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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Belonidae: [ 168 ] records


aaveri, Esox Curtiss [A.] 1938:40 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific. No types known. Original as Esox ááveri. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:45 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acus, Belone Risso [A.] 1827:443 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:10 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973 [ref. 7191], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26753], Collette 2003:2 [ref. 27306], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:34 [ref. 36649]). •Synonym of Belone belone Linnaeus 1760, but a valid subspecies acus Risso 1827 -- (Collette 2003:13 [ref. 27306], Collette 2016:2123 [ref. 34601]). •Valid as Belone acus Risso 1827 -- (Fricke et al. 2007:69 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2013:121[ref. 32972]). Current status: Valid as Belone acus Risso 1827. Belonidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea and adjacent Portugal (eastern Atlantic). Habitat: marine.

acus, Sphyraena Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Plumier) 1803:325, 327, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Martinique Island or West Indies, western Atlantic. No types known. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:23 [ref. 22813]. Based on a Plumier drawing. Placed on Official Index in Opinion 900 [ref. 13280] (1970); suppressed for purpose of priority but not for homonymy. This name would then be regarded as a synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) following ICZN Opinion 900, but that has not been followed by subsequent authors since 1965; in the interest of stability, continued usage of acus was recommended (see Collette & 2003:10 [ref. 27306]). But Opinion 2169 (in 2007) reinstated acus as a valid name -- see Collette & Parin 2005:232 [ref. 28549]. Five subspecies are recognized following Collette & Parin 1970: T. a. acus (Lacepède 1803) in the western Atlantic, T. a. imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) in the Mediterranean Sea, T. a. rafale Collette and Parin 1970 in the Gulf of Guinea, T. a. melanotus (Bleeker 1850) throughout the Indo-west Pacific and extending into the eastern Pacific, and T. a. pacificus (Steindachner 1876) in the eastern Pacific; the latter was subsequently raised to species level by Collette & Banford (2001 [ref. 25982]). •Valid as Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367], Parin 1967:52 [ref. 10272], Collette & Parin 1970:41 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:260 [ref. 7191], Dor 1984:65 [ref. 29757], Collette & Parin in Whitehead et al. 1986:608 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:106 [ref. 23100], Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442], Cervigón 1991:227 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:84 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:270 [ref. 23827], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992:584 [ref. 21590], Goren & Dor 1994:16 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:87 [ref. 22896], Santos et al. 1997:126 [ref. 23531], Larson & Williams 1997:350 [ref. 23967], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:69 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:268 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:62 [ref. 24952], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:939 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:104 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:206 [ref. 24550], Johnson 1999:724 [ref. 25471], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Randall 2007:138 [ref. 30952] with subspecies,, Larson et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32988], Collette 2016:2126 [ref. 34601]). •Valid as Tylosurus acus subspecies acus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:166 [ref. 25013], Collette & Banford 2001:51 [ref. 25982], Collette et al. 2003:102 [ref. 26784], Collette 2003:1112 [ref. 26981], Collette 2003:9, 10 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:718 [ref. 28995], Allen & Erdmann 2012:165 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:32 [ref. 33341], Psomadakis et al. 2015:176 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). Belonidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical seas (except eastern Pacific), with 4 subspecies; acus acus occurs in the western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

almeida, Belone Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:226 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4508 (1), 0000-4511 (1). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:6 [ref. 22813]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

altipinna, Belone Poey [F.] 1860:293 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. Published July 1860. Regarded as a synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) [ICZN Opinion 900], but we are not following that decision; see comments under Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). •Synonym of Belone imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Mees 1962:38 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), subspecies acus -- (Collette & Parin 1970:41 [ref. 7415], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992:584 [ref. 21590], Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

amazonica, Belone Steindachner [F.] 1875:94 [66] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] Tajapuru, Amazon River, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 12926. Paralectotypes: not located. On p. 66 of separate. Lectotype selected by Collette 1974:178 [ref. 7131]. •Synonym of Belone microps Günther 1866 -- (Mees 1962:55 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Pseudotylosurus microps (Günther 1866) -- (Collette 1974:173 [ref. 7131], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:587 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:5 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotylosurus microps (Günther 1866). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater.

anastomella, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:446 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] China. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1130. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:6 [ref. 22813]. •Valid as Belone anastomella Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:13 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Ablennes anastomella (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:221 [ref. 26385], Wang et al. 2001:190 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Strongylura anastomella (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:38 [ref. 10272], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:78 [ref. 6441], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:8 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:562 [ref. 25086], Kolpakov & Barabanshchikov 2001:423 [ref. 25413], Nakabo 2002:562 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:219, 545 [ref. 26218], Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306], Parin et al. 2014:197 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:55 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura anastomella (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, Pacific coast of Japan from Hokkaido to Kyushu and eastern Russia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

angusticeps, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:238 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Coast of Ecuador. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.6.16.181. •Synonym of Belone microps Günther 1866, but a valid subspecies -- (Mees 1962:56 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Pseudotylosurus angusticeps (Günther 1866) -- (Collette 1974:180 [ref. 7131], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Gómez & Chebez 1996:67 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:141 [ref. 24147], Lovejoy & de Araújo 2000:261 [ref. 31786], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:587 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:5 [ref. 27306], López et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27366], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192], Menni 2004:85 [ref. 28131], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:32, 183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Pseudotylosurus angusticeps (Günther 1866). Belonidae. Distribution: South America. Upper Amazon and Paraguay-Paraná River basins: Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. Two records from lower Amazon. Habitat: freshwater.

annobonensis, Platybelone argalus Collette [B. B.] & Parin [N. V.] 1970:33, Fig. 4 [Atlantide Report No. 11; ref. 7415] Annobón Island, Equatorial Guinea, Gulf of Guinea [eastern Atlantic]. Holotype: USNM 201500. Paratypes: MNHN 1965-0591 (26 or 27), UF [ex UMML 21700] (5), USNM 202715 [ex 201500] (orig. 14, now 12, 2 to N.V. Parin), ZIN 41572 [ex USNM 202715, ? from Parin] (?1). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410], Collette et al. 1997:9 [ref. 22813]. •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821), but a valid subspecies annobonensis as described -- (Parin 1973:260 [ref. 7191], Collette & Parin 1990:594 [ref. 16473], Afonso et al. 1999:83 [ref. 25466], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Collette 2003:4, 13 [ref. 27306], Collette 2016:2121, 2124 [ref. 34601]). •Valid as Platybelone annobonensis Collette & Parin 1970 -- (Wirtz et al. 2007:28 [ref. 30263]). Current status: Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Bioco and Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) to São Tomé and Príncipe [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

annulata, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:447, Pl. 550 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Sulawesi; Tongatapu, Tonga, South Pacific, Seychelles and Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4582 (1) Sulawesi, B-1132 (1) Tongatapu, A-6351 (1) Seychelles, A-8897 (1) Puducherry. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:6-7 [ref. 22813]. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:44 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Parin 1967:58 [ref. 10272], Dor 1984:66 [ref. 29757], Collette & Parin 1990:597 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:10, 11 [ref. 27306], Mundy 2005:282 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

apodion, Belonion Collette [B. B.] 1966:12, Figs. 1B-C [American Museum Novitates No. 2274; ref. 892] Laguna 3 kilometers southwest of Costa Marques, Rio Guaporé, Bolivia at Brazil-Bolivia boundary. Holotype: AMNH 20805. Paratypes: AMNH 20806 (3), 20807 [ex MNRJ 4490] (2); MNHN 1966-0725 (2); MNRJ 4490 (82); RMNH 26113 [ex USNM 199540] (2), USNM 199539 (3), 199540 (27, 5 c&s). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:3-4 [ref. 19410], Collette et al. 1997:9 [ref. 22813]. •Valid as Belonion apodion Collette 1966 -- (Collette 1974:170 [ref. 7131], Lovejoy & de Araújo 2000:261 [ref. 31786], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:586 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:3 [ref. 27306], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192], Sarmiento et al. 2014:32, 183 [ref. 35004], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[29] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Belonion apodion Collette 1966. Belonidae. Distribution: Guaporé and Madeira River basins: Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

appendiculatus, Belone Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:580 [140] [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMNS 1615 (1, dry); ?NMW 14235 (1); ZMB 10584 (1, missing), 10689 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:145-146 [ref. 19981], Fricke 1992:6 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:15 [ref. 29864]. On p. 140 of separate volume. Belone is feminine, so the original spelling probably should have been Belone appendiculata as used by some early authors. •Valid as Belone appendiculatus Klunzinger 1871 -- (Mees 1962:16 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Dor 1984:65 [ref. 29757], Paxton et al. 2006:719 [ref. 28995]). •Valid as Tylosaurus appendiculatus (Klunzinger 1871) -- (Johnson 1999:724 [ref. 25471]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), subspecies melanotus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Parin 1967:53 [ref. 10272], Randall 1995:87 [ref. 22896], Collette 1999:2159 [ref. 24785], Collette & Banford 2001:52 [ref. 25982], Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306], Mundy 2005:282 [ref. 28379], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668]). •Synonym of Tylosurus melanotus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:43 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus melanotus (Bleeker 1850). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

ardeola, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:425 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:22 [ref. 22813]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:166 [ref. 25013]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus argalus (Lesueur 1821) -- (Collette 2003:1108 [ref. 26981], Collette 2003:4, 13 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argalus, Belona Lesueur [C. A.] 1821:125, Unnumbered plate (apparently 10) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 13274] Guadeloupe Island, West Indies, western Atlantic. No types known. •Status uncertain -- (Mees 1962:70 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821) [sometimes as a valid subspecies] -- (Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367], Parin 1967:11 [ref. 10272] as argala, Collette & Parin 1970:27 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:260 [ref. 7191], Masuda et al. 1984:78 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:64 [ref. 29757], Collette & Parin in Whitehead et al. 1986:607 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:106 [ref. 23100], Paxton et al. 1989:342 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:144 [ref. 24556], Cervigón 1991:228 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:84 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:269 [ref. 23827], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Bussing & López S. 1994:78 [ref. 23101], Goren & Dor 1994:16 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:86 [ref. 22896], Santos et al. 1997:67 [ref. 23531], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:69 [ref. 24545] as argatus, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:267 [ref. 24023], Carpenter et al. 1997:128 [ref. 23922], Arruda 1997:62 [ref. 24952], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:935 [ref. 23897], Fricke 1999:116 [ref. 24106], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:207 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:166 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:153 [ref. 27754], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Hutchins 2001:24 [ref. 25847], Collette et al. 2003:102 [ref. 26784], Collette 2003:1108 [ref. 26981], Collette 2003:4, 13 [ref. 27306], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:80 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:281 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:716 [ref. 28995], Randall 2007:138 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:165 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:32 [ref. 33341], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:111 [ref. 36167], Pinheiro et al. 2015:10 [ref. 34324], Psomadakis et al. 2015:175 [ref. 34104], Struthers 2015:951 [ref. 34261], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Collette 2016:2124 [ref. 34601]). Current status: Valid as Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical seas; 5-7 subspecies recognized by some authors. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

auloceps, Strongylura Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:12 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Fiji Islands or Samoa, South Pacific. Holotype (unique): USNM 83422. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410]. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:45 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), subspecies melanotus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Parin 1967:55 [ref. 10272], Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410], Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306]). •Valid as Tylosurus melanotus (Bleeker 1850) Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus melanotus (Bleeker 1850). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

balticus, Hemiramphus Hohnbaum-Hornschuch [R. F. M.] in Hohnbaum-Hornschuch & van der Hoeven 1843:299 [Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie. v. 10; ref. 13331] Kiel, Germany. No types known. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:11 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:258 [ref. 7191], Collette 2003:2, 13 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

behnii, Hemiramphus van der Hoeven [J.] in Hohnbaum-Hornschuch & van der Hoeven 1843:300 [Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie. v. 10; ref. 13331] Kiel, Germany. No types known. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:11 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:258 [ref. 7191], Collette 2003:2, 13 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bellone, Esox Linnaeus [C.] 1758:314 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.147 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:215 [ref. 13434]. •Treated as valid as Belone bellone (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Mees 1962:17 [ref. 13277]). •Nomen dubium -- (Collette & Parin 1970:17-18 [ref. 7415], Collette 2003:16 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

belone, Esox Linnaeus [C.] 1760:126 [Fauna Svecica, sistens Animalia Sveciae Regni, ed. II; ref. 13326] European seas. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:35 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Placed on Official List in ICZN Opinion 225 as type species of Belone Cuvier 1816 (See also Esox bellone Linnaeus 1758). See Collette 2003:3 [ref. 27306] for subspecies -- Three subspecies were recognized by Collette and Parin (1970 [ref. 7415]): B. b. belone (Linnaeus 1760) from northeastern Atlantic Ocean; B. b. euxini Günther 1866 from the Black Sea and Sea of Azov; and B. b. acus Risso 1827 from the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent parts of the Atlantic, Madeira, Canary Islands, Azores, and south to the Cape Verde Islands. •Valid as Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Collette 2003:13 [ref. 27306], Parin et al. 2014:196 [ref. 33547], Collette 2016:2123 [ref. 34601], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:166 [ref. 36370]). •Valid as Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:11 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:258 [ref. 7191], Fricke 1999:35 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26753], Collette 2003:2 [ref. 27306], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:34 [ref. 36649], Martins & Carneiro 2018:97 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:554 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Distribution: Baltic Sea, North Sea, eastern Atlantic and adjacent Arctic, including Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brachyrhynchos, Belone Bleeker [P.] 1854:61 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 16923] Sindangole, Halmahera, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.5.2.7. According to Collette 2003:12 [ref. 27306], the name Belone brachyrhynchos Bleeker 1854 has been considered to be a junior synonym of T. c. crocodilus by most authors including Mees (1962 [ref. 13277]) and Parin (1967 [ref. 10272]), but the presumed holotype (BMNH 1866.5.2.7) is a specimen of T. punctulatus. Rather than changing the long established name of this species, it is preferable to continue using the name T. punctulatus (Günther 1872). •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:45 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Parin 1967:58 [ref. 10272]). •Synonym of Tylosurus punctulatus (Günther 1872) -- (Collette 2003:12 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus punctulatus (Günther 1872). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Pseudotylosurus Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1948:72 [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 8 (no. 21); ref. 1317] Junction of Rio Xingú with Amazon River at Pôrto do Moz, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 8797. •Synonym of Pseudotylosurus angusticeps (Günther 1866) -- (Collette 1974:180 [ref. 7131], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:587 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:5 [ref. 27306], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotylosurus angusticeps (Günther 1866). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater.

caeruleofasciatus, Tylosurus Stead [D. G.] 1908:3, Pl. 1 [New fishes from New South Wales (No. 1); ref. 13271] Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.28. Paratypes: AMS IA.27 (1), IA.29 (1), I.15667-001 (1). •Synonym of Belone hians Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:29 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:47 [ref. 10272], Paxton et al. 1989:341 [ref. 12442], Collette & Parin 1990:592 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:2 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:716 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cancila, Esox Hamilton [F.] 1822:213, 380, Pl. 27 (fig. 70) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ponds and smaller rivers of Gangetic provinces [India, Bangladesh]. No types known. •Valid as Belone cancila (Hamilton 1822) -- (Mees 1962:20 [ref. 13277]). •Placed in Xenentodon -- (Collette & Berry 1965 [ref. 13367]). •Valid as Xenentodon cancila (Hamilton 1822) -- (Shrestha 1978:40 [ref. 15970], Pethiyagoda 1991:175 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:743 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:89 [ref. 23448], Indra 1994:421 [ref. 24015], Sen 1995:581 [ref. 23778], Rainboth 1996:172 [ref. 22772], Rema Devi et al. 1996:138 [ref. 24021], Banik & Choudhury 1996:579 [ref. 24736], Menon 1999:265 [ref. 24904], Fuller et al. 1999:287 [ref. 25838], Freyhof et al. 2000:96 [ref. 25184], Rafique 2000:326 [ref. 25220], Raju Thomas et al. 2000:444 [ref. 25319], Karmakar 2000:34 [ref. 25662], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Raju Thomas et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26359], Mirza 2003:21 [ref. 27265], Collette 2003:12 [ref. 27306], Ataur Rahman 2003:71 [ref. 31338], Mundy 2005:283 [ref. 28379], Shrestha 2008:204 [ref. 29923], Conway et al. 2011:1756 [ref. 31594], Ahmed et al. 2013:287 [ref. 32872], Gurung et al. 2013:4884 [ref. 32969], Kottelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989], Narasimhaiah et al. 2016:69 [ref. 34975], Arunkumar & Manimekalan 2018:1739 [ref. 36172], Suresh et al. 2018:161 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Xenentodon cancila (Hamilton 1822). Belonidae. Distribution: Asia: Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Malaysia and Thailand; introduced elsewhere including Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: freshwater.

canciloides, Belone Bleeker [P.] 1854:454 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 338] Kapuas River, Pontianak, Borneo; Pangaboeang, Lampong, Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (4) BMNH 1866.5.2.6 (1) no locality (Bleeker coll.), RMNH 6947 (2). Original as canciloïdes. •Synonym of Belone cancila (Hamilton 1822) -- (Mees 1962:20 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Xenentodon canciloides (Bleeker 1854) -- (Roberts 1989:153 [ref. 6439], Lim et al. 1990:48 [ref. 16753], Kottelat & Lim 1995:244 [ref. 23210], Rainboth 1996:172 [ref. 22772], Ng & Tan 1999:363 [ref. 24159], Kottelat 2001:58 [ref. 25482] as cf. canciloides, Kottelat 2001:144 [ref. 25780], Collette 2003:12 [ref. 27306], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:163 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:47 [ref. 33971], Ng et al. 2019:537 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Xenentodon canciloides (Bleeker 1854). Belonidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), Sumatra (Indonesia), western Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

cantrainei, Tylosurus Cocco [A.] 1833:18, Pl. (fig. 4) [Giornale di Scienze Lettere e Arti per La Sicilia v. 42 (no. 124); ref. 859] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Should be regarded as a synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) following ICZN Opinion 900; the name acus should not be used. Spelled cantraine on p. 18 and contrainei on p. 21, first reviser not researched, if none then we select contrainei -- the spelling used by current authors. •Synonym of Belone imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Mees 1962:38 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (authors). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), subspecies imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Parin 1973:260 [ref. 7191], Collette & Parin 1990:596 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:9, 10 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Paxton et al. 2006:719 [ref. 28995]). •Synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:247 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa [probably in error for a locality further north in the eastern Atlantic]. Lectotype: BMNH 1845.11.8.17. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1851.10.26.115 (1, stuffed, poor condition). Lectotype selected by Mees 1962:36, footnote [ref. 13277]. See also Opinion 900 where houttuyni is rejected for priority. See Collette 2003:8 [ref. 27306] for comments on type locality. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Not the same as Petalichthys capensis Regan 1904. •Synonym of Strongylura senegalensis (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Collette 2003:8 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura senegalensis (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

capensis, Petalichthys Regan [C. T.] 1904:129 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 14 (no. 80) (art. 16); ref. 12514] Port Elizabeth, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1890.9.25.14. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Belone by Belone capensis Günther 1866, replaced by Belone megalolepis Mees 1962, but under Art. 59.4 of the Code the older name can be reinstated. •Valid as Petalichthys capensis Regan 1904 -- (Collette 1986:386 [ref. 5647], Collette 2003:3 [ref. 27306], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:126 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Valid as Petalichthys capensis Regan 1904. Belonidae. Distribution: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

carinata, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:437 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Guayaquil, Mexico to Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9125. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:7 [ref. 22813]. •Synonym of Belone platyura Bennett 1831 -- (Mees 1962:58 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821), subspecies platyura (Bennett 1832) -- (Parin 1967:13 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:4, 14 [ref. 27306], Mundy 2005:281 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Platybelone platyura (Bennett 1832) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

carribaea, Belona Lesueur [C. A.] 1821:127 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 13274] Basseterre, near Guadeloupe Island, Caribbean Sea. No types known. Should be regarded as a synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) following ICZN Opinion 900. Types not located (Collette & Parin 1970 [ref. 7415]). Original genus should have been spelled Belone. •Synonym of Belone imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Mees 1962:38 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (authors). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), subspecies acus -- (Collette & Parin 1970:41 [ref. 7415], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992:584 [ref. 21590], Collette 2003:9, 10 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

caudimacula, Belone Cuvier [G.] 1829:285 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Available from footnote as, "Belone caudimacula, N., kuddera, A., Russel, 176" [Russell 1803:61, Pl. 176] [ref. 12456]. •Objective synonym of Belone strongylura van Hasselt 1823 and Strongylura caudimaculata van Hasselt 1824 -- (Mees 1962:66 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Parin 1967:24 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:8 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:718 [ref. 28995],, Kottlelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

caudimaculata, Strongylura van Hasselt [J. C.] 1824:374 [Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles et de Géologie (Férussac), Paris v. 2; ref. 5964] Vizagapatam, India. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Syntypes: ?RMNH 2797 (1), 2799 (1). Based in part on Russell 1803, Pl. 176 [ref. 12456]. Appeared in French edition as above, name not given in original in Dutch [ref. 5963]. •Synonym of Belone strongylura van Hasselt 1823 -- (Mees 1962:66 [ref. 13277], Parin 1967 [ref. 10272]). •Objective synonym of Belone strongylura van Hasselt 1823 and Belone caudimacula Cuvier 1829, according to Mees 1962 [ref. 13277]. •Synonym of Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Collette 2003:8 [ref. 27306], Kottlelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989] with author as Broié in van Hasselt). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

choram, Belone Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:72 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 671. Paralectotypes: SMF 7821-23 (3), 7824 (1, skeleton), 7825 (1, skeleton). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:19 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:44 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Tylosurus choram (Rüppell 1837) -- (Parin 1967:65 [ref. 10272], Collette & Parin 1970:56 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:260 [ref. 7191], Dor 1984:65 [ref. 29757], Collette & Parin in Whitehead et al. 1986:608 [ref. 13676], Goren & Dor 1994:16 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:87 [ref. 22896], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:175 [ref. 26753], Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S100 [ref. 27377], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:43 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:66 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus choram (Rüppell 1837). Belonidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa and Socotra east to western India; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

ciconia, Belone Richardson [J.] 1846:264 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, Chinese Seas. No types known. Type information: Whitehead 1970:211 [ref. 11606]. Not in current use as a valid species, probably can be suppressed in favor of continued usage of Strongylura leiura. Also see Kottlelat 2013:297 [ref. 32989]. •Valid as Belone ciconia Richardson 1846 -- (Mees 1962:16 [ref. 13277]). •Questionably a synonym of Belone leiura Bleeker 1850; priority not followed because of questionable status -- (Parin 1967:32 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850) -- (Collette 1999:2157 [ref. 24785], Kottlelat 2013:297 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cigonella, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:436 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:22 [ref. 22813]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette 1968:191 [ref. 12725], Collette 2003:9 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cornidii, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:255 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Coast of Portugal. Syntypes: BMNH 1861.5.2.72 (1) Lisbon, 2012.10.31.1 (1) Atlantic. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:13 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:259 [ref. 7191], Collette & Parin 1990:593 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:3, 13 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

coromandelica, Belone van Hasselt [J. C.] (ex Cuvier) 1823:331 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar II Deel (no. 35); ref. 5963] Vizagapatam, India. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Based on Russel 1803:Pl. 175, and the illustrated specimen should be the holotype if available. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:44 [ref. 13277]). •Questionably a synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Parin 1967:58 [ref. 10272]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Collette 2003:10, 11 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

crassa, Belone Poey [F.] 1860:291 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 623 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:179 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:45 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Collette & Parin 1970:52 [ref. 7415], Collette & Parin 1990:597 [ref. 16473], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992:584 [ref. 21590], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

crocodila, Belona Péron [F.] & Lesueur [C. A.] in Lesueur 1821:129 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 13274] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN (not found). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:22 [ref. 22813]. Plate illustrating species not included in original, but later found and published by Phillips 1955:4, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [ref. 21818]. Placed on Official List in Opinion 900. Kottelat (2013) indicates that the name crocodila must be retained -- •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:44 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367], Parin 1967:58 [ref. 10272], Collette & Parin 1970:52 [ref. 7415], Kyushin et al. 1977:38 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:65 [ref. 29757], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:78 [ref. 6441], Collette 1986:387 [ref. 5647], Robins & Ray 1986:107 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:40 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442], Collette & Parin 1990:597 [ref. 16473], Randall et al. 1990:58 [ref. 15987], Cervigón 1991:225 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:84 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:270 [ref. 23827], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992:584 [ref. 21590], Bussing & López S. 1994:78 [ref. 23101], Goren & Dor 1994:16 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:87 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:174 [ref. 27969], Murdy et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23144], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:69 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:268 [ref. 24023], Allen 1997:64 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:129 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:24 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:52 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:58 [ref. 25919], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:940 [ref. 23897], Myers 1999:75 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:117 [ref. 24106], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:206 [ref. 24550], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:240 [ref. 24754], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:167 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:724 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:159 [ref. 27511], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27754], Hutchins 2001:24 [ref. 25847], Youn 2002:219, 546 [ref. 26218] with first author as Petron, Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:125 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:32 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:371 [ref. 31242], Page et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:15 [ref. 13251], Collette 1999:2160 [ref. 24785], Afonso et al. 1999:70 [ref. 25466], Randall 1999:8 [ref. 25829], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:50 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2000:563 [ref. 25086], Collette in Randall & Lim 2000:599 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:137 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Collette & Banford 2001:51 [ref. 25982], Nakabo 2002:563 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Collette et al. 2003:102 [ref. 26784], Collette 2003:1113 [ref. 26981], Collette 2003:10, 11 [ref. 27306], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S100 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:26 [ref. 27510], Smith et al. 2003:15 [ref. 27621], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Mundy 2005:282 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:719 [ref. 28995], Wirtz et al. 2007:28 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:139 [ref. 30952] with subspecies, Motomura et al. 2010:82 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:166 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2012:16 [ref. 33457], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:170 [ref. 32953], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32988], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:236 [ref. 36362], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:32 [ref. 33341], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:177 [ref. 34104], Collette 2016:2127 [ref. 34601], Koeda et al. 2016:14 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Ali et al. 2018:314 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:43 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Red Sea, Persian Gulf), but not in eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cylindrica, Belone Bleeker [P.] 1850:13 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (6); ref. 13275] Indonesia: Java; Sumatra (fide Parin 1967 [ref. 10272]). Jakarta; Surabaja; Kammal (Fowler). Syntypes: (16) RMNH 26144 (1), 26145 (some of 16). Appeared first in list as name only in Bleeker 1851:472 [ref. 16898]. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:44 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Parin 1967:58 [ref. 10272], Collette & Parin 1990:597 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dammermani, Rhaphiobelone Fowler [H. W.] 1934:323, Fig. 76 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Taal Anchorage, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 93065. Paratypes: USNM 93066 (2). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410]. •Synonym of Belone ciconia Richardson 1846 -- (Mees 1962:21 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850) -- (Parin 1967:32 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306], Kottlelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

depressa, Belone Poey [F.] 1860:296 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: USNM 4745. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:3 [ref. 19410]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette 1968:191 [ref. 12725], Collette 2003:9 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dibranchodon, Belonion Collette [B. B.] 1966:9, Fig. 1A [American Museum Novitates No. 2274; ref. 892] Río Atabapo, tributary of Orinoco River on the border between Amazonas, Venezuela and Vaupes, Colombia. Holotype: MNHN 1887-836. Paratypes: AMNH 20808 (1), MNHN B-2529 (7), USNM 199463 (7, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410], Collette et al. 1997:9 [ref. 22813]. •Valid as Belonion dibranchodon Collette 1966 -- (Collette 1974:170 [ref. 7131], Lovejoy & de Araújo 2000:261 [ref. 31786], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:586 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:3 [ref. 27306], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:100 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Belonion dibranchodon Collette 1966. Belonidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

diplotaenia, Belone Cope [E. D.] 1871:481 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 7572. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:27 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette 1968:191 [ref. 12725], Collette 2003:9 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dorsalis, Platybelone Whitley [G. P.] 1932:335 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 6); ref. 4674] Northwestern Australia. Holotype: BMNH 1855.9.19.1087. Based on specimen mentioned in Günther 1909, Fische der Südsee v. 3 (no. 8):349 [ref. 14377]. •Synonym of Belone platyura Bennett 1832 -- (Mees 1962:59 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821), subspecies platyura (Bennett 1832) -- (Parin 1967:13 [ref. 10272] as argula, Collette 2003:4, 14 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:342 [ref. 12442] as argula, Paxton et al. 2006:716 [ref. 28995]). •Synonym of Platybelone platyura (Bennett 1832) (authors). Current status: Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

eigenmanni, Potamorrhaphis Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Belonidae p. 13 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Cáceres, Rio Jaurú at Pôrto Esperidião, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 1343A. Paralectotypes: (3) MNRJ 1343 (1). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:395 [ref. 12732], Miranda Ribeiro 1961:7 [ref. 22037] as tipo. On p. 19 when continuously paginated. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:395 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Valid as Potamorrhaphis eigenmanni Miranda Ribeiro 1915 -- (Collette 1982:738 [ref. 5467], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Gómez & Chebez 1996:67 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:141 [ref. 24147] as Potamorhaphis, Keith et al. 2000:28 [ref. 24547], Lovejoy & de Araújo 2000:261 [ref. 31786], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Lasso et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25928], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:586 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:4 [ref. 27306], López et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27366], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192] as Potamorraphis, Menni 2004:85 [ref. 28131], Sant'Anna et al. 2012:668 [ref. 32360], Sarmiento et al. 2014:33, 183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Potamorrhaphis eigenmanni Miranda Ribeiro 1915. Belonidae. Distribution: Upper Madeira River and its tributaries and Paraguay-Paraná River basin: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

esocina, Belone Basilewsky [S.] 1855:260 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] "Mari Provinciam Shandun'ensem alluente," China. No types at ZIN. •Synonym of Belone anastomella Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:13 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura anastomella (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:38 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:55 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura anastomella (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

europaeus, Hemiramphus Yarrell [W.] 1837:506, Fig. 63 [Magazine of Natural History [E. Charlesworth, ed.] (n.s.) v. 1; ref. 13330] Ipswich, Suffolk coast, England. No types known. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:11 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:258 [ref. 7191]). •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) -- (Collette 2003:14 [ref. 27306] dated 1761). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

euryops, Tylosurus Bean [T. H.] & Dresel [H. G.] 1884:168 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 418); ref. 12727] Jamaica. Holotype (unique): USNM 32073. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:5 [ref. 19410]. •Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette 1968:191 [ref. 12725], Collette 2003:9 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

euxini, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:252 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Black Sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.4.25.147. •Valid as Belone euxini Günther 1866 -- (Fricke et al. 2007:69 [ref. 29533]). •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), but a valid subspecies eunixi -- (Collette & Parin 1970:13 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:259 [ref. 7191], Collette & Parin in Whitehead et al. 1986:606 [ref. 13676], Meriç & Altun 1999:423 [ref. 24105], Collette 2003:3, 14 [ref. 27306], Vasil'eva 2007:67 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169 [ref. 31251], Parin et al. 2014:197 [ref. 33547], Collette 2016:2123 [ref. 34601]). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Distribution: Black Sea and Sea of Marmara (if valid). Habitat: marine.

exilis, Belone Girard [C. F.] 1854:149 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 485. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:3 [ref. 19410] with a holotype, Collette et al. 1997:7 [ref. 22813] with a paratype (in error, see Collette 2003:5 [ref. 27306]). •Valid as Belone exilis Girard 1854 -- (Mees 1962:25 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Tylosurus exilis (Girard 1854) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:205 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Strongylura exilis (Girard 1854) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:392 [ref. 13367], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:116 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:50 [ref. 14125], Bussing & López S. 1994:78 [ref. 23101], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:923 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:69 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:268 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:104 [ref. 24555], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306], Banford et al. 2004:834 [ref. 27645], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], Fourriére et al. 2016:456 [ref. 34668] with author as van Hasselt 1823, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:607 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:120 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:296 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura exilis (Girard 1854). Belonidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including Galápagos Islands. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fasciata, Belone Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:442 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Name mentioned in passing in synonymy and not available; from Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. •In the synonymy of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:44 [ref. 13277]). •In the synonymy of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Parin 1967:58 [ref. 10272], Dor 1984:65 [ref. 29757]). •Nomen nudum in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:16 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae.

fasciatus, Mastacembelus Bleeker [P.] 1872:154 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 431] China. No types known. Based on a painting. •Synonym of Belone hians Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:47 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:2 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ferox, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:242 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1865.5.8.1. •Synonym of Belone ciconia Richardson 1846 -- (Mees 1962:21 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:342 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:718 [ref. 28995]). •Synonym of Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850), but a valid subspecies -- (Parin 1967:34 [ref. 10272], Randall 1995:86 [ref. 22896], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306], Kottlelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fijiense, Strongylura Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:13 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Fiji Islands or Samoa (original label gives Fiji). Holotype (unique): USNM 83421. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410]. •Questionably a synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Parin 1967:60 [ref. 10272]). •Synonym of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

fluviatilis, Belone Regan [C. T.] 1903:626 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 12 (no. 72) (art. 64); ref. 13401] Rivers of northwestern Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1901.8.3.26 (1), 1902.5.27.52 (1), 1902.7.29.61 (1). Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:587 [ref. 27061] have 1901.8.3.26 as holotype, but clearly 3 specimens in original description. •Valid as Belone fluviatilis Regan 1903 -- (Mees 1962:26 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Strongylura fluviatilis (Regan 1903) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:392 [ref. 13367], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:307, 402 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura fluviatilis (Regan 1903). Belonidae. Distribution: Pacific slope of the Andes: Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

fodiator, Tylosurus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:459 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 254) (for 4 Aug. 1882); ref. 10610] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 28190. Paratypes: USNM 28323 (1). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:5 [ref. 19410]. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801), but a valid subspecies -- (Mees 1962:50 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:206 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), but possibly a valid subspecies -- (Collette & Berry 1965:392 [ref. 13367]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), but a valid subspecies fodiator -- (Randall et al. 1990:58 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:90 [ref. 22193], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:926 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:87 [ref. 22896], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:268 [ref. 24023], Collette & Banford 2001:51 [ref. 25982], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Collette 2016:2127 [ref. 34601], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], González-Murcia et al. 2019:296 [ref. 36544]). •Valid as Tylosurus fodiator Jordan & Gilbbert 1882 -- (Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:236 [ref. 36362], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:607 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus fodiator Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Belonidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

forsythia, Strongylura notata Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1932:3, Fig. 2 [American Museum Novitates No. 551; ref. 16362] Lake Forsyth, Andros Island, Bahamas. Holotype: AMNH 10108. Paratypes: (21). •Synonym of Belone notata Poey 1860 -- (Mees 1962:57 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura notata (Poey 1860) -- (authors). •Synonym of Strongylura notata (Poey 1860), but a valid subspecies forsythia Breder 1932 as described -- (Collette 2003:1105 [ref. 26981], Collette 2003:8 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura notata (Poey 1860). Belonidae. Distribution: Subspecies occurs from the Bahama Islands, southern Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico west to Mobile Bay, Alabama. Habitat: marine.

galapagensis, Strongylura Fowler [H. W.] 1944:304, Fig. 102 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Abingdon Island [Pinta Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70251. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:27 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) subspecies fodiator (Jordan & Gilbert 1944) -- (Mees 1962:50 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), subspecies pacificus (Steindachner 1876) -- (McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025]). •Synonym of Tylosurus pacificus (Steindachner 1876) -- (Collette & Banford 2001:52 [ref. 25982], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus pacificus (Steindachner 1876). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

galeata, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:429 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Cayenne, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-792 (dry). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:7 [ref. 22813]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gavialoides, Belone Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:142 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Fremantle, Western Australia. Syntypes: NMV 51847 (not found in 1997). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:22 [ref. 22813]. •Valid as Belone gavialoides Castelnau 1873 -- (Mees 1962:26 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Lhotskia gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Parin 1967:41 [ref. 10272]). •Valid as Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:40 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:65 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:64 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:350 [ref. 23967], Collette 1999:2161 [ref. 24785], Johnson 1999:724 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:24 [ref. 25847], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:719 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873). Belonidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

gerania, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:437 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Martinique Island, West Indies, western Atlantic. Syntypes: (2) MNHN A-8896 (1). Perhaps should be regarded as a synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) following ICZN Opinion 900, but see comments under Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). •Synonym of Belone imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Mees 1962:38 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:41 [ref. 7415], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992:584 [ref. 21590]). •Synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (authors). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Collette 2003:10, 11 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gigantea, Belone Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:245 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D2270 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1879 (1, stuffed), D2275 (1, stuffed). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:179 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:44 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Parin 1967:58 [ref. 10272], Collette & Parin 1990:597 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:10, 11 [ref. 27306], Mundy 2005:282 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Randall 2007:139 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gladius, Tylosurus Bean [T. H.] in Goode & Bean 1882:430 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 30151. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:5 [ref. 19410]. Appeared first as name only in Goode & Bean 1882:239 [ref. 20598]. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:45 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Collette & Parin 1970:52 [ref. 7415], Collette & Parin 1990:597 [ref. 16473], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992:584 [ref. 21590], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gracilis, Belone Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:246, Pl. 110 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1878 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: (1 of following) RMNH D1881 (1, stuffed), ?2806 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:180 [ref. 12876]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Belone gracilis Lowe 1838. •Synonym of Strongylura anastomella (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:38 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura anastomella (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Belone Macleay [W.] 1881:243 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16272-001 [ex MAMU F190] (4). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Belone gracilis Lowe 1839. •Synonym of Belone gavialoides Castelnau 1873 -- (Mees 1962:26 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Lhotskia gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Parin 1967:41 [ref. 10272]). •Synonym of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:719 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Belone Lowe [R. T.] 1839:86 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1839 (pt 7); ref. 2829] Off Madeira. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), but a valid subspecies gracilis (Lowe 1839) -- (Santos et al. 1997:67 [ref. 23531]). •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies acus Risso 1827 -- (Collette & Parin 1970:11 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:259 [ref. 7191], Collette & Parin in Whitehead et al. 1986:606 [ref. 13676], Collette & Parin 1990:592 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:13 [ref. 27306], Meriç & Altun 1999:423 [ref. 24105], Collette 2003:2, 15 [ref. 27306], Collette 2016:2123 [ref. 34601]). •Synonym of Belone acus Risso 1827 -- (Fricke et al. 2007:69 [ref. 29533]). Current status: Synonym of Belone acus Risso 1827. Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

graii, Belone Sykes [W. H.] 1839:163 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1838 (pt 6) (for 27 Nov. 1838); ref. 18720] Deccan, India. No types known. Appeared first as above, then in Sykes 1839:60 [ref. 4306]; more complete treatment in Sykes 1841:350, Pl. 60 (fig. 1) [ref. 18868]. •Synonym of Esox cancila Hamilton 1822 -- (Mees 1962 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Xenentodon cancila (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1999:265 [ref. 24904], Collette 2003:12 [ref. 27306], Kottelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Xenentodon cancila (Hamilton 1822). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater.

groeneri, Belone Klunzinger [C. B.] 1879:260 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 22); ref. 18913] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2601. Type catalog: Fricke 1992:6 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:16 [ref. 29864]. Also appeared in Klunzinger 1880:414 [90 of separate] [ref. 2624]. •Synonym of Belone gavialoides Castelnau 1873 -- (Mees 1962:26 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Lhotskia gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Parin 1967:41 [ref. 10272]). •Synonym of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:350 [ref. 23967], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:719 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

guayoensis, Deltatylosurus Martín Salazar [F. J.] 1954:5, Fig. [Contribuciones ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Caracas Serie Zoológica No. 14; ref. 2897] Channel of the Orinoco River, near Misíon de Guayo, Estado Delta Amacuro, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MHNLS 9923. Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:48 [ref. 23639]. •Synonym of Belone microps Günther 1866 -- (Mees 1962:55 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Pseudotylosurus microps (Günther 1866) -- (Collette 1974:173 [ref. 7131], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:587 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:5 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotylosurus microps (Günther 1866). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater.

guianensis, Belone Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1843:131, Pl. 1 [The natural history of fishes of Guiana.--Part II; ref. 3948] Paduiri River, Guyana. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Questionably placed in Belone. •Valid as Potamorrhaphis guianensis (Jardine 1843) -- (Collette 1982:722 [ref. 5467], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Keith et al. 2000:28 [ref. 24547], Lovejoy & de Araújo 2000:261 [ref. 31786], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:586 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:5 [ref. 27306], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192] with genus as Potamorraphis and author as Schomburgk, Sant'Anna et al. 2012:668 [ref. 32360], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:33 [ref. 35004], Melo et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:100 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Potamorrhaphis guianensis (Jardine 1843). Belonidae. Distribution: South America. Amazon and Orinoco River basins and the Guianas: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

hians, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:432, Pl. 548 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Bahia, Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN B-1125. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-1204 (1). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:7 [ref. 22813]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Parin 1970:40 [ref. 7415]. •Valid as Belone hians Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:29 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367], Parin 1967:45 [ref. 10272], Collette & Parin 1970:37 [ref. 7415], Kyushin et al. 1977:36 [ref. 19756], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:199 [ref. 14275], Dor 1984:64 [ref. 29757], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:78 [ref. 6441], Collette 1986:386 [ref. 5647], Robins & Ray 1986:106 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:40 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:341 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:15 [ref. 13251], Collette & Parin 1990:592 [ref. 16473], Cervigón 1991:224 [ref. 24472], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:16 [ref. 25356], Boschung 1992:83 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:269 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:90 [ref. 22193], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:921 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:86 [ref. 22896], Franke & Acero P. 1996:765 [ref. 22923], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:173 [ref. 27969], Murdy et al. 1997:117 [ref. 23144], Allen 1997:64 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:24 [ref. 26476], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:69 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:266 [ref. 24023], Carpenter et al. 1997:127 [ref. 23922], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:934 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:104 [ref. 24555], Fricke 1999:116 [ref. 24106], Collette 1999:2154 [ref. 24785], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:165 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:70 [ref. 25466], Johnson 1999:724 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:8 [ref. 25829], Keith et al. 2000:28 [ref. 24547], Nakabo 2000:562 [ref. 25086], Collette in Randall & Lim 2000:599 [ref. 25122], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:153 [ref. 27754], Hutchins 2001:24 [ref. 25847], Collette in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:287 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:562 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:219, 545 [ref. 26218], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Collette 2003:1107 [ref. 26981], Collette 2003:2 [ref. 27306], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S100 [ref. 27377], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:615 [ref. 27495], Smith et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27621], Randall et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3317 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:126 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:281 [ref. 28379], Randall 2005:80 [ref. 28239], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Paxton et al. 2006:716 [ref. 28995], Wirtz et al. 2007:28 [ref. 30263], Fricke et al. 2009:31 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:82 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:371 [ref. 31242], Page et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:64 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:63 [ref. 34464], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:32 [ref. 33341], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:111 [ref. 36167], Psomadakis et al. 2015:175 [ref. 34104], Struthers 2015:950 [ref. 34261], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Collette 2016:2122 [ref. 34601], Fourriére et al. 2016:456 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:607 [ref. 34923], Motomura et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:314 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:42 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:61 [ref. 36460], Golani 2019:410 [ref. 36826], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Red Sea, Persian Gulf, South China Sea); eastern Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hindostanicus, Esox (Belone) Falconer [H.] 1868:589 [Miscellaneous Notes Indian Zoology v. 1; ref. 13399] Nullahs [tempory stream] and stagnant waters at Suharunpore [Sukarumpoor], India. No types known. Original description is reproduced in Myers 1960:245-246 [ref. 9582]. •Synonym of Belone cancila (Hamilton 1822) -- (Mees 1962:20 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Xenentodon cancila (Hamilton 1822) -- (Myers 1960:246 [ref. 9582], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:743 [ref. 20764], Collette 2003:12 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Xenentodon cancila (Hamilton 1822). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater.

houttuyni, Esox Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:88 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality. No types known. Placed on Official Index (Opinion 900); suppressed for purpose of priority but not for homonymy. •Valid as Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •In the synonymy of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:201 [ref. 24550], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

houttuyni, Esox belone var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:391 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. No types known. Apparently independent of Esox houttuyni Walbaum 1792 but based on the same source. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Esox houttuyni Walbaum 1792. •Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

howesi, Tylosurus Ogilby [J. D.] 1907:12 [ ref. 19275] Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Lhotskia gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Parin 1967:41 [ref. 10272]). •In the synonymy of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:720 [ref. 28995]). •Nomen nudum in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:17 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873). Belonidae.

hubbsi, Strongylura Collette [B. B.] 1974:612, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1974 (no. 3); ref. 7495] Río de la Pasión immediately above mouth of Arroyo de Petexbatúm at Sayaxché, El Petén, Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 194998 [ex 143506]. Paratypes: ANMH 25206 (6), 25394 (7), 25704 (2), 25585 (2), 25731 (3), 25785 (7, now 0); UMMZ (63, 24 lots); USNM 211620 (3), 214022 (7); plus additional non-type material. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410]. •Valid as Strongylura hubbsi Collette 1974 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:32 [ref. 22290], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:204 [ref. 24550], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:587 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306], Banford et al. 2004:834 [ref. 27645], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:202 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:10 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura hubbsi Collette 1974. Belonidae. Distribution: Usumacinta River basin: Guatemala and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

imperialis, Esox Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:59, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:34 [ref. 3595]. Sphyraena acus was placed on the Official Index and Esox imperialis on the Official List. See also Sphyraena acus Lacepède 1803 [note: because of changes, synonyms of T. imperialis may not be synonyms of Tylosurus imperialis imperialis] and a new petition will be submitted to preserve use of acus as in current literature. This subspecies occurs in the Mediterranean Sea. •Valid as Belone imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Mees 1962:38 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), but a valid subspecies imperialis -- (Parin 1973:260 [ref. 7191], Masuda et al. 1984 [ref. 6441], Collette & Parin in Whitehead et al. 1986:607 [ref. 13676], Collette & Parin 1990:596 [ref. 16473], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27754], Collette & Banford 2001:53 [ref. 25982], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26753], Collette 2003:9, 10 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:719 [ref. 28995], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:34 [ref. 36649], Collette 2016:2121 [ref. 34601], Collette 2016:2126 [ref. 34601]). •Valid as Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Fricke et al. 2007:70 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810). Belonidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

impotens, Tylosurus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:89 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3287] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: (2) Not at QM [ex AFAQ 537] (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Belone gavialoides Castelnau 1873 -- (Mees 1962:26 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Lhotskia gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Parin 1967:41 [ref. 10272]). •Synonym of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:720 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

incisa, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:451 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN (lost) or RMNH 6945 (1 of several). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:22 [ref. 22813]. •Valid as Belone incisa Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:40 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Strongylura incisa (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:27 [ref. 10272], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:78 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:342 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1997:497 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:74 [ref. 23965], Collette 1999:2156 [ref. 24785], Nakabo 2000:562 [ref. 25086], Collette in Randall & Lim 2000:599 [ref. 25122], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Sakai et al. 2001:90 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:24 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:562 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:81 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:717 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2011:371 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:165 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:64 [ref. 32988], Koeda et al. 2016:14 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura incisa (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives east to Philippines and Samoa, north to southern China, south to northern Australia Habitat: marine.

indica, Belona Lesueur [C. A.] 1821:130 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 13274] Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN (lost). Types lost (Mees 1962:73 [ref. 13277]), originally at MNHN. •Status uncertain -- (Mees 1962 [ref. 13277]). •Incertae sedis in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:16 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

indica, Esox McClelland [J.] 1842:582 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 2 (no. 8); ref. 2926] Loodianah, India. No types known. •Synonym of Xenentodon cancila (Hamilton 1822) -- (Collette 2003:12 [ref. 27306], Kottelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Xenentodon cancila (Hamilton 1822). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater.

issajewi, Tylosurus Gratzianov [V. I.] 1907:243 [Trudy Otdela Ichtiologii Imperatorskago Russkago Obshchestva Akklimatizacii Zivotnych' i Rastenii. v. 4; ref. 1871] Vladivostok, Russia. Syntypes: ?ZIN 8662 (1). •Synonym of Strongylura anastomella (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:38 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306], Parin et al. 2014:197 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:55 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura anastomella (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

japonica, Belone Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1887:293 [37] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 53 (1. abth.); ref. 4249] Not available, mentioned in the synonymy of Belone anastomella Valenciennes 1846. •Nomen nudum in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:17 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae.

jonesii, Belone Goode [G. B.] 1877:295 [American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 3) v. 14 (no. 82) (art. 50); ref. 13360] Bermuda. Lectotype: USNM 21392. Paralectotypes: USNM 202591 (2). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:3 [ref. 19410]. Original author selected a type of 18 inches; lectotype selected by Collette & Parin 1970:44 [ref. 7415]. Should be regarded as a synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) following ICZN Opinion 900, but see comments under Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803).. •Synonym of Belone imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Mees 1962:38 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), subspecies acus -- (Collette & Parin 1970:41 [ref. 7415], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992: [ref. 21590] as jonessi [sic], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:166 [ref. 25013], Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

jonesii, Belone Günther [A.] 1879:151 [2] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 3 (no. 14) (art. 15); ref. 13362] Bermuda. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.1.8.2. Described as new species, but objectively invalid; preoccupied by Belone jonesii Goode 1877. Should be regarded as a synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) following ICZN Opinion 900. •Synonym of Belone imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Mees 1962:38 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), subspecies acus -- (Collette & Parin 1970:41 [ref. 7415], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:166 [ref. 25013], Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Tylosurus Starks [E. C.] 1906:781, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1468); ref. 10101] Guayaquil, western Ecuador. Holotype (unique): USNM 53469. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:5 [ref. 19410]. •Synonym of Strongylura scapularis (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Collette 2003:8 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura scapularis (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

koseirensis, Belone Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:579 [139] [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZIN 2570. Paralectotypes: ZMB 8055 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:146 [ref. 19981]. On p. 139 of combined volume. Lectotype selected by Parin 1967:63 (translation p. 80) [ref. 10272]. •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Parin 1967:58 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

krefftii, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:250 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Australia [not Sydney]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.2.13.1. •Valid as Belone krefftii Günther 1866 -- (Mees 1962:41 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Strongylura krefftii (Günther 1866) -- (Roberts 1978:48 [ref. 8886] as kreffti, Paxton et al. 1989:342 [ref. 12442], Larson & Martin 1990:18 [ref. 16606] and Allen 1991:72 [ref. 21090] as kreffti, Fuller et al. 1999:486 [ref. 25838], Pusey et al. 2000:72 [ref. 24466] as kreffti, Allen et al. 2000:68 [ref. 27467] as kreffti, Hutchins 2001:24 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2002:125 [ref. 25930], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306], Morgan et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27718], Paxton et al. 2006:717 [ref. 28995], Allen et al. 2008:74 [ref. 30265], Morgan et al. 2011:12 [ref. 31262], Larson et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32988] as kreffti, Pusey et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura krefftii (Günther 1866). Belonidae. Distribution: Northern Australia and central-southern New Guinea (Papua Province, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

labiatus, Potamorrhaphis Sant'Anna [V. B.], Delapieve [M. L. S.] & Reis [R. E.] 2012:663, Figs. 2, 3, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7 [Copeia 2012 (no. 4); ref. 32360] Carauari, Rio Juruá, beach 2 km upstream Sacado do Juburi, 05°10'15"S, 67°13'27"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 46290. Paratypes: many at AMNH, ANSP, INPA, MCP, UFAM, USNM. •Valid as Potamorrhaphis labiata Sant'Anna, Delapieve & Reis 2012. Current status: Valid as Potamorrhaphis labiata Sant'Anna, Delapieve & Reis 2012. Belonidae. Distribution: Río Ucayali, Peru and Rio Solimões, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

latimana, Belone Poey [F.] 1860:292 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 622. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:179 [ref. 22926]. Should be regarded as a synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) following ICZN Opinion 900, but see remarks under Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). •Synonym of Belone imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Mees 1962:38 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), subspecies acus -- (Collette & Parin 1970:41 [ref. 7415], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992:584 [ref. 21590], Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

leiuroides, Belone Bleeker [P.] 1851:479 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 16892] Billiton Island [Belitung Island], off Sumatra, East Indies. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1866.5.2.1. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 6945 (5). •Synonym of Belone incisa Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:41 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura incisa (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:27 [ref. 10272], Collette 1999:2156 [ref. 24785], Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura incisa (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

leiurus, Belone Bleeker [P.] 1850:94 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 13402] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1866.5.2.4 (1), RMNH 6946 (some of 9), SMNS 10573 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:9 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:16 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Belone ciconia Richardson 1846 -- (Mees 1962:21 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850) -- (Parin 1967:31 [ref. 10272], Collette 1986:387 [ref. 5647], Allen & Swainston 1988:40 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:342 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:58 [ref. 15987], Kottelat et al. 1993:89 [ref. 23448], Kuiter 1993:65 [ref. 23929], Randall 1995:86 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:64 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:350 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:128 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:58 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:75 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:116 [ref. 24106], Collette 1999:2157 [ref. 24785], Johnson 1999:724 [ref. 25471], Collette in Randall & Lim 2000:599 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:137 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:24 [ref. 25847], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S100 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:126 [ref. 28072], Paxton et al. 2006:718 [ref. 28995], Gomon 2008:408 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2009:31 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:371 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32988], Kottlelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:64 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:176 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:314 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850). Belonidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comores, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Hawaiian Islands, Easter Island and Sala-y-Gomez Ridge, north to central Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Kimberleys (Western Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Kermadec Islands and Rapa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

linnei, Belone Malm [A. W.] 1877:553 [ ref. 2881] European seas. No types known. Original as Linnéi. An unneeded new name for Esox belone Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid "Strickland tautonomy"). •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Parin 1973:258 [ref. 7191], Collette 2003:3, 15 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

liuroides, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:243 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Billiton Island [Belitung Island], off Sumatra, East Indies. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1866.5.2.1. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 6945 (5). Unjustified emendation of Belone leiuroides Bleeker 1851. •Synonym of Strongylura incisa (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura incisa (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Belone Schinz [H. R.] 1822:312 [Das Thierreich v. 2; ref. 3926] European Seas. No types known. Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Esox belone Linnaeus 1760 (see Daget 1968:1058 [ref. 26392]). •Objective synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Daget 1968:1058 [ref. 26392], Collette 2003:2 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) -- (Collette 2003:2, 15 [ref. 27306] dated 1761). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longirostris, Esox Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:322 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 5, art. 1); ref. 30214] Hudson River near Albany, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792) -- (Smith 1986:408 [ref. 22186], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

longleyi, Strongylura Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1932:12, Pls. 2 (fig. 1), 3 (fig. 5), 9 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 435; ref. 13366] Dry Tortugas, Monroe County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: AMNH 9686 (missing since 1/1961). Paratypes: (10) AMNH 30454 (1). •Synonym of Belone platyura Bennett 1832 -- (Mees 1962:59 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus argulus (Lesueur 1821) -- (Collette 2003:4, 15 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lovii, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:236 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Cape Verde Islands [eastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.4.10.1. •Synonym of Belone platyura Bennett 1832 -- (Mees 1962:58 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821), but a valid subspecies -- (Collette & Parin 1970:30 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973 [ref. 7191], Collette & Parin in Whitehead et al. 1986:607 [ref. 13676], Collette & Parin 1990:594 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:4, 15 [ref. 27306], Collette 2016:2124 [ref. 34601]). •Valid as Platybelone lovii (Günther 1866) -- (Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972]). Current status: Valid as Platybelone lovii (Günther 1866). Belonidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

macleayana, Belone Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:53 [Catalogue of the fishes of New South Wales, with their principal synonyms; ref. 13268] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. No types known. Replacement name for Belone gracilis Macleay 1881, preoccupied by Belone gracilis Lowe 1839 and Belone gracilis Temminck & Schlegel 1846. •Synonym of Belone gavialoides Castelnau 1873 -- (Mees 1962:26 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Lhotskia gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Parin 1967:41 [ref. 10272]). •Synonym of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:720 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

macrolepis, Belone Bleeker [P.] 1856:225 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 354] Nias Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1862.5.2.5. •Synonym of Belone urvillii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:68 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura urvillii (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:26 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:9 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura urvillii (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculata, Belone Poey [F.] 1860:290 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. Types not located by Collette & Parin 1970:37 [ref. 7415]. •Synonym of Belone hians Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:29 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:47 [ref. 10272], Collette & Parin 1970:13 [ref. 7415], Collette & Parin 1990:592 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:2 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

marina, Acus Müller [P. L. S.] 1766:141, Pl. H (fig. 2) (v. 2) [Deliciae Naturae; ref. 3055] Not available, published in a rejected work on the Official Index (Opinion 701). •In the synonymy of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies acus Risso 1827. •In the synonymy of Belone acus Risso 1827. Current status: Synonym of Belone acus Risso 1827. Belonidae.

marinus, Acus Müller [P. L. S.] 1774:341 [Des Ritters Carl von Linné vollständiges Natursystem nach der 12ten Ausgabe, und nach Anleitung Houttynischen Werkes, mit einer ausführlichen Erklärung ausgefertigt. 6 vols. 4; ref. 6461] Not available, published in a rejected work on Official Index (Opinion 701). Acus used only as a Latin vernacular name in reference to Esox belone Linnaeus 1761; Acus marinus was attributed to Müller but is a Latin translation of the German vernacular name 'Meernadel', used by a subsequent author. Belonidae.

marinus, Esox Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Schöpf) 1792:88 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated [New York, U.S.A.]. No types known. Based on 'Esox, Sea Pike, Sea Snipe, zu Neuyork' in Schöpf 1788:177 [ref. 18700]. All of Valenciennes' specimens of Belone timucu are Strongylura marina (Collette et al. 1997:27 [ref. 22813]). Placed on Official List in Opinion 900 [ref. 13280]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792) -- (Lee et al. 1980:489 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:408 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:106 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:229 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:84 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:269 [ref. 23827], Mettee et al. 1996:441 [ref. 25836], Murdy et al. 1997:118 [ref. 23144], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:936 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:28 [ref. 24547], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:201 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:287 [ref. 25838], Marín 2000:70 [ref. 26252], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27754], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Ross et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25978], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Collette in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:288 [ref. 26158], Collette 2003:1109 [ref. 26981], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27621], Banford et al. 2004:834 [ref. 27645], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Miller 2006:203 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:10 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:461 [ref. 31215], Matamoros et al. 2009:15 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:189 [ref. 35886], Ribeiro et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), including Mexico and Central America, but absent from the Bahamas and the West Indies. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

marinus, Esox belone var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:391 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] North America. No types known. Apparently independent of Esox marinus Walbaum 1792. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Esox marinus Walbaum 1792. •Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

marisrubri, Esox belone var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:391 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Red Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:146 [ref. 19981]. Originally maris rubri. Placed on Official Index (Opinion 900); suppressed for purpose of priority but not for homonymy. •Considered valid by Mees 1962:44 [ref. 13277]. •Synonym of Belone choram Rüppell 1837 -- (Parin 1967 [ref. 10272]). •In the synonymy of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Dor 1984:65 [ref. 29757], Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367]). •In the synonymy of Tylosurus choram (Rüppell 1837) -- (Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus choram (Rüppell 1837). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

megalolepis, Belone Mees [G. F.] 1962:51 [Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) v. 54 (no. 1); ref. 13277] Port Elizabeth, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1890.9.25.14. Replacement name for Petalichthys capensis Regan 1904, secondarily preoccupied by Belone capensis Günther 1866 when Mees treated both in Belone. The name capensis is reinstated as valid based on Art. 59.4. •Mentioned but not accepted -- (Collette 1986:386 [ref. 5647]). •Synonym of Petalichthys capensis Regan 1904 -- (Collette 2003:3 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Petalichthys capensis Regan 1904. Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

melanochira, Belone Poey [F.] 1860:294 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 624. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:179 [ref. 22926], Paepke & Seegers 1986:146 [ref. 19981], Collette et al. 1992:3 [ref. 19410]. MCZ 72048 [ex MCZ 624] (1), USNM 4744 (1), ZMB 5467 (1) were listed as syntypes previously, but the original description was based on a single specimen. •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Collette & Parin 1970:52 [ref. 7415], Collette & Parin 1990:597 [ref. 16473], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992:584 [ref. 21590], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanostigma, Belone Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:450 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique) (?): ZMB 2866 (dry, poor condition). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:146 [ref. 19981], Collette et al. 1997:23 [ref. 22813]. •Synonym of Belone hians Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:29 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:47 [ref. 10272], Dor 1984:64 [ref. 29757], Collette & Parin 1990:592 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:2 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

melanotus, Belone Bleeker [P.] 1850:94 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 13402] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6940. Lectotype selected by Mees 1962:55 [ref. 13277]. •Valid as Belone melanota Bleeker 1850 -- (Mees 1962:53 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), but a valid subspecies melanotus -- (Parin 1967:53 [ref. 10272], Dor 1984:65 [ref. 29757], Yoshida in Masuda et al. 1984:79 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:15 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:16 [ref. 25356], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:920 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:87 [ref. 22896], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:268 [ref. 24023] [but see McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025]], Myers 1999:75 [ref. 23965], Collette 1999:2159 [ref. 24785], Nakabo 2000:563 [ref. 25086], Collette in Randall & Lim 2000:599 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:24 [ref. 25847], Collette & Banford 2001:51 [ref. 25982], Nakabo 2002:563 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:219, 545 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:615 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Mundy 2005:282 [ref. 28379], Randall 2005:81 [ref. 28239], Motomura et al. 2010:82 [ref. 31256], Yoshida et al. 2013:64 [ref. 34464], Musikasinthorn in Kimura et al. 2018:62 [ref. 36460]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), subspecies imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Parin 1973:260 [ref. 7191], Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S100 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Tylosurus melanotus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Chen et al. 1997:24 [ref. 26476], Fricke et al. 2014:40 [ref. 33932], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:607 [ref. 34923], Fricke et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:43 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus melanotus (Bleeker 1850). Belonidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa east to Revillagigedo, Clipperton and Cocos islands (eastern Pacific). Habitat: marine.

melanurus, Belone Bleeker [P.] 1849:11 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura Straits near Surabaya and Kammal, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: SMNS 10574 (3). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:9 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:16 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:44 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Parin 1967:58 [ref. 10272], Collette & Parin 1990:597 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mentalis, Belone Klunzinger [C. B.] in Paepke & Seegers 1986:147 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 62 (no. 1); ref. 19981] Not available; name from catalog for missing specimen ZMB 8182 -- mentioned by Paepke & Seegers 1986:147 [ref. 19981]. •Nomen nudum in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:17 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae.

microps, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:237 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Suriname. Lectotype: BMNH 1845.6.22.104. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1845.5.3.5 (1). Lectotype selected by Collette 1974:178 [ref. 7131]. •Valid as Belone microps Günther 1866 -- (Mees 1962:53 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Pseudotylosurus microps (Günther 1866) -- (Collette 1974:173 [ref. 7131], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Collette 2003:5 [ref. 27306], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:100 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pseudotylosurus microps (Günther 1866). Belonidae. Distribution: South America: primarily a species of the Orinoco, Guianas, and lower Amazon (Araguaia, Xingú, Negro and Branco); one record from the upper Amazon. Habitat: freshwater.

natalensis, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:243 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Syntypes: (at least 4) BMNH 1855.9.19.1085-1086 (2), 1862.12.19.35-36 (2). •Synonym of Belone ciconia Richardson 1846 -- (Mees 1962:21 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850) -- (Parin 1967:32 [ref. 10272], Collette 1986:387 [ref. 5647], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306], Kottlelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

notata, Belone Poey [F.] 1860:293 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 32933 (1), ZMB 5499 [Poey no. 413] (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:179 [ref. 22926] with 32933 as holotype, Paepke & Seegers 1986:147 [ref. 19981], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195] not a holotype. •Valid as Belone notata Poey 1860 -- (Mees 1962:57 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Strongylura notata (Poey 1860) [often as a subspecies] -- (Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367], Robins & Ray 1986:106 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:84 [ref. 23239], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:95 [ref. 22947], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:937 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:203 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:166 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27754], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Collette 2003:1105 [ref. 26981], Collette 2003:8, [ref. 27306] as S. n. notata, Smith et al. 2003:15 [ref. 27621] as S. n. notata, Banford et al. 2004:834 [ref. 27645], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:203 [ref. 28615], Matamoros et al. 2009:15 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32708], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:190 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura notata (Poey 1860). Belonidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Subspecies notata from Cuba, Jamaica, and the coast of central America from Mexico to Honduras. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

obtusus, Hemiramphus Couch [R. Q.] 1848:1978, Fig. [The Zoologist: a Popular Miscellany of Natural History v. 6; ref. 13345] Mount's Bay, Cornwall, England. No types known. Appeared as Hemiramphus? obtusus. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:11 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:258 [ref. 7191], Collette 2003:2, 15 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

oculata, Belone Leschenault [J. B.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:449 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Vizagapatam, India. Name mentioned in passing. Name only, not available. •In the synonymy of Belone strongylura van Hasselt 1823 -- (Mees 1962:66 [ref. 13277]). •In the synonymy of Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Parin 1967:24 [ref. 10272]). •Nomen nudum in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:17 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae.

pacifica, Belone Steindachner [F.] 1875:93 [65] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] Acapulco, western Mexico; Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW 77255 (2), 77501 (3) 16698 (2). On p. 65 of separate. Formerly considered a subspecies of T. acus until raised to specific rank by Collette & Banford (2001) [ref. 25982]. Sometimes dated to 1876. •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), but a valid subspecies pacificus (Steindachner 1875) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367], Allen & Robertson 1994:90 [ref. 22193], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:925 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:87 [ref. 22896], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:269 [ref. 24023] [but see McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025]], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:104 [ref. 24555]). •Valid as Tylosurus pacificus (Steindachner 1875) -- (Collette & Banford 2001:52 [ref. 25982], Collette 2003:1105 [ref. 26981], Collette 2003:11 [ref. 27306], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32708], Collette 2016:2126 [ref. 34601], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:607 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus pacificus (Steindachner 1875). Belonidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific from the Gulf of California south to Peru and the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

pacificus, Ablennes Walford [L. A.] 1936:4, Fig. 1b-c [Occasional Papers of the Santa Barbara Museum v. 4; ref. 13272] Zihuatanejo, Guerro [not Mazatlán], Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 101049. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:3 [ref. 19410] with remarks on type locality. •Synonym of Belone hians Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:29 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:47 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:2 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

perornatus, Stenocaulus Whitley [G. P.] 1938:233 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 20 (no. 3); ref. 4693] Fly River System [not Upper Sepik River], Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.7287. •Synonym of Belone krefftii Günther 1866 -- (Mees 1962:43 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura krefftii (Günther 1866) -- (Allen 1991:73 [ref. 21090], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura krefftii (Günther 1866). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

persimilis, Belone Günther [A.] 1909:349 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 16); ref. 14377] Syntypes: BMNH 1883.12.15.96-97 (2). •Synonym of Belone platyura Bennett 1832 -- (Mees 1962:58 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821) subspecies platyura (Bennett 1832) -- (Parin 1967:13 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:4, 15 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Platybelone platyura (Bennett 1832) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Distribution: Hawaii [Hawaiian Islands, central Pacific]; Tonga Islands [South Pacific]; Yap [Federated States of Micronesia, western Pacific]; northwestern coast of Australia [Western Australia, eastern Indian Ocean]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

peruana, Strongylura Fowler [H. W.] 1919:3, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 71; ref. 1397] Callao Bay, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21924. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:27 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Belone exilis Girard 1854, subspecies stolzmanni Steindachner 1878 -- (Mees 1962:25 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus exilis (Girard 1854) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:205 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Strongylura exilis (Girard 1854) -- (Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura exilis (Girard 1854). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

petersi, Potamorrhaphis Collette [B. B.] 1974:34, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 87 (no. 5); ref. 7496] Laguna Coco northeast of Puerto Inírida, pool near junction of Río Guaviare and Río Inírida, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 210546. Paratypes: AMNH 9619 (1); CAS 27587 (1); MBUCV-V-6132 (1); MNHN 1887-0655 and 0656 (2); USNM 210547 (1), 210861 (1). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410], Collette et al. 1997:9 [ref. 22813], Provenzano et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Potamorrhaphis petersi Collette 1974 -- (Collette 1982:722 [ref. 5467], Keith et al. 2000:28 [ref. 24547], Lovejoy & de Araújo 2000:261 [ref. 31786], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:587 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:5 [ref. 27306], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192] with genus as Potamorraphis, Sant'Anna et al. 2012:668 [ref. 32360], Sarmiento et al. 2014:33 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:100 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Potamorrhaphis petersi Collette 1974. Belonidae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco and Negro River basins: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

philippinus, Tylosurus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1928:31, Pl. 2 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 35 (no. 1); ref. 10964] Coron, Busuanga Island, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 11084 (presumed destroyed). Paratypes: BSMP (1) presumed destroyed. Additional material: BSMP (2) presumed destroyed. •Synonym of Belone punctulata Günther 1872 -- (Mees 1962:63 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus punctulatus (Günther 1872) -- (Parin 1967:50 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:12 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus punctulatus (Günther 1872). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

pinnulatus, Esox Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:24 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:9 [ref. 17319], possibly an unpublished work. Also appeared in Graells 1887:183 [ref.30438]. •In the synonymy of Belone acus Risso 1827. Current status: Synonym of Belone acus Risso 1827. Belonidae.

pinnulatus, Esox Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:9 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Esox pinnulatus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857:24 [ref. 17320]. •In the synonymy of Belone acus Risso 1827. Current status: Synonym of Belone acus Risso 1827. Belonidae.

platura, Belone Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:73, Pl. 20 (fig. 1) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 673. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.11.9.70 [from Rüppell] (1) Red Sea; SMF 11913 (3), 11914 (1, skeleton). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:19 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Synonym of Belone platyura Bennett 1832 -- (Mees 1962:58 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus [sometimes as argala] (Lesueur 1821), but a valid subspecies -- (Parin 1967:18 [ref. 10272], Dor 1984:64 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:16 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:86 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:128 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:116 [ref. 24106], Collette 2003:4, 16 [ref. 27306], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S100 [ref. 27377], Mundy 2005:281 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:716 [ref. 28995], Motomura et al. 2010:82 [ref. 31256]). •Valid as Platybelone platura (Rüppell 1837) -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:43 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Platybelone platura (Rüppell 1837). Belonidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

platyura, Belone Bennett [E. T.] 1832:168 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 4944] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. •Valid as Belone platyura Bennett 1832 -- (Mees 1962:57 [ref. 13277], Allen 1997:64 [ref. 23977]). •Synonym of Platybelone argulus (Lesueur 1821) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367], Collette & Parin in Whitehead et al. 1986:607 [ref. 13676], Pequeño 1989:50 [ref. 14125], Randall et al. 1990:58 [ref. 15987], Myers 1999:74 [ref. 23965]). •Valid as Platybelone platyura (Bennett 1832) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:40 [ref. 25477], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Fricke et al. 2009:31 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:371 [ref. 31242]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821), but a valid subspecies platyura -- (Parin 1967:13 [ref. 10272], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:78 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:15 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1997:58 [ref. 25919], Collette 1999:2155 [ref. 24785], Randall 1999:8 [ref. 25829], Collette in Randall & Lim 2000:599 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:563 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:563 [ref. 26001], Collette 2003:4, 16 [ref. 27306], Myers & Donaldson 2003:615 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3317 [ref. 27945], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:14 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comores and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Easter Island and Sala-y-Gomez Ridge, north to east of central Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Kimberleys (Western Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Kermadec Islands and Rapa. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pterurus, Tylosurus Osburn [R. C.] & Nichols [J. T.] 1916:152, Fig. 6 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 35 (art. 16); ref. 15062] Carmen Island, Gulf of California, Mexico, Albatross station 5682. Holotype (unique): USNM 201341 [ex AMNH 5202]. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:5 [ref. 19410]. •Synonym of Belone platyura Bennett 1832 -- (Mees 1962:59 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821), but valid subspecies pterura (Osburn & Nichols 1916) -- (Parin 1973 [ref. 7191], Allen & Robertson 1994:90 [ref. 22193], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:922 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:267 [ref. 24023], Collette 2003:4, 16 [ref. 27306], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:607 [ref. 34923]). •Valid as Platybelone pterura (Osburn & Nichols 1916) -- (Fourriére et al. 2016:456 [ref. 34668] with author as Leusueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

punctulata, Belone Günther [A.] 1872:670 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.9.1.12. See comments by Collette 2003:12 [ref. 27306] for continuation of this name over brachyrhynchos Bleeker 1854. •Valid as Belone punctulata Günther 1872 -- (Mees 1962:63 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Tylosurus punctulatus (Günther 1872) -- (Parin 1967:50 [ref. 10272], Paxton et al. 1989:344 [ref. 12442], Collette 1999:2161 [ref. 24785], Collette 2003:12 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:720 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus punctulatus (Günther 1872). Belonidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Philippines, south to northern Australia and Solomon Islands. Habitat: marine.

pusillus, Hemiramphus Risso [A.] in Bonaparte 1846:81 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano 7a Adunanza, Napoli, Part 2; ref. 519] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in synonymy of Belone rostrata. •Nomen nudum in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:17 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae.

rafale, Tylosurus acus Collette [B. B.] & Parin [N. V.] 1970:49, Fig. 12 [Atlantide Report No. 11; ref. 7415] Off Freetown, Sierra Leone. Holotype: USNM 188847. Paratypes: BMNH 1969.7.30.1 (1), CBAT (Centro Biol. Aguát. Trop., Lisboa) (4 lots, 4), IFAN (5 lots, 8), IOM (2 lots, 2), IRSNB 547-548 (1, 1), MNHN 1969-0182 (1), MRAC (2 lots, 2), MSNG (1), UF (7 lots, 23) to USNM, USNM (13 lots, 35; orig. 6 lots, 12), ZMUC (2 lots, 2). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:22 [ref. 20755], Collette et al. 1992:4-5 [ref. 19410] including 7 more lots transferred from UF (TABL) to USNM, Collette et al. 1997:9 [ref. 22813]. Should be regarded as a synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) following ICZN Opinion 900, but see comments under Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). This subspecies (or species) occurs in the Gulf of Guinea, eastern Atlantic. •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), but a valid subspecies rafale as described -- (Collette & Parin 1990:596 [ref. 16473], Afonso et al. 1999:70 [ref. 25466], Collette & Banford 2001:53 [ref. 25982], Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306], Collette 2016:2126 [ref. 34601]). •Valid as Tylosurus rafale Collette & Parin 1970 -- (Wirtz et al. 2007:28 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:4 [ref. 33516]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus rafale Collete & Parin 1970. Belonidae. Distribution: Eastern and Central Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

raphidoma, Belone Ranzani [C.] 1842:359, Pl. 37 [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 9017] Brazilian seas, southwestern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MZUB 929. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:44 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:206 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:167 [ref. 25013]). •Questionably a synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Parin 1967:58 [ref. 10272], Collette & Parin 1970:52 [ref. 7415], Collette & Parin 1990:597 [ref. 16473], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992:584 [ref. 21590], Collette 1999:2160 [ref. 24785]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus, subspecies crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821) -- (Collette 2003:1113 [ref. 26981], Collette 2003:10, 11 [ref. 27306], Collette 2016:2127 [ref. 34601]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

robusta, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:242 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Red Sea; Egypt. Syntypes: BMNH 1859.6.11.5 (1, dry) Egypt, 1961.1.12.1 (1, stuffed) Red Sea. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:45 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus choram (Rüppell 1837) -- (Parin 1967:65 [ref. 10272], Dor 1984:65 [ref. 29757], Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus choram (Rüppell 1837). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

robusta, Rhaphiobelone Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:164, Pl. 17 (fig. a) [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Off Yugui Island, Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands. Holotype: USNM 141749. Paratypes: FMNH 62592 (1); USNM 93064 (1), 93067 (1), 93072-73 (1, 1), 139774 (1), 141749-50 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:75 [ref. 12367], Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410] with no mention of paratype USNM 93064. •Synonym of Belone incisa Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:41 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura incisa (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:28 [ref. 10272], Collette 1999:2156 [ref. 24785], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura incisa (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

rostrata, Belone Faber [F.] 1829:152 [Naturgeschichte der Fische Islands; ref. 13329] Iceland. No types known. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:11 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973;258 [ref. 7191], Collette 2003:2, 15 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rov, Orphie Montrouzier [X.] 1857:482 [204] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 204 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy under Belone crocodilus; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. •Nomen nudum in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:17 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae.

sagitta, Tylosurus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1884:25 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 402); ref. 12325] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 34965. Paralectotypes: CAS 27614 [ex IU 3390] (1), CAS-SU 1891 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:51 [ref. 12291], Collette et al. 1992:5 [ref. 19410]. Lectotype selected by Collette 1968:191 [ref. 12725]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette 1968:191 [ref. 12725], Collette 2003:9 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

saigonensis, Belone Sauvage [H.-E.] 1879:208 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 13259] Mekong River, Saigon, southern Vietnam. Syntypes: BMNH 1883.7.4.52 [ex MNHN] (1); MNHN 0000-9645 (5), 0000-9646 (1), B-2975 [ex MNHN 0000-9646] (1). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:7 [ref. 22813]. •Synonym of Belone strongylura van Hasselt 1823 -- (Mees 1962:66 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Parin 1967:24 [ref. 10272]). •Synonym of Tylosurus strongylura (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Kottelat 1984:816 [ref. 11440], Collette 2003:8 [ref. 27306], Kottlelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989] with author as Broié). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

scapularis, Tylosurus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:307 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Panama Bay, (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: USNM 29427 (1, not found in 1980), 29435 (missing; listed on USNM ledger as Centropomus armatus), 29438 (1, not found in 1980). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:5 [ref. 19410]. •Synonym of Tylosurus exilis (Girard 1854) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:205 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Strongylura scapularis (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:392 [ref. 13367], Allen & Robertson 1994:90 [ref. 22193], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:924 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:106 [ref. 24555], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Collette 2003:8 [ref. 27306], Banford et al. 2004:834 [ref. 27645], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:296 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura scapularis (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Belonidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador south to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

schismatorhynchus, Belone Bleeker [P.] 1850:95 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 13402] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 6941 (some of 6). •Synonym of Belone hians Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:29 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:47 [ref. 10272], Dor 1984:64 [ref. 29757], Collette & Parin 1990:592 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:2 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Ablennes hians (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

scolopacina, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:428 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Rio de la Mana, Cayenne, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0833. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:8 [ref. 22813]. •Synonym of Potamorrhaphis guianensis (Jardine 1843) -- (Collette 1982:723 [ref. 5467], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:586 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:5 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Potamorrhaphis guianensis (Jardine 1843). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater.

scolopax, Macrognathus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:147 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] All the seas of Europe. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.147 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:215 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760) -- (Wheeler 1958:215 [ref. 13434] dated 1761). •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) -- (Collette 2003:2, 15 [ref. 27306] dated 1761). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scrutator, Belone Girard [C. F.] 1858:170 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] St. Joseph's Island, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 834. Paralectotypes: USNM 833 (2), 309268 [ex USNM 834] (1). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:3 [ref. 19410]. See also Girard 1859:30, Pl. 13 [ref. 13405]. Lectotype selected in Collette et al. 1992:3 [ref. 19410]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:202 [ref. 24550], Collette 2003:8 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

senegalensis, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:421 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Senegal. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-4581. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2572 [not 2673] (2). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:8 [ref. 22813]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Parin 1970:25 [ref. 7415]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Strongylura senegalensis (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:23 [ref. 7415], Collette & Parin 1990:595 [ref. 16473], Paugy in Lévêque et al. 1992:582 [ref. 21590], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Collette 2003:8 [ref. 27306], Banford et al. 2004:834 [ref. 27645], Collette 2016:2125 [ref. 34601]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura senegalensis (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic, Gulf of Guinea south to Angola. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sierrita, Tylosurus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:458 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 254) (for 4 Aug. 1882); ref. 10610] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28162 (1, missing), 28265 (1, missing), 28377 (1, missing), 28378 (1, missing), ?29227 (1, missing, in ledger as Pomadasys leuciscus). Additional material or syntypes: USNM 29562 and 29564 (missing, listed in USNM ledger but not in original). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:5-6 [ref. 19410]. •Synonym of Belone exilis Girard 1854, subspecies stolzmanni Steindachner 1878 -- (Mees 1962:25 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus exilis (Girard 1854) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:205 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Strongylura exilis (Girard 1854) -- (Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410], Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura exilis (Girard 1854). Belonidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific, from southern California to Peru and the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

staigeri, Belone Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:370 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Lhotskia gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Parin 1967:41 [ref. 10272]). •In the synonymy of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:720 [ref. 28995]). •Nomen nudum in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:17 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae.

stolzmanni, Belone Steindachner [F.] 1878:397 [21] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 78 (1. Abth.); ref. 4226] Tumbez, Peru. Holotype (unique): NMW 16695. On p. 21 of separate. •Synonym of Belone exilis Girard 1854, but a valid subspecies -- (Mees 1962:25 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Belone exilis Girard 1854 -- (Collette & Berry 1965 [ref. 13367]). •Valid as Belone stolzmanni Steindachner 1878 -- (Pequeño 1989:50 [ref. 14125] as stoltzmanni). •Synonym of Tylosurus exilis (Girard 1854) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:205 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Strongylura exilis (Girard 1854) -- (Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura exilis (Girard 1854). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

strongylura, Belone van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:130 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar II Deel (no. 35); ref. 5963] Vizagapatam, India. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Based on a drawing in Russell 1803:61, pl. 176 [ref. 12456] so type should be the specimen that was illustrated; figure reproduced in Alfred 1961:Pl. 8 [ref. 20553]. See Kottelat 1987:370 [ref. 5962]. •Valid as Belone strongylura van Hasselt 1823 -- (Mees 1962:66 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Tylosurus strongylurus (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:190 [ref. 26639], Wu & Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:330 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:162 [ref. 25213]). •Valid as Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Parin 1967:24 [ref. 10272], Roberts 1978:48 [ref. 8886], Paxton et al. 1989:342 [ref. 12442], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:742 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702], Kottelat et al. 1993:89 [ref. 23448], Randall 1995:86 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:174 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:350 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:128 [ref. 23922], Collette 1999:2158 [ref. 24785], Collette in Randall & Lim 2000:599 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:185 [ref. 25703], Hutchins 2001:24 [ref. 25847], Collette 2003:8 [ref. 27306], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S100 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:26 [ref. 27510], Khan 2003:8 [ref. 27710], Paxton et al. 2006:718 [ref. 28995], Coad 2010:241 [ref. 36620] as strongylurus, Larson et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32988], Kottlelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:64 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:176 [ref. 34104], Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477], Ali et al. 2018:314 [ref. 36183], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:62 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:159 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823). Belonidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to Vietnam and southern China, south to northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

subtruncata, Belone Poey [F.] 1860:295 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana Bay, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: ZMB 5498 [Poey no. 327] (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:147 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette 1968:191 [ref. 12725], Collette 2003:9 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

svetovidovi, Belone Collette [B. B.] & Parin [N. V.] 1970:21, Figs. 1, 3 [Atlantide Report No. 11; ref. 7415] Vigo fish market, Galicia, Spain. Holotype: MCZ 41387. Paratypes: FMNH 74583 (7); MCZ 46200 (1); USNM 202616-17 (2, 1), 203158 (3); ZIN 4301 (3), 22109 (2), 33761 (5). Plus non-type material: ZIN 34804 (5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:16 [ref. 12367] with authors as Knudson & Wolff, Collette et al. 1992:3 [ref. 19410]. •Valid as Belone svetovidovi Collette & Parin 1970 -- (Parin 1973:259 [ref. 7191], Collette & Parin in Whitehead et al. 1986:606 [ref. 13676], Swaby et al. 1992:507 [ref. 22236], Meriç & Altun 1999:423 [ref. 24105], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26753], Collette 2003:3 [ref. 27306], Fricke et al. 2007:70 [ref. 29533]). Current status: Valid as Belone svetovidovi Collette & Parin 1970. Belonidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Ireland to Portugal. Habitat: marine.

taeniata, Belone Günther [A.] 1866:256 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Capim River, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1849.11.9.59. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1849.11.9:60-61 (2). Lectotype selected by Collette 1982:728 [ref. 5467]. •Synonym of Potamorrhaphis guianensis (Jardine 1843) -- (Collette 1982:723 [ref. 5467], Lovejoy & Collette in Reis et al. 2003:586 [ref. 27061], Collette 2003:5 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Potamorrhaphis guianensis (Jardine 1843). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tahitiensis, Strongylura Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:10 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Tahiti, Society Islands [actual probably is Peru]. Holotype (unique): USNM 83424. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410] say type locality is "Tahiti", but probably from Peru. •Synonym of Belone platyura Bennett 1832 -- (Mees 1962:59 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura exilis (Girard 1854) -- (Collette et al. 1992:4 [ref. 19410], Collette 2003:6 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura exilis (Girard 1854). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

teatae, Esox Curtiss [A.] 1938:41 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands [French Polynesia, South Pacific]. No types known. •Synonym of Belone platyura Bennett 1832 -- (Mees 1962:59 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821), subspecies platyura (Bennett 1832) -- (Parin 1967:13 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:4, 16 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Platybelone platyura (Bennett 1832) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tenuirostris, Belone Blyth [E.] 1858:287 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 476] Near mouth of Hughli [=Hooghly] River, Bay of Bengal, India. No types known. •Synonym of Belone ciconia Richardson 1846 -- (Mees 1962:21 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850) -- (Parin 1967:32 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306], Kottlelat 2013:298 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura leiura (Bleeker 1850). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

terebra, Tylosurus Whitley [G. P.] 1927:8, Pl. 1 (fig. 6) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 15829] Michaelmas Cay, Great Barrier Reef, off Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.2736. •Synonym of Belone incisa Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:41 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura incisa (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:28 [ref. 10272], Paxton et al. 1989:342 [ref. 12442], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:717 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura incisa (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.

timucoides, Belone van Hasselt [J. C.] 1824:372, 374 [Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles et de Géologie (Férussac), Paris v. 2; ref. 5964] Vizagapatam, India. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Based on Russell 1803, Pl. 175. Appeared only in the French edition above but not in original in Dutch which appeared earlier [ref. 5963]. •Synonym of Belone marisrubri (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Mees 1962:44 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821), subspecies crocodilus -- (Parin 1967:57 [ref. 10272], Collette 2003:10, 11 [ref. 27306]). •Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Current status: Synonym of Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur 1821). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

timucu, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:426 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Cayenne, French Guiana. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0721 (1) Cayenne, 0000-0722 (1) Brazil, 0000-0944 (3) Brazil, 0000-4508 (1) Rio, 0000-4510 (1) Rio, 0000-4511 (1) Rio. Secondarily preoccupied in Strongylura by Esox belone timucu Walbaum 1792. Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277] states, "... type locality here restricted to Rio de Janeiro, lectotype the type of B. almeida Quoy & Gaimard, which makes timucu Valenciennes (nec Walbaum) an objective synonym of almeida; but almeida has syntypes and Mees gives no catalog numbers, so Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277] did not establish a lectotype. •Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette et al. 1997:27 [ref. 22813], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

timucu, Esox belone var. Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:88 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Lake Papary, about 24 miles south of Natal, Brazil. Neotype: CAS-SU 22073. Neotype designated by Collette 1968:191 [ref. 12725]. •Status uncertain -- (Mees 1962:73 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792) -- (Collette 1968:191 [ref. 12725], Robins & Ray 1986:106 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:230 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:84 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:270 [ref. 23827], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:95 [ref. 22947], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:938 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:203 [ref. 24550], Keith et al. 2000:28 [ref. 24547], Marín 2000:70 [ref. 26252], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27754], Lovejoy & Collette 2001:329 [ref. 25232], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Collette 2003:1111 [ref. 26981], Collette 2003:9 [ref. 27306], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:15 [ref. 27621], Banford et al. 2004:834 [ref. 27645], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Miller 2006:204 [ref. 28615], Matamoros et al. 2009:15 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:32 [ref. 33341], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:191 [ref. 35886], Spier et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura timucu (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic, southern Florida (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

trachura, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:456 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Ascension Island. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-4512. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2573 [ex 4512] (1). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:8 [ref. 22813]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Parin 1970:33 [ref. 7415]. •Synonym of Platybelone argalus (Lesueur 1821), but a valid subspecies trachura -- (Collette & Parin 1970:33 [ref. 7415], Collette & Parin in Whitehead et al. 1986:607 [ref. 13676], Collette & Parin 1990:594 [ref. 16473], Collette 2003:4, 16 [ref. 27306], Collette 2016:2121, 2124 [ref. 34601], Brown et al. 2019:166 [ref. 36444]). •Valid as Platybelone trachura (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Wirtz et al. 2014:4 [ref. 33516]). Current status: Valid as Platybelone trachura (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

truncata, Belona Lesueur [C. A.] 1821:126, unnumbered plate (apparently 11) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 13274] Philadelphia, Pennsylania, U.S.A. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-4506. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-8895 (1, dry), 4505 (1). Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:8 [ref. 22813]. Genus should be spelled Belone. Lectotype selected by Collette in Collette et al. 1997:8 [ref. 22813]. •Synonym of Belone houttuyni (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mees 1962:33 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792) -- (Smith 1986:408 [ref. 22186], Collette 2003:7 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Strongylura marina (Walbaum 1792). Belonidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tyrannus, Belone Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:370 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Name only, not available; from Queensland, Australia. •In the synonymy of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442] as tyranus). •In the synonymy of Lhotskia gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Parin 1967:41 [ref. 10272] as tyranus). •Nomen nudum in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:17 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae.

undecimradiata, Belone Budge [J.] 1848:384, Pl. 12 [Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie, und wissenschaftliche Medicin (J. Müller) v. 15 [1848]; ref. 13332] Probably North Sea. No types known. Originally spelled as Belone 11 radiata. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:11 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:90 [ref. 7191], Collette 2003:2, 16 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

urvillii, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:444 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1131. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:8 [ref. 22813]. •Valid as Belone urvillii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Mees 1962:68 [ref. 13277]). •Valid as Strongylura urvillii (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Parin 1967:26 [ref. 10272], Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442], Collette 1999:2161 [ref. 24785], Collette 2003:9 [ref. 27306], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:26 [ref. 27510], Paxton et al. 2006:718 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2011:371 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2014:40 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Strongylura urvillii (Valenciennes 1846). Belonidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines east to Solomon Islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vorax, Belone Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:370 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. •In the synonymy of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Parin 1967 [ref. 10272], Paxton et al. 1989:343 [ref. 12442]). •Nomen nudum in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:17 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae.

vulgaris, Belone Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:399 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Dieppe, Fecamp, Abbeville, Caen, Boulogne, Paris, La Rochelle, Manche. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3070 (2) La Rochelle, 0000-4501 (2) Iceland, 0000-5495 (1) Boulogne, B-1124 (2) La Rochelle. Type catalog: Collette et al. 1997:8 [ref. 22813]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Belone vulgaris Fleming 1828. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:11 [ref. 7415], Collette 2003:2 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Belone Fleming [J.] 1828:184 [A history of British animals; ref. 1339] Coasts of Great Britain. No types known. Based in part on Esox belone Linnaeus. •Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760), subspecies belone (Linnaeus 1760) (often dated 1761) -- (Collette & Parin 1970:11 [ref. 7415], Parin 1973:258 [ref. 7191], Collette 2003:2, 16 [ref. 27306]). Current status: Synonym of Belone belone (Linnaeus 1760). Belonidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Ramphistoma Swainson [W.] 1839:297 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Yarr. i. 391 -- which is Yarrell 1835-36:391 [ref. 4812]. •Incertae sedis in Belonidae -- (Collette 2003:16 [ref. 27306]). Belonidae. Habitat: marine.