Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
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Species in the family or subfamily Carangidae: [ 710 ] records


abreviatus, Nauclerus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:251 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Atlantic. Syntypes: MNHN A-6570 (1), Quoy and Gaimard specimens not found. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:23 [ref. 12247]. Spelled abreviatus on p. 251, abbreviatus on p. xviii; first reviser not researched. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:741 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

aculeatus, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1793:51, Pl. 336 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Mediterranean Sea. On p. 43 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Hypacanthus amia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:230 [ref. 7106]). •Synonym of Lichia amia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:377 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:740 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Lichia amia (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acutus, Carangoides Kotthaus [A.] 1974:38, Fig. 314 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 17; ref. 7512] Indian Ocean, 13°49.5'N 47°51.5'E to 13°50'N, 47°52.5'E, Meteor station 89, depth 100-63 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 5154 [ex IOES 180]. Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:417 [ref. 21161]. •Synonym of Carangoides equula (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:644 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2698 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides equula (Temminck & Schlegel 1844). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

adscensionis, Scomber Osbeck [P.] 1771:94 [A voyage to China and the East Indies v. 1-2; ref. 18499] Ascension Island. See Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1994 [ref. 21632] and Opinion 1841 in which the name was placed on the Official Index -- cited as a synonym from a pre-1758 publication. •Synonym of Caranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:373 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Block & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2493 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aegyptiacus, Gallichtys Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:176 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN A-6876 (2), ZMB 1595 (6). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:22-23 [ref. 12247]. The genus Alectis is feminine, so the spelling alexandrina is correct. Also appeared in Griffith & Smith 1834:Pl. 26 (fig. 3) (opp. p. 194) [ref. 1908] as Gallus ægyptiacus. •Synonym of Alectis alexandrinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:308 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:729 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis alexandrina (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Caranx Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1836:49, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 1606 (3), 2859 (1, dry). •Synonym of Alepes mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Dor 1984:124 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:641 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:309 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2692 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:363 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1151 [ref. 28997], Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

affinis, Lichia Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1851:44 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 5); ref. 332] Jakarta, Java; Tegal; Semarang; Pasuran, Java, Indonesia. Nomen nudum, name only mentioned in the synonymy of Chorinemus commersonianus (Lacepède 1801); subsequent publication in an available way not researched. Carangidae.

affinis, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:428 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Malabar coast, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-575 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:27 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus mookalee Cuvier 1832. Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus mookalee Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

africana, Oligoplites Delsman [N. C.] 1941:52, Fig. 2 [Mémoires du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique (Ser. 2) No. 21; ref. 13171] Baie du Repos, Port-Etienne [Nouadhibou], Mauritanian coast, western Africa. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 54. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:26 [ref. 20755]. •Synonym of Campogramma glaycos (Lacepède 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2473 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Campogramma glaycos (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

africanus, Caranx Steindachner [F.] 1883:196 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 20 (no. 22); ref. 20488] Liberia; Lagos; Gorée, at Senegal River mouth, Loango coast. Syntypes: (several) NMW 75645 [or 75665] (1), 75662 (2), 75664 (1). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1884:1108 [p. 44 of separate], Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [ref. 4234]. •Synonym of Caranx senegallus Cuvier 1833 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:312 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:735 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2482 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx senegallus Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

africanus, Trachinotus Smith [J. L. B.] 1967:160, Pls. 34, 35 [Occasional Papers of the Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 14; ref. 7994] Knysna, Cape Province, South Africa. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 11075. Paratypes: (7) not researched. •Valid as Trachinotus africanus Smith 1967 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:658 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:319 [ref. 6207], Randall 1995:187 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2743 [ref. 24833], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:313 [ref. 28072], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Allen & Erdmann 2012:439 [ref. 31980], Hussain & Jawad 2014:257 [ref. 33657], Psomadakis et al. 2015:229 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus africanus Smith 1967. Carangidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Western Indian Ocean, one record from Bali (Indonesia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

afuerae, Decapterus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:204 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 77733. •Synonym of Decapterus macrosoma Bleeker 1851 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:127 [ref. 22193], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:274, 391 [ref. 24555], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2720 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus macrosoma Bleeker 1851. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

aguilus, Trachurus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:42, Pl. 11 (fig. 3) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:20 [ref. 3595]. •Status uncertain. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ajax, Carangoides Snyder [J. O.] 1904:524, Pl. 8 (fig. 15) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50874. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:952 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:173 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2684 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:363 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

akaadsi, Decapterus kurroides Abe [T.] 1958:176 [Records of Oceanographic Works in Japan Spec. No. 2; ref. 12041] Hatsushima Island, west of Sagami Bay, Shizuoka Pref., Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 49749. Paratypes: ABE '57-120 (1), '57-265 (1). Original as aka-adsi. •Valid as Decapterus akaadsi Abe 1958 -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:489, 678 [ref. 8056], Nakabo 2000:797 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:797 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 604 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S6 [ref. 28536], Shinohara et al. 2005:433 [ref. 28370], Kimura et al. 2013:[6] [ref. 32890], Parin et al. 2014:361 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Valid as Decapterus akaadsi Abe 1958. Carangidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Kuril Islands, East and South China Sea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Vietnam, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

albacora, Lichia Guichenot [A.] 1848:231 [Fauna Chilena.... in Gay.; ref. 1939] Chile. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:40 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Lichia albacora Guichenot 1848 -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125]). •Questionably the same as Oligoplites altus (Günther 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:222 [ref. 7106], Smith-Vaniz, Bauchot & Desoutter 1979:40 [ref. 12247]). Current status: Uncertain as Oligoplites altus (Günther 1868). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

albilinguis, Leucoglossa Jordan [D. S.], Evermann [B. W.] & Wakiya [Y.] in Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka 1927:661, Pl. 22 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 20); ref. 2454] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS 305. •Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:755 [ref. 18644], Mundy 2005:374 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

albus, Scomber Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1334 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Luhayya, Yemen, or Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, or Suez, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P46441 (dry skin). Unneeded new name for Scomber djedaba Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Alepes djedaba (Forsskål 1775) -- (B. Collette, pers. comm., 8/03). Current status: Synonym of Alepes djedaba (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

aleevi, Trachurus picturatus Rytov [A. N.] & Razumovskaya [T. M.] 1984:179 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 24 (no. 2); ref. 16279] Walters Shoals, 35°53'S, 53°14'E, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 75 -125 meters over 150 meters. Holotype: ZMMU P-15929. Paratypes: apparently discarded. Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:82 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Trachurus aleevi Rutov & Razumovskaya 1984 -- (Nekrasov 1994:114 [ref. 24544]). •Synonym of Trachurus longimanus (Norman 1935) -- (Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm, Mar. 2005). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus longimanus (Norman 1935). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

alexandrina, Scyris Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:152 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea; Gorée, Senegal, eastern Atlantic Ocean. No types known. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

alexandrinus, Caranx Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:35 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Not available, name mentioned in passing under Caranx rhonchus. Carangidae.

alexandrinus, Gallus Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 22 (fig. 2) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:39 [ref. 12247]. As Vomer alexandrinus in Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1827:321 [ref. 4186]. The genus Alectis is feminine, so the spelling alexandrina is correct. •Valid as Scyris alexandrina (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:378 [ref. 7198]). •Valid as Alectis alexandrinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:820 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:308 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:729 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:674 [ref. 21590], Afonso et al. 1999:73 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:83 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:83 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:31 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2470 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Alectis alexandrina (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Carangidae. Distribution: Southern Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Angola. Habitat: marine.

aliciolus, Trachurus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:42, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:21 [ref. 3595] as Trachiurus alicciolus. •Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:379 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

altissimus, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1905:7, Pl. 3 [Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Sciences (Iowa). v. 10; ref. 10645] Hong Kong. Holotype: CAS-SU 9066. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9797 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:75 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Carangoides caeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2695 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides coeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

altus, Chorinemus Günther [A.] 1868:433, Fig. [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 6 (pt 7, no. 14); ref. 1994] Panama (Pacific). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.9.23.23. •Valid as Oligoplites altus (Günther 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:223 [ref. 7106], Allen & Robertson 1994:127 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:104 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:970 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:283 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:277 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1451 [ref. 27083], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:340 [ref. 28615], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], McMahan et al. 2013:449 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1000 [ref. 33194], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:396 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Oligoplites altus (Günther 1868). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

amarui, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:66 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Status uncertain, probably a Decapterus -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm.). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

amblyrhynchus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:100, Pl. 248 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5843 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:8 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:333 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:161 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:132 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:288 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:79 [ref. 24474], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:289 [ref. 24550], Keith et al. 2000:96 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808] as amblirhynchus, Smith-Vaniz 2003:1449 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:286 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1000 [ref. 33194], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530] spelled amblirhynchus, Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2490 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

americanus, Irex Valenciennes [A.] 1862:1206 [11] [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences v. 54; ref. 4506] Saint Thomas, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5537 (dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:23 [ref. 12247]. On p. 11 of separate. •Synonym of Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:739 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

amia, Scomber Linnaeus [C.] 1758:299 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] No locality [= Europe]. No types known. •Valid as Hypacanthus amia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:230 [ref. 7106]). •Valid as Lichia amia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:377 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:831 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz 1986:652 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:315 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:740 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:681 [ref. 21590], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:158 [ref. 25472], Arruda 1997:83 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:84 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S7 [ref. 28536], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:308 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2007:84 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:92 [ref. 30517], Wirtz et al. 2007:32 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:361 [ref. 33547], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2491 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Lichia amia (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to South Africa; Western Indian Ocean: South Africa north to Mozambique. Habitat: brackish, marine.

anak, Trachinotus Ogilby [J. D.] 1909:19 [Report of the Marine Department Queensland (1908-1909) Appendix 5; ref. 19341] Deep water off Moreton Bay and Great Sandy Strait, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM I.5005 (1), plus 1 destroyed [Great Sandy Strait]. •Valid as Trachinotus anak Ogilby 1909 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:585 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Lin & Shao 1999:65 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2744 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Hoese & Gates 2006:1169 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Larson et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32988]). •Possible a synonym of Trachinotus auratus Ogilby 1909 -- (Smith-Vanez pers. comm. 29 June 2016 and synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801) pers. comm. 29 June 2016). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Pacific (if valid). Habitat: marine.

analis, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:88 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] St. Helena Island, South Atlantic. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:37 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Caranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:373 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

analis, Scyris Poey [F.] 1868:369 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

angeli, Naucrates Whitley [G. P.] 1931:316 [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] Maroubra, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.3220. Paratypes: ?AMS IA.5956 (1). Based on specimens of Nucrates ductor described and figured McCulloch 1926:28, Pl. 1 [ref. 21654]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:581 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644], Hoese & Gates 2006:1161 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

angolensis, Caranx Fowler [H. W.] 1919:280, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 56 (no. 2294); ref. 15209] Loando, Angola. Holotype: USNM 42301. Paratypes: (5) USNM 42300 (2), 42302 (2), 197865 (1). •Synonym of Decapterus rhonchus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:314 [ref. 6207]). •Synonym of Caranx rhonchus Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817 -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:375 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:734 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx rhonchus Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

angustus, Trachynotus Reichenow [A.] 1875:147 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1875; ref. 18612] Loango, West Africa. Syntypes: ?ZMB 9134 (4) Chinchoxo. •Possible synonym of Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Uncertain as Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

annularis, Nauclerus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:254 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Between Cape of Good Hope and St. Helena. Syntypes: MNHN A-6575 (3), A-6576 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:24 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

antecessor, Gasterosteus Daldorff [D. C. de] 1793:166 [Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet Kiøbenhavn v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 17359] No types known. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

antilliarum, Caranx Bennett [F. D.] 1840:282 [Narrative of a whaling voyage round the globe v. 2; ref. 260] Unneeded new name for Scomber carangus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:311 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2007:219 [ref. 29160]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

apercna, Alepes Grant [E. M.] (ex Smith-Vaniz) 1987:173, Fig. 400 [Fishes of Australia: A popular and systematic guide; ref. 20546] Australia. No types (Smith-Vaniz specimens are at AMS and QM). Non-types: NMV A1846 (1). Brief description and a figure; name attributed to "Smith-Vaniz," but this was a manuscript name -- Grant stands as the author. See also Iwatsuki et al. 2000:112 [ref. 26368]. •See Johnson 1999:733 [ref. 25471]. •Valid as Alepes apercna Grant 1987 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2686 [ref. 24833], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:73 [ref. 27510], Hoese & Gates 2006:1150 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Larson et al. 2013:118-119 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Alepes apercna Grant 1987. Carangidae. Distribution: Australia and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

apus, Coryphaena Brünnich [M. T.] 1783:324 [Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrivter, Nye Samling af det v. 2 (1782); ref. 17291] Southeastern India. No types known. Original genus as Coryphæna. An unused senior synonym (Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 2009); not used as valid after 1899, therefore reversal of priority (in accordance with ICZN Art. 23.9) in favor of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). •Not a Coryphaena, but a senior synonym of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795) -- (Williams & Bunkley-Willias 2009:557 [ref. 30573]). Current status: Synonym of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

archeyi, Usacaranx Griffin [L. T.] 1932:130, Pl. 22 [Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 16372] North side of Motuihi Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. Holotype: AIM 262. Paratypes: AIM (5). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644]). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2006:101 [ref. 28900]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

argentea, Selene Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:560, 562, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Tropical America. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:41 [ref. 12247]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteocaeruleus, Trachurus Plumier [C.] in Lacepède 1801:71 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Appeared as "Trachurus argento-caeruleus, aureis maculis notatus" in account of Caranx daubentonii; regarded as nonbinominal and name only, thus not available. Carangidae.

argenteus, Centronotus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:309, 316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Equatorial America. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:50 [ref. 12247]. New name for Gasterosteus occidentalis Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteus, Porthmeus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:256, Pl. 264 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa; Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN A-6580 (6), A-6581 (6), A-6884 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:25 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Hypacanthus amia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:230 [ref. 7106]). •Synonym of Lichia amia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:315 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:740 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Lichia amia (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:413 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] New York, U.S.A.; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-6797 (1) Rio de Janeiro, MNHN uncat. (1, not found) New York. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteus, Trachurus Wakiya [Y.] 1924:145 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Japan. Paratypes: FMNH 59421 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:84 [ref. 12367]. Carnegie Museum received a paratype but not the holotype (Holland in Wakiya 1924:139 [ref. 4570]). •Synonym of Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Parin 2003:S8 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:363 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1844). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

armata, Citula Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:103 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 1601. Paralectotypes: SMF 1601 (1), 2853 (2), 13724 (1), 15074 [ex SMF 1601] (1). Lectotype selected by Williams et al. 1980:16 [ref. 23089]. Specimen 2853 is unidentifiable dry mount with gill arches removed (Williams et al. 1980:19 [ref. 23089]). •Valid as Olistus armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:643 [ref. 5718], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:224 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:176 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:426 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:157 [ref. 23922], Lin & Shao 1999:51 [ref. 23921], Fricke 1999:244 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2693 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:807 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:807 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:30 [ref. 27712], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:55 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:118 [ref. 30425], Ho & Shao 2011: 45 [ref. 31432], Allen & Erdmann 2012:429 [ref. 31980], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:421 [ref. 33460], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:44 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:217 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East London (South Africa), East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Gulf of Thailand and southern China, north to southern Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

armata, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:53, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. No types known. Originally Sciaena? armata, galemfish on p. 53; Sciaena armata on p. xii (with brief description). •A nomen dubium -- (Smith 1973:352 [ref. 27859], Dor 1984:124 [ref. 29757]). •Listed as valid as Carangoides armatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Chen et al. 1997:61 [ref. 26476] but perhaps intended for armatus (Rüppell 1830)). •In the synonymy of Olistus armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

arnoldorum, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:64 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775) -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm.). Current status: Uncertain as Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ascensionis, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:102, Pl. 249 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Ascension Island. No types known. See Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1994 [ref. 21632] and Opinion 1841. •Synonym of Caranx lugubris Poey 1860 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:826 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz 1986:647 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:734 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:955 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:181 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2713 [ref. 24833], Randall 2005:228 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:229 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx lugubris Poey 1860. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ascensionis, Scomber Shaw [G.] 1803:593 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Ascension Island. ▌Unneeded new name for Scomber glaucus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

atrimanus, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:308 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Bay of Panama, Panama (Pacific). Holotype (unique): USNM 29341. •Synonym of Hemicaranx leucurus (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:127 [ref. 22193], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:967 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:278 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:289 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Hemicaranx leucurus (Günther 1864). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

atropos, Brama Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:98, Pl. 23 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8605 (stuffed, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:53 [ref. 24282]; if there was a holotype then Paepke's lectotype selection is unnecessary. Spelled atropus on Pl. 23, as atropos on 98 and in Index (p. xxx); earliest first reviser located is Paepke 1999:53 [ref. 24282] who selected atropos. •Valid as Atropus atropos (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:209 [ref. 19754] as atropus, Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Suzuki & Uno 1992:4 [ref. 24139], Randall 1995:175 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:424 [ref. 27969] as atropus with Schneider as author, Carpenter et al. 1997:156 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:60 [ref. 26476] as atropus, Cheng & Zhou 1997:263 [ref. 26385] as atropus, Lin & Shao 1999:49 [ref. 23921], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:245 [ref. 24754], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2691 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:803 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Wang et al. 2001:220 [ref. 26566] as atropus, Nakabo 2002:803 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 602 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Yoshida et al. 2013:116 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:216 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Atropus atropos (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

atun, Caranx Montrouzier [X.] 1857:450 [172] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 172 of reprint. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ature, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:63 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon at Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

auratus, Trachinotus Richardson [J.] 1846:270 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Macao; Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH (apparently lost). Type information: Whitehead 1970:213 [ref. 11606]. •Valid as Trachinotus auratus Richardson 1846 -- (Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826] with question). •Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz pers. comm. 29 June 2016). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Pacific (if valid). Habitat: brackish, marine.

aureoguttatus, Carangoides Bleeker [P.] 1853:470 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes (2) and/or Bleeker specimens: NMV 46616 (1). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

aureovittata, Seriola Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1845:115, Pl. 62 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 7-9; ref. 4373] Japan [Nagasaki]. Lectotype: RMNH D2168 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D861-863 (3, stuffed). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:104 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:977 [ref. 22829], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2740 [ref. 24833], Youn 2002:607 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S7 [ref. 28536], Mundy 2005:373 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:332 [ref. 28867], Dyer & Westneat 2010:606 [ref. 31446], Parin et al. 2014:362 [ref. 33547]). •Valid as Seriola aureovittata Temminck & Schlegel 1845 -- (Dor 1984:133 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Cheng & Zhou 1997:275 [ref. 26385], Martinez-Takeshita et al. 2015:357 [ref. 33834], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:73 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Valid as Seriola aureovittata Temminck & Schlegel 1845. Carangidae. Distribution: Japan and Russia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aureus, Carangus Poey [F.] 1875:150 [76] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 4 (for 13 Jan. 1875); ref. 3509] Cuba. No types known. On p. 76 of separate. •Synonym of Caranx latus Agassiz 1831 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:733 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx latus Agassiz 1831. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

auricoronae, Caranx Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1909:142, Fig. 2 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 17990] Off Chittagong, Bangladesh. Syntypes: (2) ZSI F2717/1-2719/1 (3). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:144 [ref. 20743]. •Synonym of Atropus atropos (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Atropus atropos (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

aurifer, Caranx Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialites; ref. 13269] Queensland, Australia. No types known. Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. Carangidae.

auriga, Caranx De Vis [C. W.] 1884:539 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.2157 (dry mount). Non-types: QM I.950 (1). •Synonym of Carangoides oblongus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:576 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:33 [ref. 20141], Hoese & Gates 2006:1154 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides oblongus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

auriga, Caranx Seale [A.] 1910:505, Pl. 6 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Manila, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 30 (destroyed). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Caranx auriga De Vis 1884, replaced by Citula virga Ogilby 1915 and Caranx manilensis Roxas & Martin 1937. •Synonym of Caranx tille Cuvier 1833 -- (Pers. Comm. W. Smith-Vaniz, Dec. 2004). Current status: Synonym of Caranx tille Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

aurochs, Citula Ogilby [J. D.] 1915:79, Pl. 25 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 3; ref. 15005] Edgecumbe Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.2218. Paratypes: (1). Other specimens: AMS I.13488-89, QM (2, not researched). •Valid as Ulua aurochs (Ogilby 1915) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:76 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:587 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:51 [ref. 20141], Allen 1997:118 [ref. 23977], Lin & Shao 1999:61 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2752 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Gates 2006:1171 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Larson et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Ulua aurochs (Ogilby 1915). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

auroguttatus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:71 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN A-5587 (1, dry), A-5752 (1, dry); ZMB 1537 (1, stuffed), ?22244 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:8-9 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Carangoides bajad (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:124 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2694 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides bajad (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Trachurus picturatus Nani [A.] 1950:178, Fig. 1 [Primer Congresso Nacional de pesquerias maritimas e industrias derivados. Mar de Plata, 24-29 octubre 1949, 2 vols. v. 2; ref. 12965] Hydrobiology station at Quequén, Argentina. Holotype: MACN 4175 (188.5 mm SL). Paratypes: MACN 2528 (14) 4152 (6), 4175 (1). Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:104 [ref. 23697]. •Synonym of Trachurus lathami Nichols 1920 -- (Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:100 [ref. 25942]). •Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825), but a valid subspecies as described -- (López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

autea, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:74 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Open sea, off Fenua ino Island, near Vaiurua Pass, Tautira township, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

baillonii, Caesiomorus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:92, 93, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Locality not stated [is Fort Dauphin, near Tôlanaro, southeastern Madagascar]. No types preserved. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:36 [ref. 12247]. Based on description and figure in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:39, 40 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Valid as Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor 1984:131 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:658 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:319 [ref. 6207], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:585 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:35 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:168 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:188 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:455 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Reinthal & Stiassny 1997:354 [ref. 22780], Carpenter et al. 1997:166 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:67 [ref. 26476] dated 1802, Kuiter 1997:164 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:168 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:65 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:142 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:257 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2745 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:795 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:239 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:108 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:795 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 607 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:315 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:238 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1169 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:126 [ref. 30425], Motomura et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:439 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32988] as bailloni, Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Hussain & Jawad 2014:254 [ref. 33657], Psomadakis et al. 2015:230 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to northern Line and Gambier islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bajad, Scomber ferdau var. Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:55 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Locality not stated (Red Sea). Syntypes: ZMUC P46437-438 (dry skins, head of smaller one missing). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:62 [ref. 9588] listed as a species Scomber bajad. Type figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 25 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Carangoides bajad (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:124 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:156 [ref. 6441], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:176 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:426 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:157 [ref. 23922], Myers 1999:137 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2694 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:805 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:102 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Nakabo 2002:805 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Allen & Erdmann 2012:429 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:81 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:217 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides bajad (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman east to Philippines, north to Ryukyu Islands, to Solomon Islands. Habitat: marine.

balantiophthalmus, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:29 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Guinea. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1532. •Unneeded name change for Scomber crumenophthalmus Bloch 1793; objective synonym of Scomber crumenophthalmus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

banisteri, Seriola Smith [J. L. B.] 1959:256, Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 15; ref. 4124] Off Hibberdene, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (photograph only). •Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:657 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2740 [ref. 24833], Dyer & Westneat 2010:606 [ref. 31446], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2502 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

banksii, Citula Risso [A.] 1820:254 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 91; ref. 18636] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:39 [ref. 12247]. Spelled bancksii in Risso 1827:422 [ref. 3757]. •Synonym of Caranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:374 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bartholomaei, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:100 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] St. Bartholomew Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5840. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:9 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Citula bartholomaei (Cuvier 1833) -- (authors). •Valid as Carangoides bartholomaei (Cuvier 1833) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:288 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:159 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1438 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27621], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:275 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:12, 31 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Pinheiro et al. 2015:17 [ref. 34324]). •Valid as Caranx bartholomaei Cuvier 1833 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:159 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:130 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:284 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:60 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:168 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:237 [ref. 25013], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Collette et al. 2003:109 [ref. 26784], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Matamoros et al. 2009:17 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:173 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:47 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33516], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2474 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Caranx bartholomaei Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic, Ascension Island and eastern Atlantic (islands of Gulf of Guinea). Habitat: marine.

beani, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] 1881:486 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 178); ref. 18342] Beaufort, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 27372. Paratypes: (1). •Synonym of Caranx bartholomaei (Cuvier 1833). Current status: Synonym of Caranx bartholomaei (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

belengerii, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:116 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Malabar, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-0540 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:9 [ref. 12247]. Kottelat (2013) says name should be emended to belangeri based on Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:7. •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207]). •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

besselii, Caranx (Pleiopterus) Agassiz [L.] 1874:no page number, Pl. 1 [Pisces Celebes. Icones Piscium.; ref. 15837] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MHNN 2125. Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:149 [ref. 21784]. Plate with name, no description. •Synonym of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Caranx Günther [A.] 1860:442 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Sierra Leone. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1855.12.26.539 (1). •Valid as Hemicaranx bicolor (Günther 1860) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:315 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:739 [ref. 18644] with a holotype, Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:680 [ref. 21590], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1449 [ref. 27083], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2490 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Hemicaranx bicolor (Günther 1860). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bidii, Caranx Day [F.] 1873:237 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1873 (pt 1) (art. 4) (for 4 Mar. 1873); ref. 18824] Madras, India. Syntypes: AMS B.8057 (2), ?NMHN A.6504 (1), ZSI F239 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:295 [ref. 25110]. •Synonym of Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier 1833) -- (Kottelat 2013:336 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

binghami, Trachurus picturatus Nichols [J. T.] 1940:2 [American Museum Novitates No. 1067; ref. 17986] Gulf of Mexico, 30°05'N, 88°09'W. Holotype (unique): AMNH 15212. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

binotata, Seriola Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:215 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] No locality. Lectotype: MNHN A-6648. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-6647 (1) Puducherry, India. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:25 [ref. 12247] with MNHN A.6648 as holotype. Lectotype designated by Eschmeyer 1998:231 [ref. 23416]. •Synonym of Seriolina nigrofasciata (Rüppell 1829) -- (Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Seriolina nigrofasciata (Rüppell 1829). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

binotatus, Centronotus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:43, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:19 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:383 [ref. 7198], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bipinnulata, Seriola Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:363, Pl. 61 (fig. 3) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Papous [Keeling Island]. Syntypes: MNHN uncat. (1, lost) Papua, MNHN 0000-2233 (1) no locality. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:26 [ref. 12247] with a holotype and paratype; based on 2 specimens and literature -- the 2 specimens are syntypes. •Valid as Elagatis bipinnulatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:376 [ref. 7198], Kyushin et al. 1977:284 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:221 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:128 [ref. 29757], Paxton et al. 1989:580 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:38 [ref. 20141], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Chen et al. 1997:69 [ref. 26476] dated 1824, Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830] with genus as Elegatis, Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Larson et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:153 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:830 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:162 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:652 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:34 [ref. 13251], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:739 [ref. 18644], Randall et al. 1990:163 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:132 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:288 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:78 [ref. 24474], Kuiter 1993:171 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:127 [ref. 22193], Azevedo & Heemstra 1995:3 [ref. 22269], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:966 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:183 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:438 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:377 [ref. 24023], Santos et al. 1997:85 [ref. 23531], Carpenter et al. 1997:162 [ref. 23922], Arruda 1997:83 [ref. 24952], Kuiter 1997:156 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:163 [ref. 25919], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:287, 390 [ref. 24555], Lin & Shao 1999:62 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:141 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:250 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2724 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:241 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:73 [ref. 25466], Nakabo 2000:791 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:233 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847] as Elegatis, Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Nakabo 2002:791 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 604 [ref. 26218], Collette et al. 2003:110 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1448 [ref. 27083], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495] with Bennett 1840 as author and date, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:79 [ref. 27510], Parin 2003:S6 [ref. 28536], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:307 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:232 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:369 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:285 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Gates 2006:1159 [ref. 28997], Wirtz et al. 2007:32 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:234 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957] with genus as Elegatus, Motomura et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:435 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:258 [ref. 32706], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Fricke et al. 2014:82 [ref. 33932], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:48 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Parin et al. 2014:361 [ref. 33547] as bipinnulatus, Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:225 [ref. 34104], Smith-Vaniz 2015:1253 [ref. 34200], Pinheiro et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2489 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:445 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Carangidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas, including Red Sea, straying to Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

bipinnulatus, Elagatis Bennett [F. D.] 1840:283 [Narrative of a whaling voyage round the globe v. 2; ref. 260] Pacific and Indian archipelago. No types known. •Synonym and secondary homonym of Seriola bipinnulata Quoy & Gaimard 1825. •Synonym of Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Mundy 2005:369 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1159 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

bixanthopterus, Caranx Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1836:49, Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 2876. •Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833 -- (Dor 1984:127 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bleekeri, Caranx Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:461 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea; Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1871.7.15.19 [from Klunzinger] (1), ?NMW 11627 (3), ZIN 2544 (1), ZMB 7875 (1). Based in part on Caranx fulvoguttatus of Bleeker. •Synonym of Carangoides fulvoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:125 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides fulvoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

blepharis, Carangoides Bleeker [P.] 1851:67 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 5); ref. 332] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 26963. Paralectotypes: RMNH 6117 (up to 4 of 17). Based on literature and specimens. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Caesiomorus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:92, 95, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Locality not stated [is Fort Dauphin, near Tôlanaro, southeastern Madagascar]. No types preserved. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:36 [ref. 12247]. Based on description and figure in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:39, 40 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Valid as Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:225 [ref. 19754] as blochi, Dor 1984:131 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:659 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:585 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:168 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:178 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:188 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:457 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:166 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:164 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:168 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:65 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:142 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:257 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2746 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:795 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:239 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:109 [ref. 25480], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:199 [ref. 27511] with author as Cuvier, Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:795 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830] as blochi, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:626 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:314 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:238 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1169 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:440 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:259 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:230 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mozambique Channel, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

blochii, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:69 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Gulf of Mexico. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0940 (1) St. Thomas, 0000-4360 (1) Martinique,0000- 5845 (1) Cuba, 0000-5846 (1) Cuba; ?ZMB 1535 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:9, 50 [ref. 12247]. Based on literature and specimens, not regarded technically as a replacement name. •Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644]). •Synonym of Carangoides ruber (Bloch 1793). •Synonym of Caranx ruber (Bloch 1793). Current status: Synonym of Caranx ruber (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

bonariensis, Seriola Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:211 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6619. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:26 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:380 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Kim et al. 1997:245 [ref. 25735]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

bonito, Caranx Castelnau [F. L.] (ex Margrave) 1855:22 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Based on Curveta pinima Marcgrave 1648:150 [ref. 19651]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

boops, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:46 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5815 (1) Vanikoro, Ambon specimen not found. Also in Griffith & Smith 1834:Pl. 26 (fig. 2) (opp. p. 194) [ref. 1908]. •Valid as Selar boops (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:834 [ref. 13676], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477] with author as Valenciennes, Paxton et al. 1989:583 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644], Randall et al. 1990:165 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:47 [ref. 20141], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:445 [ref. 27969] with Valenciennes as author, Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:158 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:165 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:141 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2735 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:236 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830] with author as Valenciennes, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:81 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:235 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1165 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:125 [ref. 30425], Allen & Erdmann 2012:438 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:121 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Selar boops (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific and eastern Atlantic: northern Australia and East Indies to Caroline Islands and New Caledonia (? eastern Atlantic). Habitat: marine.

boops, Trachurus Girard [C. F.] 1858:108 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 689. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Caranx boops Cuvier 1833 when both are in Caranx, replaced by Caranx girardi Steindachner 1870. •Synonym of Caranx caballus Günther 1868. Current status: Synonym of Caranx caballus Günther 1868. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

boscii, Seriola Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:208 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6826. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:26 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

botla, Scomber Shaw [G.] 1803:591 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. The name is available, based primarily on Russel's Fig. 142. •Synonym of Trachinotus russelii Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:322 [ref. 6207] as not available). •Valid as Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:659 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:586 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:168 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:188 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:168 [ref. 25919], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2747 [ref. 24833], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:201 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:314 [ref. 28072], Hoese & Gates 2006:1170 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2014:[3] 545 [ref. 33922], Psomadakis et al. 2015:230 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803). Carangidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bovinoculata, Seriola (Buphthalmus) Smith [J. L. B.] 1959:259, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 15; ref. 4124] Pinda, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 519 (photograph only). •Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:657 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:749 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2741 [ref. 24833]). •Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833 -- (Fricke 1999:256 [ref. 24106], Dyer & Westneat 2010:606 [ref. 31446], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2503 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

brachycentrus, Nauclerus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:252, Pl. 263 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Indian Ocean; Molucca Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-6571 (1), A-6572 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:24 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:741 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

brachychirus, Trachurops Gill [T. N.] 1862:261 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 4007 (2). •Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:43 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2927 (3). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:31 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevicarinatus, Caranx Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:461 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZIN 2662 (1), ZMB 7874 (1). •Synonym of Carangoides plagiotaenia Bleeker 1857 -- (Dor 1984:126 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2707 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides plagiotaenia Bleeker 1857. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

brevis, Selar Bleeker [P.] 1851:361 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6095. Bleeker specimens: SMNS 10579 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:10 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:24 [ref. 29864]. Also in Bleeker 1851:54 [ref. 332]. Fricke 2005:23 [ref. 29864] considers the SMNH specimen to be a syntype; needs further research. •Synonym of Alepes djedaba (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Alepes djedaba (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

breviventralis, Alectis Wakiya [Y.] 1924:216, Pl. 33 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Kii Islands, Japanese seas. Holotype: FMNH 59411 [ex CM 7753]. Paratypes: FMNH 59412 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:90 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:6 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

brevoortii, Argyriosus Gill [T. N.] 1863:83 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 4438. •Valid as Selene brevoortii (Gill 1863) -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:128 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:100 [ref. 23101], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:974 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545] as brevoorti, Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:282 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:285 [ref. 24550] as brevoorti, Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:122 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:289 [ref. 25640], Reed et al. 2001:468 [ref. 26968], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1458 [ref. 27083], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Selene brevoortii (Gill 1863). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

broekmeyeri, Selar Bleeker [P.] 1855:398 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 16848] Pasuruan, eastern Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH (apparently lost). •Questionably a synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Atule mate (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

browni, Selene Spix [J. B. Von] in Spix & Agassiz 1831 [Reise nach Griechenland und der Türkei; ref. 13] See Vomer brownii Cuvier 1816. •Valid as Selene browni Spix & Agassiz 1831 -- (Cervigón 1992:291 [ref. 23827]). •Predated by and a synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Current status: Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brownii, Vomer Cuvier [G.] 1816:318 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Jamaica; New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2923 (1) New York. Non-types (types of Smith-Vaniz et al.): MNHN 0000-2917 (1), 0000-2921 (1), 0000-2922 (1), 0000-2924 (2), 0000-2926 (1), 0000-2927 (3). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:31 [ref. 12247]. Apparently available as above from footnote as, "Vomer nob Brownii, Rhomboida, etc. Brown. Jam. p. 455, no. 1. Klein, Miss. iv, pl. xii, f. 1, ou Zeus setapinnis, Mitch. New-Yorck, i, I, 9." If not regarded as available as above then the species dates to Spix & Agassiz (ex Cuvier) 1831 with locality as Brazil [Spix & Agassiz mention Cuvier 1829]. Subsequently described in Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:189, Pl. 256 [ref. 1002]. Lectotype designation (MNHN 2917) by Smith-Vaniz, Bauchot & Desoutter 1979:31 [ref. 12247] with species dating to Cuvier 1833; but if dated to 1816 or 1831 then this lectotype is not a type as Martinique is not an included locality. •Synonym of Vomer setapinnis (Mitchill 1815) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:384 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Selene brownii Spix & Agassiz 1831 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:31 [ref. 12247] but with invalid lectotype). •Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815) -- (Smith 1986:425 [ref. 22186]). •Valid as Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816) -- (Reed et al. 2001:468 [ref. 26968], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1456 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192] as browni, Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:76 [ref. 31601], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:291 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:48 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bucculentus, Caranx Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:326, Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Cape Grenville, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16298-001 [ex MAMU F350] (orig 2, now 1). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. As Caranx bucculantus on legend page (p. 358) -- regarded as a misspelling. •Valid as Caranx bucculentus Alleyne & Macleay 1877 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:577 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:161 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:161 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:55 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2710 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Youn 2002:326, 603 [ref. 26218], Hoese & Gates 2006:1155 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Larson et al. 2013:120 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:82 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Caranx bucculentus Alleyne & Macleay 1877. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: Northern Australia to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

butuanensis, Caranx Seale [A.] 1910:506, Pl. 7 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Butuan Bay, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 1896 (apparently destroyed). •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

caballus, Caranx Günther [A.] 1868:431 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 6 (pt 7, no. 14); ref. 1994] Panama [eastern Pacific]. Syntypes: BMNH 1865.7.20.7-8 (2). •Valid as Carangoides caballus (Günther 1868) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:287 [ref. 24550], Randall 2007:226 [ref. 30952]). •May be conspecific with Caranx crysos (Mitchill 1815) -- (Smith-Vaniz 2003:1439 [ref. 27083]). •Valid as Caranx caballus Günther 1868 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:206 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:102 [ref. 23101], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:953 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:77 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:364 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:279 [ref. 24555], Randall & Carlson 1999:357 [ref. 25808], Fuller et al. 1999:398 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:365 [ref. 28379], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], McMahan et al. 2013:449 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:999 [ref. 33194], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:396 [ref. 34894], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Caranx caballus Günther 1868. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Archipelago and California (U.S.A.) to Ecuador, straying to Hawaiian Islands (Central Pacific). Habitat: brackish, marine.

cadenati, Uraspis Blache [J.] & Rossignol [M.] 1962:479, Fig. [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 33 (no. 5) (for 1961); ref. 7641] Off Gabon River mouth, Gabon, depth 40 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1961-0308. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:31 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:755 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2755 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2514 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleoalbus, Scomber Osbeck [P.] 1765:95 [Reise nach Ostindien und China; ref. 3311] Atlantic between Canary Islands and equator off West Africa, at 2°49'N. No types known. Original spelling Scomber caeruleo albus (but judging from the typeset the species name was meant to be caeruleo-albus). •Synonym of Gasterosteus ductor Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (current placement). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

calcar, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1793:55, Pl. 336 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] No locality [not Acara, Guinea in eastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1479. Possible types: ZMB 1479 (1). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:53 [ref. 24282]. On p. 46 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Questionably a synonym of Oligoplites saliens (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:218 [ref. 7106]). •Valid as Oligoplites calcar (Bloch 1793) -- (Paepke 1999:53 [ref. 24282]). •Synonym of Oligoplites saliens (Bloch 1793) -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, 13 July 2004). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites saliens (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

calla, Caranx Günther [A.] 1860:433 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Incorrect subsequent spelling for Caranx kalla Cuvier 1833. •In the synonymy of Caranx kalla Cuvier 1833. Current status: Synonym of Caranx kalla Cuvier 1833. Carangidae.

cambon, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:60 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5860 (6). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:9 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Alepes para (Cuvier 1833) -- (authors). •Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Current status: Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

cancroides, Caranx Richardson [J.] 1846:274 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; China Seas. Cambridge Philosophical Soc. (whereabouts unknown). Based on a Reeves drawing and one specimen (see Whitehead 1970:213 [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Current status: Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

candens, Leucoglossa Jordan [D. S.], Evermann [B. W.] & Wakiya [Y.] in Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka 1927:660 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 20); ref. 2454] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 55170. •Synonym of Uraspis helvola (Forster 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:754 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2754 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:374 [ref. 28379], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2513 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis helvola (Forster 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

caninus, Caranx Günther [A.] 1867:601 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1863.12.16.19. Also in Bleeker 1852:61 [ref. 332]. •Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:373 [ref. 7198], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:292 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Caranx caninus Günther 1867 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:206 [ref. 9277], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:825 [ref. 13676], Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:102 [ref. 23101], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:954 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:78 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:362 [ref. 24023] [but see McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025]], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:279 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:122 [ref. 25206], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2007:223 [ref. 29160], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], McMahan et al. 2013:449 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1000 [ref. 33194], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:396 [ref. 34894], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Caranx caninus Günther 1867. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

canonoides, Decapterus Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:442, Pl. 4 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50846. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23291 (2) [not this species, D. macrosoma according to Smith-Vaniz 11/19/2016]. •Synonym of Decapterus macarellus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:737 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2719 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:368 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus macarellus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Trachurus Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:43 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. No types known. •Valid as Trachurus capensis Castelnau 1861 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:752 [ref. 18644], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:158 [ref. 25472] with authorship as Linnaeus 1758, Nekrasov 1994:75 [ref. 24544], Wirtz et al. 2007:33 [ref. 30263]). •Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:842 [ref. 13676] but a valid subspecies, Smith-Vaniz 1986:660 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2511 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus capensis Castelnau 1861. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea to South Africa (if valid). Habitat: marine.

capillaris, Zeus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:383, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1986:426 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carangoides, Leioglossus Bleeker [P.] 1851:367 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Sibogha, Sumatra; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. 1851. Syntypes: ?NMV 46319 (1); RMNH 6091 (up to 3 of 7), 27642 [ex 6091] (1). Also in Bleeker 1851:70 [ref. 332]. Caranx lioglossus Günther 1860 is a replacement. •Synonym of Ulua mentalis (Cuvier 1833) -- (Hoese & Gates 2006:1172 [ref. 28997], Motomura et al. 2007:229 [ref. 29492]). Current status: Synonym of Ulua mentalis (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

carangoides, Uraspis Bleeker [P.] 1855:418 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique) (?): RMNH (whereabouts unknown). Original as carangoïdes. •Secondarily preoccupied by Leioglossus carangoides Bleeker 1851 when both are in Caranx; replaced by and objective synonym of Caranx uraspis Günther 1860 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:587 [ref. 12442], Hoese & Gates 2006:1173 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis uraspis (Günther 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

carangua, Caranx Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Plumier) 1801:59, 74 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Martinique, West Indies, western Atlantic. No types preserved. Based on the 'Carangue' on a drawing in the manuscript by Plumier (Charles Plumier, 1646-1704, French explorer and botanist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:399 (vol. 7), 5 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:311 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:732 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2007:219 [ref. 29160]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

carangus, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1793:69, Pl. 340 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Antilles. Syntypes: ZMB 1542 (1). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:54 [ref. 24282]. On p. 58 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Caranx carangus (Bloch 1793) -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1994:291 [ref. 24014], Mishra et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25315], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:30 [ref. 27712]). •Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:373 [ref. 7198], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:310 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:732 [ref. 18644], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:823 [ref. 20764], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2007:219 [ref. 29160], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2477 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

caribbaeus, Chloroscombrus Girard [C. F.] 1858:168 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] St. Joseph Island, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 16960 [ex USNM 714] (1), USNM 714 (orig. 3). See also Girard 1859:21, Pl. 11 (fig. 6) [ref. 13405]. •Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:314 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:736 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolina, Lichia DeKay [J. E.] 1842:114, Pl. 10 (fig. 30) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Off Sandyhook, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype: Cabinet of the Lyceum (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolinensis, Gasterosteus Shaw [G.] 1803:608 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Apparently a new name for, or unjustified emendation of (and objective synonym of) Gasterosteus carolinus Linnaeus 1766. •Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolinensis, Seriola Holbrook [J. E.] 1855:70, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology of South Carolina; ref. 2184] South Carolina coast, U.S.A., western Atlantic. No types known. Also appeared in second edition, 1860:72, Pl. 10 (fig. 2). •Synonym of Seriola zonata (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Seriola zonata (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

carolinus, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:490 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Holotype (unique): Linn. Soc. Lond. 136 (right half-skin). Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:203 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:56 [ref. 20705]. Spelled carolinensis in Shaw 1803:608 [ref. 4014]. Based on 'Crevalle' in manuscript description and 1 specimen sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:164 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:134 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:294 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:102 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:172 [ref. 23144], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:279 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:247 [ref. 25013], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:399 [ref. 24427], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1463 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:299 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carpenteri, Seriola Mather [F. J., III] 1971:177, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 84 (no. 22); ref. 7691] Luanda, Angola, 8°47'S (purchased at fishing boat docks). Holotype: USNM 205000 [ex TABL 103725]. Paratypes: ANSP 150508 (1); MNHN 1967-0834 (2), 1972-97 (1); UF 24459 [ex TABL] (1), 24462 [ex TABL 107359] (1), 24463 [ex TABL 107362] (2); USNM 42320 (13), 205001-07 (1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1); some TABL specimens unaccounted for. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:26 [ref. 12247], Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Seriola carpenteri Mather 1971 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:836 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:746 [ref. 18644], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2498 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Seriola carpenteri Mather 1971. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

caudalis, Seriola Poey [F.] 2000:391, Pl. 262 (fig. 2) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Seriola no. 429 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Carangidae.

cayennensis, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:417 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Cayenne, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6840. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus cayennensis Cuvier 1832 -- (Cervigón 1992:294 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:82 [ref. 24474] as cayenensis, Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:399 [ref. 24427] as cayanensis, Keith et al. 2000:104 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1464 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus cayennensis Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cayennensis, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:43 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Cayenne, French Guiana. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2925 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:32 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

celetus, Caranx Smith [J. L. B.] 1968:182, Pl. 39 (figs. A-B) [Occasional Papers of the Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 15; ref. 7919] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 442. Paratypes: (22) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 671-672 (1, 1). •Synonym of Caranx papuensis Alleyne & Macleay 1877 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:647 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:312 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2715 [ref. 24833], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:332 [ref. 28867], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx papuensis Alleyne & Macleay 1877. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cestus, Caranx Richardson [J.] 1846:274 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; China Sea. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:212, Pl. 4b [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cheilio, Carangus Snyder [J. O.] 1904:524, Pl. 8 (fig. 14) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50873. •Valid as Caranx cheilio (Snyder 1904) -- (Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906]). •Synonym of Caranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:374 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2730 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:371 [ref. 28379]). •Valid as Pseudocaranx cheilio (Snyder 1904) -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm. 4/2010, Randall 2007:236 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826]). Current status: Valid as Pseudocaranx cheilio (Snyder 1904). Carangidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

cheverti, Caranx Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:324, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Katow [Mawatta, Western Province], Binaturi River, Papua New Guinea. Holotype: AMS 16300-001 [ex MAMU F357]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier 1833) -- (Gunn 1990:49 [ref. 20141], Kottelat 2013:336 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chevola, Gallichtys Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:175 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Visakhapatham, India. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:39 [ref. 12247]. Based on Russell, no. 58, v. 1, p. 46. Correct spelling of genus is Gallichthys. •Synonym of Alectis indica (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis indica (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chilensis, Caranx Guichenot [A.] 1848:235, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Fauna Chilena.... in Gay.; ref. 1939] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5844. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:10 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Caranx chilensis Guichenot 1848 -- (Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906]). •Valid as Pseudocaranx chilensis (Guichenot 1848) -- (Pequeño & Sáez 2000:32 [ref. 24590], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Dyer & Westneat 2010:605 [ref. 31446]). Current status: Valid as Pseudocaranx chilensis (Guichenot 1848). Carangidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández and San Felix islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

chloris, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1793:67, Pl. 339 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Coast of Guinea, Coast of America. Syntypes: ZMB 1611-12 (1, 1), 8738 (, dry, missing). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:54 [ref. 24282]. On p. 56 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:735 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chloroscombroides, Caranx queenslandiae Nichols [J. T.] 1942:228 [Copeia 1942 (no. 4); ref. 13213] Java or Sumatra, Indonesia (exact data lost). Holotype (unique): AMNH 15942. •Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Current status: Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysophryoides, Carangoides Bleeker [P.] 1851:366 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1880.4.21.122-123 (2), RMNH 6113 (1). Also in Bleeker 1851:63 [ref. 332]. •Synonym of Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2696 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chrysophrys, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:77, Pl. 247 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0560. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:10 [ref. 12247]. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:126 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier 1833) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:274 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:198 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:643 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:574 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:158 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:19 [ref. 20141], Kuiter 1993:175 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356] as chrysoptera, Randall 1995:176 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:158 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:61 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:158 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:51 [ref. 23921], Fricke 1999:244 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2696 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:733 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:808 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:808 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:30 [ref. 27712], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:302 [ref. 28072], Hoese & Gates 2006:1152 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:118 [ref. 30425], Larson et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:218 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Philippines and Fiji, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chrysurus, Scomber Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:494 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Syntypes: LS 131-134 (4, half skins). Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:204 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:55-56 [ref. 20705]. Based on 'Yellowtail' in manuscript description, and 2 specimens sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:337 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:162 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:649 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:735 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:676 [ref. 21590], Boschung 1992:131 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:286 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:71 [ref. 24474], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:157 [ref. 25472], Murdy et al. 1997:164 [ref. 23144], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:281 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:239 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Keith et al. 2000:94 [ref. 24547], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1444 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:281 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:32 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:173 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:48 [ref. 33341], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2483 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Distribution: Western and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cibi, Caranx Poey [F.] 1860:224 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 17252-53 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:186 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Caranx bartholomaei (Cuvier 1833). Current status: Synonym of Caranx bartholomaei (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ciliaria, Citula Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:102, Pl. 25 (fig. 8) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 9457 (1, dry), 14129 (1, dry), plus one lost. •Valid as Carangoides ciliarius (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:124 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356]). •Possibly a synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (authors). •Synonymy of Olistus armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles east to Philippines (if valid). Habitat: marine.

ciliaris, Atropus Goldfuss [G. A.] 1820:83 [Handbuch der Zoologie 2 parts; ref. 1829] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. New name for Brama atropus Bloch & Schneider 1801. See Atropus ciliaris Schinz 1822. •Synonym of Atropus atropos (Bloch & Schneider 1801) Current status: Synonym of Atropus atropos (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ciliaris, Atropus Schinz [H. R.] 1822:521 [Das Thierreich v. 2; ref. 3926] Unneeded replacement name for and objective synonym of Brama atropos Bloch & Schneider 1801 (see Daget 1968:1059 [ref. 26392]). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Atropus ciliaris Goldfuss 1820. •Objective synonym of Atropus atropos (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Daget 1968:1059 [ref. 26392]). Current status: Synonym of Atropus atropos (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ciliaris, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:129 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Puducherry, India; Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN A-5547 (1, dry) Puducherry; Java specimen not found. •Regarded as a nomen dubium in Carangoides -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:10 [ref. 12247]). •Olistus armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ciliaris, Zeus Bloch [M. E.] 1787:36, Pl. 191 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Surate, India [Indian Ocean]. Lectotype: ZMB 1593. Paralectotypes: ZMB (1, missing). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:56 [ref. 24282]. On p. 27 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype established by use of holotype in Smith-Vaniz et al. 1986; also selected by Paepke 1999:56 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:211 [ref. 19754], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:334 [ref. 14275], Dor 1984:122 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Robins & Ray 1986:159 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:640 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:573 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], Randall et al. 1990:157 [ref. 15987], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644], Gunn 1990:9 [ref. 20141], Boschung 1992:130 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:284 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:57 [ref. 24474], Kuiter 1993:177 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Allen & Robertson 1994:125 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:100 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:952 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:173 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:420 [ref. 27969], Murdy et al. 1997:160 [ref. 23144], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:155 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:60 [ref. 26476] dated 1788, Cheng & Zhou 1997:261 [ref. 26385] dating to 1788, De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:76 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:360 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:157 [ref. 25919], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:279 [ref. 24555], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24670], Lin & Shao 1999:48 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:137 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2684 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:236 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:733 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:802 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:227 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:159 [ref. 27754], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:412 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:802 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 602 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1437 [ref. 27083], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495] dated 1788, Parin 2003:S6 [ref. 28536], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:301 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:222 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:362 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:274 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Gates 2006:1149 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:225 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:115 [ref. 30425], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:427 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:114 [ref. 34464], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:47 [ref. 33341], Parin et al. 2014:360 [ref. 33547], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:214 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:17 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2472 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:445 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical seas, including Red Sea, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

cirrhosus, Caranx Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:126 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Red Sea. Name mentioned in passing under Caranx citula. •In the synonymy of Carangoides ciliarius (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:125 [ref. 29757]). •In the synonymy of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae.

citula, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:126, Pl. 250 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] New Guinea; Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN A-6102 (1) New Guinea, A-6181 (1) Red Sea, A-6182 (1), B-2881 (1) Red Sea; ZMB 1571-72 (1, 1) Red Sea. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:10 [ref. 12247] and Bauchot & Daget 1996:243 [ref. 22899] with A.6182 as holotype. Only the name Caranx cirrhosus Ehrenb. appears on Pl. 250. •Synonym of Carangoides ciliarius (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:125 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (authors). •Synonym of Olistus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cives, Caranx De Vis [C. W.] 1884:540 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] North coast of Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.955 (dry mount). •Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:580 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:40 [ref. 20141], Hoese & Gates 2006:1160 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

claeszooni, Ferdauia Whitley [G. P.] 1947:136, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 4708] South west of Cape Baskerville, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS or WAM (lost). Paratypes: (3) lost or not saved. •Synonym of Carangoides fulvoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:575 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:24 [ref. 20141], Hoese & Gates 2006:1153 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides fulvoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

clupeoides, Scomber Richardson [J.] (ex Solander) 1843:26 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 11 (nos 67-8, 71-2); ref. 13395] Southern Ocean near Motuaro [? Motuari, Gambier Islands]. No types known. •Questionable as Trachurus clupeoides (Richardson 1843). Current status: Uncertain as Trachurus clupeoides (Richardson 1843). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

clupeoides, Scomber Broussonet [P. M. A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:178 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Not available, name mentioned in account of Cybium clupeoideum; from Norfolk I. Carangidae.

coeruleopinnatus, Caranx Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:100 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 2873. Paralectotypes: SMF 2874 (1). Spelled caeruleopinnatus on p. 142 and widely in literature; first reviser not established. Lectotype established by Dor 1984:124 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Carangoides coeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:276 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:200 [ref. 19754], Randall 1995:177 [ref. 22896], Myers 1999:137 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:245 [ref. 24106], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Ho & Shao 2011: 45 [ref. 31432]). •Valid as Carangoides caeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:124 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:574 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz 1986:643 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:158 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:16 [ref. 20141], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:224 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:158 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:160 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:158 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:51 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2695 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:733 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:808 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:808 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 603 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:75 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624] as caeruleopinnatus, Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715] as caeruleopinnatus, Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:302 [ref. 28072] as caeruleopinnatus, Randall 2005:223 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:121 [ref. 28745], Hoese & Gates 2006:1151 [ref. 28997] as caetuleopinnatus, Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:55 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:118 [ref. 30425], Allen & Erdmann 2012:430 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32988] as caeruleopinnatus, Psomadakis et al. 2015:218 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides coeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Samoa and Tonga, Australia north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

colburni, Seriola Evermann [B. W.] & Clark [H. W.] 1928:685, Pl. 27 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 22); ref. 5565] Off Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): CAS 2164 (skin). See Grove & Lavenberg 1997:371 [ref. 24023] [but also see McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025]]. •Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:839 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:979 [ref. 22829], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2741 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2503 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

columba, Zeus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:375, 382 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:301, 323 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). •Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

columbarius, Gasterosteus Cabrera [A.], Pérez [L.] & Haenseler [F.] 1817:7 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Gasterosteus columbarius Cabrera, Pérez & Haenseler in Machado 1857:24 [ref. 17320]. •In the synonymy of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae.

columbarius, Gasterosteus Cabrera, Pérez [A.] & Haenseler [F.] in Machado 1857:24 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. No types known. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera 1817 [ref. 17319], apparently an unpublished work. Authorship see Graells 1887:141 [ref. 30438]. Also appeared as name only in Graells 1887:181 [ref. 30438]. •In the synonymy of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae.

columbiensis, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:39 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Santa Marta, Colombia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2920. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:32 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Current status: Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

commersonnianus, Scomberoides Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:50, 53 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Fort Dauphin, Toliara Province, Madagascar. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:40 [ref. 12247]. Based on manuscript and drawing of Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:387, 390 (vol. 7) [ref. 30473]. The original spelling is acceptable. •Valid as Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède 1801 -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:194 [ref. 7106], Kyushin et al. 1977:288 [ref. 19756] as commersonianus, Kyushin et al. 1982:227 [ref. 19754] as commersonianus, Dor 1984:130 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz 1986:655 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:316 [ref. 6207], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:582 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:165 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:43 [ref. 20141], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356] as commersonianus, Randall 1995:184 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:443 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:164 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:162 [ref. 25488] as commersonianus, Randall et al. 1997:165 [ref. 25919], Motomura et al. 1998:101 [ref. 23630], Lin & Shao 1999:64 [ref. 23921], Fricke 1999:253 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2731 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:794 [ref. 25086] as commersonianus, Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:794 [ref. 26001] as commersonianus, Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:310 [ref. 28072], Hoese & Gates 2006:1164 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30213] as commersonianus, Kimura 2009:124 [ref. 30425], Allen & Erdmann 2012:437 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:120 [ref. 34464], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:45 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:226 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède 1801. Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Sydney (New South Wales) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

compressus, Caranx Day [F.] 1871:689 [13] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870 (pt 3); ref. 1078] Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): ZSI 252. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. On p. 13 of separate. •Valid as Carangoides compressus (Day 1871) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:272 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Carangoides plagiotaenia Bleeker 1857 -- (Dor 1984:126 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz 1986:646 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2707 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides plagiotaenia Bleeker 1857. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

compressus, Caranx Macleay [W.] 1883:204 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 14342] Lower Burdekin River, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: AMS A.18279-80 (1, 1). •Synonym of Pantolabus radiatus (Macleay 1881) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:581 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:42 [ref. 20141], Hoese & Gates 2006:1162 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Pantolabus radiatus (Macleay 1881). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

compressus, Nauclerus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:249, Pl. 263 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN A-6567 (2), A-6568 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:24 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:378 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:741 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

conductor, Centronotus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:309, 311, Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Not available, incorrect subsequent spelling of Gasterosteus ductor Linnaeus 1758. Cited on p. 311 as "Gasterosteus conductor. Linné, édition de Gmelin". •In the synonymy of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:378 [ref. 7198]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae.

coppingeri, Trachynotus Günther [A.] 1884:29, Pl. 3 (fig. A) [Reptilia, Batrachia, and Pisces 1884; ref. 14389] Percy Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: BMNH 1881.10.12.44. Original genus should have been Trachynotus. •Valid as Trachinotus coppingeri Günther 1884 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:586 [ref. 12442], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2748 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Hoese & Gates 2006:1170 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus coppingeri Günther 1884. Carangidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cordyla, Scomber Linnaeus [C.] 1758:298 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America [in error]. If Neotype is accepted: Riau, Selat Riau, Indonesia Neotype: SMNS 3849. Spelled cordila by Bonnaterre 1788:139 [ref. 4940]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:252 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. But Kottelat (2013) says it fulfills conditions of the Code. Freshwater record by Herre (1953:279) listed by Kottelat (2013). •Valid as Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:197 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:129 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:653 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:581 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:164 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:40 [ref. 20141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:824 [ref. 20764], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:183 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:441 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:163 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:66 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:164 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:59 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:141 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:252 [ref. 24106], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:245 [ref. 24754], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2726 [ref. 24833], Mishra et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:793 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:235 [ref. 25191], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:793 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 605 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:31 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:234 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:370 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:122 [ref. 28745], Hoese & Gates 2006:1161 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:123 [ref. 30425], Allen & Erdmann 2012:436 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:119 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:225 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Marshall Islands and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

cordyla, Trachurus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:124 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] This is apparently a new combination for Linnaeus' Scomber cordyla and not a new species proposal. Wheeler 1958:220 [ref. 13434] and 1989:217 [ref. 21873] treated as a new species proposal, wrongly with a holotype [BMNH 1853.11.12.93]. •Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Wheeler 1958:220 [ref. 13434], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:732 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

coronata, Seriola Poey [F.] 1860:232 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

cosmopolita, Micropteryx Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:104, Pl. 59 [Reise nach Griechenland und der Türkei; ref. 13] Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207]). Current status: Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cosmopolita, Seriola Cuvier [G.] 1829:206 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Dans les deux Océans. Syntypes: ZMB 1611-12 (1, 1). Available as, "Seriola cosmopolita, N., Scomber chloris, Bl., 339." Also in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:219, Pl. 259 [ref. 1002]. •Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cretata, Seriola Fowler [H. W.] 1904:506, Pl. 11 (lower fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27499. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Seriolina nigrofasciata (Rüppell 1829) -- (Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Seriolina nigrofasciata (Rüppell 1829). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

crinitus, Zeus Mitchill [S. L.] 1826:144, Pl. [American Journal of Science and Arts v. 11; ref. 17779] Block Island, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644], Randall 1995:173 [ref. 22896], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:279 [ref. 24555], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2684 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1437 [ref. 27083], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2472 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

cristata, Seriola Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:187 [19] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Tokyo, Japan. Holotype (unique): NMW 76641. •Synonym of Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck & Schlegel 1845. Current status: Synonym of Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck & Schlegel 1845. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

crockeri, Trachurops crumenophthalmus Nichols [J. T.] 1935:3, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 815; ref. 13908] Boring Bay, inside lagoon of Hao Island, Tuamotus, South Pacific. Holotype (unique): AMNH 12661. •Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

crumenophthalmus, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1793:77, Pl. 343 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Acara [Accra, Ghana, Gulf of Guinea, eastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1532. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:54 [ref. 24282]. On p. 65 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Species name misspelled crumenophtalmus by Cuvier 1831:153 [ref. 30376]. •Valid as Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:252 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:220 [ref. 19754], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:330 [ref. 14275], Dor 1984:131 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Robins & Ray 1986:161 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:656 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477] as crumenthalmops, Scott & Scott 1988:378 [ref. 25518], Paxton et al. 1989:583 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:35 [ref. 13251], McAllister 1990:146 [ref. 14674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644], Gunn 1990:48 [ref. 20141], Randall et al. 1990:166 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:132 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:290 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:88 [ref. 24474], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:292 [ref. 24014], Allen & Robertson 1994:128 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:104 [ref. 23101], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:973 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:185 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:448 [ref. 27969], Cheng & Zhou 1997:269 [ref. 26385], Murdy et al. 1997:163 [ref. 23144], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:368 [ref. 24023], Carpenter et al. 1997:165 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:65 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:158 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:166 [ref. 25919], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:277 [ref. 24555], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24670], Lin & Shao 1999:60 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:141 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:255 [ref. 24106], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:275 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2736 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:243 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:74 [ref. 25466], Nakabo 2000:798 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:236 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:102 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:209 [ref. 27511], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:420 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:798 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 606 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830] as crumenophthalma, Smith-Vaniz 2003:1455 [ref. 27083], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:81 [ref. 27510], Parin 2003:S7 [ref. 28536], Smith et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27621], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:236 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:372 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:290 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Gates 2006:1166 [ref. 28997], Wirtz et al. 2007:33 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:237 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:125 [ref. 30425], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:438 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32988], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:48 [ref. 33341], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:422 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Parin et al. 2014:362 [ref. 33547], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:228 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2494 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas, including Red Sea and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

crysos, Scomber Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:424, Pl. 4 (fig. 2). [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York Bay, New York, U.S.A. No types known. Spelled chrysos on Pl. 4; first reviser not researched. Spelled chrysos by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:98 [ref. 1002]. •Valid as Carangoides crysos (Mitchill 1815) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:287 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:159 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1439 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:276 [ref. 28815], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:417 [ref. 30078], Wirtz et al. 2007:32 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Bañon et al. 2010:17 [ref. 31029]). •Valid as Caranx crysos (Mitchill 1815) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:374 [ref. 7198], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:331 [ref. 14275], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:823 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:310 [ref. 6207], Robins & Ray 1986:160 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:375 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:146 [ref. 14674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:732 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:679 [ref. 21590], Boschung 1992:130 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:285 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:62 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:585 [ref. 16204], Swaby et al. 1996:543 [ref. 25524], Murdy et al. 1997:167 [ref. 23144], Santos et al. 1997:85 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:83 [ref. 24952], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Vacchi et al. 1999:326 [ref. 24369], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:237 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:73 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:83 [ref. 26753], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:413 [ref. 26158], Smith et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27621], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Fricke et al. 2007:84 [ref. 29533], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:47 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33516], Fabiano et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33530], Pinheiro et al. 2015:17 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2475 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Caranx crysos (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cubae, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:44 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2926. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:31, 32 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Current status: Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cubensis, Hynnis Poey [F.] 1860:235 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 34155 (isolated bones). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:187 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

cubensis, Vomer setapinnis Nichols [J. T.] 1918:672 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 38 (art. 18); ref. 17979] Market at Cienfuegos, Las Villas Province, Cuba. Holotype: AMNH 7148. Paratypes: (5) AMNH 2854 (1). •Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cultrata, Seriola Hutton [F. W.] 1872:17 [Fishes of New Zealand (Hutton); ref. 2287] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy. Carangidae.

culveri, Trachinotus Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:439, Pl. 36 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Astillero at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: CAS-SU 2691. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.118 (1) [from Jordan], CAS-SU 2691 (2, incl. lectotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:75 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 147, p. 3265 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Trachinotus kennedyi Steindachner 1876 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:980 [ref. 22829] as cuvieri, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:280 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus kennedyi Steindachner 1876. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cupreus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:414 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2791 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

curtus, Vomer Cope [E. D.] 1870:119 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 22; ref. 18030] Rhode Island, U.S.A. (also N. American Atlantic coast). Syntypes: ANSP 11167 (1, primary specimen, missing), ANSP 11166 (1) Bonaparte specimen. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratype. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Caranx Lowe [R. T.] 1838:183 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Off Madeira. Apparently lost. •Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:382 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:752 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Trachynotus Wakiya [Y.] 1924:220 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Misaki, Japan. No types known. •Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207], Hussain & Jawad 2014:255 [ref. 33657]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cyanophrys, Naucrates Swainson [W.] 1839:412 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Palermo, Sicily, Italy; Nice, Département des Alpes-Maritimes, France, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

cynodon, Caranx Bleeker [P.] 1851:362 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) RMNH 6109 (1). Also in Bleeker 1851 [ref. 332]. •Synonym of Caranx tille Cuvier 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2717 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx tille Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

dasson, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1907:210, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 623) (for 1906); ref. 10656] Market in Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 57782. •Valid as Caranx dasson Jordan & Snyder 1907 -- (Randall 1995:177 [ref. 22896]). •Questionably a synonym of Carangoides equula (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2698 [ref. 24833]). •Synonym of Carangoides equula (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Mundy 2005:364 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:227 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides equula (Temminck & Schlegel 1844). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

daubentonii, Caranx Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Plumier) 1801:58, 71 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality stated [Martinique Island, West Indies]. No types preserved. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:36 [ref. 12247]. Based on 'Trachurus argento-caeruleus' in painting by Plumier (Charles Plumier, 1646-1704, French explorer and botanist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:397, 420 (vol. 7) [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

dayi, Decapterus Wakiya [Y.] 1924:158, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Taiwan. Holotype (unique): FMNH 59468 [ex CM 7711]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:90 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:31 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2722 [ref. 24833], Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

deani, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1905:775, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 28 (no. 1407); ref. 2495] Negros, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 51951. Paratypes: (1). •Synonym of Carangoides oblongus (Cuvier 1833) -- (authors). •Synonym of Carangoides dinema Bleeker 1851 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2697 [ref. 24833]). •Synonym of Olistus dinema (Bleeker 1851) -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides dinema Bleeker 1851. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

declivifrons, Vomer Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1925:367, Pl. 29 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 226); ref. 13609] Panama City market, Panama. Holotype: USNM 81773. Other material: (42). •Synonym of Selene peruviana (Guichenot 1866) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:976 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:284 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Selene peruviana (Guichenot 1866). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

declivis, Caranx Jenyns [L.] 1841:68, Pl. 14 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Princess Royal Harbor, King George Sound, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.30. •Valid as Trachurus declivis (Jenyns 1841) -- (Kawahara et al. 1988:212 [ref. 22496], Paxton et al. 1989:586 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], Kawahara in Amaoka et al. 1990:265 [ref. 16024], Kuiter 1993:179 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Nekrasov 1994:138 [ref. 24544], Gomon et al. 1994:589 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:156 [ref. 25488], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2750 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Youn 2002:326, 608 [ref. 26218], Hoese & Gates 2006:1170 [ref. 28997], Smith-Vaniz 2008:580 [ref. 30654], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz 2015:1260 [ref. 34200]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus declivis (Jenyns 1841). Carangidae. Distribution: South Australia and New Zealand including offshore banks. Habitat: brackish, marine.

declivis, Seriola Poey [F.] 1860:230 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cojinar near Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

defensor, Caranx DeKay [J. E.] 1842:120, Pl. 24 (fig. 72) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York, U.S.A. Holotype: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Smith 1986:425 [ref. 22186], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:311 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:732 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2007:219 [ref. 29160]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

delagoa, Trachurus Nekrasov [V. V.] 1970:96, Fig. [Trudy Azovsko-Černomorskoj Naučno-Promyslovoj Ékspedicii v. 29; ref. 7768] Delagoa Bay, Mozambique; Madagascar; Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Saya de Malha bank, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (many). Author also seen as Necrassov. •Valid as Trachurus delagoa Nekrasov 1970 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:659 [ref. 5718], Nekrasov 1994:110 [ref. 24544], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:316 [ref. 28072], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus delagoa Nekrasov 1970. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

delicatissimus, Caranx Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:184 [16] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Fish market in Tokyo, Japan. Holotype (unique): NMW. •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644], Mundy 2005:371 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

delicatulus, Chorinemus Richardson [J.] 1846:269 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Chinese Sea. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:213, Pl. 21c [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Scomberoides commersonianus Lacepède 1801 -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:194 [ref. 7106], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:316 [ref. 6207], Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède 1801. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

dentex, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:30 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 14112 (dry, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:54 [ref. 24282]. See Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2006:102 [ref. 28900]. See Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1994 [ref. 21632] and Opinion 1841. Fricke 1999:253 [ref. 24106] dates this species to an 1800 edition of which only a fragment of the text remains (see Fricke p. 666) -- that edition should be placed on the Official Index of Rejected Works. •Valid as Caranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:373 [ref. 7198], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807]). •Valid as Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:833 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz 1986:654 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:582 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], Randall et al. 1990:164 [ref. 15987], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644], Kuiter 1993:176 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:584 [ref. 22532], Allen 1997:114, 116 [ref. 23977], Santos et al. 1997:86 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:84 [ref. 24952], Kuiter 1997:162 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:164 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:59 [ref. 23921], Fricke 1999:253 [ref. 24106], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2730 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:242 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:15 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:804 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:235 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:85 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:804 [ref. 26001], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1454 [ref. 27083], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:304 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:234 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:371 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:289 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Gates 2006:1163 [ref. 28997], Fricke et al. 2007:84 [ref. 29533], Randall 2007:236 [ref. 30952], Smith-Vaniz 2008:577 [ref. 30654], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30213], Bañon et al. 2010:17 [ref. 31029], Motomura et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31256], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2493 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Nearly circumglobal in warm temperate seas, including Mediterranean Sea, but not in eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

depressus, Stromateus Perry [G.] 1810:unnumbered page, Pl. XXVI [Ichthyology. In: Arcana; or The Museum of Natural History v. 1; ref. 12255] No locality. No types known. Original not seen. Regarded as a nomen oblitum. Published 1 July 1810. •In genus Selene -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm.). •Probably the same as Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Uncertain as Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dimidiatus, Scomber Broussonet [P. M. A.] in Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:64 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Nomen nudum, manuscript name mentioned in passing. Also appeared as name in synonymy in Richardson 1843:27 [ref. 13395] and as a name on a specimen in Günther 1860:430 [ref. 1963] from Dusky Bay, New Zealand. Carangidae.

dinema, Carangoides Bleeker [P.] 1851:365 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Also in Bleeker 1852:63 [ref. 332]. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:126 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Carangichthys dinema (Bleeker 1851) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:156 [ref. 6441], Suzuki & Uno 1992:2 [ref. 24139], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2697 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:804 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:804 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Carangoides dinema Bleeker 1851 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:643 [ref. 5718], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:427 [ref. 27969], Lin & Shao 1999:52 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:137 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:733 [ref. 25471], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:223 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1152 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Allen & Erdmann 2012:430 [ref. 31980]). •Valid as Olistus dinema (Bleeker 1951) -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides dinema Bleeker 1851. Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Tonga and Samoa, southern Indonesia to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dinjerra, Pseudocaranx Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] & Jelks [H. L.] 2006:98, Figs. 2-3a [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 28900] Southwest of Shark Bay, 25°28'S, 112°27'E to 25°19'S, 112°17'E, Western Australia, depth 131-139 meters. Holotype: NMV A.1962. Paratypes: ANSP 148695 (2), 148696 (20); USNM 385866 (15); WAM P.22338 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:29 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Pseudocaranx dinjerra Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2006 -- (Smith-Vaniz 2008:577 [ref. 30654], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826]). Current status: Valid as Pseudocaranx dinjerra Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2006. Carangidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

diversa, Citula Whitley [G. P.] 1940:421 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 4); ref. 4699] Southern Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.13491. Based on Caranx altissimus of McCulloch 1915, Biol. Res. Endeav. v. 3 (no. 3), p. 134, Pl. 24. •Synonym of Caranx coeruleopinnatus Rüppell 1830 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:574 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Carangoides caeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Gunn 1990:16 [ref. 20141], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2695 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:733 [ref. 25471], Hoese & Gates 2006:1151 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides coeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

djedaba, Scomber Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:56, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Surviving syntypes: ZMUC P46441 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:62 [ref. 9588]. ZMUC syntype figured as holotype in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 26 [ref. 20847]. Spelled djeddaba in Rüppell 1829:97 [ref. 3843]. Smith-Vaniz pers. communication 5/12/2016 says does not occur in Hawaiian Islands. •Valid as Selar djeddaba (Forsskål 1775) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:379 [ref. 7198]). •Valid as Caranx djedaba (Forsskål 1775) -- (Chen et al. 1997:64 [ref. 26476] as djeddaba, Cheng & Zhou 1997:268 [ref. 26385] as djeddaba, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura 2009:116 [ref. 30425]). •Valid as Alepes djedaba (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:213 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:123 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:821 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz 1986:641 [ref. 5718], Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:223 [ref. 24016] as djeddaba, Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:174 [ref. 22896], Iwatsuki & Kimura 1996:182 [ref. 22266], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:421 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:155 [ref. 23922], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Lin & Shao 1999:49 [ref. 23921], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:244 [ref. 24754], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2687 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:733 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:800 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:83 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:800 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:30 [ref. 27712], Fricke et al. 2007:83 [ref. 29533], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Allen & Erdmann 2012:428 [ref. 31980], Yoshida et al. 2013:115 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:215 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Alepes djedaba (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

dominicensis, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:40 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Dominican Republic. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:31, 32 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Current status: Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dorsalis, Carangoides Gill [T. N.] 1863:166 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] Western coast of Central America. Syntypes: USNM 4957 (2). •Synonym of [the later] Carangoides otrynter (Jordan & Gilbert 1883) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:286 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Caranx otrynter Jordan & Gilbert 1883 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:958 [ref. 22829]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides otrynter (Jordan & Gilbert 1883). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

dorsalis, Halatractus Gill [T. N.] 1863:84 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 2511. •Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2740 [ref. 24833], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:650 [ref. 25968], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2502 [ref. 34618] dated 1864). •Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833, but a valid subspecies -- (Peden & Jamieson 1988:492 [ref. 12864], McAllister 1990:147 [ref. 14674], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:372 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:288 [ref. 25640], Dyer & Westneat 2010:606 [ref. 31446]). •Valid as Seriola dorsalis (Gill 1863) -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:288 [ref. 24555], Martinez-Takeshita et al. 2015:366 [ref. 33834]). Current status: Valid as Seriola dorsalis (Gill 1863). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dorsalis, Vomer Gill [T. N.] 1863:436 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14 (no. 9 [2nd]); ref. 1669] St. Vincent, Cape Verde Islands. Holotype: BMNH 1855.8.16.86. •Synonym of Vomer setapinnis (Mitchill 1815) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:384 [ref. 7198]). •Valid as Selene dorsalis (Gill 1863) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:835 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz 1986:656 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:318 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:745 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:675 [ref. 21590], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:158 [ref. 25472], Afonso et al. 1999:74 [ref. 25466], Castro-Hernández 2001:333 [ref. 26421], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1457 [ref. 27083], Wirtz et al. 2007:33 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2496 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Selene dorsalis (Gill 1863). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to South Africa, including Madeira and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

drepanis, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:429 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Seychelles. Syntypes: MNHN A-0574 (3). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dubia, Seriola Lowe [R. T.] 1839:80 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1839 (pt 7); ref. 2829] Off Madeira. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:380 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

dubia, Seriola Poey [F.] 1860:228 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. •Synonym of Seriola zonata (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Seriola zonata (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ductor, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:295 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Pelagic, Ocean. Syntypes: NRM 45 (3). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:243-244 [ref. 20707]. See Opinion 1799. Based on Scomber ductor of Osbeck 1755 ('iter. 73) and Hasselquist 1757:366 [ref. 20181], plus syntypes in NRM collection. •Valid as Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:377 [ref. 7198], Kyushin et al. 1977:282 [ref. 19756], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:208 [ref. 9277], Dor 1984:129 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:153 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:832 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:162 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:653 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:378 [ref. 25518], Matarese et al. 1989:484 [ref. 26885], Paxton et al. 1989:581 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:34 [ref. 13251], McAllister 1990:146 [ref. 14674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:741 [ref. 18644], Randall et al. 1990:164 [ref. 15987], Cervigón 1992:289 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:82 [ref. 24474], Baranes & Golani 1993:308 [ref. 22372], Kuiter 1993:171 [ref. 23929], Allen & Robertson 1994:127 [ref. 22193], Gomon et al. 1994:582 [ref. 22532], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:969 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:184 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:366 [ref. 24023], Santos et al. 1997:86 [ref. 23531], Carpenter et al. 1997:163 [ref. 23922], Arruda 1997:84 [ref. 24952], Randall et al. 1997:164 [ref. 25919], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:287 [ref. 24555], Lin & Shao 1999:62 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:141 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:253 [ref. 24106], Porteiro et al. 1999:42 [ref. 24203], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2727 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:241 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:792 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:85 [ref. 26753], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:417 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:792 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 605 [ref. 26218], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1450 [ref. 27083], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Parin 2003:S7 [ref. 28536], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:309 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:370 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:287 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Gates 2006:1161 [ref. 28997], Fricke et al. 2007:84 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:92 [ref. 30517], Smith-Vaniz 2008:576 [ref. 30654], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31256], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Parin et al. 2014:362 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:226 [ref. 34104], Smith-Vaniz 2015:1254 [ref. 34200], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2492 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas, including Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

ductor, Scomber Hasselquist [F.] 1762:410 [Reise nach Palästina; ref. 18250] Yvica [Ibiza], Baleares Islands, Spain, Mediterranean Sea. Not available, published in a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). Also not an independent species description, but same as Gasterosteus ductor Linnaeus 1758. Based on Hasselquist 1757:366 [ref. 30181], also a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). •In the synonymy of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae.

dumerili, Caranx Risso [A.] 1810:175, Pl. 6 (fig. 20) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-0868 (dry, poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1945:377 [ref. 21554], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:10-11 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:379 [ref. 7198], Dor 1984:133 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:153 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:495, 681 [ref. 8056], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:837 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:163 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:657 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:380 [ref. 25518], Paxton et al. 1989:584 [ref. 12442], McAllister 1990:147 [ref. 14674], Randall et al. 1990:166 [ref. 15987], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644], Boschung 1992:133 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:292 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:95 [ref. 24474], Kuiter 1993:172 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:186 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:454 [ref. 27969], Murdy et al. 1997:170 [ref. 23144], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:68 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:274 [ref. 26385], Santos et al. 1997:86 [ref. 23531], Carpenter et al. 1997:165 [ref. 23922], Arruda 1997:84 [ref. 24952], Randall et al. 1997:166 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:63 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:142 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2738 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:244 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:793 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Shimizu 2001:29 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Liu 2001:289 [ref. 25887], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:85 [ref. 26753], Randall et al. 2002:157 [ref. 26192], Youn 2002:326, 606 [ref. 26218], O'Toole 2002:617 [ref. 26411], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1459 [ref. 27083], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:312 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:236 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:372 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:295 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Gates 2006:1167 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:238 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2007:84 [ref. 29533], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Motomura et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31256], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:49 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Parin et al. 2014:362 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:228 [ref. 34104], Smith-Vaniz 2015:1256 [ref. 34200], Pinheiro et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2499 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810). Carangidae. Distribution: Nearly circumglobal in tropical through warm temperate seas (including Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Hawaiian Islands), but not in eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

dussumieri, Seriola Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:217 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Bay of Bengal. Syntypes: MNHN A-6646 (3). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:26 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:741 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ecclipsifer, Caranx De Vis [C. W.] 1884:541 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.375 (destroyed in 1909), QM (apparently lost). •Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:580 [ref. 12442], Hoese & Gates 2006:1159 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ectenurus, Chloroscombrus Jordan [D. S.] & Osgood [C. M.] in Jordan & Rutter 1897:101 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 49; ref. 10644] Jamaica. Syntypes: CAS-SU 406 (4), 4863 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:75 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:314 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:736 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

edentulus, Caranx Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:327, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Percy Islands [Northumberland Islands], Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16297-001 [ex MAMU F349] (4). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. Appeared as a new species in Jouan 1878:333 [ref. 18364] but not new there. •Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:580 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:40 [ref. 20141], Hoese & Gates 2006:1160 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ekala, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:117 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Visakhaparnam And Mumbai, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-6116 (1) Malabar; Mumbai specimen not found. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:11 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:311 [ref. 6207], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

elacate, Carangus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:177 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50638. •Valid as Caranx elacate (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:254 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2716 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:367 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

elongatus, Caranx Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:458 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZIN 2641 (2), ZMB 8006 (1). •Young of Caranx sp. -- (Dor 1984:127 [ref. 29757]). •See Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

emburyi, Turrum Whitley [G. P.] 1932:337, Pl. 38 (fig. 4) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 6); ref. 4674] North-west Islet, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Carangoides fulvoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:125 [ref. 29757], Paxton et al. 1989:575 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:24 [ref. 20141], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2700 [ref. 24833], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:332 [ref. 28867], Hoese & Gates 2006:1153 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides fulvoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

eminens, Carangops Poey [F.] 2000:369, Pl. 246 (fig. 4) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] whereabouts unknown. Carangops no. 709 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Carangidae.

equula, Caranx Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1844:111, Pl. 60 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 5-6; ref. 4372] Ōmura Bay, Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture, Kyūshū, Japan, Western North Pacific. Lectotype: RMNH 1311. Paralectotypes: RMNH D2185 (1, stuffed), 26971 [ex 1311] (6). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:101 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Caranx equula Temminck & Schlegel 1844 -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:266 [ref. 26385], with year as 1842). •Valid as Kaiwarinus equula (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:493, 680 [ref. 8056], Gunn 1990:20 [ref. 20141], Nakabo 2000:804 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:804 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 605 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:433 [ref. 28370]). •Valid as Carangoides equula (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:206 [ref. 19754], Smith-Vaniz 1986:644 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:575 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], Randall et al. 1990:158 [ref. 15987], Baranes & Golani 1993:307 [ref. 22372], Randall 1995:177 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:427 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:62 [ref. 26476] dated 1842, Randall et al. 1997:158 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:52 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2698 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Shimizu 2001:30 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Mundy 2005:364 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1152 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:227 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Larson et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32988], Parin et al. 2014:360 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides equula (Temminck & Schlegel 1844). Carangidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: South Africa; Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: South Africa east to Hawaiian Islands and Easter Island, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

erythrurus, Caranx Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:58, 68 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Caroline [South Carolina, U.S.A.], Tahiti [Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:50 [ref. 12247]. Unnecessary replacement name for Scomber hippos Linnaeus 1766; also based on additional [misidentified] source (Forster manuscript). Spelled erithrurus on p. 68. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:397, 416 (vol. 7) [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:373 [ref. 7198], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:311 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:732 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2007:219 [ref. 29160]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

esculentus, Carangus Girard [C. F.] 1859:23, Pl. 11 (figs. 1-3) [United States and Mexican boundary survey, under the order of Lieut. Col. W. H. Emory, Major First Cavalry and United States commissioner. v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 13405] Appeared first, as name only, in Girard 1858:168 [ref. 1813]. Apparently a replacement name for Scomber carangus Bloch to avoid "Strickland tautonymy" when Girard provided the new genus name Carangus. Girard's name is an unneeded replacement name. Girard's specimens are at the USNM as USNM 708-709 (10, 1), and 715 (1). •Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:311 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:732 [ref. 18644], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:292 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2007:219 [ref. 29160]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

europaeus, Trachurus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:125 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Europe. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.95 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:220 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:220 [ref. 13434], Hureau & Tortonese 1973:381 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:753 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

evermanni, Carangoides gymnosthethoides Nichols [J. T.] 1921:2, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 3; ref. 15320] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: AMNH 7432. Paratypes: AMNH 7431 (1). •Synonym of Carangoides orthogrammus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2706 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:365 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides orthogrammus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

excusabilis, Naucratopsis McCulloch [A. R.] & Whitley [G. P.] in McCulloch 1929-30:183 [Memoirs of the Australian Museum, Sydney Memoir 5; ref. 2948] Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Syntypes: (3, stuffed, 2 missing) BMNH 1846.10.22.30 (1). Replacement name for Seriola gigas Günther 1860, preoccupied by Seriola gigas Poey 1860. •Synonym of Seriola hippos Günther 1876 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:584 [ref. 12442], Hoese & Gates 2006:1167 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola hippos Günther 1876. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

exoleta, Lichia Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:379 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Ehrenberg combination cited in passing under Chorinemus exoletus Cuvier; from the Red Sea. •In the synonymy of Scomberoides commersonianus Lacepède 1801. Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède 1801. Carangidae.

exoletus, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:379 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and Luhaiya, Yemen, Red Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:38 [ref. 12247]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Scomberoides commersonianus Lacepède 1801 -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:194 [ref. 7106], Dor 1984:130 [ref. 29757], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:316 [ref. 6207]). •Synonym of Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède 1801-- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède 1801. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

falcata, Seriola Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:210 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0781. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:26-27 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:380 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:839 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Kim et al. 1997:245 [ref. 25735], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2741 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:245 [ref. 25013], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2503 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

falcatus, Caranx Holbrook [J. E.] 1855:92, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology of South Carolina; ref. 2184] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Also appeared in second edition, 1860:94, Pl. 10 (fig. 2). •Synonym of Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Cuvier 1833). Current status: Synonym of Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

falcatus, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:284 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. •Valid as Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:164 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:134 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:294 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:105 [ref. 24474], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:152 [ref. 22947], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Murdy et al. 1997:174 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:246 [ref. 25013], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:278 [ref. 24550], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:399 [ref. 24427], Keith et al. 2000:106 [ref. 24547], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1465 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:300 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:49 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

falcatus, Scomber Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:57, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Syntypes: NRM 16675 (1, dry); ZMUC P46443-45 (2, dry skins). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:62 [ref. 9588]. Not available, as not intended as a species separate from Linnaeus 1758, but a misidentification (see Fricke 2008:33 [ref. 30182]). Subsequent usage by Bonnaterre 1788:142 [ref. 4940] and other authors also is not available. •In the synonymy Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor 1984:131 [ref. 29757], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207], Hoese & Gates 2006:1169 [ref. 28997], Fricke 2008:33 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae.

falciger, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:428 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Malabar coast, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6377 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fallax, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:95 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Trinidad Island, West Indies. Lectotype: MNHN A-0539. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-0700 (1), A-6056 (1), A-6067 (1), A-6136 (1, dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:11 [ref. 12247]. Lectotype selected by Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:11 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Caranx latus Agassiz 1831 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:733 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx latus Agassiz 1831. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fallax, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Guérin-Méneville 1828:no page number, Livraison 13 [Planches de Seba v. 3; ref. 29508] No types known. Text applies to Pl. 27 (no. 3) published in 1827. •Predates Caranx fallax Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833, but cannot be regarded as a junior synonym -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:399 [ref. 29507]). •Senior synonym of Caranx latus Agassiz 1831 -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:401 [ref. 29507] invoking reversal of precedence). •Valid as Caranx latus Agassiz 1831 as a nomen protectum over Caranx fallax Cuvier 1828 -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:401 [ref. 29507]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx latus Agassiz 1831. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

fallax, Trachurus de Brito Capello [F.] 1867:310 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 17967] Portugal. No types known. Also in French in de Brito Capello 1868:318 [ref. 17965]. •Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:382 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:753 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

fanfarus, Naucrates Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:44, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also as fanfar. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:19 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:378 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:741 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

farkharii, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:388 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Malacca, Malay Peninsula, Malaysia. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:38 [ref. 12247]. Based on a painting. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Blepharis Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:129, Pl. 33 (fig. 2) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 429 (2). •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Dor 1984:122 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Decapterus Bleeker [P.] 1872:151 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 431] China. Based on a painting, no types known. •Questionably a synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Ovoides Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:70 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] East coast of Mexico. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:37 [ref. 12247]. Based on a drawing. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1793:73, Pl. 341 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] North America [?]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1610. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:54-55 [ref. 24282]. On p. 61 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Seriola fasciata (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:838 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:163 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644], Boschung 1992:133 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:292 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:97 [ref. 24474], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:245 [ref. 25013], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1460 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:110 [ref. 27795], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:296 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Bañón & Mucientes 2009:247 [ref. 30593], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Pinheiro et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2501 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Seriola fasciata (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and eastern Atlantic, including Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Trachurus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:21, 53 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Seriola by Scomber fasciatus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Trachynotus Gill [T. N.] 1863:86 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM. •Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ferdau, Scomber Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:55, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Forsskål specimens: ZMUC P46442 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:63 [ref. 9588]. Label that says Holotype: ZMUC P46442 in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:22, Pl. 27 [ref. 20847] is not this species (Smith 1968:173 [ref. 7919]). Misspelled ferdan by Weber 1913:399 [ref. 4602]. •Valid as Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:266 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:203 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:125 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:156 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:644 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:575 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:159 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:23 [ref. 20141], Kuiter 1993:175 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:178 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:428 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:158 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:62 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:160 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:159 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:52 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:137 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:245 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2699 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:14 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:806 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:227 [ref. 25191], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Allen 2000:102 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:806 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:75 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:301 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:224 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:364 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1152 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:227 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:55 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:119 [ref. 30425], Allen & Erdmann 2012:430 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:81 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:218 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia, Norfolk Island and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

filamentosus, Platysomus (Argyriosus) Swainson [W.] 1839:250, 460, Pl. 255 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Cuv. pl. 255 -- which is Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:Pl. 255 [ref. 1002]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

filamentosus, Scomber Park [M.] 1797:36 [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London v. 3; ref. 17801] Habitat in Sumatræ littore [Bengkulu Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean]. Syntypes: BMNH 1863.11.12.18 (dry, right half skin), 1863.11.12.26 (dry, left half skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1974:472 [ref. 31545]. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Wheeler 1974:472 [ref. 31545]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

filigera, Caranx Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialites; ref. 13269] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. Carangidae.

fischeri, Caranx Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] & Carpenter [K. E.] 2007:214, Figs. 1A, 4-7, 8A-C [Fishery Bulletin v. 105 (no. 2); ref. 29160] Douala, Cameroon. Holotype: ANSP 140256. Paratypes: (128) at ANSP, BMNH, CAS, IRSNB, ISH, MNHN, MRAC, SU, UF, USNM, ZMH, ZMUC. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Caranx fischeri Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2007 -- (Vreven & Snoeks 2007:417 [ref. 30078], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33516], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2475 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Caranx fischeri Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2007. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea and Ascension Island. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

flava, Caranx fulvoguttatus var. Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:460 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. •Questionably a synonym of Carangoides bajad (Forsskål 1775) -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides bajad (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

flavocoeruleus, Caranx Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1844:110, Pl. 59 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 5-6; ref. 4372] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D933 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D929-932 (4, stuffed), 1319 (2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:100 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

flexuosus, Scomber Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1823:117 [Verzeichniss der Doubletten des zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung...; ref. 17525] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Try ZMB for type(s). •Synonym of Lichia amia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:740 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Lichia amia (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

foncki, Seriola Delfin [F. T.] 1903:222, Fig. 3 [Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (Santiago) v. 7; ref. 15025] Juan Fernández Islands. Syntypes: (3). •Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Dyer & Westneat 2010:606 [ref. 31446]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

formosanus, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1908:38, Pl. 52 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2521] Kaohsiung [Takao], Taiwan. Holotype: FMNH 55364 [ex CM 412]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7283 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:90 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:75 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:20 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Carangoides caeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2695 [ref. 24833]. •Synonym of Carangoides coeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830) -- Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides coeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

formosanus, Scomberoides Wakiya [Y.] 1924:236, Pl. 38 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Kii, Japanese seas. Holotype: FMNH 59499 [ex CM 7765]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:90 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. Junior primary homonym of Scomberoides formasanus Wakiya 1924. •Synonym of Scomberoides tol (Cuvier 1832) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:209 [ref. 7106], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:318 [ref. 6207], Kottelat 2013:336 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides tol (Cuvier 1832). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

formosanus, Scomberoides Oshima [M.] 1924:1572 [Proceedings of the Pan-Pacific Science Congress / Pacific Science Association. v. 2 (1923); ref. 15604] Keelung, Taiwan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]. Genus misspelled Scomeroides two of three times in original. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Scomberoides formosanus Wakiya 1924 (Mar.), replaced by Scomberoides oshimae Whitley 1951. •Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:205 [ref. 7106], Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:336 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

forsteri, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:107 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN A-0563. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-6058 (2) Malabar, A-6059 (1) New Guinea, A-6060 (2) Sulawesi, 0739 (3) Vanicolo. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:11 [ref. 12247]. Lectotype selected by Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:11-12 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Dor 1984:127 [ref. 29757], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:312 [ref. 6207], Fricke 1999:249 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

forsteri, Scomber Schneider [J. G.] & Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:26 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Pacific. No types known. Description taken from Forster manuscript (reproduced as Scomber maculatus in Lichtenstein 1844:195-196 [ref. 17531]). •Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:205 [ref. 7106], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:317 [ref. 6207], Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989] with authorship as Schneider & Forster). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

freeri, Caranx Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:63, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] San Fabian, Pangasinan, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55913. •Synonym of Selar boops (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selar boops (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

frontalis, Caranx Poey [F.] 1860:222 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 17348. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:187 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Caranx lugubris Poey 1860 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:734 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx lugubris Poey 1860. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

fuerthii, Caranx Steindachner [F.] 1876:562 [12] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW 22843 (3). On p. 12 of separate. Species originally spelled fürthii. •Synonym of Hemicaranx leucurus (Günther 1864). Current status: Synonym of Hemicaranx leucurus (Günther 1864). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fulvoguttatus, Scomber Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:56, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (Red Sea). No types known. Originally fulvo-guttatus. Neotype selection by Fricke 1999:246 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Carangoides fulvoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:268 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:202 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:125 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:156 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:644 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:575 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:159 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:24 [ref. 20141], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:178 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:159 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:162 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:159 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:52 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:138 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:245 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2700 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:806 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:228 [ref. 25191], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:806 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:302 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:224 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1153 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:55 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:431 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:258 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:219 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides fulvoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mozambique Channel, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Palau and Vanuatu, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

funereus, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:74 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Open sea, off Fenua ino Island, Tautira township, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

furnestini, Suareus Dardignac [J.] & Vincent [A.] in Furnestin, Dardogmac, Vincent, Coupé & Boutière 1958:445, Fig. 49 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 1517] Morocco. Holotype (unique): ISTPM (apparently lost). •Valid as Saureus furnestini Dardogmac & Vincent 1958 -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:381 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Trachurus mediterraneus (Steindachner 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:841 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:752 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2509 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus mediterraneus (Steindachner 1868). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fuscus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:410 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-5505 (1, dry), A-6849 (1), A-6850 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fusus, Caranx Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 24 (figs. 3-4) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5857. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:12 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Caranx crysos (Mitchill 1815) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:374 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:823 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:310 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:732 [ref. 18644], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:83 [ref. 26753], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1439 [ref. 27083], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2475 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx crysos (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gabonensis, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:37 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Gabon. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2928. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:32 [ref. 12247] dated to Guichenot 1866. Appeared first as name only in Guichenot in Duméril 1858:262 [ref. 1149]. •Synonym of Vomer setapinnis (Mitchill 1815) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:384 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Selene dorsalis (Gill 1863) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:318 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:745 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selene dorsalis (Gill 1863). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gaess, Caranx Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:59, 75 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality stated [Red Sea]. An unneeded replacement name for and objective synonym of Scomber fulvoguttatus. Spelled gaezz on p. 59, gaess on p. 75. gaezz considered a misspelling; gaess based on cited common name. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:400 (vol. 7), 15 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473] with spelling gaezz on p. 400 and gaess on p. 15. •Synonym of Carangoides fulvoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides fulvoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

galemfish, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:53 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] See account of Sciaena armata. Carangidae.

gallichthys, Carangoides Bleeker [P.] 1851:68 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 5); ref. 332] Jakarta, Semarang, Pasuruan, and Banjuwangi, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 26962. Paralectotypes: (40) ?NMV A888 (1), RMNH 6118 (some of 24), SMNS 10578 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:10 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:23 [ref. 29864]. Based on literature and specimens. Lectotype designation by Fricke 1901:10. •Synonym of Alectis indica (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis indica (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gallichthys, Platysomus (Blepharis) Swainson [W.] 1839:250 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Cuv. pl. 254 -- which is Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:Pl. 254 [ref. 1002]. •Evidently an unneeded new name for Blepharis major Cuvier 1833, as Gallichthys major on Pl. 254. If so, it is a synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

gallus, Zeus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:267 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:196 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:56 [ref. 20705]. Based on more than one source. •Perhaps an unused senior synonym of Selene ciliaris (Bloch 1787). •Tentatively a synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

geometricus, Zeus Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:245 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 4) (art. 1); ref. 17774] Long Island, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1986:426 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

georgianus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:85 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] King George Sound, Western Australia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5854 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:12 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:833 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz 1986:654 [ref. 5718], Paxton et al. 1989:582 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644], Gomon et al. 1994:585 [ref. 22532], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2730 [ref. 24833], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:332 [ref. 28867], Hoese & Gates 2006:1163 [ref. 28997]). •Valid as Caranx georgianus Cuvier 1833 -- (Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], Meléndez C. & Cornejo C. 2001:69 [ref. 26163]). •Valid as Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2006:101 [ref. 28900], Smith-Vaniz 2008:577 [ref. 30654], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz 2015:1255 [ref. 34200]). Current status: Valid as Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Distribution: New Zealand and southern half of Australia. Habitat: marine.

gervaisi, Caranx Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:18 [Researches on the fishes of Australia No. 2; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:37 [ref. 12247]. Original genus misspelled Carang. •Synonym of Selar boops (Cuvier 1833) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:583 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644], Gunn 1990:47 [ref. 20141], Hoese & Gates 2006:1165 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Selar boops (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

gibber, Carangoides Fowler [H. W.] 1904:512, Pl. 15 (upper left fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27517. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621]. •Questionably a synonym of Carangoides talamparoides Bleeker 1852 -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm.). Current status: Uncertain as Carangoides talamparoides Bleeker 1852. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

gibbiceps, Selene Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1914:130, Fig. [Marine biological report: for the year ended ... and for the half year ending ...; to be presented to the Provincial Council; Union of South Africa, Province of the Cape of Good Hope. No. 2 (VII); ref. 15094] Walvis Bay, South Africa. Holotype (unique): SAM 13725. •Synonym of Selene dorsalis (Gill 1863) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:656 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:745 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2496 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Selene dorsalis (Gill 1863). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gigas, Seriola Günther [A.] 1860:466 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Syntypes: BMNH 1841.2.15.71-72 (2, stuffed), 1846.10.22.30 (stuffed, right half skin). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Seriola gigas Poey 1860, replaced by Naucratopsis excusabilis McCulloch & Whitley 1929-30. •Synonym of Seriola hippos Günther 1876 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:584 [ref. 12442], Hoese & Gates 2006:1167 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola hippos Günther 1876. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gigas, Seriola Poey [F.] 1860:227 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:234, Fig. 29 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Pago Pago, Tutuila Island, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51729. •Synonym of Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1995:178 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2699 [ref. 24833], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:332 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ginal, Caranx Montrouzier [X.] 1857:453 [175] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 175 of reprint. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

girardi, Caranx Steindachner [F.] 1870:314 [25] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 60 (1. Abth.); ref. 4217] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 689. On p. 25 of separate. Replacement name for Trachurus boops Girard 1858, secondarily preoccupied in Caranx by Caranx boops Cuvier 1833. •Synonym of Caranx caballus Günther 1868 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:953 [ref. 22829], Randall & Carlson 1999:358 [ref. 25808]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx caballus Günther 1868. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

glabra, Alepes Fowler [H. W.] 1904:507, Pl. 12 (lower fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27502. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Alepes vari (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2690 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Alepes vari (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

glaucoides, Trachynotus Günther [A.] 1864:150 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] San José, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.323. •Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

glaucus, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:102, Pl. 210 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] America [Martinique Island, West Indies]. On p. 76 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Based on a drawing by Plumier. •Valid as Trachinotus glaucus (Bloch 1787) -- (López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808]). •Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:246 [ref. 25013], Smith-Vaniz pers. comm. 7/26/09). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

glaucus, Gasterosteus Forster [J. R.] 1795:15 [Zoologia Indica, sistens descriptiones animalium selectorum; ref. 18091] No types known. India. Name only. Based on Chaetodon glaucus Bloch, 1787. •Synonym of Trachinotus glacus (Bloch 1787). •Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896 based on placement of Chaetodon glaucus. Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

glaucus, Scomber Linnaeus [C.] 1758:298 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Ascension Island, Atlantic. Holotype: NRM 4080. See Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1994 [ref. 21632] and Opinion 1841. •Synonym of Trachynotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:383 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2507 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

glaycos, Centronotus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:309, 315 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:38 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Campogramma glaycos (Lacepède 1801) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:375 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:822 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:731 [ref. 18644], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:83 [ref. 26753], Dulĉić et al. 2003:877 [ref. 27137], Fricke et al. 2007:84 [ref. 29533], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826]). Current status: Valid as Campogramma glaycos (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Isles to Senegal including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

goodei, Trachinotus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896:943 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2443] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: CAS-SU 1455 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:75-76 [ref. 12291]. Based on specimen and literature. •Valid as Trachinotus goodei Jordan and Evermann 1896 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:165 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:134 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:295 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:108 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:175 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:246 [ref. 25013], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:399 [ref. 24427], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1466 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:82 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:301 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Matamoros et al. 2009:18 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:49 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

goreensis, Hynnis Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:195, Pl. 257 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN A-0795 (1, dry), A-6854 (1), A-6855 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:23 [ref. 12247]. The genus Alectis is feminine, so the spelling alexandrina is correct. •Synonym of Scyris alexandrina (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:378 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Alectis alexandrinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:820 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:308 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:729 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2470 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis alexandrina (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

goreensis, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:419 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6229 (2), 0000-6231 (2), A-6812 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus goreensis Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:749 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:684 [ref. 21590], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:33 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2505 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus goreensis Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

goreensis, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:37 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2924 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:32 [ref. 12247]. Appeared first as name only in Guichenot in Duméril 1858:262 [ref. 1149] •Synonym of Vomer setapinnis (Mitchill 1815) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:384 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Selene dorsalis (Gill 1863) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:318 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:745 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selene dorsalis (Gill 1863). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gracharus, Scomber Hasselquist [F.] 1762:407 [Reise nach Palästina; ref. 18250] Smirna [Izmir], Turkey, Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea. Not available, published in a rejected work (ICZN, Opinion 57). Original spelling 'gracharvs' due to historical typeset, equals 'gracharus'. Spelling error for 'trachurus'. Based on the Scomber trachurus of Hasselquist 1757:363 [ref. 30181], also a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). Walbaum 1792:212 listed Scomber gracharus of Hasselquist in the synonymy of Scomber trachurus Linnaeus 1758. •Unavailable species-group name -- (Collette 2003:21 [ref. 27312]). •In the synonymy of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae.

gracilis, Citula Ogilby [J. D.] 1915:75, Pl. 23 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 3; ref. 15005] Erub [= Darnley] Island, Queensland, Torres Strait, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1499. •Synonym of Carangoides oblongus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:576 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:33 [ref. 20141], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2705 [ref. 24833], Hoese & Gates 2006:1154 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides oblongus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

grandis, Seriola Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:115 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Melbourne market, Victoria, Australia. Syntypes: MNHN A-5667 (1, dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:27 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:584 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Gomon et al. 1994:588 [ref. 22532], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:977 [ref. 22829], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2740 [ref. 24833], Dyer & Westneat 2010:606 [ref. 31446], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2502 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guara, Scomber Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:598, 604 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 2; ref. 2709] Brazil, South America [in error]. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:51 [ref. 12247]. Unnecessary replacement name for Scomber cordyla Linnaeus 1758. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:283, 292 (vol. 7) [ref. 30473]. See neotype desigation by Fricke 1999 under cordyle. •Synonym of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

guarapucu, Caranx Castelnau [F. L.] (ex Marcgrave) 1855:22 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Based on Marcgrave 1648:179 [ref. 19651]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

guaribira, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:393 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5579 (dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:20 [ref. 12247]. •Questionably a synonym of Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier 1832) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:225 [ref. 7106]). •Synonym of Oligoplites saliens (Bloch 1793). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites saliens (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guptae, Caranx Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1909:141, Fig. 1 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 17990] Off Elephant Point, Bangladesh. Syntypes: ZSI F2165/1-2166/1 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:144 [ref. 20743]. •Synonym of Uraspis uraspis (Günther 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2756 [ref. 24833] as quptae). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis uraspis (Günther 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

gymnostethoides, Carangoides Bleeker [P.] 1851:364 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6081. Also in Bleeker 1851:61 [ref. 332]. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:126 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Carangoides gymnostethoides Bleeker 1851 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:270 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:199 [ref. 19754], Gunn 1990:26 [ref. 20141], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Carangoides gymnostethus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Randall 1995:179 [ref. 22896], Mundy 2005:364 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides gymnostethus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

gymnostethus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:73 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5582. •Valid as Caranx gymnostethus Cuvier 1833 -- (Chen et al. 1997:63 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Carangoides gymnostethus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:156 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:645 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:575 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:159 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:178 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:428 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:159 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:159 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:24 [ref. 23611], Lin & Shao 1999:52 [ref. 23921], Fricke 1999:246 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2701 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:806 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:228 [ref. 25191], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:806 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:303 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:225 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:364 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:121 [ref. 28745], Hoese & Gates 2006:1153 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Allen & Erdmann 2012:431 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:219 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides gymnostethus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

hainanensis, Chorinemus Chu [Y.-T.] & Cheng [W.-L.] 1958:317 (Enlgish p. 320), Fig. 2 [Acta Zoologica Sinica v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 12058] Sanya; Kanchiun; Kwonghoi; and Chinglan, China. Holotype: Mar. Biol. Inst., Acad. Sinica. Paratypes: Mar. Biol. Inst. Acad. Sinica (7). •Synonym of Scomberoides tala (Cuvier 1832) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:199 [ref. 7106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2733 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides tala (Cuvier 1832). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

halli, Citula Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:65, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] San Fabian, Pangasinan, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55914. •Synonym of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2729 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hanoverianus, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:71 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

hasseltii, Selar Bleeker [P.] 1851:359 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Cheribon, Surabaya, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 26967 [ex RMNH 6078]. Paralectotypes: ?NMV A2074 (1); RMNH 6078 (now 6), 8344 (1); SMNS 10580 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:10 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:24 [ref. 29864]. Also in Bleeker 1851:53 [ref. 332]. Lectotype selection not researched; not selected here or in Fricke 2005:24 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:309 [ref. 6207], Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

heberi, Scomber Bennett [J. W.] 1830:unnum. p., Pl. 26 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean. No types known. •Valid as Caranx heberi (Bennett 1830) [= C. sem Cuvier 1833] -- (Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43-44 [ref. 21456], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xii [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:180 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:160 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:247 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2711 [ref. 24833], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Khalaf & Krupp 2003:56 [ref. 31543], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:303 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2007:224 [ref. 29492], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:120 [ref. 30425], Allen & Erdmann 2012:433 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2015:221 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Caranx heberi (Bennett 1830). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and East Africa, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Fiji, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hedlandensis, Olistus Whitley [G. P.] 1934:156, Fig. 2 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 2); ref. 4681] Port Hedland, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.12957. •Valid as Carangoides hedlandensis (Whitley 1934) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:201 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:645 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:575 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:160 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:26 [ref. 20141], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:61 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:160 [ref. 25919], Lin & Sho 1999:53 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2702 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:807 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:807 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:225 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1153 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:119 [ref. 30425], Larson et al. 2013:120 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:117 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:219 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides hedlandensis (Whitley 1934). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Philippines, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Shark Bay (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

heidi, Uraspis Fowler [H. W.] 1938:150 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 90; ref. 1427] Manasquan, Monmouth County, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68453. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:660 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:755 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2514 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

helvolus, Scomber Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:35 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Ascension Island [eastern Atlantic]. Holotype: BMNH 1963.3.27.4. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Valid as Caranx helvolus (Forster 1801) -- (Chen et al. 1997:63 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Uraspis helvola (Forster 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:208 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:132 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:754 [ref. 18644], Allen & Robertson 1994:129 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:106 [ref. 23101], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:986 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:190 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:459 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:168 [ref. 23922], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:379 [ref. 24023], Lin & Shao 1999:61 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:141 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2754 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:803 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Savinykh & Shevtsov 2001:133 [ref. 25203], Shinohara et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:803 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 608 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Parin 2003:S8 [ref. 28536], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:373 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:122 [ref. 28745], Randall 2007:241 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Allen & Erdmann 2012:440 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:423 [ref. 33460], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Parin et al. 2014:364 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:231 [ref. 34104], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2513 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:445 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Uraspis helvola (Forster 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Nearly circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas, including Red Sea, Hawaiian Islands. Also offshore islands of eastern Pacific and Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hemigymnostethus, Carangoides Bleeker [P.] 1851:364 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) RMNH 6101 (1), 26969 [ex RMNH 6101] (1). Also in Bleeker 1851:61 [ref. 332]. •Synonym of Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2699 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:364 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

herklotsi, Leucoglossa Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1932:151 [Hong Kong Naturalist v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 10977] Market in Hong kong. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 27962. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:75 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Uraspis uraspis (Günther 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2756 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis uraspis (Günther 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

hesperius, Chloroscombrus Fowler [H. W.] 1906:114, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 58; ref. 1372] Cape Palmas, Liberia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 11198. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:736 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

heteropygus, Caranx Poey [F.] 1861:344 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 17254. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:186 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Cuvier 1833). Current status: Synonym of Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

hippoides, Carangus Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:443, Fig. 15 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50710. Additional original material: [field nos. 750-751] (2). •Synonym of Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:311 [ref. 6207], Mundy 2005:366 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hippos, Scomber Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:494 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Syntype or holotype: LS 130 [Garden no. 16] (right half-skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:55 [ref. 20705]. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:204 [ref. 1841]. Based on manuscript description and 1 specimen sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:373 [ref. 7198], Lee et al. 1980:749 [ref. 22416], Fujii in Uyeno et al. 1983:332 [ref. 14275], Smith 1986:425 [ref. 22186], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:824 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:310 [ref. 6207], Robins & Ray 1986:160 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:376 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:146 [ref. 14674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:732 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:678 [ref. 21590], Boschung 1992:130 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:285 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:63 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:165 [ref. 23144], Arruda 1997:82 [ref. 24952], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:279 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:291 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:238 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:73 [ref. 25466], Keith et al. 2000:90 [ref. 24547], Marín 2000:72 [ref. 26252], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:159 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:84 [ref. 26753], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:415 [ref. 26158], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808] as hyppos, Smith-Vaniz 2003:1440 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:277 [ref. 28815], Miller 2006:339 [ref. 28615], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2007:219 [ref. 29160], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:417 [ref. 30078], Wirtz et al. 2007:11, 32 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:173 [ref. 32953], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989], Angulo et al. 2013:1000 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:47 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33516] needs verification, Fabiano et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33530], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2474 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern and Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hippos, Seriola Günther [A.] 1876:392 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 17 (no. 101) (art. 43); ref. 2007] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1876.5.1.1. •Valid as Seriola hippos Günther 1876 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:584 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:173 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:586 [ref. 22532], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2739 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Gates 2006:1167 [ref. 28997], Smith-Vaniz 2008:579 [ref. 30654], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz 2015:1257 [ref. 34200]). Current status: Valid as Seriola hippos Günther 1876. Carangidae. Distribution: Southwest Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean off Western Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hopkinsi, Hynnis Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:435, Pl. 35 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Harbor at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 11563. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:75 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644], McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

hullianus, Caranx McCulloch [A. R.] 1909:319, Pl. 91 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 14386] Freshwater Beach, near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.9261. •Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:587 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:754 [ref. 18644], Gunn 1990:54 [ref. 20141], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2755 [ref. 24833], Hoese & Gates 2006:1172 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

humerosus, Caranx McCulloch [A. R.] 1915:137, Pl. 25 [Biological Results Endeavour v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 2941] Off Bustart Head Light, southern Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS E.1436. Paratypes: AMS E.2662 (1), I.11107 (1), I.13539-43 (1 ea.); NMV R5963-64 (1, 1); SAMA F191 (2 or 1); ?TMH D138/13019 [old no. D100-101, ex AMS E.2821] (2); WAM P.258-001 (2). Type catalog: Andrews 1971:2 [ref. 31471], Glover 1976:172 [ref. 19449], Hutchins & Smith 1991:26 [ref. 19335], Andrews 1992:111 [ref. 22689], Moore et al. 2008:28 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Carangichthys humerosus (McCulloch 1915) -- (Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:74 [ref. 27510]). •Valid as Carangoides humerosus (McCulloch 1915) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:576 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:160 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:31 [ref. 20141], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:160 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:53 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2703 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Johnson 2001:733 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Gates 2006:1154 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Larson et al. 2013:120 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides humerosus (McCulloch 1915). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

hyemalis, Caranx chrysophrys var. Richardson [J.] 1846:275 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] China Sea. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:212, Pl. 21b [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier 1833). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hypodus, Decapterus Gill [T. N.] 1862:262 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 4005 (orig. 5, now 4). •Synonym of Decapterus muroadsi (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:965 [ref. 22829], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2721 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus muroadsi (Temminck & Schlegel 1844). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ignobilis, Scomber Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:55, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMUC P46439-40 (2, dry skins, extremely poor condition). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:63 [ref. 9588]. Originally Scomber ignobilis, kirm on p. 55, Scomber ignobilis on p. xii. Probably should be regarded as two names for the same taxon and requiring action of a first reviser. Types figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 26 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:260 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:126 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:156 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:647 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:311 [ref. 6207], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:577 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:34 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:161 [ref. 15987], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:823 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:110 [ref. 23448], Kuiter 1993:174 [ref. 23929], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:291 [ref. 24014], Randall et al. 1994:227 [ref. 21645], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:180 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:432 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:63 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:160 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:158 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:161 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:55 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:138 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:247 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2712 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:15 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:802 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:229 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:106 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:102 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:205 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:96 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:802 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:76 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:30 [ref. 27712], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:304 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:227 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:366 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1156 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:228 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:121 [ref. 30425], Motomura et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:433 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:258 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:82 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:221 [ref. 34104], Clua et al. 2016:259 [ref. 34821]). Current status: Valid as Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mozambique Channel, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa; northeastern Pacific at Clipperton Atoll [ref. 34821]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

immaculatus, Caranx Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:73 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Red Sea. Not available, name mentioned in passing. •In the synonymy of Carangoides bajad (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:124 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides bajad (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae.

imperialis, Trachurus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:42, Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:20 [ref. 3595] as Trachiurus impirialis. •Synonym of Caranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:373 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

impudicus, Caranx (Carangoides) Klunzinger [C. B.] 1884:99 [Die Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 2625] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 394. Based on Caranx talamparoides (non Bleeker 1852) of Klunzinger 1871:463 [ref. 2622]. •Synonym of Carangoides malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:126 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

indica, Scyris Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:145, Pl. 252 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Puducherry, India; Java, Indonesia; Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Apparently independently described from Scyris indicus Rüppell 1830; preoccupied; objectively invalid. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Blepharis Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:154 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Molucca Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6841 (poor condition). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:8 [ref. 12247]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Alectis by Scyris indicus Rüppell 1830. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644], Gunn 1990:10 [ref. 20141], Randall 1995:173 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:155 [ref. 23922]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Irex Valenciennes [A.] 1862:1205 [10] [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences v. 54; ref. 4506] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1833-0840 (not found). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:40 [ref. 12247]. On p. 10 of separate. •Synonym of Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:739 [ref. 18644], Fricke 1999:250 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Naucrates Griffith [E.] & Smith [C. H.] 1834:opp. 190, Pl. 47 (fig. 1) [The class Pisces, arranged by the Baron Cuvier; ref. 1908] No locality stated. No types known. Probably not independent from Naucrates indicus Lesson 1831. Also appeared in Cuvier 1837:129, Pl. 40 (fig. 1) [ref. 26488]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Naucrates Lesson [R. P.] 1831:157, Poissons Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] New Ireland Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5398. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:24 [ref. 12247]. Also appeared in Cuvier 1832:326 [ref. 1000], Griffith & Smith 1834:Pl. 47 (opp. p. 190) [ref. 1908] and Cuvier 1837:xvii, Fig. 40, p. 129 [ref. 26488]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:741 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Scyris Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:128, Pl. 33 (fig. 1) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 1647. The genus Alectis is feminine, so indica is the correct species spelling. •Valid as Alectis indicus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:210 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:122 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:640 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:309 [ref. 6207], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:574 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:157 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:177 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:420 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:60 [ref. 26476] dated 1828, Cheng & Zhou 1997:262 [ref. 26385] dated 1828, Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:157 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:137 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:243 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2685 [ref. 24833], Lin & Shao 1999:48 [ref. 23921], Johnson 1999:733 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:802 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:802 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830] as indica, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:73 [ref. 27510], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:29 [ref. 27712], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:301 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:363 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1150 [ref. 28997], Hoese & Gates 2006:1150 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:55 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:116 [ref. 30425], Allen & Erdmann 2012:427 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:43 [ref. 34319] as indica, Psomadakis et al. 2015:215 [ref. 34104], Yoshida et al. 2013:114 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Alectis indica (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

indicus, Trachurus mediterraneus Nekrasov [V. V.] 1966:141, Fig. [Zoologicheskii Zhurnal v. 45 (no. 1) (for Dec. 1965); ref. 9048] Gulf of Aden, 15°26'N, 52°00'E, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: ZIN 37519 (267 mm). Paratypes: ZIN 37519 (2, with holotype), ?37836 (2, sent as types to ZIN). Plus additional material not saved. Author also seen as Necrassov. •Valid as Trachurus indicus Nekrasov 1966 -- (Dor 1984:132 [ref. 29757], Baranes & Golani 1993:308 [ref. 22372], Nekrasov 1994:90 [ref. 24544], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:189 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:167 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Psomadakis et al. 2015:231 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus indicus Nekrasov 1966. Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: Somalia and Persian Gulf east to Pakistan, south to Saya de Malha Bank. Habitat: marine.

inornatus, Oligoplites Gill [T. N.] 1863:166 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 30959. •Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:221 [ref. 7106], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:972 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:276 [ref. 24550]). •See Grove & Lavenberg 1997:368 [ref. 24023]. •Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1891), but a valid subspecies inornatus Gill 1863 -- (Smith-Vaniz 2003:1453 [ref. 27083]). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

inornatus, Temnodon Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1851:371 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Not available; name mentioned in synonymy of Stromateus niger. •In the synonymy of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Current status: Synonym of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Carangidae.

insanus, Hynnis Valenciennes [A.] 1862:1203 [8] [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences v. 54; ref. 4506] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:39 [ref. 12247]. On p. 8 of separate. •Synonym of Alectis indicus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Fricke 1999:243 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis indica (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

insulanorum, Usacaranx Whitley [G. P.] 1937:223, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Australian Zoologist v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 4690] Elizabeth Reef, Tasman Sea, Australia. Holotype: lost. •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

intermedia, Seriola Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1845:116 [Fauna Japonica Parts 7-9; ref. 4373] Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH D859 (stuffed). Type information: Boeseman 1947:105 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Seriolina nigrofasciata (Rüppell 1829) -- (Hoese & Gates 2006:1168 [ref. 28997], Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Seriolina nigrofasciata (Rüppell 1829). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ire, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:57 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Puducherry, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5847. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:12 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Carangoides praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:822 [ref. 20764], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2708 [ref. 24833]). •Synonym of Olistus praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

iridinus, Caranx Poey [F.] 1860:226 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Carangoides ruber (Bloch 1793). •Synonym of Caranx ruber (Bloch 1793). Current status: Synonym of Caranx ruber (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ishikawai, Caranx Wakiya [Y.] 1924:193, Pl. 26 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Bonin Islands, Japanese seas. Holotype: FMNH 59390 [ex CM 7734]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:90 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:20 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Caranx ishikawai Wakiya 1924 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:262 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Caranx lugubris Poey 1860 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:734 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2713 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx lugubris Poey 1860. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

jacobaeus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:42 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Praia San Jago, Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5849. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:12 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Decapterus macarellus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:376 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:828 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:737 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2719 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus macarellus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

janthinospilos, Caranx Bleeker [P.] 1856:45 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1; ref. 311] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6082. •Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833 -- (Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

japonicus, Caranx trachurus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1844:109, Pl. 59 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 5-6; ref. 4372] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 1314. Paralectotypes: RMNH 1313 (5). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:100 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:493, 680 [ref. 8056], Nekrasov 1994:119 [ref. 24544], Chen et al. 1997:67 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:271 [ref. 26385] dated 1842, Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24670], Lin & Shao 1999:60 [ref. 23921], Mizuno et al. 1999:9 [ref. 25311], Nakabo 2000:793 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2000:179 [ref. 25987], Shimizu 2001:29 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:793 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 608 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S8 [ref. 28536], Shinohara et al. 2005:433 [ref. 28370], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Motomura et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31256], Parin et al. 2014:363 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1844). Carangidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

jarra, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:109 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:37 [ref. 12247]. Based on Pl. 147 of Russell. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

jayakari, Caranx Boulenger [G. A.] 1888:661 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 4); ref. 14479] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.11.11.196. •Synonym of Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier 1833). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

jordani, Carangoides Nichols [J. T.] 1922:2 [American Museum Novitates No. 50; ref. 15354] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: AMNH 8104. Paratypes: AMNH 8079 (1). Type is also holotype of C. gilberti. •Synonym of Caranx orthogrammus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:957 [ref. 22829]). •Synonym of Carangoides orthogrammus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Kim & Kim 1999:20 [ref. 25723], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2706 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:365 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides orthogrammus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Trachynotus Wakiya [Y.] 1924:221, Pl. 35 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Bonin Islands, Japanese seas. Holotype (unique): FMNH 59374 [ex CM 7756]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367]. Correct spelling of original genus is Trachninotus. •Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kalla, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:49 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Malabar, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-6081. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-6082 (1), A-6126 (1), A-6127 (1, dry), A-6128 (1, dry), A-6129 (1, dry), A-6145 (1, dry), A-6204 (2), A-6203 (2), 5858 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:12-13 [ref. 12247]. Spelled calla by Günther 1860:433 [ref. 1963]. Lectotype selected by Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:13 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Alepes djedaba (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:123 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793) -- (Randall 1995:174 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Caranx kalla Cuvier 1833 -- (Chen et al. 1997:65 [ref. 26476]). Current status: Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

kennedyi, Trachinotus Steindachner [F.] 1876:75 [47], Pl. 7 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] Magdalena Bay, Baja California. Syntypes: ?MCZ; NMW 12812 (1), 12822-23 (1, 4), 77754 (2). On p. 47 of separate. •Valid as Trachinotus kennedyi Steindachner 1876 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:128 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:108 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:980 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:88 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:284 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:280 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], McMahan et al. 2013:449 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus kennedyi Steindachner 1876. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kiliche, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:43 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Puducherry, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5848. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:12-13 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:128 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz 1986:651 [ref. 5718], Randall 1995:182 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2722 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

kleinii, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1793:86, Pl. 347 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Malabar coast, India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1580. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:55 [ref. 24282]. On p. 73 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as "Caranx" kleinii (Bloch 1793) -- (Gunn 1990:37 [ref. 20141]). •Valid as Caranx kleinii (Bloch 1793) -- (Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Gates 2006:1155 [ref. 28997], Larson et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793) -- (Randall 1995:174 [ref. 22896], Randall et al. 1997:162 [ref. 25919], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2688 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:800 [ref. 25086], Krupp et al. 2000:330 [ref. 25117], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:800 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:73 [ref. 27510], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:116 [ref. 30425], Ho & Shao 2011:44 [ref. 31432], Yoshida et al. 2013:115 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:215 [ref. 34104] as kleini). Current status: Valid as Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan east to Philippines and New Guinea, south to Kumberleys (Western Australia) and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

kleinii, Zeus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:401 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. Based on Klein, v. 4:38, Pl. 12 (fig. 1). •Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

koehleri, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:65 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

koelreuteri, Scomber Schneider [J. G.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:570 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. No types known. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

koheru, Caranx Hector [J.] 1875:247, Pl. 11 (fig. 24a) [Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute v. 7 (art. 34); ref. 18269] Tutukaka Harbor, near Ngunguru, New Zealand. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Decapterus koheru (Hector 1875) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826] as "Decapterus", Smith-Vaniz 2015:1251 [ref. 34200] as 'Decapterus'). Current status: Valid as Decapterus koheru (Hector 1875). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: New Zealand endemic. Habitat: marine.

korab, Caranx Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:59, 75 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Unnecessary replacement name for Scomber ignobilis Forsskål 1775. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:400 (vol. 7), 16 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kuhlii, Selar Bleeker [P.] 1851:360 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Cheribon, Surabaya; Java; Kammal, Tandjong, Madura, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?NMV A916 (1); RMNH 6093 (some of 37), 8377 (6), 26965 (1); SMNS 10581 (4) Java. Type catalog: Fricke 1991:10 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:24 [ref. 29864] Also in Bleeker 1851:54 [ref. 332]. •Synonym of Alepes vari (Cuvier 1833). Current status: Synonym of Alepes vari (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kurra, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:44 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Coromandel, southeastern India. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:37 [ref. 12247]. Based on Russell, v. 2, Pl. 139. •Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:128 [ref. 29757]). •Status uncertain -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

kurroides, Decapterus Bleeker [P.] 1855:420 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH.PISC 26977. Original as kurroïdes. •Valid as Decapterus kurroides Bleeker 1855 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:219 [ref. 19754], Smith-Vaniz 1986:650 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:579 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:162 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:433 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:162 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:57 [ref. 23921], Fricke 1999:250 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2718 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Kim et al. 2001:30 [ref. 25333], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:78 [ref. 27510], Hoese & Gates 2006:1158 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:122 [ref. 30425], Kimura et al. 2013:[9] [ref. 32890], Larson et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Decapterus kurroides Bleeker 1855. Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacif Sea, East Africa and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

lacerta, Scomber Pallas [P. S.] 1814:218 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Littora Chersonesi Tauricae. No types known. •Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:380 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:753 [ref. 18644], Parin 2003:S8 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:364 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lajang, Decapterus Bleeker [P.] 1855:302 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 16839] Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6087. •Valid as Decapterus lajang Bleeker 1855 -- (Nakamura in Okamura et al. 1982:231, 378 [ref. 8256], Chen et al. 1997:66 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830), but often misapplied to Decapterus macrosoma Bleeker 1851 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2720 [ref. 24833]). •Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830) -- (Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:332 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

lalandi, Seriola Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:208 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-0780 (1, dry), A-0803 (1, dry), A-5574 (1, dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:27 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Seriola zonata (Mitchill 1815) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:380 [ref. 7198]). •Valid as Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:209 [ref. 9277], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:153 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:657 [ref. 5718], Peden & Jamieson 1988:492 [ref. 12864], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:584 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:147 [ref. 14674], Randall et al. 1990:167 [ref. 15987], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Kuiter 1993:172 [ref. 23929], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:158 [ref. 25472], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:587 [ref. 22532], Allen & Robertson 1994:128 [ref. 22193], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:977 [ref. 22829], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:371 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:84 [ref. 24952], Kuiter 1997:154 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:167 [ref. 25919], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:288 [ref. 24555], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24670], Fricke 1999:256 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2740 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:15 [ref. 25829], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:32 [ref. 24590], Nakabo 2000:792 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122] as lalandii, Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:237 [ref. 25191], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:98 [ref. 25942], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:650 [ref. 25968], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:792 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 606 [ref. 26218], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Parin 2003:S7 [ref. 28536], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:311 [ref. 28072], Pequeño 2004:96 [ref. 28123], Randall 2005:237 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:373 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1167 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:239 [ref. 30952], Smith-Vaniz 2008:579 [ref. 30654], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30213], Dyer & Westneat 2010:606 [ref. 31446], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31256], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:362 [ref. 33547], Martinez-Takeshita et al. 2015:366 [ref. 33834] with restricted range, Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Smith-Vaniz 2015:1258 [ref. 34200], Pinheiro et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2502 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:445 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in subtropical to tempeate seas, including Red Sea, Hawaiian Islands. South Africa, Brazil, Australia to Chile (on ref. 33834). Habitat: brackish, marine.

lanceolatus, Chorinemus Girard [C. F.] 1858:168 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] St. Joseph Island, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 710. See also Girard 1859:21, Pl. 11 (fig. 5) [ref. 13405]. •Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:221 [ref. 7106]). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lathami, Trachurus Nichols [J. T.] 1920:479 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 42 (art. 13); ref. 18116] Orient, Long Island, Suffolk County, New York, U.S.A. Holotype: AMNH 7351. Paratypes: ?AMNH (2, not present). Additional material: AMNH 2776 (6). •Valid as Trachurus lathami Nichols 1920 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:329 [ref. 14275], Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:208 [ref. 14235], Robins & Ray 1986:161 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:382 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:147 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:135 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:295 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:110 [ref. 24474], Nekrasov 1994:85 [ref. 24544], Andreata & Séret 1996:586 [ref. 16204], Murdy et al. 1997:164 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:100 [ref. 25942], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:426 [ref. 26158], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1467 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:82 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:302 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus lathami Nichols 1920. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

laticaudis, Caranx Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:325, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Hall Sound, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS 16303-001 [ex MAMU F365]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. As Caranx laticandis on legend page (p. 358) -- regarded as a misspelling. •Synonym of Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775) -- (Gunn 1990:16 [ref. 20141]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

latus, Caranx Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:105, Pl. 56b (fig. 1) [Reise nach Griechenland und der Türkei; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. Possible syntypes: MHNN 455 (1). •Valid as Caranx latus Agassiz 1831 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:825 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:160 [ref. 23100], Bussing 1987:172 [ref. 22927], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:733 [ref. 18644], Boschung 1992:131 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:285 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:66 [ref. 24474], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:150 [ref. 22947], Murdy et al. 1997:166 [ref. 23144], Bussing 1998:274 [ref. 24179], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:293 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:238 [ref. 25013], Keith et al. 2000:92 [ref. 24547], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639] with author as Agazzis, Collette et al. 2003:109 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1441 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:278 [ref. 28815], Miller 2006:339 [ref. 28615], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:417 [ref. 30078], Wirtz et al. 2007:12, 32 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Matamoros et al. 2009:17 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Angulo et al. 2013:1000 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:47 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2479 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Caranx latus Agassiz 1831. Carangidae. Distribution: Western, central and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

latus, Scomber Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:127 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Off Carolina coast, U.S.A. Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.96 [Gronovius coll.] (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:220 [ref. 13434]. •Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Wheeler 1958:220 [ref. 13434], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:736 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leiarchus, Seriola Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:213 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6645. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:27 [ref. 12247]. Not reagarded as a replacement name, Mitchill's zonatus cited under more than one species. •Synonym of Seriola zonata (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Seriola zonata (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

leptolepis, Caranx Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:63 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6080. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:13 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier 1833) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:215 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477] with Valenciennes as author, Paxton et al. 1989:584 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:166 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:49 [ref. 20141], Randall 1995:186 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:451 [ref. 27969] with Valenciennes as author, Rainboth 1996:184 [ref. 22772], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:165 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:166 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:60 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2737 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:798 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:107 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:798 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:81 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:32 [ref. 27712], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Hoese & Gates 2006:1166 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:126 [ref. 30425], Allen & Erdmann 2012:438 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:336 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:121 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:228 [ref. 34104], Miesen et al. 2016:89 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Valid as Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to eastern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

leptosomus, Decapterus Ogilby [J. D.] 1898:760 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 22 (pt 4); ref. 14688] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Lectotype: AMS I.4362. Paralectotypes: AMS I.4363 (1). Lectotype selected by Whitley 1952:24 [ref. 4717]. •Synonym of Decapterus muroadsi (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:579 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:737 [ref. 18644], Hoese & Gates 2006:1159 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus muroadsi (Temminck & Schlegel 1844). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

lepturus, Caranx Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:106, Pl. 56b (fig. 2) [Reise nach Griechenland und der Türkei; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Caranx latus Agassiz 1831 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:733 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx latus Agassiz 1831. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lessonii, Caranx Lesson [R. P.] (ex Cuvier) 1831:155, Poissons Pl. 31 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Coasts of New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6048. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:14 [ref. 12247]. Also appeared in Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:113 [ref. 1002]. •Synonym of Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:311 [ref. 6207], Paxton et al. 1989:577 [ref. 12442], Hoese & Gates 2006:1155 [ref. 28997], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leucopthalmus, Chorinemus Richardson [J.] 1846:269 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:213, Pl. 22b [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Scomberoides commersonianus Lacepède 1801 -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:194 [ref. 7106], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:317 [ref. 6207]). •Synonym of Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède 1801 -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède 1801. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

leucurus, Caranx Günther [A.] 1864:24 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 4) (for 26 Jan. 1864); ref. 5752] Pacific coast of Panama. Syntypes: BMNH 1863.12.16.70-72 (orig. 2, now 3), ?ZMB 5419 (1). Also appeared in Günther 1864:228 [ref. 1976]. •Valid as Hemicaranx leucurus (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:127 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:106 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:967 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:86 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:278 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:289 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:396 [ref. 34894], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Hemicaranx leucurus (Günther 1864). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leucurus, Nauclerus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:255 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Between the Cape and Saint Helena. Syntypes: MNHN A-6577 (3). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:24 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ligulata, Seriola Poey [F.] 1860:231 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

lindemanensis, Ferdauia Whitley [G. P.] 1951:66 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1949-50; ref. 4711] Lindeman Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.7491. •Synonym of Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:575 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:23 [ref. 20141], Hoese & Gates 2006:1152 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

lineolatus, Seriolichthys Day [F.] 1867:559 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 2) (art. 7); ref. 1075] Madras, India. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.5.30.1 (1), ZSI 2885 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:739 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

linnei, Trachurus Malm [A. W.] 1877:421 [ ref. 2881] Original as Linnéi. Tentatively regarded as an unneeded replacement name for Scomber trachurus Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid "Strickland tautonomy"). Locality Sweden. •Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:381 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:753 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lioglossus, Caranx Günther [A.] 1860:432 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Sea of Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1880.4.21.121 (1). Replacement name for Leioglossus carangoides Bleeker 1851. •Synonym of Ulua mentalis (Cuvier 1833). Current status: Synonym of Ulua mentalis (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

lirio, Campogramma Dollfus [R.-P.] 1955:58, 145 [Travaux de l'Institut Scientifique Chérifien, Série Zoologie No. 6; ref. 17403] Nomen novum based on Centronotus vadigo of Risso 1810 (non Lacepède 1803) and Campogramma vadigo of Regan 1903:348-250 [ref. 3618] and available by reference to descriptions by these authors (art. 13.1 of the Code). •Synonym of Campogramma glaycos (Lacepède 1801) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:375 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:822 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2473 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Campogramma glaycos (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

liza, Scomber Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 125 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy. Carangidae.

longimanus, Decapterus Norman [J. R.] 1935:255, Fig. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 16 (no. 92); ref. 13916] Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic. Holotype: BMNH 1935.5.2.3. Paratypes: BMNH [ex SAM] (1). •Questionably a synonym of Trachurus suareus (Risso 1833) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:382 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:753 [ref. 18644]). •Valid as Trachurus longimanus (Norman 1935) -- (Collette & Parin 1991:11 [ref. 19110], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus longimanus (Norman 1935). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

longipes, Caranx Steindachner [F.] 1906:1404 [36] [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 43; ref. 20596] Samoa. Holotype (unique): NMW 60929. Later described in more detail in Steindachner 1906:1404 [ref. 4242]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

lugubris, Caranx Poey [F.] 1860:222 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba, western Atlantic. No types known. See Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1994 [ref. 21632] and Opinion 1841. •Valid as Caranx lugubris Poey 1860 -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:374 [ref. 7198], Kyushin et al. 1977:264 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:195 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:156 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:826 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:160 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:647 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:577 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:34 [ref. 13251], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:734 [ref. 18644], Randall et al. 1990:161 [ref. 15987], Cervigón 1992:286 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:68 [ref. 24474], Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:955 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:180 [ref. 22896], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:77 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:363 [ref. 24023], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Arruda 1997:83 [ref. 24952], Kuiter 1997:158 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:161 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:55 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:138 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:247 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2713 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:238 [ref. 25013], Randall 1999:15 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:801 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:230 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:288 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Nakabo 2002:801 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Collette et al. 2003:109 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1442 [ref. 27083], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576] dated 1861, Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576] dated 1861, Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:304 [ref. 28072], Pequeño 2004:96 [ref. 28123], Randall 2005:228 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:366 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:279 [ref. 28815], Trunov 2006:475 [ref. 28786], Hoese & Gates 2006:1156 [ref. 28997], Wirtz et al. 2007:11, 32 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:229 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Allen & Erdmann 2012:434 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:258 [ref. 32706], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:47 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33516], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:222 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2480 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:445 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Caranx lugubris Poey 1860. Carangidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through warm temperate seas, including Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

luna, Caranx Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 23 (figs. 3-4) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5855. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:14 [ref. 12247]. Species name misspelled lune by Cuvier 1831:153 [ref. 30376]. •Synonym of Caranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:373 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:85 [ref. 26753]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lundini, Decapterus Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:229, Fig. 27 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Pago Pago, American Samoa. Holotype (unique): USNM 51727. •Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:309 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2692 [ref. 24833], Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lusitanicus, Trachurus de Brito Capello [F.] 1867:235 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14042] Not available, name only. Carangidae.

lutescens, Scomber Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1843:26 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 11 (nos 67-8, 71-2); ref. 13395] Ocean; Australian streams; New Zealand. No types known. Based on Solander manuscript and a Parkinson drawing. •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lysan, Scomber Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:54, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, or [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P46435 (dry skin). Paralectotypes: ZMUC P46436 (1, dry skin, head missing). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:63 [ref. 9588]. Spelled lyzan in Lacepède 1801:317 [ref. 2710] and Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:387 [ref. 1000]. Lectotype selected and figured by Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:22 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:205 [ref. 7106], Dor 1984:130 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:153 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:655 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:317 [ref. 6207], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:582 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:34 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:165 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:44 [ref. 20141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:825 [ref. 20764], Kuiter 1993:178 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:185 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:444 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:164 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:165 [ref. 25919], Kimura et al. 1998:510 [ref. 23341], Lin & Shao 1999:64 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:142 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:254 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2732 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:794 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:236 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:197 [ref. 27511], Nakabo 2002:794 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:311 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:234 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:371 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1164 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:237 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:124 [ref. 30425], Motomura et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31256], Ho & Shao 2011: 45 [ref. 31432], Allen & Erdmann 2012:437 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:259 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:227 [ref. 34104], Miesen et al. 2016:89 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Valid as Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa to Mozambique Channel, Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lyzan, Centronotus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:309, 316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Not available, incorrect subsequent spelling for Scomber lysan Forsskal 1775. Carangidae.

macarellus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:40 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Martinique, West Indies, western Atlantic. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-5850. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-6245 (1), B-2880 [ex MNHN 0000-5850] (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:14 [ref. 12247]. Lectotype selected by Berry 1968:161 [ref. 7867]. •Valid as Decapterus macarellus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:375 [ref. 7198], Dor 1984:128 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:828 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:161 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:650 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:376 [ref. 25518], Paxton et al. 1989:579 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:163 [ref. 15987], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:736 [ref. 18644], Boschung 1992:131 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:287 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:73 [ref. 24474], Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:104 [ref. 23101], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:963 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:182 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:433 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Santos et al. 1997:85 [ref. 23531], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:84 [ref. 24545], Pequeño 1997:83 [ref. 23536], Carpenter et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23922], Arruda 1997:83 [ref. 24952], Kuiter 1997:156 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:163 [ref. 25919], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Lin & Shao 1999:57 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:140 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:250 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2719 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:240 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:73 [ref. 25466], Nakabo 2000:798 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909] as cf. macarellus, Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:416 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:798 [ref. 26001], Collette et al. 2003:109 [ref. 26784], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1445 [ref. 27083], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:78 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Smith et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27621], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:231 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:368 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:282 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Gates 2006:1158 [ref. 28997], Wirtz et al. 2007:32 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:232 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31256], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Kimura et al. 2013:[2] [ref. 32890], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:82 [ref. 33932], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:48 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33516], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:223 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2484 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Decapterus macarellus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas, including Red Sea, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Caranx Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:97, Pl. 25 (fig. 4) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 27 (3). •Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (Dor 1984:131 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Caranx Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:107, Pl. 56a (fig. 1) [Reise nach Griechenland und der Türkei; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Caranx macrophthalmus Rüppell 1830. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Caranx Steindachner [F.] 1867:64 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 4 (no. 8); ref. 20462] Monrovia, Liberia. Holotype (unique): NMW 75559. Species also appeared on p. 441 of English version [ref. 20462]; later appeared in more detail in Steindachner 1867: 519, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [ref. 4215]; and on p. 3 of separate. •Synonym of Caranx senegallus Cuvier 1833 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:312 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:735 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx senegallus Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrosoma, Decapterus Bleeker [P.] 1851:358 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1880.4.21.129-130 (2); RMNH 6084 (7), 23482 [ex RMNH 6084] (1). Also in Bleeker 1851:87 [ref. 332]. •Valid as Decapterus macrosoma Bleeker 1851 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:217 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:491, 679 [ref. 8056], Smith-Vaniz 1986:650 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:579 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], Randall et al. 1990:163 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:179 [ref. 23929], Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Suzuki & Hosokawa 1994:4 [ref. 24339], Bussing & López S. 1994:104 [ref. 23101], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:964 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:182 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:434 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23922], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:84 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:376 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:163 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:24 [ref. 23611], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:274, 391 [ref. 24555], Lin & Shao 1999:57 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:140 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2720 [ref. 24833], Kim & Kim 1999:18 [ref. 25723], Nakabo 2000:796 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:796 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 604 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:79 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:231 [ref. 28239], Shinohara et al. 2005:433 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:368 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1158 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:233 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:122 [ref. 30425], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31256], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Kimura et al. 2013:[2] [ref. 32890], Larson et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:223 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Decapterus macrosoma Bleeker 1851. Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa east to Hawaiian Islands, northern Line Islands (Kiribati) and Gambier Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Port Hedland (Western Australia), New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga; Galápagos Archipelago and Gulf of California (Mexico) to Peru. Habitat: marine.

macrurus, Selar Bleeker [P.] 1851:359 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?RMNH 6092 (2), 27641 (1). Also in Bleeker 1851:52 [ref. 332]. •Synonym of Alepes vari (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2690 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Alepes vari (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculatus, Elacate (Chorinemus) Swainson [W.] 1839:244 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Cuv. pl. 236 -- which is Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:Pl. 236 [ref. 1000]. Unexplained and unneeded replacement name for Chorinemus sanctipetri Cuvier 1832. •Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculatus, Scomber Richardson [J.] (ex Forster) 1843:24 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 11 (nos 67-8, 71-2); ref. 13395] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy of Chorinemus forsteri. •In the synonymy of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:336 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae.

maculatus, Scomber Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:26 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Not available, manuscript name mentioned under account of Scomber forsteri. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Carangidae.

maculatus, Zeus Sessé [M.] & Mocigno [J. M.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:220 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Not available, name mentioned in passing; from Mexico. Modern spelling of second author's name is Mociño. Carangidae.

maculosus, Chorinemus Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialites; ref. 13269] Queensland, Australia. Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. Carangidae.

madagascariensis, Scomber Shaw [G.] 1803:590 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Unneeded new name for Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède 1801. •Objective synonym of Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède 1801 -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:194 [ref. 7106], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:316 [ref. 6207]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède 1801. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

madeirensis, Trachinotus Borodin [N. A.] 1934:111, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 4); ref. 529] Funchal, Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Holotype: VMM 1279 (128 mm) not found in 1996. Paratypes: MCZ 33395 [ex VMM 1279] (1), VMM 1279 (1, not found in 1996). Genus appeared as Trachinus in text but corrected in Errata to Trachinotus, also for plate caption. •Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

magog, Caranx Montrouzier [X.] 1857:452 [174] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 174 of reprint. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

major, Blepharis Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:163 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Antilles. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7451. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:8 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

major, Gallichtys Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:168, Pl. 254 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Puducherry and Visakhapatnam, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-5704 (1, dry), A-5705 (2, dry), A-6851 (1), 1103 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:23 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Alectis indica (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis indica (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

malabaricus, Olistus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:137, Pl. 251 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Malabar, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3061. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-0588 (1) Seychelles. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:25 [ref. 12247] with MNHN 3061 as holotype; MNHN 3061 designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:1007 [ref. 23416]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Carangoides by Scomber malabaricus Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Synonym of Carangoides hedlandensis (Whitley 1934). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides hedlandensis (Whitley 1934). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

malabaricus, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:31 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebariam [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8760 (right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:55 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Caranx malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:265 [ref. 26385]). •Valid as Carangoides malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:204 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:125 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:645 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:576 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:160 [ref. 15987], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:224 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:179 [ref. 22896], Gunn 1990:32 [ref. 20141], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:430 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:159 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:62 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:160 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:53 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2704 [ref. 24833], Mishra et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:807 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:807 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Parin 2003:S6 [ref. 28536], Hoese & Gates 2006:1154 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Allen & Erdmann 2012:431 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:120 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:118 [ref. 34464], Parin et al. 2014:360 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:220 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Japan and Kuril Islands, south to Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia) and New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

malam, Selar Bleeker [P.] 1851:362 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: AMS B.8028 [from Day] (1); BMNH 1880.4.21.125-126 (2); RMNH 6094 or 8386 (20, syntypes included), 27643 (1); SMNS 10582 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:11 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:24 [ref. 29864]. Also in Bleeker 1851:55 [ref. 332]. •Valid as Caranx malam Bleeker 1851 -- (Chen et al. 1997:65 [ref. 26476] dated 1861). •Synonym of Alepes melanoptera (Swainson 1839) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2689 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Alepes melanoptera (Swainson 1839). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mandibularis, Caranx Macleay [W.] 1882:356 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 17585] New Guinea. Syntypes: AMS I.16302-001 [ex MAMU F363 (2)]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Ulua mentalis (Cuvier 1833) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:587 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:53 [ref. 20141], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2753 [ref. 24833], Hoese & Gates 2006:1172 [ref. 28997], Motomura et al. 2007:229 [ref. 29492]). Current status: Synonym of Ulua mentalis (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

manilensis, Caranx Roxas [H. A.] & Martin [C.] 1937:92 [Checklist of Philippine fishes; ref. 19807] Manila Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 30 (destroyed). Replacement name for Caranx auriga Seale 1910, which was preoccupied by Caranx auriga DeVis 1884. •Synonym of Caranx tille Cuvier 1833 -- (Pers. Comm. W. Smith-Vaniz, Dec. 2004). Current status: Synonym of Caranx tille Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

marcgravii, Guaperva Plumier [C.] in Lacepède 1802:562 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Regarded as name only, not available. Carangidae.

margaretae, Trachurus Berry [F. H.] & Cohen [D. M.] 1974:191, Fig. 2 [Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences v. 35 (no. 4) [1972]; ref. 7489] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: USNM 93661. Paratypes: ANSP 146394 [? ex USNM] (1), SAM 16734 (1), ?UF [ex TABL 107267] (1), USNM 153510 (orig. 3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Trachurus delagoa Nekrasov 1970 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:659 [ref. 5718]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus delagoa Nekrasov 1970. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

margarita, Caranx Richardson [J.] 1846:276 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; Sea of China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:213, Pl. 21c [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

marginatus, Carangus Gill [T. N.] 1863:166 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 30958. •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Randall 1995:181 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2716 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:367 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

marginatus, Caranx Schlegel [H.] in Bleeker 1862:139 [17] [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 14; ref. 389] On p. 17 of separate. Not available, name on specimen which Bleeker described as Hemicarax marginatus. Carangidae.

marginatus, Hemicaranx Bleeker [P.] 1862:138 [16] [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 14; ref. 389] Ashantee, Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 1381. On p. 16 of separate. •Synonym of Hemicaranx bicolor (Günther 1860) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:315 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:739 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:680 [ref. 21590]). Current status: Synonym of Hemicaranx bicolor (Günther 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginatus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:411 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Montevideo, Uruguay. Syntypes: MNHN A-6822 (2, poor condition). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus marginatus Cuvier 1832 -- (Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:399 [ref. 24427], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1436 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:82 [ref. 27192], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus marginatus Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

martini, Trachinotus Steindachner [F.] 1870:711 [43], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) in continuation [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 60 (1. Abth.); ref. 18766] Senegal, western Africa. Syntypes: NMW 87138 (3). On p. 43 of separate. Figured in Pl. 1 (fig. 1) of continuation [ref. 18767]. •Synonym of Trachinotus teraia Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:322 [ref. 6207], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:421 [ref. 30078]). •Possible synonym of Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:421 [ref. 30078]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

martinicensis, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:39 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2917. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:31, 33 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Current status: Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maruadsi, Caranx Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843 [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Japan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Not same as muroadsi Temminck & Schlegel. •Valid as Decapterus maruadsi (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:250 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:216 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:434 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:66 [ref. 26476] dated 1844, Cheng & Zhou 1997:270 [ref. 26385] dated 1842, Lin & Shao 1999:58 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:140 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:797 [ref. 25086], Shimizu 2001:29 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:797 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 604 [ref. 26218], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495] dated 1844, Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957] dated to 1844, Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708] dated 1844, Kimura et al. 2013:[2] [ref. 32890]). Current status: Valid as Decapterus maruadsi (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

mate, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:54 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Puducherry, India; Seychelles; New Guinea; Antjer Strait. Syntypes: MNHN A-5489 (1, dry) Puducherry, A-5523 (1, dry) Puducherry, 5837 (1) New Guinea, 5838 (1) Seychelles, 5839 (1, poor condition) Strait of Antjer. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:14 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Alepes mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Dor 1984:123 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Caranx mate Cuvier 1833 -- (Chen et al. 1997:64 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Atule mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:214 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:641 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:309 [ref. 6207], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:574 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:157 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:13 [ref. 20141], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:290 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:175 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:424 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:157 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:156 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:157 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:50 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:137 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:244 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2692 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:733 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:799 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:227 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:102 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368] as mata, Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:202 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Randall et al. 2002:157 [ref. 26192], Nakabo 2002:799 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:74 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:223 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:363 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1151 [ref. 28997], Ito et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29495], Randall 2007:226 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:55 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:117 [ref. 30425], Allen & Erdmann 2012:428 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:258 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:117 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:217 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Atule mate (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mozambique Channel, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

mauriceii, Argyriosus Swainson [W.] 1839:408, Fig. 134 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mauritianus, Caranx Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:359 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6169. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:14 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (Dor 1984:131 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644], Fricke 1999:255 [ref. 24106], Mundy 2005:372 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

mauritianus, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:382 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Mauritius, Mahé, Sulawesi, and Vaniloro. Syntypes: MNHN A-0570 (1) Mauritius, A-6612 (2) Sulawesi, A-6649 (1) Mauritius; plus Vanicolo and Mahé specimens not found. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:20 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:205 [ref. 7106], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:317 [ref. 6207], Fricke 1999:254 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maxillosus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:420 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6239. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2506 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maximus, Trachurus Plumier [C.] in Lacepède 1801:83 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Appeared as "Trachurus maximus, squamis minutissimis" in account of Caranxomorus plumierianus; regarded as non-binominal and name only, thus not available. Carangidae.

mazatlana, Seriola Steindachner [F.] 1876:56 [8] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): NMW 76686. On p. 8 of separate. •Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:977 [ref. 22829], Smith-Vaniz pers. comm., May 2005, Dyer & Westneat 2010:606 [ref. 31446]). •Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:371 [ref. 24023] [but see McCosker 1998:810]). •Synonym of Seriola peruana Steindachner 1881 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:288 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Seriola dorsalis (Gill 1863) -- (on ref. of Martinez-Takeshita et al. 2013:366 [ref. 33834]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mccullochi, Trachurus Nichols [J. T.] 1920:478 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 42 (art. 13); ref. 18116] Investigator Strait, South Australia; Wide Bay, Queensland; Swan River, Western Australia; Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS E.2450 (1), I.9617-19 (1, 1, 1), I.4212 (1), I.9591 (1), I.11031 (1), I.12412. (1) Based on McCulloch 1915:125, Pl. 34 [ref. 2941]; Nichols did not examine specimens. •Synonym of Trachurus novaezelandiae Richardson 1843 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:586 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:590 [ref. 22532], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2751 [ref. 24833], Hoese & Gates 2006:1171 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus novaezelandiae Richardson 1843. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mediterraneus, Caranx trachurus var. Steindachner [F.] 1868:383 [33] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 57 (1. abth.); ref. 14080] Mediterranean Sea. On p. 33 of separate. Described as "Variatio mediterranea..." •Valid as Trachurus mediterraneus (Steindachner 1868) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:381 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:841 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:752 [ref. 18644], Nekrasov 1994:29 [ref. 24544], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:86 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S8 [ref. 28536], Fricke et al. 2007:85 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:93 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:171 [ref. 31251], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2509 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus mediterraneus (Steindachner 1868). Carangidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Senegal. Habitat: brackish, marine.

medusicola, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:430, Pl. 34 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.108 [from Jordan] (1); CAS-SU 2845 [not 2645 as published] (42), 63326 (1). •Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:956 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:294 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2714 [ref. 24833], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

megalaspis, Selar Bleeker [P.] 1854:502 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5965] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) RMNH 6077 (2), 24277 (1). •Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Current status: Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

melampygus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:116 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Waigeo, Indonesia; Rawak Island, Bismarck Archipelago; Buru, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Vanikoro, Santa Cruz Islands; Mauritius, Mascarenes. Syntypes: MNHN A-6028 (1) Buru, A-6069 (1) Mauritius, A-6162 (1) Vanikoro, A-6083 (1) Waigeo, A-6162 (1) Vanikoro, A-6163 (1) Vanikoro. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:15 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:256 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:127 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:647 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:578 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:34 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:161 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:174 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:102 [ref. 23101], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:956 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:181 [ref. 22896], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:77 [ref. 24545] as melempygus, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:364 [ref. 24023], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:64 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:160 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:161 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:55 [ref. 23921], Marquet et al. 1999:43 [ref. 23934], Myers 1999:139 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:248 [ref. 24106], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:294 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2714 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:15 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:801 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:231 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:102 [ref. 25868], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:206 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:96 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:801 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:77 [ref. 27510], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:77 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:31 [ref. 27712], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:305 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:229 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:367 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:230 [ref. 30952], Hoese & Gates 2006:1157 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:121 [ref. 30425], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:434 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:258 [ref. 32706], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:82 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:222 [ref. 34104], Miesen et al. 2016:89 [ref. 34492], Fourriére et al. 2016:445 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Mozambique Channel, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Panama (eastern Pacific) and Revillagigedo Islands, north to Izu Islands, Ogasawara Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to Dampier Archipelago (Western Australia), New South Wales (Australia), Norfolk Island and Rapa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanoptera, Seriola Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1851:66 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 5); ref. 332] Not available, name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Carangoides atropus. Carangidae.

melanoptera, Trachinus (Alepes) Swainson [W.] 1839:248 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on Russ. pl. 155 (Evori. Parah.) -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 155 [ref. 13862]. Smith-Vaniz pers. communication 5/12/2016 says does not occur in Hawaiian Islands. •Valid as Trachinus melanoptera Swainson 1839 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:212 [ref. 19754]). •Valid as Alepes melanoptera (Swainson 1839) -- (Randall 1995:174 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:421 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:156 [ref. 23922], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2689 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:117 [ref. 30425], Yoshida et al. 2013:116 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:216 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Alepes melanoptera (Swainson 1839). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanosaurus, Caranx Cocco [A.] 1839:58 [L' Innominato, Giornale di Amena Letteratura e Belle Arti Anno 3 (no. 7); ref. 18012] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:382 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:752 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

melanostethos, Caranx Day [F.] 1865:23 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865 (pt 1) (art. 1); ref. 17367] Cochin, Malabar coast, India. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: BMNH 1865.7.17.1 (right half skin), ZSI 3053 (1, destroyed). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. Also appeared in Day 1865:83, Pl. 6 [ref. 1074]. •Synonym of Carangoides praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2708 [ref. 24833]). •Synonym of Olistus praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

mentalis, Caranx Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:124 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5226. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:37 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Ulua mentalis (Cuvier 1833) -- (Dor 1984:132 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz 1986:660 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:76 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:587 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:52 [ref. 20141], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:189 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:459 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:118 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:167 [ref. 23922], Anderson et al. 1998:24 [ref. 23611], Lin & Shao 1999:61 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:141 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2753 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Hoese & Gates 2006:1172 [ref. 28997], Motomura et al. 2007:229 [ref. 29492], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:127 [ref. 30425], Ho & Shao 2011: 45 [ref. 31432], Allen & Erdmann 2012:440 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:122 [ref. 34464], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:45 [ref. 34319]). Current status: Valid as Ulua mentalis (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

mertensii, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:64 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Manila, Philippines. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:37 [ref. 12247]. Based on a figure. •Synonym of Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier 1833) -- (Kottelat 2013:336 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

micans, Scomber Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1843:27 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 11 (nos 67-8, 71-2); ref. 13395] Motuari, Bay of Islands, New Zealand. No types known. Based on Solander manuscript. •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

micraspis, Caranx Kner [R.] 1868:28 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 58 (nos 1-2); ref. 6074] Sunda Strait, Indonesia. Appeared in more detail in Kner 1868:321 [29 of separate], Pl. 5 (fig. 13) [ref. 2646]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

microbrachium, Caranx Fowler [H. W.] 1934:420, Fig. 9 [Annals of the Natal Museum v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 16422] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: ANSP 53448. Paratypes: ANSP 53449 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Alepes djedaba (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:641 [ref. 5718]). Current status: Synonym of Alepes djedaba (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

microchir, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:59 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Sunda Strait, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN A-6171 (5, poor condition). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:15 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Alepes para (Cuvier 1833). •Synonym of "Caranx" kleinii (Bloch 1793) -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm.). •Synonym of "Alepes" kleinii (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2688 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

microchir, Trachinotus Bleeker [P.] 1863:78 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Not available, museum name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Tachynotus maxillosus (Cuvier 1832). Carangidae.

micropterus, Caranx Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1836:46, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 478. •Synonym of Uraspis helvola (Forster 1801) -- (Dor 1984:132 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:754 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2754 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2513 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis helvola (Forster 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

micropteryx, Platysomus Swainson [W.] 1839:250, 406, Fig. 133 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Pernambuco, Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

micropus, Selar Bleeker [P.] 1860:39 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 4); ref. 377] Sungiduri, Borneo. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Current status: Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

milnensis, Carangoides Whitley [G. P.] 1949:29 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1947-48; ref. 31005] Milne Bay, Eastern Division of Papua. Holotype: CSIROC 31. Paratype: whereabouts unknown. This species overlooked until found by W. White in Nov. 2010. Also appeared in Whitley [G. P.] 1949. "Fish Doctor" in Papua. The Australian Museum Magazine IX:340-347 with a figure [earliest not researched, Magazine was for 30 March 1949]. •Synonym of Alepes vari (Cuvier 1833) -- (pers. comm.W. Whiteand W. Smith-Vaniz 20/10/2010). Current status: Synonym of Alepes vari (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

mitchilli, Argyriosus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:126 [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing under Argyreiosus capillaris. •In the synonymy of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1986:426 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae.

miyakamii, Caranx (Atule) Wakiya [Y.] 1924:201, Pl. 29 (fig. 4) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Taiwan [Formosa]. Holotype (unique): FMNH 59407 [ex CM 7742]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:90 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:20 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:44 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793) -- (Ho & Shao 2011:44 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

moadetta, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:382 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea; Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Syntypes: MNHN A-0569 (1) Red Sea; Trincomalee specimen not found. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:20 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Chorinemus moadetta Cuvier 1832 -- (Chen et al. 1997:69 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:205 [ref. 7106], Dor 1984:130 [ref. 29757], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:317 [ref. 6207], Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

moadetta, Lichia Cuvier [G.] or Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:382 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Red Sea. Combination cited in passing under Chorinemus moadetta Cuvier; not available. •In the synonymy of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:130 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Mundy 2005:371 [ref. 28379] dated 1832). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae.

moluccensis, Thynnus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:121 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Molucca Islands. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.29 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:220 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Chorinemus sanctipetri Cuvier 1832 -- (Wheeler 1958:220 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:205 [ref. 7106], Kottelat 2013:336 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

momsa, Hynnis Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:235, Pl. 1 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 34 (no. 2); ref. 10957] Manila market, Philippines (from near the entrance to Manila Bay or from Subic Bay). Holotype (unique): BSMP 15216 (presumed destroyed). •Synonym of Alectis indica (Rüppell 1830) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:309 [ref. 6207], Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis indica (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mookalee, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:423 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Malabar coast, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2981 (1) Puducherry, A-6823 (1) Malabar. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus mookalee Cuvier 1832 -- (Randall 1995:189 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:167 [ref. 23922], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2749 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:135 [ref. 26352], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Hussain & Jawad 2014:256 [ref. 33657], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:45 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:231 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus mookalee Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Oman east to East China Sea, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

morabi, Seriola Montrouzier [X.] 1857:454 [176] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 176 of reprint. Manuscript name mentioned in synonymy, validly proposed as Trachinotus morabi. Carangidae.

morabi, Trachinotus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:454 [176] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 176 of reprint. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

moresbyensis, Caranx Macleay [W.] 1882:358 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 17585] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS 16305-001 [ex MAMU F369]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833 -- (Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mullicephalus, Caranx Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1851:363 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Name only, not available, in the synonymy of Caranx cynodon Bleeker 1851. Carangidae.

mundus, Oligoplites Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2844 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] San Juan Lagoon, at mouth of Río Ahome, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 48876. Additional material or paratypes: BMNH 1903.5.15.185 (1), CAS-SU 322 (3), USNM 46496 (3). •Synonym of Oligoplites altus (Günther 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:223 [ref. 7106], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:970 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:283 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:277 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites altus (Günther 1868). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

muroadsi, Caranx Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1844:108, Pl. 58 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 5-6; ref. 4372] Ōmura Bay, Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture, Kyūshū, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH D941 (stuffed). Originally as muro-adsi in text, muroadsi in plate. •Valid as Decapterus muroadsi (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:579 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:737 [ref. 18644], Kuiter 1993:179 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:965 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:85 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:377 [ref. 24023], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2721 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:798 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Kim et al. 2001:28 [ref. 25333], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:798 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 604 [ref. 26218], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:232 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:368 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1159 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:233 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31256], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Kimura et al. 2013:[2] [ref. 32890], Psomadakis et al. 2015:224 [ref. 34104], Smith-Vaniz 2015:1252 [ref. 34200], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2485 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Decapterus muroadsi (Temminck & Schlegel 1844). Carangidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: Saint Helena; eastern Indian Ocean and Pacific: western Victoria (Australia) west to Onslow (Western Australia); New South Wales (Australia) east to Easter Island, Sala-y-Gomez Ridge and Nazca Ridge, south to Lord Howe and Kermadec Islands; Guam; southern Japan; Hawaiian Islands; Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

murphyi, Trachurus Nichols [J. T.] 1920:479 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 42 (art. 13); ref. 18116] Central Island, Chincha Islands, Peru. Holotype (unique): AMNH 7259 (lost ?). Additional material: AMNH 7260 (1, not found in 1991 but may = AMNH 55311). •Synonym of Trachurus symmetricus (Ayres 1855), but a valid subspecies -- (Konchina et al. 1996:793 [ref. 24667], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:378 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:274, 391 [ref. 24555]). •Valid as Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920 -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:210 [ref. 14235], Kawahara et al. 1988:212 [ref. 22496], Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], Kawahara in Amaoka et al. 1990:269 [ref. 16024], Nekrasov 1994:154 [ref. 24544], Allen & Robertson 1994:129 [ref. 22193], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:984 [ref. 22829], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:32 [ref. 24590], Hoese & Gates 2006:1171 [ref. 28997], Smith-Vaniz 2008:581 [ref. 30654], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz 2015:1261 [ref. 34200]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920. Carangidae. Distribution: Pacific and western Atlantic (Chile and Peru). Habitat: marine.

myrias, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:421 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6220. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. Based on one specimen and literature. •Synonym of Trachinotus goreensis Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:749 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2505 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus goreensis Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nasutus, Trachynotus Gill [T. N.] 1863:85 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM. •Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Caranx Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1911:39 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 14790] Umhloti, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1926.7.20.2 (1), SAM 10560 (1). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:654 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2730 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

niger, Stromateus Bloch [M. E.] 1795:93, Pl. 422 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8755 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:56 [ref. 24282]. On p. 85 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Apolectus niger (Bloch 1795) -- (Dor 1984:134 [ref. 29757], Paxton et al. 1989:581 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Mishra et al. 1999:89 [ref. 25315], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703]). •Valid as Formio niger (Bloch 1795) -- (Chen et al. 1997:70 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:279 [ref. 26385] dated 1792). •Valid as Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:290 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:255 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:654 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Ataur Rahman 1989:264 [ref. 24860], Randall et al. 1990:164 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:184 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:443 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:163 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:164 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:59 [ref. 23921], Fricke 1999:253 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2729 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:791 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:791 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 605 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:80 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:32 [ref. 27712], Ataur Rahman 2003:288 [ref. 31338], Mundy 2005:370 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1162 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:123 [ref. 30425], Hilton et al. 2010:312 [ref. 30385], Larson et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:120 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:421 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:44 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:226 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Philippines, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

niger, Zeus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:98 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazil. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

nigrescens, Caranx Day [F.] 1868:704 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3); ref. 14045] Near Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ?ZSI 30. Day specimens: BMNH 1868.10.27.6 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier 1833). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigripes, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:122 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Gulf of Bengal; Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-5475 (1, dry), A-5508 (1, dry), A-6133 (1, dry); ZMB 8605 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:15 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Atropus atropos (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Atropus atropos (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

nigripinnis, Caranx Day [F.] 1876:225, Pl. 51 (fig. 5) [The fishes of India Part 2; ref. 1081] Madras, India; Andaman Islands. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.8043 (1, syntype) Madras; ZSI 241 (1), 267 (1), 2845 (1, destroyed). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Alepes melanoptera (Swainson 1839) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2688 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Alepes melanoptera (Swainson 1839). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

nigrofasciatus, Nomeus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:92, Pl. 24 (fig. 2) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 1655 (2), 17520 (1, skeleton). Possible syntype: BMNH 1845.10.29.113 [from Rüppell in 1845] (1). •Valid as Zonichthys nigrofasciata (Rüppell 1829) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:280 [ref. 19756], Chen et al. 1997:68 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Seriolina nigrofasciata (Rüppell 1829) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:224 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:133 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:153 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:657 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:585 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:167 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:50 [ref. 20141], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:187 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:455 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:166 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:167 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:63 [ref. 23921], Fricke 1999:256 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2742 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:792 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:792 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 607 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:313 [ref. 28072], Hoese & Gates 2006:1168 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:126 [ref. 30425], Larson et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32988] as serolina, Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:122 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:422 [ref. 33460], Psomadakis et al. 2015:229 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Seriolina nigrofasciata (Rüppell 1829). Carangidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic; Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

nitidus, Carangoides Smith [M. M.] in Smith 1972:236, Pls. 30B. 44 [Occasional Papers J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology; ref. 22925] Shimoni, Kenya. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 1. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (1). Appeared first in a printed "Addendum" glued into Smith 1969:215 [ref. 21950] as nitidus, Carangoides 1971 [in press]; published in an available way as above. •Synonym of Carangoides orthogrammus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2706 [ref. 24833], Kim & Kim 1999:17 [ref. 25723] as nitiuds). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides orthogrammus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

nobilis, Caranx Macleay [W.] 1881:532 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 4); ref. 2869] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): MAMU (apparently lost). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:582 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644], Gomon et al. 1994:585 [ref. 22532], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2730 [ref. 24833], Hoese & Gates 2006:1163 [ref. 28997]). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2006:101 [ref. 28900]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

noelii, Scomberoides Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:50, 51 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality [probably Suriname]. Holotype (unique): MNHN (whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:40 [ref. 12247]. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:387, 388 (vol. 7) [ref. 30473]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

normani, Decapterus Bertin [L.] & Dollfus [R. P.] 1948:21, Fig. 7 [Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Paris N.S. v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 12937] Nosy Be [Nossi-Bé], Mozambique Channel, Madagascar. Holotype: MNHN 1947-0007. Paratypes: MNHN A-6147 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:22 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Alepes mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Dor 1984:124 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:641 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:309 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2692 [ref. 24833], Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

novaeboracensis, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:41 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2929 (4). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:33 [ref. 12247]. Originally as Novae-Boracensis. •Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

novaeguineae, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:63 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] New Guinea. Syntypes: MNHN A-6112 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:15 [ref. 12247]. Originally as Novae Guineae. •Synonym of Selar crumnophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

novaezelandiae, Trachurus Richardson [J.] 1843:21 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science v. 12 (12th meeting [1842]); ref. 12502] New Zealand. Lectotype: MNHN A-5997. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:30-31 [ref. 12247]. Based on specimens and description in Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833. Lectotype selected by Stephenson & Robertson 1977:247 [ref. 19342]. •Valid as Trachurus novaezelandiae Richardson 1843 -- (Kawahara et al. 1988:212 [ref. 22496], Paxton et al. 1989:586 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], Kawahara in Amaoka et al. 1990:268 [ref. 16024], Kuiter 1993:178 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:589 [ref. 22532], Nekrasov 1994:132 [ref. 24544], Kuiter 1997:156 [ref. 25488], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2751 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Gates 2006:1171 [ref. 28997], Smith-Vaniz 2008:581 [ref. 30654], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz 2015:1262 [ref. 34200]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus novaezelandiae Richardson 1843. Carangidae. Distribution: Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

noveboracensis, Naucrates Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:325 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5397. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:25 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:741 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

oblongus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:128 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Vanikoro [New Guinea in register]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6172. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:15 [ref. 12247]. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:126 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Caranx oblongus Cuvier 1833 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Carangichthys oblongus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Nakabo 2000:804 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:804 [ref. 26001], Kimura 2009:117 [ref. 30425]). •Valid as Carangoides oblongus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:645 [ref. 5718], Paxton et al. 1989:576 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:33[ref. 20141], Randall et al. 1997:512 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:54 [ref. 23921], Fricke 1999:246 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2705 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:226 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1154 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:432 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:120 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides oblongus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden, East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

oblongus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:437 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Java, Indonesia; Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-6824 (1) Puducherry; Java specimen not found. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Carangichthys oblongus (Cuvier 1832) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:156 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207] as bailloni, Hussain & Jawad 2014:255 [ref. 33657]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

obtusiceps, Caranx Macleay [W.] 1882:357 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 17585] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Syntypes: AMS I.16301-001 [ex MAMU F360] (9). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Gunn 1990:40 [ref. 20141]). Current status: Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

occidentalis, Chorinemus Günther [A.] 1860:475 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Western Atlantic and West Indies. Syntypes: BMNH. •Regarded as available and as a synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:221 [ref. 7106]). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ocellata, Caranx praeustus var. Bleeker [P.] 1851:363 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. •Synonym of Carangoides praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). •Synonym of Olistus praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ophthalmotaenia, Carangoides Bleeker [P.] 1852:90 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 5); ref. 332] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) ?RMNH 6112 (1), 26972 (1), ?27127 [ex RMNH 6112] (1). Also in Bleeker 1852:270 [ref. 16825], earliest not established but ref. 332 written in 1849, 16825 in 1852. •Synonym of Carangoides coeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides coeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Chorinemus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1844:106, Pl. 57 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 5-6; ref. 4372] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D852 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D851 (stuffed), 1336 (2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:98 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:205 [ref. 7106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2732 [ref. 24833], Kottelat 2013:336 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

orqueta, Chloroscombrus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:646 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 334) (for 26 June 1883); ref. 10616] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.5.15.188 (1); USNM 29165 (3), 29278 (?now 0), 29285 (1), 29343 (? now 0). •Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:314 [ref. 6207]). •Valid as Chloroscombrus orqueta Jordan & Gilbert 1883 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:208 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:106 [ref. 23101], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:962 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:83 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:360 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:277 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:282 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1444 [ref. 27083], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], McMahan et al. 2013:449 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:395 [ref. 34894], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Chloroscombrus orqueta Jordan & Gilbert 1883. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

orstedii, Selene Lütken [C. F.] 1880:552 [144] [Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter, Naturvidenskabelig og mathematisk afdeling, Kjøbenhavn (Ser. 5) v. 12; ref. 17569] Puntarenas, Costa Rica [not Nicaragua]. Syntypes: ZMUC P34-35 (2). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:63 [ref. 9588]. On p. 144 of separate. Original spelling was Ørstedii, so spelling should be orstedii -- not a German name. •Valid as Selene oerstedii [sic] Lütken 1880 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:128 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:100 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:975 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545] as oerstedii, Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:282 [ref. 24555] as oerstedii, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:285 [ref. 24550] as oerstedi, Reed et al. 2001:468 [ref. 26968] as orstedii, Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807] as orstedii, Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826]as orstedii, Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708] as orstedii). Current status: Valid as Selene orstedii Lütken 1880. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

orthogrammus, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:226 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 221); ref. 18348] Sulphur Bay, Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 28345 (not found in 1980). •Valid as Caranx orthogrammus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:957 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:77 [ref. 24545], Myers 1999:138 [ref. 23965], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576] dated 1881, Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807]). •Valid as Carangoides orthogrammus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:156 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:576 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:34 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:160 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:35 [ref. 20141], Kuiter 1993:175 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:125 [ref. 22193], Randall 1995:178 [ref. 22896], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:375 [ref. 24023], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:160 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:160 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:54 [ref. 23921], Kim & Kim 1999:19 [ref. 25723], Randall 1999:15 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:806 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2706 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:229 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:102 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:806 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:3///26, 603 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576] dated 1881, Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624] dated 1831, Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:226 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:365 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1154 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:228 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:432 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:258 [ref. 32706], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988] dated 1881, Motomura et al. 2015:22 [ref. 34709], Fourriére et al. 2016:445 [ref. 34668]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides orthogrammus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Mozambique Channel, Seychelles and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands and Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico), north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

oshimae, Scomberoides Whitley [G. P.] 1951:65 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1949-50; ref. 4711] Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]. Replacement name for Scomberoides formosanus Oshima 1924, preoccupied by Scomberoides formasanus Wakiya 1924. •Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:205 [ref. 7106], Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:336 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

oshimai, Caranx Wakiya [Y.] 1924:189, Pl. 27 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Taiwan. Holotype: FMNH 59492 [ex CM 7731]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:90 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:20 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

otrynter, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:202 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (no. 367); ref. 10619] Pacific coast of tropical America; Mazatlán, Mexico; Panama. whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Caranx otrynter Jordan & Gilbert 1883 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:100 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:958 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:79 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:376 [ref. 24023], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957]). •Valid as Carangoides otrynter (Jordan & Gilbert 1883) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:286 [ref. 24550], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides otrynter (Jordan & Gilbert 1883). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ovalis, Centronotus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:309, 316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Seas of Asia. Unneeded new name for Gasterosteus ovatus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Trachynotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:383 [ref. 7198], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ovatus, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:296 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Asia [probably in error for eastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): ZMUU Linn. Coll. 202. Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:43 [ref. 23530], Wheeler 1991:173, Fig. 12 [ref. 20102]. ICZN case 2898 pending, see Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1994 [ref. 21632]. •Valid as Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:383 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:840 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:683 [ref. 21590], Chen et al. 1997:67 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:272 [ref. 26385], Santos et al. 1997:87 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:85 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:74 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:86 [ref. 26753], Fricke 2007:29 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:85 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:33 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2507 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Norway to Angola, including offshore islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pacificus, Argyreiosus Lockington [W. N.] 1877:84 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 7 [for 1876]; ref. 17546] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Possible paratypes: NMW 14540 (2), USNM 39896 (1). Specimen ZMUO J1735 is labeled a syntype but is not a type according to Pethon 1969:1, 6 [ref. 19268]. •Synonym of Selene brevoortii (Gill 1863). Current status: Synonym of Selene brevoortii (Gill 1863). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

paihere, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:76 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

paitensis, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:438 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Paita, Peru. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6814. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus paitensis Cuvier 1832 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:210 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:129 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:108 [ref. 23101], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:981 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:89 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:374 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:284 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:279 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:398 [ref. 25838], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1463 [ref. 27083], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus paitensis Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

paloma, Trachinotus Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:437 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Puerto Viejo, north of Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Mexico. Syntypes: CAS-SU 213 (5), 2690 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:76 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Trachinotus paitensis Cuvier 1832 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:981 [ref. 22829] as paoma, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:280 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus paitensis Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

palometa, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:392 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Lectotype: MNHN A-6130 (dry). Paralectotypes: MNHN A-5528 (1, dry), A-6125 (1, dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:20-21 [ref. 12247] with MNHN A.6130 as holotype; MNHN A.6130 designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:1275 [ref. 23416]. •Possible junior synonym of Oligoplites calcaar (Bloch 1793) -- (Paepke 1999:53 [ref. 24282]). •Valid as Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier 1832) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:225 [ref. 7106], Bussing 1987:173 [ref. 22927], Cervigón 1992:289 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:84 [ref. 24474], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Bussing 1998:276 [ref. 24179], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1451 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Angulo et al. 2013:1000 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier 1832). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

palometa, Trachynotus Regan [C. T.] 1903:349 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 12 (no. 69) (art. 32); ref. 3618] Martinique Island, West Indies. Replacement name for Chaetodon glaucus Bloch 1787, preoccupied by Scomber glaucus Linnaeus 1758:298 [ref. 2787]. •Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:246 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

pampanus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:415, Pl. 237 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Brazil; Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2790 (2), 0000-2857 (2), A-5529 (1, dry), A-6650 (1); Broussonet spec. not found. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pampanus, Zeus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:415 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Not available, name mentioned under Trachinotus pampanus Cuvier; from Mexico. Carangidae.

panamensis, Caranx Gill [T. N.] 1863:166 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] Western coast of Central America. Syntypes: (2) USNM 30960 (1). •Synonym of Caranx speciosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:960 [ref. 22829]). •Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

pappei, Lichia Bleeker [P.] (ex Castelnau) 1859:65 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 21; ref. 373] Kalk Bay, near Cape Town, South Africa, southeastern Atlantic. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:51 [ref. 12247]. Appeared first as Castelnau manuscript name in synonymy as above in Bleeker 1859:65 [ref. 373]; validated back to that publication by subsequent use of Castelnau 1861:40 [ref. 767]. •Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:657 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2740 [ref. 24833], Dyer & Westneat 2010:606 [ref. 31446], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2502 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

papuensis, Caranx Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:325, Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Hall Sound, Papua New Guinea. Syntypes: AMS I.16304-001 and 002 [ex MAMU F366] (2). •Valid as Caranx papuensis Alleyne & Macleay 1877 -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:156 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:647 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:312 [ref. 6207], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:578 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:162 [ref. 15987], Kottelat et al. 1993:110 [ref. 23448], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:160 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:162 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:56 [ref. 23921], Marquet et al. 1999:43 [ref. 23934], Myers 1999:140 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:248 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2715 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:802 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:232 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Sakai et al. 2001:96 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:802 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:77 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:305 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:229 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:121 [ref. 28745], Hoese & Gates 2006:1157 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:434 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:82 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Miesen et al. 2016:89 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Valid as Caranx papuensis Alleyne & Macleay 1877. Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Timor Sea (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia), and Tonga. Habitat: brackish, marine.

para, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:58 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Malabar, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-6161. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-6104 (1), A-6105 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:15-16 [ref. 12247] with A.6161 as holotype; MNHN A.6161 designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:1283 [ref. 23416]. •Valid as Alepes para (Cuvier 1833) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Caranx para Cuvier 1833 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:578 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:162 [ref. 15987], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:223 [ref. 24016], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:245 [ref. 24754], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:31 [ref. 27712]). •Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793) -- (Randall 1995:174 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2688 [ref. 24833] as "Alepes", Smith-Vaniz 2001:577 [ref. 25284], Hoese & Gates 2006:1156 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific (if valid). Habitat: marine.

parasitus, Caranx Garman [S.] 1903:232 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 39 (no. 8); ref. 15030] Cairns, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: MCZ 28288 (2). •Synonym of Pantolabus radiatus (Macleay 1881) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:581 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:42 [ref. 20141], Hoese & Gates 2006:1162 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Pantolabus radiatus (Macleay 1881). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

paraspistes, Caranx Richardson [J.] 1848:136, Pl. 58 (figs. 6-7) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Port Essington, Northern Territory, Australia; Torres Strait. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1846.8.11.6 (skin). •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:578 [ref. 12442], Hoese & Gates 2006:1157 [ref. 28997], Larson et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32988] as parapistes, Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

parilis, Regificola Whitley [G. P.] 1948:91, Fig. 10 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 4710] Mooloolabah, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.6709 (not found in 1983 or 1997). •Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:584 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644], Hoese & Gates 2006:1167 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

paru, Stromateus Bloch [M. E.] 1786 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 2; ref. 465] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi] India. Lectotype: ZMB 1636. Apparently described independently of (and not the same as) Stromateus paru Linnaeus 1758. Preoccupied by Stromateus paru Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Current status: Synonym of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

paruaahi, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:72 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

pectoralis, Caranx (Atule) Chu [Y.-T.] & Cheng [W.- L.] 1958:316 (English p. 319), Fig. 1 [Acta Zoologica Sinica v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 12058] Shanwei, Kwongtung, China. Holotype: Shanghai Fish. College. Paratypes: Mar. Biol. Inst., Acad. Sinica (1). •Synonym of Alepes melanoptera (Swainson 1839) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2689 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Alepes melanoptera (Swainson 1839). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pectoralis, Uraspis Fowler [H. W.] 1938:46, Fig. 17 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Manila Market, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 98820. •Synonym of Uraspis uraspis (Günther 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2756 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis uraspis (Günther 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

peronii, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:112 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Unknown locality, Voyge de Péron. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-6324. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-6067 (1) Vanicolo, A-0562 (1) Ambon. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:16 [ref. 12247] with holotype (6324) and paratype; MNHN A.6324 designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:1319 [ref. 23416]. •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

peruana, Seriola Steindachner [F.] 1881:100 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 11) (for 5 May 1881); ref. 20484] Callao, Peru. Syntypes: (several) NMW 5725 (2), 78529 (2). Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:405 [p. 13 of separate], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [ref. 4232]. •Valid as Seriola peruana Steindachner 1881 -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:128 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:108 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:978 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:372 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:288 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Tavera et al. 2006:1 [ref. 28659], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Seriola peruana Steindachner 1881. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Ecuador and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

peruanus, Caranx Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:19 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Coast of Peru. Holotype: ZMB (lost). Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:52 [ref. 25858]. •The same as Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920 -- (see Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:984 [ref. 22829]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

peruvianus, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:38 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Paita, Peru. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2922. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:32, 33 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Selene peruviana (Guichenot 1866) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:209 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:128 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:100 [ref. 23101], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:976 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:369 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:282 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:284 [ref. 24550], Reed et al. 2001:468 [ref. 26968], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1457 [ref. 27083], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668]). Current status: Valid as Selene peruviana (Guichenot 1866). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pescadorensis, Citula Oshima [M.] 1924:1575 [Proceedings of the Pan-Pacific Science Congress / Pacific Science Association. v. 2 (1923); ref. 15604] Bako, Pescadores Islands [Peng-hu], Taiwan. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]. Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432] treated the 126 mm TL specimen as holotype, and the 120 mm TL specimen as paratype. •Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]). •Synonym of Olistus armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

petaurista, Caranx Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 23 (figs. 1-2) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1964. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:16 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:129 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

philippina, Eleria Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1905:774, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 28 (no. 1407); ref. 2495] Southern Negros, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 51945. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9131 (2), USNM 75829 (1). •Synonym of Scomberoides tala (Cuvier 1832) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:199 [ref. 7106]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides tala (Cuvier 1832). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

picturata, Seriola Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:123, Fig. 27 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. No types known. •Valid as Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:382 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:842 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:752 [ref. 18644], Nekrasov 1994:53 [ref. 24544], Santos et al. 1997:87 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:85 [ref. 24952], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:274, 391 [ref. 24555], Uiblein et al. 1999:65 [ref. 24045], Porteiro et al. 1999:42 [ref. 24203], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:86 [ref. 26753], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2510 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825). Carangidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pinnulata, Seriola Poey [F.] 1860:233 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (?): MCZ 17228. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:187-188 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:739 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

pinnulatus, Caranx Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Souleyet [F. A.] 1850:165, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 4501] Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5851 (2). •Valid as Decapterus pinnulatus (Eydoux & Souleyet 1850) -- (Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:84 [ref. 24545] as pinulatus). •Synonym of Decapterus macarellus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:376 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:828 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:737 [ref. 18644], Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2719 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:368 [ref. 28379], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2484 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus macarellus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

pisquetus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:97 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Santo Domingo; Cuba; Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-6100 (1), A-6103 (1), A-6111 (1), A-6252 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:16 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Caranx crysos (Mitchill 1815) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:374 [ref. 7198], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:310 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:732 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:237 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx crysos (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

plagiotaenia, Carangoides Bleeker [P.] 1857:59 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 26974 [ex RMNH 6096]. Paralectotypes: (5) ?BMNH 1880.4.21.124 (1), RMNH 6096 (3). Lectotype selected by Dor 1984:126 [ref. 29757]. •Valid as Carangoides plagiotaenia Bleeker 1857 -- (Dor 1984:126 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:156 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:646 [ref. 5718], Paxton et al. 1989:576 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:34 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:431 [ref. 27969], Kuiter 1997:162 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:512 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:138 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:246 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2707 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:805 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:229 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:102 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:805 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:75 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:227 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1154 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:119 [ref. 30425], Gunn 1990:36 [ref. 20141], Allen & Erdmann 2012:432 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:81 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:220 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides plagiotaenia Bleeker 1857. Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marshall Islands, Tonga and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, and south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

platessa, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:84 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] "La mer des Indies" [probably Geographe Bay, Western Australia]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5856. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:17 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644]). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2006:101 [ref. 28900]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

platinoides, Scomber Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1843:28 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 11 (nos 67-8, 71-2); ref. 13395] Tolaga, New Zealand. No types known. Based on Solander manuscript and a Parkinson drawing. •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

plumbea, Citula Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:361 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:38 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 1999:252 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

plumieri, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1793:77, Pl. 344 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Antilles. No types known. On p. 67 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

plumierianus, Caranxomorus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:82, 84, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality stated [Martinique, western Atlantic]. Based on 'Trachurus maximus, squamis minutissimis' in drawing in manuscript by Plumier (Charles Plumier, 1646-1704, French explorer and botanist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:24, 28 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

politus, Carangus Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:445, Fig. 17 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50709. Additional original material: USNM 126084 [ex USFC 1443] (1). •Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:309 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2692 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:363 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

poloosoo, Caranx Richardson [J.] 1848:136, Pl. 58 (fig. 4-5) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Houtmans Abrolhos, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Russell name only on plate, but mentioned in synonymy of Caranx speciosus in text p. 136; however footnote implies that Richardson equates his fish with Russell's poloosoo; probably should be regarded as available from the plate. •Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:580 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:40 [ref. 20141], Hoese & Gates 2006:1160 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

polyaspis, Decapterus Walford [L. A.] & Myers [G. S.] 1944:45 [Copeia 1944 (no. 1); ref. 12289] Off Reedsport, Oregon, U.S.A. Holotype: CAS-SU 14375. Paratypes: ROM 10337 (1); CAS-SU 14376-79 (1, 1, 1, 1); USNM 143676 (1). Additional material: Pacific Biological Station (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:75 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Trachurus symmetricus (Ayres 1855) -- (Nekrasov 1994:142 [ref. 24544], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:985 [ref. 22829]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus symmetricus (Ayres 1855). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

polysarcus, Naucrates Fowler [H. W.] 1905:62, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 57; ref. 1369] West coast of Mexico. Holotype (unique): ANSP 11379. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

pompilus, Thynnus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:123 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea; Spain; America. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.41 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin) Mediterranean Sea. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:220 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ponticus, Trachurus mediterraneus Aleev [Y. G.] 1956:178, Fig 2a [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 7; ref. 9468] Black Sea, Sea of Azov, Sea of Marmara (Mediterranean Sea). Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Trachurus mediterraneus (Steindachner 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:752 [ref. 18644], Fricke et al. 2007:85 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:93 [ref. 30517]). •Synonym of Trachurus mediterraneus (Steindachner 1868), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:382 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:841 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:752 [ref. 18644], Nekrasov 1994:29 [ref. 24544], Parin 2003:S8 [ref. 28536], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:178 [ref. 28369] Parin et al. 2014:364 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus mediterraneus (Steindachner 1868). Carangidae. Distribution: If valid subspecies, confined to the Black Sea region and Sea of Marmara. Habitat: brackish, marine.

praeustus, Caranx Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:689 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. No types known. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. •Valid as Olistus praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Carangoides praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:821 [ref. 20764], Randall 1995:179 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:431 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:160 [ref. 23922], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2708 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:105 [ref. 25480], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:120 [ref. 30425], Yoshida et al. 2013:118 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:220 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Indonesia and Philippines. Habitat: brackish, marine.

precisianus, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:71 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

prestonensis, Ferdauia claeszooni var. Whitley [G. P.] 1947:138 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 4708] Sixteen miles north of Cape Preston, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM (possibly lost). Described from longest of nine specimens of Ferdauia claeszooni. •Synonym of Carangoides gymnostethus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:575 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:26 [ref. 20141], Hoese & Gates 2006:1153 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides gymnostethus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

procaranx, Caranx De Vis [C. W.] 1884:540 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.77. •Synonym of Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier 1833) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:584 [ref. 12442], Hoese & Gates 2006:1166 [ref. 28997], Kottelat 2013:336 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

proxima, Seriola Poey [F.] 1860:229 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

pseudopterygius, Caranx Bleeker [P.] 1849:71 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 316] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 6088 (many), 26978 [ex RMNH 6088] (1). Originally as pseudo pterygius. •Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830) -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

puapok, Caranx Montrouzier [X.] 1857:452 [174] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Appeared as an available species name on 451 [p. 173 of reprint] and as above as name in synonymy of Caranx seriolinus, not available; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. Carangidae.

puapok, Caranx Montrouzier [X.] 1857:451 [173] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 173 of reprint. See second entry for this name. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Caranx Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:108, Pl. 56a (fig. 2) [Reise nach Griechenland und der Türkei; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. Syntypes: MHNN 334 (2). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:149 [ref. 21784]. Type information: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Caranx punctatus Cuvier 1829. •Synonym of Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier 1829). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] 1829:208 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] America [not Martinique Island, West Indies]. No types known. Non-types: MNHN 0000-5951 (3), 5952 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:17 [ref. 12247] but with types from 1833 publication. Available from footnote as, "Car. punctatus, N., nommé Scomber hippos, par Mitch., Trans. de New-York, I, v, 5; mais qui n'est pas l'hippos de Linnaeus." Also in Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:37 [ref. 1002] •Valid as Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:328 [ref. 14275], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:829 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:161 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:651 [ref. 5718], Scott & Scott 1988:377 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:146 [ref. 14674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:737 [ref. 18644], Boschung 1992:131 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:287 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:75 [ref. 24474], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:157 [ref. 25472], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:240 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:73 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1446 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:283 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:32 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Kimura et al. 2013:[2] [ref. 32890], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:48 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33516], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2486 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier 1829). Carangidae. Distribution: Western, central and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Caranx Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:120 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy; also preoccupied; from New Guinea. Carangidae.

puritanus, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:70 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

purpurascens, Seriola Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1845:113, Pl. 61 [Fauna Japonica Parts 7-9; ref. 4373] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D2192 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D864 (1, stuffed), 1294 (1), D2271 (1, stuffed); ZMB 8148 (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:329 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:103 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Seriola purpurascens Temminck & Schlegel 1845 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:222 [ref. 19754]). •Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:837 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644], Lin & Shao 1999:63 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2738 [ref. 24833] as purpurescens, Mundy 2005:372 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

quadripunctatus, Caesiomorus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:90, Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 2896. •Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor 1984:131 [ref. 29757], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207], Hussain & Jawad 2014:255 [ref. 33657]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

queenslandiae, Micropteryx De Vis [C. W.] 1884:541 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Queensland coast, Australia. Holotype (unique): not at QM. •Synonym of Caranx para Cuvier 1833 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:578 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of "Caranx" kleini (Bloch 1793) -- (Gunn 1990:37 [ref. 20141]). •Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793) -- (Hoese & Gates 2006:1156 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Alepes kleinii (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

quiebra, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:396 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Brazil; Martinique Island, West Indies; Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN A-5487 (1, dry) Brazil, A-6653 (1) Martinique. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:21 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quiebra, Lichia Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:365 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Brazil and Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN A-6899 (1) Rio de Janeiro. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:23 [ref. 12247] with MNHN A.6899 as holotype. •Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:221 [ref. 7106] with question). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quinqueradiata, Seriola Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1845:115, Pl. 62 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 7-9; ref. 4373] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D2176 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH D860 (1, dry), D865-866 (2, dry), D2278 (1, dry); ZMB 1618 (1). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:329 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:104 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck & Schlegel 1845 -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:153 [ref. 6441], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:792 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Kolpakov & Barabanshchikov 2001:422 [ref. 25413], Shimizu 2001:29 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:792 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 607 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S7 [ref. 28536], Mundy 2005:373 [ref. 28379], Balanov 2008:415 [ref. 30240], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Motomura et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31256], Parin et al. 2014:363 [ref. 33547]). •Synonym of Seriola aureovittata Temminck & Schlegel 1845 -- (Dyldin & Orlov 2017:73 [ref. 35138] with question). Current status: Valid as Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck & Schlegel 1845. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

quoyi, Carangus Bleeker [P.] 1878:50 [Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles v. 13 3; ref. 456] New Guinea. Holotype: MNHN 5836. Based on Caranx punctatus of Quoy & Gaimard and on Caranx coeruleopinnatus of Cuvier & Valenciennes. •Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833 -- (Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

radiatus, Caranx Macleay [W.] 1881:537 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 4); ref. 2869] Rockingham Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16299-001 [ex MAMU F351]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Pantolabus radiatus (Macleay 1881) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:581 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:42 [ref. 20141], Allen 1997:112, 114 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2728 [ref. 24833], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:80 [ref. 27510], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Larson et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Absalom radiatus (Macleay 1881) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477] as radiosus, Randall et al. 1990:157 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:157 [ref. 25919], Hoese & Gates 2006:1162 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Valid as Pantolabus radiatus (Macleay 1881). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rafinesquii, Seriola Risso [A.] 1827:425 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:51 [ref. 12247]. Unneeded new name for Trachurus aguilus Rafinesque 1810. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

rastrosus, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1908:37, Pl. 51 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2521] Kaohsiung [Takao], Taiwan. Lectotype: FMNH 55363 [ex CM 411]. Paralectotype: (1) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Henn 1928:90 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:20 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]. Lectotype designation by Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432], but Kottelat (2013) says invalid. A freshwater record from the Philipppines (Herre 1953:271) according to Kottelat.(2013). •Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]). •Synonym of Olistus armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rathbuni, Oligoplites Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Carangidae p. 8 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Bahia market, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 2934. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1953:395 [ref. 12732]. On p. 88 when continuously paginated. •Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:221 [ref. 7106]). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rectipinnus, Carangoides Williams [F.] 1958:401, Pl. 10 (fig. 13) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 12126] Fish market in Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1958.3.26.1. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:126 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Carangoides rectipinnis Williams 1958 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Carangoides malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2704 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

refulgens, Oligoplites Gilbert [C. H.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:73, Pl. 11 (fig. 19) [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences v. 4; ref. 1639] Panama market, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6799. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:75 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Oligoplites refulgens Gilbert & Starks 1904 -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:217 [ref. 7106], Allen & Robertson 1994:127 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:104 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:971 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:283 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:278 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:396 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Oligoplites refulgens Gilbert & Starks 1904. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

regularis, Caranx Garman [S.] 1903:232 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 39 (no. 8); ref. 15030] Viti Levu, Suva, Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28300. •Synonym of Caranx papuensis Alleyne & Macleay 1877 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:312 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2715 [ref. 24833], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx papuensis Alleyne & Macleay 1877. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

reversa, Uraspis Jordan [D. S.], Evermann [B. W.] & Wakiya [Y.] in Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka 1927:658, Pl. 22 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 20); ref. 2454] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: CAS 307. Paratypes: CAS 309 (1). The type length of 6 in. in the text is in error; length about 11 in. •Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:755 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2755 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:374 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

rhabdolepis, Caranx Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:457 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 8005 (ca. 15). •Young of Caranx sp. -- (Dor 1984:127 [ref. 29757]). •See Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

rhabdotus, Carangus Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:444, Fig. 16 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50711. Paratypes: USNM 55217 (1). •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Mundy 2005:367 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rhodopus, Trachynotus Gill [T. N.] 1863:85 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM (numerous). Original genus should have been Trachinotus. •Valid as Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:210 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:129 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:108 [ref. 23101], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:982 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:90 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:373 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:284 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:280 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:289 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

rhombica, Seriola Smith [J. L. B.] 1959:259, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 15; ref. 4124] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 7. •Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:837 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz 1986:657 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

rhomboides, Carangoides Kotthaus [A.] 1974:40, Figs. 316-317 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 17; ref. 7512] Off Mumbai, India, 19°30'N, 71°8.5'E to 19°26'N, 71°12.2'E, Meteor station 214, depth 74-80 meters. Holotype: ZMH 5157 [ex IOES 182a]. Paratypes: ZMH 5158 [ex IOES 182b-e] (4). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:417 [ref. 21161]. •Synonym of Carangoides malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2704 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

rhomboides, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:100, Pl. 209 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. On p. 75 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rhomboides, Hemicaranx Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1925:345, Pl. 25 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 226); ref. 13609] Fox Bay, Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 81758. Paratypes: FMNH 8517 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Cuvier 1833). Current status: Synonym of Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

rhomboides, Zeus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:375, 382 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:301, 323 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758) (p. 301) and of Vomer setipinnis [sic] (Mitchill 1815) (p. 323). •Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rhonchus, Caranx Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 24 (figs. 1-2) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MMHN A.5977. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:17 [ref. 12247]. Sometimes spelled rhoncus in early literature. •Valid as Decapterus rhonchus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:314 [ref. 6207], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:673 [ref. 21590], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826] as "Decapterus", Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2488 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Caranx rhonchus Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817 -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:375 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:827 [ref. 13676] with genus as "Caranx", Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:734 [ref. 18644], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:84 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:84 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:32 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972]). Current status: Valid as Caranx rhonchus Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817. Carangidae. Distribution: Southern Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Namibia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

richardi, Caranx Holbrook [J. E.] 1855:94, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Ichthyology of South Carolina; ref. 2184] South Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. Also appeared in second edition, 1860:96, Pl. 13 (fig. 1). •Synonym of Caranx latus Agassiz 1831 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:733 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx latus Agassiz 1831. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

richardsoni, Ulua Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1908:39, Pl. 53 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2521] Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Lectotype: FMNH 55365 [ex CM 413]. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 9713 (1), 23230 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:84 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]. Lectotype designation by Ho & Shao 2011:46 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Ulua mentalis (Cuvier 1833) -- (Lin & Shao 1999:61 [ref. 23921], Hoese & Gates 2006:1172 [ref. 28997], Motomura et al. 2007:229 [ref. 29492], Ho & Shao 2011:45 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Ulua mentalis (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

rim, Scomber Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:54, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Originally Scomber rim, speciosus on p. 54; Scomber speciosus on p. xii; see account of Scomber speciosus Forsskål. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:252 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

rissoi, Trachurus Giglioli [E. H.] 1880:27 [Elenco ... e dei pesci italiani; ref. 1617] Lipari, Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MZUF 5559-61 [ex MZUF 1100] (3) 5562-64 (2); ZMB 10954 [ex MZUF] (1). Type catalog: Vanni 1991:225 [ref. 20099]. •Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:382 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:753 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

riukiuensis, Uraspis Wakiya [Y.] in Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka 1927:659 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 20); ref. 2454] Kii, Japan. Holotype: FMNH 59424 [ex CM 7747]. •Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:755 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

rivoliana, Seriola Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:207 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] No locality stated [Greek Archipelago]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6633. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:27 [ref. 12247]. Also in Griffith & Smith 1834:Pl. 47 (fig. 3) (opp. p. 190) [ref. 1908] as Seriola rivolii. •Valid as Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:380 [ref. 7198], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:209 [ref. 9277], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:153 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:495, 681 [ref. 8056], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:839 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:164 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:657 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:585 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:184 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:35 [ref. 13251], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:748 [ref. 18644], Randall et al. 1990:167 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:133 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:293 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:98 [ref. 24474], Kuiter 1993:171 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:128 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:108 [ref. 23101], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:979 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:187 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:454 [ref. 27969], Murdy et al. 1997:171 [ref. 23144], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:68 [ref. 26476], Santos et al. 1997:87 [ref. 23531], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:370 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:85 [ref. 24952], Kim et al. 1997:245 [ref. 25735], Randall et al. 1997:167 [ref. 25919], Adam et al. 1998:12 [ref. 23610], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:287 [ref. 24555], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Lin & Shao 1999:63 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:142 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:256 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2741 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:245 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:15 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:793 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:237 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:288 [ref. 25640], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Randall et al. 2002:157 [ref. 26192], Nakabo 2002:793 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 606 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Collette et al. 2003:110 [ref. 26784], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1461 [ref. 27083], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Castriota et al. 2004:265 [ref. 27982], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:312 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:237 [ref. 28239], Shinohara et al. 2005:433 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:373 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:122 [ref. 28745], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:297 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Gates 2006:1168 [ref. 28997], Wirtz et al. 2007:12 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:240 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:439 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:49 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:229 [ref. 34104], Smith-Vaniz 2015:1259 [ref. 34200], Pinheiro et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2503 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through warm temperate seas, including Mediterranean Sea and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

rondeletii, Glaucus Bleeker [P.] 1863:75 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Awokatubi, Ashantee, Guinea. Syntypes: (5). Based on literature sources and specimens. •Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rostratus, Zeus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:384, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1986:426 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rottleri, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1793:88, Pl. 346 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] East-India. Lectotype: ZMB 8763 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB 8736 (1, left skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:55 [ref. 24282]. On p. 39 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:55 [ref. 24282]. Species name misspelled rotleri by Cuvier 1831:153 [ref. 30376]. •Synonym of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:129 [ref. 29757], Hoese & Gates 2006:1161 [ref. 28997], Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1793:75, Pl. 342 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] America. Lectotype: ZMB 1535. Paralectotypes: lost. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:55 [ref. 24282]. On p. 63 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:55 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Carangoides ruber (Bloch 1793) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:288 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:159 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1443 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27621], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33516]). •Valid as Caranx ruber (Bloch 1793) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:160 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:131 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:286 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:69 [ref. 24474], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:239 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:109 [ref. 26784], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:280 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:47 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2481 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Caranx ruber (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; south-central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

rueppellii, Caranx Günther [A.] (ex Rüppell) 1860:445 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Red Sea. Syntypes: ?RMNH D956 [ex SMF] (1), SMF 2862 (1, dry). Originally as rüppellii, corrected to rueppellii Kullander 2016:95 [ref. 34436]. Based on Rüppell 1830:95, Pl. 25 (fig. 2) [ref. 3843]. •Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:129 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

rueppellii, Platysomus (Scyris) Swainson [W.] 1839:251 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Red Sea. No types known. Based on Rüpp. i. pl. 33 -- which is Rüppell 1830:Pl. 33 [ref. 3843]. Originally spelled Rüppellii, corrected to rueppellii Kullander 2016:94 [ref. 34436]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ruppelii, Seriola Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:216 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 1655 (2), 17520 (1). Unneeded new name for Nomeus nigrofasciatus Rüppell 1829. Sometimes wrongly corrected to ruppellii Kullander 2016:96 [ref. 34436]. See Kullander 2016:92 [ref. 34436]. •Synonym of Seriolina nigrofasciata (Rüppell 1829) -- (Dor 1984:133 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Seriolina nigrofasciata (Rüppell 1829). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

ruppellii, Olistus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:144 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 1601. Paralectotypes: SMF 15074 [ex SMF 1601] (2 or 1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:51 [ref. 12247]. Originally as Olistus ? Ruppelii. Specific name corrected to ruppellii (Kullander 2016:94 [ref. 34436]). Unneeded new name for Citula ciliaria Rüppell 1830. Lectotype established by Dor 1984:125 [ref. 29757] but designated earlier by Williams 1980:19. •Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (authors). •Synonym of Olistus armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:334 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

russelii, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:436 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-5663 (1, dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:30 [ref. 12247]. Both Trachinus botla and russelii were based on Russell's Pl. 142. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:132 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Trachinotus russelii Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Hussain & Jawad 2014:256 [ref. 33657]). •Synonym of Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:659 [ref. 5718], Randall 1995:188 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2747 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2014:[3] 545 [ref. 33922]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

russelli, Caranx Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:99 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] El-Tor, Sinai coast, South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, ca. 28°14'N, 33°36'E. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:13 [ref. 12247]. Neotype designated by Bertin & Dolfus 1948 but not accepted by Smith-Vaniz. •Valid as Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830) -- (Nakamura in Okamura et al. 1982:229, 378 [ref. 8256] as russellii on p. 229, Kyushin et al. 1982:218 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:651 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:163 [ref. 15987], Baranes & Golani 1993:308 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:182 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:437 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:162 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:156 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:163 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:58 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:140 [ref. 23965], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:245 [ref. 24754], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2722 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:796 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:796 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:79 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:31 [ref. 27712] as russellii, Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Hoese & Gates 2006:1159 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:122 [ref. 30425], Akmaca et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31168], Ho & Shao 2011: 45 [ref. 31432], Kimura et al. 2013:[2] [ref. 32890], Larson et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:119 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:224 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Decapterus russelli (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Philippines and Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia) and New South Wales (Australia) at 29°23’S and New Caledonia: Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

saliens, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] (ex Plumier) 1793:49, Pl. 335 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Antilles, western Atlantic. No types known. Based on 'Pelamis minima, vulgo sauteur' in manuscript by Plumier (Charles Plumier, 1646-1704, French explorer and botanist). On p. 41 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Oligoplites saliens (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:218 [ref. 7106], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:338 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:289 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:85 [ref. 24474], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:98 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1452 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fabiano et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33530]). Current status: Valid as Oligoplites saliens (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

saltans, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:393 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Martinique Island, West Indies; Brazil; Santo Domingo. Syntypes: MNHN A-6590 to 6592 (1, 2, 2) Santo Domingo, A-6594 (1) Martinique, Brazilian specimens not found. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:21, 50 [ref. 12247]. Not regarded by us as a replacement name; based on specimens and literataure. •Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:221 [ref. 7106]). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

saltator, Scomberoides Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Plumier) 1801:50, 55 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality [Antilles, western Atlantic]. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:40 [ref. 12247]. Apparently described independently of Scomber saliens Bloch 1793, but based on the same source. Illustrated on Pl. 19 (fig. 2) of v. 2, 1800 [ref. 2709], but with vernacular name. Based on 'Pelamis minima, vulgo sauteur' in manuscript by Plumier (Charles Plumier, 1646-1704, French explorer and botanist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:387, 392 (vol. 7) [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Oligoplites saliens (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:218 [ref. 7106]). Current status: Synonym of Oligoplites saliens (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sanctaehelenae, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:37 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Saint Helena Island, South Atlantic. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-5852. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2532 (2), 5848 (2), 5946-5947 (8, 1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:17-18 [ref. 12247]. Originally as Sanctae Helenae. Lectotype selected by Berry 1968:161 [ref. 7867]. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:128 [ref. 29757]). •See Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356]. •Valid as Decapterus sanctaehelenae (Cuvier 1833) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:376 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:829 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz 1986:651 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:738 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:240 [ref. 25013], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2486 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier 1829). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

sanctaemarthae, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:38 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Santa Marta, Colombia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2919. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:33 [ref. 12247]. Originally as Sanctae-Marthae. •Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Current status: Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sanctipetri, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:379, Pl. 236 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Malabar coast, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-5893. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-0568 (1), A-0573 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:21 [ref. 12247] with 5893 as holotype; MNHN 5893 designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:1502 [ref. 23416]. Original as Sancti Petri. •Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:205 [ref. 7106], Dor 1984:130 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz 1986:655 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:317 [ref. 6207], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:825 [ref. 20764], Randall 1995:185 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2732 [ref. 24833], Randall 2005:234 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:371 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:237 [ref. 30952], Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sanctipetri, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:41 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2930 (4). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:33 [ref. 12247]. Originally as Sancti-Petri. •Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816) Current status: Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sansun, Scomber Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:56, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. No types known. See Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356] but they put in Scomber. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:127 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

saurus, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:32 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Jamaica. No types known. •Valid as Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:221 [ref. 7106], Robins & Ray 1986:163 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:132 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:290 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:87 [ref. 24474], Allen & Robertson 1994:127 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:104 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:972 [ref. 22829], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:151 [ref. 22947], Murdy et al. 1997:172 [ref. 23144], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:367 [ref. 24023], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:283 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:276 [ref. 24550], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:418 [ref. 26158] as subspecies saurus, Marín 2000:73 [ref. 26252], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1453 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:288 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Matamoros et al. 2009:17 [ref. 31241], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1000 [ref. 33194], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:396 [ref. 34894], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and eastern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

saurus, Scomber Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:385 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:306, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Scomber saurus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

saurus, Trachurus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:20 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Unneeded new name for Scomber trachurus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:380 [ref. 7198]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

schlegeli, Caranx (Citula) Wakiya [Y.] 1924:170, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Red Sea and New Guinea. Syntypes: MNHN A-6102 (1) New Guinea, A-6181 (1) Red Sea, A-6182 (1), B-2881 (1) Red Sea; ZMB 1571-72 (1, 1) Red Sea. New name for Caranx ciliaris Cuvier 1833. •Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2693 [ref. 24833]). •Synoym of Olistus armatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides armatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scitula, Alepes Fowler [H. W.] 1904:509, Pl. 10 (lower fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27503. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Alepes djedaba (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Alepes djedaba (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

scombercaroli, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:64 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

scombrinus, Caranx Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5691 (dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:18 [ref. 12247]. Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:332 [ref. 4504]. •Valid as Decapterus scombrinus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:208 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025], Richards & Engle 2001:181 [ref. 25759]). •Synonym of Decapterus muroadsi (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:965 [ref. 22829], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2721 [ref. 24833], Randall 2005:232 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:231 [ref. 30952], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2485 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Decapterus muroadsi (Temminck & Schlegel 1844). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

scutatus, Caranx Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:133 [Bulletin de la Société Philomathique de Paris 1822; ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines. No types known. Apparently an overlooked available name. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

sechurae, Hemicaranx Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:211, Fig. 47 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Sechura Bay, near Sechura, Peru, 5°34'S, 80°52'W. Holotype (unique): USNM 127920. •Synonym of Hemicaranx zelotes Gilbert 1898 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:127 [ref. 22193], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:278 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:290 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Hemicaranx zelotes Gilbert 1898. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

secundus, Caranx Poey [F.] 1860:223 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba, western Atlantic. Syntypes: MCZ 16702-03 (1, 1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:187 [ref. 22926]. •Possibly a junior synonym of Uraspis helvola (Forster 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz 2003:1468 [ref. 27083], Randall 2007:241 [ref. 30952]). •Valid as Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:211 [ref. 9277], Robins & Ray 1986:162 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:660 [ref. 5718], Paxton et al. 1989:587 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:54 [ref. 20141], Boschung 1992:135 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:295 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:112 [ref. 24474], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2755 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:247 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:74 [ref. 25466], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1468 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:82 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:374 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:303 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Gates 2006:1172 [ref. 28997], Wirtz et al. 2007:33 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Pinheiro et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2514 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668]). Current status: Valid as Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860). Carangidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas, including Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

selenia, Caranx Cocco [A.] 1846:750 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano Settima Riunione, Napoli; ref. 26448] Name only, not available. Carangidae.

sem, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:105 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-6055. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-5515 (1, dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:18 [ref. 12247]. Lectotype selected by Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:17 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Caranx sem Cuvier 1833 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:196 [ref. 19754], Smith-Vaniz 1986:648 [ref. 5718], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368]). •Synonym of Caranx heberi (Bennett 1830) -- (Randall 1995:180 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2711 [ref. 24833], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:303 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2007:224 [ref. 29492]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx heberi (Bennett 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

semicoronata, Seriola Poey [F.] 1860:232 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Seriola fasciata (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola fasciata (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

semisomnus, Caranx Fowler [H. W.] 1904:510, Pl. 16 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ANSP 27512. Paratypes: (2) ANSP 27513 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Caranx tille Cuvier 1833. Current status: Synonym of Caranx tille Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

semispinosus, Caranx Nilsson [S.] 1832:84 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Codano Bay and sea of Norway. No types known. •Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:380 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:753 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

senegalensis, Vomer Guichenot [A.] 1866:35 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 8; ref. 15731] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2819 [or 2918]. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:33 [ref. 12247]. Appeared first as name only in Guichenot in Duméril 1858:262 [ref. 1149]. •Synonym of Vomer setapinnis (Mitchill 1815) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:384 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Selene dorsalis (Gill 1863) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:318 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:745 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selene dorsalis (Gill 1863). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

senegallus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:78 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Mouth of Senegal River; Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN A-6019 (2) Senegal, 5841 (1) Gorée. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:18 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Caranx senegallus Cuvier 1833 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:312 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:735 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:678 [ref. 21590], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:417 [ref. 30078], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2482 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Caranx senegallus Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

seriolinus, Caranx Thiollière [V. J. de l'I.] in Montrouzier 1857:452 [174] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

serratus, Naucrates Swainson [W.] 1839:413 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] No types known. Based on Scomber ductor (non Linnaeus) of Bloch 1793, Ichth. Pl. 338. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:742 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

setapinnis, Zeus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:384, Pl. 1 (fig. 9) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] Bay of New York, New York, U.S.A. No types known. Spelled setipinnis by Günther 1860:459 [ref. 1963]. •Valid as Vomer setapinnis (Mitchill 1815) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:384 [ref. 7198]). •Valid as Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:336 [ref. 14275], Smith 1986:425 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:163 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:379 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:146 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:132 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:291 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:90 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:162 [ref. 23144], Katsuragawa 1997:779 [ref. 23519], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:284 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:243 [ref. 25013], Keith et al. 2000:100 [ref. 24547], Reed et al. 2001:468 [ref. 26968], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:421 [ref. 26158], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1457 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:292 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

setifer, Argyriosus Swainson [W.] 1839:407 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] No types known. •Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

setipinnis, Argyreiosus Günther [A.] 1860:459 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Unjustified emendation of Zeus setapinnis Mitchill 1815. •Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

sexfasciatus, Caranx Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:358, Pl. 65 (fig. 4) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Île Waigiou [Pulau Waigeo, Papua Barat, Indonesia, western Pacific]. Holotype: MNHN A-6054. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:18 [ref. 12247]. •Mention -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:384 [ref. 7198]). •Valid as Carangoides sexfasciatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703]). •Valid as Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:258 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:196 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:127 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:648 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:312 [ref. 6207], Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:228 [ref. 26639] dated 1824, Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:578 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:518 [ref. 25598], Winterbottom et al. 1989:34 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:162 [ref. 15987], Allen & Coates 1990:86 [ref. 25561], Pethiyagoda 1991:216 [ref. 20075], Allen 1991:135 [ref. 21090], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:376 [ref. 23876], Allen et al. 1992:301 [ref. 21400], Kottelat et al. 1993:110 [ref. 23448], Kuiter 1993:174 [ref. 23929], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:225 [ref. 24016], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:102 [ref. 23101], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:959 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:181 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:432 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Cheng & Zhou 1997:267 [ref. 26385] with year as 1824, De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:80 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:365 [ref. 24023], Carpenter et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:158 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:162 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:56 [ref. 23921], Marquet et al. 1999:43 [ref. 23934], Myers 1999:140 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:249 [ref. 24106], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:294 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2716 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:801 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:232 [ref. 25191], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:122 [ref. 25206], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:107 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:207 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:97 [ref. 25693], Shimizu 2001:29 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2002:349 [ref. 25930], Nakabo 2002:801 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 603 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377] as sexfasciatu, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:77 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576] dated 1824, Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:31 [ref. 27712], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:306 [ref. 28072], Larson & Pidgeon 2004:196 [ref. 28107], Randall 2005:230 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:367 [ref. 28379], Miller 2006:339 [ref. 28615], Hoese & Gates 2006:1157 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:231 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:121 [ref. 30425], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31256], Ho & Shao 2011: 45 [ref. 31432], Allen & Erdmann 2012:435 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:258 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:119 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:82 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:222 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2015:22 [ref. 34709], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:396 [ref. 34894], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Miesen et al. 2016:89 [ref. 34492], Fourriére et al. 2016:445 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Mozambique Channel, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia, Norfolk Island and Austral Islands; Galápagos Islands and Mexico to Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

siculus, Trachurus Swainson [W.] 1839:413 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

signata, Paropsis Jenyns [L.] 1841:66, Pl. 13 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Bahia Blanca, coast of northern Patagonia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.32. •Valid as Parona signata (Jenyns 1841) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:227 [ref. 7106], Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:212 [ref. 14235], Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], López et al. 1996:40 [ref. 23681], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:102 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1436 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800]). Current status: Valid as Parona signata (Jenyns 1841). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

simplex, Seriola Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:757 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 10 (pt 4); ref. 18598] Probably from Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS B.9205. •Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:837 [ref. 13676], Paxton et al. 1989:584 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2738 [ref. 24833], Hoese & Gates 2006:1167 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

sinuosa, Lichia Cuvier [G.] 1829:204 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. Based on the 'Tertia glauci specie' of Rondelet 1554:255 [ref. 30378]. Also appeared in Cuvier 1831:150 [ref. 30376]. •Synonym of Campogramma glaycos (Lacepède 1801). Current status: Synonym of Campogramma glaycos (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

sinusobscuri, Caranx Richardson [J.] 1843:21 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science v. 12 (12th meeting [1842]); ref. 12502] Dusky Bay, New Zealand. No types known. Originally sinus-obscuri. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

smithvanizi, Decapterus Kimura [S.], Katahira [K.] & Kuriiwa [K.] 2013:11, Figs. 1c [Ichthyological Research v. 60 (no. 4); ref. 32890] Fish market in Bitung, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 21372 [ex FRLM 34882]. Paratypes: AMS, ANSP, BMNH, FRLM, LBRC-F, MNHN, NSMT-P, RMNH.PISC, USNM. •Valid as Decapterus smithvanizi Kimura, Katahira & Kiriiwa 2013 -- (Psomadakis et al. 2015:224 [ref. 34104] as cf. smithvanizi, Iwatsubo et al. 2016:179 [ref. 35051]). Current status: Valid as Decapterus smithvanizi Kimura, Katahira & Kuriiwa 2013. Carangidae. Distribution: Pakistan (?), Indonesia, western coast of Thailand, Japan and South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

solea, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:86 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6155 [or A-6115]. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:18 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Caranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:373 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:743 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

songoro, Seriola Smith [J. L. B.] 1959:258, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 15; ref. 4124] Knysna, Cape Province, South Africa. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 423. Paratypes: (2) not researched. •Valid as Seriola songoro Smith 1959 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:278 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:223 [ref. 19754]). •Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:839 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz 1986:657 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:749 [ref. 18644], Kim et al. 1997:245 [ref. 25735], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2741 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2503 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

sparna, Seriola Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:442, Fig. 14 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50845. •Synonym of Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck & Schlegel 1845 -- (Mundy 2005:373 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck & Schlegel 1845. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

speciosus, Scomber Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:54, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. Originally Scomber rim, speciosus on p. 54; Scomber speciosus on p. xii with brief description. Scomber rim is regarded as a name in synonymy. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:252 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Caranx speciosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:106 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:960 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:183 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:162 [ref. 23922], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:81 [ref. 24545], Fricke 1999:251 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:803 [ref. 25086], Thomson et al. 2000:288 [ref. 25640], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:803 [ref. 26001], González-Acosta et al. 2001:143 [ref. 26374], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Parin 2003:S7 [ref. 28536], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:308 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:233 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:369 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1160 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:235 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:123 [ref. 30425], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957]). •Valid as Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:207 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:129 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:652 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:580 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:34 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:164 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:39 [ref. 20141], Kuiter 1993:173 [ref. 23929], Allen & Robertson 1994:127 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:439 [ref. 27969], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:360 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:162 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:164 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:58 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:140 [ref. 23965], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:290 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2725 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:234 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:13 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:80 [ref. 27510], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Allen & Erdmann 2012:436 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:119 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:421 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:82 [ref. 33932], Parin et al. 2014:361 [ref. 33547], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:44 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:225 [ref. 34104], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Mexico and Panama, north to Ryukyu Islands and Kuril Islands,and Hawaiian Islands, south to estern Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Tonga and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

spinosus, Labrus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:405 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York Bay, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spinosus, Zeus Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:246 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 4) (art. 1); ref. 17774] Bay of New York, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spinulosus, Trachinus Swainson [W.] 1839:249 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Cuv. pl. 246 -- which is Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:Pl. 246 [ref. 1002]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

spixii, Argyreiosus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:23 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Brazil. No types known. Based on Marcgrave 1648, fig. 2 [ref. 19651]. •Valid as Selene spixii (Castelnau 1855) -- (Katsuragawa 1997:779 [ref. 23519]). •Not valid -- (Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm. 10/2004). Current status: Uncertain as Selene spixii (Castelnau 1855). Carangidae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

spixii, Platysomus Swainson [W.] 1839:250, 406, Fig. 132 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Spix. pl. 57 -- which is Spix & Agassiz 1831:Pl. 57 [ref. 13]. Unneeded new name for Vomer brownii Cuvier 1816. •Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816) -- (Dennis et al. 2004:76 [ref. 31601]). Current status: Synonym of Selene brownii (Cuvier 1816). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

squamosus, Trachurus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:125 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.94 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:220 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Caranx crysos (Mitchill 1815) -- (Wheeler 1958:220 [ref. 13434], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:732 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx crysos (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

stearnsii, Seriola Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1879:49 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 66); ref. 18137] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 22325. •Synonym of Seriola zonata (Mitchill 1815) -- (Personal communication, W. F. Smith-Vaniz, July 2015). Current status: Synonym of Seriola zonata (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

stellatus, Caranx Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Souleyet [F. A.] 1850:167, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 4501] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6068. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:19 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833 -- (Dor 1984:127 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:956 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:181 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2714 [ref. 24833], Mundy 2005:367 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

stilbe, Zalocys Jordan [D. S.] & McGregor [E. A.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2848 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 11996. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:76 [ref. 12291]. Also appeared in Jordan & McGregor 1899:277, Pl. 5 [ref. 2488]. •Valid as Trachinotus stilbe (Jordan & McGregor 1898) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:129 [ref. 22193], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:983 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:90 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:374 [ref. 24023], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:445 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus stilbe (Jordan & McGregor 1898). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

stirurus, Chloroscombrus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:206, 207 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (no. 367); ref. 10619] Left in text by mistake, a lapsus for Chloroscombrus orqueta; e.g., see Jordan & Evermann 1896:938 [ref. 2443]. •In the synonymy of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:314 [ref. 6207]). Current status: Synonym of Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae.

stromateus, Apolectus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:439, Pl. 238 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Puducherry, India; Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN A-5389 (1) Malabar, A-5390 (1) Java, A-5391 (1) Puduchery, A-5426 (1, dry) Puducherry, A-5432 (1, dry) Puducherry, A-5390 (1) Java, 706 (1) Java. Type catalog: Le Danois 1963:233 [ref. 21543], Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:8 [ref. 15502]. •Synonym of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795) -- ( Ataur Rahman 2003:288 [ref. 31338]). Current status: Synonym of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

suareus, Caranx Risso [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:33 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN B-0869 (1, dry), B-1144 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1945:377 [ref. 21554], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:19 [ref. 12247]. See also Bertin & Dollfus 1948:Pls. 1-2 [ref. 12937] for reproduction of Risso manuscript. •Valid as Trachurus suareus (Risso 1833) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:382 [ref. 7198]). •Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:752 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2510 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

subcarinata, Trachinus (Zonichthys) Swainson [W.] 1839:248 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on Russ. pl. 149 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 149 [ref. 13862]. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

subcoronatus, Zonichthys Poey [F.] 2000:393, Pl. 263 (fig. 2) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Zonichthys no. 409 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Carangidae.

succincta, Seriola Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:218 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] South of St. Helena Island, Atlantic. Holotype: MNHN A-6578. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:27 [ref. 12247] as succinta. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:741 [ref. 18644] as succinta). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

surus, Scomber Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 125 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy. Carangidae.

sutor, Blepharis Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:161, Pl. 253 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6842. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:8 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

symmetricus, Caranx Ayres [W. O.] 1855:62 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 159] San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Published July 1855. •Valid as Trachurus symmetricus (Ayres 1855) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:211 [ref. 9277], Peden et al. 1985:11 [ref. 24081], Matarese et al. 1989:486 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:147 [ref. 14674], Nekrasov 1994:140 [ref. 24544], Allen & Robertson 1994:129 [ref. 22193], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:985 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:91 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:377 [ref. 24023], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:649 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:55 [ref. 34694], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus symmetricus (Ayres 1855). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tabl, Decapterus Berry [F. H.] 1968:152, Fig. 1 [Contributions in Marine Science v. 13; ref. 7867] Colombia, Caribbean Sea, western Atlantic. 12°13'N, 72°29'W, Oregon station 5711, depth 113 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 202744. Paratypes: AMNH 26940 (1); ANSP 109542 (1); BMNH 1968.4.19.1 (1); CAS 24138 (1); FMNH 74536 (1); MCZ 45996 (1); MNHN 1968-0003 (1); RMNH 25916 (1); UF 19628-33 (12, 1, 1, 2, 1), 19633 (2, c&s); UMMZ 187315 (1); USNM 155271 (1), 202745 (2, 4), 208569-71 (13, 1, 1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:114 [ref. 21035], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:22 [ref. 12247], Böhlke 1984:33 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:31 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Decapterus tabl Berry 1968 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:327 [ref. 14275], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:491, 679 [ref. 8056], Robins & Ray 1986:161 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1986:651 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:377 [ref. 25518], Paxton et al. 1989:580 [ref. 12442], McAllister 1990:146 [ref. 14674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:738 [ref. 18644], Randall et al. 1990:163 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:132 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:288 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:77 [ref. 24474], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:438 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:163 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:58 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2723 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:241 [ref. 25013], Nakabo 2000:797 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Kim et al. 2001:28 [ref. 25333], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:797 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 604 [ref. 26218], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1447 [ref. 27083], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624] dated 1868, Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Shinohara et al. 2005:433 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:369 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:121 [ref. 28745], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:284 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Gates 2006:1159 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:234 [ref. 30952], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Motomura et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31256], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Kimura et al. 2013:[14] [ref. 32890], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:48 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34324], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2487 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Decapterus tabl Berry 1968. Carangidae. Distribution: Nearly circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas, including Hawaiian Islands, but absent from the eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tabulae, Selar Barnard [K. H.] 1927:538 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 21 (pt 2); ref. 194] Table Bay, South Africa. Holotype: SAM (not found in 1996). •Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:660 [ref. 5718]). •Synonym of Trachurus capensis Castelnau 1861 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:752 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus capensis Castelnau 1861. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

tala, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Malabar, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-6588. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:21 [ref. 12247]. Lectotype selected by Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973 [ref. 7106]. •Valid as Scomberoides tala (Cuvier 1832) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:199 [ref. 7106], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:583 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:165 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:45 [ref. 20141], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:444 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:165 [ref. 25919], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:245 [ref. 24754], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2733 [ref. 24833], Mishra et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25315], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:198 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Hoese & Gates 2006:1165 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:124 [ref. 30425], Larson et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:120 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:227 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Scomberoides tala (Cuvier 1832). Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

talamparah, Carangoides Bleeker [P.] 1851:64 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 5); ref. 332] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6098. Paralectotypes: (36) RMNH 25872 [ex RMNH 6098] (some of 18), 25873 [ex RMNH 6098] (3). Lectotype selected by Smith [J. L. B.] 1967:146 [ref. 22254]. •Synonym of Carangoides malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

talamparoides, Carangoides Bleeker [P.] 1852:91 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 5); ref. 332] Sibogha, western Sumatra, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: RMNH 6099. Paralectotypes: RMNH 26968 [ex RMNH 6099] (1). Original as talamparoïdes. Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:579 [ref. 334] earliest not established. Lectotype established by Smith [J. L. B.] by use of type 1967:146 [ref. 22254]. •Valid as Carangoides talamparoides Bleeker 1852 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:205 [ref. 19754], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:576 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:160 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:36 [ref. 20141], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:291 [ref. 24014], Randall 1995:179 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:160 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:54 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:138 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2709 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:76 [ref. 27510], Hoese & Gates 2006:1155 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:120 [ref. 30425], Larson et al. 2013:120 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:221 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides talamparoides Bleeker 1852. Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tanakai, Caranx (Citula) Wakiya [Y.] 1924:177, Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Kii, Japan. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: FMNH 59491 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:20 [ref. 12367]; see also Holland in Wakiya 1924:139 [ref. 4570]). •Synonym of Carangoides oblongus (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2705 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides oblongus (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

tapeinometopon, Seriola Bleeker [P.] 1853:80 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16911] Lawajong, Solor Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6124. •Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:747 [ref. 18644] and spelled tapeinometapon, Smith-Vaniz 1999:2738 [ref. 24833] as tapeinometapon). Current status: Synonym of Seriola dumerili (Risso 1810). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

tapeinosoma, Caranx Bleeker [P.] 1856:44 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1; ref. 311] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6080. •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tautiranus, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:69 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

teatae, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:67 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

temmincki, Alectis Wakiya [Y.] 1924:215 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Bonin Islands, Japanese seas. Holotype: FMNH 59410 [ex CM 7752]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:90 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:6 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

tenebrosus, Caranx Jordan [D. S.], Evermann [B. W.] & Wakiya [Y.] in Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka 1927:656 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 20); ref. 2454] Sulphur Bay, Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 28385. •Synonym of Caranx lugubris Poey 1860 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:734 [ref. 18644], Mundy 2005:366 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx lugubris Poey 1860. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

teraia, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:418 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Senegal. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-6223. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6217 (1), A-0577 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:30 [ref. 12247]. Lectotype established in Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:30 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus teraia Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:322 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:751 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:682 [ref. 21590], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:421 [ref. 30078], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2508 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus teraia Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic; Cape Verde Islands and Senegal to Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

teraioides, Trachinotus Guichenot [A.] in Duméril 1861:246 [Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10 [for 1858]; ref. 1149] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6217. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:30 [ref. 12247] as teraoides and teraiodes. Guichenot's contribution not indicated; authorship might be Duméril (ex Guichenot). •Synonym of Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tetracantha, Lichia Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:237, Fig. 49 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] St. Jago and River Gambia, western Africa. No types known. •Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thompsoni, Caranx Seale [A.] in Jordan & Evermann 1905:535 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 1) (1903); ref. 2451] Hawaiian Islands [no specific locality]. Holotype (unique): BPBM 3358 (not found). •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:313 [ref. 6207], Mundy 2005:367 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:334[ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tille, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:124 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Puducherry, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5569 (dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:19 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Caranx tille Cuvier 1833 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:196 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:648 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:579 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:162 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:162 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:56 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:140 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2717 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:801 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:801 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830] as tile, Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:78 [ref. 27510], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:307 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:231 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1158 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Allen & Erdmann 2012:435 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:258 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:82 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:223 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Caranx tille Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Mariana Islands and Fiji, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

tol, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:385 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Malabar coast, India, Arabian Sea, western Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN A-6605. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-0567 (1), A-0571 (1), A-0802 (1, dry), A-6585 (1), A-6587 (2), A-5542 (1, dry), A-6620 (1), B-2650 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:21-22 [ref. 12247]. Lectotype selected by Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:210 [ref. 7106]. Based on MNHN specimens from Pondichéry, and on the 'Tol-parah' of Russell 1803:Pl. 138 [ref. 13862]. •Valid as Scomberoides tol (Cuvier 1832) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:209 [ref. 7106], Kyushin et al. 1977:286 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:226 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:130 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:153 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:655 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:318 [ref. 6207], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:583 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:165 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:46 [ref. 20141], Goren & Dor 1994:34 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:185 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:445 [ref. 27969] with Cuvier & Valenciennes as authors, Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:164 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:165 [ref. 25919], Kimura et al. 1998:510 [ref. 23341], Lin & Shao 1999:64 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2734 [ref. 24833], Mizuno et al. 1999:9 [ref. 25311], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:794 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Yokogawa & Takemori 2001:2 [ref. 25098], Sakai et al. 2001:97 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:794 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:311 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:235 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1165 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:125 [ref. 30425], Allen & Erdmann 2012:437 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:121 [ref. 34464], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:227 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Scomberoides tol (Cuvier 1832). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Philippines and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: brackish, marine.

toloo, Chorinemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Malabar, India. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:38-39 [ref. 12247]. •Questionably a synonym of Scomberoides tala (Cuvier 1832) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:199 [ref. 7106]; Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:38 [ref. 12247]). Current status: Uncertain as Scomberoides tala (Cuvier 1832). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

tolooparah, Lichia Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:91 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 386. Paralectotypes: SMF 8761 (1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:130 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Chorinemus tolooparah (Rüppell 1829) -- (Chen et al. 1997:69 [ref. 26476] dated 1828). •Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:205 [ref. 7106], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:317 [ref. 6207], Mundy 2005:371 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea. Habitat: marine.

torvus, Caranx Jenyns [L.] 1841:69, Pl. 15 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Tahiti, Society Islands. BMNH 1917.7.14.31. •Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644], Parin et al. 2014:362 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

trachurus, Scomber Linnaeus [C.] 1758:298 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: NRM 14 (3), 114 (1); ZMUU Linn. Coll. 104 (1). Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:30 [ref. 23530], Wheeler 1985:56-57 [ref. 20705]. Also appeared in Linnaeus 1759:249 [ref. 24770]. •Valid as Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:380 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:842 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz 1986:660 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:753 [ref. 18644], Nekrasov 1994:61 [ref. 24544], Arruda 1997:86 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466] with question, Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:87 [ref. 26753], Roe et al. 2002:903 [ref. 26504], Parin 2003:S8 [ref. 28536], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:315 [ref. 28072], Fricke 2007:29 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:85 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:94 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:171 [ref. 31251], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:364 [ref. 33547], Bañón et al. 2016:322 [ref. 34397], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2511 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Distribution: Cosmopolitan (including western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea), but excluding eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

trecae, Trachurus Cadenat [J.] 1950:668, Fig. [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 21 (no. 6); ref. 12939] Coasts of Senegal and Mauritania, western Africa. Syntypes: (6) MNHN 1950-0071 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:31 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachurus trecae Cadenat 1950 -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:383 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:843 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:753 [ref. 18644], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:159 [ref. 25472], Nekrasov 1994:72 [ref. 24544], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2512 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Trachurus trecae Cadenat 1950. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

triacanthus, Nauclerus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:253 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6573. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:24 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:741 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

triacanthus, Platysomus (Argyriosus) Swainson [W.] 1839:250, 409 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Spix. pl. 58 -- which is Spix & Agassiz 1831:Pl. 58 [ref. 13]. •Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tropicus, Caranx hippos Nichols [J. T.] 1920:45 [Copeia No. 83; ref. 21425] Para market, Brazil. Holotype: AMNH 3889. Paratypes: AMNH 58046 (1). •Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:311 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2007:208, 219 [ref. 29160]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

typus, Carangichthys Bleeker [P.] 1853:760 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 335] Kema, northern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 26973 [ex RMNH 6074]. •Synonym of Carangoides dinema Bleeker 1851 -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm.). •Synonym of Olistus dinema (Bleeker 1851) -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides dinema Bleeker 1851. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

uii, Caranx (Citula) Wakiya [Y.] 1924:174, Pl. 22 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Kii, Japan. Holotype: FMNH 59494 [ex CM 7720]. Paratypes: FMNH 59469 [CM 7720b] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:90 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:20 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Carangoides uii (Wakiya 1924) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:70 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:161 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:112 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:160 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:161 [ref. 25919], Kim & Kim 1999:21 [ref. 25723], Nakabo 2000:808 [ref. 25086], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Nakabo 2002:808 [ref. 26001]). •Synonym of Carangoides coeruleopinnatus [sometimes as caeruleopinnatus] (Rüppell 1830) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:643 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2695 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:733 [ref. 25471], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:76 [ref. 27510], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:332 [ref. 28867], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2014:2 [ref. 33922] with question). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides coeruleopinnatus (Rüppell 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

umhlangae, Palinurichthys Smith [J. L. B.] 1949:304, Fig. 849b [The sea fishes of southern Africa; ref. 5846] Umhlanga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (2) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 13654 (1). •Synonym of Trachinotus russelii Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:322 [ref. 6207]). •Synonym of Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:659 [ref. 5718]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

unimaculatus, Argyreiosus Batchelder [J. M.] 1846:78 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 2 (no. 10); ref. 15992] Beach at Saco, Maine, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MCZ 38717 (dry). •Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

uraspis, Caranx Günther [A.] 1860:444 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique) (?): RMNH (whereabouts unknown). Replacement name for Uraspis carangoides Bleeker 1855. •Valid as Uraspis uraspis (Günther 1860) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:76 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:587 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:54 [ref. 20141], Allen 1997:118 [ref. 23977], Lin & Shao 1999:62 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:141 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2756 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:803 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:803 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Mundy 2005:374 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1173 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:127 [ref. 30425], Larson et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:122 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:232 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Uraspis uraspis (Günther 1860). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

vachellii, Seserinus Richardson [J.] 1846:273 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton; China Seas. Syntypes: UMZC (2). Type information: Whitehead & Joysey 1967:153 [ref. 19798]. •Synonym of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Current status: Synonym of Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

vadigo, Centronotus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:310, 318 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:38 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Hypacanthus [Hypacantus] amia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:230 [ref. 7106], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:38 [ref. 12247]). •Synonym of Lichia amia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:377 [ref. 7198], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:315 [ref. 6207]). Current status: Synonym of Lichia amia (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vaitapihanus, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:68 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Vaitapiha River, .5 miles above mouth, Tautira township, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

valenciennei, Caranx Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:102 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Noble Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: MNHN A-6434 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:19 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:578 [ref. 12442], Hoese & Gates 2006:1157 [ref. 28997], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx melampygus Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vari, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:48 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-5497 (dry). Paralectotypes: MNHN A-5511 (1, dry), 6123 (1, dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:19-20 [ref. 12247]. Lectotype selected by Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:19 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Alepes vari (Cuvier 1833) -- (Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:155 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:574 [ref. 12442], Gunn 1990:03 [ref. 20141], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:175 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:422 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:156 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:156 [ref. 25488], Lin & Shao 1999:49 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2690 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:800 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:800 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:74 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:222 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1150 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Bogorodsky et al. 2011:52 [ref. 31559], Allen & Erdmann 2012:428 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:116 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:216 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Alepes vari (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Philippines and Solomon Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

velox, Trachinotus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:14 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3286] South Passage, Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1536 [ex AFAQ]. •Synonym of Trachinotus coppingeri Günther 1884 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2748 [ref. 24833], Hoese & Gates 2006:1170 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus coppingeri Günther 1884. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

venator, Caranx Playfair [R. L.] 1868:859, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3) (art. 6) (for 14 Nov. 1867); ref. 14049] Seychelles. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.8.16.70-71 (2). •Synonym of Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål 1775). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

verniciatus, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:73 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

vinctus, Caranx Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:349 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28365 (1), 28366 (1, not found in 1980). Possible syntypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.110-111 (2); USNM 28343 (1), 29553 (1), 29597 (1), 29649 (1). Two USNM lots were given in the original description; other lots with correct locality are possible syntypes. •Valid as Caranx vinctus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:126 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:102 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:961 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:82 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:279 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:122 [ref. 25206], Nelson et al. 2004:140 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Carangoides vinctus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:287 [ref. 24550], Angulo et al. 2013:999 [ref. 33194], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Carangoides vinctus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

virescens, Gallus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:583, 584 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Brazil, Jamaica, Antilles, Greenland, East Indies, Mediterranean Sea. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:51 [ref. 12247] and treated as a replacement name. On Zeus gallus Linnaeus and other sources. •Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:730 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Alectis ciliaris (Bloch 1787). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

virga, Citula Ogilby [J. D.] 1915:134 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 3; ref. 3294] Replacement name for Caranx auriga Seale 1910, preoccupied by Caranx auriga De Vis 1884. •Synonym of Caranx tille Cuvier 1833. Current status: Synonym of Caranx tille Cuvier 1833. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

vomer, Zeus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:266 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. Possible syntypes: NRM 17 (1), 117 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:241-243 [ref. 20707]. •Valid as Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:335 [ref. 14275], Smith 1986:426 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:163 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:380 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:146 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:132 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:291 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:93 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23144], Katsuragawa 1997:779 [ref. 23519], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:283 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:243 [ref. 25013], Keith et al. 2000:102 [ref. 24547], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Reed et al. 2001:468 [ref. 26968], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:422 [ref. 26158], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1458 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:293 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:48 [ref. 33341], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530]). Current status: Valid as Selene vomer (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vomerinus, Caranx Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:59, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Seychelles. Syntypes (?) [or one is the holotype]: BMNH 1866.1.19.2-3 (2), 1867.3.9.209 (1, stuffed). The description apparently was made from one specimen. •Synonym of Carangoides plagiotaenia Bleeker 1857 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:646 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2707 [ref. 24833]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides plagiotaenia Bleeker 1857. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Trachurus Fleming [J.] 1828:218 [A history of British animals; ref. 1339] Estuary of the Tay, England. No types known. Based in part on Scomber trachurus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:380 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:753 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

wakiyai, Uraspis Williams [F.] 1961:66, Pl. 4; Fig. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 4 (no. 38); ref. 9393] Off the coast of Tanzania, 4°49'S, 39°30'E (stomach content). Holotype: BMNH. Paratypes: (1) BMNH. + Current status: Synonym of Uraspis secunda (Poey 1860). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

whiggus, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:73 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

williamsi, Caranx Smith [J. L. B.] 1968:180, Pl. 38 [Occasional Papers of the Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 15; ref. 7919] Off Durban, KawaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 8. Paratypes: (3) not researched. •Synonym of Caranx sem Cuvier 1833 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:648 [ref. 5718]). •Synonym of Caranx heberi (Bennett 1830) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2711 [ref. 24833], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:303 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2007:224 [ref. 29492]). Current status: Synonym of Caranx heberi (Bennett 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

wrighti, Usacaranx georgianus Whitley [G. P.] 1931:317 [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] 40 miles west of Kingston, South Australia, depth 30 fathoms. Holotype: AMS I.10336. Paratypes: AMS I.10397 (1). •Valid as Pseudocaranx wrighti (Whitley 1931) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:582 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:176 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:585 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2006:103 [ref. 28900], Hoese & Gates 2006:1163 [ref. 28997], Smith-Vaniz 2008:578 [ref. 30654], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826]). Current status: Valid as Pseudocaranx wrighti (Whitley 1931). Carangidae. Distribution: Australia: southeastern Australia to Western Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

xanthopterus, Caranx praeustus var. Bleeker [P.] 1851:364 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Carangoides praeustus (Bennett 1830) -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm.). •Synonym of Olistus praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:335 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carangoides praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

xanthopygus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:109 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:38 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825 -- (Fricke 1999:249 [ref. 24106], Mundy 2005:367 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:333 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825. Carangidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

xanthurus, Caranx Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:55 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN A-6118 (1), RMNH D925 (1), SMF 2895 [ex RMNH in 1829] (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:20 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Alepes mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:309 [ref. 6207]). •Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833) -- (Kottelat 2013:332 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Atule mate (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

zebra, Scomber Shaw [G.] 1803:587 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] No locality. Unneeded new name for Scomber fasciatus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Seriola fasciata (Bloch 1793). Current status: Synonym of Seriola fasciata (Bloch 1793). Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

zelotes, Hemicaranx Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2845 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Panama. Lectotype: ?CAS-SU 5819. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1903.5.15.174 (1). Author is C. H. Gilbert. Lectotype established in caption to Pl. 12 (fig. 22) in Gilbert & Starks 1904 [ref. 1639]. •Valid as Hemicaranx zelotes Gilbert 1898 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:127 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:106 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:968 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:87 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:278 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:290 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:144 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:396 [ref. 34894], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668]). Current status: Valid as Hemicaranx zelotes Gilbert 1898. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

zonatus, Scomber Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:427, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] Bay of New York, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Seriola zonata (Mitchill 1815) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:380 [ref. 7198], Robins & Ray 1986:164 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:381 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:147 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:134 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:293 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:99 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:169 [ref. 23144], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:246 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:424 [ref. 26158], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1462 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:298 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Seriola zonata (Mitchill 1815). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.