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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Carcharhinidae: [ 224 ] records


aaronis, Carcharias Hemprich [F. W.] & Ehrenberg [C. G.] 1899:8, Pl. 5 (fig. 1 + a-c) [Symbolae physicae; ref. 4977] Red Sea. Hemprich & Ehrenberg specimens: ZMB 2261 (1, dry), 4453 (3), 4456 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:163 [ref. 21041] with syntypes at ZMB. Regarded as not available, appeared as Hemprich & Ehrenberg name in synonymy of Carcharias acutus Rüppell; subsequent validation not researched. •In the synonymy of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:10 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:525 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae.

abbreviatus, Carcharias Klunzinger [C. B.] (ex Ehrenberg) 1871:661 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Red Sea. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:167 [ref. 21041] dated to 1899 and holotype as ZMB 4472. Not available; appeared as name in synonymy as above; then as Gymnorhinus abbreviatus in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899: Pl. 7 (fig. 2 + a-c) [ref. 4977] but in the synonymy of Carcharias ehrenbergi. •In the synonymy of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Dor 1984:6 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:481 [ref. 6846]). •Correctly in the synonymy of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Voigt & Weber 2011:75 [ref. 31424] but with author as Valenciennes). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae.

acarenatus, Carcharhinus Moreno [J. A.] & Hoyos [A.] 1983:57, Figs. 1-5 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 8301] Casablanca-Rabat, Morocco, 33°49'N, 7°28'W, depth 270-360 meters. Holotype: VBCM 816. Paratypes: VBCM 817 to 820 (1, 1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870) -- (Compagno 1984:464 [ref. 6846], Morey & Massutí 2003:55 [ref. 27024], Castro 2011:403 [ref. 31457]). •Valid as Carcharhinus acarenatus Moreno & Hoyos 1983 -- (Voigt & Weber 2011:35 [ref. 31424]). •Status needs study -- (White 2012:3 [ref. 31843]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus acarenatus Moreno & Hoyos 1983. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Morocco; Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acronotus, Squalus Poey [F.] 1860:335, Pl. 19 (figs. 3-4) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): lost. Type catalog: Gutiérrez de los Reyes et al. 2015:45 [ref. 36079]. Dates to text in July 1860; as Prionodon acronotus on plate [plate published in 1861]. •Valid as Carcharhinus acronotus (Poey 1860) -- (Garrick 1982:65 [ref. 5454], Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:53 [ref. 14275], Compagno 1984:454 [ref. 6846], Robins & Ray 1986:24 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:20 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:169 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:74 [ref. 23897], Carlson et al. 1999:684 [ref. 23913], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:51 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Grace 2001:20 [ref. 25694], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639] dated 1861, Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Soto 2001:64, 75 [ref. 26637], Compagno 2003:475 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27192], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:48 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Voigt & Weber 2011:37 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:393 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:19 [ref. 33341], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:88 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:17 [ref. 34211], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus acronotus (Poey 1860). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to southern Brazil, including Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

acutidens, Carcharias Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:65, Pl. 18 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 2825. Type catalog and lectotype designation: Klausewitz 1960:292 [ref. 21330]. •Valid as Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837) -- (Compagno 1984:517 [ref. 6846], Dor 1984:9 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:7 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:83 [ref. 5638], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:83 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:22 [ref. 15987], Last & Stevens 1994:262 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:35 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:22 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1352 [ref. 23787], Myers 1999:36 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:22 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:147 [ref. 24253], Johnson 1999:720 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:135 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:95 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:135 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:21 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:35 [ref. 27735], Randall 2005:14 [ref. 28239], Compagno et al. 2005:42 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:105 [ref. 29001], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Moore et al. 2012:10 [ref. 31771], Allen & Erdmann 2012:58 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:11 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:336 [ref. 33045], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:85 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:25 [ref. 34211], Clua & Imirizaldu 2017:67 [ref. 36520], White et al. 2017:170 [ref. 35860], Fricke et al. 2018:16 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:12 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:39 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:6 [ref. 37020], Fernando et al. 2019:222 [ref. 36642], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Persian Gulf east to Marshall Islands and Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia), Chesterfield Islands and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acutus, Carcharias Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:65, Pl. 18 (fig. 4) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 2783. Paralectotypes: SMF 761 (2). Type catalog and lectotype designation: Klausewitz 1960:292 [ref. 21330]. •Listed in the synonymy of Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839 -- (Compagno & Niem 1998:1351 [ref. 23787] presumeably on a misidentified paralectotype, also Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:34 [ref. 27735]). •Valid as Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Springer 1964:594 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1973:31 [ref. 7163], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:114 [ref. 13675], Dor 1984:9 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:525 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:5 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:85 [ref. 5638], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:83 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:102 [ref. 19320], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:23 [ref. 20764], Last & Stevens 1994:265 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:36 [ref. 22896], Rainboth 1996:51 [ref. 22772], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Compagno & Niem 1998:1354 [ref. 23787], Fricke 1999:23 [ref. 24106], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:233 [ref. 24754], Afonso et al. 1999:68 [ref. 25466], Johnson 1999:720 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:136 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:136 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:53, 474 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:34 [ref. 27735], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:62 [ref. 28072], Compagno et al. 2005:43 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:106 [ref. 29001], Wirtz et al. 2007:23 [ref. 30263], Moore et al. 2012:10 [ref. 31771], Naylor et al. 2012:29 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:12 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:22 [ref. 32989], Ebert et al. 2013:337 [ref. 33045], Fricke et al. 2014:14 [ref. 33932], Shinohara et al. 2014:233 [ref. 33330] as Rhizopriodon, Parin et al. 2014:24 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:86 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:25 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1325 [ref. 34544], White et al. 2017:174 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:302 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:16 [ref. 35805], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:165 [ref. 35920], Golani & Fricke 2018:12 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:40 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:6 [ref. 37020], Fernando et al. 2019:223 [ref. 36642]). Current status: Valid as Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through warm temperate seas (including Red Sea, Persian Gulf). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

adscensionis, Squalus Osbeck [P.] 1765:385 [Reise nach Ostindien und China; ref. 3311] [Ascensionsinsul] Ascension Island, South Atlantic. No types known. Apparently not used as a valid name since 1899 and can be considered a nomen oblitum. •Questionably a synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846], Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812]). •Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wirtz et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33516], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

aethalorus, Carcharias Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:104 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 268); ref. 10603] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 29549. Paralectotypes: USNM 28202 (1, missing). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:2 [ref. 21812]. Lectotype designated by Howe & Springer 1993:2-3 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:30 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:481 [ref. 6846] as aethlorus, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:47 [ref. 24550], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27705], Voigt & Weber 2011:75 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:432 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:92 [ref. 34398]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aethiops, Carcharias Philippi [R. A.] 1902:311 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile v. 109 (for July-Dec. 1901); ref. 14889] Chile. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Questionably a synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846], Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812]). Current status: Uncertain as Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Scoliodon Ogilby [J. D.] 1912:29 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 1; ref. 14855] Off Noosa Head, southern Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1526 [ex AFAQ 1524]. •Synonym of Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839 -- (Springer 1964:588 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:514 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:82 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:261 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:104 [ref. 29001]). Current status: Synonym of Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839. Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

ahenea, Eulamia Stead [D. G.] 1938:102 [Australian Naturalist v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 18873] Off Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: (3 adult males) AMS IB.501 (1, jaws, heart); USNM 114946 (1, skin from lower jaw). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:3 [ref. 21812] with a lectotype [but Whitley's use of holotype does not establish a lectotype]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870) -- (Garrick 1982:171 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:464 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:76 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:103 [ref. 19320], Last & Stevens 1994:236 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:99 [ref. 29001], Castro 2011:403 [ref. 31457], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

albimarginatus, Carcharias Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:64, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Ras Muhammad, Sinai, Egypt, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 3582 (dry and mounted). Lectotype selected by Rosenblatt & Baldwin 1958:151 [ref. 21289], confirmed by Klausewitz 1960:293 [ref. 21330]. •Valid as Carcharhinus albimarginatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Garrick 1982:116 [ref. 5454], Kyushin et al. 1982:22 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:5 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:455 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:69 [ref. 5638], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:75 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:4 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:18 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:21 [ref. 22193], Last & Stevens 1994:228 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:2 [ref. 25356], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:670 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:28 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:28 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:73 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:18 [ref. 25919], Adam et al. 1998:5 [ref. 23610], Compagno & Niem 1998:1325 [ref. 23787], Myers 1999:32 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:18 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:146 [ref. 24253], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:137 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:89 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:137 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:21 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Baranes 2003:35 [ref. 27888], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:49 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:26 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:10 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:88 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:35 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:98 [ref. 29001], Randall 2007:30 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:144 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:8 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:11 [ref. 30426], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Last el al. 2010:86 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Voigt & Weber 2011:39 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:397 [ref. 31457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Allen & Erdmann 2012:56 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:21 [ref. 34345] with two species, Fricke et al. 2013:250 [ref. 32706], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Ebert et al. 2013:329 [ref. 33045], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:88 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:17 [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], White et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35860], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:12 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:10 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:31 [ref. 35922], Fricke et al. 2019:39 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:58 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus albimarginatus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Clipperton Island, Panama and Revillagigedo Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to northern Australia, New Caledonia and Tuamotu Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

albomarginatus, Carcharias Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Klunzinger (ex Ehrenberg) 1871:655 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:164 [ref. 21041] dated to 1899 with holotype as ZMB 4455. Apparently not available; appeared first as above as name in synonymy of Carcharias acutus; also as a name in synonymy in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899:7, Pl. 4 [ref. 4977]. Carcharhinidae.

altima, Eulamia Springer [S.] 1950:9 [American Museum Novitates No. 1451; ref. 4172] Off Cosgrove Reef, Key West, Florida, U.S.A., depth 95 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 133828. Paratypes: (26, probably discarded). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:3 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Carcharhinus altimus (Springer 1950) -- (Garrick 1982:142 [ref. 5454], Dor 1984:5 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:457 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:69 [ref. 5638], Robins & Ray 1986:24 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:75 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:102 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:18 [ref. 15987], Cervigón 1992:170 [ref. 23827], Baranes & Golani 1993:301 [ref. 22372], Allen & Robertson 1994:21 [ref. 22193], Last & Stevens 1994:230 [ref. 23873], Bussing & López S. 1994:16 [ref. 23101], Goren & Dor 1994:2 [ref. 25356], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:671 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:28 [ref. 22896], Golani 1996:20 [ref. 22271], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:28 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:80 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:18 [ref. 25919], Adam et al. 1998:5 [ref. 23610], Compagno & Niem 1998:1326 [ref. 23787], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:75 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:54 [ref. 24555], Morón et al. 1999:146 [ref. 24253], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:53 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Grace 2001:25 [ref. 25694], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:64, 75 [ref. 26637], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:14 [ref. 26753], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Compagno 2003:476 [ref. 26984], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:50 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:27 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:57 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:89 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:98 [ref. 29001], Compagno et al. 2005:35 [ref. 29145], Fricke et al. 2007:14 [ref. 29533], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Zenetos et al. 2010:410 [ref. 31201], Voigt & Weber 2011:41 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:400 [ref. 31457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Naylor et al. 2012:26 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Ebert et al. 2013:329 [ref. 33045], Psomadakis et al. 2015:79 [ref. 34104], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:17 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1296 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:452 [ref. 34668], Duffy & Scott 2016:188 [ref. 34780], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Duffy & Struthers 2017:132 [ref. 35604], White et al. 2017:128 [ref. 35860], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:12 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:10 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Tyabji et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36598], White & Ko'ou 2018:31 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861], Fricke et al. 2019:40 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus altimus (Springer 1950). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea). Habitat: marine.

amblyrhynchoides, Gillisqualus Whitley [G. P.] 1934:189, Fig. 4 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 10 (pt 4); ref. 4949] Cape Bowling Green, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.2003. •Valid as Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides (Whitley 1934) -- (Garrick 1982:37 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:458 [ref. 6846], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:76 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:231 [ref. 23873], Randall 1995:28 [ref. 22896], Compagno & Niem 1998:1327 [ref. 23787], Morón et al. 1999:146 [ref. 24253], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:28 [ref. 27735], Compagno et al. 2005:35 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:98 [ref. 29001], Last el al. 2010:88 [ref. 32461], Voigt & Weber 2011:43 [ref. 31424], Moore et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31771], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Naylor et al. 2012:24 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013:8 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:80 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:17 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:130 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:31 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:3 [ref. 37020], Fernando et al. 2019:222 [ref. 36642]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides (Whitley 1934). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

amblyrhynchos, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1856:467 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 10; ref. 16854] Java Sea near Solombo Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7377 (head and skin). •Valid as Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:22 [ref. 19756], Garrick 1982:106 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:459 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:70 [ref. 5638], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:76 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:18 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:126 [ref. 20996], Last & Stevens 1994:232 [ref. 23873], Randall 1995:29 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:80 [ref. 24023] [but see McCosker 1998:809 [ref. 24025]], Randall et al. 1997:18 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1328 [ref. 23787], Myers 1999:32 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:18 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:146 [ref. 24253], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Randall 1999:4 [ref. 25829], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:90 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:21 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Baranes 2003:35 [ref. 27888], Lobel & Lobel 2004:67 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27624], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:26 [ref. 27735], Randall 2005:11 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:89 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:36 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:98 [ref. 29001], Randall 2007:31 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30213], Last el al. 2010:90 [ref. 32461]. Last el al. 2010:90 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Voigt & Weber 2011:45 [ref. 31424], Moore et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31771], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Allen & Erdmann 2012:56 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:250 [32706], Larson et al. 2013:8 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:331 [ref. 33045], Fricke et al. 2014:14 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Weigmann 2016:18 [ref. 34211], Duffy 2016:97 [ref. 34514], Duffy & Struthers 2017:135 [ref. 35604], White et al. 2017:132 [ref. 35860], Fricke et al. 2018:12 [ref. 35805], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:32 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:3 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:40 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Marquesas Islands and Easter Island, north to South China Sea and Hawaiian Islands, south to New Caledonia; Galapagos Islands. Not Lord Howe Island to Norfolk Island [ref. 34514], which is C. galapagensis. Habitat: marine.

amboinensis, Carcharias (Prionodon) Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1839:40, [Pl. 19 (teeth)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH D2582 (skin). •Valid as Carcharhinus amboinensis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:91 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:461 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:70 [ref. 5638], Randall et al. 1997:18 [ref. 25919], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:76 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:103 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:18 [ref. 15987], Last & Stevens 1994:234 [ref. 23873], Randall 1995:29 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], Compagno & Niem 1998:1329 [ref. 23787], Fricke 1999:19 [ref. 24106], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:32 [ref. 27735], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:54 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:99 [ref. 29001], Berra 2010:109 [ref. 31120], Voigt & Weber 2011:47 [ref. 31424], Psomadakis et al. 2012:14 [ref. 33457], Moore et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31771], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Naylor et al. 2012:25 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013:8 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:80 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:18 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1297 [ref. 34544], White et al. 2017:134 [ref. 35860], Fricke et al. 2018:12 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:10 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Tyabji et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36598], White & Ko'ou 2018:32 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:4 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus amboinensis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Red Sea, Persian Gulf), but not eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

apicalis, Triaenodon Whitley [G. P.] 1939:236, Fig. 9 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4695] Lindeman Island, northern Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.6566. Paratypes: AMS IA.6565 (1). •Synonym of Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Compagno 1984:536 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:84 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:269 [ref. 23873], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:35 [ref. 27735], Compagno et al. 2005:44 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:107 [ref. 29001], Castro 2011:501 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

arcticus, Squalus Faber [F.] 1829:17 [Naturgeschichte der Fische Islands; ref. 13329] Iceland and Norway, Northeastern Atlantic. No types known. •Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822) -- (Compagno 1973:26 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:503 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:101 [ref. 19320], Randall 1992:21 [ref. 20251], Compagno & Niem 1998:1349 [ref. 23787], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:116 [ref. 25013], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:72 [ref. 25968], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:33 [ref. 27735], Mundy 2005:92 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:103 [ref. 29001], Castro 2011:466 [ref. 31457]). •Valid as Galeocerdo arcticus (Faber 1829) -- (Naylor et al. 2012:34 [ref. 34345] with question, see remarks). Current status: Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

aronis, Carcharias Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Klunzinger 1871:655 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Red Sea. Name in synonymy; not validated with this spelling; see Carcharias aaronis Hemprich & Ehrenberg. •In the synonymy of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:10 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:22 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae.

atripinnis, Hypoprion Chu [Y.-T.] 1960:80, Figs. 75-76 [Cartilaginous fishes of China; ref. 21272] South China Sea. Holotype and paratypes: Shanghai Fish. Inst. 54-157 (1), 35980 (1), 37341-42 (2), 132,306-1 to 2 (2). Holotype not clearly identified in publication. +Missing data. •Synonym of Carcharhinus hemiodon (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus hemiodon (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

atrodorsus, Carcharhinus Deng [S.-M.], Xiong [G.-Q.] & Zhan [H.-X.] 1981:216 [English p. 219], Figs. 1-3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 8612] Off Yongxing Island, Xisha Islands, China. Holotype (unique): ECSFI SH73-0872. •Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

azureus, Carcharias Gilbert [C. H.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:11, Pl. 2 (fig. 5) [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences v. 4; ref. 1639] Panama. Holotype: CAS-SU 11890. Paratypes: (2) BMNH 1903.5.15.338 (1) Panama. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Lee et al. 1980:36 [ref. 22416], Garrick 1982:81 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:478 [ref. 6846], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:49 [ref. 24550], Carvalho & McEachran in Reis et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27061], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27705], Voigt & Weber 2011:72 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:426 [ref. 31457], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:92 [ref. 34398]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bigelowi, Hypoprion Cadenat [J.] 1956:539, Figs. 1-5 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 12183] Senegal coast, about 100 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1959-0040 [ex IFAN 1955-4915]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus signatus (Poey 1868) -- (Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:110 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:499 [ref. 6846], Garrick 1985:20 [ref. 5654], Springer 1990:107 [ref. 19320], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:681 [ref. 22829], Compagno 2003:489 [ref. 26984], Castro 2011:463 [ref. 31457], Voigt & Weber 2011:95 [ref. 31424], Compagno 2016:1317 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus signatus (Poey 1868). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Carcharias (Prionodon) Duméril [A. H. A.] 1865:367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 1; ref. 1150] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-9584 (1, mounted), A-9660 (1, mounted). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:73 [ref. 20739] with MNHN A.9660 as holotype. •Synonym of Carcharhinus spallanzani (Péron & Lesueur 1822) -- (Dor 1984:7 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:165 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:500 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1347 [ref. 23787], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:29 [ref. 27735], Voigt & Weber 2011:97 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bogimba, Galeolamna (Bogimba) Whitley [G. P.] 1943:123, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 68 (pts 3-4) (nos. 307-308); ref. 4702] Bogimbah, Fraser Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.1225 (teeth and skin). •Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:81 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:478 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:78 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:246 [ref. 23873], Carvalho & McEachran in Reis et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27061], Hoese et al. 2006:101 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:72 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:426 [ref. 31457], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

borneensis, Carcharias Seale [A.] 1910:263, Pl. 1 [The Philippine Journal of Science, Section D v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 14808] Sandakan, Sabah state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BSMP 2720 (destroyed during WWII). Original genus misspelled Charcharias. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Carcharias borneensis Bleeker 1858, replaced by Carcharias sealei Pietschmann 1913. •Synonym of Carcharhinus sealei (Pietschmann 1913) -- (Garrick 1982:48 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:497 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:79 [ref. 12442], Last el al. 2010:98 [ref. 32461], Voigt & Weber 2011:93 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus sealei (Pietschmann 1913). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

borneensis, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1858:8 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 7); ref. 364] Off Singkawang, West Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7386. •Valid as Carcharhinus borneensis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Garrick 1982:179 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:463 [ref. 6846], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Compagno & Niem 1998:1330 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Compagno et al. 2005:36 [ref. 29145], Last el al. 2010:92 [ref. 32461], White et al. 2010:18 [ref. 30847], Voigt & Weber 2011:49 [ref. 31424], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Weigmann 2016:18 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2019:3 [ref. 36436]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus borneensis (Bleeker 1858). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sarawak, Borneo; doubtful southern China and around Java, possibly Philippines. Habitat: marine.

brachyrhynchos, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1859:206 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 6 (art. 3); ref. 371] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7380. Appeared without description in Bleeker 1858:10 [ref. 364]. Based on Carcharias (Prionodon) henlei of Bleeker, not of Valenciennes. •Synonym of Carcharhinus amboinensis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:92 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:461 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:47 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus amboinensis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brachyrrhynchus, Carcharias Philippi [R. A.] 1887:540 [8], Pl. 1 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile Sec. 1, v. 71; ref. 3464] Iquique, Chile. Holotype (unique): MNHNC (jaws). Regarded as preoccupied by brachyrhynchos Bleeker and renamed Eulamia philippi Fowler 1930. •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:185 [ref. 5454]). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

brachyurus, Carcharias Günther [A.] 1870:369 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Off Wanganui, New Zealand. Neotype: NMNZ P.2262. Syntypes: BMNH 1846.9.11.118 (1, stuffed), 1953.5.10.6 (1, 304-mm spec.). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:6 [ref. 18942]. Neotype designated by Garrick 1982:174 [ref. 5454], but syntypes may be available. •Valid as Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870) -- (Garrick 1982:171 [ref. 5454], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:38 [ref. 9277], Compagno 1984:464 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:71 [ref. 5638], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paulin et al. 1989:25 [ref. 24556], Paxton et al. 1989:76 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:103 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:18 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:12 [ref. 23929], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:77 [ref. 25472], Gomon et al. 1994:121 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:235 [ref. 23873], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:672 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:28 [ref. 24545], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:18 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1331 [ref. 23787], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:53 [ref. 24555], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:139 [ref. 25086], Soto 2001:64, 75 [ref. 26637], Youn 2002:53, 472 [ref. 26218], Compagno 2003:477 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Morey & Massutí 2003:53 [ref. 27024], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:50 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:57 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:99 [ref. 29001], White 2008:68 [ref. 30617], Voigt & Weber 2011:51 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:403 [ref. 31457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Naylor et al. 2012:27 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Ebert et al. 2013:330 [ref. 33045], Parin et al. 2014:23 [ref. 33547], Duffy 2015:100 [ref. 34217], Dyldin 2015:52 [ref. 34524], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:18 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1299 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:452 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:70 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:13 [ref. 35805], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevipinna, Carcharias (Aprion) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:31, [Pl. 9] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH D2525 (mounted skin). •Valid as Aprionodon brevipinna (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138] dated 1841). •Valid as Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes 1839) (often seen as Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1973:23 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:41 [ref. 5454], Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:54 [ref. 14275], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:104 [ref. 13675], Dor 1984:5 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:466 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:71 [ref. 5638], Robins & Ray 1986:27 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:76 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:103 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:19 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:20 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:170 [ref. 23827], Last & Stevens 1994:237 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:2 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:30 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], Arruda 1997:17 [ref. 24952], Randall et al. 1997:19 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1332 [ref. 23787], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:76 [ref. 23897], Fricke 1999:19 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:146 [ref. 24253], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:55 [ref. 24490], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:138 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Grace 2001:23 [ref. 25694], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:64, 76 [ref. 26637], Nakabo 2002:138 [ref. 26001], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:14 [ref. 26753] dated 1841, Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Compagno 2003:478 [ref. 26984], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:51 [ref. 27705] dated to 1841, Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:28 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:58 [ref. 28072], Compagno et al. 2005:36 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:99 [ref. 29001], Fricke et al. 2007:14 [ref. 29533], White 2008:67 [ref. 30617], Fricke et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Voigt & Weber 2011:53 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:407 [ref. 31457], Moore et al. 2012:8 [ref. 31771], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:8 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:330 [ref. 33045], Psomadakis et al. 2015:80 [ref. 34104], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34398] with authors as Müller & Henle, Weigmann 2016:19 [ref. 34211] with authors as Müller & Henle, Compagno 2016:1301 [ref. 34544] with authors as Müller & Henle, Koeda et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35333] with author as Müller & Henle, Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565] with author as Müller & Henle, White et al. 2017:136 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36183], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:13 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:10 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], White & Ko'ou 2018:33 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861], Eagderi et al. 2019:4 [ref. 37020], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through warm temperate seas (including Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf), but not in the eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

brevipinna, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1853:509 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2). Apparently a new subgenus combination for Carcharias brevipinna Müller & Henle 1839 and not an original description. In any event, Bleekers' name is preoccupied and is objectively invalid. •In the synonymy of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae.

brevirostris, Hypoprion Poey [F.] 1868:451, Pl. 4 (figs. 5-6, 20) [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba, western Atlantic. Holotype (unique): Poey specimen 567 (lost). Type catalog: Gutiérrez de los Reyes et al. 2015:46 [ref. 36079]. •Valid as Negaprion brevirostris (Poey 1868) -- (Compagno 1973:29 [ref. 7163], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:112 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:519 [ref. 6846], Robins & Ray 1986:29 [ref. 23100], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Springer 1990:107 [ref. 19320], Boschung 1992:23 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:177 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:23 [ref. 22193], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:684 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:35 [ref. 22896], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:88 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:52 [ref. 24555], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:83 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:46 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:116 [ref. 25013], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Grace 2001:12 [ref. 25694], Soto 2001:64, 82 [ref. 26637], Compagno 2003:492 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:5 [ref. 27621], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:14 [ref. 28239], Castro 2011:481 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:20 [ref. 33341], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:95 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:25 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1321 [ref. 34544], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Negaprion brevirostris (Poey 1868). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Atlantic and eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

broussonetii, Squalis (Carcharhinus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Carcharhinidae.

budkeri, Pterolamiops Fourmanoir [P.] 1961:76 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 4; ref. 9345] 12 miles west of Kalakazoro Island and off Majunga, Madagascar, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (2) IRSMNB (probably lost). •Synonym of Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861) -- (Garrick 1982:150 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:484 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:77 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:438 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

caecchia, Squalus Nardo [G. D.] 1847:col. 111 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Venice, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Appeared as name only in synonymy in Nardo 1847:col. 111 [ref. 17994], Nardo 1847:39 [ref. 18469], Nardo 1853:15 [ref. 26342], and Ninni 1872:6 [ref. 17995]. Neither Ninni nor any references cited within contained a description. •In the synonymy of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827) -- (Compagno 1973:25 [ref. 7163] as cacchia, Compagno 1984:493 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:89 [ref. 31424], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caeruleus, Squalus (Carcharinus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:30 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846], Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812]). Current status: Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae.

cagnea, Squalus carcharias var. Martens [G. M. von] 1824:408 [Reise nach Venedig.; ref. 17602] Venice, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Not available. The word "cagnea" was used as a common name or descriptive term and not as a latin name. Carcharhinidae.

calamaria, Longmania Whitley [G. P.] 1944:257, Fig. 4 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 3); ref. 4705] Off Busselton, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.2526-001 (head and tail)(not found in 2009). Additional parts from holotype: AMS IB.1619 (teeth and skin). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:6 [ref. 19335] referred WAM P.2526-001 (head and tail, and presumed lost) as holotype; Moore et al. 2008:4 [ref. 30117] (presumed lost). •Synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:41 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:466 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:77 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:238 [ref. 23873], Moore et al. 2009:4 [ref. 30117], Voigt & Weber 2011:53 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:407 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

caparti, Aprionodon Poll [M.] 1951:41, Figs. 16-18 [Résultats Scientifiques. Expédition Océanographique Belge dans les Eaux Côtières Africaines de l'Atlantique Sud (1948-1949). Bruxelles. v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 12797] Pt. Dande, Angola, eastern Atlantic, 8°30'S, 13°16'E. Holotype: IRSNB 97. Paratypes: IRSNB 98 (1), MRAC 80.255 (1). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:5 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:25 [ref. 21528]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1973:23 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:41 [ref. 5454], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:104 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:466 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:103 [ref. 19320], Voigt & Weber 2011:53 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:407 [ref. 31457], Compagno 2016:1301 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

caudata, Lamna DeKay [J. E.] 1842:354, Pl. 62 (figs. 205-205a-b) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Brenton Reef, Rhode Island, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827) -- (Garrick 1982:133 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:493 [ref. 6474], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cauta, Galeolamna greyi Whitley [G. P.] 1945:2, Fig. 2 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 1); ref. 4707] Herald Bight, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.1622 (teeth and skin). •Valid as Carcharhinus cautus (Whitley 1945) -- (Garrick 1982:102 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:468 [ref. 6474], Paxton et al. 1989:77 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:238 [ref. 23873], Larson & Williams 1997:343 [ref. 23967], Compagno & Niem 1998:1333 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:100 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:56 [ref. 31424], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Larson et al. 2013:9 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:19 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:138 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:33 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus cautus (Whitley 1945). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean and southwestern Pacific: Papua New Guinea, northern and western Australia, Solomon Islands. Habitat: marine.

cepedianus, Galeus Agassiz [L.] 1838:91 [Recherches sur les poissons fossiles; ref. 13390] No locality. •Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822) -- (Compagno 1984:503 [ref. 6474], Castro 2011:466 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cerdale, Carcharhinus Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2746 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Panama. Holotype: CAS-SU 11884. Paratypes: (numerous) ?BMNH 1903.5.15-339-340 [from Jordan] (2); CAS-SU 11886 (1), 12865-66 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291]. Author is C. H. Gilbert. Holotype figured in Gilbert & Starks 1904, Pl. 2 (figs. 4-4a) [ref. 1639]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus porosus (Ranzani 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:496 [ref. 6846], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:48 [ref. 24550], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:59 [ref. 27705], Voigt & Weber 2011:89 [ref. 31424]). •Valid as Carcharhinus cerdale Gilbert 1898 -- (Castro 2011:8 [ref. 31126], Castro 2011:410 [ref. 31457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Naylor et al. 2012:27 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:235 [ref. 36362], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:19 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], White et al. 2019:3 [ref. 36436]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus cerdale Gilbert 1898. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ceruleus, Carcharias DeKay [J. E.] 1842:349, Pl. 61 (fig. 200) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York to New Hampshire, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827) -- (Garrick 1982:133 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:493 [ref. 6846], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:58 [ref. 27705] as caeruleus De Kay, Voigt & Weber 2011:89 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:453 [ref. 31457], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ceylonensis, Scoliodon Setna [S. B.] & Sarangdhar [P. N.] 1946:252 [Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India v. 12 (no. 5); ref. 6848] India. No types known. •Synonym of Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839 -- (Springer 1964:588 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:514 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1351 [ref. 23787], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:34 [ref. 27735]). Current status: Synonym of Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839. Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

ciliaris, Squalus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:132, Pl. 31 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4458 (young). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:168 [ref. 21041]. •Questionably a synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Uncertain as Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

coatesi, Platypodon Whitley [G. P.] 1939:234, Fig. 7 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4695] Hinchinbrook Passage, Queensland, Australia, ca. 18°20'S, 146°08'E. Holotype (unique): QM I.6226. •Synonym of Carcharhinus sealei (Pietschmann 1913) -- (Garrick 1982:41 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:497 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:79 [ref. 12442], Voigt & Weber 2011:93 [ref. 31424]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus dussumieri (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:240 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:100 [ref. 29001]). •Valid as Carcharhinus coatesi (Whitley 1939) -- (White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Larson et al. 2013:8 [ref. 32988], White & Weigmann 2014:85 [ref. 33352], Weigmann 2016:19 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:140 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:33 [ref. 35922], Fricke et al. 2019:40 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus coatesi (Whitley 1939). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: northern Australia (Shark Bay, Western Australia to Fraser Island, Queensland); off New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

commersonii, Squalus (Carcharhinus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Garrick 1982:96 [ref. 5454] dated to 1825, Compagno 1984:487 [ref. 6846], Mundy 2005:91 [ref. 28379], Voigt & Weber 2011:82 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Carcharhinidae.

conductus, Squalus Osbeck [P.] 1765:92 [Reise nach Ostindien und China; ref. 3311] East Atlantic between the Canary Islands and the equator, off Liberia, at 3°47'N. No types known. Squalus canicula Linnaeus 1758 was given by Osbeck as a probable synonym, but this was obviously a misidentification by Osbeck. The name has not been used as a valid name after 1899 and is therefore a nomen oblitum; precedence over Carcharias limbatus Müller & Henle 1839 is therefore reversed according to ICZN Art. 23.9.1.1. •In the synonymy of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

coongoola, Galeolamna Whitley [G. P.] 1964:154, Fig. 1 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 26 (no. 5); ref. 3772] Gillett Cay, Swain Reefs, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.6006 (teeth and skin). Paratypes: AMS IB.6009 (1, teeth and skin). •Synonym of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Garrick 1982:106 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:459 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:76 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:233 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:99 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:45 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

crenidens, Carcharias (Scoliodon) Klunzinger [C. B.] 1880:426 [102], Pl. 8 (fig. 3) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (1. Abth.) (nos 3-4); ref. 2624] Endeavour Strait, 10°50'S, 142°15'E, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2449. Type catalog: Fricke 1992:7 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:24 [ref. 29864]. On p. 102 of separate. •Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Springer 1964:594 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:525 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:83 [ref. 12442], Hoese et al. 2006:106 [ref. 29001], Kottelat 2013:22 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cucuri, Prionodon Castelnau [F. L.] (ex Marcgrave) 1855:99 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Based on Marcgrave 1648:164 [ref. 19651]. •Questionably the same as Carcharhinus acronotus (Poey 1860) -- (Garrick 1982:186 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:454 [ref. 6846] as curcuri, Voigt & Weber 2011:37 [ref. 31424] as curcuri). Current status: Uncertain as Carcharhinus acronotus (Poey 1860). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

cuvier, Squalus Péron [F.] & Lesueur [C. A.] in Lesueur 1822:351 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2; ref. 17519] Northwestern coast of Australia, eastern Indian Ocean. No types known. Authorship given as Péron & Lesueur; Péron's contribution indeterminable. Sometimes seen as wrongly credited to Müller & Henle 1837, •Valid as Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822) -- (Compagno 1973:26 [ref. 7163], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:40 [ref. 9277], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:110 [ref. 13675] as cuvieri, Dor 1984:7 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:503 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:5 [ref. 6441] as cuvieri, Bass et al. 1986:78 [ref. 5638], Robins & Ray 1986:28 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:80 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:25 [ref. 24556], Springer 1990:101 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:21 [ref. 15987], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:19 [ref. 20764], Boschung 1992:22 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:176 [ref. 23827], Randall 1992:21 [ref. 20251], Kuiter 1993:12 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:23 [ref. 22193], Gomon et al. 1994:124 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:258 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356] as cuvieri, Seigel et al. 1995:163 [ref. 22913], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:682 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:34 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Cheng & Zhou 1997:30 [ref. 26385] with author as Lesueur, date as 1928 [sic], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:83 [ref. 24023], Santos et al. 1997:8 [ref. 23531] as cuvieri, Larson & Williams 1997:343 [ref. 23967], Arruda 1997:18 [ref. 24952] as cuvieri, Randall et al. 1997:21 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1349 [ref. 23787], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:87 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:52 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:34 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:22 [ref. 24106], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Morón et al. 1999:147 [ref. 24253], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:78 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:44 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:116 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:720 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:5 [ref. 25829], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:135 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:94 [ref. 25191], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Grace 2001:11 [ref. 25694], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806] as cuvieri, Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:64, 72 [ref. 26637], Branstetter in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:38 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:135 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:53, 473 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:21 [ref. 26830], Compagno 2003:490 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27624], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:33 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:60 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:14 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:92 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:41 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:103 [ref. 29001], Randall 2007:35 [ref. 30952], Khalaf & Zajonz 2007:423 [ref. 31739], White 2008:71 [ref. 30617], Béarez & Séret 2009:145 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:10 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:68 [ref. 31256], Last el al. 2010:114 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Castro 2011:466 [ref. 31457], Moore et al. 2012:10 [ref. 31771], Allen & Erdmann 2012:58 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:34 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Fricke et al. 2013:250 [ref. 32706], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:11 [ref. 32988] as cuvieri, Ebert et al. 2013:335 [ref. 33045], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:20 [ref. 33341], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Duffy 2015:105 [ref. 34217], Pinheiro et al. 2015:3 [ref. 34324], Psomadakis et al. 2015:84 [ref. 34104], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:94 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:23 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1319 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Tobuni et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35102], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:70 [ref. 35888], Motomura et al. 2017:22 [ref. 35490], Ebert et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35618], White et al. 2017:182 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:302 [ref. 36183], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:15 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:11 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], White & Ko'ou 2018:42 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861], Eagderi et al. 2019:6 [ref. 37020], Fernando et al. 2019:223 [ref. 36642], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through warm temperate seas (including Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dorsalis, Galeolamna Whitley [G. P.] 1944:256, Fig. 3 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 3); ref. 4705] Carnarvon, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Species was described from a photograph of a single individual (figured in text), apparently no specimen or parts were collected and no types are known. •Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827) -- (Garrick 1982:133 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:493 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:79 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:254 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:102 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:89 [ref. 31424], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dumerilii, Carcharias (Scoliodon) Bleeker [P.] 1856:70 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1; ref. 311] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7371 or BMNH 1867.11.28.174. •Synonym of Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839 -- (Springer 1964:588 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:514 [ref. 6846], Last el al. 2010:112 [ref. 32461]). Current status: Synonym of Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839. Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

dussumieri, Carcharias (Prionodon) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:47, [Pl. 19 (teeth)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-1135. Paralectotypes: (3) MNHN 0000-1136 (1, originally 2) Mumbai, ZMB 4464 (1) China. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:72 [ref. 20739], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:165 [ref. 21041]. Lectotype selected by Garrick 1982:59 [ref. 5454]. Authorship changed to Valenciennes 1839 -- Jones et al. 2015:570 [ref. 34086]. •Valid as Carcharhinus dussumieri (Valenciennes 1839) (often seen as Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:54 [ref. 5454], Dor 1984:5 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:469 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138] as dussimieri, Paxton et al. 1989:77 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:19 [ref. 15987], Last & Stevens 1994:239 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:2 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:30 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:61 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:343 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:19 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1334 [ref. 23787], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:137 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:137 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:53, 472 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:30 [ref. 27735], Compagno et al. 2005:36 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:100 [ref. 29001], Last el al. 2010:96 [ref. 32461], Voigt & Weber 2011:58 [ref. 31424], Moore et al. 2012:8 [ref. 31771], White 2012:3, 11 [ref. 31843], Weigmann 2012:4 [ref. 31968], Yamashita et al. 2012:124 [ref. 32408], Naylor et al. 2012:22 [ref. 34345] see remarks, White & Weigmann 2014:85 [ref. 33352], Psomadakis et al. 2015:81 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:19 [ref. 34211] with authors as Müller & Henle, Ali et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36183], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Eagderi et al. 2019:4 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus dussumieri (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to India. Habitat: marine.

eblis, Galeolamna (Galeolamnoides) Whitley [G. P.] 1944:252, Fig. 1 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 3); ref. 4705] Off Bald Head, towards Breaksea Island, Western Australia, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype: AMS IB.1615 (jaws and skin fragments). Paratypes: AMS IB.1609 (jaws), IB.1616 (1, jaws and skin fragments); WAM P.667-001 (1, mounted, jaws separate). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:6 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:4 [ref. 30117] •Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818) -- (Garrick 1982:121 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:489 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:79 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:253 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:102 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:84 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:444 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ehrenbergi, Carcharias Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:661 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Yemen, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMNS 12137 (1, skull), SMNS 12259 [ex SMNS 1642 1/2] (teeth); ZMB 4470 (1), 4472 (1). Type information: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:164 [ref. 21041], Fricke 1992:7 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:25 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:30 [ref. 5454], Dor 1984:6 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:481 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:75 [ref. 31424], Golani & Fricke 2018:10 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

elegans, Carcharias Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Klunzinger 1871:658 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Red Sea. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:164-165 [ref. 21041] dated to 1899 with syntypes ZMB 4470, 4473 and 7813. Apparently not available; appeared first as above as name in synonymy, then as a name in synonymy in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899:Pl. 4 (fig. 2a, b, e, d) [ref. 4977]. •In the synonymy of Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:6 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:487 [ref. 6474], Voigt & Weber 2011:82 [ref. 31424], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Carcharhinidae.

elobata, Eulamia Poey [F.] 2000:870, Pl. 529 (fig. 1) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Carcharhinidae.

eumeces, Carcharias Pietschmann [V.] 1913:172, Pl. 1 [Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde. Wiesbaden v. 66; ref. 14972] Bibundi, Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea, eastern Atlantic. Holotype: MW [Stadt. Mus. Wiesbaden] no. 931. Paratypes: NMW 61212 (1). •Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Springer 1964:594 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1973:31 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:525 [ref. 6846], Kottelat 2013:23 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

falciformis, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bibron [G.] in Müller & Henle 1839:47 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Cuba, western Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1134 (fetus). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:72 [ref. 20739]. Authorship proposed changed to Bibron 1839 -- Jones et al. 2015:570 [ref. 34086]. Some authors use Müller & Henle 1839. •Valid as Carcharhinus falciformis (Bibron 1839) [sometimes authorship as Müller & Henle] -- (Compagno 1973:24 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:159 [ref. 5454], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:104 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:470 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:72 [ref. 5638], Robins & Ray 1986:25 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138] as falciformes, Paxton et al. 1989:77 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:25 [ref. 24556], Springer 1990:104 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:19 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:20 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:171 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:22 [ref. 22193], Last & Stevens 1994:241 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:2 [ref. 25356], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:673 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:30 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:61 [ref. 27969] with author as Bibron, Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:28 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:80 [ref. 24023], Yokogawa & Yamaguchi 1997:4 [ref. 24376], Arruda 1997:17 [ref. 24952], Randall et al. 1997:19 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1335 [ref. 23787], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:77 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:54 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:34 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:19 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:147 [ref. 24253], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:57 [ref. 24490], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:112 [ref. 25013], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:139 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:90 [ref. 25191], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Grace 2001:30 [ref. 25694], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:64, 76 [ref. 26637], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639] as Bibron 1839, Nakabo 2002:139 [ref. 26001], Collette et al. 2003:98 [ref. 26784], Compagno 2003:479 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27624], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:31 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:89 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:37 [ref. 29145] with author as Valenciennes, Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Hoese et al. 2006:100 [ref. 29001], Béarez & Séret 2009:145 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Last el al. 2010:98 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Voigt & Weber 2011:60 [ref. 31424] as falciformes, Castro 2011:413 [ref. 31457], Hoyos-Padilla et al. 2012:15 [ref. 31760], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Yamashita et al. 2012:124 [ref. 32408], Garibaldi & Orsi Relini 2012:399 [ref. 32859], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:9 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:331 [ref. 33045], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:19 [ref. 33341], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:81 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:2 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:91 [ref. 34398] with authors as Müller & Henle, Weigmann 2016:19 [ref. 34211] with authors as Müller & Henle, Compagno 2016:1303 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:452 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35333], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565] with author as Müller & Henle, White et al. 2017:142 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36183], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:13 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:10 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], White & Ko'ou 2018:34 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861], Eagderi et al. 2019:4 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:40 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus falciformis (Bibron 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical seas (including Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf). Habitat: marine.

falcipinnis, Carcharius Lowe [R. T.] 1839:90 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1839 (pt 7); ref. 2829] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Lowe specimen: BMNH 1851.1.9.14 (1, stuffed). •Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818) -- (Compagno 1973:25 [ref. 7163]). •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:187 [ref. 5454]). •Questionably a synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:470 [ref. 6846]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Voigt & Weber 2011:58 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1852:37 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. •Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822) in part -- (Compagno 1984:503 [ref. 6846], Last el al. 2010:115 [ref. 32461]). Current status: Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Galeocerdo van Kampen [P. N.] 1907:9 [Bulletin de Départment de l'agriculture aux Indies néerlandaises v. 8; ref. 15149] Djakarta, Indonesia. Possible type material: USNM 231757 (1 tooth only). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:7 [ref. 21812]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Galeocerdo by Carcharias (Prionodon) fasciatus Bleeker 1852.. •Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822) -- (see Howe & Springer 1993:7 [ref. 21812], Last el al. 2010:115 [ref. 32461]). Current status: Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fissidens, Carcharias Bennett [E. T.] 1831:148 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 5778] Atlantic coast of North Africa. No types known. •Status uncertain; possibly based on Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Compagno 1973:31 [ref. 7163], Kottelat 2013:22 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fitzroyensis, Galeolamna (Uranganops) Whitley [G. P.] 1943:117, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 68 (pts 3-4) (nos. 307-308); ref. 4702] Connor's Creek, Fitzroy River estuary, Rockhampton District, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.1229 (skin and teeth). Paratypes: AMS I.14569 (1). •Valid as Carcharhinus fitzroyensis (Whitley 1943) -- (Garrick 1982:78 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:472 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:77 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:242 [ref. 23873], Larson & Williams 1997:343 [ref. 23967], Compagno & Niem 1998:1336 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Carvalho & McEachran in Reis et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27061], Hoese et al. 2006:100 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:62 [ref. 31424], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Larson et al. 2013:9 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:20 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:144 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:34 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus fitzroyensis (Whitley 1943). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Kimberleys (Western Australia), Northern Territory and northern Queensland (Australia), Papua New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

floridanus, Carcharhinus Bigelow [H. B.], Schroeder [W. C.] & Springer [S.] 1943:71, Pls. 13-14 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 22; ref. 13195] Off Fort Pierce, Florida, U.S.A., western North Atlantic, depth about 100 feet. Holotype: MCZ 35807. Additional material: MCZ 35515 (1, jaws, fins and photographs). •Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1973:24 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:159 [ref. 5454], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:104 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:470 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:104 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:19 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:22 [ref. 22193], Compagno 2003:479 [ref. 26984], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27705], Voigt & Weber 2011:60 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:413 [ref. 31457], Compagno 2016:1303 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

forskalii, Carcharias Klunzinger [C. B.] (ex Ehrenberg) 1871:658 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Red Sea. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:165 [ref. 21041] but dated to 1899. Regarded as not available; appeared above as name in synonymy; also as name in synonymy in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899: Pl. 5 (fig. 2a,b,d,e) [ref. 4977]. •In the synonymy of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:9 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:517 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae.

fosteri, Hemigaleops Schultz [L. P.] & Welander [A. D.] in Schultz et al. 1953:9, Pl. 1; Fig. 5 a-f [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Reer Island, Bikini Atoll. Holotype (unique): USNM 152917. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:7 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837) -- (Compagno 1984:517 [ref. 6846] as forster). Current status: Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fowlerae, Glyphis Compagno [L. J. V.], White [W. T.] & Cavanaugh [R. D.] 2010:31, Figs. 1-4 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 032; ref. 30848] Kampung Abai, Kinabataangan River, Sabah, Malaysia, 5°41'10.81"N, 118°23'08.35"E. Holotype: IPMB 38.14.02. Paratypes (13): BMNH, CSIRO, IPMB, NMW, SMEC. Plus additional material (1). •Valid as Glyphis fowlerae Compagno, White & Cavanaugh 2010 -- (Berra 2010:109 [ref. 31120], Last el al. 2010:118 [ref. 32461], Naylor et al. 2012:29 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Kottelat 2013:22 [ref. 32989], Shimada et al. 2016:237 [ref. 34719]). •Synonym of Glyphis gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Li et al. 2015:13304 [ref. 34446]). Current status: Synonym of Glyphis gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Malaysia, Borneo (if valid). Habitat: brackish.

fowleri, Galeolamna Whitley [G. P.] 1944:255, Figs. 2-2a [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 3); ref. 4705] South Muiron Island, off Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. Lectotype: WAM P.2503-001 (jaws only). Paralectotypes: (2) WAM. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:6 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:4 [ref. 30117]. Based on more than one species and two holotypes were named originally (one supported by photograph and the other now represented by jaws); lectotype (jaws) selected by Garrick 1982:43 [ref. 5454]. Photograph represents a specimen which is Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:43 [ref. 5454]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Garrick 1982:106 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:459 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:76 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:233 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:98 [ref. 29001], Moore et al. 2009:4 [ref. 30117], Voigt & Weber 2011:45 [ref. 31424]). •Also as a synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:238 [ref. 23873]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

fronto, Carcharias Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:102 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 268); ref. 10603] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28167 (1), USNM uncat. (1, jaws only). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:7 [ref. 21812] wrongly with a holotype. •Synonym of Negaprion brevirostris (Poey 1868) -- (Compagno 1984:519 [ref. 6846], Allen & Robertson 1994:23 [ref. 22193], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:46 [ref. 24550], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27705], Castro 2011:481 [ref. 31457]). •Valid as Negaprion fronto (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:95 [ref. 34398]). Current status: Valid as Negaprion fronto (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

galapagensis, Carcharias Snodgrass [R. E.] & Heller [E.] 1905:343 [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 6; ref. 12322] Galápagos Islands. Holotype: CAS-SU 12324 (apparently lost). Paratypes: CAS-SU 12325 (1), 12326 (1, apparently lost). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Carcharhinus galapagensis (Snodgrass & Heller 1905) -- (Garrick 1982:126 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:473 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:72 [ref. 5638], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paulin et al. 1989:25 [ref. 24556], Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125], Springer 1990:104 [ref. 19320], Cervigón 1992:171 [ref. 23827], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:22 [ref. 22193], Last & Stevens 1994:243 [ref. 23873], Brum & Azevedo 1995:139 [ref. 22645], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:674 [ref. 22829], Santos et al. 1997:8 [ref. 23531], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:28 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:76 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:17 [ref. 24952], Compagno & Niem 1998:1337 [ref. 23787], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:54 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:34 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:114 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Randall 1999:4 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:139 [ref. 25086], Grace 2001:27 [ref. 25694], Soto 2001:64, 77 [ref. 26637], Nakabo 2002:139 [ref. 26001], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Pequeño & Sáez B. 2003:795 [ref. 27769], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Pequeño 2004:96 [ref. 28123], Randall 2005:11 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:90 [ref. 28379], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Hoese et al. 2006:100 [ref. 29001], Wirtz et al. 2007:23 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:32 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:145 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Voigt & Weber 2011:64 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:417 [ref. 31457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33516], Duffy 2015:101 [ref. 34217], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Pinheiro et al. 2015:2 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:91 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:20 [ref. 34211], Duffy 2016:97 [ref. 34514], Compagno 2016:1305 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668], Duffy & Scott 2016:189 [ref. 34780], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Duffy & Struthers 2017:137 [ref. 35604], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:13 [ref. 35805], Pazmiño et al. 2018:[1] [ref. 35751], Brown et al. 2019:153 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus galapagensis (Snodgrass & Heller 1905). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical seas, especially around offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

gangeticus, Carcharias (Prionodon) Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1839:39, [Pl. 13] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] [Ganges River, 60 hours above the sea at Hoogly, India]. Correct is: Lower Sundarbans south of Kulna and relatively near the sea, in what is now Bangladesh. Lectotype: ZMB 4474 (dry). Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-1144 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:71 [ref. 20739], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:166 [ref. 21041]. See Roberts 2007:261 [ref. 29790] for correction of type locality and other remarks. Roberts regards ZMB 4474 as the holotype [but as a syntype and misprinted 4471 in his Fig. 2]. •Valid as Carcharhinus gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Sheiko 1983:18 [ref. 37041] dated 1841). •Valid as Carcharias gangeticus Müller & Henle 1839 -- (Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315]). •Valid as Glyphis gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:507 [ref. 6846], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:20 [ref. 20764], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Compagno et al. 2005:41 [ref. 29145] with comments, Compagno et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29688], Roberts 2007:264 [ref. 29790], Roberts 2007:279 [ref. 29791], Compagno et al. 2010:30 [ref. 30848], Berra 2010:109 [ref. 31120], Naylor et al. 2012:29 [ref. 34345], Kottelat 2013:22 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:84 [ref. 34104] as cf. gangeticus in Pakistan, Li et al. 2015:13304 [ref. 34446], Weigmann 2016:24 [ref. 34211], Shimada et al. 2016:237 [ref. 34719], Ali et al. 2018:302 [ref. 36183], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Eagderi et al. 2019:6 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Glyphis gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Pakistan and India; Myanmar?; Persian Gulf? Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

garricki, Glyphis Compagno [L. J. V.], White [W. T.] & Last [P. R.] 2008:204, Figs. 1-6 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022; ref. 29688] East Alligator River, Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia, 12°07'S, 132°38'E. Holotype: CSIRO H 5262-01. Paratypes: CSIRO H 6173-01 (jaws), 6635-01 (jaws); SAM uncat. [ex WAM P 32600] (1); WAM P 32598-001 (1), P. 32599-001(1), P 32600-001 (3). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Glyphis garricki Compagno, White & Last 2008 -- (Compagno et al. 2010:30 [ref. 30848], Berra 2010:109 [ref. 31120], Morgan et al. 2011:21 [ref. 31262], Naylor et al. 2012:29 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013:11 [ref. 32988], Li et al. 2015:13304 [ref. 34446], Weigmann 2016:24 [ref. 34211], Shimada et al. 2016:237 [ref. 34719], White et al. 2017:164 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:38 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Glyphis garricki Compagno, White & Last 2008. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Northern Australia and southern Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

glaucus, Squalus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:235 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic [original: "in Oceano Europeo"]; localities include Penzance, Cornwall, England, Northeastern Atlantic; Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. On Official List. Originally based on at least 15 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:69 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:98 [ref. 30349] as Squalus fossula triangulari in extremo dorso; Rondelet 1554:378 [ref. 30354] and Gesner 1558:718 [ref. 30350] as Galeus glaucus, Jonston 1649:Pl. 8 (fig. 9) [ref. 30579] as Galeus glaucus or Galeus stellaris, Willughby 1686:49 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:22 [ref. 30231] as Galeus glaucus. •Valid as Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:30 [ref. 7163], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:41 [ref. 9277], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:113 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:7 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:84 [ref. 5638], Robins & Ray 1986:29 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:26 [ref. 25518], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paulin et al. 1989:25 [ref. 24556], Paxton et al. 1989:83 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:4 [ref. 13251], McAllister 1990:32 [ref. 14674], Springer 1990:108 [ref. 19320], Compagno et al. 1991:88 [ref. 21083], Cervigón 1992:177 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:78 [ref. 25472], Gomon et al. 1994:125 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:263 [ref. 23873], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:685 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:35 [ref. 22896], Santos et al. 1997:9 [ref. 23531], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:87 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:18 [ref. 24952], Compagno & Niem 1998:1353 [ref. 23787], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:89 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:52 [ref. 24555], Fricke 1999:23 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:147 [ref. 24253], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:86 [ref. 24490], Trunov 1999:461 [ref. 24579], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:116 [ref. 25013], Lessa et al. 1999:354 [ref. 25267], Capapé et al. 1999:50 [ref. 25276], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:135 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:96 [ref. 25191], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:14 [ref. 25650], Grace 2001:10 [ref. 25694], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:64, 82 [ref. 26637], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:15 [ref. 26753], Branstetter in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:40 [ref. 26158], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:71 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:135 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:53, 474 [ref. 26218], Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812], Compagno 2003:493 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27624], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:61 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:92 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:43 [ref. 29145], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Hoese et al. 2006:105 [ref. 29001], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:14 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:24 [ref. 30263], White 2008:72 [ref. 30617], Fricke et al. 2009:10 [ref. 30213], George 2009:34 [ref. 30539], Last el al. 2010:124 [ref. 32461], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:9 [ref. 36649], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Castro 2011:486 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:12 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:336 [ref. 33045], Wirtz et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33516], Parin et al. 2014:23 [ref. 33547], Duffy 2015:106 [ref. 34217], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524], Pietsch & Orr 2015:15 [ref. 34694], Pinheiro et al. 2015:3 [ref. 34324], Psomadakis et al. 2015:86 [ref. 34104], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:96 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:25 [ref. 34211], Bañón et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34397], Compagno 2016:1323 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:72 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35618], White et al. 2017:172 [ref. 35860], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:164 [ref. 35920], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:16 [ref. 35805], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:39 [ref. 35922], Brown et al. 2019:153 [ref. 36444], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through temperate seas (including Caribbean Sea, western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea). Habitat: marine.

glaucusicus, Squalus (Charcharius) Boscá Seytre [A.] 1916 Still researching. Perhaps an emendation of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Maybe in : Boscá Seytre [A.] 1916, Fauna Valenciana. In: Carreras y Candi (F.) (ed.), Geografía general del Reino de Valencia, Barcelona, pp. 421-549. Current status: Uncertain as Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae.

glyphis, Carcharias (Prionodon) Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1839:40, [Pl. 14] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Probably Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5265 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:166 [ref. 21041]. Roberts 2007:279 [ref. 29791] suggests the type locality may be the South China Sea; Roberts reported a reliable specimen from Pulo Condor [= Con Dao] Island, 100 km southeast of the major distributary of the Mekong Deltam about 220 kn south of Saigon, Republic of Vietnam. •Valid as Glyphis glyphis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:509 [ref. 6846], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Compagno et al. 2008:204, 213 [ref. 29688], Roberts 2007:279 [ref. 29791], Compagno et al. 2010:30 [ref. 30848], Berra 2010:109 [ref. 31120], Morgan et al. 2011:21 [ref. 31262], Naylor et al. 2012:29 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013:11 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:24 [ref. 34211], Shimada et al. 2016:238 [ref. 34719], White et al. 2017:166 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:38 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Glyphis glyphis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Northern Australia and southern Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gracilis, Carcharias Philippi [R. A.] 1887:539 [7], Pl. 2 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile Sec. 1, v. 71; ref. 3464] Chile. Holotype (unique): DBCUCH. On p. 7 of separate. •Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846], Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

greyi, Galeolamna Owen [R.] 1853:96 [Descriptive catalogue of the osteological series; ref. 4988] South Australia. Holotype: Royal College Surgeons London (jaws, destroyed). •Questionably a synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818) -- (Compagno 1984:489 [ref. 6846]). •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:186 [ref. 5454], Paxton et al. 1989:84 [ref. 12442], Hoese et al. 2006:108 [ref. 29001]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:236 [ref. 23873]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Leseur 1818) -- (Voigt & Weber 2011:84 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hemiodon, Carcharias (Hypoprion) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:35, [Pl. 19 (teeth)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-1040. Paralectotypes: (3) MNHN 0000-1042 (1), A-7774 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:70 [ref. 20739] as holotype (MNHN 1040, measured and figured) and paratypes; MNHN 1040 designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:718 [ref. 23416]. •Valid as Hypoprion hemiodon (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138]). •Valid as Carcharhinus hemiodon (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:475 [ref. 6846], Garrick 1985:13 [ref. 5654], Paxton et al. 1989:77 [ref. 12442], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:15 [ref. 20764], Randall 1995:31 [ref. 22896], Compagno & Niem 1998:1338 [ref. 23787], Morón et al. 1999:147 [ref. 24253], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Compagno et al. 2005:38 [ref. 29145], Voigt & Weber 2011:66 [ref. 31424], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:81 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:20 [ref. 34211] with authors as Müller & Henle, Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus hemiodon (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: southern Iran east to Papua New Guinea, north to South China Sea, south to northern Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

hemprichii, Carcharias Klunzinger [C. B.] (ex Ehrenberg) 1871:663 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Red Sea. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:163 [ref. 21041] dated to 1899 with holotype ?ZMB 31641. Regarded as not available; appeared as above as name in synonymy; also as a name in synonymy in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899: Pl. 5 (fig. 3a-c,e) [ref. 4977]. •In the synonymy of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822) -- (Dor 1984:8 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:503 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822). Carcharhinidae.

henlei, Carcharias (Prionodon) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:46, [Pl. 19 (teeth)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Cayenne, French Guiana. Syntypes: (3) MNHN A-9675 (1), 1139 (1), 1140 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:72 [ref. 20739]. Evidently Müller & Henle alone were responsible for the description, so authorship is regarded as Müller & Henle (ex Valenciennes). •Synonym of Carcharhinus porosus (Ranzani 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:70 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:496 [ref. 6846], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:48 [ref. 24550], Voigt & Weber 2011:89 [ref. 31424] with author as Valenciennes, Castro 2011:459 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus porosus (Ranzani 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

henlei, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1853:507 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Carcharias (Prionodon) henlei Müller & Henle 1839. •Synonym of Carcharhinus amboinensis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:91 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:459 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:47 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus amboinensis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

heterodon, Squalis (Carcharhinus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Carcharhinidae.

heterodus, Hypoprion (Hemigaleus?) Philippi [R. A.] 1887:541 [9], Pl. 2 (fig. 5) [Anales de la Universidad de Chile Sec. 1, v. 71; ref. 3464] Chile. Holotype (unique): MNHNC (jaws). On p. 9 of separate. •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:187 [ref. 5454]). •See also Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125]. •Wrongly a synonym of Carcharhinus macloti (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Voigt & Weber 2011:80 [ref. 31424], but the type locality of heterodus (Chile) is not in the range of macloti). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

hirundinaceus, Carcharias Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:37 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9656. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:73 [ref. 20739]. Authorship perhaps should be Müller & Henle (ex Valenciennes). •Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846], Soto 2001:83 [ref. 26637], Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

humani, Carcharhinus White [W. T.] & Weigmann [S.] 2014:72, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa 3821 (no. 1); ref. 33352] Off Socotra Islands, 12°04'48"S, 53°12'36"W - 12°09'12"S, 53°10'06"W, depth 36-40 meters. Holotype: ZMH 26030. Paratypes: Paratypes: ANSP 25838 (1), 55290 (1); CSIRO H 6891-01 (Jaws), ZMH 26031 (1). •Valid as Carcharhinus humani White & Weigmann 2014 -- (Weigmann 2016:20 [ref. 34211], Fricke et al. 2018:13 [ref. 35805], Eagderi et al. 2019:4 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus humani White & Weigmann 2014. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa, Seychelles and Madagascar to Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

improvisus, Carcharinus Smith [J. L. B.] 1952:761, Fig. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 5 (no. 56) (art. 78); ref. 12804] Algoa Bay, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (not found in 1996). Original genus should have been Carcharhinus. •Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870) -- (Garrick 1982:171 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:464 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:71 [ref. 5638], Springer 1990:103 [ref. 19320], Castro 2011:403 [ref. 31457], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

innominatus, Mystidens Whitley [G. P.] 1944:25 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1943-44; ref. 4704] Useless Inlet, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.278 (jaws). Teeth of the species were originally illustrated, but the species not named, in Whitley 1940:105, fig. 103, [ref. 4700]. •Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837) -- (Compagno 1984:517 [ref. 6846], Last & Stevens 1994:263 [ref. 23873] as inominatus, Hoese et al. 2006:105 [ref. 29001]). Current status: Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

insularum, Carcharias Snyder [J. O.] 1904:513, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Off Diamond Head, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3815, depth 228-312 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 50859. Paratypes: CAS-SU 12788-89 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291], Howe & Springer 1993:8 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861) -- (Garrick 1982:150 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:484 [ref. 6846], Mundy 2005:90 [ref. 28379], Voigt & Weber 2011:77 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:438 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Scoliodon Garman [S.] 1913:115 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] East Indies. Lectotype: MCZ 485-S. Paralectotypes: MCZ 484-S (1). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xxxix [ref. 23119]. Lectotype selected by Springer 1964:621 [ref. 3494]. •Synonym of Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Springer 1964:615 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:527 [ref. 6846]). •Valid as Scoliodon intermedius Garman 1913 -- (Last el al. 2010:129 [ref. 32461]). Current status: Valid as Scoliodon intermedius Garman 1913. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: East Indies. Habitat: marine.

iranzae, Carcharinus Fourmanoir [P.] 1961:40, Pl. 13 (fig. C) [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 4; ref. 9345] Off northwest coast of Madagascar, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: IRSMNB (probably lost). •Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818) -- (Garrick 1982:121 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:489 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1344 [ref. 23787], Voigt & Weber 2011:84 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:444 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

isobel, Galeolamna (Galeolamnoides) Whitley [G. P.] 1947:129, Fig. 1 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 4708] Long Island, between Cape Preston and the Mary Anne Group, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.1493 (jaws, skin, fins). •Synonym of Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:165 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:500 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:80 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:256 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:103 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:97 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

isodon, Carcharias (Aprion) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:32 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] No locality stated (probably east coast of U.S.A.; New York in MNHN records). Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1037. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:70 [ref. 20739]. Authorship changed to Valenciennes 1839 -- Jones et al. 2015:570 [ref. 34086]. •Valid as Aprionodon isodon (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138] with authors as Müller & Henle 1841). •Valid as Carcharhinus isodon (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Compagno 1973:26 [ref. 7163], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:105 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:477 [ref. 6846], Garrick 1985:8 [ref. 5654], Robins & Ray 1986:24 [ref. 23100], Springer 1990:104 [ref. 19320], Boschung 1992:20 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:78 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:50 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Grace 2001:21 [ref. 25694], Soto 2001:64, 77 [ref. 26637], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Voigt & Weber 2011:68 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:421 [ref. 31457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:91 [ref. 34398] with authors as Müller & Henle, Weigmann 2016:21 [ref. 34211] with authors as Müller & Henle, Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus isodon (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) to Gulf of Mexico and Cuba, to São Paulo to Santa Catarina, Brazil; eastern Atlantic: Senegal and Guinea-Bissau. Habitat: marine.

isodus, Hypoprion (Hemigaleus?) Philippi [R. A.] 1887:542 [10], Pl. 2 (fig. 5) [Anales de la Universidad de Chile Sec. 1, v. 71; ref. 3464] Chile. Holotype (unique): MNHNC (jaws). On p. 10 of separate. See also Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125]. •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:187 [ref. 5454]). •Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846], Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812]). •See also Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125]. Current status: Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Carcharias (Prionodon) Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:302, Pl. 133 [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Syntypes: RMNH uncat. (jaws, 2 pair). Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:216 and 230 [ref. 12876]. Based on a figure and manuscript of Burger. •Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827) -- (Garrick 1982:133 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:493 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:89 [ref. 31424], Parin et al. 2014:23 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:545 [ref. 34656] with question, Dyldin & Orlov 2018:164 [ref. 35920] with ?). •Valid as Carcharhinus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Naylor et al. 2012:26 [ref. 34345] see remarks). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

javanicus, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1852:38, Pl. 2 (fig. 5) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.188. •Synonym of Carcharhinus dussumieri (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:469 [ref. 6846], Last el al. 2010:97 [ref. 32461], Voigt & Weber 2011:58 [ref. 31424], White 2012:23 [ref. 31843]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus dussumieri (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

johnsoni, Carcharinus Smith [J. L. B.] 1951:88, Figs. 1-2 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 4 (no. 37) (art. 6); ref. 12916] Port Elizabeth, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 422. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 430 (1). •Synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1973:23 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:41 [ref. 5454], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:104 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:466 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:71 [ref. 5638], Springer 1990:103 [ref. 19320], Compagno & Niem 1998:1332 [ref. 23787], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:28 [ref. 27735], Voigt & Weber 2011:53 [ref. 31424] dated 1952). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Scoliodon Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:88 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3287] Outer Caloundra Bank, southern Queensland, Australia, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AFAQ 664 (apparently destroyed, not at QM). •Synonym of Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839 -- (Springer 1964:588 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:514 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:82 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:261 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:104 [ref. 29001]). Current status: Synonym of Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839. Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

lalandii, Carcharias (Scoliodon) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:30 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0945. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-1143 (1), 0000-3466 (1, dry), 0000-3467 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:69 [ref. 20739]. Lectotype selected by Springer 1964:621 [ref. 3494]. Authorship changed to Valenciennes 1839 -- Jones et al. 2015:570 [ref. 34086]. •Valid as Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Springer 1964:615 [ref. 3494] as lalandei, Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:55 [ref. 14275], Compagno 1984:527 [ref. 6846], Cervigón 1992:178 [ref. 23827], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:88 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Grace 2001:13 [ref. 25694], Soto 2001:64, 73 [ref. 26637], Compagno 2003:494 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Mendonça et al. 2010:[4] [ref. 34427], Weigmann 2016:26 [ref. 34211] with authors as Müller & Henle, Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama to southern Brazil, including southern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

lamiella, Carcharias Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:110 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 269); ref. 18880] San Diego Bay, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 27366 (1), plus jaws from second specimen (not at USNM). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:8 [ref. 21812] wrongly with a holotype. •Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870) -- (Garrick 1982:171 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:464 [ref. 6846], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:50 [ref. 27705] Castro 2011:403 [ref. 31457], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34398]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

laticaudus, Scoliodon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1838:27, 28, [Pl. 8] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7830 (dry). Non-types: MNHN 0000-1123 (1), 0000-1041 (1), 0000-1066 (3), 0000-1122 (1). Type information: Bertin 1939:69 [ref. 20739], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:167, 168 [ref. 21041]. The description of this species on reset pages 27-28 printed in 1839 and to replace 27-28 of 1838 are based on the stuffed specimen (ZMB 7830) and 6 specimens in Paris; the original description in 1838 was based only on the ZMB specimen and it is therefore the unique holotype. The lectotype designation of a MNHN specimen by Springer 1964:579 [ref. 3494] is not valid; see remarks in Paepke & Schmidt 1988:167, 183 [ref. 21041]. •Valid as Scoliodon laticaudus Müller & Henle 1838 -- (Springer 1964:574 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:534 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:5 [ref. 6441], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:24 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:1 [ref. 23448], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:66 [ref. 27969], Compagno & Niem 1998:1357 [ref. 23787], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:234 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:136 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Nakabo 2002:136 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:6 [ref. 27710] with second author as Hinle, Compagno et al. 2005:44 [ref. 29145], White et al. 2010:63 [ref. 30850], Naylor et al. 2012:31 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Kottelat 2013:23 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:87 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:26 [ref. 34211], Ali et al. 2018:302 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:17 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:12 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], Suresh et al. 2018:42 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:7 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Scoliodon laticaudus Müller & Henle 1838. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

latistomus, Carcharinus Fang [P.-W.] & Wang [K.-F.] 1932:235, Fig. 9 [Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China. (Zoological Series) v. 8 (no. 8); ref. 16483] Tsingtau, Shantung, China. Holotype (unique): NRIBAS [Mus. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. China] 11156. Additional specimen: ?NRIBAS 16483. •Valid as Carcharhinus latistomus Fang & Wang 1932 -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:33 [ref. 26385], Wang et al. 2001:32 [ref. 26566]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827) -- (Garrick 1982:133 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:493 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:89 [ref. 31424], Parin et al. 2014:23 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: China [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leiodon, Carcharhinus Garrick [J. A. F.] 1985:11, Figs. 7-8 [NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) No. 34; ref. 5654] Gulf of Aden, probably at Qishn (Yemen). Holotype (unique): NMW 61465. •Valid as Carcharhinus leiodon Garrick 1985 -- (Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Voigt & Weber 2011:70 [ref. 31424], Moore et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31771], Moore et al. 2012:8 [ref. 31771], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Weigmann 2016:21 [ref. 34211], Eagderi et al. 2019:4 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus leiodon Garrick 1985. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden to Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

leucas, Carcharias (Prionodon) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:42 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Antilles, western Atlantic. Syntypes: (4) MNHN A-9650 (1, dry), A-9652 (1, dry), uncat. (2, lost). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:71 [ref. 20739]. Authorship changed to Valenciennes 1839 -- Jones et al. 2015:570 [ref. 34086]. •Valid as Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839) (often seen as Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1973:26 [ref. 7163], Lee et al. 1980:36 [ref. 22416], Garrick 1982:81 [ref. 5454], Villa 1982:60 [ref. 36708], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:38 [ref. 9277], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:106 [ref. 13675], Daget 1984:2 [ref. 6170], Compagno 1984:478 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:73 [ref. 5638], Robins & Ray 1986:25 [ref. 23100], Bussing 1987:59 [ref. 22927], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:78 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:105 [ref. 19320], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:58 [ref. 21589], Randall et al. 1990:19 [ref. 15987], Allen 1991:35 [ref. 21090], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:16 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:13 [ref. 15702], Allen et al. 1992:297 [ref. 21400], Cervigón 1992:172 [ref. 23827], Boschung 1992:21 [ref. 23239], Kottelat et al. 1993:1 [ref. 23448], Swift et al. 1993:130 [ref. 22379], Skelton 1993:343 [ref. 24071], Allen & Robertson 1994:22 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:16 [ref. 23101], Poll & Gosse 1995:75 [ref. 24781], Last & Stevens 1994:244 [ref. 23873], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:675 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:31 [ref. 22896], Coad 1995:6 [ref. 23608], Rainboth 1996:51 [ref. 22772], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:51 [ref. 22947], Murdy et al. 1997:32 [ref. 23144], Santos et al. 1997:118 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:17 [ref. 24952], Kuiter 1997:14 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:19 [ref. 25919], Tan & Lim 1998:426 [ref. 23648], Compagno & Niem 1998:1339 [ref. 23787], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:79 [ref. 23897], Bussing 1998:51 [ref. 24179], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:55 [ref. 24555], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Fricke 1999:19 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:147 [ref. 24253], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:61 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:48 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:115 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:138 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:91 [ref. 25191], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Grace 2001:19 [ref. 25694], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:64, 77 [ref. 26637], Skelton 2001:343 [ref. 27406], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Allen et al. 2002:328 [ref. 25930], Nakabo 2002:138 [ref. 26001], Carvalho & McEachran in Reis et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27061], Compagno 2003:482 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Taniuchi et al. 2003:237 [ref. 27369], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Smith et al. 2003:5 [ref. 27621], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27705], Morgan et al. 2004:151 [ref. 27718], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:32 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:59 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:12 [ref. 28239], Compagno et al. 2005:38 [ref. 29145], Miller 2006:79 [ref. 28615], Hoese et al. 2006:101 [ref. 29001], Carvalho et al. 2007:145 [ref. 30011], Allen et al. 2008:23 [ref. 30265], Fricke et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30213], Matamoros et al. 2009:7 [ref. 31241], Berra 2010:109 [ref. 31120], Coad 2010:72 [ref. 36620], Esmaeili et al. 2010:365 [ref. 33391], Last el al. 2010:100 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Voigt & Weber 2011:72 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:426 [ref. 31457], Marshall 2011:267 [ref. 31755], Moore et al. 2012:8 [ref. 31771], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Allen & Erdmann 2012:57 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:25 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:9 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989], Ebert et al. 2013:331 [ref. 33045], Angulo et al. 2013:989 [ref. 33194], Morgan et al. 2014:34 [ref. 36567], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:20 [ref. 33341], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:858 [ref. 34062], Psomadakis et al. 2015:82 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:2 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:92 [ref. 34398] with authors as Müller & Henle, Weigmann 2016:21 [ref. 34211] with authors as Müller & Henle, Miesen et al. 2016:79 [ref. 34492], Compagno 2016:1307 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668] with author as Müller & Henle, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923] with author as Müller & Henle, Kells et al. 2016:70 [ref. 35888], Esmaeili et al. 2017:23 [ref. 35254] with author as Müller & Henle, White et al. 2017:146 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36183], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Esmaeili et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36089], Fricke et al. 2018:13 [ref. 35805], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Robins et al. 2018:435 [ref. 35886], Tyabji et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36598], White & Ko'ou 2018:35 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861], Eagderi et al. 2019:5 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical seas (including Caribbean Sea, Persian Gulf). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

limbatus, Carcharias (Prionodon) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:49, [Pl. 19 (teeth)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Locality not stated (is Martinique Island, West Indies). Syntypes: (2) MNHN 0000-3468 (mounted skin), plus second specimen lost. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:72-73 [ref. 20739]. Authorship changed to Valenciennes 1839 -- Jones et al. 2015:570 [ref. 34086]. •Valid as Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839) (often seen as Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1973:24 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:28 [ref. 5454], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:106 [ref. 13675], Dor 1984:6 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:481 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:73 [ref. 5638], Robins & Ray 1986:26 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:78 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:105 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:20 [ref. 15987], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:17 [ref. 20764], Boschung 1992:21 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:172 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:22 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:16 [ref. 23101], Last & Stevens 1994:246 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:2 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:31 [ref. 22896], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:676 [ref. 22829], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:62 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:78 [ref. 24023], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:27 [ref. 24545], Arruda 1997:18 [ref. 24952], Randall et al. 1997:20 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1340 [ref. 23787], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:80 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:57 [ref. 24555], Yano & Morrissey 1999:193 [ref. 23887], Myers 1999:34 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:20 [ref. 24106], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:63 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:47 [ref. 24550], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:91 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:282 [ref. 25640], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Grace 2001:22 [ref. 25694], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:64, 78 [ref. 26637], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:14 [ref. 26753], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Youn 2002:53, 473 [ref. 26218], Compagno 2003:483 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Smith et al. 2003:5 [ref. 27621], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:29 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:58 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:12 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:90 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:38 [ref. 29145], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Hoese et al. 2006:101 [ref. 29001], Fricke et al. 2007:14 [ref. 29533], Randall 2007:33 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Last el al. 2010:98 [ref. 32461]. Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Voigt & Weber 2011:75 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:432 [ref. 31457], Moore et al. 2012:8 [ref. 31771], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Naylor et al. 2012:23 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:9 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:331 [ref. 33045], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:20 [ref. 33341], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:82 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:3 [ref. 34324] with authorship as Müller & Henle, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:92 [ref. 34398] with authorship as Müller & Henle, Weigmann 2016:21 [ref. 34211] with authorship as Müller & Henle, Compagno 2016:1309 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668] with author as Müller & Henle, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923] with author as Müller & Henle, White et al. 2017:148 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36183], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:14 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:10 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Manjaji-Matsumoto in Kimura et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36460], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], White & Ko'ou 2018:35 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861], Eagderi et al. 2019:5 [ref. 37020], Fernando et al. 2019:222 [ref. 36642] as cf. limbatus, Fricke et al. 2019:40 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, South China Sea). Habitat: brackish, marine.

lividus, Squalis (Carcharhinus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Carcharhinidae.

longimanus, Squalus Poey [F.] 1861:338, Pl. 19 (figs. 9-10) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba, western Atlantic. Holotype (unique): lost. Type catalog: Gutiérrez de los Reyes et al. 2015:45 [ref. 36079]. As Prionodon longimanus on plate. On Official List (Opinion 723). Authors point out that Squalus (Carcharias) maou Lesson 1830 probably is the same as this species. •Valid as Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861) -- (Compagno 1973:24 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:150 [ref. 5454], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:39 [ref. 9277], Compagno 1984:484 [ref. 6846], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:107 [ref. 13675], Dor 1984:6 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:74 [ref. 5638], Robins & Ray 1986:26 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:24 [ref. 25518], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:78 [ref. 12442], McAllister 1990:32 [ref. 14674], Springer 1990:106 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:20 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:21 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:173 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:22 [ref. 22193], Gomon et al. 1994:122 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:247 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:2 [ref. 25356], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:677 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:32 [ref. 22896], Santos et al. 1997:8 [ref. 23531], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:28 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:81 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:18 [ref. 24952], Randall et al. 1997:20 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1341 [ref. 23787], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:81 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:53 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:34 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:20 [ref. 24106], Francis et al. 1999:574 [ref. 24249], Morón et al. 1999:147 [ref. 24253], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:115 [ref. 25013], Lessa et al. 1999:353 [ref. 25267], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:137 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:92 [ref. 25191], Grace 2001:18 [ref. 25694], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:64, 79 [ref. 26637], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:173 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:137 [ref. 26001], Compagno 2003:484 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27624], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:33 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:90 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:39 [ref. 29145], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Hoese et al. 2006:101 [ref. 29001], Randall 2007:30 [ref. 30952], White 2008:69 [ref. 30617], Fricke et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30213], George 2009:34 [ref. 30539], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Voigt & Weber 2011:77 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:438 [ref. 31457], Psomadakis et al. 2012:14 [ref. 33457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:10 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:332 [ref. 33045], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:20 [ref. 33341], Duffy 2015:102 [ref. 34217], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Pinheiro et al. 2015:3 [ref. 34324], Psomadakis et al. 2015:82 [ref. 34104], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:93 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:22 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1311 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:70 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35618], White et al. 2017:150 [ref. 35860], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:14 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:11 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:35 [ref. 35922], Brown et al. 2019:153 [ref. 36444], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861], Fricke et al. 2019:40 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas (including Caribbean Sea, Red Sea), straying into temperate waters including North Sea. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Hypoprion Poey [F.] 1876:394 [198], Pl. 9 (figs. 8-9) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 8 Nov. 1876); ref. 14211] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 198 of separate. •Synonym of Carcharhinus signatus (Poey 1868) -- (Compagno 1984:499 [ref. 6846], Garrick 1985:20 [ref. 5654], Voigt & Weber 2011:95 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:463 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus signatus (Poey 1868). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

longmani, Scoliodon Ogilby [J. D.] 1912:30 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 1; ref. 14855] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.292. •Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Springer 1964:594 [ref. 3494], Hoese et al. 2006:106 [ref. 29001], Kottelat 2013:23 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

longurio, Carcharias (Scoliodon) Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:106 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 268); ref. 10603] Harbor at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 28330. Paralectotypes: USNM 28306 (1), 28331 (1), 29541 (1), 29551 (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:8 [ref. 21812]. Lectotype selected by Howe & Springer 1993:8 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Rhizoprionodon longurio (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Springer 1964:611 [ref. 3494], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:41 [ref. 9277], Compagno 1984:528 [ref. 6846], Allen & Robertson 1994:23 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:18 [ref. 23101], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:686 [ref. 22829], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:65 [ref. 27969], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:52 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:46 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Thomson et al. 2000:282 [ref. 25640], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Castro 2011:493 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:96 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:26 [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:72 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], González-Murcia et al. 2019:288 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Rhizoprionodon longurio (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

mackiei, Prionace Phillipps [W. J.] 1935:238, Fig. 2 [New Zealand Journal of Zoology, J. Sci. Tech. v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 15671] Lyall Bay, Wellington, New Zealand. Holotype: NMNZ P.1120 (dry and stuffed skin). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:6 [ref. 18942]. •Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846] as macki, Last & Stevens 1994:264 [ref. 23873] as macki, Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812] as macki, Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

macloti, Carcharias (Hypoprion) Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1839:34, [Pl. 10] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH D2591 (dry). •Valid as Hypoprion macloti (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138]). •Valid as Carcharhinus macloti (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:486 [ref. 6846], Garrick 1985:17 [ref. 5654], Bass et al. 1986:74 [ref. 5638], Paxton et al. 1989:78 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:249 [ref. 23873], Randall 1995:32 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:63 [ref. 27969], Compagno & Niem 1998:1342 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:138 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:138 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Compagno et al. 2005:39 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:102 [ref. 29001], Last el al. 2010:104 [ref. 32461], Voigt & Weber 2011:80 [ref. 31424], Moore et al. 2012:8 [ref. 31771], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Yamashita et al. 2012:124 [ref. 32408], Naylor et al. 2012:21 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013:10 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:332 [ref. 33045], Psomadakis et al. 2015:83 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:22 [ref. 34211], Motomura et al. 2017:21 [ref. 35490], White et al. 2017:152 [ref. 35860], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:36 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:5 [ref. 37020], White et al. 2019:3 [ref. 36436], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus macloti (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Persian Gulf east to Papua New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

macrops, Carcharhinus Liu [J.-X.] 1983:101 (English p. 103), Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 8314] Xisha Islands, South China Sea. Holotype (unique): SCSFRI S 00367. •Valid as Carcharhinus macrops Liu 1983. •Highly likely to be a synonym of C. obscurus or C. galapagensis -- (White & Last 2013:243 [ref. 33042]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: South China Sea [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

macropterus, Anodon Billberg [G. J.] 1833:51 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. Unnecessary replacement name for [Squalus] massasa Forsskål 1775; see Kullander 2016:112 [ref. 34147]. •Uncertain in Carcharhinidae. Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

macrorhinus, Loxodon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1839:61, [Pl. 25] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Locality unknown [probably Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4479. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:168 [ref. 21041]. •Valid as Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839 -- (Springer 1964:588 [ref. 3494] dated 1841, Kyushin et al. 1977:18 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:8 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:514 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:5 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:80 [ref. 5638], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:82 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:260 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:34 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Compagno & Niem 1998:1351 [ref. 23787], Fricke 1999:22 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:147 [ref. 24253], Johnson 1999:720 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:136 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:136 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:34 [ref. 27735], Hoese et al. 2006:104 [ref. 29001], Compagno et al. 2005:42 [ref. 29145], Fricke et al. 2009:10 [ref. 30213], Last el al. 2010:122 [ref. 32461], Moore et al. 2012:10 [ref. 31771], Larson et al. 2013:11 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:335 [ref. 33045], Psomadakis et al. 2015:85 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:25 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:168 [ref. 35860], Fricke et al. 2018:16 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:12 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:39 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:6 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:41 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan, south to northern New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

macrorhynchos, Carcharias (Scoliodon) Bleeker [P.] 1852:31, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.121.28.190 (1), RMNH 7369 (2). Spelled macrorchynchos on pp. 7, 9, 27 and 31, macrorhynchos twice on p. 25 and macrorhijnchos on Pl. 1; the spelling macrorhynchos was used by Weber & de Beaufort 1911 [ref. 16091] and if a first reviser is needed we select it also. For type information, see White et al. 2010:70 [ref. 30850]. •Synonym of Scoliodon laticaudus Müller & Henle 1838 -- (Springer 1964:574 [ref. 3494] as macrorchynchos, Compagno 1984:534 [ref. 6846]). •Valid as Scoliodon macrorynchos (Bleeker 1852) -- (White et al. 2010:63 [ref. 30850], Last el al. 2010:130 [ref. 32461], Naylor et al. 2012:31 [ref. 34345], Kottelat 2013:23 [ref. 32989], Ebert et al. 2013:338 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:27 [ref. 34211], Manjaji-Matsumoto in Kimura et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Scoliodon macrorhynchos (Bleeker 1852). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam and western Indonesia to China, north to southern Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrurus, Carcharias Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1887:163 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 18602] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1155 (mounted skin). •Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818) -- (Garrick 1982:121 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:489 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:79 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:253 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:102 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:84 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculatus, Galeus Ranzani [C.] 1839:68 [4], Pl. 8 (figs. 1-4) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 4 [1840]; ref. 18606] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 941. Appeared first without description as Ranzani in Alessandrini 1838:432 [ref. 25852]. Dates to publication in a separate, on p. 4 and Pl. 1 in 1839; journal version in 1840. •Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822) -- (Compagno 1984:503 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

maculipinnis, Isogomphodon Poey [F.] 1865:191, Pl. 4 (figs. 2-3) [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 13954] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1973:23 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:41 [ref. 5454], Dor 1984:5 [ref. 29757], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:104 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:466 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:103 [ref. 19320], Compagno 2003:478 [ref. 26984], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:51 [ref. 27705], Voigt & Weber 2011:53 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:407 [ref. 31457], Compagno 2016:1301 [ref. 34544], Golani & Fricke 2018:10 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:4 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

madagascariensis, Odontaspis Fourmanoir [P.] 1961:15, Pl. 3 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 4; ref. 9345] Off west coast of Madagascar, southwestern Indian Ocean Syntypes: IRSMNB (probably lost). •Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837) -- (Compagno 1984:517 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

magnipinnis, Pterolamiops Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:132, Pl. 1; Fig. 1C [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 10; ref. 12027] Off Port Elizabeth, 7 miles from shore, 30°05'S, 25°18'E, South Africa, western Indian Ocean, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 126. •Synonym of Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861) -- (Garrick 1982:150 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:484 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:74 [ref. 5638], Voigt & Weber 2011:77 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:438 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

malabaricus, Carcharias Day [F.] 1873:529 [The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology v. 11; ref. 17368] Palliport near Cochin; Calicut on Malabar coast, India. Syntypes: (3) AMS I.61 (1) Calicut. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:299 [ref. 25110]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus dussumieri (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:54 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:469 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:58 [ref. 31424] dated 1873-78, White 2012:11 [ref. 31843]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus dussumieri (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

malpeloensis, Eulamia Fowler [H. W.] 1944:299, Figs. 7-9 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Malpelo Island, eastern Pacific west of Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 70048. Paratypes: ANSP 70049 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:34 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:159 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:470 [ref. 6846], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27705], Voigt & Weber 2011:60 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:413 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

maou, Squalus (Carcharias) Lesson [R. P.] 1829:(91), Poissons Pl. 1 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] French Polynesia, 18°S, 144°W. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. See Garrick 1982:151 [ref. 5454] for comments on use of this name. We suggest continuing current usage of Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861). Dates to plate which appeared on 4 July 1829; description dated to 13 Oct. 1831 (Cretella 2010 [ref. 34236]). •In the synonymy of the younger Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861) -- (Garrick 1982:150 [ref. 5454], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:107 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:484 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:74 [ref. 5638], Randall et al. 1990:20 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:22 [ref. 22193], Compagno & Niem 1998:1341 [ref. 23787], Lessa et al. 1999:354 [ref. 25267], Compagno 2003:484 [ref. 26984], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:33 [ref. 27735], Voigt & Weber 2011:77 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:438 [ref. 31457], Compagno 2016:1311 [ref. 34544] dated 1830). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

marianensis, Carcharias Engelhardt [R.] 1912:647 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 39 (nos 21/22); ref. 17459] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:268 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Garrick 1982:97 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:487 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:82 [ref. 31424], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

massasa, Squalus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Al-Luhayya, Yemen. No types known. Not available; no separate description (combined with Squalus mafreka) on p. x; author is Fabricius (see Fricke 2008:9 [ref. 30182]). Another quotation of the vernacular name 'Massasa' of Forsskål 1775:20 under Squalus carcharias does not refer to this species (see Fricke 2008:9 [ref. 30182]). The name Massasa appeared as name only in a footnote in Müller 1836:75 [ref. 3060] and attributed to Forsk. Made available as Squalus messasa by Bonnaterre 1788:13 [ref. 4940]. Not available; no separate description (combined with Squalus mafreka) on p. x; author is Fabricius (see Fricke 2008:9 [ref. 30182]). Another quotation of the vernacular name 'Massasa' of Forsskål 1775:20 under Squalus carcharias does not refer to this species (see Fricke 2008:9 [ref. 30182]). The name Massasa appeared as name only in a footnote in Müller 1836:75 [ref. 3060] and attributed to Forsk. Made available as Squalus messasa by Bonnaterre 1788:13 [ref. 4940]. Carcharhinidae.

mckaili, Galeolamna greyi Whitley [G. P.] 1945:1 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 1); ref. 4707] Swan River District, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.508. The type specimen was originally illustrated as Galeolamna greyi without subspecific designation in Whitley 1940:273, Fig. 303 [ref. 4700]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:81 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:478 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:78 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:246 [ref. 23873], Carvalho & McEachran in Reis et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27061], Hoese et al. 2006:101 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:72 [ref. 31424], Larson et al. 2013:9 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

melanopterus, Carcharias Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:194, Pl. 43 (figs. 1-2) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] [Waigiou] Pulau Waigeo, Papua Barat, Indonesia, western Pacific. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-1129. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:70 [ref. 20739] as holotype (MNHN 1129, figured) and paratypes; MNHN 1129 designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:1055 [ref. 23416] to conform to ICZN Code. •Valid as Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Compagno 1973:23 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:96 [ref. 5454], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:108 [ref. 13675], Dor 1984:6 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:487 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:75 [ref. 5638], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:78 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:4 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:20 [ref. 15987], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:18 [ref. 20764], Last & Stevens 1994:250 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:2 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:33 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:63 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:343 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:14 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:20 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1343 [ref. 23787], Yano & Morrissey 1999:193 [ref. 23887], Myers 1999:34 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:20 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:147 [ref. 24253], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Randall 1999:5 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:138 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:92 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:14 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:138 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:21 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:67 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27624], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:30 [ref. 27735], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:13 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:91 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:39 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:102 [ref. 29001], Fricke et al. 2007:14 [ref. 29533], Randall 2007:33 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30213], Last el al. 2010:106 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Voigt & Weber 2011:82 [ref. 31424], Moore et al. 2012:9 [ref. 31771], Psomadakis et al. 2012:14 [ref. 33457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Allen & Erdmann 2012:56 [ref. 31980], Yamashita et al. 2012:124 [ref. 32408], Naylor et al. 2012:24 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Fricke et al. 2013:250 [32706], Larson et al. 2013:10 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989], Ebert et al. 2013:333 [ref. 33045], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:83 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:22 [ref. 34211], Motomura et al. 2017:21 [ref. 35490], White et al. 2017:154 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36183], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:14 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:11 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:36 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:5 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:41 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group north to Taiwan, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. [No longer considered as present in the Mediterranean Sea -- (Fricke et al. 2007:14 [ref. 29533])]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

menisorrah, Carcharias (Prionodon) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:46, [Pl. 17; Pl. 19 (teeth)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMB 4476. Paralectotypes: BMNH uncat. (1, whereabouts unknown), MNHN A-9662 (1), RMNH uncat. (2, mounted skins, whereabouts unknown), MNHPA uncat. (1, whereabouts unknown), ZSL uncat. (1, embryo, whereabouts unknown), ZMB 4476 (mounted skin). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:72 [ref. 20739], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:166 [ref. 21041]. Evidently Müller & Henle alone were responsible for the description, so authorship is regarded as Müller & Henle (ex Valenciennes). Lectotype selected by Garrick 1982:160 [ref. 5454]. •Valid as Carcharhinus menisorrah (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Dor 1984:6 [ref. 29757], Paxton et al. 1989:77 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Cheng & Zhou 1997:32 [ref. 26385] dated 1841, Wang et al. 2001: [ref. 26566] dated 1841). •Listed in the synonymy of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856), C. dussumieri (Müller & Henle 1839), and Carcharhinus sealei (Pietschmann 1916) (Compagno & Niem 1998:1328, 1334, and 1346 [ref. 23787], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:26, 30, 31 [ref. 27735], Voigt & Weber 2011:60 [ref. 31424]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:26 [ref. 27735]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Valenciennus 1839) [after lectotype designation] -- (Garrick 1982:159 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:470 [ref. 6846], Randall et al. 1990:18 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:31 [ref. 22896], Randall 2005:11 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:100 [ref. 29001], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:57 [ref. 35264], Castro 2011:413 [ref. 31457], Weigmann 2016:19 [ref. 34211] with authors as Müller & Henle, Golani & Fricke 2018:10 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:4 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

messasa, Squalus Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Forsskål) 1788:13 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Al-Luhayya, Yemen. No types known. Based on 'Squalus massasa or mafreka' of Forsskål 1775:x [ref. 1351]. Name available according to Fricke 2008:9 [ref. 30182]. Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

microphthalmus, Carcharhinus Chu [Y.-T.] 1960:84, Figs. 78-79 [Cartilaginous fishes of China; ref. 21272] Jia-bo [Zhapo], China. Holotype: SFI 0278. Paratypes: SFI 57-0307 (1). Original not seen. •Synonym of Lamiopsis temminckii (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:512 [ref. 6846] as temmincki, White et al. 2010:46 [ref. 30849] with question, Last el al. 2010:123 [ref. 32461]). •Synonym of Lamiopsis tephrodes (Fowler 1905) -- (Kottelat 2013:22 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lamiopsis tephrodes (Fowler 1905). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microps, Carcharias Lowe [R. T.] 1841:38 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1840 (pt. 8, no. 89); ref. 2830] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Included in synonymy of Carcharias limbatus Valenciennes 1839 -- (Garrick 1982:30 [ref. 5454]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1973:24 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:481 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

milberti, Carcharias (Prionodon) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:38, [Pl. 19 (teeth)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic; New York, U.S.A., western North Atlantic. Syntypes: (3) MNHN 0000-1142 (1), RMNH uncat, (1, whereabouts unknown), ZMB 4467 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:71 [ref. 20739], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:166 [ref. 21041]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827) -- (Compagno 1973:25 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:132 [ref. 5454], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:109 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:493 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:106 [ref. 19320], Randall 1995:33 [ref. 22896], Compagno & Niem 1998:1345 [ref. 23787], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Compagno 2003:487 [ref. 26984], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:58 [ref. 27705] with author as Valenciennes, Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:27 [ref. 27735] with author as Valenciennes, Randall 2005:13 [ref. 28239] with author as Valenciennes, Randall 2007:35 [ref. 30952] with author as Valenciennes, Lipej & Dulčić 2010:9 [ref. 36649], Voigt & Weber 2011:89 [ref. 31424] with author as Valenciennes, Castro 2011:453 [ref. 31457], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524] with authorship as Müller & Henle, Compagno 2016:1315 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

minor, Squalus carcharias var. Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:20, viii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:6 [ref. 29757], Fricke 2008:9 [ref. 30182], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989] with question, Golani & Fricke 2018:11 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

muelleri, Carcharias (Physodon) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:30, [Pl. 19 (teeth)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Bengal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1041. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:69 [ref. 20739]. Evidently Müller & Henle alone were responsible for the description, so authorship is regarded as Müller & Henle (ex Valenciennes). •Synonym of Scoliodon laticaudus Müller & Henle 1838 -- (Springer 1964:574 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:534 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1357 [ref. 23787], White et al. 2010:61 [ref. 30850], Kottelat 2013:23 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Scoliodon muelleri (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Naylor et al. 2012:31 [ref. 34345] with question, see remarks). Current status: Synonym of Scoliodon laticaudus Müller & Henle 1838. Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

muelleri, Carcharias (Prionodon) Steindachner [F.] 1867:356 [50] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 56 (1. Abth.); ref. 14188] West Indies; Suriname. Holotype (unique): NMW. On p. 50 of separate. •Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:30 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:481 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:75 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

munsing, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1849:16 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura straits near Kammal and Surabaya, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:187 [ref. 5454], Mundy 2005:91 [ref. 28379]). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

munzingeri, Carcharias Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:415 [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Suez, Suez Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Also appeared in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:31 [ref. 18432]. •Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:9 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:517 [ref. 6846], Golani & Fricke 2018:12 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

murrayi, Carcharias Günther [A.] 1883:137, Fig. [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 11 (no. 62); ref. 14339] Karachi, Pakistan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1882.1.14.2 (stuffed, missing). •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:188 [ref. 5454]). •Questionably a synonym of Glyphis gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:507 [ref. 6846], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:20 [ref. 20764], Compagno et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29688], Roberts 2007:264 [ref. 29790], Compagno et al. 2010:30 [ref. 30848]). Current status: Uncertain as Glyphis gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nasuta, Uranga Whitley [G. P.] 1943:115, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 68 (pts 3-4) (nos. 307-308); ref. 4702] Urangan jetty, Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.1222 (teeth and skin). •Synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:41 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:466 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:76 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:238 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:99 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:53 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:407 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

natator, Carcharhinus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:40, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Fish market, Panama City, Panama. Holotype: USNM 79310. Paratypes: (1, whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:9 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:30 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:481 [ref. 6846], Randall 1995:32 [ref. 22896], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:47 [ref. 24550], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27705], Voigt & Weber 2011:75 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:432 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nesiotes, Carcharias Snyder [J. O.] 1904:514, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] French Frigate Shoals, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 2631. Holotype: USNM 50860 [= USNM 62474]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 12790 (1), 32027 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291], Howe & Springer 1993:9-10 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Garrick 1982:106 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:459 [ref. 6846] as nesiodes, Mundy 2005:89 [ref. 28379], Voigt & Weber 2011:45 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

nicaraguensis, Eulamia Gill [T. N.] in Gill & Bransford 1877:190 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 29; ref. 1714] Lake Nicaragua, Nicaragua. Holotype (unique): USNM 16887 (skin, skull, jaws). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:10 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:81 [ref. 5454], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:106 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:478 [ref. 6846], Randall 1995:31 [ref. 22896], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:48 [ref. 24550], Carvalho & McEachran in Reis et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27061], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27705], Voigt & Weber 2011:72 [ref. 31424] with author as Gill, Castro 2011:426 [ref. 31457], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989], Compagno 2016:1307 [ref. 34544] with authors as Gill & Bransford). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

notatus, Carcharias (Hypoprion) Bleeker [P.] 1849:12 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 12); ref. 16883] Not available, name only in list from Java. •Mentioned in Bleeker 1852:47 [ref. 333] as Hypoprion notatus in the synonymy of Hemigaleus macrostoma. In the synonymy of Hemigaleus microstoma Bleeker 1852 -- (Last el al. 2010:81 [ref. 32461]). Carcharhinidae.

obesus, Carcharias Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:64, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 3149. Type catalog and lectotype designation: Klausewitz 1960:291 [ref. 21330]. SMF 3149 was erroneously designated as lectotype by Klausewitz (1960:291); Rüppell only mentioned a unique holotype of 3.5 feet (91.5 cm) TL. •Valid as Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:10 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:536 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:86 [ref. 5638], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:84 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:22 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:24 [ref. 22193], Last & Stevens 1994:268 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:687 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:36 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:89 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:14 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:22 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1358 [ref. 23787], Myers 1999:36 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:24 [ref. 24106], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Randall 1999:5 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:135 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:96 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:135 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:21 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:67 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27624], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:35 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:15 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:93 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:107 [ref. 29001], Randall 2007:36 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:10 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:69 [ref. 31256], Last el al. 2010:132 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Castro 2011:501 [ref. 31457], Allen & Erdmann 2012:59 [ref. 31980], Yamashita et al. 2012:125 [ref. 32408], Fricke et al. 2013:250 [ref. 32706], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:12 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:338 [ref. 33045], Fricke et al. 2014:14 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Psomadakis et al. 2015:87 [ref. 34104], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:27 [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35354], White et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35860], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:17 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:12 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:41 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:7 [ref. 37020], Fernando et al. 2019:223 [ref. 36642], Fricke et al. 2019:41 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Hawaiian Islands, Panama and Revillagigedo Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to New South Wales (Australia), Kermadec and Austral islands. Habitat: marine.

obscurella, Carcharhinus Deng [S.-M.], Xiong [G.-Q.] & Zhan [H.-X.] 1981:217 [English p. 220], Figs. 4-6 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 8612] Off Chang-jiang (Yangtze) River mouth, East China Sea, China. Holotype: ECSFI SH75-0678. Paratypes: ECSFI SH75-0512 (1), SH75-0056 (1), SH75-0636 (1), SH75-0669 (1). •Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818) -- (Compagno 1984:489 [ref. 6846], Castro 2011:444 [ref. 31457], Voigt & Weber 2011:84 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

obscurus, Squalus Lesueur [C. A.] 1818:223, Pl. 9 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2735] No locality (= East coast of U.S.A.). No types known. Volume contains two plates labeled IX; S. obscurus is found on the second plate IX. •Valid as Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818) -- (Compagno 1973:25 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:120 [ref. 5454], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:39 [ref. 9277], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:108 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:489 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:75 [ref. 5638], Robins & Ray 1986:27 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:25 [ref. 25518], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:79 [ref. 12442], McAllister 1990:32 [ref. 14674], Springer 1990:106 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:21 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:22 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:173 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:23 [ref. 22193], Gomon et al. 1994:123 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:252 [ref. 23873], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:678 [ref. 22829], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:28 [ref. 24545], Murdy et al. 1997:31 [ref. 23144], Arruda 1997:18 [ref. 24952], Kuiter 1997:14 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:21 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1344 [ref. 23787], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:82 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:115 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Menezes & Marín 1999:1 [ref. 26473], Musick et al. 2000:8 [ref. 24959], Nakabo 2000:139 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:93 [ref. 25191], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:119 [ref. 25206], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Grace 2001:28 [ref. 25694], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:64, 79 [ref. 26637], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:173 [ref. 26753], Branstetter in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:42 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:139 [ref. 26001], Compagno 2003:485 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:96 [ref. 27795], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:91 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:102 [ref. 29001], White 2008:70 [ref. 30617], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Voigt & Weber 2011:84 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:444 [ref. 31457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Naylor et al. 2012:22 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Fricke et al. 2013:247 [32706], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:10 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:333 [ref. 33045], Wirtz et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33516], Duffy 2015:103 [ref. 34217], Pinheiro et al. 2015:3 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:93 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:22 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1313 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:70 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35618], White et al. 2017:156 [ref. 35860], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:14 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:11 [ref. 36273], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], White & Ko'ou 2018:36 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Nearly circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas (including Caribbean Sea, Red Sea). Habitat: brackish, marine.

obsolerus, Carcharhinus White [W. T.], Kyne [P. M.] & Harris [M.] 2019:7, Figs. 1-8 [PLoS ONE v. 14 (no. 1): e0209387; ref. 36436] Bangkok, Thailand, Western Pacific Ocean. Holotype: NMW 61463. Paratypes: ANSP. Species name spelled obsolerus in original description, which is an incorrect original spelling according to Dubois & Séret 2019: [ref. 36825], White et al. 2019:599 [ref. 36906]; corrected to obsoletus. •Valid as Carcharhinus obsoletus White, Kyne & Harris 2019 -- (White et al. 2019:599 [ref. 36906]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus obsoletus White, Kyne & Harris 2019. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western Pacific Ocean, Southern China Sea: Gulf of Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysian Borneo [possibly extinct]. Habitat: marine.

obtusirostris, Carcharias Moreau [E.] 1881:332, Fig. 53 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Moreau); ref. 3040] [Cette] Sète, Département Hérault, Languedoc-Roussilon, France, western Mediterranean Sea; Nice, Département des Alpes-Maritimes, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea.; Atlantic. Syntypes: MNHN 1898-1227 (1). Original spelling was obstusirostris, apparently in error for obtusirostris as used in the index. •Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827) -- (Compagno 1973:25 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:133 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:493 [ref. 6846], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:14 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:9 [ref. 36649], Voigt & Weber 2011:89 [ref. 31424], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

obtusus, Galeocerdo Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:664 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype: SMNS 12141 [orig. 1706] (dry head skeleton). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:8 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:25 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822) -- (Dor 1984:8 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:503 [ref. 6846], Golani & Fricke 2018:11 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

obtusus, Squalus Poey [F.] 1861:337, Pl. 19 (figs. 7-8) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. As Prionodon obtusus on plate. •Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:81 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:478 [ref. 6846], Carvalho & McEachran in Reis et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27061], Voigt & Weber 2011:72 [ref. 31424], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

obtusus, Triaenodon Day [F.] 1878:720, Pl. 189 (fig. 3) [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Karachi, Pakistan. Holotype (unique): ZSI 2277 (dry). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus amboinensis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:459 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1329 [ref. 23787], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:32 [ref. 27735], Voigt & Weber 2011:47 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus amboinensis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

obvelatus, Prionodon Valenciennes [A.] 1844:103, Pl. 26 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6434 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:73 [ref. 20739]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818) -- (Garrick 1982:121 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:489 [ref. 6846] with question, Voigt & Weber 2011:84 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

odontaspis, Eulamia Fowler [H. W.] 1908:63, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 60; ref. 6847] Probably Indian Ocean. Holotype: ANSP 34634 ("dry skin", missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:34 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Negaprion odontaspis (Fowler 1908) -- (Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138]). •Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837) -- (Compagno 1984:517 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

oligolinx, Rhizoprionodon (Protozygaena) Springer [V. G.] 1964:621, Figs. 12-13; Pl. 2 (fig. c) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 115 (no. 3493); ref. 3494] Bangkok market, caught in Gulf of Thailand, 11°56'-12°03'N, 102°14'30"-102°17'45"E, 2-3 miles offshore, depth 0-10 meters. Holotype: USNM 196799. Paratypes: ANSP (4 lots, 5); BMNH 1862.11.1.43 (1), 1868.10.25.21 (1), 1889.2.1.4150 (1), 1889.2.1.4161-63 (3), 1889.2.1.4164--4166 (3), 1889.2.1.4175 (1); CAS (4 lots, 9); FMNH (3 lots, 3); IRSNB 506 (1); ISZZ 7533 (1); MCZ 111 (3 lots, 3); MNHN 0000-0949 (3 lots, 6); NMV uncat. (4, still researching); RMNH 4713 (1); CAS-SU (3 lots, 3); UMMZ 177113 (3); USNM 175349 (1); ZMH 24398 [ex ISH 5-1961] (1); ZMUC (3 lots, 3); ZSZM H1377 (1), 10377 (1). Additional material: BMNH (1), USNM (1). Type catalog: Krefft 1978:5 [ref. 9884], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:75 [ref. 12367], Howe & Springer 1993:10 [ref. 21812], Thiel et al. 2009:14 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Rhizoprionodon oligolinx Springer 1964 -- (Compagno 1984:529 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:5 [ref. 6441], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:84 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:266 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Niem 1998:1355 [ref. 23787], Myers 1999:36 [ref. 23965], Morón et al. 1999:148 [ref. 24253], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:136 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:136 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:53, 474 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Compagno et al. 2005:43 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:106 [ref. 29001], Last el al. 2010:128 [ref. 32461], Moore et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31771], Larson et al. 2013:12 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:86 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:26 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:176 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:302 [ref. 36183], Jawad et al. 2018:94 [ref. 36262], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:41 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:7 [ref. 37020], Fernando et al. 2019:223 [ref. 36642]). Current status: Valid as Rhizoprionodon oligolinx Springer 1964. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Gulf of Thailand, south to Australia. Habitat: marine.

oxyrhynchus, Carcharias (Prionodon) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:41, [Pl. 15] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Suriname. Syntypes: (2) ?MNHN A-9664 (1) Cayenne, RMNH 4297 (1) Suriname, ?ZMB 4539 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:71 [ref. 20739]. •Valid as Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:56 [ref. 14275], Compagno 1984:510 [ref. 6846], Cervigón 1992:176 [ref. 23827], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:81 [ref. 24490] as oxyrhinchus, Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Grace 2001:17 [ref. 25694], Soto 2001:64, 75 [ref. 26637], Compagno 2003:491 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Castro 2011:475 [ref. 31457], Weigmann 2016:24 [ref. 34211] with authors as Müller & Henle, Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861] with authors as Müller & Henle). Current status: Valid as Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Central western Atlantic: southern Caribbean Sea to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

palasorra, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1853:80 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 8); ref. 341] Vizagapatam, India. Available as Carcharinus (Prionodon) palasoora Cuv. "Pala sorrah Russ. No. 15" which refers to Russell 1803 [ref. 13862]. •Listed in the synonymy of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) and Rhizoprionodon oligolinx Springer 1964 -- (Compagno & Niem 1998:1354, 1355 [ref. 23787]). •Listed in the synonymy of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:34 [ref. 27735] as palsorra). •Status uncertain -- (White et al. 2010:62 [ref. 30850]). •Synonym of Scoliodon laticaudus Müller & Henle 1838 -- (Springer 1964:574 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:534 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1357 [ref. 23787], Eagderi et al. 2019:7 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Synonym of Scoliodon laticaudus Müller & Henle 1838. Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

palasorrah, Squalus Cuvier [G.] 1829:388 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam and Madras, India. Perhaps technically not available, not directly associated with a genus and perhaps a vernacular name. Based on Palasorrah of Russell 1803. •In the synonymy of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:10 [ref. 29757], Ali et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36183]). •See also Carcharinus (Prionodon) palasorra Bleeker 1853. •Valid as Scoliodon palasorrah (Cuvier 1829) -- (Chen et al. 1997:4 [ref. 26476]). •Not considered an original description -- (White et al. 2010:63 [ref. 30850]). Current status: Uncertain as Scoliodon palasorrah (Cuvier 1829). Carcharhinidae.

perezii, Platypodon Poey [F.] 1876:390 [194], Pl. 9 (figs. 2-3) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 8 Nov. 1876); ref. 14211] Cuba. Syntypes: (6) lost. Type catalog: Gutiérrez de los Reyes et al. 2015:45 [ref. 36079]. On p. 194 of separate. Correct original spelling is perezii. •Valid as Carcharhinus perezii [often seen as perezi] (Poey 1876) -- (Garrick 1982:145 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:492 [ref. 6846], Robins & Ray 1986:27 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:174 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:83 [ref. 23897], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:66 [ref. 24490], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:115 [ref. 25013], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589] as perezi, Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754] as perezi, Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Grace 2001:29 [ref. 25694], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Soto 2001:64, 80 [ref. 26637] as perezi, Compagno 2003:486 [ref. 26984] as perezi, Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:5 [ref. 27621], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:58 [ref. 27705] as perezi, Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Diggers et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31402] as perezi, Voigt & Weber 2011:87 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:449 [ref. 31457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843] as perezi, Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:20 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:3 [ref. 34324] as perezi, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:93 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:22 [ref. 34211] as perezi, Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus perezii (Poey 1876). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; ?western Pacific: Colombia. Habitat: marine.

pharaonis, Carcharias Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Klunzinger 1871:660 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Red Sea. Not available; appeared above as name in synonymy; also appeared as Gymnorhinus pharaonis in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899:8, Pl. 7 (fig. 1 +a-c) [ref. 4977] but in the synonymy of Carcharias menisorrah. Carcharhinidae.

pharaonis, Gymnorhinus Hemprich [F. W.] & Ehrenberg [C. G.] 1899:8, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Symbolae physicae; ref. 4977] Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:167-168 [ref. 21041] with AMB 4476 as holotype. See Carcharias pharaonis Ehrenberg in Klunzinger. •Synonym of Carcharhinus menisorrah (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Dor 1984:7 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:470 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:60 [ref. 31424], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

philippi, Eulamia Fowler [H. W.] 1930:491 [Proceedings of the 4th Pacific Science Congress, Java, 1929 v. 3 (Biol. Pap.); ref. 17628] Iquique, Chile. Replacement name for Carcharias brachyrrhynchus Philippi 1887, regarded as preoccupied by Carcharias brachyrhynchos Bleeker 1859. •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:185 [ref. 5454]). •See also Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125]. Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

phorcys, Carcharias Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:163 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50612. Paratypes: BPBM 1685 (1, missing), MCZ 89506 (1, missing), CAS-SU 12715 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291], Howe & Springer 1993:11 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:30 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:481 [ref. 6846], Mundy 2005:90 [ref. 28379], Voigt & Weber 2011:75 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:432 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

platyodon, Prionodon Poey [F.] 1860:336, Pl. 19 (figs. 5-6) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. Plate published in 1861. •Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:81 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:478 [ref. 6846], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:48 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:115 [ref. 25013], Carvalho & McEachran in Reis et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27061], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27705] dated 1861, Voigt & Weber 2011:72 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:426 [ref. 31457] dated 1861, Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

platyrhynchus, Eulamia (Platypodon) Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:543 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 46847. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 11556 (missing); USNM 46846 (1, lost), 46850 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Rosenblatt & Baldwin 1958:151 [ref. 28219]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus albimarginatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Garrick 1982:116 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:455 [ref. 6846], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:49 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:26 [ref. 27735], Voigt & Weber 2011:39 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:397 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:88 [ref. 34398]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus albimarginatus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

playfairii, Carcharias Günther [A.] 1870:362 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.3.9.427 (dry). •Synonym of Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Garrick 1982:97 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:487 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1343 [ref. 23787], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:30 [ref. 27735] as playfairi, Voigt & Weber 2011:82 [ref. 31424] as playfairy, Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pleuronotatus, Platypodon Poey [F.] 2000:875, Pl. 545 (fig. 1) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Carcharhinidae.

pleurotaenia, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1852:40, Pl. 2 (fig. 6) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1867.11.28.176 (1), RMNH 7385 (2). •Valid as Carcharhinus pleurotaenia (Bleeker 1852) -- (Chen et al. 1997:5 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides (Whitley 1934) -- (Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:28 [ref. 27735]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:30 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:481 [ref. 6846], Last el al. 2010:101 [ref. 32461], Voigt & Weber 2011:75 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

plumbeus, Squalus Nardo [G. D.] 1827:26, 35 (no. 24) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 477 and 483 [ref. 19740]. •Valid as Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827) -- (Compagno 1973:25 [ref. 7163], Garrick 1982:132 [ref. 5454], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:109 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:493 [ref. 6846], Dor 1984:7 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:76 [ref. 5638], Robins & Ray 1986:27 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:79 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:106 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:21 [ref. 15987], Collette & Parin 1991:4 [ref. 19110], Boschung 1992:22 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:174 [ref. 23827], Baranes & Golani 1993:301 [ref. 22372], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Last & Stevens 1994:253 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:679 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:33 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:28 [ref. 24545], Murdy et al. 1997:30 [ref. 23144], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:82 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:18 [ref. 24952], Randall et al. 1997:21 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1345 [ref. 23787], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:84 [ref. 23897], Fricke 1999:21 [ref. 24106], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:69 [ref. 24490], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:139 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:93 [ref. 25191] as plombeus, Grace 2001:24 [ref. 25694], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:64, 80 [ref. 26637], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:14 [ref. 26753], Bransetter in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:44 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:139 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:53, 473 [ref. 26218], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808], Compagno 2003:487 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27624], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:58 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:27 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:60 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:13 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:92 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:102 [ref. 29001], Fricke et al. 2007:14 [ref. 29533], Fricke et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30213], Last el al. 2010:108 [ref. 32461], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:9 [ref. 36649], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Voigt & Weber 2011:89 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:453 [ref. 31457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Ebert et al. 2013:333 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:232 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:23 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:83 [ref. 34104], Duffy 2015:104 [ref. 34217], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524], Pinheiro et al. 2015:3 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:94 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:22 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1315 [ref. 34544], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:545 [ref. 34656], Fourriére et al. 2016:461 [ref. 34668] doubtful from Revillagigedo Archipelago (Mexico), Duffy & Scott 2016:187 [ref. 34780], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Duffy & Struthers 2017:136 [ref. 35604], White et al. 2017:158 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36183], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:164 [ref. 35920], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:15 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:11 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], White & Ko'ou 2018:37 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861], Eagderi et al. 2019:5 [ref. 37020], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through warm temperate seas (including Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf), possibly absent from eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

porosus, Carcharias Ranzani [C.] 1839:70 [6], Pl. 9 (figs. 1-5) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 4 [1840]; ref. 18606] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 942. Appeared first without description as Carcharias porosa as Ranzani in Alessandrini 1838:433 [ref. 25852]. Dates to publication in a separate, on p. 6 and Pl. 2 in 1839; journal version in 1840. •Valid as Carcharhinus porosus (Ranzani 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:69 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:496 [ref. 6846], Robins & Ray 1986:28 [ref. 23100], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Boschung 1992:22 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:175 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:23 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:16 [ref. 23101], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:680 [ref. 22829], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:85 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:57 [ref. 24555], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:73 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:48 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Grace 2001:16 [ref. 25694], Soto 2001:64, 81 [ref. 26637], Compagno 2003:488 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:59 [ref. 27705] dated 1840, Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807] dated 1840, Castro 2011:8 [ref. 31126], Voigt & Weber 2011:91 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:459 [ref. 31457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Naylor et al. 2012:27 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:94 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:23 [ref. 34211], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861], White et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36436]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus porosus (Ranzani 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico south to southern Brazil, including Caribbean Sea. Not Pacific when C. cerdale is treated as valid. Habitat: brackish, marine.

porosus, Squalus Poey [F.] 1861:339, Pl. 19 (Figs. 11-12) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): Poey specimen 410 (lost). Type catalog: Gutiérrez de los Reyes et al. 2015:46 [ref. 36079]. As Scoliodon porosus on plate. •Valid as Rhizoprionodon porosus (Poey 1861) -- (Springer 1964:606 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:530 [ref. 6846], Cervigón 1992:178 [ref. 23827], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:28 [ref. 24545], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:91 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:45 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Grace 2001:14 [ref. 25694], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Soto 2001:64, 74 [ref. 26637], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Compagno 2003:495 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Matamoros et al. 2009:7 [ref. 31241], Mendonça et al. 2010:[4] [ref. 34427], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:20 [ref. 33341], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:96 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:26 [ref. 34211], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Rhizoprionodon porosus (Poey 1861). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic, including Caribbean Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pugae, Carcharias Pérez Canto [C.] 1886:2 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile Sec. 1, v. 69; ref. 18531] Chile. ?MHNV (possibly lost). See also Philippi 1887:538 [p. 6 of separate], Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [ref. 3464]. •Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846], Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Aprionodon Gill [T. N.] 1861:59 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 13 (Suppl.); ref. 1766] Probably subjectively invalid, secondarily preoccupied by Squalus punctatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Synonym of Carcharhinus isodon (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:477 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:68 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:421 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus isodon (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Squalus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:483 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Squalus punctatus Bloch & Schneider 1801; Gill 1861:59 [ref. 1766] treated as Aprionodon punctatus, but that combination is not available. Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

queenslandicus, Aprionodon acutidens Whitley [G. P.] 1939:233, Fig. 6 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4695] Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.6189. Paratypes: QM I.5976 (1), I.5577 (1), I.6117 (1). •Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837) -- (Compagno 1984:517 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:83 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:263 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:105 [ref. 29001]). Current status: Synonym of Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

radamae, Carcharinus Fourmanoir [P.] 1961:24, Figs. 14-17; Pls. 6-7 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 4; ref. 9345] Off northwest coast of Madagascar, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: IRSMNB (4) probably lost. •Synonym of Carcharhinus altimus (Springer 1950) -- (Garrick 1982:142 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:457 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1326 [ref. 23787], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:27 [ref. 27735], Voigt & Weber 2011:41 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:400 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus altimus (Springer 1950). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

rayneri, Galeocerdo Macdonald [J. D.] & Barron [C.] 1868:368, Pl. 32 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 2) (art. 5) (for 28 May 1868); ref. 14076] Australian coast and Lord Howe Island. Syntypes: Haslar Mus. (2 jaws & skin, whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822) -- (Compagno 1984:503 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:80 [ref. 12442], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:19 [ref. 20764], Last & Stevens 1994:259 [ref. 23873], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:682 [ref. 22829], Compagno & Niem 1998:1349 [ref. 23787], Hoese et al. 2006:103 [ref. 29001]). Current status: Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

remotoides, Carcharhinus Deng [S.-M.], Xiong [G.-Q.] & Zhan [H.-X.] 1981:218 [English p. 220], Figs. 7-9 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 8612] Zhoushan Islands, East China Sea, Zhejiang, China. Holotype: ECSFI SH 75-0556. Paratypes: ECSFI SH75-0085 (1), SH75-0538 (1). •Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870) -- (Compagno 1984:464 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

remotus, Carcharias (Prionodon) Duméril [A. H. A.] (ex Valenciennes) 1865:374 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 1; ref. 1150] Antilles, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9661 (mounted). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:73 [ref. 20739]. Author often seen as Valenciennes. •Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870) -- (Compagno & Niem 1998:1331 [ref. 23787], Compagno 2003:477 [ref. 26984]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus acronotus (Poey 1860) -- (Garrick 1982:66 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:454 [ref. 6846], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:49 [ref. 27705], Voigt & Weber 2011:37 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:393 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus acronotus (Poey 1860). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

robustus, Carcharias Philippi [R. A.] 1896:389 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile 93-95; ref. 3465] Valparaíso, Chile. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:188 [ref. 5454]). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

rochensis, Carcharhinus Abella [A.] 1972:102, Fig. [Boletín de la Sociedad Zoológica del Uruguay, Montevideo. v. 2; ref. 7600] Anaconda, 5 kilometers west of La Paloma, Rocha, Uruguay. Holotype: DZVU AA(E) 5. Paratypes: DZVU AA(E) 12 (1), AA(E) 13 (1); ZVC (lost). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:414 [ref. 35150]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870) -- (Compagno 1984:464 [ref. 6846], Castro 2011:403 [ref. 31457], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rondeletii, Squalus Risso [A.] 1810:27 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:30 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846], Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812]). Current status: Uncertain as Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

rondeletii, Thalassinus Moreau [É.] 1881:319 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Moreau); ref. 3040] Not an original description. Name appeared as Thalassinus rondeletii (Mor.) [p. 56] and as Thalassinus rondeletti (Mor.) [p. 148] in Navarrete 1898 [ref. 18474] and may be available from this work. Name would be a junior homonym of Squalus rondeletii Risso 1826 in Prionace. •In the synonymy of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:30 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae.

russellii, Scoliodon Gray [J. E.] in Bleeker 1852:30 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy of Carcharias (Scoliodon) acutus; from Batavia, Java. Carcharhinidae.

russellii, Scoliodon Gray [J. E.] in Richardson 1846:194 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Not available, name mentioned in the synonymy of Carcharias (Scoliodon) acutus. Carcharhinidae.

sanctithomae, Carcharias Engelhardt [R.] 1912:646 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 39 (nos 21/22); ref. 17459] St. Thomas Island, Virgin Islands. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] 1 female, 4 heads; destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:268 [ref. 28925]. Originally as sancti-thomae, correction mandatory. •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:188 [ref. 5454]). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

sealei, Carcharias Pietschmann [V.] 1913:172, Pl. 1 [Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde. Wiesbaden v. 66; ref. 14972] Sandakan fish market, Sabah State, Borneo, East Malaysia, western Pacific. Neotype: CSIRO H 4919-04. Replacement name for Carcharias borneensis Seale 1910:263, preoccupied by Carcharias (Prionodon) borneensis Bleeker 1858. Holotype BSMP 2720 destroyed in WWII. Neotype selected by White 2012:1, 18 [ref. 31843]. •Valid as Carcharhinus sealei (Pietschmann 1913) -- (Garrick 1982:41 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:497 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:76 [ref. 5638], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:79 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:21 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:30 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:64 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:21 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1347 [ref. 23787], Fricke 1999:21 [ref. 24106], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:31 [ref. 27735], Compagno et al. 2005:40 [ref. 29145], Voigt & Weber 2011:93 [ref. 31424] dated 1916, White 2012:3, 18 [ref. 31843], Weigmann 2012:4 [ref. 31968], Naylor et al. 2012:21 with cf. sealei in Australia, White & Weigmann 2014:85 [ref. 33352], Weigmann 2016:23 [ref. 34211], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Eagderi et al. 2019:5 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus sealei (Pietschmann 1913). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to South China Sea, south to northern Australia. Distribution west of the Indo-Malay Peninsula needs validating [ref. 31843] and [ref. 33352]. Habitat: marine.

siamensis, Carcharias (Prionodon) Steindachner [F.] 1896:229 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 11; ref. 14618] Mouth of Irrawaddy River, Rangoon, Myanmar. Holotype (unique): NMW 61379. •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:188 [ref. 5454]). •Valid as Glyphis siamensis (Steindachner 1896) -- (Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Compagno et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29688], Compagno et al. 2010:30 [ref. 30848], Berra 2010:109 [ref. 31120], Naylor et al. 2012:29 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Kottelat 2013:22 [ref. 32989], Shimada et al. 2016:238 [ref. 34719]). •Synonym of Glyphis gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Roberts 2007:264 [ref. 29790], Li et al. 2015:13304 [ref. 34446]). Current status: Synonym of Glyphis gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Myanmar (if valid). Habitat: brackish, marine.

signatus, Hypoprion Poey [F.] 1868:452, Pl. 4 (figs. 7-8) [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. Holotype (unique): based on jaws only (lost). Type catalog: Gutiérrez de los Reyes et al. 2015:46 [ref. 36079]. •Valid as Carcharhinus signatus (Poey 1868) -- (Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:110 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:499 [ref. 6846], Garrick 1985:20 [ref. 5654], Robins & Ray 1986:28 [ref. 23100], Springer 1990:107 [ref. 19320], Boschung 1992:22 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:175 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:78 [ref. 25472], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:681 [ref. 22829], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:v [ref. 21953], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:86 [ref. 23897], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:76 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Musick et al. 2000:9 [ref. 24959], Grace 2001:26 [ref. 25694], Soto 2001:64, 81 [ref. 26637], Compagno 2003:489 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27192], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Carlson et al. 2008:1 [ref. 29789], Voigt & Weber 2011:95 [ref. 31424], Voigt & Weber 2011:95 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:463 [ref. 31457], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Pinheiro et al. 2015:3 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:94 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:23 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1317 [ref. 34544], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus signatus (Poey 1868). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Delaware (U.S.A.) aouth to Florida, Bahamas and Cuba; Venezuela; southern Brazil to northern Argentina; eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola to Namibia. Habitat: marine.

sitankaiensis, Aprionodon Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1934:11 [Notes on fishes in the Zoological Museum of Stanford University. 1. The fishes of the Herre Philippine expedition of 1931.; ref. 2108] Sitankai, Sibutu Islands, Sulu Province, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 13601. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:159 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:470 [ref. 6846], Compagno et al. 2005:37 [ref. 29145], Last el al. 2010:99 [ref. 32461], Voigt & Weber 2011:60 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

sorrah, Carcharias (Prionodon) Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:45, [Pl. 16] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 4294. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-1131 (1), 0000-1132 (1); ZSL uncat. (2, whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:71-72 [ref. 20739]. Lectotype selected by Garrick 1982:168 [ref. 5454]. Authorship changed to Valenciennes 1839 -- Jones et al. 2015:570 [ref. 34086]. •Valid as Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes 1839) (often seen as Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:20 [ref. 19756], Garrick 1982:165 [ref. 5454], Dor 1984:7 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:500 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:6 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:77 [ref. 5638], Allen & Swainston 1988:22 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:79 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:21 [ref. 15987], Last & Stevens 1994:255 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:33 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:65 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:42 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:5 [ref. 26476] dated 1841, Randall et al. 1997:21 [ref. 25919], Compagno & Niem 1998:1347 [ref. 23787], Fricke 1999:21 [ref. 24106], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:137 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:137 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:53, 473 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:21 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:29 [ref. 27735], Compagno et al. 2005:40 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:103 [ref. 29001], Randall 2007:34 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:10 [ref. 30213], Last el al. 2010:112[ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Voigt & Weber 2011:97 [ref. 31424], Voigt & Weber 2011:97 [ref. 31424], Moore et al. 2012:10 [ref. 31771], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Allen & Erdmann 2012:58 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:23 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Ebert et al. 2013:334 [ref. 33045], Yoshida et al. 2013:10 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:84 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:23 [ref. 34211] with authors as Müller & Henle, White et al. 2017:160 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:15 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:11 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Manjaji-Matsumoto in Kimura et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36460], White & Ko'ou 2018:37 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:5 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Solomon Islands and northern Vanuatu, north to Taiwan, south to New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sorrahkowah, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1853:80 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 8); ref. 341] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Available as "Carcharius (?) sorrah kowah Blkr. Sorrah kowah Russ. No. 15" which refers to Russell 1803 [ref. 13862]. •Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Springer 1964:594 [ref. 3494] as sorrakowa, Compagno 1984:525 [ref. 6846], Last el al. 2010:127 [ref. 32461], Kottelat 2013:22 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sorrakowah, Squalus Cuvier [G.] 1829:388 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Perhaps not available, technically not associated with a genus, perhaps vernacular; based on Sorrah kowah of Russell 1803:9, Pl. 15 from Vizagapatam. •Valid as Scoliodon sorrakowah (Cuvier 1829) -- (Chen et al. 1997:4 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:31 [ref. 26385]). •Not intended as an original description, should date to Carcharias sorrahkowah Bleeker 1853 -- (White et al. 2010:62 [ref. 30850]). Current status: Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae.

spallanzani, Squalus Péron [F.] & Lesueur [C. A.] in Lesueur 1822:351 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2; ref. 17519] Terre de Witt, northwestern Australia. No types known. Authorship given as above; Péron's contribution indeterminable. •Valid as Carcharhinus spallanzani (Péron & Lesueur 1822) -- (Dor 1984:7 [ref. 29757]). •Description regarded as inadequate and taxa not recognized, placed in the synonymy of Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:165 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:500 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:79 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:33 [ref. 22896], Randall 2005:12 [ref. 28239]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus sorrah (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Randall 2007:34 [ref. 30952] with author as Valenciennes, Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:57 [ref. 35264], Voigt & Weber 2011:97 [ref. 31424], Ali et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:11 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:5 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spenceri, Carcharias Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:3 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Brisbane River, Queensland. Australia. Holotype (unique): not at QM [AFAQ 290, jaws only]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:81 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:478 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:78 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:246 [ref. 23873], Carvalho & McEachran in Reis et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27061], Hoese et al. 2006:101 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:72 [ref. 31424]. Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

springeri, Eulamia Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1944:30, Pls. 9-10 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 23; ref. 13163] Cozumel, eastern Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 37141. Additional material (tentatively referred): MCZ 35900 (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:14 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus perezii (Poey 1876) -- (Garrick 1982:145 [ref. 5454] as perezi, Compagno 1984:492 [ref. 6846] as perezi, Compagno 2003:486 [ref. 26984] as perezi, Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:58 [ref. 27705] as perezi, Voigt & Weber 2011:84 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:449 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus perezii (Poey 1876). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

stevensi, Carcharias Ogilby [J. D.] 1911:38 [Annals of the Queensland Museum No. 10; ref. 3290] Bustard Bay and North-west Islet, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM (2, apparently lost, 164 and 187 cm not mm in length). Genus correctly spelled Carcharhinus in list on p. 36, but misprinted as Carcharias in description heading on p. 38. •Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827) -- (Garrick 1982:133 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:493 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:79 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:254 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:102 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:89 [ref. 31424], Dyldin 2015:53 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taeniatus, Carcharias Hemprich [F. W.] & Ehrenberg [C. G.] 1899:8, Pl. 4 (fig. 3, 3a-e) [Symbolae physicae; ref. 4977] Red Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:165 [ref. 21041]. Other species in this work were treated by the editor Hilgendorf as synonyms, but Hilgendorf placed taeniatus in a genus and subgenus only, so it is regarded as available as above. •Synonym of Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:165 [ref. 5454], Dor 1984:7 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:500 [ref. 6846], Voigt & Weber 2011:97 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taylori, Physodon Ogilby [J. D.] 1915:117 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 3; ref. 3293] Townsville, northern Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.738 [not QM I.4539] (apparently lost). •Valid as Rhizoprionodon taylori (Ogilby 1915) -- (Springer 1964:627 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:531 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:84 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:267 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Niem 1998:1356 [ref. 23787], Johnson 1999:720 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:107 [ref. 29001], Larson et al. 2013:12 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:26 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:178 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:41 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Rhizoprionodon taylori (Ogilby 1915). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Papua New Guinea and northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

temminckii, Carcharias (Prionodon) Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1839:48, [Pl. 18] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] India. Lectotype: BMNH 1851.8.16.11. Paralectotypes: ZMB 4475 (1) and ? MNHN (1) Pondichéry [Puducherry, India], RMNH (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:166 [ref. 21041]. Lectotype designated by Akhilesh et al. 2016:156 [ref. 34829]. •Valid as Lamiopsis temminckii (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:512 [ref. 6846] as temmincki, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:22 [ref. 20764] as temmincki, Compagno & Niem 1998:1350 [ref. 23787] as temmincki, Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589] as temmincki, Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122] as temmincki, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377] as temmincki, White et al. 2010:46 [ref. 30849], Psomadakis et al. 2015:85 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:24 [ref. 34211], Akhilesh et al. 2016:155 [ref. 34829]). Current status: Valid as Lamiopsis temminckii (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tephrodes, Carcharhinus Fowler [H. W.] 1905:455, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 57; ref. 1370] Baram River, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype: ANSP 91177 [ex WIAP 2390]. Paratypes: ANSP 77121 [ex WIAP 2391] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:34 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Lamiopsis temminckii (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:512 [ref. 6846] as temmincki). •Valid as Lamiopsis tephrodes (Fowler 1905) -- (White et al. 2010:46 [ref. 30849], Last el al. 2010:120 [ref. 32461], Naylor et al. 2012:28 [ref. 34345], Kottelat 2013:22 [ref. 32989], Weigmann 2016:25 [ref. 34211], Akhilesh et al. 2016:166 [ref. 34829]). Current status: Valid as Lamiopsis tephrodes (Fowler 1905). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Malaysia, Borneo, also Thailand to China; possibly more widespread in the Indo-Malay Archipelago. Habitat: brackish, marine.

terraenovae, Squalus (Carcharias) Richardson [J.] 1836:289 [Part 3; ref. 3731] Newfoundland, Canada. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Originally as terrae-novae, correction mandatory. •Valid as Scoliodon terraenovae (Richardson 1836) -- (Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639]). •Valid as Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson 1836) -- (Springer 1964:601 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:532 [ref. 6846], Robins & Ray 1986:29 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:28 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:32 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:23 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:29 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:90 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:45 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Grace 2001:15 [ref. 25694], Branstetter in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:41 [ref. 26158], Compagno 2003:496 [ref. 26984], Smith et al. 2003:5 [ref. 27621], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:62 [ref. 28072], Mendonça et al. 2010:[4] [ref. 34427], Castro 2011:496 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:26 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson 1836). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Canada south to Yucatan, Mexico; Venezuela. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thalassinus, Galeus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier 1835:?165, 511 [Leçons d'anatomie comparée 2nd ed., vol. 2 (4); ref. 31527] Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea. •Questionably a synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:30 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846], Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812]). Current status: Uncertain as Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

tiburo, Squalus Poey [F.] 1860:331 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. As Prionodon tiburo on plate (published 1861). •Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:159 [ref. 5454], Voigt & Weber 2011:60 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

tigrinus, Galeocerdo Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1839:59, [Pl. 23] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3465 (1, dry) Puducherry, ZMB 4481 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:74 [ref. 20739], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:167 [ref. 21041]. •Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822) -- (Dor 1984:7 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:503 [ref. 6846], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:19 [ref. 20764], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27705], Mundy 2005:92 [ref. 28379], Castro 2011:466 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tilstoni, Galeolamna pleurotaenia Whitley [G. P.] 1950:100, Figs. 1-2 [Western Australian Naturalist v. 2 (no. 5); ref. 12980] Van Cloon Reef, Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, Australia, at surface. Holotype: AMS IB.2421 (jaws and skin). Paratypes: (18) AMS IB.3803 (1, jaws), IB.2421 (1), IB.2552 (3). •Synonym of Carcharhinus limbatus (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:30 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:481 [ref. 6846] as tilsoni, Paxton et al. 1989:78 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Carcharhinus tilstoni (Whitley 1950) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:256 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Niem 1998:1348 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589] as tilsoni, Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:103 [ref. 29001], Voigt & Weber 2011:99 [ref. 31424], Voigt & Weber 2011:99 [ref. 31424], White 2012:3 [ref. 31843], Naylor et al. 2012:24 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013:11 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:23 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:162 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:37 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus tilstoni (Whitley 1950). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tjutjot, Carcharias (Prionodon) Bleeker [P.] 1852:36, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7382. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.177 (1). Spelling tjutjos on Pl. 1 regarded as a typesetting error, as tjutjot elsewhere. Lectotype selelected by Garrick 1982. •Synonym of Carcharhinus dussumieri (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:54 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:469 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1334 [ref. 23787], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:30 [ref. 27735] with author as Valenciennes, Last el al. 2010:97[ref. 32461], Voigt & Weber 2011:58 [ref. 31424]). •Valid as Carcharhinus tjutjot (Bleeker 1852) -- (White 2012:3, 23 [ref. 31843], Ebert et al. 2013:334 [ref. 33045], White & Weigmann 2014:85 [ref. 33352], Weigmann 2016:23 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Carcharhinus tjutjot (Bleeker 1852). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Taiwan area and Borneo and Java Indonesia; replaced by coaesi in New Guinea and Australia [ref. 31843]. Habitat: marine.

tufiensis, Galeolamna Whitley [G. P.] 1949:24 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales (for 1947-48); ref. 19150] Off Tufi Harbor, northeastern Papua New Guinea. Holotype: AMS IB.2334 (teeth). Paratypes: (4) CSIRO C 1677 (1), C 1918 (1, dissected). Species is later illustrated and described in more detail in Whitley 1951:389, Fig. 1 [ref. 4715]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Garrick 1982:106 [ref. 5454], Compagno 1984:459 [ref. 6474], Paxton et al. 1989:76 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:233 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:98 [ref. 29001], Last el al. 2010:91 [ref. 32461], Voigt & Weber 2011:45 [ref. 31424]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

ustus, Squalis (Carcharhinus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Carcharhinidae.

ustus, Squalus Duméril [A. H. A.] in Quoy & Gaimard 1824:194 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Not available, name only in the synonymy of Carcharias melanopterus Quoy & Gaimard. Carcharhinidae.

vagatus, Scoliodon Garman [S.] 1913:116 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Zanzibar, Tanzania. Holotype (unique): MCZ 401-S. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xl [ref. 23119]. •Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Springer 1964:594 [ref. 3494], Compagno 1984:525 [ref. 6846], Kottelat 2013:23 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vanrooyeni, Carcharhinus Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:12, Fig. [Veld & Vlei v. 3 (no. 9); ref. 12117] St. Lucia, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 175 (1). Described from several specimens and a figure; one specimen at SAIAB [formerly RUSI]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:106 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:478 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:73 [ref. 5638], Compagno & Niem 1998:1339 [ref. 23787], Carvalho & McEachran in Reis et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27061], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:32 [ref. 27735], Voigt & Weber 2011:72 [ref. 31424], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

velox, Carcharhinus Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2747 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Panama (Pacific). Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 11893. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291]. Author is C. H. Gilbert. Holotype figured in Gilbert & Starks 1904, Pl. 1 (figs. 3-3a) [ref. 1639]. •Valid as Nasolamia velox (Gilbert 1898) -- (Compagno 1984:515 [ref. 6846], Allen & Robertson 1994:23 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:18 [ref. 23101], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:683 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:85 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:53 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:483 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Castro 2011:478 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:95 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:25 [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Nasolamia velox (Gilbert 1898). Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

verus, Squalis (Carcharhinus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Carcharhinidae.

vulpecula, Thalassorhinus Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1839:62 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea. Appeared first as name only in Bonaparte 1838:210 [ref. 4979]. Dates to Valenciennes as above. •Synonym of or questionably in the synonymy of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:30 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:521 [ref. 6846], Nakano & Seki 2003:19 [ref. 26812]). •Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:54 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

walbeehmi, Carcharias (Scoliodon) Bleeker [P.] 1856:353 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 10; ref. 16852] Bintan Island, Riau Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1864.11.28.191 or RMNH 7368. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 7368 (1), 24039 [ex 7368] (1). •Synonym of Rhinobatos granulatus Cuvier 1829 -- (Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xx [ref. 23119]). •Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Springer 1964:594 [ref. 3494], Kottelat 2013:22 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:165 [ref. 35920]). Current status: Synonym of Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

watu, Carcharias Setna [S. B.] & Sarangdhar [P. N.] 1946:252 [Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India v. 12 (no. 5); ref. 6848] •Status uncertain -- (Garrick 1982:189 [ref. 5454]). •Questionably a synonym of Carcharhinus hemiodon (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:475 [ref. 6846]). •Synonym of Carcharhinus hemiodon (Müller & Henle 1929) -- (Voigt & Weber 2011:66 [ref. 31424], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus hemiodon (Müller & Henle 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: marine.

wheeleri, Carcharhinus Garrick [J. A. F.] 1982:111, Figs. 50-51 [NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) Circular No. 445; ref. 5454] Red Sea. Holotype: USNM 197418. Paratypes: BMNH 1925.7.20.7-8 (2); ISZZ 10687 (1); MNHN 0000-8001 (1); MSNG 34564 (1); NMW 61-431 (1), 61.441 (3), 61-446 (1), 61-448 (3), uncat. (1); SMF 4363 (dry, mounted skin) (1); USNM 197675 (1). •Synonym of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Randall 1995:29 [ref. 22896], Compagno & Niem 1998:1328 [ref. 23787] with question, Fricke 1999:21 [ref. 24106], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:26 [ref. 27735], Randall 2005:9 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:29 [ref. 30952], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:57 [ref. 35264], Moore et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31771]). •Status needs study -- (White 2012:3 [ref. 31843]). •Valid as Carcharhinus wheeleri Garrick 1982 -- (Compagno 1984:501 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:77 [ref. 5638], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Winterbottom et al. 1989:4 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Voigt & Weber 2011:101 [ref. 31424], Naylor et al. 2012:20 [ref. 34345], Fricke et al. 2018:15 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:11 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Uncertain as Carcharhinus wheeleri Garrick 1982. Carcharhinidae. Distribution: Red Sea [on 34345] and western Indian Ocean [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

zambezensis, Carcharias (Prionodon) Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1852:276 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1852; ref. 18539] Zambezi River, Mozambique. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4468. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:167 [ref. 21041]. Also in Peters 1868:7, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [ref. 3440]. •Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes or Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Garrick 1982:81 [ref. 5454], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:106 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:478 [ref. 6846], Daget 1984:2 [ref. 6170], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:58 [ref. 21589], Randall 1995:31 [ref. 22896], Compagno & Niem 1998:1339 [ref. 23787], Carvalho & McEachran in Reis et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27061], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:32 [ref. 27735], Voigt & Weber 2011:72 [ref. 31424], Castro 2011:426 [ref. 31457], Kottelat 2013:21 [ref. 32989], Compagno 2016:1307 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Synonym of Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839). Carcharhinidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.