current status: Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

amazonica, Thalassophryne Steindachner [F.] 1876:161 [113] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Mouth of Rio Negro and at Tabatinga and Xingú, Brazil. Syntypes: (at least 3) NMW (not found in 1995). On p. 113 of separate. •Valid as Thalassophryne amazonica Steindachner 1876 -- (Collette 1966:849 [ref. 14192], Collette in Reis et al. 2003:510 [ref. 27061], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192], Greenfield et al. 2008:675 [ref. 30046], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:47 [ref. 31492], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Thalassophryne amazonica Steindachner 1876. Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

analis, Porichthys Hubbs [C. L.] & Schultz [L. P.] 1939:485 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 86 (no. 3060); ref. 2263] Gulf of California, Mexico, 29°54'30"N, 113°01'00"W, Albatross station 3017, depth 58 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 46645. Paratypes: USNM 106503 (1). •Valid as Porichthys analis Hubbs & Schultz 1939 -- (Walker & Rosenblatt 1988:889 [ref. 9284], Allen & Robertson 1994:80 [ref. 22193], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:916 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:228 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:292 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:96 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys analis Hubbs & Schultz 1939. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

apalocerus, Opsanus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1817:453 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 1; ref. 18585] Not available, name only. Batrachoididae.

apiatus, Batrachus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837:477 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 12; ref. 1006] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: MNHN A-4682 (1), 2991 (1). •Valid as Batrichthys apiatus (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Hutchins 1986:359 [ref. 5673], Greenfield et al. 2008:681 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Batrichthys apiatus (Valenciennes 1837). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aquilonarius, Perulibatrachus Greenfield [D. W.] 2005:77, Figs. 1 A-B [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 56 (no. 7); ref. 28203] Ennur Fisheries Station, Madras, India. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 41322. •Valid as Perulibatrachus aquilonarius Greenfield 2005 -- (Greenfield et al. 2008:684 [ref. 30046], Bineesh & Greenfield 2011:63 [ref. 31312]). Current status: Valid as Perulibatrachus aquilonarius Greenfield 2005. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: India (2 specimens). Habitat: marine.

argentinus, Batrachus Berg [C.] 1897:300 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires v. 5; ref. 14623] Mar del Plata, Atlantic coast, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MACN 4592. Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:99 [ref. 23697]. •Valid as Triathalassothia argentinus (Berg 1897) -- (Greenfield & Greenfield 1973:563 [ref. 7128]). •Valid as Triathalassothia argentina (Berg 1897) -- (Menni & Miquelarena 1976:207 [ref. 31498], Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:340 [ref. 23682], Greenfield 2006:947 [ref. 28909], Greenfield et al. 2008:685 [ref. 30046], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Nión et al. 2016:40 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Triathalassothia argentina (Berg 1897). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: marine.

astrifer, Opsanus Robins [C. R.] & Starck [W. A., II] 1965:247, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 78; ref. 9250] Turneffe Islands, coral cave, 200 yards east-southeast of Cay Bokel, Belize, depth 15 feet. Holotype: USNM 231719. Paratypes: ANSP 102736 (3), UF 209415 [ex UMML 9415] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Opsanus astrifer Robins & Starck 1965 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:172 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Sanopus astrifer (Robins & Starck 1965) -- (Collette 1974:198 [ref. 5218], Collette 2001:14 [ref. 25398], Collette 2003:1040 [ref. 26981], Smith et al. 2003:13 [ref. 27621], Greenfield et al. 2008:677 [ref. 30046], Lobel & Lobel 2011:50 [ref. 31774]). Current status: Valid as Sanopus astrifer (Robins & Starck 1965). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Belize. Habitat: marine.

barbatus, Batrachus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837:498 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 12; ref. 1006] Guinea. No types known. •Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Monod 1973:657 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barbatus, Opsanus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:917, Pl. 91 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81009. •Valid as Opsanus barbatus Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:171 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Sanopus barbatus (Meek & Hildebrand 1928) -- (Collette 1974:189 [ref. 5218], Collette 2003:1035 [ref. 26981], Smith et al. 2003:13 [ref. 27621], Greenfield et al. 2008:677 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Sanopus barbatus (Meek & Hildebrand 1928). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bathoiketes, Porichthys Gilbert [C. R.] 1968:710, Figs. 3a, 12c, 13a [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 7893] Caribbean, off Nicaragua, 12°26'N, 82°26'W, Oregon station 3579, depth 125 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 187846. Paratypes: ANSP 103653 (1); FMNH 66959 (1); LACM 6986-1 (1); MCZ 45396 [ex UF] (1); TU 18572-74 (9, 1, 3), 19928 (2); UF 11636 (1), 12965 (12), 14382 (1), 19231-36 [ex TABL] (2, 1, 3, 2, 1, 1), 221954 [ex UMML 21954] (1); UMMZ 186508 (1); USNM 159401 (3), 187844-46 (2, 4, 1), 200607 [ex 187846] (5). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:128-129 [ref. 20861], Gilbert 1974:111 [ref. 21035], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621], Bart & Taylor 1993:67 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Porichthys bathoiketes Gilbert 1968 -- (Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:240 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:268 [ref. 23827], Collette 2003:1039 [ref. 26981], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys bathoiketes Gilbert 1968. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

beninensis, Batrachoides Regan [C. T.] 1915:130 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 15 (no. 85); ref. 15006] Lagos, Nigeria. Lectotype: BMNH 1914.11.2.67. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1914.11.2.68-69 (2). Lectotype selected by Collette & Russo 1981:221 [ref. 5575]. •Synonym of Batrachoides liberiensis (Steindachner 1867) -- (Collette & Russo 1981:219 [ref. 5575], Collette & Greenfield 2016:2039 [ref. 34595]). Current status: Synonym of Batrachoides liberiensis (Steindachner 1867). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

beta, Batrachus tau Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] (ex Günther) 1880:334 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 98); ref. 18135] Off Institute of Marine Science dock, Aransas Pass, Port Aransas, Aransas County, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 167103. Paratypes: USNM 746 (2), 5149 (now 3, orig. 1), 21477 (1), 23541 (1); UMMZ 167104 (3). Appeared first in Günther 1861:167 [ref. 1964] with the symbol beta for the southern variety; regarded as non-Latinized and unavailable. Appeared in Goode & Bean as above as "Batrachus tau, Linnaeus, subsp. beta, Günther. •Valid as Opsanus beta (Goode & Bean 1880) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:84 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:77 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:810 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:172 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Collette 2001:3 [ref. 25398], Collette 2003:1037 [ref. 26981], Smith et al. 2003:12 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:179 [ref. 28615], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], Lasso-Alcalá et al. 2011:576 [ref. 31520], Page et al. 2013:96 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Opsanus beta (Goode & Bean 1880). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bahamas and Florida (U.S.A.), and Gulf of Mexico; invasive in Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

biaculeatus, Batrachus Steindachner [F.] 1867:516 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 17; ref. 18787] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): NMW 76576. Batrachoididae. Habitat: marine.

borealis, Batrachus Nilsson [S.] 1832:99 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Codano Bay, Norway. Holotype (unique): ZMUL. •Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Monod 1973:657 [ref. 7193], Roux 1990:471 [ref. 15312]). Current status: Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

boulengeri, Batrachoides Gilbert [C. H.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:182, Pl. 31 (figs. 57-57a) [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences v. 4; ref. 1639] Panama Bay, Panama (Pacific). Holotype: CAS-SU 6487. Paratypes: BMNH 1903.5.15.199 [from Jordan] (1); CAS-SU 12815-16 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:147 [ref. 12291]. Holotype established in caption to Pl. 31. •Valid as Batrachoides boulengeri Gilbert & Starks 1904 -- (Collette & Russo 1981:200 [ref. 5575], Allen & Robertson 1994:78 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:66 [ref. 23101], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:914 [ref. 22829], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], Ibagón E. et al. 2010:46 [ref. 31492], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Batrachoides boulengeri Gilbert & Starks 1904. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Colombia, El Salvador and Panama. Habitat: marine.

branneri, Thalassophryne Starks [E. C.] 1913:72, Pl. 13 [Leland Stanford Jr. University Publications, University Series; ref. 4197] Lagoon several miles above Natal, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 22223. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:147 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Thalassophryne nattereri Steindachner 1876 -- (Collette 1966:856 [ref. 14192], Ibagón et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31492]). Current status: Synonym of Thalassophryne nattereri Steindachner 1876. Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Opsanus Rotundo [M. M.], Spinelli [M.] & Zavala-Camin [L. A.] 2005:95, Figs. 1-2 [Revista Ceciliana Ano 16 (no. 23); ref. 28538] Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 88078. Paratypes: Many lots at AZUSC and MZUSP. •Synonym of Opsanus beta (Goode & Bean 1880) -- (Caires et al. 2007:1 [ref. 29257], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Synonym of Opsanus beta (Goode & Bean 1880). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Estado de São Paulo, Brazil [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

broadbenti, Batrachomoeus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:49 [Annals of the Queensland Museum No. 9 (pt 2); ref. 3284] Cardwell, eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.874. Paratypes: ?QM unregist. [ex QM I.874] (1). •Synonym of Batrachomoeus trispinosus (Günther 1861) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:272 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:631 [ref. 29004], Kottelat 2013:274 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Batrachomoeus trispinosus (Günther 1861). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

budkeri, Batrachus Roux [C.] in Collignon, Rossignol & Roux 1957:222, Fig. 95 [Office de la recherche scientifique et technique Outre-Mer, Paris; ref. 12111] Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1970-0041. •Synonym of Perulibatrachus elminensis (Bleeker 1863) -- (Hutchins 1986:360 [ref. 5673], Roux 1990:472 [ref. 15312], Collette & Greenfield 2016:2042 [ref. 34595]). Current status: Synonym of Perulibatrachus elminensis (Bleeker 1863). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: marine.

bufo, Lophius Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:463 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Habitat: marine.

caloundrae, Pelophiletor Ogilby [J. D.] 1907:13 [ ref. 19275] Name only and not available. •In the synonymy of Batrachomoeus dubius (Shaw 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989: [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:630 [ref. 29004]). Current status: Synonym of Batrachomoeus dubius (Shaw 1790). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae.

celatus, Batrachus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:170, Pl. 50 (fig. 161) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Habitat: marine.

cerapalus, Opsanus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1818:204 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (3) (Jan. 1818); ref. 3585] Atlantic; North America. No types known. •Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Habitat: marine.

chaetodon, Cottus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:62 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Habitat: marine.

chilensis, Batrachus Guichenot [A.] 1848:297 [Fauna Chilena.... in Gay.; ref. 1939] Chile. No types known. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Aphos porosus (Valenciennes 1837). Current status: Synonym of Aphos porosus (Valenciennes 1837). Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Habitat: marine.

cirrhosus, Batrachus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:500 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: NMW 86595 (1), SMNS 1756 (1), ZMB 10589 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:6 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:15 [ref. 29864]. •Valid as Thalassothia cirrhosa (Klunzinger 1871) -- (Dor 1984:53 [ref. 29757], Baranes & Golani 1993:304 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:13 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Barchatus cirrhosus (Klunzinger 1871) -- (Greenfield et al. 2008:679 [ref. 30046], Greenfield 2014:668 [ref. 33602], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492] as cirrhosa, Golani & Fricke 2018:37 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Barchatus cirrhosus (Klunzinger 1871). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

coeca, Thalassophryne De Vis [C. W.] 1884:546 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Queensland coast, Australia. No types known. •Synonym of Batrachomoeus dubius (Shaw 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:271 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:630 [ref. 29004]). Current status: Synonym of Batrachomoeus dubius (Shaw 1790). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: marine.

congicus, Batrachus Reichenow [A.] in Peters 1877:622 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1877; ref. 18613] Chinchoxo, western Africa. Holotype: ZMB 10180. •Questionable synonym of Perulibatrachus elminensis (Bleeker 1863) -- (Roux 1990:472 [ref. 15312]). Current status: Synonym of Perulibatrachus elminensis (Bleeker 1863). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: marine.

conspicillum, Batrachus Cuvier [G.] 1829:253 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality [Suriname]. Non-types: ?MNHN A-4740 [ex NMW] (1). Available from footnote as, "Batr. conspicillum, N., ou le prétendu Batr. tau, Bl., pl. lxvii, f. 2 et 3." See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837:495 [ref. 1006]. •Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Monod 1973:657 [ref. 7193] but dating to 1837, Collette & Greenfield 2016:2041 [ref. 34595]). •Possibly valid -- (Collette et al. 2006:937 [ref. 28910]). Current status: Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: West Africa: Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ghana [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cryptocentrus, Batrachus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837:485 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 12; ref. 1006] Bahia, Brazil. No types known. •Valid as Amphichthys cryptocentrus (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Greenfield & Greenfield 1973:563 [ref. 7128], Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:239 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:179 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:266 [ref. 23827], Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:339 [ref. 23682], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221] as criptosentrum, Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Collette 2003:1031 [ref. 26981], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192], Greenfield et al. 2008:675 [ref. 30046], Ibagón et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31492]). Current status: Valid as Amphichthys cryptocentrus (Valenciennes 1837). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Northern South America from Panama to Brazil, western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

dahli, Pseudobatrachus Rendahl [H.] 1922:195 [Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne v. 60; ref. 3701] Roebuck Bay, northwestern Australia. Holotype: ZMUO J2996. Paratypes: NRM 20445 (1), ZMUO J5231 (5). Type catalog: Pethon 1969:13 [ref. 19268]. •Valid as Batrachomoeus dahli (Rendahl 1922) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:271 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:62 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:21 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:629 [ref. 29004], Greenfield et al. 2008:681 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Batrachomoeus dahli (Rendahl 1922). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

damaranus, Batrachoides Barnard [K. H.] 1927:79 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 20 (no. 115) (art. 8); ref. 193] Walvis Bay, Namibia, southeastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): SAM 11993. Also appeared as new in Barnard 1927:995, Pl. 37 (fig. 1) [ref. 194]. •Synonym of Chatrabus melanurus (Barnard 1927) -- (Hutchins 1986:359 [ref. 5673]). •Valid as Chatrabus damaranus (Barnard 1927) -- (Roux 1990:470 [ref. 15312], Collette et al. 2006:937 [ref. 28910], Greenfield et al. 2008:681 [ref. 30046], Collette & Greenfield 2016:2040 [ref. 34595]). Current status: Valid as Chatrabus damaranus (Barnard 1927). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean: Angola to South Africa. Habitat: marine.

depressa, Thalassophryne Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:497, Fig. 95 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Gulf of Guayaquil, Puerto Pizarro, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 128235. •Synonym of Daector dowi (Jordan & Gilbert 1887) -- (Collette 1966:862 [ref. 14192]). Current status: Synonym of Daector dowi (Jordan & Gilbert 1887). Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Habitat: marine.

devincenzii, Triathalassothia Fowler [H. W.] 1943:331, Figs. 23-25 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1444] East-southeast of Dupa de lobos, Uruguay, depth 80 feet. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70373. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Triathalassothia argentina (Berg 1897) -- (Greenfield & Greenfield 1973:563 [ref. 7128] as argentinus, Menni & Miquelarena 1976:207 [ref. 31498]). Current status: Synonym of Triathalassothia argentina (Berg 1897). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: marine.

dichrostomus, Opsanus Collette [B. B.] 2001:3, Figs. 1, 2a [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 731; ref. 25398] Belize City near island across from Fisheries Laboratory, Belize, depth 1-3 meters. Holotype: USNM 361063. Paratypes: ANSP 100481 (1); FMNH 72-31 (1), 80-57 (1), 80-58 (10); IPN P4033 (1); MCZ 157324 (1); MPM 30780 (1); UF 13365 (1); UMMZ 102169 (1), 184702 (1); USNM 192217-18 (1, 1), 361064-65 (3, 2). •Valid as Opsanus dichrostomus Collette 2001 -- (Collette 2003:1037 [ref. 26981], Smith et al. 2003:12 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:18 [ref. 28815], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], Lobel & Lobel 2011:50 [ref. 31774], Page et al. 2013:96 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Opsanus dichrostomus Collette 2001. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Belize. Habitat: marine.

didactylus, Batrachus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:42 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Guinea [eastern Atlantic]. Holotype: ZMB 817. Bloch specimens: ZMB 2252 (1). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:50 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Monod 1973:657 [ref. 7193], Roux in Whitehead et al. 1986:1360 [ref. 13677], Roux 1990:471 [ref. 15312], Collette et al. 2006:937 [ref. 28910], Greenfield et al. 2008:683 [ref. 30046], Wirtz et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32972], Collette & Greenfield 2016:2041 [ref. 34595], Martins & Carneiro 2018:54 [ref. 36550], Bañón et al. 2019:192 [ref. 36706], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:94 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Western Mediterranean Sea including Adriatic Sea, eastern Atlantic: Galicia (Spain) south to Angola, including Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diemensis, Batrachoides Lesueur [C. A.] 1824:402 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 17518] Tasmania, Australia. No types known. •Valid as Halophryne diemensis (Lesueur 1824) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:38 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:272 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:53 [ref. 15987], Rainboth 1996:170 [ref. 22772], Allen 1997:62 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:349 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:46 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:53 [ref. 25919], Greenfield 1998:699 [ref. 23421], Greenfield 1999:2002 [ref. 24764], Johnson 1999:723 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:22 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:631 [ref. 29004], Greenfield et al. 2008:683 [ref. 30046], Allen & Erdmann 2012:141 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Halophryne diemensis (Lesueur 1824). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia, southern Papua New Guinea and Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dowi, Thalassophryne Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1887:388 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 639); ref. 10627] Punta Arenas, Costa Rica. Holotype: USNM 39085. Paratypes: (2). •Valid as Daector dowi (Jordan & Gilbert 1887) -- (Collette 1966:861 [ref. 14192], Allen & Robertson 1994:79 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:66 [ref. 23101], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:915 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:241 [ref. 24555], Greenfield et al. 2008:675 [ref. 30046], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:47 [ref. 31492], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:401 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Daector dowi (Jordan & Gilbert 1887). Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica to Peru. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Lophius Shaw [G.] in White 1790:265, Pl. 51 [Journal of a voyage to New South Wales; ref. 4654] New South Wales, Australia. No types known. Authorship according to Sherborn 1891:535 [ref. 32516]. •Valid as Batrachomoeus dubius (Shaw 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:271 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:44 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:46 [ref. 25488], Greenfield 1999:2002 [ref. 24764], Johnson 1999:723 [ref. 25471], Allen et al. 2006:630 [ref. 29004], Greenfield et al. 2008:681 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Batrachomoeus dubius (Shaw 1790). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

dussumieri, Batrachus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837:474, Pl. 367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 12; ref. 1006] Malabar, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-4715 (1) Mumbai, A-4748 (1) Mumbai. Previous Persian Gulf and Sri Lanka records are misidentifications. •Valid as Austrobatrachus dussumieri (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Randall 1995:81 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:126 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377], Ali et al. 2018:313 [ref. 36183]). •Valid as Colletteichthys dussumieri (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Greenfield 2006:946 [ref. 28909], Greenfield et al. 2008:683 [ref. 30046], Greenfield 2012:64 [ref. 31769], Greenfield et al. 2012:24 [ref. 32128], Psomadakis et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34104], Jawad et al. 2018:100 [ref. 36262]). Current status: Valid as Colletteichthys dussumieri (Valenciennes 1837). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Pakistan and India. Habitat: marine.

ellisi, Riekertia Smith [J. L. B.] 1952:325, Fig. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 5 (no. 52) (art. 38); ref. 4084] Pondoland, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 116. •Valid as Riekertia ellisi Smith 1952 -- (Hutchins 1986:360 [ref. 5673], Greenfield et al. 2008:685 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Riekertia ellisi Smith 1952. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

elminensis, Batrachus Bleeker [P.] 1863:98 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Elmina, Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 4374. •Valid as Perulibatrachus elminensis (Bleeker 1863) -- (Hutchins 1986:360 [ref. 5673], Roux 1990:472 [ref. 15312], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:145 [ref. 25472], Greenfield 1996:903 [ref. 22564], Greenfield 2005:77 [ref. 28203], Collette et al. 2006:937 [ref. 28910], Greenfield et al. 2008:684 [ref. 30046], Bineesh & Greenfield 2011:67 [ref. 31312], Collette & Greenfield 2016:2042 [ref. 34595]). Current status: Valid as Perulibatrachus elminensis (Bleeker 1863). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Ghana to Namibia. Habitat: marine.

ephippiatus, Porichthys Walker [H. J., Jr.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1988:900, Fig. 12 [Copeia 1988 (no. 4); ref. 9284] Mexico, about 20°48'N, 105°27'W. Holotype: SIO 70-160. Paratypes: (540) BMNH 1987.5.26.58-62 (5); CAS 3601-02 (1, 1), 4784 (1), 4911-4913 (1 ea.), 5411-5416 (1 ea.), 36598 (14, now 13); CAS-SU 18465 (1), 46302-03 (18, 1), 46306 (6), 46739-40 (5, 2), 57006 (2); LACM 22103 (17), 30123-5 (7); SIO (many lots); UBC 59-247 (3); USNM 287708 (5). •Valid as Porichthys ephippiatus Walker & Rosenblatt 1988 -- (Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:916 [ref. 22829], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:96 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys ephippiatus Walker & Rosenblatt 1988. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

eugeneius, Pseudobatrachus Fowler [H. W.] 1937:260, Fig. 288 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 89; ref. 1425] Rayong, Thailand. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68256. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:27 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Batrachomoeus trispinosus (Günther 1861) -- (Kottelat 2013:274 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Batrachomoeus trispinosus (Günther 1861). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

felinus, Batrichthys Smith [J. L. B.] 1952:320 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 5 (no. 52) (art. 38); ref. 4084] Port Alfred, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 97. Paratypes: (1) not researched. •Valid as Batrichthys felinus Smith 1952 -- (Hutchins 1986:359 [ref. 5673]). •Valid as Chatrabus felinus (Smith 1952) -- (Greenfield et al. 2008:681 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Chatrabus felinus (Smith 1952). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

flavipinnis, Colletteichthys Greenfield [D. W.], Bineesh [K. K.] & Akhilesh [K. V.] 2012:25, Figs. 1-3, 6-7 [Zootaxa No. 3437; ref. 32128] Off Tuticorn, India. Holotype: CMFRI GB.9.1.2.1. Paratypes: CAS 233657 (1); CMFRI GB.9.1.2.1.1-2 (2), 9.1.2.1.3-13 (11); USNM 221342 (4) •Valid as Colletteichthys flavipinnis Greenfield, Bineesh & Akhilesh 2012. Current status: Valid as Colletteichthys flavipinnis Greenfield, Bineesh & Akhilesh 2012. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Southeastern India and Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

foedus, Pseudobatrachus Smith [J. L. B.] 1947:820 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 13 (no. 108) (art. 77); ref. 4073] Great Kei River, Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 99 (1). •Valid as Austrobatrachus foedus (Smith 1947) -- (Hutchins 1986:358 [ref. 5673], Greenfield 2006:949 [ref. 28909] dated 1949, Greenfield 2012:58 [ref. 32093]). Current status: Valid as Austrobatrachus foedus (Smith 1947). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

gangene, Batrachoides Hamilton [F.] 1822:34, 365, Pl. 14 (fig. 8) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Salt estuaries of Ganges River, India. No types known. •Synonym of Batrachus grunniens Linnaeus 1758 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:727 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Halophyrene [sic] gangene (Hamilton 1822) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:630 [ref. 27969]). •Synonym of Allenbatrachus grunniens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Greenfield 1997:309 [ref. 22881], Kottelat 2013:273 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Allenbatrachus grunniens (Linnaeus 1758). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gerringi, Thalassophryne Rendahl [H.] 1941:1, Fig. 1 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 33 B (pt. 1) (no. 2) (for 1940); ref. 13246] Río San Juan at Cabeceras, Chocó District, Colombia. Holotype (unique): NRM 10651. •Valid as Daector gerringi (Rendahl 1941) -- (Collette 1966:861 [ref. 14192], Silfvergrip 1990:253 [ref. 16657], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:913 [ref. 22829], Collette in Reis et al. 2003:509 [ref. 27061], Greenfield et al. 2008:675 [ref. 30046] dated 1940, Ibagón E. et al. 2011:47 [ref. 31492], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Daector gerringi (Rendahl 1941). Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Distribution: San Juan River and Baudo River basins, Colombia (eastern Pacific). Habitat: freshwater.

gilberti, Batrachoides Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:914, Pl. 90 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Creek opposite Mindi Cut, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype: USNM 81002. Paratypes: USNM 81003 (5). •Valid as Batrachoides gilberti Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Collette & Russo 1981:215 [ref. 5575], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:88 [ref. 22947], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:169 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Collette 2001:14 [ref. 25398], Collette 2003:1037 [ref. 26981], Smith et al. 2003:12 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:94 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], Matamoros et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:96 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Batrachoides gilberti Meek & Hildebrand 1928. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

glaber, Cottus Schöpf [J. D.] 1788:146 [Schriften der Berlinischen Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde v. 8; ref. 18700] East River, New York, U.S.A. •Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Habitat: marine.

gloverensis, Triathalassothia Greenfield [D. W.] & Greenfield [T. A.] 1973:560, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1973 (no. 3); ref. 7128] East side of Long Cay, Glovers Reef, Belize. Holotype: FMNH 71575. Paratypes: ANSP 120499 (5); BMNH 1972.10.10.97 (1); CAS 15409 (3); FMNH 71576-80 (1, 2, 2, 1, 1); USNM 208239 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:84 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:27 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Triathalassothia gloverensis Greenfield & Greenfield 1973 -- (Collette 2001:15 [ref. 25398], Collette 2003:1042 [ref. 26981], Smith et al. 2003:13 [ref. 27621], Lobel & Lobel 2011:50 [ref. 31774]). •Valid as Vladichthys gloverensis (Greenfield & Greenfield 1973) -- (Greenfield et al. 2008:677 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Vladichthys gloverensis (Greenfield & Greenfield 1973). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Belize and Honduras. Habitat: marine.

goldmani, Batrachoides Evermann [B. W.] & Goldsborough [E. L.] 1902:159, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 21 [1901]; ref. 14875] Río Usumacinta at Montecristo, about 17°45'N, 91°45'W, Tabasco, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 50006. •Valid as Batrachoides goldmani Evermann & Goldsborough 1902 -- (Collette & Russo 1981:218 [ref. 5575], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:31 [ref. 22290], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:170 [ref. 24550], Collette in Reis et al. 2003:509 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:94 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:179 [ref. 28615], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:96 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Batrachoides goldmani Evermann & Goldsborough 1902. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Guatemala and Mexico, eastern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater.

greenei, Porichthys Gilbert [C. H.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:184, Pl. 30 (fig. 56) [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences v. 4; ref. 1639] Panama Bay, Panama (Pacific). Holotype: CAS-SU 6485. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6512 (now 11). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:147 [ref. 12291]. Holotype established in caption to Pl. 30. •Valid as Porichthys greenei Gilbert & Starks 1904 -- (Walker & Rosenblatt 1988:898 [ref. 9284], Allen & Robertson 1994:80 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:66 [ref. 23101], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:917 [ref. 22829], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:292 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys greenei Gilbert & Starks 1904. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

greenfieldorum, Sanopus Collette [B. B.] 1983:721, Fig. 2A [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 96 (no. 4); ref. 5219] 2 miles south of Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, depth 1 meter. Holotype: USNM 213555. Paratypes: FMNH 94575 (1), USNM 261601 (1). •Valid as Sanopus greenfieldorum Collette 1983 -- (Collette 2001:15 [ref. 25398], Collette 2003:1040 [ref. 26981], Smith et al. 2003:13 [ref. 27621], Greenfield et al. 2008:677 [ref. 30046], Lobel & Lobel 2011:50 [ref. 31774]). Current status: Valid as Sanopus greenfieldorum Collette 1983. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Belize. Habitat: marine.

gronovii, Batrachus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837:482 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 12; ref. 1006] America. Batrachoididae. Habitat: marine.

grunniens, Cottus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:264 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] East Indies. No types known. This account is based on more than one family of fishes, one source of which is a toadfish, see Hutchins 1981:339 [ref. 6830]. See second entry for Cottus grunniens. Based on the East Indies source, this species is regarded as valid as Batrichthys grunniens Linnaeus 1758 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:727 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:83 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:244 [ref. 23210], Rainboth 1996:170 [ref. 22772]). Hutchin's 1981 did not fully solve this problem; no neotype has been designated and no petition has been made to the ICZN. •Moved from Batrichthys to a new genus as Allenbatrachus grunniens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Greenfield 1997:309 [ref. 22881]). •Valid as Allenbatrachus grunniens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Greenfield 1999:2001 [ref. 24764], Greenfield in Randall & Lim 2000:597 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377], Greenfield & Smith 2004:568 [ref. 28163], Greenfield et al. 2008:677 [ref. 30046], Motomura 2009:39 [ref. 30446], Allen & Erdmann 2012:140 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:273 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:52 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Allenbatrachus grunniens (Linnaeus 1758). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: Ganges River estuary (India) east to Philippines and eastern Indonesia, including Gulf of Thailand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guentheri, Batrachus Bleeker [P.] 1863:101 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Elmina, Guinea. Lectotype: RMNH 2114. Paralectotypes: RMNH 24406 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1963:43, 48, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [ref. 21734]. •Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Roux 1990:471 [ref. 15312]). • Current status: Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guttulatus, Coryzichthys Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:42 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Aru Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) AFAQ 991 (1), AMS I.9486 [ex AFAQ] (1). Batrachoididae. Habitat: marine.

hendersoni, Tharbacus Smith [J. L. B.] 1952:336, Fig. 3 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 5 (no. 52) (art. 38); ref. 4084] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 102. •Valid as Chatrabus hendersoni (Smith 1952) -- (Hutchins 1986:359 [ref. 5673], Greenfield et al. 2008:681 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Chatrabus hendersoni (Smith 1952). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: South Africa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hildebrandi, Opsanus Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1925:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 188; ref. 15532] Colón market, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8443. •Valid as Amphichthys hildebrandi (Breder 1925) -- (Greenfield & Greenfield 1973:563 [ref. 7128], B.B. Collette, pers. Comm. 6/02). •Valid as Opsanus hildebrandi Breder 1925 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:171 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Amphichthys cryptocentrus (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Ibagón et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31492]). Current status: Synonym of Amphichthys cryptocentrus (Valenciennes 1837). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Habitat: marine.

hutchinsi, Halophryne Greenfield [D. W.] 1998:697, Figs. 1-4 [Copeia 1998 (no. 3); ref. 23421] Catbalogan, Samar Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 150899. Paratypes: CAS 126908 (11); FMNH 47500 (1), 52489 (1); CAS-SU 20462 (1, c&s), 38260 (1); USNM 150927 (1). •Valid as Halophryne hutchinsi Greenfield 1998 -- (Greenfield 1999:2003 [ref. 24764], Greenfield in Randall & Lim 2000:597 [ref. 25122], Greenfield et al. 2008:683 [ref. 30046], Allen & Erdmann 2012:142 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Halophryne hutchinsi Greenfield 1998. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Barchatus Greenfield [D. W.] 2014:668, Figs. 1-2, 3A, 5A [Copeia 2014 (no. 4); ref. 33602] Indian Ocean, Gulf of Aden, north coast of Somalia, 17 km ESE of Mait, 11°13'15"N, 47°36'19"E, depth 78 meters. Holotype: USNM 305979. Paratypes: CAS 236957 (1). •Valid as Barchatus indicus Greenfield 2014. Current status: Valid as Barchatus indicus Greenfield 2014. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: North coast of Somalia, Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

indus, Cottus Linnaeus [C.] 1764:66 [Museum S. R. M. Adolphi Friderici Regis Suecorum Tomus secundi prodromus; ref. 2788] No locality stated. No types known. •Synonym of Allenbatrachus grunniens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:273 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Allenbatrachus grunniens (Linnaeus 1758). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: marine.

iselesele, Austrobatrachus Greenfield [D. W.] 2012:59, Figs. 1-5 [Zootaxa No. 3400; ref. 32093] Park Rynie, KwaZulu-Natal, 30°19'47:S, 30°46'04"E, South Africa, depth 50 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 99219. Paratypes: SAIAB 98664 (1), 99218 (1), Treated as a noun in apposition. •Valid as Austrobatrachus iselesele Greenfield 2012, Current status: Valid as Austrobatrachus iselesele Greenfield 2012. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Habitat: marine.

johnsoni, Sanopus Collette [B. B.] & Starck [W. A., II] in Collette 1974:194, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 87 (no. 18); ref. 5218] Palancar Reef, Cozumel Island, Quintana Roo, Mexico, depth 8 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 205945. Second author is W. A. H. Starck. •Valid as Sanopus johnsoni Collette & Stark 1974 -- (Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Collette 2001:15 [ref. 25398], Collette 2003:1041 [ref. 26981], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:677 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sanopus johnsoni Collette & Starck 1974. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Atlantic Mexico. Habitat: marine.

kilburni, Perulibatrachus Greenfield [D. W.] 1996:902, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1996 (no. 4); ref. 22564] Off Kosi Bay, 26°54.6'S, 32°56.6'E, Natal, KwaZulu, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 75 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 28203. •Valid as Perulibatrachus kilburni Greenfield 1996 -- (Greenfield 2005:77 [ref. 28203], Greenfield et al. 2008:684 [ref. 30046], Bineesh & Greenfield 2011:67 [ref. 31312]). Current status: Valid as Perulibatrachus kilburni Greenfield 1996. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

kymosemeum, Porichthys Gilbert [C. R.] 1968:724, Fig. 15c [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 7893] Western Atlantic near the mouth of the Amazon River, off Brazil, 4°02'N, 50°20'W, Oregon station 2054, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype (unique): FMNH 66688. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Porichthys kymosemeum Gilbert 1968 -- (Cervigón 1992:268 [ref. 23827], Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:344 [ref. 23682], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys kymosemeum Gilbert 1968. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lacinia, Bifax Greenfield [D. W.], Mee [J. K. L.] & Randall [J. E.] 1994:278, Pls. 1-3 [Fauna of Saudi Arabia v. 14; ref. 21628] Mahallah, Arabian Sea, Oman, 17°05'42"N, 55°07'24"E, depth 6 meters. Holotype: BPBM 35949. Paratypes: BMNH 1994.4.5.1 (1); BPBM 35731 (1), 35843 (1, c&s), 36210 (1); CAS 81232 (1); USNM 329111 (1). •Valid as Bifax lacinia Greenfield, Mee & Randall 1994 -- (Randall 1995:82 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377], Greenfield et al. 2008:681 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Bifax lacinia Greenfield, Mee & Randall 1994. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

lambaloti, Triathalassothia Menezes [N. A.] & Figueiredo [J. L. de] 1998:341, Fig. 1 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 40 (no. 22); ref. 23682] Coast of Santa Catarina State, 26°03'S, 46°46'W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 47297. Paratypes: MZUSP 47298 (5), 50997 (4). •Valid as Triathalassothia lambaloti Menezes & Figueiredo 1998 -- (Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:64 [ref. 27192] with genus as Triathalassotia, Greenfield 2006:947 [ref. 28909], Greenfield et al. 2008:685 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Triathalassothia lambaloti Menezes & Figueiredo 1998. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

liberiensis, Batrachus Steindachner [F.] 1867:64 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 4 (no. 8); ref. 20462] Monrovia, Liberia. Holotype (unique): NMW 5558. Species also appeared on p. 441 of English version [ref. 20462]; later appeared in more detail in Steindachner 1867:520, Pl. 1 (figs. 2-3) [ref. 4215]; and on p. 4 of separate. •Valid as Batrachoides liberiensis (Steindachner 1867) -- (Collette & Russo 1981:219 [ref. 5575], Roux 1990:470 [ref. 15312], Collette et al. 2006:937 [ref. 28910], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], Collette & Greenfield 2016:2039 [ref. 34595]). Current status: Valid as Batrachoides liberiensis (Steindachner 1867). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculosa, Thalassophryne Günther [A.] 1861:175 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.5.14.35. •Valid as Thalassophryne maculosa Günther 1861 -- (Cervigón 1991:183 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:268 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Collette 2003:1036 [ref. 26981], Collette & Greenfield 2009:79 [ref. 30262], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31492], Fricke et al. 2018:86 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Thalassophryne maculosa Günther 1861. Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Distribution: Northern coast of South America: Colombia and Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago. Habitat: marine.

manglae, Batrachoides Cervigón [F.] 1964:1, Fig. [Novedades Cientificas, Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Serie Zoológica No. 32; ref. 9204] Punta de Piedras, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Holotype: MOBR--EDIMAR-P-875. Paratypes: MOBR-EDIMAY-876 (1), 1067 (1), UPRM 2434 (1). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1999:109 [ref. 33859]. •Valid as Batrachoides manglae Cervigón 1964 -- (Collette & Russo 1981:216 [ref. 5575], Cervigón 1991:180 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:267 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221] as mangle, González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Collette 2003:1032 [ref. 26981], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:47 [ref. 31492]). Current status: Valid as Batrachoides manglae Cervigón 1964. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Caribbean Sea: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

margaritatus, Batrachus Richardson [J.] 1844:67, Pl. 38 (figs. 2-4) [Ichthyology.--Part 1. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 3739] Near entrance to Golgo de Nicoya, 9°27.5'N, 84°30.7'W, Costa Rica [original locality Gulf of Fonseca]. Neotype: SIO 73-298. Neotype designated by Walker & Rosenblatt 1988:899 [ref. 9284]. •Valid as Porichthys margaritatus (Richardson 1844) -- (Walker & Rosenblatt 1988:899 [ref. 9284], Allen & Robertson 1994:80 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:66 [ref. 23101], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:917 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:226 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:244 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31492], Page et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:401 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:292 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys margaritatus (Richardson 1844). Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Batrachus Steindachner [F.] 1866:482, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 16; ref. 5030] No locality. Holotype (unique): NMW 16852. Batrachoididae. Habitat: marine.

megalops, Thalassophryne Bean [B. A.] & Weed [A. C.] 1910:523, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 38 (no. 1764); ref. 11651] Gulf of Darien, eastern Caribbean Sea, 9°30'15"N, 76°20'30"W, Albatross station 2142, depth 42 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 37669. Paratypes: USNM 197643 [ex 37669] (1). •Valid as Thalassophryne megalops Bean & Weed 1910 -- (Collette 1966:850 [ref. 14192], Cervigón 1992:268 [ref. 23827], Collette 2003:1042 [ref. 26981], Greenfield et al. 2008:675 [ref. 30046], Ibagón et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31492]). Current status: Valid as Thalassophryne megalops Bean & Weed 1910. Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama and (?) Colombia. Habitat: marine.

melanurus, Batrachoides Barnard [K. H.] 1927:78 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 20 (no. 115) (art. 8); ref. 193] Agulhas Bank to Natal, South Africa, depth 25-100 fathoms [46-183 meters]. Syntypes: BMNH 1927.12.6.74 [ex SAM] (1) Agulhas Bank, SAM 11981 (1). Also appeared as new in Barnard 1927:994, Pl. 37 (fig. 1) [ref. 194]. •Valid as Chatrabus melanurus (Barnard 1927) -- (Hutchins 1986:359 [ref. 5673], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:145 [ref. 25472], Greenfield et al. 2008:681 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Chatrabus melanurus (Barnard 1927). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean: Angola to South Africa. Habitat: marine.

meridionalis, Allenbatrachus Greenfield [D. W.] & Smith [W. L.] 2004:569, Figs. 1-5 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 55 (no. 30); ref. 28163] Market at Maroantsetra, Madagascar. Holotype: AMNH 233686. Paratypes: AMNH 234024 (1); CAS 220508 (1); MNHN 1962-0197 (1), 1992-0670 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Allenbatrachus meridionalis Greenfield & Smith 2004 -- (Greenfield et al. 2008:677 [ref. 30046], Fricke et al. 2018:86 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Allenbatrachus meridionalis Greenfield & Smith 2004. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar and Réunion (western Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

mimeticus, Porichthys Walker [H. J., Jr.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1988:895, Fig. 8 [Copeia 1988 (no. 4); ref. 9284] Northeast of outer Gorda Bank, Gulf of California, Mexico, 23°03.6'N, 109°28.4'W. Holotype: SIO 68-55. Paratypes: BMNH 1987.5.26.68-72 (5); CAS-SU 46301 (5), 46304 (8), 46307 (9); LACM 22114-15 (5, 18), 22458 (1), 22458 [sic] (1), 22461 (1), 22464 (1), 33361-2 (9); SIO 68-55 (194), 60-119 (1), 65-250 (4), 65-293 (6), 68-93 (1), 70-257 (4), 75-402 (45) (ex UCLA W62-58); USNM 287709 (5). •Valid as Porichthys mimeticus Walker & Rosenblatt 1988 -- (Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:917 [ref. 22829], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys mimeticus Walker & Rosenblatt 1988. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

minor, Batrachomoeus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:47 [Annals of the Queensland Museum No. 9 (pt 2); ref. 3284] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1564 [ex AFAQ 348]. •Synonym of Batrachomoeus dubius (Shaw 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:271 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:630 [ref. 29004]). Current status: Synonym of Batrachomoeus dubius (Shaw 1790). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: marine.

montevidensis, Thalassothia Berg [C.] 1893:6, Pl. 2 [Anales Museu de La Plata Zoologia I; ref. 14521] Río de la Plata, Punta Carretas, near Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM CI 37. Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:5 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Thalassophryne montevidensis (Berg 1893) -- (Collette 1966:858 [ref. 14192], Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:346 [ref. 23682], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192], Greenfield et al. 2008:675 [ref. 30046], Nión et al. 2016:41 [ref. 35565] with author as Berg 1893). Current status: Valid as Thalassophryne montevidensis (Berg 1893). Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

muelleri, Batrachus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1879:257 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 22); ref. 18913] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2490. Type catalog: Fricke 1992:6 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:15 [ref. 29864]. Name appeared as Mülleri in original. Also appeared in Klunzinger 1880:387 [63 of separate], Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [ref. 2624]. •Synonym of Halophryne diemensis (Lesueur 1824) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:349 [ref. 23967], Larson et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Synonym of Halophryne diemensis (Lesueur 1824). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

myriaster, Porichthys Hubbs [C. L.] & Schultz [L. P.] 1939:478, Fig. 57b [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 86 (no. 3060); ref. 2263] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 8483. Paratypes: FMNH 42041 (4); UMMZ 63610 (2), ?64146 (4), 64148-49 (?, 1), 80829 (1), 86050 (1), 105489 (1), 115795 (1), 115820-23 (1, 1, 2, 1); USNM 17046 (1), 24814 (1), 24863 (1), 24881 (9), 26805 (1), 31349 (1), 34757 (5), 34777 (1), 54738 (1), 54748-49 (2, 1), 54757 (2), 54760 (3), 54764 (1), 62409 (1), 103431 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Porichthys myriaster Hubbs & Schultz 1939 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:107 [ref. 9277], Walker & Rosenblatt 1988:891 [ref. 9284], Allen & Robertson 1994:80 [ref. 22193], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:918 [ref. 22829], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:356 [ref. 23520], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:244 [ref. 24555], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:298 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys myriaster Hubbs & Schultz 1939. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nattereri, Thalassophryne Steindachner [F.] 1876:163 [115] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Amazon River at Pará, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 12726. Paralectotypes: (several) MCZ 4631 (2, dry); NMW 12159 (1). On p. 115 of separate. Lectotype selected by Collette 1966:856 [ref. 14192]. •Valid as Thalassophryne nattereri Steindachner 1876 -- (Collette 1966:855 [ref. 14192], Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:242 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:268 [ref. 23827], Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:348 [ref. 23682], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Collette 2003:1042 [ref. 26981], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192], Greenfield et al. 2008:675 [ref. 30046], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31492], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Thalassophryne nattereri Steindachner 1876. Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Colombia to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

nautopaedium, Porichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:171 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Panama Bay, 8°38'00"N, 79°31.30"W, Albatross station 2802, depth 16 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 41145. Paratypes: ?BMNH 1900.7.11.19 (1) Galápagos; CAS-SU 227 (now 5); USNM 41164 (1), ?41192 (6), 41491-92 (1, 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:147 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Porichthys margaritatus (Richardson 1844) -- (Walker & Rosenblatt 1988:899 [ref. 9284], Ibagón et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31492]). Current status: Synonym of Porichthys margaritatus (Richardson 1844). Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Lophius Forster [J. R.] 1794:131 [Die Neuesten Reisen nach der Botany Bay; ref. 22555] Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. No types known. Name not in current literature but cited in Whitley 1935:223 [ref. 4683]. •Synonym of Pseudobatrachus dubius (Shaw 1790) -- (Whitley 1935:223 [ref. 4683] which is now Batrachomoeus dubius). Current status: Synonym of Batrachomoeus dubius (Shaw 1790). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: marine.

notatus, Porichthys Girard [C. F.] 1854:141 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1818] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 520. •Valid as Porichthys notatus Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:108 [ref. 9277], Walker & Rosenblatt 1988:893 [ref. 9284], McAllister 1990:228 [ref. 14674], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:918 [ref. 22829], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:299 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Allen et al. 2006:632 [ref. 29004], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:27 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys notatus Girard 1854. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific [introduced in Australia]. Habitat: marine.

occidentalis, Batrachomoeus Hutchins [J. B.] 1976:23, Figs. 3b, 9, 10 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 6971] Near Sunday Island, Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, depth 14-20 meters. Holotype: WAM P.23702-001. Paratypes: AMS I.18472-001 (1); BMNH 1975.10.10.1 (1); WAM P.9343-001 (1), P.23876-001 (1), P.23877-001 (1 skeleton), P.25091-001 (1), P.25092-001 (1), P.25093-001 (2). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:9 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:8 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Batrachomoeus occidentalis Hutchins 1976 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:38 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:271 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:62 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:21 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:630 [ref. 29004], Greenfield et al. 2008:681 [ref. 30046], Larson et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32988], Larson et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Batrachomoeus occidentalis Hutchins 1976. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

occidentalis, Colletteichthys Greenfield [D. W.] 2012:65, Figs. 3-4 [Zootaxa No. 3165; ref. 31769] Bahrain Harbor, Bahrain, Persian Gulf. Holotype: BPBM 29525. Paratypes: BPBM 21485 (1), 30509 (1), 33302 (1), 33398 (3), 41090 (1); CAS 233656 (1); USNM 147913 (6). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Colletteichthys occidentalis Greenfield 2012 -- (Greenfield et al. 2012:24 [ref. 32128], Psomadakis et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Colletteichthys occidentalis Greenfield 2012. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to Pakistan Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Halophryne Hutchins [J. B.] 1974:115, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 6970] Easter Group, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, depth 80 meters. Holotype: WAM P.5956-001. Paratypes: WAM P.3364-001 (1), P.5851-001 (2), P.5955-001 (1), P.6149-001 (1), P.6260-001 (1), P.7148-001 (1), P.9393-001 (1), P.9394-001 (1), P.12073-001 (1), P.13767-001 (1), P.13768-001 (1), P.13769-001 (1), P.14653-001 (1), P.14833-001 (1), P.16296-001 (1), P.16483-001 (1), P.23604-001 (1), P.24562-001 (1), P.24829-001 (1), P.24830-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:9 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:8 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Halophryne ocellatus Hutchins 1974 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:38 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:272 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:62 [ref. 23977], Greenfield 1998:699 [ref. 23421], Hutchins 2001:22 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:631 [ref. 29004], Greenfield et al. 2008:684 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Halophryne ocellatus Hutchins 1974. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

oculellus, Porichthys Walker [H. J., Jr.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1988:898, Fig. 10 [Copeia 1988 (no. 4); ref. 9284] Bahia Cupica to Río Orpua, Colombia, 4°35'N, 77°19'W. Holotype: USNM 287706. Paratypes: SIO 87-88 (1), USNM 287707 (2). •Valid as Porichthys oculellus Walker & Rosenblatt 1988 -- (Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:918 [ref. 22829], Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:343 [ref. 23682], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31492]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys oculellus Walker & Rosenblatt 1988. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Colombia. Habitat: marine.

oculofrenum, Porichthys Gilbert [C. R.] 1968:719, Figs. 14c, 15a-b [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 7893] Caribbean Sea, off Venezuela, 11°07'N, 62°42'W, Oregon station 5034, depth 31-34 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 200606. Paratypes: UF 11624 (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:113 [ref. 21035]. •Valid as Porichthys oculofrenum Gilbert 1968 -- (Cervigón 1992:268 [ref. 23827], Collette 2003:1039 [ref. 26981], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys oculofrenum Gilbert 1968. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

ophiocephalus, Amphichthys Smith [J. L. B.] 1947:819 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 13 (no. 108) (art. 77); ref. 4073] Port Alfred to Great Kei River, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 337 (1) Port Alfred. •Synonym of Batrichthys apiatus (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Hutchins 1986:359 [ref. 5673]). Current status: Synonym of Batrichthys apiatus (Valenciennes 1837). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pacamo, Batrachus Castelnau [F. L.] (ex Marcgrave) 1855:27 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Based on Marcgrave 1648 [ref. 19651]. Batrachoididae. Habitat: marine.

pacifici, Batrachus Günther [A.] 1861:173 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Pacific coast of Panama. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.6.16.222 (1), 1860.6.18.11 (1). •Valid as Batrachoides pacifici (Günther 1861) -- (Collette & Russo 1981:213 [ref. 5575], Allen & Robertson 1994:78 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:66 [ref. 23101], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:914 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:241 [ref. 24555], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:47 [ref. 31492], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:401 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Batrachoides pacifici (Günther 1861). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Panama south to Peru. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pardus, Batrachus tau Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1880:336 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 98); ref. 18135] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 22337 (2, ? cast). •Valid as Opsanus pardus (Goode & Bean 1880) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:84 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:78 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:811 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:171 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Collette 2001:3 [ref. 25398], Collette 2003:1038 [ref. 26981], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:96 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Opsanus pardus (Goode & Bean 1880). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pauciradiatus, Porichthys Caldwell [D. K.] & Caldwell [M. C.] 1963:3, Figs. 1-3 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 66; ref. 4350] Caledonia Bay, Panama, 8°53'03"N, 77°41'20"W, depth 1-5 fathoms. Holotype: LACM 20637 [ex AHF 3037]. Paratypes: LACM 20638 [ex AHF 2766] (6). •Valid as Porichthys pauciradiatus Caldwell & Caldwell 1963 -- (Gilbert 1968:715 [ref. 7893], Cervigón 1991:185 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:268 [ref. 23827], Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:343 [ref. 23682], Collette 2003:1039 [ref. 26981], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:12 [ref. 27621], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046], Ibagón et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31492]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys pauciradiatus Caldwell & Caldwell 1963. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

phobetron, Opsanus Walters [V.] & Robins [C. R.] 1961:2, Figs. 1A, 2A [American Museum Novitates No. 2047; ref. 9386] North of Tokas Cay, Bimini, Bahamas, depth 2 feet. Holotype: AMNH 20336. Paratypes: AMNH 16638 (1), 20337-38 (1, 1); ANSP 79480-81 (1, 1); USNM 170961-62 (1, 1). Additional material: AMNH 11412a (1); BM [not a museum] 01.054 (1), 02.015 (1), 02.021 (1); UMML 498 (1); USNM 4788 (1), 37546 (1), 107433 (2), 107435 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:27 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Opsanus phobetron Walters & Robins 1961 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:172 [ref. 24550], Collette 2001:3 [ref. 25398], Collette 2003:1038 [ref. 26981], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Opsanus phobetron Walters & Robins 1961. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pictus, Batrachus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1851:487 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16898] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing under Batrachus grunniens. Batrachoididae.

planifrons, Batrachus Guichenot [A.] 1850:81 [Histoire naturelle des reptiles et poissons; ref. 1940] Coasts of Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Text refers this name to Pl. 5 which is identified in the plate caption and table of plates as Batrachus algeriensis Guichenot. •Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Monod 1973:657 [ref. 7193], Roux 1990:471 [ref. 15312]). Current status: Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

platensis, Thalassophyrne Devincenzi [G. J.] 1924:260, Pl. 21 (top fig.) [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Serie 2) v. 1 (pt 5); ref. 15442] Río de la Plata, Punta Carretas, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): MHNM CI 196. Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:5 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. The original spelling should have been Thalassophryne. •Synonym of Thalassophryne montevidensis (Berg 1893) -- (Collette 1966:858 [ref. 14192], Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:347 [ref. 23682]). Current status: Synonym of Thalassophryne montevidensis (Berg 1893). Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Habitat: marine.

plectrodon, Porichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:291 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Galveston, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 30894 (now 1), 103164 (5). •Valid as Porichthys plectrodon Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Menni & Miquelarena 1976:217 [ref. 31498], Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:241 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:85 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:184 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:78 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:268 [ref. 23827], Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:344 [ref. 23682], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:812 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:168 [ref. 24550], Collette 2001:14 [ref. 25398], Collette 2003:1040 [ref. 26981], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31492], Page et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32708], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys plectrodon Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico south to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

porosissimus, Batrachus Cuvier [G.] 1829:254 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Coast of South America. No types known. Available from footnote as, "Batr. porosissimus, N., Nigui, Margr., 178, ou deuxième niqui de Pison, 295." See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837:501 [ref. 1006] for which there are MNHN specimens available; Gilbert 1966:697 [ref. 7893] designated one of these as lectotype for that description. •Valid as Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Gilbert 1968:687 [ref. 7893], Menni & Miquelarena 1976:214 [ref. 31498], Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:156 [ref. 14235], Andreata & Séret 1996:584 [ref. 16204] with author and date as Valenciennes 1837, Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:344 [ref. 23682], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639] as Valenciennes 1837, López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Collette 2003:1040 [ref. 26981], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192] as Valenciennes 1837, Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046] with author as Valenciennes 1837, Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Fabiano et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33530], Pinheiro et al. 2015:9 [ref. 34324], Nión et al. 2016:41 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier 1829). Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil south to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

porosus, Batrachus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837:506, Pl. 368 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 12; ref. 1006] Valparaíso, Chile. Syntypes: MNHN A-4683 and 4686 to 4688 (4). •Valid as Aphos porosus (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:154 [ref. 14235], Pequeño 1989:41 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:244 [ref. 24555], Greenfield et al. 2008:674 [ref. 30046], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:401 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Aphos porosus (Valenciennes 1837). Batrachoididae: Porichthyinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Thalassophryne Steindachner [F.] 1876:169 [121] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Porto Seguro, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 4632. Paralectotypes: MCZ 12725 (1) Porto Seguro; ?NMW 22808 (1), ?75380 (1) Bahia. On p. 121 of separate. Lectotype selected by Collette 1966:858 [ref. 14192]. •Valid as Thalassophryne punctata Steindachner 1876 -- (Collette 1966:857 [ref. 14192], Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:349 [ref. 23682], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192], Greenfield et al. 2008:675 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Thalassophryne punctata Steindachner 1876. Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Batrachus Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:133, Pl. 74 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. Syntypes: (2) MHNN 390 (1) Brazil; ZSM. Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:149 [ref. 21784]. Spelled punctulatus on plate. Also appeared in Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837:497 [ref. 1006] as punctulatus. •Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Monod 1973:657 [ref. 7193], Roux 1990:471 [ref. 15312]). Current status: Synonym of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quadrispinis, Batrachus Cuvier [G.] 1829:253 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality [?Australia]. Holotype (unique): ?MNHN 0000-6249. Available from footnote as, "Batr. 4-spinis, N. ou Batr. diemensis, Lesueur, Sc. nat. phil." See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837:486 [ref. 1006]. Batrachoididae. Habitat: marine.

quadrizonatus, Thalassophryne Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:217, Pl. 29 (fig. 5) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Río Truandó, Atrato basin, Colombia. Holotype (unique): FMNH [ex CM 3921] (missing). Type catalog: Henn 1928:98 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Thalassophryne maculosa Günther 1861 -- (Collette 1966:852 [ref. 14192]). •Valid as Daector quadrizonatus (Eigenmann 1922) -- (Collette 1973 [ref. 21056], Collette in Reis et al. 2003:509 [ref. 27061], Greenfield et al. 2008:675 [ref. 30046], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:47 [ref. 31492] dated 1923, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Daector quadrizonatus (Eigenmann 1922). Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Distribution: Truandó River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

queenslandiae, Poricthys De Vis [C. W.] 1882:370 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 1087] Dunk Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.3735. Paratypes: whereabouts unknown. Original genus should have been Porichthys. •Valid as Halophryne queenslandiae (De Vis 1882) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:272 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:45 [ref. 23929], Greenfield 1998:699 [ref. 23421], Greenfield 1999:2002 [ref. 24764], Johnson 1999:723 [ref. 25471], Greenfield et al. 2008:684 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Halophryne queenslandiae (De Vis 1882). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

reticulata, Thalassophryne Günther [A.] 1864:150 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Pacific coast of Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.342. •Valid as Daector reticulata (Günther 1864) -- (Collette 1966:860 [ref. 14192], Allen & Robertson 1994:79 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:66 [ref. 23101], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:915 [ref. 22829], Greenfield et al. 2008:675 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Daector reticulata (Günther 1864). Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Batrachus Steindachner [F.] 1870:564 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 60 (1. Abth.) (no. 3); ref. 18770] Singapore. Neotype: CAS 82188. Appeared originally as "Art. Batrachus gruniens Bl. an reticulatus n. sp. ?" Neotype designated by Greenfield 1997:311 [ref. 22881]. •Valid as Allenbatrachus reticulatus (Steindachner 1870) -- (Greenfield 1997:309 [ref. 22881], Greenfield 1999:2001 [ref. 24764], Greenfield in Randall & Lim 2000:597 [ref. 25122], Greenfield & Smith 2004:568 [ref. 28163], Greenfield et al. 2008:677 [ref. 30046], Allen & Erdmann 2012:141 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:273 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:53 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Allenbatrachus reticulatus (Steindachner 1870). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Singapore, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Indonesia (Sumatra). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

reticulatus, Sanopus Collette [B. B.] 1983:719, Figs. 1A-B [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 96 (no. 4); ref. 5219] Progreso, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: ZMH 20930. Paratypes: MCZ 32889 (1), USNM 258111 (1). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:421 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Sanopus reticulatus Collette 1983 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:813 [ref. 23897], Collette 2001:15 [ref. 25398], Collette 2003:1041 [ref. 26981], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:677 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sanopus reticulatus Collette 1983. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Atlantic Mexico. Habitat: marine.

rossignoli, Batrachus Roux [C.] in Collignon, Rossignol & Roux 1957:221, Fig. 94 [Office de la recherche scientifique et technique Outre-Mer, Paris; ref. 12111] Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo. Syntypes: OPN or MNHN (1, described specimen). Based on one specimen and 1 literature source. •Valid as Perulibatrachus rossignoli (Roux 1957) -- (Hutchins 1986:360 [ref. 5673], Roux 1990:472 [ref. 15312], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:146 [ref. 25472], Greenfield 1996:903 [ref. 22564], Greenfield 2005:77 [ref. 28203], Collette et al. 2006:937 [ref. 28910], Greenfield et al. 2008:684 [ref. 30046], Bineesh & Greenfield 2011:67 [ref. 31312], Collette & Greenfield 2016:2043 [ref. 34595]). Current status: Valid as Perulibatrachus rossignoli (Roux 1957). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Gabon to Namibia. Habitat: marine.

rubigenis, Amphichthys Swainson [W.] 1839:282, 414 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Spelled 2 ways originally; first reviser not researched. As above on p. 414, as Batrachus rubigenes on p. 282; see Batrachus rubigenis. •Valid as Amphichthys rubigenis Swainson 1839. Current status: Valid as Amphichthys rubigenis Swainson 1839. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

rubigenis, Batrachus Swainson [W.] 1839:414 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Pernambuco, Brazil. No types known. As Amphichthys rubigenes on p. 282. Batrachoididae. Habitat: marine.

rubricephalus, Batrachomoeus Hutchins [J. B.] 1976:30, Figs. 12, 14b [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 6971] West of Garden Island, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.25082-001. Paratypes: AMS I.18473-001 (1); BMNH 1975.10.10.2 (1); WAM P.159-001 (1, skeleton), P.1195-001 (1), P.4003-001 (1), P.4292-001 (1), P.5792-001 (1), P.6092-001 (1), P.7120-001 (1), P.7122-001 (1), P.7198-001 (1), P.14788-001 (1), P.25083-001 (1, skeleton), P.25123-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:9 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:8 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Batrachomoeus rubricephalus Hutchins 1976 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:272 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:280 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:21 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:630 [ref. 29004], Greenfield et al. 2008:681 [ref. 30046], Gomon 2008:360 [ref. 30616], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Batrachomoeus rubricephalus Hutchins 1976. Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

schmitti, Daector Collette [B. B.] 1968:155, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 81; ref. 7881] Secas Islands, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 144869. Paratypes: LACM 22360 (1), CAS-SU 14949 (1). •Valid as Daector schmitti Collette 1968 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:79 [ref. 22193], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:916 [ref. 22829], Greenfield et al. 2008:675 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Daector schmitti Collette 1968. Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

splendidus, Sanopus Collette [B. B.], Starck [W. A., II] & Phillips [C.] in Collette 1974:200, Pl. 1; Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 87 (no. 18); ref. 5218] 200 meters offshore of western coast, Cozumel Island, Quintana Roo, México, depth 10 meters. Holotype: USNM 205944. Paratypes: ANSP 117316 (1); CAS 29110 (1); UF 229141 [ex UMML 29141] (1); USNM 205606-07 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:27 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Sanopus splendidus Collette, Starck & Phillips 1974 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:85 [ref. 23100], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Collette 2001:15 [ref. 25398], Collette 2003:1041 [ref. 26981], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:677 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sanopus splendidus Collette, Starck & Phillips 1974. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Mexico, western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Pseudobatrachus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:24 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Batrachomoeus dubius (Shaw 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:271 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:630 [ref. 29004]). Current status: Synonym of Batrachomoeus dubius (Shaw 1790). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: marine.

surinamensis, Batrachus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:43, Pl. 7 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname. •Valid as Batrachoides surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:238 [ref. 14275], Collette & Russo 1981:203 [ref. 5575], Cervigón 1991:182 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:267 [ref. 23827], Menezes & de Figueiredo 1998:340 [ref. 23682], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:169 [ref. 24550], Keith et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Collette 2003:1034 [ref. 26981], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:18 [ref. 28815], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:47 [ref. 31492], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Batrachoides surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Honduras to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tau, Batrachoides Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:451, 452, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Listed by Collette & Russo 1981:203 [ref. 5575] as a misidentification of Batrachoides surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Not regarded as an original description, as Gadus tau Linnaeus 1766 is cited by Lacepède 1800 [ref. 2709]. •Mention -- (Ibagón et al. 2011:47 [ref. 31492]). •In the synonymy of Batrachoides surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Batrachoides surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tau, Gadus Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:439 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Syntypes: LS 119 (left half-skin), 120 [Garden no. 16] (right half-skin). Type catalog: Goode & Bean 1885:195 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:39 [ref. 20705]. Based on manuscript description by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:85 [ref. 23100], Murdy et al. 1997:106 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:171 [ref. 24550], Scott & Crossman 1998:viii [ref. 24570], Collette 2001:3 [ref. 25398], Collette in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:262 [ref. 26158], Collette 2003:1038 [ref. 26981], Nelson et al. 2004:95 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], Page et al. 2013:96 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

trispinosus, Batrachus Günther [A.] 1861:169 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Singapore and Penang, Malaysia. Syntypes: BMNH 1847.2.9.39 (1, alcohol) Singapore, 1860.3.19.424 (1, left half skin) Peneng, ?1860.3.19.425 (left half skin). •Valid as Batrachomoeus trispinosus (Günther 1861) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:38 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:272 [ref. 12442], Kottelat et al. 1993:83 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:170 [ref. 22772], Allen 1997:62 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:349 [ref. 23967], Greenfield 1999:2002 [ref. 24764], Greenfield in Randall & Lim 2000:597 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:21 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:631 [ref. 29004], Allen & Erdmann 2012:141 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:274 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:53 [ref. 34464], Musikasinthorn in Kimura et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34319]). Current status: Valid as Batrachomoeus trispinosus (Günther 1861). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Thailand to Indonesia and south to Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

trispinosus, Potamobatrachus Collette [B. B.] 1995:334, Figs. 2-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 21945] Small rocky pool near town of Jatobal, Rio Tocantins, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 4335. Paratypes: MNHG 2575.53 (1), USNM 330064 (1). •Valid as Potamobatrachus trispinosus Collette 1995 -- (Collette in Reis et al. 2003:509 [ref. 27061], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27192], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Potamobatrachus trispinosus Collette 1995. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Araguaia/Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

uranoscopus, Batrachus Guichenot [A.] 1866:140 [Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg v. 12 (= Ser. 2, v. 2); ref. 14054] Madagascar [probably South America]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4162. See Collette & Greenfield 2009:79 [ref. 30262] for correction of type locality and synonymy. •Synonym of Thalassophryne maculosa Günther 1861 -- (Collette & Greenfield 2009:79 [ref. 30262], Ibagón E. et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31492] dated 1966, Fricke et al. 2018:86 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Thalassophryne maculosa Günther 1861. Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Habitat: marine.

vandeuseni, Opsanus Fowler [H. W.] 1939:1, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 31; ref. 17191] Sand Key, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68629. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:27 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Opsanus beta (Goode & Bean 1880) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:171 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Opsanus beta (Goode & Bean 1880). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vanecki, Tharbacus Smith [J. L. B.] 1952:333, Fig. 2 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 5 (no. 52) (art. 38); ref. 4084] Port Alfred, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 101. •Synonym of Chatrabus melanurus (Barnard 1927) -- (Hutchins 1986:359 [ref. 5673]). Current status: Synonym of Chatrabus melanurus (Barnard 1927). Batrachoididae: Halophryninae. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Batrachoides Lesueur [C. A.] 1824:395 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 17518] Egg Harbor, New Jersey, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Opsanus tau (Linnaeus 1766). Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Habitat: marine.

walkeri, Batrachoides Collette [B. B.] & Russo [J. L.] 1981:211, Fig. 6 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 31 (no. 2); ref. 5575] Panama Bay between Panama City and Punta Gorda, Panama, depth 12-90 feet. Holotype (unique): USNM 220128. •Valid as Batrachoides walkeri Collette & Russo 1981 -- (Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:914 [ref. 22829], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046]). Current status: Valid as Batrachoides walkeri Collette & Russo 1981. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

waltersi, Batrachoides Collette [B. B.] & Russo [J. L.] 1981:208, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 31 (no. 2); ref. 5575] West-southwest of Boca Burrance, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Holotype: LACM 33806-64. Paratypes: ANSP (3); BMNH (2, 2 lots); CAS 42798 [not 47798] (3); FMNH 91905 (3); GCRL (4); LACM (17, 6 lots); MCZ 54337 (2); MNHN 1979-0280 (1); SIO 63-517 (11), 73-257 (19), 73-276 (11); CAS-SU 57002 (1); UAZ (1); UCR (3, 2 lots); USNM 94613 (1), 219786-94 (15, 1, 3, 2, 7, 3, 11, 5, 8), 220129 (2); WAM P.26494-001 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:16 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:27 [ref. 13621], Hutchins & Smith 1991:9 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:8 [ref. 30117], Angulo et al. 2015:369 [ref. 35212].. •Valid as Batrachoides waltersi Collette & Russo 1981 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:66 [ref. 23101], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:915 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:170 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:94 [ref. 27807], Greenfield et al. 2008:676 [ref. 30046], McMahan et al. 2013:445 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:96 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:292 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Batrachoides waltersi Collette & Russo 1981. Batrachoididae: Batrachoidinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

wehekindi, Thalassophryne Fowler [H. W.] 1931:404, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 83; ref. 1410] Gasparee Island, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype: ANSP 53315. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:27 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Thalassophryne maculosa Günther 1861 -- (Collette 1966:852 [ref. 14192], Collette 2003:1036 [ref. 26981], Ibagón et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31492]). Current status: Synonym of Thalassophryne maculosa Günther 1861. Batrachoididae: Thalassophryninae. Habitat: marine.