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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Bothidae: [ 278 ] records


africanus, Bothus podas Nielsen [J. G.] 1961:121 [Atlantide Report No. 6; ref. 9368] Coast of western Africa, 9°27'N, 14°48'W, depth 150 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P853008. Paratypes: BMNH 1962.6.18.34-35 (2). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:83 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Bothus africanus Nielsen 1961 -- (Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1032 [ref. 19526], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2988 [ref. 34618] with reservations). Current status: Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

amaokai, Parabothus Parin [N. V.] 1983:94, Fig. 2 [Byulleten Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody Otdel Biologicheskii [Bulletin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists Biological Series] v. 88 (no. 4); ref. 8286] South Pacific, 25°38'S, 85°26'W, depth 180-190 meters. Holotype: ZIN 46157. Paratypes: HUMZ 110064 (1). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:260 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Parabothus amaokai Parin 1983 -- (Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Amaoka & Shen 1993:1045 [ref. 22092], Amaoka et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23744], Voronina & Causse 2014:149 [ref. 33421], Voronina et al. 2017:275 [ref. 35063], Fricke et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37176]). Current status: Valid as Parabothus amaokai Parin 1983. Bothidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Nazca Ridge endemic. Habitat: marine.

andrewsi, Arnoglossus Kurth [D. E.] 1954:45, Pl. [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania v. 88; ref. 12654] Oyster Bay, east coast of Tasmania, Australia, depth 7-8 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1957.10.5.1. Paratypes: (6) AMS IB.3792-94 (3), CSIRO C 2256 (1). •Valid as Arnoglossus andrewsi Kurth 1954 -- (Amaoka et al. 1997:134 [ref. 22935], Hoese & Bray 2006:1812 [ref. 29000], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus andrewsi Kurth 1954. Bothidae. Distribution: Southern Australia. Habitat: marine.

angustifrons, Rhomboidichthys Günther [A.] 1880:46, Pl. 21 (fig. B) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Arafura Sea, depth 30 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.86. •Synonym of Grammatobothus polyophthalmus (Bleeker 1865) -- (Li & Wang 1995:215 [ref. 16193], Hoese & Bray 2006:1820 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Grammatobothus polyophthalmus (Bleeker 1865). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

annulatus, Anticitharus Weber [M.] 1913:433, Pl. 11 (fig. 5) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Djampeah, Siboga station 64, depth 32 meters; Timor Sea, station 296, depth 36 meters. Syntypes: ZMA 109413-14 (2, 1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:106 [ref. 19236]. The gender of the genus Engryprosopon is neuter. •Synonym of Asterorhombus intermedius (Bleeker 1866) -- (Li & Wang 1995:180 [ref. 16193]). •Valid as Asterorhombus annulatus (Weber 1913) -- (Amaoka & Mihara 2001:192 [ref. 25383], Hensley & Randall 2003:4 [ref. 27676]). •Valid as Engyprosopon annulatum (Weber 1913) -- (Hensley 2005:446 [ref. 28315] as annulatus). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon annulatum (Weber 1913). Bothidae. Distribution: Timor Sea. Habitat: marine.

antillarum, Monolene Norman [J. R.] 1933:204 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 12 (no. 68) (art. 21); ref. 16511] South of Tortugas Islands, West Indies. Holotype: BMNH 1932.12.31.15-16 (135 mm spec.). Paratypes: ?BMNH 1930.9.4.15 [ex MCZ] (1), 1932.12.31.15-16 [ex USNM] (1 of 2). •Probably a synonym of Monolene sessilicauda Goode 1880 -- (Cervigón 1992:277 [ref. 23827], Moore et al. 2003:232 [ref. 27076], Munroe 2003:1894 [ref. 27118], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:828 [ref. 28815]). •Valid as Monolene antillarum Norman 1933 -- (Gutherz 1967:7 [ref. 23862], Scott & Scott 1988:537 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204], Cervigón 1996:34 [ref. 24489], Amaoka & Imamura 2000:247 [ref. 24802], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Costa et al. 2015:1061 [ref. 37495]). Current status: Valid as Monolene antillarum Norman 1933. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

arabicus, Arnoglossus Norman [J. R.] 1939:99, Fig. 30 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] South coast of Arabia, depth 83-100 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1909.5.24.1721-1722 (87-mm spec.). Paratypes: (12) BMNH 1909.5.24.1721-1722 (1 of 2), 1939.5.24.1723-1730 (8?); USNM 109488 (1). •Valid as Arnoglossus arabicus Norman 1939 -- (Randall 1995:355 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2017:3, 8 [ref. 35674], Golani & Fricke 2018:172 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus arabicus Norman 1939. Bothidae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden to southern Oman. Habitat: marine.

arenicola, Engyprosopon Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:207 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Hilo, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50658. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7471 (1, missing or on loan in 1995). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Engyprosopon arenicola Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Hensley & Suzumoto 1990:131 [ref. 17674], Quéro & Golani 1990:39 [ref. 15759], Pequeño 1997:84 [ref. 23536], Mundy 2005:518 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:461 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon arenicola Jordan & Evermann 1903. Bothidae. Distribution: Central and southeastern Pacific: Hawaiian Island, Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

argus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] 1783:51, Pl. 48 [M. Marcus Elieser Bloch's ..., ausübenden Arztes zu Berlin, Oeconomische Naturgeschichte der Fische Deutschlands v. 2; ref. 19644] Western Atlantic. No types known. On p. 49 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 2 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Bothus lunatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1031 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus lunatus (Linnaeus 1758). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

armstrongi, Arnoglossus Scott [E. O. G.] 1975:159, Fig. 2 [Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania v. 109; ref. 7470] Bridport, northern Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): QVM 1974:5:0168 [ex QVM type 197]. •Synonym of Arnoglossus muelleri (Klunzinger 1872) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:847 [ref. 22532]). •Valid as Arnoglossus armstrongi Scott 1975 -- (Amaoka et al. 1997:134 [ref. 22935], Hoese & Bray 2006:1812 [ref. 29000], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674] with question). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus armstrongi Scott 1975. Bothidae. Distribution: Tasmania, Australia. Habitat: marine.

arnoglossa, Solea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:14, 52 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:117 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

arnoglossus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:157 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. No types known. •Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1028 [ref. 19526], Parenti 2019:117 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

asaedae, Monolene Clark [H. W.] 1936:385 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 21 (no. 29); ref. 839] Off Port Angeles Light, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: CAS 4729. Paratypes: CAS 4727-4728 (2), 4805 (1). Originally as asaedae but named for Toshio Asaeda, so could be corrected to asaedai unless it is felt that Clark Latinized the name first (Art. 31.1.1) and then added "e" [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012] -- suggest continuing use of asaedae. •Synonym of Monolene dubiosa Garman 1899 -- (Evseenko 1999:625 [ref. 24408]). •Valid as Monolene asaedai Clark 1936 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:104 [ref. 21805], Bussing & López S. 1994:152 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:935 [ref. 22829] as assaedae [but may be a synonym of M. dubiosa Garman 1899], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:74 [ref. 24545] as assaedae, Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Amaoka & Imamura 2000:247 [ref. 24802] as asaedae, Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Monolene asaedae Clark 1936. Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

aspilos, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] 1851:408 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) ?BMNH 1978.4.4.1 (1), RMNH 6739 (3?). •Valid as Arnoglossus aspilos (Bleeker 1851) -- (Li & Wang 1995:153 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:356 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:373 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:228 [ref. 23922], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122] as aspilus, Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3825 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Hoese & Bray 2006:1812 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:222 [ref. 32986], Yoshida et al. 2013:213 [ref. 34464], Amaoka & Last 2014:92 [ref. 33582], Fricke et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33932], Voronina et al. 2016:384 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:219 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674], Eagderi et al. 2019:120 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus aspilos (Bleeker 1851). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

aspilus, Arnoglossus Günther [A.] 1862:417 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Unjustified emendation of Rhombus aspilos Bleeker 1851. •Synonym of Arnoglossus aspilos (Bleeker 1851). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus aspilos (Bleeker 1851). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

assimilis, Rhomboidichthys Günther [A.] 1862:437 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] China seas. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2012.1.12.11. •Valid as Bothus assimilis (Günther 1862) -- (Li & Wang 1995:207 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Valid as Bothus assimilis (Günther 1862). Bothidae. Distribution: China Seas. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Bothus Kyle [H. M.] 1913:105 [Dana Report No. 1; ref. 14962] North Atlantic. Syntypes: (many). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

atrimana, Monolene Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1886:155 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 12 (no. 5); ref. 1844] Off Barbados, West Indies, depth 288 fathoms. Lectotype: MCZ 27952. Paralectotypes: USNM 47656 (1). Lectotype established in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2692 [ref. 2445]. •Valid as Monolene atrimana Goode & Bean 1886 -- (Gutherz 1967:6 [ref. 23862], Boschung 1992:175 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:277 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:34 [ref. 24489], Amaoka & Imamura 2000:247 [ref. 24802], Munroe 2003:1893 [ref. 27118], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:184 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Monolene atrimana Goode & Bean 1886. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea south to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

aureus, Citharichthys Day [F.] 1877:422, Pl. 90 (fig. 3) [The fishes of India Part 3; ref. 4886] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1243. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:157 [ref. 20743], Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

azureus, Rhomboidichthys Alcock [A. W.] 1889:283, Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 85] Eight to 20 miles southwest of Puri, Bay of Bengal, depth 7-13 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1927.1.6.41 [ex ZSI] (1); ZSI F12184 (1), 12354 (1, not found), 12355 (1). Type catalog: Talwar 1977:638 [ref. 26599]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 24 (fig. 3) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Crossorhombus azureus (Alcock 1889) -- (Hensley & Randall 1993:1125 [ref. 22080], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:234 [ref. 24016], Li & Wang 1995:186 [ref. 16193], Chen et al. 1997:175 [ref. 26476], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3820 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:46 [ref. 27712], Hoese & Bray 2006:1817 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2012:145 [ref. 32404], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:90 [ref. 32413], Nair & Gopalakrishnan 2015:87 [ref. 36653], Psomadakis et al. 2015:324 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:385 [ref. 35064], Amaoka & Ho 2019:177 [ref. 37188], Psomadakis et al. 2020:589 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Crossorhombus azureus (Alcock 1889). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and Madagascar east to Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

bahianus, Rhombus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:78, Pl. 41 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1999-0412. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:309 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Bothus ocellatus (Agassiz 1831) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:309 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus ocellatus (Agassiz 1831). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

barffi, Pleuronectes Curtiss [A.] 1944:18 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782) -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3817 [ref. 26311]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

bassensis, Arnoglossus Norman [J. R.] 1926:246, Fig. 6 [Biological Results Endeavour v. 5 (pt 5); ref. 3216] Eastern coast of Flinders Island, Bass Strait, Australia. Holotype: AMS E.389. Paratypes: AMS E.2196 (1), E.2420 (2). •Valid as Arnoglossus bassensis Norman 1926 -- (Kuiter 1993:383 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:846 [ref. 22532], Amaoka et al. 1997:134 [ref. 22935], Hoese & Bray 2006:1812 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:808 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus bassensis Norman 1926. Bothidae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: southern New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. Habitat: marine.

bellonaensis, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.], Mihara [E.] & Rivaton [J.] 1993:389, Figs. 5-7 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 158; ref. 22091] Bellona Plateau, 20°35.30'S, 158°47.40 'E, station CP 12, depth 67 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1993-0026. Paratypes: HUMZ 124864 (1); MNHN 1993-0027 (1), 1993-0143 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:304 [ref. 25922]. The gender of the genus Engryprosopon is neuter. •Valid as Engyprosopon bellonaense Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1993 (often seen as bellonaensis) -- (Amaoka & Mihara 1995:56 [ref. 21622], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3829 [ref. 26311], Amaoka & Séret 2005:18 [ref. 28196], Amaoka & Séret 2005:377 [ref. 28644]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon bellonaense Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1993. Bothidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

biscayensis, Arnoglossus laterna forma Kyle [H. M.] 1913:69 [Dana Report No. 1; ref. 14962] No types known. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

blachei, Arnoglossus Stauch [A.] 1965:256, Fig. 7 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 37 (no. 2); ref. 9259] Off western Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1930.5.6.34-36 (3); MNHN 1956-0074 (1), B-2357 (3). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25922]. •Possible synonym of Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1028 [ref. 19526]). •Synonym of Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25922], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2981 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Arnoglossus Macleay [W.] 1881:124 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 1); ref. 4931] Endeavour River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16275-001 [ex MAMU F217]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Asterorhombus bleekeri (Macleay 1881) -- (Amaoka & Arai 1998:250 [ref. 23473], Amaoka & Mihara 2001:195 [ref. 25383], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hensley & Randall 2003:4 [ref. 27676]). •Valid as Engyprosopon bleekeri (Macleay 1881) -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3830 [ref. 26311] dated 1882, Hensley 2005:446 [ref. 28315], Hoese & Bray 2006:1818 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon bleekeri (Macleay 1881). Bothidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Bothus Steindachner [F.] 1861:178 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 11; ref. 18748] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (several) whereabouts unknown. ▌See Randall 2007:459 [ref. 30952]. Bothidae. Distribution: Indonesia [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

blumenalia, Chascanopsetta Shen [S.-C.] 1967:187, Figs. 66-70 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 20 (nos 1-2); ref. 20549] Off Hong Kong, 16°22.2'N, 114°24.5'E, depth 200-210 fathoms. Holotype (unique): NTUM. •Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894 -- (Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5632], Li & Wang 1995:219 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

boops, Pseudorhombus Hector [J.] 1875:81 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 15 (no. 85) (art. 11); ref. 18268] 200 miles off Cape Farewell, New Zealand, depth 400 fathoms (732 meters). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1885.10.15.4. Apparently appeared first as above, then in Hector 1875:249, Pl. 11 (fig. 82b) [ref. 18269]. •Synonym of Arnoglossus scapha (Forster 1801) -- (Munroe 2015:1676 [ref. 34321], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus scapha (Forster 1801). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

borneensis, Engyprosopon Chabanaud [P.] 1948:64, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 13045] Northeast of Datoe [Datoae] Point, north coast of Borneo. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1947-0020. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:304 [ref. 25922]. The gender of the genus Engryprosopon is neuter, so the correct species name would be borneense. •Synonym of Engyprosopon maldivensis (Regan 1908) -- (Amaoka et al. 1993:393 [ref. 22091]). •Synonym of Engyprosopon maldivense (Regan 1908) -- (Amaoka & Ho 2018:462 [ref. 35909]). Current status: Synonym of Engyprosopon maldivense (Regan 1908). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

brevifrontale, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.] & Ho [H.-C.] 2018:465, Figs. 10-11 [Zootaxa 4413 (no. 3); ref. 35909] Ke-tzu-liao, Kaohsing, southwestern Taiwan, northern South China Sea; depth 30-100 meters. Holotype: NMMB-P22217. Paratype: NMMB. •Valid as Engyprosopon brevifrontale Amaoka & Ho 2018 -- (Amaoka & Ho 2019:184 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon brevifrontale Amaoka & Ho 2018. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

brevirictis, Arnoglossus Alcock [A. W.] 1890:433 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 36) (art. 52); ref. 86] 9.5 miles southeast by south of Bawanapadu Bacon, off Ganjam coast, Bay of Bengal, Investigator station 85, depth 30-31 fathoms. Syntypes: ZSI F12922-23 (2) Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:156 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:44 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 22 (fig. 4) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Arnoglossus brevirictis Alcock 1890 -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:588 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Psettina brevirictis (Alcock 1890) -- (Hensley 1986:861 [ref. 5669], Fedorov & Foroshchuk 1988:538 [ref. 13478], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:49 [ref. 21500], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3838 [ref. 26311] as brevirictus, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Psettina brevirictis (Alcock 1890). Bothidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

brevis, Tosarhombus Amaoka [K.], Mihara [E.] & Rivaton [J.] 1997:153, Figs. 8-10 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 174; ref. 23744] New Caledonia, South Pacific, 19°02.50'S, 163°18.80'E, depth 250-290 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1994-0347. Paratypes: HUMZ 129474 (1), 129475-76 (2); MNHN 1994-0077 (1), 1994-0343 (1), 1994-0344 to 0346 (3), 1994-0348 (1), 1994-0349 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:310-311 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Tosarhombus brevis Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1997 -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3840 [ref. 26311]). Current status: Valid as Tosarhombus brevis Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1997. Bothidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Bothus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:331, Fig. 85 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] East coast of Luzon Island, Philippines, Albatross station D.5453, depth 146 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93074. Paratypes: USNM 93075 (3), 93532-44 (1, 2, 4, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 3). •Valid as Arnoglossus brunneus (Fowler 1934) -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3825 [ref. 26311], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus brunneus (Fowler 1934). Bothidae. Distribution: Western central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

budkeri, Bothus Chabanaud [P.] 1943:397 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 14 (no. 6); ref. 13168] Gohar Bank, off Hurghada, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea, 5-6 fms (9-11 m) depth. Holotype: MNHN 1942-0031. Paratypes: MNHN 1942-0032 (1), 1942-0033 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:303 [ref. 25922]. Dated to 1943 by Desoutter et al. 2001:303 [ref. 25922], availability of reprints in 1942 not researched. •Valid as Bothus budkeri Chabanaud 1943 -- (Dor 1984:268 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Parabothus budkeri (Chabanaud 1943) -- (Amaoka & Shen 1993:1045 [ref. 22092], Amaoka et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23744], Voronina & Causse 2014:149 [ref. 33421], Voronina et al. 2017:275 [ref. 35063], Golani & Fricke 2018:174 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:368 [ref. 37176]). Current status: Valid as Parabothus budkeri (Chabanaud 1943). Bothidae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

candidissimus, Rhombus Risso [A.] 1820:247 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 91; ref. 18636] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:338 [ref. 25922] as no types at MNHN. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Arnoglossus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:1 [Marine Investigations in South Africa No. 1; ref. 14678] False Bay, Cape Colony, South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1897.10.18.3. Also p. 1 of v. 1 in 1902. •Valid as Arnoglossus capensis Boulenger 1898 -- (Hensley 1986:855 [ref. 5669], Edwards & Glass 1987:666 [ref. 9166], Aldebert et al. 1990:1027 [ref. 19526], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:177 [ref. 25472], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2980 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:3, 8 [ref. 35674], Brown et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus capensis Boulenger 1898. Bothidae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands; southeastern Atlantic: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

caribbaea, Trichopsetta Anderson [W. W.] & Gutherz [E. J.] 1967:898, Figs. 4-5 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 17 (no. 4); ref. 7857] Off south coast of Jamaica, 17°53'N, 77°56'W, depth 150 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 200414. Paratypes: ANSP 103614 (2); BMNH 1966.6.13.1-2 (2); FMNH 66830 (2); LACM 6916-1 (1); MCZ 44911 (2); MNHN 1966-0737 (2); CAS-SU 63561 (1); UF 15635 (1), 19309-14 (4, 2, 1, 8, 6, 3); USNM 200415-17 (1, 6, 6), 208574 [ex TABL] (7), 208580 [ex TABL]. Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:111 [ref. 21035], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:84 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:31 [ref. 13621], Desoutter et al. 2001:310 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Trichopsetta caribbaea Anderson & Gutherz 1967 -- (Cervigón 1992:279 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:36 [ref. 24489], Munroe 2003:1894 [ref. 27118], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:185 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Trichopsetta caribbaea Anderson & Gutherz 1967. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Caribbean sea south to Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

casurus, Pleuronectes Pennant [T.] 1812:325, Pl. 53 [British zoology. 5th edition. v. 3; ref. 18529] Cornwall, England. No types known. p. 377, unnumbered pl. 53 in another edition? Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

chartes, Platotichthys Nichols [J. T.] 1921:21, Pl. 3 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 44 (art. 3); ref. 3174] Turks and Caicos Islands, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): AMNH 7388. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

chlorospilus, Platophrys Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:684, Fig. 267 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off northern coast of Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4074, depth 78-85 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 51647. •Valid as Parabothus chlorospilus (Gilbert 1905) -- (Amaoka & Shen 1993:1045 [ref. 22092], Li & Wang 1995:183 [ref. 16193], Amaoka et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23744], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Mundy 2005:519 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:462 [ref. 30952], Voronina & Causse 2014:149 [ref. 33421], Voronina et al. 2017:275 [ref. 35063], Fricke et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37176]). Current status: Valid as Parabothus chlorospilus (Gilbert 1905). Bothidae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Ridge and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

ciliaris, Engyophrys Roux [C.] 1968:658, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 39 (no. 4) [1967]; ref. 7912] Salvador de Bahia, coast of Brazil, 13°01'S, 38°24'W, depth 50 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1970-0004. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:304 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Engyophrys senta Ginsburg 1933 -- (Staiger 1973:357 [ref. 36903]). Current status: Synonym of Engyophrys senta Ginsburg 1933. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

circularis, Platophrys Regan [C. T.] 1908:233, Pl. 26 (fig. 3) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Amirante, Seychelles, Indian Ocean, depth 22-85 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.3.23.130. •Synonym of Bothus myriaster (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka 1969:162 [ref. 105], Li & Wang 1995:209 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus myriaster (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

clarus, Laeops Fowler [H. W.] 1934:337, Fig. 90 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Between Cebu and Bohol islands, Philippines, Albatross station D.5412, 10°09'15"N, 123°52'00"E, depth 162 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 93083. •Valid as Laeops clarus Fowler 1934 -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3835 [ref. 26311]). Current status: Valid as Laeops clarus Fowler 1934. Bothidae. Distribution: Western central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

coarctatus, Platophrys Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:686, Fig. 269 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Pailolo Channel, between Molokai Island and Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3859 [or 3810], depth 138-140 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51602. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8616 (3), USNM 51694 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Parabothus coarctatus (Gilbert 1905) -- (Amaoka 1969:121 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:297, 406 [ref. 8256], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:348 [ref. 6441], Amaoka & Shen 1993:1045 [ref. 22092], Li & Wang 1995:182 [ref. 16193], Amaoka et al. 1997:166 [ref. 23744], Nakabo 2000:1361 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3837 [ref. 26311], Uyeda & Sasaki 2001:417 [ref. 25795], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1361 [ref. 26193], Randall 2007:463 [ref. 30952], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:94 [ref. 32413], Voronina & Causse 2014:149 [ref. 33421], Voronina et al. 2017:275 [ref. 35063], Amaoka & Ho 2019:198 [ref. 37188], Fricke et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37176]). Current status: Valid as Parabothus coarctatus (Gilbert 1905). Bothidae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: South China Sea to southern Japan and Kyushu-Palau Ridge; New Caledonia; Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

cocosensis, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] 1855:179 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 347] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6730. For type information see Hensley 2003:833 [ref. 27264]. •Valid as Engyprosopon cocosensis (Bleeker 1855) -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3830 [ref. 26311]). •Valid as Asterorhombus cocosensis (Bleeker 1855) -- (Hensley 2003:833 [ref. 27264], Hensley 2005:449 [ref. 28315], Hoese & Bray 2006:1815 [ref. 29000], Amaoka & Ho 2019:166 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Asterorhombus cocosensis (Bleeker 1855). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

coeruleosticta, Paralichthys Steindachner [F.] 1898:327 [Zoologische Jahrbücher. Jena, Supplementband v. 4; ref. 4238] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): ZMB 15698. •Mention -- (Pequeño & Plaza 1987:165 [ref. 6629]). •Valid as Paralichthys coeruleosticta Steindachner 1898 -- (Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:33 [ref. 24590]). •Valid as Arnoglossus coeruleosticta (Steindachner 1898) -- (Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Dyer & Westneat 2010:610 [ref. 31446], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus coeruleosticta (Steindachner 1898). Bothidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernandez and Desventuradas islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

communis, Arnoglossus laterna forma Kyle [H. M.] 1913:69 [Dana Report No. 1; ref. 14962] Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

confertus, Bothus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:332, Fig. 86 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] China Sea, vicinity of Hong Kong, Albatross station D.5314, depth 122 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 93079. •Synonym of Arnoglossus polyspilus (Günther 1880) -- (Li & Wang 1995:157 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus polyspilus (Günther 1880). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

conspersus, Pleuronectes Canestrini [G.] 1861:10, Pl. 1 (figs. 2, 2a-d) [Archivio per la Zoologia, l'Anatomia e la Fisiologia v. 1; ref. 17324] Gulf of Genoa, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ?NMW 21310-13 (4). •Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:621 [ref. 6885], Aldebert et al. 1990:1028 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

constellatus, Platophrys Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Goss 1889:266 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 2); ref. 2482] James Island, Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: MCZ 11146 (3). •Valid as Bothus constellatus (Jordan 1889) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:238 [ref. 24556], Allen & Robertson 1994:286 [ref. 22193], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:934 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:74 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:611 [ref. 24023] with question, Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:203 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:178 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Bothus constellatus (Jordan 1889). Bothidae. Distribution: Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cristatus, Lophorhombus Macleay [W.] 1882:14 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 1); ref. 2870] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16276-001 [ex MAMU F1160]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Lophonectes gallus Günther 1880 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1821 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Lophonectes gallus Günther 1880. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

crumenalis, Pelecanichthys Gilbert [C. H.] & Cramer [F.] 1897:433, Pl. 47 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1114); ref. 1635] Off Hawaiian Islands, Kaiwai Channel, 21°09'N, 157°53'W, Albatross station 3476, depth 295-298 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 47738 (not 48738). Paratypes: BMNH 1930.9.2.7 [ex SU] (1), CAS-SU 4933 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Pelecanichthys crumenalis Gilbert & Cramer 1897 -- (Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Chascanopsetta crumenalis (Gilbert & Cramer 1897) -- (Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:219 [ref. 5632], Amaoka & Parin 1990:720 [ref. 17336], Foroshchuk 1991:81 [ref. 20137], Hensley & Smale 1998:13 [ref. 23483], Fukui et al. 2001:101 [ref. 25289] as crumeralis, Mundy 2005:518 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Valid as Chascanopsetta crumenalis (Gilbert & Cramer 1897). Bothidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands; possibly also Madagascar (Indian Ocean). Habitat: marine.

cuspidatus, Pleuronectes Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:23 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Based on Pleuronectes cuspidatus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817 [ref. 17319], possibly an unpublished work. Also appeared in Graells 1887:178 [ref. 30438]. •In genus Arnoglossus Bleeker 1862. Bothidae.

cuspidatus, Pleuronectes Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:4 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Pleuronectes cuspidatus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857. Also appeared in Graells 1887:178 [ref. 30438]. •In genus Arnoglossus Bleeker 1862. Bothidae.

cypho, Laeops Fowler [H. W.] 1934:337, Fig. 91 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Off N. Mindanao Island, Philippines, 8°47'00"N, 123°31'15"E, Albatross station D.5519, depth 182 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93085. Paratypes: (1) USNM 93566-67 (1, 1). •Synonym of Neolaeops microphthalmus (von Bonde 1922) -- (Voronina et al. 2020:526 [ref. 37730]). Current status: Synonym of Neolaeops microphthalmus (von Bonde 1922). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

dalgleishi, Trichopsetta von Bonde [C.] 1922:6, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 171, depth 29 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1922.3.27.16. •Valid as Arnoglossus dalgleishi (von Bonde 1922) -- (Hensley 1986:855 [ref. 5669], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3825 [ref. 26311], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:355 [ref. 28867], Fricke et al. 2017:3, 8 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus dalgleishi (von Bonde 1922). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

danae, Chascanopsetta lugubris Bruun [A. F.] 1937:128, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 101; ref. 15271] Atlantic, 8°26'N, 15°11'W, Dana station 4003, 3000 meters wire out, estimated depth 1500 meters, over 3210 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P853319. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:83 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894 -- (Amaoka 1969:222 [ref. 105], Aldebert et al. 1990:1033 [ref. 19526], Foroshchuk 1991:81 [ref. 20137], Hensley & Smale 1997:9 [ref. 23483]). •Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:214 [ref. 5632], Fukui et al. 2001:101 [ref. 25289]). •Valid as Chascanopsetta danae Bruun 1937 -- (Munroe 2003:1892 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Tongboonkua et al. 2018:178 [ref. 36137]). Current status: Valid as Chascanopsetta danae Bruun 1937. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

danae, Monolene Bruun [A. F.] 1937:311 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 19 (no. 110); ref. 19482] Off Panama, 6°49'N, 80°25'W, depth about 300-400 meters over 2700 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P853320. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:84 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Monolene maculipinna Garman 1899 -- (Evseenko 1999:629 [ref. 24408]). •Valid as Monolene danae Bruun 1937 -- (Amaoka & Imamura 2000:247 [ref. 24802]). Current status: Valid as Monolene danae Bruun 1937. Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific off Panama. Habitat: marine.

debilis, Anticitharus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:683, Pl. 97 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Pailolo Channel, between Molokai Island and Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4103, depth 132-141 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51657. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8621 (5), USNM 51691 (9). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Arnoglossus debilis (Gilbert 1905) -- (Fukui 1999:199 [ref. 23888], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3826 [ref. 26311], Mundy 2005:516 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:457 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus debilis (Gilbert 1905). Bothidae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Indonesia east to Hawaiian Islands and Line Islands. Habitat: marine.

dentatus, Japonolaeops Amaoka [K.] 1969:202 [138], Fig. 82 [Journal of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 105] Miya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 34043. Paratypes: FAKU 33224-51 (28), 33252-71 (20). On p. 138 of separate (dual pagination). •Valid as Japonolaeops dentatus Amaoka 1969 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:350 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:615, 737 [ref. 8056], Li & Wang 1995:164 [ref. 16193], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1370 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3834 [ref. 26311], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1370 [ref. 26193], Ho et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31461], Shinohara et al. 2014:274 [ref. 33330], Amaoka & Ho 2019:191 [ref. 37188], Sonoyama et al. 2020:119 [ref. 37637]). •Synonym of Japonolaeops gracilis (Fowler 1934) -- (Voronina et al. 2020:521 [ref. 37730]). Current status: Synonym of Japonolaeops gracilis (Fowler 1934). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

diagrammus, Bothus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1814:16 [Précis des découvertes et travaux somiologiques de Mr. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz; ref. 3582] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Questionable synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Parenti 2019:108 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Uncertain as Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

diaphanus, Bothus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1814:17 [Précis des découvertes et travaux somiologiques de Mr. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz; ref. 3582] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1031 [ref. 19526], Parenti 2019:102 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

diaphanus, Pleuronectes Shaw [G.] 1803:309 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Cornwall, England. No types known. •Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1028 [ref. 19526], Parenti 2019:117 [ref. 37117] as diaphanous). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

diaphanus, Rhombus Richiardi [S.] 1880:271 [Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali. Processi Verbali. 1880; ref. 18633] Not an original description. New combination for Bothus diaphanus Rafinesque 1814. Bothidae.

dimorphus, Platophrys Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:10, Pl. 27 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] 2.5 miles off Umhlango River mouth, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 22-26 meters. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.12.31.7-8 [from Gilchrist] (2), SAM 15371 (19). •Synonym of Crossorhombus valderostratus (Alcock 1890) -- (Hensley 1986:857 [ref. 5669], Li & Wang 1995:190 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Crossorhombus valderostratus (Alcock 1890). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

dubiosa, Monolene Garman [S.] 1899:227 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Pacific coast of Central America, 16°47'30"N, 99°59'30"W, Albatross station 3422, depth 141 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28538. •Valid as Monolene dubiosa Garman 1899 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:936 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:74 [ref. 24545], Evseenko 1999:625 [ref. 24408], Amaoka & Imamura 2000:247 [ref. 24802], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Robertson et al. 2017:104 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Monolene dubiosa Garman 1899. Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California to Peru. Habitat: marine.

ellipticus, Pleuronectes Poey [F.] 1860:315 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Possible types: MCZ 11188 (1), 11191 (1, missing). •Valid as Bothus ellipticus (Poey 1860) -- (Gutherz 1967:42 [ref. 23862]). Current status: Valid as Bothus ellipticus (Poey 1860). Bothidae. Distribution: Cuba. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Arnoglossus Weber [M.] 1913:431, Fig. 79 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Madura Sea, 7°02.6'S, 115°23.6'E, Siboga station 15, depth 100 meters. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1930.10.16.1 [ex ZMA] (1), ZMA 109391 (3). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:196 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Arnoglossus elongatus Weber 1913 -- (Amaoka & Mihara 2000:797 [ref. 25048], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3826 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1813 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:222 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus elongatus Weber 1913. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

elski, Chascanopsetta Foroshchuk [V. P.] 1991:4 [76], Fig. [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 31 (no. 1); ref. 20137] Saya de Malha Bank, western Indian Ocean, 11°20'01"S, 62°12'00"E, depth 250-255 meters. Holotype: ZIN 49164. Paratypes: ZIN 49165 (1); plus additional material (16). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:259 [ref. 37075]. On p. 76 of English translation. •Valid as Chascanopsetta elski Foroshchuk 1991 -- (Fukui et al. 2001:101 [ref. 25289], Tongboonkua et al. 2018:177 [ref. 36137]). Current status: Valid as Chascanopsetta elski Foroshchuk 1991. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank endemic. Habitat: marine.

entomorhynchus, Arnoglossus Stauch [A.] 1967:661, Fig. [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 39 (no. 4); ref. 7923] Gulf of Guinea, 8°28'N, 14°21'W, depth 100 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1965-0546. Paratypes: BMNH 1973.1.31 (1); MNHN 1965-0547 thru 0549 (1, 1, 1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 697 (1); USNM 199338 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25922]. •Possible synonym of Arnoglossus capensis Boulenger 1898 -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1027 [ref. 19526]). •Synonym of Arnoglossus capensis Boulenger 1898 -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25922], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2980 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus capensis Boulenger 1898. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

fijiensis, Engyprosopon Norman [J. R.] 1931:508 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 8 (no. 47) (art. 69); ref. 16315] Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.89. •Synonym of Asterorhombus cocosensis (Bleeker 1855) -- (Hensley 2005:449 [ref. 28315], Hoese & Bray 2006:1815 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Asterorhombus fijiensis (Norman 1931) -- (Amaoka et al. 1994:23 [ref. 22158], Senou et al. 1994:4 [ref. 24602], Amaoka & Arai 1998:256 [ref. 23473], Myers 1999:278 [ref. 23965], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1360 [ref. 25182], Amaoka & Mihara 2001:195 [ref. 25383], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3815 [ref. 26311], Nakabo 2002:1360 [ref. 26193], Hensley & Randall 2003:4 [ref. 27676], Randall 2005:612 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1045 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2019:314 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Asterorhombus fijiensis (Norman 1931). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Philippines and Fiji, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

filifer, Asterorhombus Hensley [D. A.] & Randall [J. E.] 2003:2, Figs. 1, 2. 3A [Smithiana. Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity Spec. Publ. 2; ref. 27676] Wreckage at shore between cargo pier and launching ramp, Midway Atoll, northwestern Hawaiian Islands, depth 3-5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 34871. Paratypes: AMS I.22578-038 (1); ANSP 107779 (1), 107789 (1), 108722 (1), 145284 (1); BPBM 10028 (1), 22623 (1), 24776 (1), 33653 (1), 34263 (1); MNHN 2001-1130 (1); NSMT-P60932 (1); ROM 61627 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 29059 (1), 52650 (1), 64708 (1); USNM 141789 (1), 260363 (1, lost). •Valid as Asterorhombus filifer Hensley & Randall 2003 -- (Randall 2005:613 [ref. 28239], Hensley 2005:456 [ref. 28315], Mundy 2005:516 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:457 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1046 [ref. 31980], Munroe 2015:1677 [ref. 34321]). Current status: Valid as Asterorhombus filifer Hensley & Randall 2003. Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Comoro Islands, Seychelles and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Society Islands, north to Philippines and Japan, south to Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia, and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

filimana, Psettina Li [S.-Z.] & Wang [H.-M.] 1982:354 (English p. 356), Fig. 1 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 8450] South of the mouth of Pearl River, Guangdong Province, Chian, South China Sea. Holotype: ASIZB [now NSMC] 58474. Paratypes: Inst. Oceanol., Acad. Sin. K72B-89 (6), K162B-83 (2); ASIZB [now NSMC] 58463-66 (4), 58467-68 (2), 58469-70 (1, 1), 58472-73 (2). Type catalog: Zhang 1996:503 [ref. 24036], Ye et al. 2015:106 [ref. 33808].. •Valid as Psettina filimana Li & Wang 1982 -- (Li & Wang 1995:173 [ref. 16193], Ye et al. 2015:106 [ref. 33808]). Current status: Valid as Psettina filimana Li & Wang 1982. Bothidae. Distribution: China Seas. Habitat: marine.

filimanus, Scaeops Regan [C. T.] 1908:234, Pl. 25 (fig. 2) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Maldives, Indian Ocean, depth 27-44 fathoms. Lectotype: BMNH 1901.12.31.105 (largest specimen). Paralectotype: BMNH 1901.12.31.106 (1 of 2). Lectotype selected by Norman 1934:215 [ref. 6893] as the largest specimen in BMNH 1901.12.31.105-106. One specimen in BMNH 1901.12.31.106 is reidentified as Engyprosopon macrolepis (Regan 1905) by Amaoka et al. 1993:298 [ref. 22091]. •Valid as Engyprosopon filimanus (Regan 1908) -- (Hensley & Randall 1990:679 [ref. 20143], Quéro & Golani 1990:39 [ref. 15759]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon filimanus (Regan 1908). Bothidae. Distribution: Maldives. Habitat: marine.

filipennis, Engyprosopon Wu [H.-W.] & Tang [S.-F.] 1935:392 [Sinensia v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 13137] Samah, Hainan Island, China. Syntypes: (4). •Valid as Engyprosopon filipennis Wu & Tang 1935 -- (Li & Wang 1995:198 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon filipennis Wu & Tang 1935. Bothidae. Distribution: Western central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

filipes, Parabothus Amaoka [K.], Mihara [E.] & Rivaton [J.] 1997:158, Figs. 11-13 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 174; ref. 23744] Nova Bank, west of New Caledonia, South Pacific, 22°34.70'S, 159°15.30'E, depth 300 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1994-0360. Paratypes: HUMZ 129478 (1), 129479-83 (5); MNHN 1994-0350 to 0373 (21 ex 24); ZIN 56463 (3, ex MNHN 1994-0352, -0353, -0357). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:308-309 [ref. 25922], Voronina & Volkova 2019:260 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Parabothus filipes Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1997 -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3837 [ref. 26311], Voronina & Causse 2014:149 [ref. 33421], Voronina et al. 2017:275 [ref. 35063], Fricke et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37176]). Current status: Valid as Parabothus filipes Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1997. Bothidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Nova Bank (New Caledonia, Coral Sea). Habitat: marine.

fimbriatus, Pleuronectes Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:4 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly unpublished. See also Pleuronectes fimbriatus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857. Also appeared in Graells 1887:178 [ref. 30438]. •In genus Arnoglossus Bleeker 1862. Bothidae.

fimbriatus, Pleuronectes Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:23 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Based on Pleuronectes fimbriatus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817 [ref. 17319], possibly an unpublished work. Also appeared in Graells 1887:178 [ref. 30438]. •In genus Arnoglossus Bleeker 1862. Bothidae.

fisoni, Arnoglossus Ogilby [J. D.] 1898:295 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 23 (pt 3); ref. 3276] Off Caloundra Head, Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: (2) QM I.871 (1). •Valid as Arnoglossus fisoni Ogilby 1898 -- (Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3826 [ref. 26311], Hoese & Bray 2006:1813 [ref. 29000], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus fisoni Ogilby 1898. Bothidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

fragilis, Laeoptichthys Hubbs [C. L.] 1915:460, Pl. 26 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 48 (no. 2082); ref. 2224] Suruga Gulf, Japan, Albatross station 5074, depth 47 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 75673. Paratypes: CAS-SU 22531 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Laeops kitaharae (Smith & Pope 1906) -- (Amaoka 1969:208 [ref. 105], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:60 [ref. 21500]). •Synonym of Laeops parviceps Günther 1880 -- (Li & Wang 1995:176 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Laeops parviceps Günther 1880. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

galatheae, Chascanopsetta Nielsen [J. G.] 1961:220, Fig. 1; Pl. 14 [Galathea Report v. 4; ref. 9369] Off Natal, South Africa, 25°20'S, 35°17'E, depth 575-595 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P853104. Paratypes: ZMUC P853091 (1), P853092-103 (12). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:83 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894 -- (Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5632], Hensley 1986:857 [ref. 5669], Aldebert et al. 1990:1033 [ref. 19526], Hensley & Smale 1998:9 [ref. 23483]). Current status: Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

gallus, Lophonectes Günther [A.] 1880:29, Pl. 15 (fig. B) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] South Australia, Challenger station 162, depth 38 fathoms; off Port Jackson, depth 30 fathoms. Lectotype: BMNH 1879.5.14.93-94 (larger spec.). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.93-94 (smaller of 2), 1879.5.14.648 (1), 1890.2.26.151-152 (2); NMI block reg. no. 114.1899 (1). Type catalog: Wheeler & O'Riordan 1969:99 [ref. 20752]. Wheeler & O'Riordan 1969:99 [ref. 20752] regarded Norman's 1934:203 mention of the larger specimen as holotype established a lectotype, but this is incorrect; lectotype established by Wheeler & O'Riordan 1969:99 [ref. 20752] [lectotype needs to be restricted to one locality]. •Valid as Lophonectes gallus Günther 1880 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:238 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:848 [ref. 22532], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3836 [ref. 26311], Fukui et al. 2002:159 [ref. 26161], Hoese & Bray 2006:1821 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:810 [ref. 30616], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167]). Current status: Valid as Lophonectes gallus Günther 1880. Bothidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Australia, New Zealand, Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

gesneri, Rhombus Risso [A.] 1827:254 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:338 [ref. 25922]. as not types at MNHN. •Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1031 [ref. 19526], Desoutter et al. 2001:338 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

gigantea, Psettina Amaoka [K.] 1963:56, Figs. 3-4 [Bulletin of the Misaki Marine Biological Institute, Kyoto University No. 4; ref. 978] Mimase, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 33786. Paratypes: FAKU 15849 (1), 18232 (1), 28705-12 (8), 28713 (1), 28714 (1, stained), 28715-26 (13), 28727-29 (3), 28730-40 (11). •Valid as Psettina gigantea Amaoka 1963 -- (Amaoka 1969:181 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:349 [ref. 6441], Fedorov & Foroshchuk 1988:538 [ref. 13478], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:49 [ref. 21500], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:53 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:171 [ref. 16193], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:591 [ref. 27969] as gigantia, Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Amaoka & Larson 1999:1075 [ref. 24192], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1367 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3838 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1367 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Hoese & Bray 2006:1822 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31461], Larson et al. 2013:223 [ref. 32988], Amaoka & Ho 2019:204 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Psettina gigantea Amaoka 1963. Bothidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: southern Indonesia east to Taiwan, north to Korea and southern Japan, south to Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

gilchristi, Chascanopsetta von Bonde [C.] 1922:7, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 293, depth 275 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1922.3.27.3 (1). Text states Chascanopsetta gilchristi as illustrated on Pl. 2 (fig. 1), but caption states this figure is Chascanopsetta maculata; actual identity of figure uncertain. •Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894 -- (Amaoka 1969:222 [ref. 105], Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5632], Hensley 1986:857 [ref. 5669], Aldebert et al. 1990:1033 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Laeops Fowler [H. W.] 1934:338, Fig. 92 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] East of Masbate, Philippines, 12°04'15"N, 124°04'36"E, Albatross station D.5212, depth 108 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 93084. •Valid as Laeops gracilis Fowler 1934 -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3835 [ref. 26311]). •Valid as Japonolaeops gracilis (Fowler 1934) -- (Voronina et al. 2020:521 [ref. 37730]). Current status: Valid as Japonolaeops gracilis (Fowler 1934). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Saya de Malha Bank; Philippines east to Fiji, north to japan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

grandisquama, Rhombus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:183, Pl. 92 (figs. 3-4) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3533a. Paralectotypes: RMNH 3533b-d (3), 3534a-b (2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:149 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Engyprosopon grandisquama (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka 1969:143 [ref. 105], Kyushin et al. 1982:263 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:268 [ref. 29757], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:348 [ref. 6441], Hensley 1986:858 [ref. 5669], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:40 [ref. 21500], Amaoka et al. 1993:381 [ref. 22091], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:300 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:194 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:357 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:590 [ref. 27969] as grandisquamis, Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:539 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1364 [ref. 25182], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:105 [ref. 26368], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3823 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1364 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:46 [ref. 27712], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:614 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1818 [ref. 29000], Amaoka et al. 2008:112 [ref. 29584], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:90 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1047 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:223 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:214 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:431 [ref. 33460], Psomadakis et al. 2015:325 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:388 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:219 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:370 [ref. 35805], Amaoka & Ho 2018:453 [ref. 35909], Golani & Fricke 2018:173 [ref. 36273], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:293 [ref. 36460], Amaoka & Ho 2019:184 [ref. 37188], Eagderi et al. 2019:121 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:589 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:119 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon grandisquama (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Bothidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to Philippines, north to central Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

grohmanni, Pleuronectes Bonaparte [C. L.] 1837:fasc. 19, punt. 97, Pl. 98 (fig. 2) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 4893] Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes and/or Bonaparte specimens: ANSP 8826 (1), 8827-32 (6) Mediterranean; NMW 48011 (2), 44033 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:143 [ref. 13621]. Nomen dubium according to Torchio 1963 (not researched). •In part in the synonymy of Arnoglossus kessleri Schmidt 1915 -- (Nielsen 1973:621 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1295 [ref. 13677], Golani 2005:62 [ref. 37112], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:72 [ref. 36649]). •In the synonymy of Arnoglossus thori Kyle 1913 -- (Nielsen 1973:622 [ref. 6885] in part, Aldebert et al. 1990:1930 [ref. 19526]). •Valid as Arnoglossus grohmanni (Bonaparte 1837) -- (Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:149 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:114 [ref. 29533], Fricke et al. 2017:3, 8 [ref. 35674], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:188 [ref. 37250], Bariche & Fricke 2020:99 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:27 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus grohmanni (Bonaparte 1837). Bothidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Marmara endemic. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Laeops Alcock [A. W.] 1890:438 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 36) (art. 52); ref. 86] Gulf of Martaban, Investigator station 98, depth 20 fathoms; off Ganjam and Vizagapatam coasts, Investigator, depth 5-30 fathoms. Syntypes: ZSI F12888 (1) station 98. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:157 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:44 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 23 (fig. 4) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Laeops guentheri Alcock 1890 -- (Randall 1995:357 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:230 [ref. 23922], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3835 [ref. 26311], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Eagderi et al. 2019:121 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:590 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Laeops guentheri Alcock 1890. Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

guibei, Bothus Stauch [A.] 1966:118, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 38 (no. 2); ref. 9070] Gulf of Guinea, 1°25'S, 5°36'E, eastern Atlantic, depth 15-40 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1964-0438. Paratypes: MNHN 1956-0076 (1), 1964-0436 to 0437 (3, 3), 1964-0439 (4), 1965-0544 (1), 1999-1003 (3). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:303-304 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Bothus guibei Stauch 1966 -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1030 [ref. 19526], Afonso et al. 1999:80 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:41 [ref. 30263], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2985 [ref. 34618], Almeida & Alves 2019:269 [ref. 37509]). Current status: Valid as Bothus guibei Stauch 1966. Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea and offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Platophrys Lahille [F.] 1939:189 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 16; ref. 21719] Mar Chiquita, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. No types known. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

hainanensis, Crossolepis Wu [H.-W.] & Tang [S.-F.] 1935:393 [Sinensia v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 13137] Sintsun, Hainan, China. Holotype (unique): not researched. •Valid as Psettina hainanensis (Wu & Tang 1935) -- (Fedorov & Foroshchuk 1988:538 [ref. 13478], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:49 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:168 [ref. 16193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Psettina hainanensis (Wu & Tang 1935). Bothidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

hawaiiensis, Engyprosopon Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:207 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Hilo, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50657. The gender of the genus Engryprosopon is neuter. •Valid as Engyprosopon hawaiiense Jordan & Evermann 1903 (often seen as hawaiiensis) -- (Quéro & Golani 1990:39 [ref. 15759], Mundy 2005:518 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:461 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon hawaiiense Jordan & Evermann 1903. Bothidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

heckelii, Peloria Cocco [A.] 1844:27 [7], Fig. 3 [Giornale del Gabinetto Letterario di Messina Anno 3, Tomo 5; ref. 866] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. On p. 7 of separate. •Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1032 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

hectoris, Pseudorhombus Günther [A.] 1887:163, Fig. 4 [Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger v. 22 (pt 57); ref. 2013] Off New Zealand, Challenger station 167, depth 150 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.73. •Synonym of Arnoglossus scapha (Forster 1801) -- (Li & Wang 1995:158 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus scapha (Forster 1801). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

helenensis, Monolene Amaoka [K.] & Imamura [H.] 2000:243, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 47 (no. 3); ref. 24802] North of St. Helena Island, 9°54'S, 5°25'W, eastern Atlantic, depth 393 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 99995. Paratypes: HUMZ 100194-100199 (6). •Valid as Monolene helenensis Amaoka & Imamura 2000 -- (Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2991 [ref. 34618], Brown et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Monolene helenensis Amaoka & Imamura 2000. Bothidae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: north of Saint Helena Island. Habitat: marine.

hensleyi, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.] & Imamura [H.] 1990:1011, Figs. 1-2, 4 [Copeia 1990 (no. 4); ref. 17337] Indian Ocean, Saya de Malha Bank, 11°04'S, 62°10'E, depth 187 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 72319. Paratypes: HUMZ 72320-21 (1, 1), 72322-24 (3), 74011 (1). •Valid as Engyprosopon hensleyi Amaoka & Imamura 1990 -- (Amaoka et al. 1993:380 [ref. 22091], Amaoka & Séret 2005:18 [ref. 28196], Amaoka & Séret 2005:377 [ref. 28644]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon hensleyi Amaoka & Imamura 1990. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

heterophthalmus, Rhombus Bennett [E. T.] 1831:147 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 5778] Atlantic coast of northern Africa. No types known. •Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1031 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

howensis, Crossorhombus Hensley [D. A.] & Randall [J. E.] 1993:1120, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 1993 (no. 4); ref. 22080] Comet's Hole in lagoon, Lord Howe Island, depth 8 meters. Holotype: BPBM 14892. Paratypes: AMS I.5386 (1), IA.2647 (1), IB.5984 (1); USNM 260394 (2). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Crossorhombus howensis Hensley & Randall 1993 -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3821 [ref. 26311], Hoese & Bray 2006:1817 [ref. 29000], Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2012:145 [ref. 32404], Amaoka & Ho 2019:178 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Crossorhombus howensis Hensley & Randall 1993. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan; Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

hureaui, Engyprosopon Quéro [J.-C.] & Golani [D.] 1990:38, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 14 (no. 1); ref. 15759] North Beach, Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 1-1.5 meters. Holotype: HUJ 12563. Paratypes: HUJ 12564 (6); MNHN 1987-1868 (2), 1987-1869 (2). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:304-305 [ref. 25922], Golani 2006:35 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Engyprosopon hureaui Quéro & Golani 1990 -- (Amaoka et al. 1993:402 [ref. 22091], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Amaoka & Kishimoto 1996:2 [ref. 24365], Anderson et al. 1998:28 [ref. 23611], Nakabo 2000:1363 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3830 [ref. 26311], Nakabo 2002:1363 [ref. 26193], Hoese & Bray 2006:1818 [ref. 29000], Amaoka et al. 2008:113 [ref. 29584], Golani & Fricke 2018:173 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon hureaui Quéro & Golani 1990. Bothidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Maldives; Ryukyu Islands; Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

iijimae, Engyprosopon Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:626, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 2526] Suruga Bay, Japan, Albatross station 3713, depth 45-48 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51461. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8387 [?= 8561] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Psettina iijimae (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Amaoka 1969:179 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:349 [ref. 6441], Fedorov & Foroshchuk 1988:538 [ref. 13478], Fukui & Ozawa 1990:127 [ref. 16666], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:49 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:110 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:166 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Amaoka & Larson 1999:1075 [ref. 24192], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1367 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3838 [ref. 26311] as iijimai, Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1367 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:429, 680 [ref. 26218], Hoese & Bray 2006:1822 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:94 [ref. 32413], Voronina et al. 2016:392 [ref. 35064], Amaoka & Ho 2019:205 [ref. 37188], Sonoyama et al. 2020:120 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Psettina iijimae (Jordan & Starks 1904). Bothidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

imperialis, Bothus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:23 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily [Mediterranean Sea]. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:15 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Nielsen 1973:621 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1294 [ref. 13677], Aldebert et al. 1990:1028 [ref. 19526], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:178 [ref. 25472], Santos et al. 1997:131 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:118 [ref. 24952], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:149 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:114 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:72 [ref. 36649], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2981 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:3, 8 [ref. 35674], Martins & Carneiro 2018:78 [ref. 36550], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:153 [ref. 36791], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:189 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117], Kovačić et al. 2020:27 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810). Bothidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Scotland south to Namibia, including Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

inermis, Platophrys Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:685, Fig. 268 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Pailolo Channel, between Molokai Island and Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4102, depth 122-132 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51648. Paratypes: FMNH 55983 (1); CAS-SU 8633 (4); USNM 51698 (10), 227795 [ex Univ. Iowa Mus.] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Parabothus chlorospilus (Gilbert 1905) -- (Li & Wang 1995:183 [ref. 16193], Mundy 2005:519 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:462 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Parabothus chlorospilus (Gilbert 1905). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Platophrys (Arnoglossus) Bleeker [P.] 1865:47 [5] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 13940] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6746. On p. 5 of separate. •Valid as Arnoglossus intermedius (Bleeker 1865) -- (Dor 1984:267 [ref. 29757], Winterbottom et al. 1989:66 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:589 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:373 [ref. 23967]). •Valid as Asterorhombus intermedius (Bleeker 1865) -- (Amaoka 1969:175 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:349 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477] as Asterhombus, Amaoka et al. 1994:23 [ref. 22158], Senou et al. 1994:4 [ref. 24602], Li & Wang 1995:179 [ref. 16193], Amaoka & Arai 1998:256 [ref. 23473], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1360 [ref. 25182], Amaoka & Mihara 2001:192 [ref. 25383], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3816 [ref. 26311] dated 1866, Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1360 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624] dated 1866, Hensley & Randall 2003:1 [ref. 27676], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:214 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:613 [ref. 28239], Hensley 2005:454 [ref. 28315], Hoese & Bray 2006:1815 [ref. 29000], Kimura 2009:317 [ref. 30426], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:88 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1046 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:223 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33932], Voronina et al. 2016:385 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2018:369 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:173 [ref. 36273], Amaoka & Ho 2019:167 [ref. 37188], Fricke et al. 2019:314 [ref. 36673], Sonoyama et al. 2020:119 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Asterorhombus intermedius (Bleeker 1865). Bothidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Seychelles and Maldives east to Tonga, north to central Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

irroratus, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] (ex van Hasselt) 1870:15 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 428] Not available, museum name mentioned in the synonymy of Platophrys (Arnoglossus) poecilurus. Bothidae.

japonicus, Arnoglossus Hubbs [C. L.] 1915:454, Pl. 25 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 48 (no. 2082); ref. 2224] Vincennes Strait, south of Kiusiu, Japan, Albatross station 4930, depth 84 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 75671. Paratypes: CAS-SU 22528 (1). Additional material: USNM 76893 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Arnoglossus japonicus Hubbs 1915 -- (Amaoka 1969:194 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:350 [ref. 6441], Fukui, Yamada & Ozawa 1990:215 [ref. 16667], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:57 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:110 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:159 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Amaoka & Mihara 2000:794 [ref. 25048], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1369 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3827 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:333 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1369 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:429, 679 [ref. 26218], Hoese & Bray 2006:1813 [ref. 29000], Motomura et al. 2010:230 [ref. 31256], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:84 [ref. 32413], Iwamoto & McCosker 2014:297 [ref. 33298], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674], Amaoka & Ho 2019:158 [ref. 37188], Psomadakis et al. 2020:587 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus japonicus Hubbs 1915. Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar east to Taiwan, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

kanekonis, Scaeops Tanaka [S.] 1918:226 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 30 (no. 356); ref. 17357] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 8314. •Synonym of Crossorhombus azureus (Alcock 1889) -- (Hensley & Randall 1993:1123 [ref. 22080], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3820 [ref. 26311]). •Valid as Crossorhombus kanekonis (Tanaka 1918) -- (Amaoka 1969:139 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:348 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:36 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:188 [ref. 16193], Chen et al. 1997:176 [ref. 26476], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1362 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1362 [ref. 26193]). Current status: Valid as Crossorhombus kanekonis (Tanaka 1918). Bothidae. Distribution: East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

kenyaensis, Chascanopsetta Hensley [D. A.] & Smale [M. J.] 1998:2, Figs. 1-4 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 59; ref. 23483] Off Kenya, 4°38'S, 39°46'E, depth less than or = to 350 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 44244. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 13743 (2), 13780 (1); ZMB 17684 (1). •Valid as Chascanopsetta kenyaensis Hensley & Smale 1998 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Tongboonkua et al. 2018:179 [ref. 36137]). Current status: Valid as Chascanopsetta kenyaensis Hensley & Smale 1998. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

kessleri, Arnoglossus Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1915:108 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 16 (no. 92); ref. 15021] Sukhum, depth 3-4 meters, and Sudak, 44°50′N, 34°58′E, depth 3-7 fathoms, Black Sea. Syntypes: ZIN 18861 (1) Sukhum, 18862 (6) Sudak. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:258 [ref. 37075]. Also appeared as new in Schmidt 1916:xxxix [ref. 32021]. •Valid as Arnoglossus kessleri Schmidt 1915 -- (Nielsen 1973:621 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1295 [ref. 13677], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:149 [ref. 26753], Evseenko 2003:S59 [ref. 28535], Golani 2005:62 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:114 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:185 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:173 [ref. 31251], Parin et al. 2014:525 [ref. 33547], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:72 [ref. 36649], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:99 [ref. 37515]). •Synonym of Arnoglossus grohmanni (Bonaparte 1837) -- (Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus grohmanni (Bonaparte 1837). Bothidae. Distribution: Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kiensis, Platophrys Tanaka [S.] 1918:225 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 30 (no. 356); ref. 17357] Tanabe, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 8313. •Valid as Parabothus kiensis (Tanaka 1918) -- (Amaoka 1969:125 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:297, 406 [ref. 8256], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:348 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:617, 738 [ref. 8056], Amaoka & Shen 1993:1045 [ref. 22092], Kim & Youn 1994:110 [ref. 22286], Amaoka et al. 1997:163 [ref. 23744], Nakabo 2000:1361 [ref. 25182], Uyeda & Sasaki 2001:418 [ref. 25795], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3838 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1361 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:429, 680 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Hoese & Bray 2006:1822 [ref. 29000], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:94 [ref. 32413], Voronina & Causse 2014:149 [ref. 33421], Voronina et al. 2017:275 [ref. 35063], Amaoka & Ho 2019:199 [ref. 37188], Fricke et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37176]). Current status: Valid as Parabothus kiensis (Tanaka 1918). Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Taiwan to Korea and Japan; off northern Western Australia; New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

kitaharae, Lambdopsetta Smith [H. M.] & Pope [T. E. B.] 1906:496, Fig. 12 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1489); ref. 4058] Kagoshima, Kagoshima Bay, Kagoshima Prefecture, Kyūshū, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 55612. The spelling kitaharae [not Kitaharai] is acceptable; early workers almost certainly Latinized the name first, and then added an 'e' (Art. 31.1.1) [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012] -- we suggest using kitaharae when the species is treated as valid. •Synonym of Laeops parviceps Günther 1880 -- (Li & Wang 1995:176 [ref. 16193]). •Valid as Laeops kitaharae (Smith & Pope 1906) -- (Amaoka 1969:208 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:350 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:269 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:617, 738 [ref. 8056], Fukui & Ozawa 1990:127 [ref. 16666], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:60 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:109 [ref. 22286], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356] as kitharae, Evseenko 1996:732 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1370 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1370 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:429, 680 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Hoese & Bray 2006:1821 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:93 [ref. 32413], Shinohara et al. 2014:274 [ref. 33330], Voronina et al. 2016:391 [ref. 35064], Kimura & Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:294 [ref. 36460], Amaoka & Ho 2019:194 [ref. 37188], Psomadakis et al. 2020:591 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:119 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Laeops kitaharae (Smith & Pope 1906). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Taiwan, north to Korea and central Japan. Habitat: marine.

kobensis, Scaeops Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1906:170, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1484); ref. 2532] Kobe, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 9822. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Crossorhombus kobensis (Jordan & Starks 1906) -- (Amaoka 1969:134 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:348 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:615, 737 [ref. 8056], Hensley & Randall 1993:1125 [ref. 22080], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:37 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:191 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1362 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3822 [ref. 26311], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1362 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2005:441 [ref. 28370], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], Motomura et al. 2010:230 [ref. 31256], Ohashi & Motomura 2012:145 [ref. 32404], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:90 [ref. 32413], Amaoka & Ho 2019:180 [ref. 37188], Sonoyama et al. 2020:119 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Crossorhombus kobensis (Jordan & Starks 1906). Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: South China Sea to central Japan. Habitat: marine.

kotthausi, Arnoglossus Klausewitz [W.] & Schneider [M.] 1986:222 [Senckenbergiana Maritima v. 18 (nos 3-6); ref. 8083] Gulf of Aden, Indian Ocean, 12°12.5'N, 43°35.5'E, depth 225 meters. Holotype: ZMH 5554. Paratypes: ZMH 5555 (5). Replacement name for Arnoglossus profundus Kotthaus 1977, preoccupied by Arnoglossus profundus Weber 1913. •Valid as Arnoglossus kotthausi Klausewitz & Schneider 1986 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2017:3, 8 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus kotthausi Klausewitz & Schneider 1986. Bothidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

krempfi, Grammatobothus Chabanaud [P.] 1929:377 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 16072] [Poulo Condore] Côn Sơn Island, Côn Đảo Archipelago, Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu Province, Đông Nam Bộ/Southeastern Region, Vietnam, South China Sea, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1947-0019. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:307 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Grammatobothus krempfi Chabanaud 1929 -- (Li & Wang 1995:217 [ref. 16193], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3833 [ref. 26311], Ho et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31461] as krempft, Amaoka & Ho 2019:189 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Grammatobothus krempfi Chabanaud 1929. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

kushimotoensis, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.], Kaga [T.] & Misaki [H.] 2008:107, Figs. 1-3 [National Museums of Natural Sciences, Publications in Natural Sciences Suppl. 2; ref. 29584] Kushimoto, Nishimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture (washed ashore by typhoon). Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 76957 [ex KMPC-030810-10]. The gender of the genus Engryprosopon is neuter. •Valid as Engyprosopon kushimotoense Amaoka, Kaga & Misaki 2008. Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon kushimotoense Amaoka, Kaga & Misaki 2008. Bothidae. Distribution: Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Kii Peninsula, Japan. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Rhombus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1833:fasc. 4, punt. 23, Pl. 99 (fig. 2) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 516] Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

lanceolata, Laeops Franz [V.] 1910:62, Pl. 8 (fig. 60) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Fukuura and Dzushi, Japan. Syntypes: BMNH 1931.11.16.2 [ex ZSM] (1), ZSM [old collection] (9) destroyed in WW II. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:267 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Laeops kitaharae (Smith & Pope 1906) -- (Amaoka 1969:208 [ref. 105], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:60 [ref. 21500]). •Valid as Laeops lanceolata Franz 1910 -- (Li & Wang 1995:177 [ref. 16193], Voronina et al. 2016:391 [ref. 35064], Voronina et al. 2020:526 [ref. 37730]). Current status: Valid as Laeops lanceolata Franz 1910. Bothidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

laterna, Pleuronectes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:121 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality [Europe]. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:52 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:621 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1296 [ref. 13677], Aldebert et al. 1990:1028 [ref. 19526], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Fricke 1999:52 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:150 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:62 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:114 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:185 [ref. 30517], Wirtz et al. 2007:22 [ref. 30263], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:72 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:525 [ref. 33547], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2982 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:3, 8 [ref. 35674], Martins & Carneiro 2018:77 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:117 [ref. 37117], Bariche & Fricke 2020:99 [ref. 37515], Carneiro et al. 2019:189 [ref. 37250], Kovačić et al. 2020:27 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792). Bothidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Trondheim (Norway) south to Angola, including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

latifrons, Scaeops Regan [C. T.] 1908:233, Pl. 25 (fig. 3) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean, depth 37 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1907.3.23.143. Paratypes: (13) BMNH 1901.12.21.99-106 (8), 1907.3.23.144 (1), 1908.3.23.137-138 (2), 1908.3.23.139-140 (now 2). •Valid as Engyprosopon latifrons (Regan 1908) -- (Dor 1984:268 [ref. 29757], Amaoka et al. 1993:380 [ref. 22091], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:204 [ref. 16193], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3831 [ref. 26311], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Hoese & Bray 2006:1819 [ref. 29000], Amaoka et al. 2008:111 [ref. 29584], Voronina et al. 2016:388 [ref. 35064], Golani & Fricke 2018:173 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon latifrons (Regan 1908). Bothidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles and Saint Brandon's Shoals east to Philippines, north to southern China. Habitat: marine.

leopardinus, Rhomboidichthys Günther [A.] 1862:434 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] No locality [= Gulf of California, Mexico]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.1250. •Valid as Bothus leopardinus (Günther 1862) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:102 [ref. 21805], Allen & Robertson 1994:286 [ref. 22193], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:934 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:74 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:609 [ref. 24023], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Nelson et al. 2004:178 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Bothus leopardinus (Günther 1862). Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

leotardi, Pleuronectes Risso [A.] 1810:318 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:338 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1028 [ref. 19526], Desoutter et al. 2001:338 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

longimanus, Tosarhombus Amaoka [K.], Mihara [E.] & Rivaton [J.] 1997:148, Figs. 1-3 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 174; ref. 23744] Chesterfield Plateau, west of New Caledonia, 19°33.10'S, 158°36.90'E, depth 290-310 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1994-0334. Paratypes: HUMZ 129470 (1), 129471-72 (2), 129473 (1); MNHN 1994-0330 to 0332 (3), 1994-0333 (1), 1994-0335 to 0341 (7), 1994-0342 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:311 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Tosarhombus longimanus Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1997 -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3840 [ref. 26311], Psomadakis et al. 2020:592 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Tosarhombus longimanus Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1997. Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar; Chesterfield Islands. Habitat: marine.

longipelvis, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.] 1969:157 [93], Fig. 54 [Journal of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 105] Mimase, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 36625. Paratypes: FAKU 28960 (1), 36623-24 (1, 1), 36626-28 (3), 36631-33 (1, 1, 1), 36636-37 (1, 1), 36642 (1), 36644-45 (2). On p. 93 of separate (dual pagination). •Valid as Engyprosopon longipelvis Amaoka 1969 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:349 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:40 [ref. 21500], Amaoka et al. 1993:380 [ref. 22091], Li & Wang 1995:201 [ref. 16193], Nakabo 2000:1363 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1363 [ref. 26193], Amaoka et al. 2008:112 [ref. 29584], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:92 [ref. 32413], Yoshida et al. 2013:214 [ref. 34464], Amaoka & Ho 2018:468 [ref. 35909], Amaoka & Ho 2019:185 [ref. 37188], Sonoyama et al. 2020:119 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon longipelvis Amaoka 1969. Bothidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan to central Japan. Habitat: marine.

longipterum, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.], Mihara [E.] & Rivaton [J.] 1993:416, Figs. 26-28 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 158; ref. 22091] Western Pacific, Chesterfield Plateau, 20°31.50'S, 161°06.45'E, depth 88 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1993-0088. Paratypes: HUMZ 124888-89 (1, 1); MNHN 1993-0089 to 0091 (1, 2, 1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:305 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Engyprosopon longipterum Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1993 -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3831 [ref. 26311], Hoese & Bray 2006:1819 [ref. 29000], Amaoka et al. 2008:111 [ref. 29584]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon longipterum Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1993. Bothidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

lophoptera, Scianectes Alcock [A. W.] 1889:284, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 85] Sixteen miles east of the mouth of Devi River, Máhánaddi Delta, Investigator station 32, depth 68 fathoms. Syntypes: (2) ZSI F12435 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:44 [ref. 22148]. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

lophotes, Arnoglossus Günther [A.] 1862:417 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] British coast?, Europe. Syntypes: (orig. 3 skins) BMNH 1856.12.10.153-155 (3 skins). •Synonym of Arnoglossus imperialis (Refinesque 1810) -- (Nielsen 1973:621 [ref. 6885], Aldebert et al. 1990:1028 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

lugubris, Chascanopsetta Alcock [A. W.] 1894:129 [15], Pl. 6 (fig. 4) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 63 (pt 2); ref. 90] Bay of Bengal, 13°51'12"N, 80°28'12"E, Investigator station 162, depth 145-250 fathoms. Syntypes: ZSI F13728-29 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:157 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:44 [ref. 22148] as lugurbris. On p. 15 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1895: Pl. 15 (fig. 3) [ref. 20532]. •Valid as Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894, subspecies lugubris Alcock 1894 -- (Nakabo 2000:1358 [ref. 25182], Fukui et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25289], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3829 [ref. 26311], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1358 [ref. 26193], Munroe 2003:1892 [ref. 27118], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Shinohara et al. 2005:441 [ref. 28370], Trunov 2006:476 [ref. 28786], Hoese & Bray 2006:1816 [ref. 29000], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:89 [ref. 32413], Larson et al. 2013:223 [ref. 32988], Munroe 2015:1678 [ref. 34321]). •Valid as Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894 -- (Gutherz 1967:44 [ref. 23862], Amaoka 1969:221 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:407 [ref. 8256], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:460 [ref. 14275], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:350 [ref. 6441], Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5632], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:613, 736 [ref. 8056], Hensley 1986:857 [ref. 5669], Robins & Ray 1986:289 [ref. 23100], Aldebert et al. 1990:1033 [ref. 19526], Foroshchuk 1991:81 [ref. 20137], Cervigón 1992:274 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:178 [ref. 25472], Li & Wang 1995:218 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Hensley & Smale 1998:9 [ref. 23483], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:826 [ref. 28815], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:183 [ref. 37485], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2990 [ref. 34618], Voronina et al. 2016:385 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2018:370 [ref. 35805], Tongboonkua et al. 2018:178 [ref. 36137], Amaoka & Ho 2019:174 [ref. 37188], Brown et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:190 [ref. 37250], Psomadakis et al. 2020:589 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894. Bothidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas. Habitat: marine.

lunatus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:269 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Bahamas. No types known. Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:69-70 [ref. 20705]. Based on pre-Linnaean Solea lunata Catesby 1725, Pl. 25. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:197 [ref. 1841]. •Valid as Bothus lunatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Gutherz 1967:42 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:288 [ref. 23100], Aldebert et al. 1990:1031 [ref. 19526], Cervigón 1992:273 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204], Cervigón 1996:26 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:342 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:80 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:169 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634], Collette et al. 2003:126 [ref. 26784], Munroe 2003:1890 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:178 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:823 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:41 [ref. 30263], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:85 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:33 [ref. 34324], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2986 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Bothus lunatus (Linnaeus 1758). Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and eastern Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea) and Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Pleuronectes Jouan [H.] 1861:256 [Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg v. 8; ref. 18363] Port-de-France, Kanala, New Caledonia. No types known. •Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782) -- (Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:355 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Rhomboidichthys Poey [F.] 1876:180 [138] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 5 Apr. 1876); ref. 3510] On p. 138 of separate. Not intended as a new name, but as a new combination for "Pleuronectes lunulatus Linnaeus" -- actually Pleuronectes lunatus. Current status: Synonym of Bothus lunatus (Linnaeus 1758). Bothidae.

macrolepis, Scaeops Regan [C. T.] 1908:233, Pl. 27 (fig. 4) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Cargados Carajos Shoals, Indian Ocean, depth 20-30 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.3.23.145. •Valid as Engyprosopon macrolepis (Regan 1908) -- (Hensley & Randall 1990 [ref. 20143], Amaoka et al. 1993:398 [ref. 22091], Anderson et al. 1998:28 [ref. 23611], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3831 [ref. 26311], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:615 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1048 [ref. 31980], Fricke 2015:6 [ref. 33807], Fricke et al. 2018:370 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:173 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:315 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon macrolepis (Regan 1908). Bothidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Saint Brandon's Shoals east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

macrolophus, Arnoglossus Alcock [A. W.] 1889:280, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 85] Bay of Bengal, 5 miles south of [Ganjam] Brahmapur, Orissa State, India, eastern Indian Ocean, Investigator station 43, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F12441. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:157 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:44 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 23 (fig. 3) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Arnoglossus macrolophus Alcock 1889 -- (Arai & Amaoka 1996:360 [ref. 22589], Amaoka & Mihara 2000:791 [ref. 25048], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1368 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3827 [ref. 26311], Shinohara et al. 2001:333 [ref. 25995] as macrophus, Nakabo 2002:1368 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Hoese & Bray 2006:1813 [ref. 29000], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:85 [ref. 32413], Larson et al. 2013:222 [ref. 32988], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:431 [ref. 33460], Voronina et al. 2016:384 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2017:3, 8 [ref. 35674], Fricke et al. 2018:369 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:172 [ref. 36273], Amaoka & Ho 2019:160 [ref. 37188], Eagderi et al. 2019:120 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:587 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus macrolophus Alcock 1889. Bothidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Scianectes Alcock [A. W.] 1889:292, Pl. 16 (fig. 4) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 85] 40 miles southwest of Akyab, Myanmar, Investigator station 3, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11721. Alcock specimens: MNHN 1890-0357 and 0358 [ex ZSI] (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:158 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:44 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Laeops macrophthalmus (Alcock 1889) -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2020:591 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Laeops macrophthalmus (Alcock 1889). Bothidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar endemic. Habitat: marine.

macroptera, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.] 1963:115, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of the Misaki Marine Biological Institute, Kyoto University No. 4; ref. 1001] Mimase, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 29064. Paratypes: FAKU 29065-66 (2), 29067-71 (5), 29072 (1), 29074-76 (3). •Valid as Engyprosopon macroptera Amaoka 1963 -- (Amaoka 1969:90 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:349 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:40 [ref. 21500], Amaoka et al. 1993:380 [ref. 22091], Li & Wang 1995:199 [ref. 16193], Nakabo 2000:1363 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1363 [ref. 26193], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461]). •Synonym of Engyprosopon maldivensis (Regan 1908) -- (Amaoka et al. 1993:393 [ref. 22091], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Hoese & Bray 2006:1819 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Engyprosopon maldivense (Regan 1908) -- (Amaoka & Ho 2018:462 [ref. 35909]). Current status: Synonym of Engyprosopon maldivense (Regan 1908). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

macropterus, Rhombus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:236, Pl. 50 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Waigeo [Waigiou], Indonesia; Rawak Island, Bismarck Archipelago. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:339 [ref. 25922] as type not at MNHN. •Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782). Current status: Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

macrostoma, Arnoglossus laterna var. Kyle [H. M.] 1913:64 [Dana Report No. 1; ref. 14962] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:621 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1296 [ref. 13677], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:150 [ref. 26753], Parin et al. 2014:525 [ref. 33547], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2982 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Chascanopsetta von Bonde [C.] 1922:8, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle stations 140 and 141, depth 174-225 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1922.3.27.1-2 (3?). Text states Chascanopsetta gilchristi as illustrated on Pl. 2 (fig. 1), but caption states this figure as Chascanopsetta maculata; actual identity of figure uncertain. •Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894 -- (Amaoka 1969:222 [ref. 105], Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5632], Hensley 1986:857 [ref. 5669], Aldebert et al. 1990:1033 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

maculifer, Platophrys Jordan [D. S.] & Goss [D. K.] 1889:267 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 2); ref. 2482] Not regarded as an original description; new combination for Poey's Pleuronectes maculiferus which Jordan & Goss questionably combined with specimens identified by Jordan as P. ellipticus (not of Poey). Bothidae.

maculiferus, Pleuronectes Poey [F.] 1860:316 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cienfuegos, Cuba. Syntypes: (2). •Valid as Bothus maculiferus (Poey 1860) -- (Gutherz 1967:43 [ref. 23862], Cervigón 1992:273 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:28 [ref. 24489], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:342 [ref. 25013], Munroe 2003:1891 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27621], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:85 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:33 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2020:171 [ref. 37680]). Current status: Valid as Bothus maculiferus (Poey 1860). Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

maculipinna, Monolene Garman [S.] 1899:226, Pl. 52 (figs. 1-2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Pacific coast of Panama and Colombia, 3°-7°N, 79°-81°, Albatross station 3355, 3378, 3387, 3389 and 3391, depth 112-210 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1930.9.4.13-14 [ex MCZ] (2); MCZ 28541-42 (3, 4); USNM [ex MCZ 28542] (1). •Valid as Monolene maculipinna Garman 1899 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:152 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:936 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:202 [ref. 24555], Evseenko 1999:628 [ref. 24408], Amaoka & Imamura 2000:247 [ref. 24802], Hoshino et al. 2000:293 [ref. 24805], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807] with author and date as Norman 1933, McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:105 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Monolene maculipinna Garman 1899. Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Nicaragua to Peru, including Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

maculipinnis, Arnoglossus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:329, Fig. 84 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Vicinity of Jolo, Sulu Province, Philippines, 6°08'45"N, 121°03'E, Albatross station 5140, depth 20-76 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93098. Paratypes: USNM 93569-70 (1, 2). •Synonym of Engyprosopon maldivensis (Regan 1908) -- (Amaoka et al. 1993:393 [ref. 22091], Hoese & Bray 2006:1819 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Engyprosopon maldivense (Regan 1908) -- (Amaoka & Ho 2018:462 [ref. 35909]). Current status: Synonym of Engyprosopon maldivense (Regan 1908). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

maderensis, Rhombus Lowe [R. T.] 1834:143 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1833 (pt 1) (for 24 Dec.); ref. 2826] Off Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Also appeared as new in Lowe 1838 [possibly 1836], p. 201 [ref. 2828]. •Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1032 [ref. 19526]). •Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809), but a valid subspecies maderensis -- (Nielsen 1973:620 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1298 [ref. 13677], Santos et al. 1997:112 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:119 [ref. 24952], Wirtz et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32972], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2988 [ref. 34618] with reservations). Current status: Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

maldivensis, Scaeops Regan [C. T.] 1908:234, Pl. 25 (fig. 1) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Maldives, Indian Ocean, depth 27-44 fathoms. Lectotype: BMNH 1901.12.31.94. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1901.12.31.95 (1), 1901.12.31.96-98 (?1 of 4). Lectotype selected by Amaoka et al. 1993:393 [ref. 22091], but Norman apparently established the lectotype by referring to the type as 1901.12.31.94 coupled with a footnote stating, "A male of 63 mm. is selected as the holotype." Five paralectotypes mentioned by Amaoka et al., but the original description was based on 3 specimens. •Valid as Engyprosopon maldivensis (Regan 1908) -- (Dor 1984:269 [ref. 29757], Amaoka et al. 1993:397 [ref. 22091], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Amaoka & Mihara 1995:56 [ref. 21622], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3832 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Hoese & Bray 2006:1819 [ref. 29000], Amaoka et al. 2008:113 [ref. 29584], Larson et al. 2013:223 [ref. 32988], Shinohara et al. 2014:274 [ref. 33330], Voronina et al. 2016:390 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2018:370 [ref. 35805]). •Valid as Engyprosopon maldivense (Regan 1908) -- (Amaoka & Ho 2018:461 [ref. 35909], Amaoka & Ho 2019:185 [ref. 37188], Psomadakis et al. 2020:590 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon maldivense (Regan 1908). Bothidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Maldives east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Western Australia and Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

malhensis, Arnoglossus Regan [C. T.] 1908:235, Pl. 26 (fig. 2) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Saya de Malha Bank, Indian Ocean, depth over 123 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.3.23.147. •Valid as Parabothus malhensis (Regan 1908) -- (Amaoka & Imamura 1990:1016 [ref. 17337], Amaoka & Shen 1993:1045 [ref. 22092], Amaoka et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23744], Voronina & Causse 2014:149 [ref. 33421], Voronina et al. 2017:275 [ref. 35063], Fricke et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37176]). Current status: Valid as Parabothus malhensis (Regan 1908). Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank. Habitat: marine.

mancus, Pleuronectes Broussonet [P. M. A.] 1782:[19], Pls. [3-4] [Ichthyologia, sistens piscium descriptiones et icones. Decas I.; ref. 17287] Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia; Nomuka Island, Ha'apai Group, Tonga, South Pacific. Mus. Britannic [now BMNH] (apparently lost). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:338 [ref. 25922]. as not types at MNHN. On unnumbered p. 19 and unnumbered pls. 3-4. Somewhat unclear but apparently maneus on Pl. 4. •Valid as Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782) -- (Amaoka 1969:167 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:349 [ref. 6441], Hensley 1986:855 [ref. 5669], Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:66 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:449 [ref. 15987], Hensley & Suzumoto 1990:131 [ref. 17674], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:45 [ref. 21500], Kuiter 1993:385 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:286 [ref. 22193], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:935 [ref. 22829], Li & Wang 1995:210 [ref. 16193], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:74 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:611 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:380 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:449 [ref. 25919], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Myers 1999:279 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:570 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:29 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1366 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:450 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3817 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Desoutter et al. 2001:338 [ref. 25922], Nakabo 2002:1366 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:178 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:431 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:613 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:516 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Bray 2006:1816 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:458 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:114 [ref. 30213], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1046 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Francis & Duffy 2015:483 [ref. 36161], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:369 [ref. 35805], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248], Amaoka & Ho 2019:169 [ref. 37188], Arndt & Fricke 2019:13 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782). Bothidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Clipperton Island and Mexico, north to Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, Ogasawara Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to Lord Howe Island, northern New Zealand, Kermadec Islands, Rapa and Ducie (Pitcairn Group). Habitat: marine.

marchionessarum, Passer Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 9 [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Marquesas Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8777 (dry). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:309 [ref. 25922]. Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:344 [ref. 4504]. •Synonym of Bothus pantherinus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:309 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus pantherinus (Rüppell 1830). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

marisrubri, Arnoglossus Klausewitz [W.] & Schneider [M.] 1986:219, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Senckenbergiana Maritima v. 18 (nos 3-6); ref. 8083] Mismaris Trough, Saudi Arabia, eastern-central Red Sea, 21°22'N, 39°04'E, depth 363-383 meters. Holotype: SMF 20462. Paratypes: SMF 19914 (15). •Valid as Arnoglossus marisrubri Klausewitz & Schneider 1986 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Fricke et al. 2017:3, 8 [ref. 35674], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[23] 261 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:173 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus marisrubri Klausewitz & Schneider 1986. Bothidae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

marquisensis, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.] & Séret [B.] 2005:373, Figs. 1-2, 4 [Ichthyological Research v. 52 (no. 4); ref. 28644] Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia, 9°42'S, 139°05'E, depth 408 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2000-4373. Paratypes: HUMZ 190685 (1), 190686 (1), 190687 (1); MNHN 2000-4348 (1); MNHN 2004-2879 (1), 2978 (1), 2981 (1), 2982 (1), 2983 (1). •Valid as Engyprosopon marquisense Amaoka & Séret 2005 -- (Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] as marquisensis). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon marquisense Amaoka & Séret 2005. Bothidae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

megagnatha, Chascanopsetta Amaoka [K.] & Parin [N. V.] 1990:718, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1990 (no. 3); ref. 17336] Sala y Gomez Ridge, southeastern Pacific, 24°56'S, 88°33'W, depth 580-564 meters. Holotype: ZIN 48686. Paratypes: HUMZ 113417-18 (2), 113420 (1), 113421-22 (2); IOM 1 (1), 2 (1), 3 (1); MNHN 2019-0040 (1, ex ZIN 48687), USNM 427245 (1, ex ZIN 48687), ZIN 48687 (8 ex 10); ZMMU P-17572-74 (1, 3, 6). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:87 [ref. 25714], Voronina & Volkova 2019:259 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Chascanopsetta megagnatha Amaoka & Parin 1990 -- (Hensley & Smale 1998:13 [ref. 23483], Fukui et al. 2001:101 [ref. 25289]). Current status: Valid as Chascanopsetta megagnatha Amaoka & Parin 1990. Bothidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Sala y Gomez Ridge endemic. Habitat: marine.

megalepis, Monolene Woods [L. P.] 1961:192, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1961 (no. 2); ref. 9395] West of Arecibo, Puerto Rico, 18°30.5'N, 66°55'W, Oregon station 2663, depth 43 fathoms. Holotype: FMNH 65746. Paratypes: FMNH 65748-51 (2, 3, 2, 2); USNM 195859 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:58 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Monolene megalepis Woods 1961 -- (Gutherz 1967:6 [ref. 23862], Cervigón 1992:277 [ref. 23827], Amaoka & Imamura 2000:247 [ref. 24802], Munroe 2003:1893 [ref. 27118]). Current status: Valid as Monolene megalepis Woods 1961. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

megastoma, Chascanopsetta Kamohara [T.] 1936:308 [English p. 306], Fig. 1 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 48 (no. 6); ref. 13707] Mimase, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Kamohara "neotype": BSKU 9592. Type catalog: Kamohara 1961:7, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [ref. 19282], but neotype designation was not made in a revisory work and is invalid. "Neotype" designation: Kamohara 1961:7, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [ref. 19282], but neotype designation was not made in a revisory work and is invalid. •Valid as Kamoharaia megastoma (Kamohara 1936) -- (Amaoka 1969:217 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:299, 406 [ref. 8256], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:350 [ref. 6441], Li & Wang 1995:221 [ref. 16193], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1359 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3834 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1359 [ref. 26193], Hoese & Bray 2006:1820 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31461], Matsunuma 2016:30 [ref. 34864], Voronina et al. 2016:390 [ref. 35064], Jang et al. 2018:176 [ref. 36195], Amaoka & Ho 2019:193 [ref. 37188], Lisher et al. 2020:155 [ref. 37451]). Current status: Valid as Kamoharaia megastoma (Kamohara 1936). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: southern Madagascar; Indonesia east to Philippines, north to Korea and Japan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

melasma, Trichopsetta Anderson [W. W.] & Gutherz [E. J.] 1967:906, Figs. 6-7 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 17 (no. 4); ref. 7857] Bank off Andros Island, Great Bahamas, 23°40'N, 79°06'W, depth 125 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 200418. Paratypes: BMNH 1966.6.13.3 (1); MCZ 44912 (1); CAS-SU 63562 (1); UF 19315-16 (1, 3); USNM 200419-21 (1, 1, 1), 208578-79 [ex TABL] (2, 2). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:113 [ref. 21035]. •Valid as Trichopsetta melasma Anderson & Gutherz 1967 -- (Munroe 2003:1894 [ref. 27118]). Current status: Valid as Trichopsetta melasma Anderson & Gutherz 1967. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

mellissi, Bothus Norman [J. R.] 1931:509 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 8 (no. 47) (art. 69); ref. 16315] Saint Helena Island, South Atlantic. Holotype: BMNH 1867.10.8.54. Paratypes: BMNH 1867.10.8.52-53 (2), 1868.6.15.40 (1), ?1908.7.24.15 (1), 1910.9.9.22-28 (7?). •Valid as Bothus mellissi Norman 1931 -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:666 [ref. 9166], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2987 [ref. 34618], Brown et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Bothus mellissi Norman 1931. Bothidae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

mertensi, Laeops Poll [M.] 1959:321, Fig. 109 [Résultats Scientifiques. Expédition Océanographique Belge dans les Eaux Côtières Africaines de l'Atlantique Sud (1948-1949). Bruxelles. v. 4 (no. 3B); ref. 12014] Off French Guinea, 10°05'N, 17°W, depth 320-360 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 397. Paratypes: IRSNB 398 (1), MRAC 127725-26 (2). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:46 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:49 [ref. 21528]. Named after a woman, so manditory change to mertensae (ICZN Art. 31.1.2). •Valid as Monolene mertensae (Poll 1959) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1034 [ref. 19526] as mertensi, Amaoka & Imamura 2000:247 [ref. 24802] as mertensi, Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2992 [ref. 34618] as mertensi). Current status: Valid as Monolene mertensae (Poll 1959). Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

micrognathus, Chascanopsetta Amaoka [K.] & Yamamoto [E.] 1984:206, Figs. 1, 2B [Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University v. 35 (no. 4); ref. 5632] Kyushu-Palau Ridge, 26°46'N, 135°20'E to 26°44'N, 135°24.3'E, depth 342 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 74867. Paratypes: BSKU 29471 (1), 30711 (1), 30885 (1), 31444-45 (1, 1); HUMZ 74858-63 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 74865-66 (1, 1), 74868 (1). •Valid as Chascanopsetta micrognathus Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984 -- (Foroshchuk 1991:80 [ref. 20137], Nakabo 2000:1358 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1358 [ref. 26193]). •Valid as Chascanopsetta micrognatha Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984 -- (Hensley & Smale 1998:12 [ref. 23483], Fukui et al. 2001:101 [ref. 25289] as micrognathus). Current status: Valid as Chascanopsetta micrognatha Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

micrommatus, Arnoglossus Amaoka [K.], Arai [M.] & Gomon [M. F.] 1997:131, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Research v. 44 (no. 2); ref. 22935] Off Albany, south coast of Western Australia, depth 12-16 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 567-05.2. Paratypes: CSIRO C 2031 (1), H 567-05.1 (1), H 567.05.3-5 (1, 1, 1), H 573-03 (1); WAM P28613.009.1-2 (1, 1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Arnoglossus micrommatus Amaoka, Arai & Gomon 1997 -- (Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1814 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:809 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus micrommatus Amaoka, Arai & Gomon 1997. Bothidae. Distribution: Australia: South and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

microphthalmus, Laeops von Bonde [C.] 1922:11, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 134, depth 150 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1922.3.27.12 (1). •Valid as Neolaeops microphthalmus (von Bonde 1922) -- (Amaoka 1969:213 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:350 [ref. 6441], Hensley 1986:860 [ref. 5669], Li & Wang 1995:162 [ref. 16193], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1370 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3837 [ref. 26311], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1370 [ref. 26193], Ho et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31461], Fricke et al. 2018:371 [ref. 35805], Amaoka & Ho 2019:196 [ref. 37188], Voronina et al. 2020:526 [ref. 37730]). Current status: Valid as Neolaeops microphthalmus (von Bonde 1922). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

microstoma, Arnoglossus laterna var. Kyle [H. M.] 1913:64, Figs. 9-9a [Dana Report No. 1; ref. 14962] Mediterranean Sea; off western Europe, northeastern Atlantic. No types known. •Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:621 [ref. 6885], Aldebert et al. 1990:1029 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

microstoma, Chascanopsetta Kuronuma [K.] 1940:51, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 2701] Off Heta, Suruga Bay, Japan, depth about 300 meters. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Chascanopsetta microstoma Kuronuma 1940 -- (Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:407 [ref. 8256]). •Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894 -- (Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5632]). Current status: Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

microstoma, Monolene Cadenat [J.] 1937:524, Fig. 56 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 10 (fasc. 4, no. 40); ref. 17134] Conakry, Guinea, west Africa. Syntypes: MHNLR P.401 (1), MNHN 1938-0011 (1). Type catalog: Aloncle 1968:690 [ref. 20713], Desoutter et al. 2001:307-308 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Monolene microstoma Cadenat 1937 -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1035 [ref. 19526], Amaoka & Imamura 2000:247 [ref. 24802], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2993 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:190 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Monolene microstoma Cadenat 1937. Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic Senegal south to Namibia, possibly including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

microstoma, Platophrys Weber [M.] 1913:427, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Jedan Island, Aru Islands, Siboga station 273, depth 13 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109389. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:106 [ref. 19236]. Bothidae.

mogkii, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] 1854:256 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 345] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.6.3.28 (1), NMV 45888-89 (2). •Valid as Engyprosopon mogkii (Bleeker 1854) -- (Li & Wang 1995:203 [ref. 16193], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3832 [ref. 26311], Amaoka & Ho 2018:459 [ref. 35909], Amaoka & Ho 2019:186 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon mogkii (Bleeker 1854). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

moltonii, Arnoglossus Torchio [M.] 1961:214, Figs. 1-4 [Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano v. 100; ref. 9384] Market at Savona, Italy, Ligurian Sea, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MSNM 5485 (old number, specimen missing Feb. 1995). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:229 [ref. 21560]. •Synonym of Arnoglossus thori Kyle 1913 -- (Nielsen 1973:622 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1297 [ref. 13677] as moltoni, Aldebert et al. 1990:1030 [ref. 19526], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2984 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus thori Kyle 1913. Bothidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mongonuiensis, Arnoglossus Regan [C. T.] 1914:16 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 13 (no. 73); ref. 3661] Cape North, New Zealand, depth 14-30 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1913.12.4.54-57 (4). •Valid as Lophonectes mongonuiensis (Regan 1914) -- (Munroe 2015:1680 [ref. 34321]). Current status: Valid as Lophonectes mongonuiensis (Regan 1914). Bothidae. Distribution: New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

mozambiquensis, Engyprosopon Hensley [D. A.] 2003:834, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2003 (no. 4); ref. 27264] Porto Amelia, Mozambique, 13°00'S, 40°35'E. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 017816. Paratypes: BMNH 1927.1.6.33-35 (3); CAS 217124 (1); MNHN 2002-3431 (1); NSMT-P 65184 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 52820 (1); 67096 (1). •Valid as Engyprosopon mozambiquensis Hensley 2003 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:370 [ref. 35805]). • Valid as Engyprosopon mozambiquense Hensley 2003 -- (Amaoka & Ho 2018:470 [ref. 35909], Amaoka & Ho 2019:186 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon mozambiquense Hensley 2003. Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

muelleri, Pseudorhombus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1872:40 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 38 (pt. 1); ref. 2623] Hobson's Bay, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 1668. Type information/catalog: Fricke 1992:7 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:19 [ref. 29864]. Also in Klunzinger 1880:407, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [ref. 2624]. •Valid as Arnoglossus muelleri (Klunzinger 1872) -- (Kuiter 1993:384 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:847 [ref. 22532], Amaoka et al. 1997:134 [ref. 22935], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1814 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:809 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus muelleri (Klunzinger 1872). Bothidae. Distribution: Australia: Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

multirastris, Arnoglossus Parin [N. V.] 1983:90, Fig. 1 [Byulleten Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody Otdel Biologicheskii [Bulletin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists Biological Series] v. 88 (no. 4); ref. 8286] South Pacific, 25°39'S, 85°27'W. Holotype: ZIN 46156. Paratypes: (21) none at ZIN; ZMMU P-16023-24 (1, 1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:87 [ref. 25714], Voronina & Volkova 2019:259 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Arnoglossus multirastris Parin 1983 -- (Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus multirastris Parin 1983. Bothidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Nazca Ridge endemic. Habitat: marine.

multisquama, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.] 1963:111, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the Misaki Marine Biological Institute, Kyoto University No. 4; ref. 1001] Susaki, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 28988. Paratypes: FAKU 28982-87 (6), 28989-91 (3), 28992-96 (5), 28997-29045 (50), 29046-49 (4), 29050-55 (6), 29056-63 (8). •Valid as Engyprosopon multisquama Amaoka 1963 -- (Amaoka 1969:146 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:348 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:42 [ref. 21500], Amaoka et al. 1993:380 [ref. 22091], Li & Wang 1995:196 [ref. 16193], Shimizu & Hatooka 1997:6 [ref. 24377], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Nakabo 2000:1364 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1364 [ref. 26193], Amaoka et al. 2008:112 [ref. 29584], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:92 [ref. 32413], Yoshida et al. 2013:215 [ref. 34464], Amaoka & Ho 2018:456 [ref. 35909], Amaoka & Ho 2019:186 [ref. 37188], Sonoyama et al. 2020:119 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon multisquama Amaoka 1963. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam and Taiwan to central Japan. Habitat: marine.

multisquamea, Psettina Fedorov [V. V.] & Foroshchuk [V. P.] 1988:532 [32], Figs. 1-2 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 13478] Saya de Malha Bank, 11°27'S, 61°36'E, depth 134 meters. Holotype: ZIN 45661. Paratypes: ZIN 45662 (1), plus non-type material (9). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:261 [ref. 37075]. On p. 32 of English translation. •Valid as Psettina multisquamea Fedorov & Foroshchuk 1988 -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:49 [ref. 21500]). Current status: Valid as Psettina multisquamea Fedorov & Foroshchuk 1988. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank endemic. Habitat: marine.

myriaster, Rhombus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:181, Pl. 92 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3523. Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:149 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Bothus myriaster (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka 1969:162 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:349 [ref. 6441], Hensley 1986:856 [ref. 5669], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:45 [ref. 21500], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Kim & Youn 1994:109 [ref. 22286], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:208 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1365 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3818 [ref. 26311], Nakabo 2002:1365 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:429, 680 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:45 [ref. 27712], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Hoese & Bray 2006:1816 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:88 [ref. 32413], Psomadakis et al. 2015:324 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:385 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2018:369 [ref. 35805], Amaoka & Ho 2019:170 [ref. 37188], Psomadakis et al. 2020:588 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Bothus myriaster (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Rodrigues (Mascarenes) east to Philippines, north to Korea and southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Engyprosopon Regan [C. T.] 1920:211 [Annals of the Durban Museum v. 2 (pt 5) (art. 19); ref. 3671] Off mouth of Amatikulu River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 26-27 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.9.29.3-4 (2). •Valid as Engyprosopon natalense Regan 1920 (often seen as natalensis) -- (Hensley 1986:858 [ref. 5669], Amaoka et al. 1993:380 [ref. 22091], Hensley 2003:836 [ref. 27264], Amaoka et al. 2008:111 [ref. 29584], Fricke et al. 2018:371 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon natalense Regan 1920. Bothidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Laeops Norman [J. R.] 1931:510 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 8 (no. 47) (art. 69); ref. 16315] Coast of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 180-230 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1922.3.27.19. Paratypes: Gov't Mar. Survey S. Africa (1). •Valid as Laeops natalensis Norman 1931 -- (Hensley 1986:859 [ref. 5669]). Current status: Valid as Laeops natalensis Norman 1931. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean off southeastern Africa. Habitat: marine.

nebularis, Platophrys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1884:31 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 402); ref. 12325] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 34972. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1884.7.7.125-126 [from D. S. Jordan] (2) (1), USNM 34972 [not 54973 as published] (?4 of 5), MCZ 35936 [ex USNM] (1). Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 382, p. 3312 under Platophrys ocellatus in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Bothus ocellatus (Agassiz 1831). Current status: Synonym of Bothus ocellatus (Agassiz 1831). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

neocaledonicus, Tosarhombus Amaoka [K.] & Rivaton [J.] 1991:461, Figs. 12-13 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle Serie A Zoologie v. 151; ref. 19784] Chesterfield Plateau, 20°00.20'S, 158°46.60'E, depth 225 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1988-0686. Paratypes: HUMZ 114938-42 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 119270 (1); MNHN 1988-0687 (1), 1999-2052 [ex MNHN 1988-0687] (1); plus non-type material. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:311-312 [ref. 25922]. The name T. novaensis appeared in a newspaper before the above description, but it is not available (see Amaoka & Rivaton 1991:461, footnote [ref. 19784]). •Valid as Tosarhombus neocaledonicus Amaoka & Rivaton 1991 -- (Amaoka & Shen 1993:1045 [ref. 22092], Amaoka et al. 1997:146 [ref. 23744], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3841 [ref. 26311]). Current status: Valid as Tosarhombus neocaledonicus Amaoka & Rivaton 1991. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nielseni, Tosarhombus Amaoka [K.] & Rivaton [J.] 1991:458, Fig. 9 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle Serie A Zoologie v. 151; ref. 19784] Saya de Malha Bank, 11°20'S, 60°43'E, depth 147 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 73467. Paratypes: HUMZ 73466 (1), 73468-69 (2), 74080 (1) •Valid as Tosarhombus nielseni Amaoka & Rivaton 1991 -- (Amaoka & Shen 1993:1045 [ref. 22092], Psomadakis et al. 2020:592 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Tosarhombus nielseni Amaoka & Rivaton 1991. Bothidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank; Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

nigrescens, Laeops Lloyd [R. E.] 1907:9 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 15153] Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, 13°36'N, 47°32'E, Investigator station 360, depth 130 fathoms. Syntypes: (many) BMNH 1927.1.6.56-57 [ex ZSI] (2); ZSI F1291/1-1293/1 (3), 1296/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:157 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:44 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Lloyd 1908: Pl. 43 (fig. 2) [ref. 20538]. •Valid as Laeops nigrescens Lloyd 1907 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:325 [ref. 34104] as cf. nigrescens). Current status: Valid as Laeops nigrescens Lloyd 1907. Bothidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

nigrifrons, Arnoglossus Amaoka [K.] & Mihara [E.] 2000:806, Figs. 17-20 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie v. 184; ref. 25048] Chesterfield Plateau, off northern New Caledonia, 20°04.40'S, 158°47.41'E, depth 300 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1995-1168. Paratypes: HUMZ 142678 (1), 152143 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:302-303 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Arnoglossus nigrifrons Amaoka & Mihara 2000 -- (Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus nigrifrons Amaoka & Mihara 2000. Bothidae. Distribution: Coral Sea: Chesterfield Islands. Habitat: marine.

nigrofilamentosus, Arnoglossus Fricke [R.], Golani [D.] & Appelbaum-Golani [B.] 2017:2, Figs. 1-2, 4A [Scientia Marina v. 81 (no. 4); ref. 35674] Israel, vicinity of Jaffa, depth 20-40 meters. Holotype: HUJ 20663. Paratypes: HUJ. •Valid as Arnoglossus nigrofilamentosus Fricke, Golani & Appelbaum-Golani 2017. Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus nigrofilamentosus Fricke, Golani & Appelbaum-Golani 2017. Bothidae. Distribution: Israel (possibly Lessepsian migrant from the Gulf of Suez). Habitat: marine.

nigromaculatus, Laeops von Bonde [C.] 1922:10, Pl. 3 [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 112 and 152, depth 100-160 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1922.3.27.13-14 [from Gilchrist] (2?). •Valid as Laeops nigromaculatus von Bonde 1922 -- (Amaoka 1969:205 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:350 [ref. 6441], Hensley 1986:859 [ref. 5669], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:60 [ref. 21500], Nakabo 2000:1370 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3836 [ref. 26311], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1370 [ref. 26193], Kaga & Amaoka 2003:131 [ref. 27449], Fricke et al. 2018:371 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Laeops nigromaculatus von Bonde 1922. Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and Mozambique to Madagascar; southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

normani, Chascanopsetta Kuronuma [K.] 1940:40, Figs. 3-4 [Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 2701] Off Heta, Suruga Bay, Japan, depth about 300 meters. Holotype: nwhereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (1). •Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894 -- (Amaoka 1969:222 [ref. 105], Li & Wang 1995:219 [ref. 16193]). •Synonym of Chascanopsetta prognatha Norman 1939 -- (Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:215 [ref. 5632] as prognathus, Amaoka & Ho 2019:174 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Synonym of Chascanopsetta prognatha Norman 1939. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

novaeguineae, Chascanopsetta Tongboonkua [P.], Lee [M.-Y.] & Chen [W.-J.] 2018:173, Figs. 2-4 [Zootaxa 4476 (no. 1); ref. 36137] Off New Hanover Island, New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea, 2°27'S, 150°40'E, depth 335-340 meters. Holotype: NTUM 11063. Paratypes: ASIZP, NTUM. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Chascanopsetta novaeguineae Tongboonkua, Lee & Chen 2018 -- (Fricke et al. 2019:315 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Chascanopsetta novaeguineae Tongboonkua, Lee & Chen 2018. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: New Hanover (Papua New Guinea endemic). Habitat: marine.

nudus, Rhombus Risso [A.] 1827:251 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:339 [ref. 25922] Appeared first as name only in Cuvier 1816:222 [ref. 993]. •Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:339 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

obliquioculatus, Bothus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:332, Fig. 87 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Philippines (likely from deep water). Holotype: USNM 93077. Paratypes: USNM 93078 (4). •Valid as Engyprosopon obliquioculatum (Fowler 1934) -- (Amaoka et al. 1993:380 [ref. 22091]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon obliquioculatum (Fowler 1934). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ocellata, Psettyllis Alcock [A. W.] 1890:437, Fig. 3 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 36) (art. 52); ref. 86] Off Ganjam Coast, Investigator, depth 9-13 fathoms; off Vizagapatam coast, Investigator, depth 7.5-9.5 fathoms. Syntypes: ZSI F12944 (1) off Ganjam coast. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:157 [ref. 20743] as Psettylis ocellata, Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:44 [ref. 22148] but with a holotype. •Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782). Current status: Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Pseudorhombus Günther [A.] 1880:56, Pl. 24 (figs. A-B) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Outside Nares harbor, Admiralty Islands, depth 152 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.76. •Valid as Taeniopsetta ocellata (Günther 1880) -- (Amaoka 1969:116 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:297, 405 [ref. 8256], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:348 [ref. 6441], Quéro & Maugé 1989:389 [ref. 19512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Fukui & Liew 1999:318 [ref. 24054], Nakabo 2000:1359 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3840 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1359 [ref. 26193], Hoese & Bray 2006:1823 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:463 [ref. 30952], Ho et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:95 [ref. 32413], Fricke et al. 2018:371 [ref. 35805], Amaoka & Ho 2019:208 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Taeniopsetta ocellata (Günther 1880). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar; Philippines and China north to southern Japan, south to New Guinea and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Rhombus Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:85, Pl. 46 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:354 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Bothus ocellatus (Agassiz 1831) -- (Gutherz 1967:41 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:289 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:533 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:173 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:273 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204], Cervigón 1996:29 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:342 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:546 [ref. 26158], Collette et al. 2003:126 [ref. 26784], Munroe 2003:1891 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:824 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:85 [ref. 33341], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:182 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Bothus ocellatus (Agassiz 1831). Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: New York (U.S.A.) south to Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

octoculatus, Tosarhombus Amaoka [K.] 1969:129 [65], Fig. 36 [Journal of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 105] Urado, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 29431. Paratypes: FAKU 29432-38 (7), 29439-54 (16), 33830 (1). On p. 65 of separate (dual pagination). •Valid as Tosarhombus octoculatus Amaoka 1969 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:348 [ref. 6441], Amaoka & Rivaton 1991:453 [ref. 19784], Amaoka & Shen 1993:1045 [ref. 22092], Nakabo 2000:1361 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1361 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Ho et al. 2009:7 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:95 [ref. 32413], Amaoka & Ho 2019:210 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Tosarhombus octoculatus Amaoka 1969. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines and Taiwan north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

oculatus, Passer Plumier [C.] in Shaw 1803:319 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Not available, Plumier manuscript name mentioned in the synonymy of Pleuronectes argus Bloch 1783. Bothidae.

orbicularis, Scaeops Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] (ex Bleeker) 1907:45 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 606) (for 1906); ref. 2498] Cavite, Luzon Island, Philippines. Syntypes: (2). Still researching. As Scaeops orbicularis (Bleeker), but we find no Bleeker species by that name. •Synonym of Engyprosopon grandisquama (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka 1969:143 [ref. 105], Amaoka et al. 1993:382 [ref. 22091], Amaoka & Ho 2018:453 [ref. 35909]). Current status: Synonym of Engyprosopon grandisquama (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

orbisulcus, Trichopsetta Anderson [W. W.] & Gutherz [E. J.] 1967:908, Figs. 8-9 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 17 (no. 4); ref. 7857] Off western Venezuela, 12°37'N, 71°10'W, Oregon station 4394, depth 65 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 200422. Paratypes: USNM 208588 [ex TABL] (1). •Valid as Trichopsetta orbisulcus Anderson & Gutherz 1967 -- (Scott & Scott 1988:541 [ref. 25518] as Tricopsetta, McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1992:280 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:37 [ref. 24489], Munroe 2003:1895 [ref. 27118]). Current status: Valid as Trichopsetta orbisulcus Anderson & Gutherz 1967. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Nicaragua and Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Arnoglossus Kamohara [T.] 1938:57, Fig. 32 [On the offshore bottom-fishes of Prov. Tosa; ref. 2551] Mimase fish market, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Syntypes: (2, destroyed in 1945). Type catalog: Kamohara 1961:7 [ref. 19282]. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

osculus, Asterorhombus Amaoka [K.] & Arai [M.] 1998:254, Figs. 2 D-F, 4 [Ichthyological Research v. 45 (no. 3); ref. 23473] East of Barrow Island, 20°56'S, 115°40'E, Western Australia, depth 12 meters. Holotype: CSIRO CA 1485. Paratypes: CSIRO A 1353 (1), C 2346 (1); WAM P.25396-024 (5) Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Asterorhombus osculus Amaoka & Arai 1998 -- (Amaoka & Mihara 2001:195 [ref. 25383] as oscurus, Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hensley & Randall 2003:4 [ref. 27676]). •Valid as Engyprosopon osculus (Amaoka & Arai 1998) -- (Hensley 2005:446 [ref. 28315], Hoese & Bray 2006:1819 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon osculus (Amaoka & Arai 1998). Bothidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

ovalis, Platophrys Regan [C. T.] 1908:232, Pl. 27 (fig. 6) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Amirante, Seychelles, depth 30 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1908.3.23.127. Paratypes: BMNH 1908.33.23.128-129 (2). •Synonym of Bothus myriaster (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka 1969:162 [ref. 105], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:45 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:208 [ref. 16193], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3818 [ref. 26311], Amaoka & Ho 2019:170 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus myriaster (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

oxyrhynchus, Arnoglossus Amaoka [K.] 1969:197 [133], Fig. 80 [Journal of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 105] Mimase, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 33193. Paratypes: FAKU 33194-98 (5), 33208-12 (5), 33726 (1). On p. 133 of separate (dual pagination). •Valid as Arnoglossus oxyrhynchus Amaoka 1969 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:350 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:57 [ref. 21500], Nakabo 2000:1369 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3827 [ref. 26311], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1369 [ref. 26193], Ho et al. 2009:5 [ref. 31461], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674], Amaoka & Ho 2019:161 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus oxyrhynchus Amaoka 1969. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan to Japan; Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

pallidus, Scidorhombus Tanaka [S.] 1915:567 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 27 (no. 325); ref. 4324] Nagasaki fish market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 6573 (lost). •Synonym of Arnoglossus tenuis Günther 1880 -- (Amaoka 1969:188 [ref. 105], Amaoka & Mihara 2000:800 [ref. 25048]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus tenuis Günther 1880. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

pantherinus, Rhombus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:121, Pl. 31 (fig. 1) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Al Muwaylih, Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 7550. Paralectotypes: SMF 7551-52 (2). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:268 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Bothus pantherinus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Amaoka 1969:170 [ref. 105], Nielsen 1973:620 [ref. 6885], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:349 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:268 [ref. 29757], Hensley 1986:856 [ref. 5669], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:66 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:450 [ref. 15987], Baranes & Golani 1993:312 [ref. 22372], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:45 [ref. 21500], Kuiter 1993:385 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:212 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:356 [ref. 22896], Amaoka & Kishimoto 1996:3 [ref. 24365], Hensley 1997:5 [ref. 23195], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:229 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:380 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:450 [ref. 25919], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Myers 1999:279 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:571 [ref. 24106], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1366 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:450 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:301 [ref. 27511] dating to 1828, Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3819 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:179 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:1366 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:214 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:45 [ref. 27712], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:432 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:614 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:517 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Bray 2006:1816 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:458 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:114 [ref. 30213], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], Kimura 2009:318 [ref. 30426], Motomura et al. 2010:230 [ref. 31256], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:89 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1047 [ref. 31980], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:431 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:324 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:385 [ref. 35064], Koeda et al. 2016:108 [ref. 35333], Ali et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:369 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:173 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:124 [ref. 36262], Amaoka & Ho 2019:172 [ref. 37188], Arndt & Fricke 2019:13 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:120 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:315 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:588 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Bothus pantherinus (Rüppell 1830). Bothidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands and Society Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. Habitat: marine.

parviceps, Laeops Günther [A.] 1880:29, Pl. 15 (fig. A) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Off Twofold Bay, New South Wales, Australia, Challenger station 163, depth 120 fathoms (?), Challenger station 190, depth 35-49 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.98 (1). •Valid as Laeops parviceps Günther 1880 -- (Li & Wang 1995:175 [ref. 16193], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3836 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1821 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31461], Larson et al. 2013:223 [ref. 32988], Smith & Stewart 2015:286 [ref. 34234], Voronina et al. 2016:391 [ref. 35064], Eagderi et al. 2019:121 [ref. 37020], Voronina et al. 2020:526 [ref. 37730]). Current status: Valid as Laeops parviceps Günther 1880. Bothidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic Ocean; Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf; Vietnam east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

parvimanus, Rhombus Bennett [E. T.] 1832:168 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 4944] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH uncat. (not seen). •Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782) -- (Fricke 1999:570 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

parvipectorale, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.] & Ho [H.-C.] 2018:474, Figs. 16-18 [Zootaxa 4413 (no. 3); ref. 35909] Ke-tzu-liao, Kaohsiung, southwestern Taiwan, northern South China Sea; depth 30-100 meters. Holotype: NMMB-P22220. Paratypes: NMMB. •Valid as Engyprosopon parvipectorale Amaoka & Ho 2018 -- (Amaoka & Ho 2019:187 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon parvipectorale Amaoka & Ho 2018. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

pavo, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] 1855:177 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 347] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Questionably the same as Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782) but dating to a later Bleeker work -- (Amaoka 1969:105 [ref. 105]). •Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782) -- (Li & Wang 1995:210 [ref. 16193], Mundy 2005:516 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

pectoralis, Lambdopsetta von Bonde [C.] 1922:10, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 134 and 276, depth 150-170 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1922.3.27.20 (1). •Valid as Laeops pectoralis (von Bonde 1922) -- (Hensley 1986:859 [ref. 5669]). Current status: Valid as Laeops pectoralis (von Bonde 1922). Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

pellucida, Psettyllis Alcock [A. W.] 1890:437, Fig. 2 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 36) (art. 52); ref. 86] Off Ganjam coast, Investigator, depth 9-13 fathoms; off Vizagapatam coast, Investigator, depth 7-8 fathoms. Syntypes: ZSI F12940 (1) off Ganjam coast. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:157 [ref. 20743] as Psettylis pellucida, Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:44 [ref. 22148] but with a holotype. •Uncertain in genus Bothus. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

pellucidus, Pleuronectes Nardo [G. D.] 1824:233 [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) v. 7; ref. 3144] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1028 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

pellucidus, Thyris Goode [G. B.] 1880:344 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 165); ref. 1834] 40°02'36"N, 70°22'58"W, depth 155 fathoms; 40°02'54"N, 70°23'40"W, depth 115 fathoms; 40°05'39"N, 70°23'52"W, depth 86 fathoms. Syntypes: USNM 26005 (1), 179779 (2). Description based mostly on 72-mm specimen in USNM 26005. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

pennata, Platophrys Ogilby [J. D.] 1913:83 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 2; ref. 14966] Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1557 [ex AFAQ]. •Valid as Grammatobothus pennatus (Ogilby 1913) -- (Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3834 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1820 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Grammatobothus pennatus (Ogilby 1913). Bothidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

pictus, Pleuronectes Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:285 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] Nanacha [ = Nomuka Island, Ha'apai Group, Tonga]. No types known. Lichtenstein (editor, p.285, footnote) treats as a synonym of "Pleuronectes spinosus Bl. S. p. 161." •Unavailable name in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:29 [ref. 27606]). •In the synonymy of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782) -- (R. Fricke, pers. comm. 7/22/2008). Current status: Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

podas, Pleuronectes Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:354 [68], Pl. 24 (fig. 14) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Balearic Islands, Spain, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1999-0416. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:309 [ref. 25922] with note on size discrepancy. On p. 68 and Pl. 5 of separate. •Valid as Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Nielsen 1973:620 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1298 [ref. 13677], Aldebert et al. 1990:1031 [ref. 19526], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Afonso et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:151 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:62 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:115 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:73 [ref. 36649], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2988 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:190 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:100 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:27 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Gibraltar south to Angola, including Portugal, Azores and Madeira. Habitat: marine.

poecilurus, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] 1852:293 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6738 (1 of 2). •Synonym of Engyprosopon grandisquama (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Dor 1984:268 [ref. 29757], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:40 [ref. 21500], Amaoka et al. 1993:381 [ref. 22091], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3823 [ref. 26311], Fricke et al. 2018:370 [ref. 35805], Amaoka & Ho 2018:453 [ref. 35909]). Current status: Synonym of Engyprosopon grandisquama (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

polylepis, Arnoglossus Alcock [A. W.] 1889:290, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 85] Off east coast of Sri Lanka, 6°06'30"N, 81°23'E, Investigator station 59, depth 32 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11750. Type catalog: Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:44 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 24 (figs. 4-5) [ref. 20534] as Rhomboidichthys polylepis on legend page. •Valid as Parabothus polylepis (Alcock 1889) -- (Amaoka & Shen 1993:1045 [ref. 22092], Amaoka et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23744], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Voronina et al. 2017:275 [ref. 35063], Amaoka & Ho 2019:200 [ref. 37188], Fricke et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37176]). Current status: Valid as Parabothus polylepis (Alcock 1889). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka; Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

polyophthalmus, Platophrys (Platophrys) Bleeker [P.] 1865:46 [4] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 13940] Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 4 of separate. •Valid as Grammatobothus polyophthalmus (Bleeker 1865) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:264 [ref. 19754], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Amaoka et al. 1992:259 [ref. 20261], Li & Wang 1995:215 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:357 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:590 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:229 [ref. 23922], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1365 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3824 [ref. 26311] dated 1866, Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1365 [ref. 26193], Hoese & Bray 2006:1820 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:6 [ref. 31461], Ho et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31461], Kimura 2009:318 [ref. 30426], Larson et al. 2013:223 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:215 [ref. 34464], Voronina et al. 2016:390 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:220 [ref. 35490], Amaoka & Ho 2019:189 [ref. 37188], Eagderi et al. 2019:121 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:590 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Grammatobothus polyophthalmus (Bleeker 1865). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

polyspilus, Anticitharus Günther [A.] 1880:48, Pl. 22 (fig. A) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Kai Islands, Challenger station 192, Indonesia, Banda Sea, depth 129 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.56-57 (2). •Valid as Arnoglossus polyspilus (Günther 1880) -- (Amaoka 1969:191 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:350 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:611, 735 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:56 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:156 [ref. 16193], Amaoka & Mihara 2000:803 [ref. 25048], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1369 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3828 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1369 [ref. 26193], Hoese & Bray 2006:1814 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], Larson et al. 2013:222 [ref. 32988], Voronina et al. 2016:384 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674], Amaoka & Ho 2019:163 [ref. 37188], Sonoyama et al. 2020:118 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus polyspilus (Günther 1880). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

praeteritus, Arnoglossus aspilos Whitley [G. P.] 1950:32, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1948-49; ref. 12979] Between Cape Jaubert and Wallal, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.4142. Paratypes: AMS IA.4284 (1). •Synonym of Arnoglossus aspilos (Bleeker 1851), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Larson & Williams 1997:373 [ref. 23967], Hoese & Bray 2006:1812 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Engyprosopon praeteritus (Whitley 1950) -- (Amaoka & Last 2014:91 [ref. 33582]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon praeteritus (Whitley 1950). Bothidae. Distribution: Northern Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

profundus, Arnoglossus Kotthaus [A.] 1977:6, Fig. 436 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 26; ref. 7263] Gulf of Aden, Indian Ocean, 12°12.5'N, 43°35.5'E, depth 225 meters. Holotype: ZMH 5554. Paratypes: ZMH 5555 (5). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:420 [ref. 21161]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Arnoglossus profundus Weber 1913, replaced by Arnoglossus kotthausi Klausewitz & Schneider 1986:222 [ref. 8083]. •Synonym of Arnoglossus kotthausi Klausewitz & Schneider 1986 -- (Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus kotthausi Klausewitz & Schneider 1986. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

profundus, Arnoglossus Weber [M.] 1913:430, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Madura Sea, 7°02.6'S, 115°23.6'E, Siboga station 71, 100 m; Timor Strait, 9°00.3'S, 126°24.5'E, station 289, depth 112 meters. Syntypes: ZMA 109393-94 (1, 1), ?ZMA 110951(3) and RMNH 17153 (1) in ref. 31045. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:106 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Psettina profunda (Weber 1913) -- (Fedorov & Foroshchuk 1988:538 [ref. 13478], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:49 [ref. 21500], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3839 [ref. 26311], Hoese & Larson 2010:382 [ref. 31045], Psomadakis et al. 2020:591 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Psettina profunda (Weber 1913). Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

prognathus, Chascanopsetta Norman [J. R.] 1939:100, Fig. 31 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Maldives, Indian Ocean, station 145, depth 494 meters. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1939.5.25.1738. •Valid as Chascanopsetta prognathus Norman 1939 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:350 [ref. 6441], Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:215 [ref. 5632], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:613, 736 [ref. 8056], Amaoka & Parin 1990:720 [ref. 17336], Foroshchuk 1991:81 [ref. 20137], Nakabo 2000:1358 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1358 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2005:441 [ref. 28370]). •Valid as Chascanopsetta prognatha Norman 1939 -- (Hensley & Smale 1998:13 [ref. 23483], Adam et al. 1998:14 [ref. 23610], Fukui et al. 2001:101 [ref. 25289], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], Amaoka & Ho 2019:174 [ref. 37188], Fricke et al. 2019:315 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Chascanopsetta prognatha Norman 1939. Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives; Papua New Guinea; Taiwan and Ryukyu Trough to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

prorigera, Chascanopsetta Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:689, Fig. 271 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off northern coast of Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4080, depth 178-202 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 51605. •Valid as Chascanopsetta prorigera Gilbert 1905 -- (Gutherz 1967:45 [ref. 23862], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:299, 407 [ref. 8256], Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:204 [ref. 5632], Cervigón 1992:274 [ref. 23827], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Hensley & Smale 1998:6 [ref. 23483], Fukui et al. 2001:101 [ref. 25289], Mundy 2005:518 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:460 [ref. 30952], Tongboonkua et al. 2018:178 [ref. 36137]). Current status: Valid as Chascanopsetta prorigera Gilbert 1905. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico south to northern South America; central Pacific: Hawaiian Ridge, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Bothus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1814:17 [Précis des découvertes et travaux somiologiques de Mr. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz; ref. 3582] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Questionable synonym of Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Parenti 2019:108 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Uncertain as Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

radula, Taeniopsetta Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:680, Fig. 266 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Pailolo Channel, between Molokai Island and Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3858, depth 128-138 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51639. Paratypes: BMNH 1931.8.19.1-2 (2), CAS-SU 8615 (6), USNM 51699 (27, now 25). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Taeniopsetta radula Gilbert 1905 -- (Fukui & Liew 1999:318 [ref. 24054], Mundy 2005:519 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:463 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Taeniopsetta radula Gilbert 1905. Bothidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

raoulensis, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.] & Mihara [E.] 1995:51, Figs. 1-4, 5 [New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research v. 29; ref. 21622] West of D'Arcy Point, Raoul Island, 29°18.14'S, 177°55.40'W, Kermadec Islands, RV Acheron station BS 575, depth 29 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P.31361. Paratypes: HUMZ 132672-78 (7); NMNZ P.16132 (4), P.16134 (2), P.16136 (2), P.17309 (1). •Valid as Engyprosopon raoulensis Amaoka & Mihara 1995 -- (Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167], Munroe 2015:1679 [ref. 34321]). •Valid as Engyprosopon raoulense Amaoka & Mihara 1995. Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon raoulense Amaoka & Mihara 1995. Bothidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Norfolk Island, Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

raptator, Trachypterophrys Franz [V.] 1910:60, Pl. 7 (fig. 54) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Fukuura, Japan. Syntypes: BMNH 1931.11.16.1[ex ZSM] (1), SMF 7433 [ex ZSM] (1), ZSM [old collection] (4) destroyed in WW II. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:267 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894 -- (Amaoka 1969:222 [ref. 105], Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5632], Aldebert et al. 1990:1033 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

regani, Engyprosopon Hensley [D. A.] & Suzumoto [A. Y.] 1990:133, Fig. 4 [Copeia 1990 (no. 1); ref. 17674] Anakena, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 6 meters. Holotype: BPBM 32760. Paratypes: BPBM 32761 (1), USNM 301982 (1). •Valid as Engyprosopon regani Hensley & Suzumoto 1990 -- (Pequeño 1997:84 [ref. 23536]), Amaoka & Séret 2005:378 [ref. 28644]. Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon regani Hensley & Suzumoto 1990. Bothidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

rhomboide, Solea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:14, 52 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1031 [ref. 19526], Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

rhomboides, Rhombus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1833:fasc. 4, punt. 23, Pl. 99 (fig. 1) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 516] Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 8847-51 (5), USNM 164910 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:31 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Nielsen 1973:620 [ref. 6885]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

rhomboidichthys, Charybdia Facciolà [L.] 1885:266 [Naturalista Siciliano [Il Naturalista Siciliano, Giornale di scienze naturali] v. 4; ref. 1295] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Nielsen 1973:621 [ref. 6885], Aldebert et al. 1990:1028 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

robinsi, Bothus Topp [R. W.] & Hoff [F. H., Jr.] (ex Jutare) 1972:62, Fig. 21 [Memoirs of Hourglass Cruises v. 4 (pt 2); ref. 17925] Southwestern Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: Hourglass specimens (not Jutare specimens) (many); FSBC 3898 (figured specimen), others at FSBC. As Bothus robinsi Jutare; based on a manuscript name in a thesis by Thelma Jutare; description here regarded as by Topp & Hoff. •Valid as Bothus robinsi Topp & Hoff 1972 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:289 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:173 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:274 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:31 [ref. 24489], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:343 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Munroe 2003:1892 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:83 [ref. 31601], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:825 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Bothus robinsi Topp & Hoff 1972. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

rostratum, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.], Mihara [E.] & Rivaton [J.] 1993:411, Figs. 22-24 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 158; ref. 22091] West Pacific, Chesterfield Plateau, 20°00.20'S, 158°46.60'E, station CP 10, depth 225 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1993-0071. Paratypes: HUMZ 124882-87 (6); MNHN 1993-0072 to 0087 (total 25), 1993-0148 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:305-306 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Engyprosopon rostratum Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1993 -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3832 [ref. 26311], Amaoka & Séret 2005:377 [ref. 28644], Amaoka et al. 2008:111 [ref. 29584]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon rostratum Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1993. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

rotundifrons, Parabothus Voronina [E. P.], Pruvost [P.] & Causse [R.] 2017:275, Figs. 1-3 [Cybium v. 40 (no. 4); ref. 35063] Saya de Malha Bank, western Indian Ocean, 11°26'S, 60°58'E, depth 178 meters. Holotype: ZIN 49152. Paratypes: MNHN 2019-0042 (1, ex ZIN 49155), ZIN 49153 (2), 49154 (1), 49155 (1 ex 2). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:261 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Parabothus rotundifrons Voronina, Pruvost & Causse 2017 -- (Fricke et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37176]). Current status: Valid as Parabothus rotundifrons Voronina, Pruvost & Causse 2017. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank endemic. Habitat: marine.

rueppelii, Peloria Cocco [A.] 1844:29 [9], Fig. 4 [Giornale del Gabinetto Letterario di Messina Anno 3, Tomo 5; ref. 866] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. On p. 9 of separate. Originally spelled Rüppelii, Kullander 2016:94 [ref. 34436]. •Valid as Arnoglossus rueppelii (Cocco 1844) -- [but sometimes spelled differently, e.g., ruppellii or rueppelli] (Nielsen 1973:622 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1296 [ref. 13677], Klausewitz 1989:262 [ref. 13650], Aldebert et al. 1990:1029 [ref. 19526], Golani 1996:28 [ref. 22271], Santos et al. 1997:112 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:119 [ref. 24952], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Uiblein et al. 1999:66 [ref. 24045] as rueppelii, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:150 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:62 [ref. 37112] as rueppelli, Fricke et al. 2007:115 [ref. 29533] as rueppelii, Lipej & Dulčić 2010:73 [ref. 36649] as rueppelli, Goren & Galil 2015:509 [ref. 33910], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2983 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:3, 8 [ref. 35674], Martins & Carneiro 2018:79 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:189 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:99 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:27 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus rueppelii (Cocco 1844). Bothidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Western Sahara, including Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

rumolo, Bothus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:23 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:15 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Nielsen 1973:620 [ref. 6885], Aldebert et al. 1990:1031 [ref. 19526], Parenti 2019:102 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

sanctilaurentii, Engyophrys Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:176 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific coast of Colombia. Syntypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.253 [from Jordan] (1), 1930.9.2.10 (1) [ex CAS-SU]; CAS-SU 271 (20); USNM 41155 (2), 41255 (14), 41266-67 (1, 2), 41269 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. Originally as sancti-laurentii. The correct spelling is sanctilaurentii. •Valid as Engyophrys sanctilaurentii Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:102 [ref. 21805], Bussing & López S. 1994:152 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:935 [ref. 22829] as sanctilaurentia, De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:74 [ref. 24545] as sanctilaurentia, Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643] as sanctilauarentia, Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:203 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:126 [ref. 25206], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:104 [ref. 35676], González-Murcia et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Engyophrys sanctilaurentii Jordan & Bollman 1890. Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru, including Malpelo Island. Habitat: marine.

sayaensis, Arnoglossus Amaoka [K.] & Imamura [H.] 1990:1015, Figs. 5-6 [Copeia 1990 (no. 4); ref. 17337] Saya de Malha Bank, 11°16'S, 61°02'E, depth 148 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 72403. Paratypes: HUMZ 72393 (1), 72394-95 (2), 72396-98 (3), 72400-402 (1, 1, 1), 73195 (1), 74151-52 (1, 1). •Valid as Arnoglossus sayaensis Amaoka & Imamura 1990 -- (Arai & Amaoka 1996:363 [ref. 22589], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674] as savayensis on p. 8, Fricke et al. 2018:369 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus sayaensis Amaoka & Imamura 1990. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar and Saya de Malha Bank. Habitat: marine.

scapha, Pleuronectes Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:163 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New Zealand. No types known. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Valid as Arnoglossus scapha (Forster 1801) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:238 [ref. 24556], Amaoka in Amaoka et al. 1990:325 [ref. 16024], Li & Wang 1995:158 [ref. 16193], Munroe 2015:1676 [ref. 34321], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus scapha (Forster 1801). Bothidae. Distribution: New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

sechellensis, Scaeops Regan [C. T.] 1908:234, Pl. 27 (fig. 5) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Seychelles, Indian Ocean, depth 37 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.3.23.146. The gender of the genus Engryprosopon is neuter. •Valid as Engyprosopon sechellense (Regan 1908) -- (Amaoka et al. 1993:380 [ref. 22091] as sechellensis, Amaoka et al. 2008:111 [ref. 29584] as sechellensis). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon sechellense (Regan 1908). Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

senta, Psettina Amaoka [K.] & Larson [H. K.] 1999:1072, Figs. 1, 2A, 3A-D [Copeia 1999 (no. 4); ref. 24192] Northwest of Houtman Abrolhos Island, Western Australia, 28°15.9'S, 113°19.5'E, depth 240-333 meters. Holotype: NTM S.14266-001. Paratypes: HUMZ 155650-651 [ex NTM S.14266-012, 14267-001] (2); NTM S.14265-001 (2), S.14266-012 (1). •Valid as Psettina senta Amaoka & Larson 1999 -- (Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1822 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Psettina senta Amaoka & Larson 1999. Bothidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

sentus, Engyophrys Ginsburg [I.] 1933:6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 82 (no. 2961); ref. 1800] Off Dry Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., 24°23'-25'N, 82°57'-58'W, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 91402. •Valid as Engyophrys senta Ginsburg 1933 -- (Gutherz 1967:19 [ref. 23862], Staiger 1973:357 [ref. 36903], Robins & Ray 1986:293 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:536 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:280 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:33 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Munroe 2003:1893 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:827 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Engyophrys senta Ginsburg 1933. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

septempes, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.], Mihara [E.] & Rivaton [J.] 1993:405, Figs. 16-18. [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 158; ref. 22091] Near New Caledonia, 19°11.07'S, 158°27.01'E, depth 58 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1993-0056. Paratypes: HUMZ 124876-81 (total 6); MNHN 1993-0057 to 0070 (19 total), 1993-0146 to 0147 (1, 1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:306-307 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Engyprosopon septempes Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1993 -- (Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3833 [ref. 26311], Amaoka et al. 2008:111 [ref. 29584]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon septempes Amaoka, Mihara & Rivaton 1993. Bothidae. Distribution: Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

septemventralis, Arnoglossus Amaoka [K.] & Mihara [E.] 2000:787, Figs. 2-5 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie v. 184; ref. 25048] Off southern New Caledonia, 24°47.1'-46.9'S, 168°08.7'-08.8'E, depth 240-250 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P.29090. Paratypes: HUMZ 142679-80 (1, 1); MNHN 1995-1169 to 1173 (1 ea.); NMNZ P.29046 (2). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:303 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Arnoglossus septemventralis Amaoka & Mihara 2000 -- (Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus septemventralis Amaoka & Mihara 2000. Bothidae. Distribution: Coral Sea: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

serratus, Rhombus Valenciennes [A.] 1839:[82], Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic. Possible holotype in: MNHN 1999-0313 (3) or A-8730 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:309-310 [ref. 25922] wrongly with syntypes; the holotype is the figured specimen. Dates to Pl. 18 in 1839, p. 82 published in 1843. •Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1032 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Bothus podas (Delaroche 1809). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

sessilicauda, Monolene Goode [G. B.] 1880:338 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 165); ref. 1834] Off northeastern U.S.A., 40°02'36"N, 70°22'58"W, depth 155 fathoms, and 40°02'54"N, 70°23'40"W, depth 115 fathoms. Syntypes: (11) BMNH 1896.2.10.72 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 26002 (10), 26004 (now 0). Description based mostly on the largest specimen in USNM 26004. •Valid as Monolene sessilicauda Goode 1880 -- (Gutherz 1967:8 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:293 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:537 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:175 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:277 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:34 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Amaoka & Imamura 2000:247 [ref. 24802], Moore et al. 2003:231 [ref. 27076], Munroe 2003:1894 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:828 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Monolene sessilicauda Goode 1880. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

sinusarabici, Laeops Chabanaud [P.] 1968:838, Pls. 1-2 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 39 (no. 5) (for 1967); ref. 7878] Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea, about 29°35'N, 32°32'E to 29°30'N, 32°32'E, depth 53-65 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1966-369. Non-types: MNHN 1966-0370 to 0371 (2). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:338 [ref. 25922] with remark on paratypes. •Synonym of Grammatobothus krempfi Chabanaud 1929 -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:338 [ref. 25922] as sinurarabici). •Valid as Laeops sinusarabici Chabanaud 1968 -- (Bogorodsky et al. 2014:432 [ref. 33460], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:174 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Laeops sinusarabici Chabanaud 1968. Bothidae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Engyprosopon Nielsen [J. G.] 1964:127, Fig. 1; Pl. 17 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 127; ref. 2827] Off Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 230 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P853157. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:84 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Engyprosopon smithi Nielsen 1964 -- (Hensley 1986:858 [ref. 5669]). •Valid as Tosarhombus smithi (Nielsen 1964) -- (Amaoka & Rivaton 1991:455 [ref. 19784], Amaoka & Shen 1993:1045 [ref. 22092]). Current status: Valid as Tosarhombus smithi (Nielsen 1964). Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Platophrys Rendahl [H.] 1921:66 [The Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 15329] Hawaiian Islands. Based on literature specimens of Platophrys mancus from Hawaii in Smith and Swain 1882:142 [ref. 14298]. Current status: Uncertain as Bothus smithi (Rendahl 1921). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

soleaeformis, Rhombus Malm [A. W.] 1865:413 [Förhandlingar vid de Skandinaviske Naturforskarnes. v. 9; ref. 17596] Christineberg, near Gullmarfjärden, Sweden. No types known. •Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792) -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1029 [ref. 19526]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum 1792). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

spilurus, Rhomboidichthys Günther [A.] 1880:47, Pl. 21 (fig. A) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] South of New Guinea, Zebu, Challenger station 188, depth 28 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1875.5.14.88. •Synonym of Engyprosopon grandisquama (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:40 [ref. 21500], Amaoka et al. 1993:382 [ref. 22091], Amaoka & Ho 2018:453 [ref. 35909]). Current status: Synonym of Engyprosopon grandisquama (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

spiniceps, Rhomboidichthys Macleay [W.] 1881:127 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 1); ref. 4931] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16274-001 [ex MAMU F211]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Engyprosopon grandisquama (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka et al. 1993:382 [ref. 22091], Kuiter 1993:384 [ref. 23929], Hoese & Bray 2006:1818 [ref. 29000], Amaoka & Ho 2018:453 [ref. 35909]). Current status: Synonym of Engyprosopon grandisquama (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

spinosus, Pleuronectes Schneider [J. G.] & Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:161 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Pacific near Namoka Island [= Nomuka Island, Ha'apai Group, Tonga]. No types known. Name attributable to Schneider, description taken from Forster manuscript (reproduced in Lichtenstein 1844:285-286 [ref. 17531] as "Pleuronectes pictus"). •Possibly a synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782) -- (R. Fricke, pers. comm., 1/19/2007). Current status: Uncertain as Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

spinosus, Rhomboidichthys Poey [F.] 1868:409 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 11345. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:181 [ref. 22926]. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

stellifer, Asterorhombus Tanaka [S.] 1915:567 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 27 (no. 325); ref. 4324] Nagasaki fish market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 6569 (lost). •Synonym of Asterorhombus intermedius (Bleeker 1865) -- (Amaoka 1969:175 [ref. 105], Li & Wang 1995:180 [ref. 16193], Hensley & Randall 2003:1 [ref. 27676], Hensley 2005:454 [ref. 28315], Hoese & Bray 2006:1815 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Asterorhombus intermedius (Bleeker 1865). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

sumatranus, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] 1851:409 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

swainsonii, Rhombus Swainson [W.] in Günther 1862:432 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Not available, name on specimen from Sicily mentioned under Rhomboidichthys podas. Bothidae.

swio, Bothus Hensley [D. A.] 1997:2 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 58; ref. 23195] Off northern Mozambique, 19°28'S, 36°37'E, depth 88 meters. Holotype (unique): SAM 33681. •Valid as Bothus swio Hensley 1997. Current status: Valid as Bothus swio Hensley 1997. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

taedifer, Bascanius Schiodte [J. C.] 1868:274, Pl. 11 (fig. 7) [Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift (Kjøbenhavn) (Ser. 3) v. 5; ref. 3927] •Synonym of Arnoglossus rueppelii (Cocco 1844) -- (Nielsen 1973:622 [ref. 6885] as rueppelli), Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus rueppelii (Cocco 1844). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

taeniopterus, Platophrys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:118 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Gulf of California, north of La Paz, Mexico, 24°51'N, 110°39'W, Albatross station 2998, depth 40 fathoms. Syntypes: CAS-SU 228 (6); USNM 43095 (2), 48253 (3), 125006 [ex USBF 442] (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Perissias taeniopterus (Gilbert 1890) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:103 [ref. 21805], Bussing & López S. 1994:152 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:936 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:74 [ref. 24545], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Perissias taeniopterus (Gilbert 1890). Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

taiwanensis, Parabothus Amaoka [K.] & Shen [S.-C.] 1993:1041, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 53 (no. 3); ref. 22092] Off Kaohsiung, southwestern Taiwan. Holotype: HUMZ 114127. Paratypes: HUMZ 114128 (1); NTUM 05591-92 (1, 1), 05599 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Parabothus taiwanensis Amaoka & Shen 1993 -- (Amaoka et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23744], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1361 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1361 [ref. 26193], Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432], Voronina & Causse 2014:149 [ref. 33421], Voronina et al. 2017:275 [ref. 35063], Amaoka & Ho 2019:202 [ref. 37188], Fricke et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37176]). Current status: Valid as Parabothus taiwanensis Amaoka & Shen 1993. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan to Ryukyu Islands; Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

tapeinosoma, Platophrys (Arnoglossus) Bleeker [P.] 1865:49 [7] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 13940] Padang, Sumatra [Sumatera Barat, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6748. On p. 7 of separate. •Valid as Arnoglossus tapeinosoma (Bleeker 1865) -- (Dor 1984:267 [ref. 29757], Amaoka et al. 1992:262 [ref. 20261], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:151 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:356 [ref. 22896], Arai & Amaoka 1996:360 [ref. 22589] as tapeinosomus, Mohsin & Ambak 1996:589 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:229 [ref. 23922], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3828 [ref. 26311] as tapeinosomaus, Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], Voronina et al. 2016:384 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674] with question, Golani & Fricke 2018:172 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus tapeinosoma (Bleeker 1865). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sumatra (Indonesia) and China, north to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

tappa, Bothus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:23 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:15 [ref. 3595]. •Questionable synonym of Arnoglossus grohmanni (Bonaparte 1837) -- (Parenti 2019:108 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Uncertain as Arnoglossus grohmanni (Bonaparte 1837). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

tchangi, Bothus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:334, Fig. 88 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] East coast of Luzon Island, Philippines, 12°55'26"N, 124°12'12"E, Albatross station D.5475, depth 195 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93076. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

tenuis, Arnoglossus Günther [A.] 1880:55 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Hong Kong. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.95-96 (2). •Valid as Arnoglossus tenuis Günther 1880 -- (Amaoka 1969:188 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:349 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:57 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:154 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Amaoka & Mihara 2000:800 [ref. 25048], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1368 [ref. 25182], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3828 [ref. 26311], Shimizu 2001:44 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1368 [ref. 26193], Hoese & Bray 2006:1814 [ref. 29000], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:85 [ref. 32413], Larson et al. 2013:222 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674], Jeong in Kimura et al. 2018:293 [ref. 36460], Amaoka & Ho 2019:164 [ref. 37188], Sonoyama et al. 2020:118 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus tenuis Günther 1880. Bothidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: South China Sea to central Japan; Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

thackwrayi, Parabothus Smith [J. L. B.] 1967:457, Figs. 1-2A [Journal of Natural History v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 7995] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 140. •Synonym of (larva of) Laeops pectoralis (von Bonde 1922) -- (Hensley 1986:859 [ref. 5669], Amaoka et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23744]). Current status: Synonym of Laeops pectoralis (von Bonde 1922). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

thompsoni, Platophrys Fowler [H. W.] 1923:388 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 8 (no. 7); ref. 1398] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 3398. •Valid as Bothus thompsoni (Fowler 1923) -- (Mundy 2005:517 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:459 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Bothus thompsoni (Fowler 1923). Bothidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

thori, Arnoglossus Kyle [H. M.] 1913:55, Fig. 8 [Dana Report No. 1; ref. 14962] Taormina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Lectotype: BMNH 1890.3.20.1. Lectotype from Nielsen 1973:622 [ref. 6885]. •Valid as Arnoglossus thori Kyle 1913 -- (Nielsen 1973:622 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1297 [ref. 13677], Aldebert et al. 1990:1029 [ref. 19526], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:150 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:62 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:115 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:186 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:73 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:525 [ref. 33547], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2984 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:3, 8 [ref. 35674], Martins & Carneiro 2018:80 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:190 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:99 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:27 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus thori Kyle 1913. Bothidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Ireland south to Sierra Leone, including Madeira and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tosana, Psettina Amaoka [K.] 1963:59, Figs. 5-6 [Bulletin of the Misaki Marine Biological Institute, Kyoto University No. 4; ref. 978] Mimase, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 28742. Paratypes: FAKU 28743-64 (42), 28766-80 (15), 28781-16 (36), 28817-42 (26). •Valid as Psettina tosana Amaoka 1963 -- (Amaoka 1969:184 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:349 [ref. 6441], Fedorov & Foroshchuk 1988:538 [ref. 13478], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:49, 53 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:169 [ref. 16193], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1367 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1367 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Hoese & Bray 2006:1823 [ref. 29000], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:95 [ref. 32413], Amaoka & Ho 2019:205 [ref. 37188], Sonoyama et al. 2020:120 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Psettina tosana Amaoka 1963. Bothidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan to central Japan. Habitat: marine.

tricirrhitus, Bothus Kotthaus [A.] 1977:11, Fig. 441 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 26; ref. 7263] West side of Gulf of Aden, 12°25'N, 43°52'E, Meteor station 54, depth 60 meters. Holotype: ZMH 5561. Paratypes: ZMH 5562 (1). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:420 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Bothus tricirrhitus Kotthaus 1977 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Hensley 1997:5 [ref. 23195], Golani & Fricke 2018:173 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Bothus tricirrhitus Kotthaus 1977. Bothidae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

tungkongensis, Laeops Chen [J. T. F.] & Weng [H. T. C.] 1965:63, Fig. 42 [Biological Bulletin, Department of Biology, College of Science, Tunghai University, v. 25, 27, Ichthyological Series, No. 5; ref. 9207] Tungkang fish market, Taiwan. Lectotype: NMMBP 5170 (formerly THUP 02301) (143 mm SL spec.). Paralectotypes: NMMBP 5170 (formerly THUP 02301) (3) (99-141 mm SL specimens). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432]. Lectotype designation by Ho et al. 2009:4 [ref. 31461]. •Synonym of Laeops parviceps Günther 1880 -- (Li & Wang 1995:176 [ref. 16193]). •Valid as Laeops tungkongensis Chen & Weng 1965 -- (Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Ho et al. 2009:4 [ref. 31461], Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432]). •Synonym of Laeops kitaharae (Smith & Pope 1906) -- (Amaoka & Ho 2019:194 [ref. 37188] as tongkongensis). Current status: Synonym of Laeops kitaharae (Smith & Pope 1906). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

ui, Scaeops Tanaka [S.] 1918:226 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 30 (no. 356); ref. 17357] Tanabe, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 8315. •Synonym of Crossorhombus kobensis (Jordan & Starks 1906) -- (Amaoka 1969:134 [ref. 105], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:37 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:191 [ref. 16193], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3822 [ref. 26311]). Current status: Synonym of Crossorhombus kobensis (Jordan & Starks 1906). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

valderostratus, Rhomboidichthys Alcock [A. W.] 1890:435 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 36) (art. 52); ref. 86] Off southeastern Sri Lanka, 6°06'30"N, 81°23'E, Investigator station 59, depth 32 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F12910. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:158 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:44 [ref. 22148]. Originally as valde-rostratus. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 24 (fig. 2) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Crossorhombus valderostratus (Alcock 1890) -- (Hensley 1986:857 [ref. 5669], Hensley & Randall 1993:1125 [ref. 22080], Li & Wang 1995:190 [ref. 16193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:46 [ref. 27712], Hoese & Bray 2006:1817 [ref. 29000], Ohashi & Motomura 2012:147 [ref. 32404], Fricke et al. 2018:370 [ref. 35805], Amaoka & Ho 2019:182 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Crossorhombus valderostratus (Alcock 1890). Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

vanuatuensis, Engyprosopon Amaoka [K.] & Séret [B.] 2005:15, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 52 (no. 1); ref. 28196] Off Vanuatu Island, 15°03.87'S, 167°07.76'E, depth 163-165 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2000-4346. Paratypes: HUMZ 188581-82 (1, 1); MNHN 2004-907 (12). The gender of the genus Engryprosopon is neuter. •Valid as Engyprosopon vanuatuense Amaoka & Séret 2005 -- (Amaoka & Séret 2005:377 [ref. 28644] as vanuatuensis). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon vanuatuense Amaoka & Séret 2005. Bothidae. Distribution: Vanuatu Island, southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Laeops Franz [V.] 1910:63, Pl. 8 (fig. 59) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Fukuura and Dzushi, Japan. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (4) destroyed in WW II. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:267 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of laeops kitaharae (Smith & Pope 1906) -- (Amaoka 1969:208 [ref. 105], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:60 [ref. 21500]). •Synonym of Laeops lanceolata Franz 1910 -- (Li & Wang 1995:177 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Laeops lanceolata Franz 1910. Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Bothus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:335, Fig. 89 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Between Samar and Leyte islands, Philippines, 10°27'30"N, 125°17'10"E, Albatross station D.5481, depth 61 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93091. Paratypes: USNM 93207 (2). •Valid as Psettina variegata (Fowler 1934) -- (Fedorov & Foroshchuk 1988:538 [ref. 13478], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:49 [ref. 21500], Amaoka & Larson 1999:1075 [ref. 24192], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3839 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1823 [ref. 29000], Amaoka & Ho 2019:207 [ref. 37188], Psomadakis et al. 2020:592 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Psettina variegata (Fowler 1934). Bothidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar east to South China Sea and Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

ventralis, Citharichthys Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:592 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 543); ref. 1842] Gulf of Mexico, 29°15'N, 88°06'W, Albatross station 2386, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 37343. •Valid as Trichopsetta ventralis (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (Gutherz 1967:22 [ref. 23862], Anderson & Gutherz 1967:895 [ref. 7857], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:454 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:293 [ref. 23100], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:177 [ref. 23239], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Munroe 2003:1895 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:829 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Trichopsetta ventralis (Goode & Bean 1885). Bothidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

violaceus, Arnoglossus Franz [V.] 1910:61, Pl. 7 (fig. 56) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Aburatsubo, Sagami Bay, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WW II. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:267 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Parabothus coarctatus (Gilbert 1905) -- (Amaoka 1969:122 [ref. 105], Amaoka et al. 1997:166 [ref. 23744]). Current status: Synonym of Parabothus coarctatus (Gilbert 1905). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

waitei, Arnoglossus Norman [J. R.] 1926:241, Fig. 4 [Biological Results Endeavour v. 5 (pt 5); ref. 3216] Great Sandy Strait, 3-7 miles northwest of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia, depth 9-11 fathoms. Holotype: AMS E.2959 (1 of 2). Paratypes: (3) AMS E.2853 (2), E.2959 (1 of 2), IA.3003 [ex ASM E.2853 in part] (1); BMNH 1925.7.22.39-40 [ex AMS] (1, 1). •Valid as Arnoglossus waitei Norman 1926 -- (Arai & Amaoka 1996:363 [ref. 22589], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3829 [ref. 26311], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1815 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:222 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus waitei Norman 1926. Bothidae. Distribution: Arafura Sea and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

xenandrus, Engyprosopon Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:687, Fig. 270 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off the southern coast of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3829, depth 43-73 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51651. Paratypes: AMNH 3550 [ex USNM 51687] (1); BMNH 1930.9.2.8-9 [ex SU] (2?); FMNH 55941 (2); CAS-SU 8622 (17); USNM 51687 (30), 51701 (134), 126092 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Engyprosopon xenandrus Gilbert 1905 -- (Quéro & Golani 1990:39 [ref. 15759], Amaoka et al. 1993:380 [ref. 22091], Mundy 2005:519 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:462 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon xenandrus Gilbert 1905. Bothidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

xystrias, Engyprosopon Hubbs [C. L.] 1915:457, Pl. 25 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 48 (no. 2082); ref. 2224] Vincennes Strait, Japan, 30°12'N, 130°43'40"E, Albatross station 4931, depth 83 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 75672. •Valid as Engyprosopon xystrias Hubbs 1915 -- (Amaoka 1969:151 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:348 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:40 [ref. 21500], Amaoka et al. 1993:385 [ref. 22091], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Hensley & Amaoka 2001:3833 [ref. 26311], Nakabo 2000:1364 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1364 [ref. 26193], Amaoka & Séret 2005:18 [ref. 28196], Amaoka & Séret 2005:377 [ref. 28644], Amaoka et al. 2008:112 [ref. 29584], Motomura et al. 2010:231 [ref. 31256], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:93 [ref. 32413], Amaoka & Ho 2018:451 [ref. 35909], Amaoka & Ho 2019:188 [ref. 37188]). Current status: Valid as Engyprosopon xystrias Hubbs 1915. Bothidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Saya de Malha Bank east to South China Sea, north to southern Japan, south to Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

yamanakai, Arnoglossus Fukui [A.], Yamada [U.] & Ozawa [T.] in Fukui & Ozawa 1988:923 [An atlas of the early stage of fishes in Japan; ref. 20450] South China Sea, 21°24.3'N, 118°10.4'E, depth 20-30 meters. Lectotype: NSMT-P 45058. Paralectotypes: NSMT-P 31526-28 (1, 1, 1) Second author is U. Yamada. Original not seen. Original based on larvae. •Valid as Arnoglossus yamanakai Fukui, Yamada & Ozawa 1988 -- (Fukui, Yamada & Ozawa 1990:215 [ref. 16667], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1369 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1369 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2005:441 [ref. 28370], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:88 [ref. 32413], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674], Amaoka & Ho 2019:164 [ref. 37188], Psomadakis et al. 2020:588 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:118 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arnoglossus yamanakai Fukui, Yamada & Ozawa 1988. Bothidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean, northwestern Pacific: Myanmar; South China Sea to central Japan. Habitat: marine.

ypsigrammus, Bothus Kotthaus [A.] 1977:10, Fig. 440 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 26; ref. 7263] East coast of Somalia, 6°06'N, 49°05'E, Meteor station 123, depth 55-65 meters. Holotype: ZMH 5559. Paratypes: ZMH 5560 (1). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:421 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Bothus ypsigrammus Kotthaus 1977 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Bothus ypsigrammus Kotthaus 1977. Bothidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.