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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Characidae: [ 1448 ] records


abramis, Tetragonopterus Jenyns [L.] 1842:123, Pl. 23 (figs. 1, 1a) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Río Paraná, up to Rosario, Argentina. No types known. •Valid as Astyanax abramis (Jenyns 1842) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Miquelarena et al. 1997:66 [ref. 23469], Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Garutti 1998:120 [ref. 23797], Sverlij et al. 1998:19 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:39 [ref. 24147], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Butí & Cancino 1999:70 [ref. 25277], Garutti & Britski 2000:86 [ref. 24769], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:244 [ref. 26608], Miquelarena et al. 2002:76 [ref. 26517], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Casciotta et al. 2003:808 [ref. 27667], Mirande et al. 2004:221 [ref. 27659], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Mirande et al. 2006:14 [ref. 28757], Mirande et al. 2006:58 [ref. 28784], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Mirande 2010:519 [ref. 31006] as cf. abramis and as abramis, Soneira et al. 2010:784 [ref. 31078] , Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745] as cf. abramis, Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Lucena & Soares 2016:116 [ref. 34169], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35267], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax abramis (Jenyns 1842). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador? and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

abramoides, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:21 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Potaro River at Tumatumari, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52863 [ex CM 1028]. Paratypes: (169, CM and IU) ANSP 39088 (1); BMNH 1911.10.31.301-302 (2)/303-307 (5)/308-310 (3); CAS 38956-61 [ex IU 11727-11732] (9, 1, 5, 10, 1, 1); FMNH 6460-61 (5, 2), 52691-94 (10, 1, 1, 1), 52702 (3), 52963 (1), 53522-23 (10, 1), 69542 (19), 69620 (25); MCZ 30176-77 (2, 4); NMW 62781 (3); CAS-SU 21937-38 (5, 2); USNM 66272-73 (2, 5); 120395 (1); ZMA 101011 (2), 101036 (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:60 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:21-22 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:14 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:42 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:5 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax abramoides Eigenmann 1909 -- (Géry et al. 1991:48 [ref. 21021], Géry et al. 1996:8 [ref. 22155], Planquette et al. 1996:246 [ref. 22818]). •Valid as Jupiaba abramoides (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Zanata 1997:120 [ref. 24112], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Lima 2005:277 [ref. 28235], Pereira & Lucinda 2007:54 [ref. 29302], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:66 [ref. 30519], Zanata & Ohara 2009:514 [ref. 30674], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba abramoides (Eigenmann 1909). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Orinoco River basin and coastal drainages of the Guianas: French Guiana, Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

abyss, Moenkhausia Oliveira [G. D.] & Marinho [M. M. F.] 2016:567, Figs. 1-3, 6a [Zootaxa 4093 (no. 4); ref. 34342] Beach at Porto de Moz, rio Xingu, Pará, Brazil, 1°76’33.3"S, 52°23’91"W. Holotype: MZUSP 117077. Paratypes: MCP, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Moenkhausia abyss Oliveira & Marinho 2016 -- (Marinho & Langeani 2016:348 [ref. 34416]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia abyss Oliveira & Marinho 2016. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon basin lowlands, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

acaciae, Hyphessobrycon García-Alzate [C. A.], Román-Valencia [C.] & Prada-Pedreros [S.] 2010:452, Figs. 5-7 [Caldasia v. 32 (no. 2); ref. 31066] Morichal del estero, Puerto López, Meta, ca. 4°04'N, 72°57'W, Colombia. Holotype: MPUJ 5683. Paratypes: many at IUQ, MPUJ. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon acaciae García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Prada-Pedreros 2010 -- (García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], García-Alzate et al. 2015:222 [ref. 33855], Zarske 2016:114 [ref. 34774] as ariacae, García-Alzate et al. 2017:125 [ref. 35253], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:87 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon acaciae García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Prada-Pedreros 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

acanthogaster, Deuterodon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:179, Pl. 8 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Corumbá, upper Paraguay basin, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54748 [ex CM 3395a]. Paratypes: (17, CM) CAS 44225 (3), FMNH 54749-50 (9, 5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:64 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:31 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Astyanax acanthogaster (Eigenmann 1911) -- (Géry et al. 1996:10 [ref. 22155]). •Valid as Deuterodon acanthogaster Eigenmann 1911 -- (Britski et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24147]). •Valid as Jupiaba acanthogaster (Eigenmann 1911) -- (Zanata 1997:122 [ref. 24112], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Lima 2005:273 [ref. 28235], Pereira & Lucinda 2007:54 [ref. 29302], Birindelli et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30143], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30519], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba acanthogaster (Eigenmann 1911). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

acatlanensis, Astyanax Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2017:1340, Fig. 11 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Río Acatlán, Puebla, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 250288. Paratypes: UMMZ. •Valid as Astyanax acatlanensis Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax acatlanensis Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Río Acatlán and Río Jía, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

acutirostris, Oligosarcus Menezes [N. A.] 1987:15, Fig. 3 [Boletim de Zoologia, Universidad de São Paulo v. 11; ref. 20060] Rio Itapemirim, Fazenda Boa Esperança, between Pacotuba and Coutinho, Espirito Santo, about 21°S, 41°W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 37525. Paratypes: MZUSP 1686 and 4772-4782 (12), 1795 and 4783 (2), 2798 and 4796-4800 and 37563-37567 (11); USNM 289217-18 (5, 3); plus more paratypes at MZUSP. Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:485 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Oligosarcus acutirostris Menezes 1987 -- (Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:151 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29321], Menezes & Ribeiro 2010:653 [ref. 30976], Ribeiro & Menezes 2015:76 [ref. 33768], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966]). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus acutirostris Menezes 1987. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Eastern coastal rivers between Espírito Santo and Bahia states, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

acutus, Acestrocephalus Menezes [N. A.] 2006:397, Fig. 13 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 28897] Caldeirão, igarapé do Cinzento, rio Itacaiúnas, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 31650. Paratypes: many at MCP, MNRJ, and MZUSP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Acestrocephalus acutus Menezes 2006. Current status: Valid as Acestrocephalus acutus Menezes 2006. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Tocantins River and Tapajós River drainages, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

adenacanthus, Phallobrycon Menezes [N. A.], Ferreira [K. M.] & Netto-Ferreira [A. L.] 2009:54, Figs.1-9 [Zootaxa No. 2167; ref. 30293] Campinápolis, rapids in rio Culuene, rio Xingú basin, 13°49'S, 53°15'W, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 98892. Paratypes: MZUSP 98905 (1), 91367 (2), 91952 (8), 92637 (2), 97031 (24), 98899 (2), 98900 (2), 98902 (7), 98903 (13), 98904 (5 + 2 c&s). •Valid as Phallobrycon adenacanthus Menezes, Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira 2009 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2016:260 [ref. 34905]). Current status: Valid as Phallobrycon adenacanthus Menezes, Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira 2009. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Tributaries of the rio Xingú, Pará and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aeneus, Tetragonopterus Hensel [R.] 1870:87 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 36 (pt. 1); ref. 18277] Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7479. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Tetragonopterus aeneus Günther 1860. •In the synonymy of Astyanax obscurus (Hensel 1870) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax obscurus (Hensel 1870). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

aeneus, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1860:319 [4] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1860 (pt 2) (art. 6); ref. 18212] Arroyo Las Flores, Oaxaca, Mexico. Lectotype: BMNH 1907.4.10.3. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.6.17.41-42 (2). On p. 4 of separate. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1324 [ref. 35414]? •Treated as a synonym of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Malabarba 1989:129 [ref. 14217]). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:74 [ref. 22947], Schmitter-Soto 1998:350 [ref. 23326], Bussing 1998:79 [ref. 24179], Smith et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:80 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:154 [ref. 28615], Protogino et al. 2006:12 [ref. 28780], Scharpf 2006:13 [ref. 30386], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2008:409 [ref. 29633], Bussing 2009:1361 [ref. 30066], Matamoros et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31241], McMahan et al. 2013:444 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:991 [ref. 33194], Schmitter-Soto 2016:129 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1352 [ref. 35414], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:290 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific coast of Middle America: Río Papagayo, Guerrero (Mexico) south to Río Choluteca (Honduras). Habitat: freshwater.

aereus, Hemigrammus Géry [J.] 1959:257, Figs. 4-5 [Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon v. 28 (no. 8); ref. 10038] Nancibo Creek, Conté basin, French Guiana. Holotype: MHNG 2181.86 [ex Géry coll. T 19-1-23]. Paratypes: USNM 179759 (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:24 [ref. 19022], Weber 1998:7 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Hemigrammus aereus Géry 1959 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:130 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus aereus Géry 1959. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Conté River basin, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Anacyrtus Günther [A.] 1868:481 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 1992] Río Huallaga, Amazon system, Peru. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.6.13.61-62 (2). Also published in Günther (Sept.) 1868:246 [ref. 5756]. •Valid as Roeboides affinis (Günther 1868) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:315 [ref. 23654], Lucena 1998:36 [ref. 23597], Lucena 2000:155 [ref. 25162], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2007:119 [ref. 29256], Koerber 2011:2 [ref. 31122], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Koerber 2014:3 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:51, 185 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:18 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Koerber et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:87 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides affinis (Günther 1868). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Widespread in South America. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Aphyocharax Ahl [E.] 1923:33 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 19930] Unknown locality. Lectotype: ZMB 31645. Paralectotypes: ZMB 32429 (1); Städt. Mus. Natur- u. Heimatkunde, Magdeburg (2). Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:91 [ref. 21847]. Two specimens were identified as type, therefore all are considered syntypes originally; lectotype selected by Zarske & Géry 1995:103 [ref. 22674]. •Synonym of Aphyocharax anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Zarske & Géry 1995:118 [ref. 22674], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:197 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:10 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:17 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Aphyocharax anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Creagrutus Steindachner [F.] 1880:79 [27] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 42; ref. 14403] Río Cauca, northern Colombia. Lectotype: NMW 67120.1. Paralectotypes: NMW 67120.2-5 (4). On p. 27 of separate. Lectotype selected by Harold & Vari 1994:25 [ref. 21969]. •Valid as Creagrutus affinis Steindachner 1880 -- (Harold & Vari 1994:23 [ref. 21969], Vari & Harold 2001:2 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:121 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Cala 1997:150 [ref. 30645], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:349 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus affinis Steindachner 1880. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Various streams of the Pacific and Caribbean slopes of Colombia and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Moenkhausia Steindachner [F.] 1915:348 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 52 (no. 27); ref. 20500] Mouth of Rio Negro, Brazil. Syntypes: (3) NMW. Species described in more detail in Steindachner 1915:584 [ref. 15070]. •Valid as Moenkhausia affinis Steindachner 1915 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:145 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:42 [ref. 28287], Carvalho et al. 2014:378 [ref. 33383]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia affinis Steindachner 1915. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lower Negro River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Pseudochalceus Steindachner [F.] 1908:29 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 45 (no. 5); ref. 4243] Rio Jaraguá at Joinville, Santa Catharina [Santa Catarina State], Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 56736-37 (6, 3). •Synonym of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Eigenmann & Norris 1900) -- (Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:134 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Malabarba 2013:776 [ref. 33026], Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Eigenmann & Norris 1900). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Pseudocheirodon Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1916:275, Pl. 18 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 15); ref. 2962] Río Gatún, Monte Liria, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 8944 (not 8941). Paratypes: CAS 59736 (2); Géry coll. [ex FMNH 12856] (1); FMNH 12857-97 (32), 12899-935 (37), 12937-957 (174); CAS-SU 17516 (10). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:26 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:70 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Cheirodon affinis (Meek & Hildebrand 1916) -- (Fink & Weitzman 1974:19 [ref. 7132], Fink & Miller 1985:1058 [ref. 22491]). •Synonym of Pseudocheirodon arnoldi (Boulenger 1909) -- (Zarske 2001:15 [ref. 25834], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:219 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocheirodon arnoldi (Boulenger 1909). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

agassizii, Chirodon Steindachner [F.] 1882:180 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Jatuarana, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 62686 (2). Original genus should have been Cheirodon. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:38 [ref. 14353]. •Valid as Aphyocharax agassizii (Steindachner 1882) -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:197 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocharax agassizii (Steindachner 1882). Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

agassizii, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1876:89 [41], Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Amazon River at Tabatinga, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) ZMUC 42 (1); NMW 57176-79 (2, 2, 3, 2). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:46 [ref. 9588]. On p. 41 of separate. •Status uncertain as Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther 1864). Current status: Uncertain as Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

agna, Bryconamericus Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] & Almirón [A. E.] 2001:276, Figs. 1-2 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 108 (no. 2); ref. 26007] Arroyo Tabay, 27°00'S, 55°10'W, Paraná basin, Municipio Libertador General San Martín, Misiones, Argentina. Holotype: FML 3700. Paratypes: ANSP 177871 (4), FML 3200 (2), MHNG 2611.46 (4). •Valid as Bryconamericus agna Azpelicueta & Almirón 2001 -- (Almirón et al. 2001:35 [ref. 26609], Miquelarena et al. 2002:70 [ref. 26517], Casciotta et al. 2002:163 [ref. 26551], López et al. 2002:61 [ref. 26808], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27366], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:582 [ref. 27482], Casciotta et al. 2004:64 [ref. 27664], da Silva 2004:55 [ref. 27870], Almirón et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27986], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Langeani et al. 2005:389 [ref. 28234], Mirande 2010:536 [ref. 31006], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mirande & Koerber 2015:21 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus agna Azpelicueta & Almirón 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

agnesae, Moenkhausia Géry [J.] 1965:14, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 1584] L'arapé Préto, along Upper Amazon, near Belem, about 60 kilometers below Leticia, Brazil. Holotype: SMF 7238. Paratypes: Géry coll. 0167 (orig. 5); SMF 7239-45 (7), 7246-54 (9); ZMA 113863 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:21 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Moenkhausia agnesae Géry 1965 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:145 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:43 [ref. 28287], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837] as agnase, Lima & Soares 2018:74 [ref. 36077], Soares et al. 2019:237 [ref. 36688]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia agnesae Géry 1965. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

aguaruna, Hemigrammus Lima [F. C. T.], Correa [V.] & Ota [R. P.] 2016:125, Figs. 1-4 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 34590] Quebrada Uchpayacu, tributary of Río Morona, Morona, Loreto, Peru, 3°02'38.9"S, 77°22'44.0"W. Holotype: MUSM 54691. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MUSM, ZUEC. Valid as Hemigrammus aguaruna Lima, Correa & Ota 2016 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus aguaruna Lima, Correa & Ota 2016. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

agulha, Hyphessobrycon Fowler [H. W.] 1913:549, Fig. 15 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Madeira River, about 200 miles east of 62°20'W, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 39232. Paratypes: ANSP 39233-83 (51), 39287 (1, c&s) 39284-86 (3, missing), 39288-89 (2, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:42 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon agulha Fowler 1913 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Zarske & Géry 1998:25 [ref. 23983], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:134 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2004:36 [ref. 28039], García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], García-Alzate et al. 2013:860 [ref. 32692], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Lima et al. 2014:177 [ref. 33535], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Ohara & Lima 2015:570 [ref. 33846], Zarske 2015:295 [ref. 34028], Marinho et al. 2016:247 [ref. 34376], Dagosta et al. 2016:258 [ref. 34377], Lima & Flausino 2016:94 [ref. 34408], Marinho et al. 2016:519 [ref. 34591], Zarske 2016:112 [ref. 34774], García-Alzate et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35253], Ohara et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35494], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon agulha Fowler 1913. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

ajuricaba, Astyanax Marinho [M. M. F.] & Lima [F. C. T.] 2009:170, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 30251] Stream tributary to rio Tiquié, Serra do Mucura village, 0°10'07"N, 69°07'46"W, Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 100231. Paratypes: (many) at ANSP, DZSJRP, INPA, MCP, MNRJ, MPEG, MZUSP, USNM. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:437 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Astyanax ajuricaba Marinho & Lima 2009 -- (Marinho et al. 2015:576 [ref. 33708]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax ajuricaba Marinho & Lima 2009. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper rio Negro basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

akamai, Tetragonopterus Araujo [L. B. S.] & Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2014:310, Figs 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 33377] Tocantins, Peixe, rio Tocantins close to confluence with rio Santa Tereza, 11°47’27"S, 48°37'02"W, Brazil Holotype: MCP 48033. Paratypes: MCP, UNT. •Valid as Tetragonopterus akamai Araujo & Lucinda 2014. •Synonym of Tetragonopterus anostomus Silva & Benine 2011 -- (Silva et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34929]). Current status: Synonym of Tetragonopterus anostomus Silva & Benine 2011. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Habitat: freshwater.

alba, Parastremma Dahl [G.] 1960:475, Fig. [Caldasia v. 8 (no. 39); ref. 9310] Río Sandó, Río Baudó system, western Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN 147. Paratypes: (2) ICNMHN 147a (1). Type catalog: Cala 1981:3 [ref. 23525], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:19 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Parastremma album Dahl 1960 -- (Cardoso in Reis et al. 2003:213 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Parastremma album Dahl 1960. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Sandó River basin in Pacific versant of Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

albeolus, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:97 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Río Machuca, Río Siguires, Costa Rica, elevation 200 meters. Holotype (unique): FMNH 6241. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Bussing 1998:81 [ref. 24179]). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Synonym of Astyanax orstedii (Lütken 1875) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1398 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax orstedii (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

albipinnis, Stevardia Gill [T. N.] 1858:425 [65] [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 6 (nos 10-13, art. 38); ref. 1750] Trinidad Island, West Indies. On p. 65 of separate. •Synonym of Corynopoma riisei Gill 1858 -- (Taphorn 1992:164 [ref. 23654], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:224 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Corynopoma riisei Gill 1858. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

albolineatum, Hyphessobrycon Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1950:17, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Novedades Cientificas, Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Serie Zoológica No. 2; ref. 1323] Río Autana, Venezuela. Holotype: AFY 48169. Paratypes: AFY 48234 (10). Holotype indicated in plate caption. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon albolineatus Fernández-Yépez 1950 (often as albolineatum) -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:134 [ref. 27061], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], García-Alzate et al. 2017:125 [ref. 35253], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35679] as albolineatum). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon albolineatus Fernández-Yépez 1950. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Autana River in ? Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and ? Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

albolineatus, Knodus Holly [M.] 1929:117 [1] [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenshaften in Wien Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 66; ref. 16088] Piquirão, Amazon River, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 83365 (2). On p. 1 of separate. •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061] without syntypes). •Mention -- (Ferreira & Lima 2006:637 [ref. 28919]). •Synonym of Moenkhausia cotinho Eigenmann 1908 -- (Zarske & Géry 2006:11 [ref. 29010]). Current status: Synonym of Moenkhausia cotinho Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

alburnus, Chirodon Günther [A.] 1869:424, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 2); ref. 5780] Amazon River, Peru. Lectotype: BMNH 1869.5.21.10. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1869.5.21.11-13 (3). Original genus should have been Cheirodon. Lectotype selected by Brito et al. 2018:396 [ref. 36071]. •Valid as Aphyocharax alburnus (Günther 1869) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:107 [ref. 23654], Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:197 [ref. 27061], Willink et al. 2003:5 [ref. 26755], López et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:76 [ref. 28131], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:43, 183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:86 [ref. 35773]). •Synonym of Aphyocharax pusillus Günther 1868 -- (Brito et al. 2018:394 [ref. 36071]). Current status: Synonym of Aphyocharax pusillus Günther 1868. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Habitat: freshwater.

alburnus, Paragoniates Steindachner [F.] 1876:117 [69], Pl. 8 (fig. 3) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Amazon River at Tefé, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 73544. On p. 69 of separate. •Valid as Paragoniates alburnus Steindachner 1876 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:289 [ref. 23654], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:153 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:527 [ref. 31006], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:86 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Paragoniates alburnus Steindachner 1876. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

alburnus, Tetragonopterus Hensel [R.] 1870:85 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 36 (pt. 1); ref. 18277] Rio Cadea, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7477. Diapoma is neuter according to Koerber et al. 2015:2 [ref. 35179]. •Valid as Astyanax alburnus (Hensel 1870) -- (Malabarba 1987:126 [ref. 11587], Malabarba 1989:128 [ref. 14217], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1053 [ref. 26511], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:244 [ref. 26608], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27401], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565]). •Valid as Cyanocharax alburnus (Hensel 1870) -- (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003:91 [ref. 27141], Mirande 2010:534 [ref. 31006], Baicere-Silva et al. 2011:381 [ref. 31395], Casciotta et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32076], Protogino & Miquelarena 2012:581 [ref. 32123], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:22 [ref. 35117], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35565]). •Valid as Diapoma alburnus (Hensel 1870) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add.5 [ref. 33893], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:2 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35632]). •Valid as Diapoma alburnum (Hensel 1870) -- (Koerber et al. 2015:2 [ref. 35179], Koerber et al. 2019:3 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Diapoma alburnum (Hensel 1870). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: South America: Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

alegretensis, Cyanocharax Malabarba [L. R.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 2003:128, Figs. 4, 7, 9, 15, 39-44 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 27141] Creek on road Santana do Livramento-Alegrete, Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 25974. Paratypes: MCP 11232 (83, 10 c&s), 11473 (34), 11498 (24), 15199 (16); MNRJ 23843 (25); MZUSP 82260 (25); USNM 357245 (25). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Cyanocharax alegretensis Malabarba & Weitzman 2003 -- (Zarucki et al. 2010:191 [ref. 34811], Casciotta et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32076], Protogino & Miquelarena 2012:581 [ref. 32123], Litz & Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33622]). •Valid as Diapoma alegretense (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add.5 [ref. 33893] as alegretensis, Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561] as alegretensis, Koerber & Litz 2016:2 [ref. 35098]). Current status: Valid as Diapoma alegretense (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

alesis, Moenkhausia Petrolli [M. G.] & Benine [R. C.] 2015:407, Figs. 5, 9d [Zootaxa 3986 (no. 4); ref. 33887] Tocantins, Conceição de Tocantins, rio Palmas at TO 050, near to Chuva de Manga locality, Brazil, 12°25’07"S, 47°11’52"W. Holotype: MZUSP 117139. Paratypes: INPA, LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Moenkhausia alesis Petrolli & Benine 2015. Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia alesis Petrolli & Benine 2015. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Araguaia and Rio Tocantins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

alfredae, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1927:394, Pl. 99 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 4); ref. 12292] Río Urubamba at Santa Ana, Peru. Holotype: MCZ 31564 or 30982. Paratypes: CAS 39500 [ex IU 13755] (8); ?MCZ 31564 (1) 30983 (10); FMNH 58440 [ex CM 7440] (5). Additional original material: CAS 39501 [ex IU 17327] (37), 39502 [ex IU 17328] (7), 39503 [ex IU 17329] (4), 39504 [ex IU 17330] (1), 39505 [ex IU 17615] (14); USNM 120246 [ex MCZ 30983] (orig. 5, now 6). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:9 [ref. 19022]. Appeared first in list in Pearson 1924:43 [ref. 3396] without description. •Valid as Bryconamericus alfredae Eigenmann 1927 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus alfredae Eigenmann 1927. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

aliata, Stevardia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1914:37 [Indiana University Studies v. 2 (no. 20); ref. 12389] Río Negro at Villavicencio, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56400 [ex CM 5215]. Paratypes: (23, CM and IU) FMNH 56671-72 (1, 11), 56683 (1); not ACS-SU 24659 (2) from Rio Meta. Type catalog: Henn 1928:68 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:27 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Corynopoma riisei Gill 1858 -- (Taphorn 1992:164 [ref. 23654], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:224 [ref. 27061], Vanegas-Ríos & Phillip 2013:1332 [ref. 34415]). Current status: Synonym of Corynopoma riisei Gill 1858. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

alleni, Prodontocharax Böhlke [J. E.] 1953:661 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 6 (no. 69) (art. 64); ref. 10330] Río Ucayali, Cashiboya, about 7°31'S, 74°55'W, Peru. Holotype: CAS-SU 17472. Paratypes: CAS-SU 17473 (15; 1 c&s), 17474 (2), 19050 (9); USNM 157366 (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:35 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Prodontocharax alleni Böhlke 1953 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Prodontocharax alleni Böhlke 1953. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Amazon and Ucayali River basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

alleni, Tetragonopterus Eigenmann [C. H.] & McAtee [W. L.] in Eigenmann, McAtee & Ward 1907:126, Pl. 40 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2) (art. 7); ref. 1261] Corumba, río Otuquis, Ascunción, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 57616 [ex IU 10158]. Paratypes: CAS 57617 [ex IU 10159] (1), 57619 [ex IU 10161] (2), 57618 [ex IU 10160] (1); FMNH 52634 [ex IU] (1); ZMB 17010-11 and 13 (2, 1, 1), 23604 (2). •Valid as Ctenobrycon alleni (Eigenmann & McAtee 1907) -- (Britski et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24147], Benine & Cassati in Reis et al. 2003:126 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Benine et al. 2010:59 [ref. 31067], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561] as cf. alleni). •Valid as Astyanax alleni (Eigenmann & McAtee 1907) -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:258 [ref. 26608], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax alleni (Eigenmann & McAtee 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

alosa, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1876:399 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 17 (no. 101) (art. 43); ref. 2007] Monterico, Peru. Syntypes: BMNH 1875.10.4.24-25 (2). •Synonym of Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

alpha, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:7 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Villavicencio, Río Orinoco system, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56646 [ex CM 5463]. Paratypes: (6) CAS 18511 [ex IU 13157] (5), FMNH 56646-47 (1, 1). Non-types: BMNH 1924.3.3.39-40 (2) Barriyona. Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Bryconamericus alpha Eigenmann 1914 -- (Román-Valencia 1999:112 [ref. 24922], Román-Valencia 2003:26 [ref. 27037], Román-Valencia 2003:7 [ref. 27070], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2002:209 [ref. 27206], Román-Valencia 2003:23, 37 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia 2005:46 [ref. 28949], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:24 [ref. 29743], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068] with wrong authorship, Román-Valencia et al. 2009:1 [ref. 30393], Zarske et al. 2010:9 [ref. 30816], Mirande 2010:536 [ref. 31006], Román-Valencia 2010:201 [ref. 31063]). •Valid as Knodus alpha (Eigenmann 1914) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Knodus alpha (Eigenmann 1914). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

altior, Astyanax fasciatus Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:176, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] Roadside pool, 3 kilometers south of Progreso, Yucatán, southeastern Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102144. Paratypes: UMMZ 102145 (3). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question). •Valid as Astyanax altior Hubbs 1936 -- (Schmitter-Soto 1998:350 [ref. 23326], Nelson et al. 2004:80 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:155 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708], Schmitter-Soto 2016:129 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1356 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax altior Hubbs 1936. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: North-western Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

altiparanae, Astyanax Garutti [V.] & Britski [H. A.] 2000:67, Fig. 1 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 13; ref. 24769] Miguelópolis, Rio Grande, represa de Volta Grande, about 20°10'S, 48°03'W, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 18592. Paratypes: MNRJ 19235 (1), MZUSP 48180 (32). Plus extensive non-type material. •Valid as Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski 2000 -- (Casatti et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25929], Prioli et al. 2002:424, 426 [ref. 26816], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2004:332 [ref. 27972], Vera Alcaraz et al. 2009:189 [ref. 30252], Pavanelli & Oliveira 2009:569 [ref. 30986], Garavello & Sampaio 2010:861 [ref. 31053], Deprá et al. 2014:6015 [ref. 35445]). •Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875) -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:104 [ref. 34169], Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

altipinna, Rhoadsia Fowler [H. W.] 1911:498, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 63; ref. 1384] Affluent of the Chimbo River near Bucay, Guayas Province, western Ecuador, elevation 300 meters. Holotype: ANSP 39106. Paratypes: ANSP 39107-08 (2), FMNH 55907 [ex CM, ex ANSP 39109] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:42 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:75 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Rhoadsia altipinna Fowler 1911 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Weitzman et al. 1986:342 [ref. 5984], Cardoso in Reis et al. 2003:214 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:500 [ref. 31006], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:155 [ref. 34894], Aguirre et al. 2016:554 [ref. 34674]). Current status: Valid as Rhoadsia altipinna Fowler 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

altipinnis, Bergia Steindachner [F.] 1891:173 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 28 (18); ref. 12571] Montevideo, Uruguay. Syntypes: (12) NMW 62745 (4), 62748 (2), 67746 (4). Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1891:366, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [ref. 4236]. •Synonym of Pseudocorynopoma doriae Perugia 1891 -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:227 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:22 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocorynopoma doriae Perugia 1891. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

altipinnis, Erythrocharax Netto-Ferreira [A. L.], Birindelli [J. L. O.], Sousa [L. M. de], Mariguela [T. C.] & Oliveira [C.] 2013:2, Figs. 1-6 [PLoS ONE v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 32491] Rio Curuá, tributary of rio Iriki, on bridge of BR-163, 8°53'54"S, 54°59'20"W, rio Xingú Basin, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 111000. Paratype: ANSP 199143 (1), LBP 10881 (1), MZUSP 110999 (7, 1 cs). •Valid as Erythrocharax altipinnis Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli, Sousa, Mariguela & Oliveira 2013. Current status: Valid as Erythrocharax altipinnis Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli, Sousa, Mariguela & Oliveira 2013. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

amandae, Hyphessobrycon Géry [J.] & Uj [A.] 1987:59, Figs. [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 35 (no. 5)(Jan.); ref. 8089] Rio das Mortes, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 37367 [ex Géry no. G.799.1]. Paratypes: MZUSP 37368 (2), MHNG uncat. (13, 3 c&s) Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:467 [ref. 23140]. •Valid, placement uncertain -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:239 [ref. 22743]). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon amandae Géry & Uj 1987 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:134 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Malabarba 2005:87 [ref. 28297], Dagosta et al. 2014:366 [ref. 33382], Bragança et al. 2015:260 [ref. 34051], Carvalho et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35509], Guimarães et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35965]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon amandae Géry & Uj 1987. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

amapaensis, Hyphessobrycon Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 1998:20, Figs. 1-3 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 50 (no. 1); ref. 23983] Etwa 45 kilometers nördlich Macapa, Kleiner Savannenbach an der B 156 von Sitio Camaipi nach Santa Clara, etwa 11 kilometers von Sitio Camaipi nach Santa Clara, etwa 11 kilometers von Sitio Camaipi, Amapa, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 52730. Paratypes: Géry coll. 1005.1-2 (2), MTD F 21447-56 (10), ZMB 32867-68 (2). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:17 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon amapaensis Zarske & Géry 1998 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:134 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2004:36 [ref. 28039], Lima et al. 2014:177 [ref. 33535], Moreira & Lima 2017:133 [ref. 35562]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon amapaensis Zarske & Géry 1998. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amapa State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

amaronensis, Hyphessobrycon García-Alzate [C. A.], Román-Valencia [C.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2010:36, Figs. 1-3 [Brenesia No. 70; ref. 30724] Putumayo, 0°11°02'S, 74°53'14"W, Caño Amaron, tributary of Río Putumayo, Puerto Leguizama municipio, Departmento Amazonia, Colombia. Holotype: IUQ. Paratypes: AUM 50026 (10); IAvHP 11239 (6); IUQ 2162 (1), 2166 (95), 2287 (4, c&s). Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:406 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon amaronensis García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2010 -- (García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], García-Alzate et al. 2013:861 [ref. 32692], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745] as amazonensis and dated 2008, García-Alzate et al. 2015:222 [ref. 33855], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon amaronensis García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonae, Bleptonema Eigenmann [C. H.] 1914:44 [Indiana University Studies No. 20; ref. 1230] Santarém, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 56679 [ex CM 5497]. Paratypes: CAS 59691 [ex IU 13255] (1), FMNH 56680 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:58 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:16 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Prionobrama filigera (Cope 1870) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:154 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Prionobrama filigera (Cope 1870). Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonum, Anacyrtus (Cynopotamus) Günther [A.] 1868:481 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 1992] Xeberos, tributary of Río Huallaga, Amazon system, Dept. Loreto, Peru. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.6.13.69-70 (2). Also published in Günther (Sept.) 1868:246 [ref. 5756]. The correct spelling of this species is amazonum, a noun that does not decline (see note under Curimatus amazonum). •Valid as Cynopotamus amazonus (Günther 1868) -- (Menezes 1976:28 [ref. 7073], Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Menezes 1987:6 [ref. 8072], Britski et al. 1999:52 [ref. 24147], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:202 [ref. 27061], Menezes 2007:60 [ref. 29297], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Cynopotamus amazonum (Günther 1868). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

amniculus, Deuterodon Lucena [Z. M. S. de] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] 1992:127, Fig. 5 [Communicações do Museu de Ciêcias da PUCRS v. 5 (nos 1-12); ref. 21970] Arroio Lindo, Pirabeiraba, Joinville, about 26°10'S, 48°57'W, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 14755. Paratypes: MCP 10623 (19); plus additional material. •Synonym of Deuterodon langei Travassos 1957 -- (Lucena & Lucena 2002:128 [ref. 26205], Lucena et al. in Reis et al. 2003:127 [ref. 27061], Lucena et al. in Reis et al. 2003:127 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Deuterodon langei Travassos 1957. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

amoenus, Creagrutus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:239, Fig. 18 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Río Orteguasa, Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 70499. Paratypes: ANSP 70500-02 (3), 70503 (1 c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:42 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Creagrutus amoenus Fowler 1943 -- (Vari & Harold 2001:58 [ref. 25842], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:121 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Cala 1997:145 [ref. 30645], Román-Valencia et al. 2010:94 [ref. 30781], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:351 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus amoenus Fowler 1943. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

amome, Oligosarcus Almirón [A. E.], Casciotta [J. R.], Piálek [L.], Doubnerová [K.] & Říčan [O.] 2015:582, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 3915 (no. 1); ref. 33673] Misiones Province: río Uruguay basin, arroyo Oveja Negra, tributary of Arroyo Yabotí-Guazú, Argentina, 27°08'15.5"S, 53°55'28.8"W. Holotype: MLP 10679. Paratypes: MACN-ict, MLP. Type catalog: Nadalin & López 2015:5 [ref. 34112]. •Placement in Oligosarcus is controversial -- (Riveiro & Menezes 2015:41 [ref. 33768]). •Valid as Oligosarcus amome Almirón, Casciotta, Piálek, Doubnerová & Říčan 2015 -- (Mirande & Koerber 2015:25 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus amome Almirón, Casciotta, Piálek, Doubnerová & Říčan 2015. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Río Uruguay basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

amphiloxus, Nematobrycon Eigenmann [C. H.] & Wilson [C.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:13 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Boca de Raspadura, Colombia. Holotype: CM 5050 (not received at FMNH). Paratypes: CAS 62116 [ex IU 13027] (33), 62117 [ex IU 13028] (1), 62118 [ex IU 13029] (13); FMNH 56537-39 (1, 4, 10); CAS-SU 24658 (4); USNM 205598 [ex IU 13027] (6), 205646 [ex FMNH 56538] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:25 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:60 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Nematobrycon palmeri Eigenmann 1911 -- (Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:150 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Nematobrycon palmeri Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

anai, Astyanax Angulo [A.], Santos [A. C.], López [M.], Langeani [F.] & McMahan [C. D.] 2018:[5], Figs. 1,3 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 92 (no. 6); ref. 35879] Stream 1.6 km south-east of Shiroles near Suretka, on Bratsi-Shiroles road, province of Limón, Costa Rica, 9°34'50"N, 82°56'44"W, elevation 60 meters. Holotype: UCR 1298-06.1. Paratypes: DZSJRP, FMNH, UCR. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Astyanax anai Angulo, Santos, López, Langeani & McMahan 2018. Current status: Valid as Astyanax anai Angulo, Santos, López, Langeani & McMahan 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Sixaola River basin, eastern Costa Rica - western Panama, Central America. Habitat: freshwater.

analis, Aphyocharax Nichols [J. T.] 1915:127, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 34 (art. 5); ref. 15003] Manaos [Manaus], Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 5073. •Synonym of Prionobrama filigera (Cope 1870) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:154 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Prionobrama filigera (Cope 1870). Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Habitat: freshwater.

analis, Hemigrammus Durbin [M. L.] 1909:64 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1166] Rockstone, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53041 [ex CM 1466]. Paratypes: (95) BMNH 1911.10.31.396-397 (2), 1917.11.2.2 (1); CAS 44360 [IU 11918] (9), 44361 [IU 11919] (5), 44362 [IU 11920] (1); FMNH 7350-51 (1, 2), 53042-44 (10, 5, 1), 69537 (26); MCZ 29972-73 (2, 1); NMW 69498 (1); CAS-SU 21913-14 (2, 1); USNM 66192 [ex CM] (2, now 1), 66193 (2); ZMA 100973 (1), 101012 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:64 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:24 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:18 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:24 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hemigrammus analis Durbin 1909 -- (Taphorn 1992:200 [ref. 23654], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Carvalho 2005:147 [ref. 28675], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633], Reia & Benine 2019:413 [ref. 36527]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus analis Durbin 1909. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

analis, Piabina Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:8 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] São Luis de Cáceres, upper Rio Paraguay, Brazil. Holotype (unique): FMNH 56661 [ex CM 5478]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:67 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:65 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Piabarchus analis (Eigenmann 1914) -- (Britski et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24147], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:153-154 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Koerber et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Piabarchus analis (Eigenmann 1914). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin; upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

anary, Creagrutus Fowler [H. W.] 1913:552, Fig. 16 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Rio Madeira, about 200 miles east of 62°20'W, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 39290 (missing). Paratypes: ANSP 39291 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:42 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Creagrutus anary Fowler 1913 -- (Géry & Renno 1989:5 [ref. 13420], Chang & Ortega 1995:2 [ref. 24302], Vari & Harold 2001:63 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:121-122 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:544 [ref. 31006], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus anary Fowler 1913. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Madeira River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

andresoi, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 2003:33, Figs. 1-2 [Memoria de la Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales v. 155 (for 2001); ref. 27036] San José stream, 1°23'57.5"N, 77°20'35.9"W, tributary of río Juanambú, upper río Patia basin, Los Llanos de Manchabajoy trail, Chacaguí-El Peñol border, Ricaurte District, Municipality of El Tambo, Department of Nariño, Colombia. Holotype: IUQ 447. Paratypes: CAS 70099-101 (192, 19, 34); FMNH 56566-67 (31, 5); IUQ 448-449 (14, 29), uncat. (20). •Valid as Bryconamericus andresoi Román-Valencia 2003 -- (Román-Valencia 2003:25 [ref. 26840] dated 2001, Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:1 [ref. 30393], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). •Valid as Hemibrycon andresoi (Román-Valencia 2003) -- (García-Melo et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35894]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon andresoi (Román-Valencia 2003). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Patia River basin, Pacific slope, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

angustifrons, Tetragonopterus Regan [C. T.] 1908:172, Pl. 26 (fig. 5) [Biologia Centrali-Americana; ref. 18482] Mexico [probably southern Gulf of Mexico versant]. Lectotype: BMNH 1857.7.31.9. Paralectotypes: BMNH 2016.9.13.1-2 (2). Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1360 [ref. 35414]? •Valid as Astyanax angustifrons (Regan 1908) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1358 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax angustifrons (Regan 1908). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Campeche and Tabasco, Mexico, to northern Petén, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

anhembi, Piabina da Silva [J. F. P.] & Kaefer [C. C.] 2003:55, Figs. 1, 2A [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 27140] Rio Paraitinga na cachoeira da Porteira, afluente do rio Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil, 23°31'37"S, 45°45'52"W. Holotype: MCP 30687. Paratypes: MCP 25270 (36, 7 c&s), MNRJ 23896 (5), MZUSP 59144 (37), USNM 372274 (5). •Valid as Piabina anhembi da Silva & Kaefer 2003 -- (Baicere-Silva et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31395], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Piabina anhembi da Silva & Kaefer 2003. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

anisitsi, Aphyocharax Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:517 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] Asuncion, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 59697 [ex IU 10028]. Paratypes: CAS 59718 [ex IU 10027] (1). Paratypes or additional material: AMNH 1007 (2), CAS 59716 [ex IU 10029] (3), 59717 [ex IU 10026] (orig. 6, now 4), 59719 [ex IU 10024] (orig. 9, now 5), 59720 [ex IU 10031] (1); FMNH 52670 (2); IU 10025 (orig. 1); NMW 62800 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:9 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Aphyocharax anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:45 [ref. 24147], Fuller et al. 1999:180 [ref. 25838], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:197 [ref. 27061], Willink et al. 2003:3 [ref. 26755], López et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:89 [ref. 28130], Menni2004:76 [ref. 28131], Mirande 2010:526 [ref. 31006], Litz & Koerber 2014:xx [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:43, 183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:17 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], Terán et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35096], Nión et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35267], Brito et al. 2018:398 [ref. 36071]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocharax anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Paraná and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

anisitsi, Hemigrammus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:16 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Villa Rica, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 11984 [ex IU 10182] (1 of 3). Paratypes: BMNH 1907.4.27.5-6 (2),1909.6.15.10 (1); CAS 11984 [ex IU 10182] (2 of 3), 44366 [ex IU 9995] (orig. 10, now 7 or less). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Malabarba 1989:134 [ref. 14217], Fernández & Butí 1996:252 [ref. 22775], Gómez & Chebez 1996:50 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:43 [ref. 24147], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:134 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:100 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Almirón et al. 2004:674 [ref. 27987], Miquelarena & López 2006:824 [ref. 29070], Almirón et al. 2006:895 [ref. 29163], Mirande 2010:515 [ref. 31006] in Astyanax clade, Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Eigenmann 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

ankoseion, Spintherobolus Weitzman [S. H.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 1999:26, Figs. 29-31 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 23668] Creek in the forest, near Barra do Sai, between Barra do Sai and Itapema, northern Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 35430. Paratypes: MCP 19253 (4); MZUSP 51024 (11), 51025 (1); USNM 297935 (3, 1 c&s), 297936 (4). •Valid as Spintherobolus ankoseion Weitzman & Malabarba 1999 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:219 [ref. 27061], Bührnheim et al. 2008:672 [ref. 29955]). Current status: Valid as Spintherobolus ankoseion Weitzman & Malabarba 1999. Characidae: Spintherobolinae. Distribution: Atlantic versant rivers, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

annae, Cheirodon McAtee [W. L.] in Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903:515 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] South America. Holotype: CAS 59758 [ex IU 4301] (43-mm spec.). Paratypes: (14) CAS 59758 (9 of 10), FMNH 52602 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:23 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Cheirodon pisciculus Girard 1855 -- (Campos 1982:136 [ref. 8500], Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Cheirodon pisciculus Girard 1855. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

anomalus, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1891:173 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 28 (18); ref. 12571] Paraná River in the vicinity of Corrientes, Argentina. Holotype (unique): NMW 57643. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1891:369, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [ref. 4236]. •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Markiana nigripinnis (Perugia 1891) -- (Carvalho & Santos 2015:146 [ref. 33957], Koerber et al. 2015:2 [ref. 35179], Koerber & Litz 2016:2 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632]). Current status: Synonym of Markiana nigripinnis (Perugia 1891). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

anomalus, Xiphorhamphus Steindachner [F.] 1880:84 [32] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 42; ref. 14403] Río Cauca, Colombia. Holotype (unique): NMW 57983. On p. 32 of separate. •Valid as Acestrocephalus anomalus (Steindachner 1880) -- (Menezes 1976:37 [ref. 7073], Lasso & Taphorn 2000:443 [ref. 25255], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:200 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Acestrocephalus anomalus (Steindachner 1880). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

anostomus, Tetragonopterus Silva [G. S. C.] & Benine [R. C.] 2011:512, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 2911; ref. 31347] Nova Crixás, rio Preto, rio Araguaia basin, 14°22'18"S, 50°39'13"W, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 108957. Paratypes: LBP 7687 (17 + 2 c&s), MZUSP 89295 (5). •Valid as Tetragonopterus anostomus Silva & Benine 2011 -- (Silva et al. 2013:1629 [ref. 32576], Araujo & Lucinda 2014:314 [ref. 33377], Melo et al. 2015:711 [ref. 35424], Silva et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34929], Urbanski et al. 2018:[6] [ref. 35973]). Current status: Valid as Tetragonopterus anostomus Silva & Benine 2011. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

anterior, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:95 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 89556 [ex MCZ 20768a]. Paralectotypes: CAS 42481 [ex MCZ 20768 and IU 15256] (1). Lectotype selected by Eigenmann 1921:247 [ref. 12359]. •Valid as Astyanax anterior Eigenmann 1908 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax anterior Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

anteroides, Astyanax (Poecilurichthys) Géry [J.] 1965:16, Pl. 1 (figs. 3-4) [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 1584] Igarapé Préto, along Upper Amazon, near Belem, about 60 kilometers below Leticia, Brazil. Holotype: SMF 7255. Paratypes: Géry coll. 0170 (1), 0170b (1); SMF 7255 -56 (1, 1). •Valid as Astyanax anteroides Géry 1965 -- (Géry et al. 1996:10 [ref. 22155], Chang & Ortega 1995:2 [ref. 24302]). •Valid as Jupiaba anteroides (Géry 1965) -- (Zanata 1997:122 [ref. 24112], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Lima 2005:277 [ref. 28235], Pereira & Lucinda 2007:54 [ref. 29302], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30519], Zanata & Ohara 2009:513 [ref. 30674], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba anteroides (Géry 1965). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

antioquiae, Hemibrycon Román-Valencia [C.], Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Taphorn [D. C.], Mancera-Rodriguez [N. J.] & García-Alzate [C. A.] 2013:1376, Fig. 5 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 61 (no. 3) (dated Sept.); ref. 32877] Antioquia, San Rafael County, below Playas Reservoir, Peñoles Creek, a tributary of the Guatapé River, Middle Magdalena River basin, 6°16'26.7"N, 75°05'22.9"W, Colombia, elevation 1201 meters. Holotype: IUQ 3189. Paratypes: Many at AUM, CSJ, IUW. •Valid as Hemibrycon antioquiae Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn, Mancera-Rodriguez & García-Alzate 2013 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633], Román-Valencia et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36348]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon antioquiae Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn, Mancera-Rodriguez & García-Alzate 2013. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Middle Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

antrobius, Anoptichthys Álvarez [J.] 1946:278, Figs. 16-23 [Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México v. 4 (nos 2-3) (1945); ref. 13037] Cavern of El Pachón, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (70) AMNH 16929 (5), ANSP 96645 (3), UMMZ 147324 (4), USNM 132517 (4). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:4 [ref. 19022], Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus [complex] (Cuvier 1819) -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:23 [ref. 26040]). •Synonym of Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:52 [ref. 28992]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

apenima, Jupiaba Zanata [A. M.] 1997:108, Fig. 7 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) No. 83; ref. 24112] Rio Peixoto de Azevedo, Cachimbo, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 48458. Paratypes: MZUSP 28583 (4), 50663 (13). •Valid as Jupiaba apenima Zanata 1997 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Lima 2005:277 [ref. 28235], Pereira & Lucinda 2007:54 [ref. 29302], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:66 [ref. 30519], Zanata & Ohara 2009:513 [ref. 30674]) Current status: Valid as Jupiaba apenima Zanata 1997. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Peixoto de Azevedo and Noedori River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aphos, Myxiops Zanata [A. M.] & Akama [A.] 2004:47, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 28007] Rio Lençóis, tributary of rio Paraguaçu, 3 kilometers upstream of Lençóis city, above Cachoeira do Serrano, 12°34'S, 41°22'W, Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 81026. Paratypes: MCP 35007 (3), MZUSP 81025 (22, 4 c&s). •Valid as Myxiops aphos Zanata & Akama 2004. Current status: Valid as Myxiops aphos Zanata & Akama 2004. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lençóis River, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

apiaka, Aphyodite Esguícero [A. L. H.] & Castro [R. M. C.] 2017:760, Figs. 2B, 5, 6 [Copeia v. 105 (no. 4); ref. 35694] Ressaca (wetlands) of Lago Jenipapo, Rio Aripuanã, Rio Madeira basin, Nova Aripuanã Municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil, 06°09'08"S, 60°13'29"W. Holotype: INPA 52541. Paratypes: INPA, LIRP. •Valid as Aphyodite apiaka Esguícero & Castro 2017. Current status: Valid as Aphyodite apiaka Esguícero & Castro 2017. Characidae: Aphyoditeinae. Distribution: Rio Aripuanã, lower Rio Madeira basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

apletostigma, Phenacogaster Lucena [Z. M. S. de] & Gama [C. de S.] 2007:152, Figs. 1-2 [Revista Brasileira de Zoologia v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 29059] Canal principal do rio Santo Antônio, sistema do rio Araqguari, município de Porto Grande, 1°06'04.38"N, 51°53'36.74"W, Amapá, Brazil. Holotype: IEPA 2488. Paratypes: IEPA 2339 (4, 1 c&s), 2340 (1), 2341 (1), 2342 (2); MCP 40087 (5). •Valid as Phenacogaster apletostigma Lucena & Gama 2007 -- (Lucena & Malabarba 2010:265, 296 [ref. 30880]). Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster apletostigma Lucena & Gama 2007. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Araguari River basin, Amapá State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

apurensis, Charax Lucena [C. A. S. de] 1987:30, Fig. 2 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRGS (Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul) No. 40; ref. 17724] Río Canito, San Fernando a Cunaviche, Estado Apure, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-15400. Paratypes: MCP 10119 (11); USNM 233691 (1), 260317 (17). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:13 [ref. 19022], Provenzano et al. 1998:5 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Charax apurensis Lucena 1987 -- (Lucena 1989:104 [ref. 12852], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:201 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Lucena 2014:197 [ref. 33369]). Current status: Valid as Charax apurensis Lucena 1987. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Tributaries of Río Orinoco, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

araguaiensis, Tetragonopterus Silva [G. S. C.], Melo [B. F.], Oliveira [C.] & Benine [R. C.] 2013:1621, Figs. 2a, 3b, 5 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 82 (no 5); ref. 32576] Rio Araguaia, Amazon basin, 14°54'27"S, 51°04'52"W, Aruanã, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 4820. Paratypes: LBP 7756 (1 c&s); MZUSP 111003 (5, 1 c&s), 17032 (5), 54523 (3); NUP 12743 (1). •Valid as Tetragonopterus araguaiensis Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2013 -- (Araujo & Lucinda 2014:314 [ref. 33377], Melo et al. 2015:711 [ref. 35424], Silva et al. 2016:30 [ref. 34929]). Current status: Valid as Tetragonopterus araguaiensis Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2013. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Distribution: Rio Araguaia, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

araguaito, Roeboides Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2003:289, Figs. 4-6 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) v. 93 (no. 3); ref. 27452] Ao norte do riacho Araguaito, about 8°40'42'N, 62°00'24"W, laguna na margem norte do rio, río Orinoco, Amacuro Delta, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV 29670. Paratypes: ANSP 131472 (8), 159986 (1), 159998 (2), 166616 -20 (1, 2, 1, 1, 1); MCP 26489-90 (1, 2); MZUSP 36490 (1); USNM 181353 (2) •Valid as Roeboides araguaito Lucena 2003 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides araguaito Lucena 2003. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

aramburui, Astyanax Protogino [L. C.], Miquelarena [A. M.] & López [H. L.] 2006:2, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 1297; ref. 28780] Villaguay Creek at Balneario, 31°55'S, 59°03'W, Gualeguay River basin, Entre Ríos Province, Argentina. Holotype: ILPLA 1712. Paratypes: ILPLA 569 (13), 1709 (4, 2 c&s), 1710 (7), 1711 (5, 1 c&s), 1713 (4); MLP 9672 (1, not 2). Type catalog: Koerber 2007:2 [ref. 29776], Miquelarena et al. 2009:29-30 [ref. 34389], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:4 [ref. 33466]. •Probably a synonym of Astyanax rutilus Jenyns 1842 -- (Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813]). •Valid as Astyanax aramburui Protogino, Miquelarena & López 2006 -- (Koerber 2011:3 [ref. 31122], Lucena et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax aramburui Protogino, Miquelarena & López 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná and Uruguay river basins, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

argentatus, Astyanax Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1854:27 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 168] Upper tributaries of Nueces River, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: BMNH 1883.12.14.107. Paralectotypes: MCZ 858 [ex USNM] (3), USNM 869 (28). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:5 [ref. 19022] dated 1855.. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1363 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax argentatus Baird & Girard 1854 -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1361 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax argentatus Baird & Girard 1854. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Northern Mexico and Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

argentea, Piabina Reinhardt [J. T.] 1867:50, Pl. 1 [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1866; ref. 3694] Lagoa Santa, upper Rio São Francisco basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMUC 253. Paralectotypes: ZMUC 254 (1) Lagoa Santa. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:45 [ref. 9588]. Lectotype selected by Vari & Harold 2001:226 [ref. 25842]. •Valid as Piabina argentea Reinhardt 1867 -- (Vari & Harold 1998:256 [ref. 23845], Vari & Harold 2001:224 [ref. 25842], Britski 2001:21 [ref. 26046], da Silva & Kaefer 2003:58 [ref. 27140], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:154 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:544 [ref. 31006], Baicere-Silva et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31395], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Koerber et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35267], Jerep & Shibatta 2017:10 [ref. 35610], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506]). Current status: Valid as Piabina argentea Reinhardt 1867. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin in northeastern Paraguay and southern Brazil; São Francisco, Itapicuru, Paríba, and Itapemirim River basins: Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

argenteum, Hydrocyon Valenciennes [A.] 1837:Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9846. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:23 [ref. 19577]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:9 [ref. 5010] as Hydrocyon argenteus. Pl. 9 was published in 1837. •Valid as Cynopotamus argenteus (Valenciennes 1837) (often seen as 1836) -- (Menezes 1976:23 [ref. 7073], Menezes 1987:6 [ref. 8072], Braga 1994:12 [ref. 27878], Gómez & Chebez 1996:48 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:14 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:52 [ref. 24147], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:202 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131], Menezes 2007:60 [ref. 29297], Mirande 2010:496 [ref. 31006], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:18 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35565] dated 1836, Koerber et al. 2017:28 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Cynopotamus argenteus (Valenciennes 1837). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Paraguay, lower Paraná and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

argenteus, Oligosarcus Günther [A.] 1864:353 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1967.1.24.1-2 (2). •Valid as Oligosarcus argenteus Günther 1864 -- (Menezes & Géry 1983:589 [ref. 8307], Menezes 1987:22 [ref. 20060], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:151 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29321], Ribeiro & Menezes 2015:77 [ref. 33768], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506]). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus argenteus Günther 1864. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Doce, Das Velhas and upper Paraná river basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

argenteus, Tetragonopterus Cuvier [G.] (ex Seba) 1816:166 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] No locality. No types known. Cuvier specimens: MNHN A-9807 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:16 [ref. 19577]. Based on Seba 1758:106, Pl. 34 (fig. 3). •Valid as Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier 1816 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:343 [ref. 23654], Miquelarena et al. 1997:67 [ref. 23469], Gómez & Chebez 1996:51 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:30 [ref. 24147], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:212 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:28 [ref. 27366], Benine et al. 2004:339 [ref. 27973], Menni 2004:78 [ref. 28131], Zarske & Géry 2006:8 [ref. 29010], Mirande 2010:503 [ref. 31006], Melo et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31233], Silva et al. 2013:1629 [ref. 32576], Araujo & Lucinda 2014:314 [ref. 33377], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:53, 185 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Melo et al. 2015:711 [ref. 35424], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], Silva et al. 2016:11 [ref. 34929], Melo et al. 2016:376 [ref. 35317], Nión et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35565] dated 1817, Koerber et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier 1816. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

argentinus, Chalcinopelecus Holmberg [E. L.] 1891:190 [Revista Argentina de Historia Natural (Buenos Aires) v. 1; ref. 2192] Río Paraguay, Formosa; Buenos Aires, Argentina. No types known. •Synonym of Pseudocorynopoma doriae Perugia 1891 -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:227 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:22 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudocorynopoma doriae Perugia 1891. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

argyrimarginatus, Astyanax Garutti [V.] 1999:586, Fig. 1 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 59 (no. 4); ref. 24920] Aragarças, Córrego Jaraguá, Araguaia River basin, Goiás, Brazil, about 15°55'S, 52°15'W. Holotype: MZUSP 48268 [? 18592]. Paratypes: MZUSP 4813 (10), 26518 (4), 48269-71 (4, 2, 2). •Valid as Astyanax argyrimarginatus Garutti 1999 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Garutti & Langeani 2009:372 [ref. 30985], Freitas et al. 2015:190 [ref. 34055]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax argyrimarginatus Garutti 1999. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

arianae, Hyphessobrycon Uj [A.] & Géry [J.] 1989:148, Figs. 2-4 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 96 (no. 1); ref. 16287] Río Güyraugua, tributary of Río Monday, 3 kilometers east of Juan Frutos, Caaguazu, Paraguay. Holotype: MHNG 2412.79. Paratypes: MHNG 2412.80-81 (34, 4 c&s). Type catalog: Weber 1998:7 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon arianae Uj & Géry 1989 -- (Almirón & Casciotta 1999:345 [ref. 24405], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:134 [ref. 27061], Almirón et al. 2004:674 [ref. 27987], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Koerber et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon arianae Uj & Géry 1989. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

ariel, Priocharax Weitzman [S. H.] & Vari [R. P.] 1987:641, Figs. 1-5 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 100 (no. 3); ref. 6055] Caño Manu, tributary of River Casiquiare, Río Negro, Amazonas, Venezuela, 2°00'N, 66°57'W. Holotype: MBUCV-V-15340. Paratypes: (1758) AMNH 57007-08 (25, 1); BMNH 1986.2.4.1-25 (25); CAS 57944 (25); FMNH 96689 (25); MBUCV-V-15341 (100); MCP; MCZ 63031 (25); MHNG; MNHN 1986-0303; MZUSP; NRM 28629 (50); NMW 81788 (25); UMMZ 213500 (35, 10 c&s); USNM 272613 thru 272619 (1249, 40 c&s). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:34 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:491 [ref. 23140], Provenzano et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Priocharax ariel Weitzman & Vari 1987 -- (Géry & Römer 1997:70 [ref. 23712], Lima & Toledo-Piza 2001:1062 [ref. 25823], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:204 [ref. 27061], Toledo-Piza et al. 2014:237 [ref. 33370]). Current status: Valid as Priocharax ariel Weitzman & Vari 1987. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Upper Negro and Orinoco River basins, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

arilepis, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.], Vanegas-Ríos [J. A.] & Ruiz-C. [R. I.] 2008:1755, Fig. 1 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 56 (no. 4); ref. 30068] Pontesuela Creek, at mouth of Coclina Creek, middle Magdalena River basin, Charalá, Santander, Colombia, 6°10'42"N, 73°09'44"W, elevation 1457 meters. Holotype: IUQ 1917. Paratypes: IUQ 920 (3), 1567 (1), 1915 (85). •Valid as Bryconamericus arilepis Román-Valencia, Vanegas-Ríos & Ruiz-C. 2008 -- (Román-Valencia et al. 2009:456 [ref. 30393], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:466 [ref. 30392], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). •Valid as Hemibrycon arilepis (Román-Valencia, Vanegas-Ríos & Ruiz-C. 2008) -- (García-Melo et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35894]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon arilepis (Román-Valencia, Vanegas-Ríos & Ruiz-C. 2008). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

armandoi, Astyanax Lozano-Vilano [M. de L.] & Contreras-Balderas [S.] 1990:97, Figs. 2 (top), 3a [Universidad y Ciencia v. 7 (no. 14); ref. 20678] Penjamo, near Palenque, Chiapas [actually Tabasco], Usumacinta basin, Mexico, 17°28'N, 91°36'W. Holotype: UANL 6380. Paratypes: AMNH 47835 (2); BMNH 1990.6.23.1-2 (2); IBUNAM-P 3240 (2); IPN uncat (2); MNHN uncat (2); TNHC 17640 (2); TU 157268 (2); UANL 6202 (29), 6378 (6, c&s), 6346 (orig. 13), 6381 (1, c&s); UMMZ 215480 (2); USNM 308113 (2). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:31 [ref. 20906], Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:2 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Astyanax armandoi Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1990 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:24 [ref. 22290], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:80 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:155 [ref. 28615]). •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Schmitter-Soto et al. 2008:409 [ref. 29633]). •Synonym of Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1384 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

armeniacus, Dectobrycon Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 2006:33, Figs. 1-7 [Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Tierkunde. v. 55; ref. 28750] Ohne nähere Angaben, Import Aquarium Glaser, Peru. Holotype: MTD F 28525. Paratypes: Géry coll. (2); MTD F 28526-27 (2), 28528 (1), 28529-30 (2). •Valid as Dectobrycon armeniacus Zarske & Géry 2006. Current status: Valid as Dectobrycon armeniacus Zarske & Géry 2006. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

armstrongi, Hemigrammus Schultz [L. P.] & Axelrod [H. R.] 1955:5, Fig. (p. 4) [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 3 (no. 3) (for Jan.-Feb. 1955); ref. 12112] Near Georgetown, Guyana. Holotype: USNM 163868. Paratypes: USNM 163869 (20). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:24 [ref. 19022]. •Synonym of Hemigrammus rodwayi Durbin 1909 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:133 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862], Zarske 2011:10 [ref. 31376]). Current status: Synonym of Hemigrammus rodwayi Durbin 1909. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

arnoldi, Chirodon Boulenger [G. A.] 1909:497 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 4 (no. 24); ref. 14367] Not: Puerto Mexico [Coatzacoalcos], Veracruz State, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico [probably Panama]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1909.10.5.1. Original genus should have been Cheirodon. •Valid as Cheirodon arnoldi Boulenger 1909 -- (Fink & Miller 1985:1058 [ref. 22491]). •Valid as Pseudocheirodon arnoldi (Boulenger 1909) -- (Zarske 2001:15 [ref. 25834], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Pseudocheirodon arnoldi (Boulenger 1909). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Atlantic and Pacific versant of Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

artedii, Tetragonopterus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:128 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] "Cabinet du Stathouder" [Suriname]. Syntypes: ?RMNH 1609 (1). •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Habitat: freshwater.

arua, Hemigrammus Lima [F. C. T.], Wosiacki [W. B.] & Ramos [C. S.] 2009:154, Figs. 1-4 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 30248] Lago São Francisco do Alto Aruã, tributary of rio Arapiuns, tributary of rio Tapajós, 2°36.4'S, 55°54'21'W, município de Juruti, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MPEG 14755. Paratypes: (many) at ANSP, INPA, MPEG, MZUS. •Valid as Hemigrammus arua Lima, Wosiacki & Ramos 2009 -- (Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus arua Lima, Wosiacki & Ramos 2009. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lower Amazon River, Pará State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aster, Serrapinnus Malabarba [L. R.] & Jerep [F. C.] 2014:58, Figs. 1, 2a-b, 3, 4a [Zootaxa 3847 (no. 1); ref. 33440] Rio Tocantins State, Município de Arraias, periodic lake at confluence of rio Paraná and rio Bezerra, rio Tocantins drainage, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 115011. Paratypes: MCP 41862 (3), 42033 (3); MZUSP 115012 (10 + 2 c&s); UFRGS 12015 (22), 12023 (54 + 2 c&s), 12034 (5). •Valid as Serrapinnus aster Malabarba & Jerep 2014 -- (Jerep et al. 2016:296 [ref. 34362]). Current status: Valid as Serrapinnus aster Malabarba & Jerep 2014. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

astictus, Tetragonopterus Ulrey [A. B.] 1894:611 [American Naturalist v. 28 (no. 331); ref. 12356] Brazil. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Species was also described as new in Ulrey 1895:276 [ref. 12371]. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Habitat: freshwater.

asuncionensis, Astyanax bimaculatus Géry [J.] 1972:3 [Studies on the Neotropical Fauna v. 7; ref. 21270] Rio Paraguay and upper Rio Tocantins. Syntypes: (179) CAS 38987-96 and 38999 [ex IU 10005-10010, 10239, 10241-43, 10293] (44), 38997 [IU 10244] (1), 38998 [ex IU 10247] (1), 39000 [ex IU 11083] (1); FMNH 54643-49 [ex CM 3280-3286] (8, 9, 5, 2, 10, 1, 2); CM 3274 and 3287 missing. Replacement name for Astyanax (Poecilurichthys) bimaculatus paraguayensis Eigenmann 1921, secondarily preoccupied in Astyanax by Bertoniolus paraguayensis Fowler 1918. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Miquelarena et al. 1997:66 [ref. 23469], Garutti & Britski 1997:225 [ref. 23650], Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Britski et al. 1999:37 [ref. 24147], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:258 [ref. 26608], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720]). •Valid as Astyanax asuncionensis Géry 1972 -- (Casciotta et al. 2003:808 [ref. 27667], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Casciotta et al. 2003:93 [ref. 28130], Mirande et al. 2004:221 [ref. 27659], Miquelarena et al. 2005:19 [ref. 28188], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Mirande et al. 2006:14 [ref. 28757], Mirande et al. 2006:58 [ref. 28784], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Garutti & Langeani 2009:375 [ref. 30985], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Mirande 2010:519 [ref. 31006], Soneira et al. 2010:784 [ref. 31078], Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117]). •Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875) -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:104 [ref. 34169], Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

asymmetricus, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:94 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 20763 (2), 20766 (1). •Valid as Astyanax asymmetricus Eigenmann 1908 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Géry et al. 1996:8 [ref. 22155]). •Valid as Jupiaba asymmetrica (Eigenmann 1908) -- (Zanata 1997:124 [ref. 24112], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Lima 2005:277 [ref. 28235], Pereira & Lucinda 2007:54 [ref. 29302], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:66 [ref. 30519], Zanata & Ohara 2009:517 [ref. 30674], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba asymmetrica (Eigenmann 1908). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

atahualpianus, Astyanax Fowler [H. W.] 1907:436, Fig. 36 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 58 (for 1906); ref. 1374] Near Pebas, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 21435. Paratypes: ANSP 21436 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Moenkhausia atahualpiana (Fowler 1907) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:145 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia atahualpiana (Fowler 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

ataktos, Hemigrammus Marinho [M. M. F.], Dagosta [F. C. P.] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2014:258, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 33372] Tocantins State, Natividade, córrego Cocal on road TO-280, rio Manoel Alves drainage, rio Tocantins basin, 11°42’50.2"S, 47°35’40.2"W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 113725. Paratypes: DZSJRP, MZUEL, MZUSP, ZUEC. Plus non-type material at CAS. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:439 [ref. 35588]. Appeared as Hyphessobrycon on p. 258, correction in Dagosta et al. 2016:257 [ref. 34377]. •Valid as Hemigrammus ataktos Marinho, Dagosta & Birindelli 2014 -- (Dagosta et al. 2016:258 [ref. 34377], Petrolli et al. 2016:168 [ref. 34395], Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716], Reia & Benine 2019:413 [ref. 36527]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus ataktos Marinho, Dagosta & Birindelli 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Middle rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

atopodus, Tyttocharax Böhlke [J. E.] 1958:323, Fig. 1 (bottom) [Copeia 1958 (no. 4); ref. 12373] Río Rondos (tributary of Río Monzón), near Tingo Maria, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 78714. Paratypes: ANSP 78715-16 (2, 1), 78717 (2, stained). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Scopaeocharax atopodus (Böhlke 1958) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Weitzman & Burns 1997:143 [ref. 24512], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:227 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Scopaeocharax atopodus (Böhlke 1958). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

atracaudata, Deuterodon Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1912:68 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 6); ref. 10934] Río Frijoles, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype (unique): FMNH 7573. Non-types: FMNH (497, 22 localities). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:31 [ref. 12367]. Specific name is an adjective and must agree in gender. •Valid as Gephyrocharax atracaudata (Meek & Hildebrand 1912) -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:224 [ref. 27061], Vanegas-Ríos & Phillip 2013:1332 [ref. 34415], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). •Valid as Gephyrocharax atracaudatus (Meek & Hildebrand 1912) -- (Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:280 [ref. 24413] as atricaudatus, Vanegas-Ríos 2016:9 [ref. 34359], Vanegas-Ríos 2017:6 [ref. 35531], Ferreira et al. 2018:170 [ref. 35911] as atracaudata). Current status: Valid as Gephyrocharax atracaudatus (Meek & Hildebrand 1912). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

atratoensis, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:28, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Río Truando, Río Atrato basin, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 1659 (missing). Paratypes: CAS 38962 [ex IU 11488] (1); USNM 1659 (1, perhaps the holotype), USNM 306566 [ex USNM 1659] (4). See discussion on types in Vari & Howe 1991:6 [ref. 19022] but they were unaware of the specimen at CAS. •Valid as Astyanax atratoensis Eigenmann 1907 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31365], Torres-Mejia et al. 2012:505 [ref. 32312], Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1340 [ref. 35414], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax atratoensis Eigenmann 1907. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Atrato River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

atratoensis, Charax Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:33, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Truando, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 1664. Paratypes: USNM 306567 [ex USNM 1664] (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:13 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Cynopotamus atratoensis (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Menezes 1976:36 [ref. 7073], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:202 [ref. 27061], Menezes 2007:60 [ref. 29297], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Cynopotamus atratoensis (Eigenmann 1907). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Atrato and Sinu River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

atratus, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:66, Figs. 24-25 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Río Caqueza, tributary To Río Negro, about 2 kilometers upstream of village of Caqueza, Río Meta basin, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN 4158. Paratypes: ANSP 134080 (5); NRM 16842-43 (19, 15); USNM 353866-67 (5, 5). Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:14 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Creagrutus atratus Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia et al. 2010:95 [ref. 30781], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus atratus Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

atrisignum, Creagrutus Myers [G. S.] 1927:116 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 3096] Upper Rio Maranhão, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 41339 [ex IU 17679]. Paratypes: CAS 41340 [ex IU 17680] (7), MCZ 31571 (1). •Valid as Creagrutus atrisignum Myers 1927 -- (Vari & Harold 2001:69 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Netto-Ferreira & Moreira 2018:255 [ref. 35759]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus atrisignum Myers 1927. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Maranhão River basin in Tocantins River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

atypindi, Jupiaba Zanata [A. M.] 1997:111, Fig. 8 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) No. 83; ref. 24112] Igarapé Jaramacaru, tributary of River Cuminá, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 17809. Paratypes: MCZ 147880 (20); MZUSP 17740 (26), 50666 (258); USNM 342069 (20); plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Jupiaba atypindi Zanata 1997 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Lima 2005:273 [ref. 28235], Pereira & Lucinda 2007:54 [ref. 29302], Birindelli et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30143], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:64 [ref. 30519]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba atypindi Zanata 1997. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Negro River and some of its tributaries: Urarocoera, Surumu, and Cuminá rivers, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aubynei, Pristella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:24 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Lama Stop-off, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52698 [ex CM 1042]. Paratypes: (274) ANSP 39092 (1); BMNH 1911.10.31.252-257 (6); CAS 62409-11 (25, 11, 6); FMNH 7439 (6), 52699-700 (2, 6, 5), 53524 (10), 71228 (103); MCZ 30028 (5); NMW 56601 (6); CAS-SU 21939 (6); USNM 66268 (6), 120427 (1); ZMA 100254 (4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:67 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:26 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:24 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:34 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Parapristella aubynei (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:153 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Parapristella aubynei (Eigenmann 1909). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastral drainages of Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

auca, Hyphessobrycon Almirón [A. E.], Casciotta [J. R.], Bechara [J. A.] & Ruíz Díaz [F. J.] 2004:674, Figs. 1-7 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 111 (no. 3); ref. 27987] Pond in San Juán Poriahú farm, Esteros del Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina, 27°41'53"S, 57°12'17"W. Holotype: MACN 8647. Paratypes: AI 129 (6, 1 c&s); MLP 10455 [ex Al 130] (5); MHNG 2644.023 (4). Type catalog: Nadalin & López 2015:5 [ref. 34112]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon auca Almirón, Casciotta, Bechara & Ruíz Díaz 2004 -- (Miquelarena & López 2006:824 [ref. 29070], Almirón et al. 2006:895 [ref. 29163], Miquelarena & López 2010:5 [ref. 30749], Koerber 2011:3 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon auca Almirón, Casciotta, Bechara & Ruíz Díaz 2004. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Esteros del Iberá wetlands, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

aurantia, Moenkhausia Bertaco [V. A.], Jerep [F. C.] & Carvalho [F. R.] 2011:30, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 2934; ref. 31403] Córrego Kavanca at fazenda Kavanca, upper rio Tocantins basin, 13°41'34"S, 46°57'45"W, Nova Roma, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: UFRGS 13619. Paratypes: INPA 34990 (8); MCP 45865 (8); MZUSP 107827 (8); UFRGS 11224 (15), 11251 (23, 5 c&s); UNT 10052 (8). •Valid as Moenkhausia aurantia Bertaco, Jerep & Carvalho 2011 -- (Pastana & Dagosta 2014:395 [ref. 33384], Dagosta & Marinho 2016:[7] [ref. 34498], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], Deprá et al. 2018:94 [ref. 36283]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia aurantia Bertaco, Jerep & Carvalho 2011. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tributaries of rio Paraná, upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aurocaudatus, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:26 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Boquia, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56882 [ex CM 5162]. Paratypes: (9, CM and IU) CAS 68647 [ex IU 12911] (5), FMNH 56883 (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:60 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Astyanax aurocaudatus Eigenmann 1913 -- (Ruiz-C. & Román-Valenca 2006:50 [ref. 28891], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713]). •Valid as Carlastyanax aurocaudatus (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:120 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:747 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Carlastyanax aurocaudatus (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

australe, Cheirodon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1928:44, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 1245] Puerto Varas, Chile. Holotype: CAS 59762 [ex IU 15509]. Paratypes: (187) CAS 59763 [ex IU 15509] (127 + 3 c&s), 69186 [ex IU 15509] (24); USNM 84317 [ex IU] (12), 221998 [ex USNM 84317] (2, c&s). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:14 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Cheirodon australe Eigenmann 1928 -- (Campos 1982:146 [ref. 8500], Pequeño 1989:40 [ref. 14125], Campos et al. 1996:69 [ref. 23440], Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Dyer 2000:84 [ref. 26678], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061] dated 1927, Mantinian et al. 2008:38 [ref. 34297]). Current status: Valid as Cheirodon australe Eigenmann 1928. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Pacific versant basins in middle Chile. Habitat: freshwater.

australe, Moenkhausia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:103 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Arroyos Trementina and Chagalalina, Argentina; Brazil. Syntypes: Questionably CAS 70818-19 (2). •Synonym of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner 1907) -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:150 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:16 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35267]). •Valid as Moenkhausia australe Eigenmann 1908 -- (Dagosta et al. 2015:424 [ref. 33998], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia australe Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

avanhandava, Odontostilbe Chuctaya [J.], Bührnheim [C. M.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2018:[8], Figs. 7-9 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 16 (no. 1) e170047; ref. 35862] Ribeirão da Batalha, farm Batalha (Pedro Quaresma), rio Paranaíba, Paracatu, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 17°25'25"S, 47°27'11"W. Holotype: LIRP 3239. Paratypes: FMNH, LIRP, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP. •Valid as Odontostilbe avanhandava Chuctaya, Bührnheim & Malabarba 2018. Current status: Valid as Odontostilbe avanhandava Chuctaya, Bührnheim & Malabarba 2018. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Upper rio Paraná basin, in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

avary, Aphyocharax Fowler [H. W.] 1913:532, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Rio Madeira, Brazil, about 200 miles east of 62°20'W, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 39217. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Aphyocharax alburnus (Günther 1869) -- (Taphorn 1992:107 [ref. 23654], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:197 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Aphyocharax avary Fowler 1913 -- (Brito et al. 2018:397 [ref. 36071]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocharax avary Fowler 1913. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Madeira River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

awa, Charax Guimarães [E. C.], Brito [P. S. de], Ferreira [B. R. A.] & Ottoni [F. P.] 2018:84, Figs. 1, 2, 5 [Zoosystematics and Evolution v. 94 (no. 1); ref. 35775] Igarapé Mineirão, Alto Alegre do Pindaré municipality, Rio Mearim basin, Maranhão State, Brazil, 3°42'26"S, 45°56'05"W. Holotype: CICCAA 00752. Paratypes: CICCAA, CPUFMA, UFRJ. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Charax awa Guimarães, Brito, Ferreira & Ottoni 2018. Current status: Valid as Charax awa Guimarães, Brito, Ferreira & Ottoni 2018. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Rio Mearim, Rio Munim and Rio Turiaçu basins, Maranhão State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

axelrodi, Aphyocharax Travassos [H.] 1959:6, Figs. 1-3 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 7 (no. 7); ref. 12035] Near Piarco airport, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype: MNRJ 9120. Paratypes: MNRJ 9121 (1), 9122-30 (9). Non-types: ?USNM 177553 (1, missing). Possible paratype was at USNM (see Vari & Howe 1991:5 [ref. 19022]). Appeared as name and figures in Axelrod 1959:3 [ref. 33314], unavailable. •Valid as Megalamphodus cf axelrodi Travassos 1959 -- (Taphorn 1992:230 [ref. 23654]). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon axelrodi (Travassos 1959) -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:234 [ref. 22743], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:134-135 [ref. 27061], Phillip et al. 2013:17 [ref. 32896]., Dagosta et al. 2014:366 [ref. 33382]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon axelrodi (Travassos 1959). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Trinidad Island, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. Habitat: freshwater.

axelrodi, Brittanichthys Géry [J.] 1965:22, Figs. 1-4 + 1 in color [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 13 (no. 6, Feb.); ref. 1585] Bulufu Beach on the Rio Itu, about 80 kilometers upstream from the meeting with Rio Negro, Brazil, about 0°30'S, 63°30'W. Holotype: USNM 198132. Paratypes: CAS 24778 [ex Sacramento State Univ.] (4), Géry coll. (orig. 4), CAS-SU 62136 (4), USNM 198133 (7), ZMA 113850 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:15 [ref. 19236], Vari & Howe 1991:9 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Brittanichthys axelrodi Géry 1965 -- (Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:424 [ref. 24417], Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:278 [ref. 24413], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Brittanichthys axelrodi Géry 1965. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

axelrodi, Cheirodon Schultz [L. P.] 1956:42, Fig. [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 12224] Stream near Tomar, Rio Negro, near Porto Velho, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 164483. Paratypes: USNM 164484 (1). Type catalog and locality information: Vari & Howe 1991:14 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Paracheirodon axelrodi (Schultz 1956) -- (Fuller et al. 1999:186 [ref. 25838], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:152-153 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:510 [ref. 31006], Marshall et al. 2012:378 [ref. 31785], Ohara et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35144], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Paracheirodon axelrodi (Schultz 1956). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco and Negro River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

axelrodi, Schultzites Géry [J.] 1964:32, Figs. 6-7 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 13 (no. 4, Jan.); ref. 1582] Río Manacacias into Upper Río Meta, at Restrepo, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 198642. Paratypes: Géry coll. M.348 (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:39 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Schultzites axelrodi Géry 1964 -- (Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:156 [ref. 27061], Reis et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34496], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Schultzites axelrodi Géry 1964. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Upper Meta River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

bacalarensis, Astyanax Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2017:1364, Figs. 9b, 22-23 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Southern end of Lake Bacalar, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 250289. Paratypes: ECOCH, UMMZ •Valid as Astyanax bacalarensis Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax bacalarensis Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Quintana Roo, Caribbean versant of Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, south to the Sittie River, Toledo district, Belize, west to Mopán, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

bagual, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] & Vigo [A. C.] 2015:266, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 33857] Rio Grande do Sul State, Dois Lageados, rio Carreiro downstream to hydroeletric plant PCH Linha Emília, rio Taquari-Antas basin, rio Jacuí drainage, laguna dos Patos system, Brazil, 28°56'30"S, 51°46'30"W. Holotype: UFRGS 19525. Paratypes: MCN, MCP, UFRGS. •Valid as Astyanax bagual Bertaco & Vigo 2015 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bagual Bertaco & Vigo 2015. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos system, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bahiensis, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1877:571 [13] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 57251-52 (2, 1). On p. 13 of separate. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698] with question). •Valid as Astyanax bahiensis (Steindachner 1877) -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:120 [ref. 34169]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bahiensis (Steindachner 1877). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

baileyi, Bramocharax Rosen [D. E.] 1972:4, Figs. 1-6 [American Museum Novitates No. 2500; ref. 17822] Río San Simon, 6 kilometers west of Chisec, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 30197. Paratypes: AMNH 29415 (2), 30198-99 (now 1, now 5); UMMZ 190495 [ex AMNH 30198] (1), 190763 [ex AMNH 30199] (3). •Valid as Bramocharax baileyi Rosen 1972 -- (Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985:15 [ref. 19552], Bussing 1998:89 [ref. 24179], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax baileyi (Rosen 1972) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2016:126 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1367 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax baileyi (Rosen 1972). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Usumacinta River basin, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

bairdii, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1882:179 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 57250 (3). Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:35 [ref. 14353]. •Synonym of Phenacogaster pectinatus (Cope 1870) -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:204 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Phenacogaster pectinatus (Cope 1870). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

balbus, Hyphessobrycon Myers [G. S.] 1927:115 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 3096] Planaltina, Lagoa Fervedeira, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 51789 [ex IU 17678a]. Paratypes: ANSP 134780 (1, c&s), CAS 60463 [ex IU 17678] (13), CAS-SU 18069 (10, now 9), MCZ 31570 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:24 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon balbus Myers 1927 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Malabarba 2005:86 [ref. 28297], Bertaco et al. 2007:248 [ref. 29277], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Carvalho et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33371], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], Burger et al. 2019:377 [ref. 36718]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon balbus Myers 1927. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

barberi, Mimagoniates Regan [C. T.] 1907:402 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 52); ref. 3631] Arroyo Yâcá [Yhaca, Yuca], 25°39'S, 56°53'W, Estación Caballero, Paraguay. Lectotype: MNHH 1907.10.22.5. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1907.10.22.6-8 (3), 1907.22.6.9 (1); USNM 179827 [ex BMNH 1907.10.22.7-8] (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:30 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Mimagoniates barberi Regan 1907 -- (Menezes & Weitzman 1990:385 [ref. 16172], Weitzman et al. 1996:191 [ref. 24771], Britski et al. 1999:49 [ref. 24147], Menezes et al. 2008:38 [ref. 31161], Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:279 [ref. 24413], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:226 [ref. 27061], Menezes et al. 2008:38 [ref. 31161], Menezes & Weitzman 2009:330 [ref. 30495] in Glandulocaudinae, Mantinian & Miquelarena 2010:416 [ref. 30959], Koerber 2011:2 [ref. 31122], Azpelicueta & Koerber 2012:784 [ref. 32131], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mirande & Koerber 2015:22 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Mimagoniates barberi Regan 1907. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Left bank tributaries of río Paraguay and tributaries of rio Paraná, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

barbouri, Moenkhausia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:103 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Villa Bella, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 20708 (2). •Valid as Moenkhausia barbouri Eigenmann 1908 -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302], Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:145-146 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:42 [ref. 28287], Carvalho et al. 2014:378 [ref. 33383]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia barbouri Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

barrigai, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:71, Fig. 27 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Río Aguarico, near San Pablo de Kantesiya, 0°15'18"S, 76°25'30"W, Sucumbios, Ecuador. Holotype: MEPN 4621. Paratypes: MEPN uncat. (10), 5252 (7); USNM 340976 (8, 2 c&s), 340977-78 (4, 3). •Valid as Creagrutus barrigai Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus barrigai Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Western Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

barrigonae, Hemigrammus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] 1914:232 [Indiana University Studies v. 2 (no. 24); ref. 11067] Barrigona, upper Río Meta drainage, Orinoco system, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 44368 [ex IU 13423]. Paratypes: (65) AMNH 5320 (4), CAS 44369 [ex IU 13424] (orig. 61). •Valid as Hemigrammus barrigonae Eigenmann & Henn 1914 -- (Taphorn 1992:203, 269 [ref. 23654], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Zarske et al. 2006:24 [ref. 28749], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862], Ota et al. 2014:278 [ref. 33373], Zarske 2015:8 [ref. 33782], Petrolli et al. 2016:168 [ref. 34395], Soares & Bührnheim 2016:398 [ref. 34972], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:86 [ref. 35773], Reia & Benine 2019:413 [ref. 36527], Ota et al. 2019:345 [ref. 36619]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus barrigonae Eigenmann & Henn 1914. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

bartlettii, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1866:30 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 18 (no. 103) (art. 7); ref. 18187] Upper Amazon River. Syntypes: BMNH 1866.2.15.17-18 (2). •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

baudoensis, Bryconamericus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:231, Figs. 3-4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1452] Río Baudó, Chocó Province, Colombia, elevation 1200 feet. Holotype: ANSP 71425. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Bryconamericus emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907) -- (Román-Valencia 2002:178 [ref. 26370], Román-Valencia 2003:28 [ref. 26840]). •Synonym of Eretmobrycon emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907). Current status: Synonym of Eretmobrycon emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bayano, Eretmobrycon Fink [W. L.] 1976:334, Figs. 1-4 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 88 (no. 30); ref. 1330] Pool in small stream about 19 kilometers along road from El Llano to Carti, Río Bayano basin, Panama. Holotype: USNM 213842. Paratypes: ANSP 130186 (2); BMNH 1975.2.3.1-2 (2); CAS 31895 (2); MCZ 52132 [ex USNM 213843] (2); MZUSP 14049-51 [ex USNM 213843] (3); UMMZ [ex USNM 213843] (3, not found); USNM 213843 (orig. 22, now 14); ZMA 113490 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:17 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621], Vari & Howe 1991:21 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:466 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Bryconamericus bayano (Fink 1976) -- (Román-Valencia 2000:462 [ref. 25256], Román-Valencia 2002:178 [ref. 26370], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Vanegas-Rios 2009:393 [ref. 30843], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:1 [ref. 30393]). •Valid as Eretmobrycon bayano Fink 1976 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Eretmobrycon bayano Fink 1976. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Bayano River basin, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

belizianus, Tetragonopterus Bocourt [F.] 1868:62 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 9; ref. 16971] Mullins River, Belize. Lectotype: MNHN 2016-320. Paralectotypes: BMNH uncat. [ex MNHN] (1), MNHN 0000-5224 and 5225 (12). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:21 [ref. 19577]. Description very brief. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1371 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Valid as Astyanax belizianus (Bocourt 1868) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1368 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax belizianus (Bocourt 1868). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Mullins River, central Belize, south to tributaries of Lake Izabal, Guatemala and northern Honduras. Habitat: freshwater.

bellasomniosa, Moenkhausia Soares [I. M.], Lima [F. C. T.], Bastos [D. A.] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2019:232, Figs. 1, 2, 4A [Copeia v. 107 (no. 2); ref. 36688] Small tributary of Rio Curicuriari (a tributary of the Rio Negro), São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brazil, 0°14'39"S, 67°03'31"W. Holotype: INPA 49753. Paratypes: ANSP, FMNH, INPA, MZUSP, ZUEC. •Valid as Moenkhausia bellasomniosa Soares, Lima, Bastos & Rapp Py-Daniel 2019. Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia bellasomniosa Soares, Lima, Bastos & Rapp Py-Daniel 2019. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Rio Negro basin, Amazonas State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bellottii, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1882:179 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 57253-55 (13, 9, 9). Species originally spelled belottii [regarded as in error], later spelled as bellottii when described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:34, Pl. 5 [ref. 14353]. •Valid as Hemigrammus bellottii (Steindachner 1882) -- (Planquette et al. 1996:274 [ref. 22818], Keith et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24547], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus bellottii (Steindachner 1882). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

beni, Creagrutus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:172, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Río Beni at Villa Bella, Amazon system, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): FMNH 54585 [ex CM 3216] (poor condition). Type catalog: Henn 1928:63 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:28 [ref. 12367]. No longer known from Argentina -- Koerber 2012:10 [ref. 32229]. •Valid as Creagrutus beni Eigenmann 1911 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Géry & Renno 1989:5 [ref. 13420], Taphorn 1992:167 [ref. 23654] as cf beni, Harold et al. 1994:979 [ref. 22027], Vari & Harold 2001:75 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Román-Valencia & Cala 1997:149 [ref. 30645], Koerber 2011:9 [ref. 31122], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus beni Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Madeira River basin in northeastern Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

beni, Hemibrycon Pearson [N. E.] 1924:42, Pl. 2 (fig. 6) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Espia, Bolivia. Syntypes: (48) CAS 44333 [ex IU 17321] (29), 44334 [ex IU 17321] (now 60); UMMZ 66504 (16); USNM 117543 [ex UMMZ 66504 and IU 17321] (2). Additional material: CAS 44335 [ex IU 17347] (6). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:23 [ref. 19022]. Apparently not treated by Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061]. •Valid as Hemibrycon beni Pearson 1924 -- (Bertaco & Malabarba 2010:739 [ref. 31076], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:117 [ref. 33572], García-Alzate et al. 2015:90 [ref. 33838], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Román-Valencia et al. 2018:40 [ref. 36348]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon beni Pearson 1924. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Río Beni drainage, upper río Madeira basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

beni, Phenacogaster Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:174, Pl. 6 (fig. 4) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Río Beni at Villa Bella, Bolivia. Holotype: FMNH 54597 [ex CM 3229]. Paratypes: (3, CM) CAS 62200 (1), FMNH 54598 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:67 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:64 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Phenacogaster beni Eigenmann 1911 -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:204 [ref. 27061], Lucena & Gama 2007:152 [ref. 29059], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster beni Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Guaporé and Beni river basins: Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

beni, Piabina Pearson [N. E.] 1924:45, Pl. 10 (fig. 5) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Río Popoi, Upper Beni, Amazon system, Bolivia. Lectotype: CAS 62272 [ex IU 17317]. Paralectotypes: (10) CAS 87389 [ex CAS 62272] (6); UMML 66495 (3). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Creagrutus beni Eigenmann 1911, replaced by Creagrutus pearsoni Mahnert & Géry 1988. Lectotype selected by Vari & Harold 2001:180 [ref. 25842]. •Objective synonym of Creagrutus pearsoni Mahnert & Géry 1988 -- (Vari & Harold 1998:256 [ref. 23845], Vari & Harold 2001:178 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:125 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Creagrutus pearsoni Mahnert & Géry 1988. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

beninei, Moenkhausia Lima [F. C. T.] & Soares [I. M.] 2018:70, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4461 (no. 1); ref. 36077] Igarapé at km 20 of the road between São Gabriel da Cachoeira and Cucuí, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brazil, 0°2'59"S, 66°57'48"W. Holotype: ZUEC 16838. Paratypes: ANSP, FMNH, INPA, MZUSP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Moenkhausia beninei Lima & Soares 2018 -- (Soares et al. 2019:237 [ref. 36688]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia beninei Lima & Soares 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bentosi, Hyphessobrycon Durbin [M. L.] in Eigenmann 1908:101 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Amazon River at Obidos, Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: (21) CAS 42682 [ex IU 12654 & MCZ 20995] (3), MCZ 20842 (15), USNM 120270 [ex MCZ 20842a] (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:26 [ref. 19022]. Author is M. L. Durbin. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon bentosi Durbin 1908 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:239 [ref. 23654], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:226 [ref. 22743], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:145 [ref. 24509], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:150 [ref. 24506], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], Hein 2009:9 [ref. 30362], García-Alzate et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30716], García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Zarske 2014:143 [ref. 33403], García-Alzate et al. 2015:222 [ref. 33855], Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716], García-Alzate et al. 2017:125 [ref. 35253], Ohara et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35494], Pastana et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35596], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35633], Guimarães et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35965]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon bentosi Durbin 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

bergii, Gymnocharacinus Steindachner [F.] 1903:20 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 40 (no. 3) (for 22 Jan. 1903); ref. 19244] Southern Argentina. Syntypes: NMW 69429 (1), uncat (1, skeleton). Illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1903:18, Pl. 1 (figs. 2-2a) [ref. 4240]. •Valid as Gymnocharacinus bergii Steindachner 1903 -- (Miquelarena & Arámburu 1983:491 [ref. 27442] as bergi, Menni & Gómez 1995:15 [ref. 27441] as bergi, López et al. 2002:61 [ref. 26808], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:128 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27366] as bergi, Koerber & Ortubay 2004:5 [ref. 28031], Menni 2004:76 [ref. 28131] as bergi, Miquelarena et al. 2005:511 [ref. 28249] as bergi, López et al. 2008:1 [ref. 29582], Mirande 2010:522 [ref. 31006], Mirande & Koerber 2015:20 [ref. 35117], Reis et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34496]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocharacinus bergii Steindachner 1903. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Valcheta Creek, Somuncurá Plateau, Negro River drainage, southern Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

beta, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:7 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Villavicencio, Orinoco River system, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56648 [ex CM 5465]. Paratypes: (9) CAS 39492 [ex IU 13158] (4), FMNH 56649 (4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Bryconamericus beta Eigenmann 1914 -- (Taphorn 1992:137 [ref. 23654], Galvis et al. 1997:43 [ref. 23651], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento 2016:537 [ref. 34727]). •Synonym of Bryconamericus alpha Eigenmann 1914 -- (Román-Valencia 2003:37 [ref. 26840]). •Synonym of Knodus alpha (Eigenmann 1914). Current status: Synonym of Knodus alpha (Eigenmann 1914). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bicornis, Roeboides Cope [E. D.] 1870:564, Fig. [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pebas, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8151. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Roeboides bicornis Cope 1870 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Roeboides affinis (Günther 1868) -- (Lucena 1998:36 [ref. 23597], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2007:119 [ref. 29256], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:18 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Roeboides affinis (Günther 1868). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bifasciatus, Astyanax Garavello [J. C.] & Sampaio [F. A. A.] 2010:856, Fig. 6 [Brazilian Journal of Biology v. 70 (no. 3); ref. 31053] Rio Iguaçu, marginal pools at Avenida das Torres, at side of Reserva do Cambuí, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 105961. Paratypes: many at LISDEBE, MHNCI, MZUSP. •Valid as Astyanax bifasciatus Garavello & Sampaio 2010 -- (Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bifasciatus Garavello & Sampaio 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Rio Iguaçu basin, Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

bifasciatus, Hyphessobrycon Ellis [M. D.] 1911:156, Pls. 2 (fig. 4), 3 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1, art. 2); ref. 1269] Rio Parahyba at Campos, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54404 [ex CM 3026]. Paratypes and non-types: (201) CAS 51790 [ex IU 13276] (5), CAS 51791 [ex IU 13284] (5), FMNH 15041-45 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 54302 (42), 54374 (22), 54405-10 (35, 2, 1, 2, 79, 13), 96014 (1, allotype). Type catalog: Henn 1928:65 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:48 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus Ellis 1911 -- (Malabarba 1989:134 [ref. 14217], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena & López 2010:5 [ref. 30749], Mirande 2010:514 [ref. 31006], Zanata & Camelier 2010:776 [ref. 31077], Zarske 2011:10 [ref. 31376], Ingenito et al. 2013:42 [ref. 32568], Teixeira et al. 2014:613 [ref. 33097], Carvalho et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33371], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Bragança et al. 2015:260 [ref. 34051], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35565], Zanata et al. 2018:[11] [ref. 35863], Guimarães et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35965]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus Ellis 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal river drainages from Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul States and upper Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

bilineata, Hasemania Ellis [M. D.] 1911:150, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1, art. 2); ref. 1269] Alto da Serra, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54383 [ex CM 2937 or 3004]. Paratypes: CAS 44313 [ex IU 13285] (2), FMNH 54300 (6). Type catalog: Henn 1928:64 [ref. 12305] with type as 3001, Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Coptobrycon bilineatus (Ellis 1911) -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:121 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Serra 2010:728 [ref. 31075], Serra & Langeani 2015:[1] [ref. 33944], Reis et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34496]). Current status: Valid as Coptobrycon bilineatus (Ellis 1911). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper rio Tietê and rio Itatinga, São Paulo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bimaculatus, Salmo Linnaeus [C.] 1758:311 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] South America [Suriname drainages]. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.34 (1), ?NRM 7236 (2). Type catalog and putative lectotype: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:215 [ref. 20707]. Type information: Wheeler 1989:210, Fig. 2A [ref. 21873]. •Mention -- (Malabarba 1989:128 [ref. 14217], Prioli et al. 2002:422 [ref. 26816]). •Valid as Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Géry et al. 1991:46 [ref. 21021], Taphorn 1992:110 [ref. 23654], Planquette et al. 1996:248 [ref. 22818], Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Garutti & Britski 1997:225 [ref. 23650], Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Sverlij et al. 1998:20 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:37 [ref. 24147], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Butí & Cancino 1999:70 [ref. 25277], Garutti & Britski 2000:85 [ref. 24769], Marín 2000:67 [ref. 26252], Lasso et al. 2001:95 [ref. 25928], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639] as cf. bimaculatus, González-Carcacía & López-Rojas 2002:1 [ref. 28363], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27366], Garutti 2003:6 [ref. 27817], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Garutti & Langeani 2009:371 [ref. 30985], Lucena et al. 2013:540 [ref. 32914], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698] not Argentina, Bertaco & Vigo 2015:269 [ref. 33857], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321] as aff. bimaculatus, Lucena & Soares 2016:121 [ref. 34169], Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966] as aff. bimaculatus, Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145] as aff. bimaculatus, Schmitter-Soto 2017:1340 [ref. 35414], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633], Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684] as aff. bimaculatus, Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Panama to the Amazon basin: Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

binghami, Ceratobranchia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1927:357, Pl. 96 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 4); ref. 12292] Río Urubamba at Santa Ana, Depto. Guzco, Peru. Holotype: MCZ 31561. Paratypes: CAS 40849 [ex IU 13758] (6), 40850 (79) + 40851 (119) [ex IU 16049]; FMNH 58063-64 (2, 3); MCZ 30990-92 (2, 11, 1); MNHN 1980-1429 (1); ZMA 113834 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:15 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:21 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Ceratobranchia binghami Eigenmann 1927 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Chernoff & Machado-Allison 1990:280 [ref. 19495], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:120 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Ceratobranchia binghami Eigenmann 1927. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

biotae, Astyanax Castro [R. M. C.] & Vari [R. P.] 2004:331, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 117 (no. 3); ref. 27972] Upper rio Paraná system, Rio Paranapanema basin, Município de Diamante do Norte, Fazenda Água Mole, 22°38'31.7"S, 52°48'59.0"W, Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: LIRP 4009. Paratypes: LIRP 2734 (15), 4021 (2 c&s), 4276 (34); MZUSP 79807 (10); USNM 373492 (15). •Valid as Astyanax biotae Castro & Vari 2004 -- (Protogino et al. 2006:11 [ref. 28780], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax biotae Castro & Vari 2004. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River system, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bipunctatus, Cynopotamus Pellegrin [J.] 1909:13 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 14396] Mouth of Río Suripa, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1898-0021. •Valid as Cynopotamus bipunctatus Pellegrin 1909 -- (Menezes 1976:31 [ref. 7073], Menezes 1987:7 [ref. 8072], Taphorn 1992:179 [ref. 23654], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:202 [ref. 27061], Menezes 2007:60 [ref. 29297], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Cynopotamus bipunctatus Pellegrin 1909. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

bipunctialbicaudalis, Astyanax Godoy [M. P. de] 1977:666, Figs. 6-8 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 24840] Cachoeira de Emas, Rio Mogi Guassu, Pirassununga, Estado de São Paulo, elevation about 500 meters. Holotype (unique): EEBP 718. •Synonym of Moenkhausia intermedia Eigenmann 1908 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Moenkhausia intermedia Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

biserialis, Cynopotamus Garman [S.] 1890:14 [Bulletin of the Essex Institute v. 22 (nos 1-3); ref. 17896] Lago do Maximo; Obydos; and Villa Bella, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 21327 (9), 21335 (39), 21360 (24); USNM 120180 [ex MCZ 21335] (6). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:19 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Eucynopotamus biserialis (Garman 1890) -- (Lucena 1988:39 [ref. 22126], Chang & Ortega 1995:2 [ref. 24302]). •Valid as Roeboides biserialis (Garman 1890) -- (Lucena 2000:155 [ref. 25162], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2007:125 [ref. 29256], Sarmiento et al. 2014:51, 185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides biserialis (Garman 1890). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Middle Amazon River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

bleheri, Hemigrammus Géry [J.] & Mahnert [V.] 1986:41, Fig. [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 34 (no. 11); ref. 8088] Middle Rio Negro basin, Brazil (probably near Rio Jufaris). Holotype: MZUSP 37369. Paratypes: MHNG 2179.87 (1), 2179.91 (1), 2179.90 and 2239.51 (5), 2239.52 (1). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:467 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Hemigrammus bleheri Géry & Mahnert 1986 -- (Taphorn 1992:224 [ref. 23654], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862], Mirande 2010:508 [ref. 31006], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus bleheri Géry & Mahnert 1986. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Negro and Meta River basins: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

bockmanni, Astyanax Vari [R. P.] & Castro [R. M. C.] 2007:151, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2007 (no. 1); ref. 29039] Rio Paranaíba basin, Município de Catalão, Córrego Fundo, just above bridge along dirt road, right hand tributary of Rio São Marcos, 18°07'29"S, 47°43'27"W, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: LIRP 5638. Paratypes: LIRP 3401 (4), 4020 (2, c&s); MNRJ 28723 (10); MZUSP 88367 (3); USNM 373495 (10). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Astyanax bockmanni Vari & Castro 2007 -- (Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bockmanni Vari & Castro 2007. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

boehlkei, Acestrocephalus Menezes [N. A.] 1977:186, Fig. 1 [Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 7070] Río Punino, tributary of Río Payamino (Río Napo system), above Coca, Ecuador. Holotype: MCZ 51473. Paratypes: ANSP 134500-01 (5, 2); MCZ 51473-75 (1, 2, 1); MZUSP 12993-94 (2), 12995 (1), 12996-98 (3); USNM 216140-41 (1, 1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:4 [ref. 19022], Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621], Oyakawa 1996:446 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Acestrocephalus boehlkei Menezes 1977 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:96 [ref. 23654] as cf. boehlkei, Lasso & Taphorn 2000:443 [ref. 25255], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:200 [ref. 27061], Menezes 2006:390 [ref. 28897], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Acestrocephalus boehlkei Menezes 1977. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

boehlkei, Creagrutus Géry [J.] 1972:63, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Acta Humboldtiana (Series Geologica, Palaeontologica et Biologica Nr. 2) No. 2; ref. 1595] Amazon River basin, eastern Ecuador (no specific locality). Holotype: ZSM 28428a. Paratypes: (19) MTD 27515 (1) ZMH H 1757 (2), H 1758 (10, now 8), H 1868 (1); ZSM 28428b (2), 28428c (2, missing). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:156 [ref. 22013], Zarske 2003:16 [ref. 27474], Neumann 2011:244 [ref. 31652]. •Synonym of Creagrutus amoenus Fowler 1943 -- (Vari & Harold 2001:58 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:121 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Creagrutus amoenus Fowler 1943. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

boehlkei, Thayeria Weitzman [S. H.] 1957:391, Fig. 1 [Aquarium Journal v. 28 (no. 11); ref. 11960] No definitive locality [aquarium specimen]. Holotype: CAS-SU 49907. Paratypes: CAS-SU 49908 (5), 49909 (1, c&s). •Valid as Thayeria boehlkei Weitzman 1957 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Lima & Moreira in Reis et al. 2003:157 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:508 [ref. 31006], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Moreira & Lima 2017:146 [ref. 35664], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Thayeria boehlkei Weitzman 1957. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

boehlkei, Tyttocharax Géry [J.] 1965:195, Pls. 18-19 (figs. 20-21) [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 1586] Igarapé Préto, along Upper Amazon, near Belem, about 60 kilometers below Leticia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): SMF 7208. •Synonym of Tyttocharax cochui (Ladiges 1949) -- (Weitzman & Burns 1997:144 [ref. 24512], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:228 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Tyttocharax cochui (Ladiges 1949). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

boesemani, Hemigrammus micropterus Géry [J.] 1959:251, Fig. 2 [Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon v. 28 (no. 8); ref. 10038] Creek near Sinnamary, northern French Guiana. Holotype: MHNG 2181.80. Paratypes: (4) ANSP 94717 (1), USNM 179758 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621], Vari & Howe 1991:24 [ref. 19022], Weber 1998:7 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Hemigrammus boesemani Géry 1959 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708]; Géry et al. 1991:59 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:275 bis [ref. 22818], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Zarske et al. 2006:23 [ref. 28749], Marinho et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29547], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701], Ota et al. 2019:345 [ref. 36619]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus boesemani Géry 1959. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

bogotensis, Ctenocharax Regan [C. T.] 1907:403 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 52); ref. 3631] Bogota, Colombia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1868.3.4.1. •Synonym of Grundulus bogotensis (Humboldt 1821) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:128 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Grundulus bogotensis (Humboldt 1821). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

bogotensis, Poecilia Humboldt [F. H. A. von] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:154, 159, Pl. 45 (fig. 1) [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Plains of Bogota, Colombia. Neotype: ZMB 33306. Possible syntypes: ZMB 3505 (6), 31499 (2). Neotype [perhaps it should have been a lectotype] selected by Román-Valencia et al. 2003:61, 68 [ref. 27035]. Authorship also seen as Humboldt & Valenciennes. •Valid as Grundulus bogotensis (Humboldt 1821) -- (Malabarba 1998:228 [ref. 23844], Nico 2001:143 [ref. 25828], Román-Valencia et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27035], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:128 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia et al. 2005:543 [ref. 28433], Román-Valencia et al. 2010:107 [ref. 30946], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Grundulus bogotensis (Humboldt 1821). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

bohlkei, Pseudochalceus Orcés V. [G.] 1967:139 [Politécnica [N.S.] v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 28472] Río Palabí, Santiago basin, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Holotype: Author's coll. 5612. Paratypes: (6 + 21 + 6 + 10). •Valid as Pseudochalceus bohlkei Orcés V. 1967 -- (Zarske & Géry 2006:37 [ref. 28750] as boehlkei, Bertaco & Malabarba 2013:777 [ref. 33026], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:149 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Pseudochalceus bohlkei Orcés V. 1967. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

bolivari, Creagrutus Schultz [L. P.] 1944:334, Fig. 49 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Guárico and tributaries between San Sebastián and San Casimiro, State of Aragua, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121497. Paratypes: USNM 121498 (orig. 90, now 82), UMMZ 145040 [ex USNM 121498] (3), MCZ [ex USNM 121498] (5). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:15 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Creagrutus bolivari Schultz 1944 -- (Taphorn 1992:170 [ref. 23654], Vari & Harold 2001:63 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento 2016:529 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus bolivari Schultz 1944. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

bolivianum, Aphyocharacidium Géry [J.] 1973:101, Figs. 12-14 [Studies on the Neotropical Fauna v. 8; ref. 1596] Brook between upper Río Chaparé and Río Chimoré, tributary of Río Mamoré, east of Todos Santos, Bolivia, about 16°47'S, 65°00'W. Holotype: ZFMK [Museum A. Koenig] uncat. Paratypes: ZSM 40738 [ex MHNG 2232.073] (1), 407389 [ex MHNG 2173.030](1). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31087], Neumann 2011:243 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Aphyocharacidium bolivianum Géry 1973 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:530 [ref. 31006], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocharacidium bolivianum Géry 1973. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Mamoré River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

bolivianus, Acestrorhamphus Fowler [H. W.] 1940:53, Figs. 7-8 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Río Lipeo, tributary of Bermejo River, Argentina. Holotype: ANSP 68814. Paratypes: ANSP 68815-31 (17), 79790 (7). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. Type locality changed from Bolivia to Argentina -- Mirande & Koerber 2015 [ref. 33698]. •Valid as Oligosarcus bolivianus (Fowler 1940) -- (Menezes & Géry 1983:589 [ref. 8307], Menezes 1987:26 [ref. 20060], Braga 1994:20 [ref. 27878], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:151 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:28 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131], Ribeiro et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29321], Mirande 2010:497 [ref. 31006], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Almirón et al. 2015:589 [ref. 33673], Ribeiro & Menezes 2015:77 [ref. 33768], Mirande & Koerber 2015:25 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus bolivianus (Fowler 1940). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lipeo River in Paraguay River basin, Argentina and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

bolivianus, Bryconamericus Pearson [N. E.] 1924:43, Pl. 10 (fig. 4) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Río Colorado, Lower Bopi, Bolivia. Syntypes: (9) CAS 39506 [ex IU 17349] (1), CAS 39507 [ex IU 17349] (4), ?UMMZ 66513 (3). Additional original material: CAS 39508 [ex IU 17350] (2) & CAS 39509 [ex IU 17351] (now 5). •Valid as Bryconamericus bolivianus Pearson 1924 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32807], Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015:435 [ref. 33665], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus bolivianus Pearson 1924. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Beni River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

boliviensis, Astyanax Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Román-Valencia [C.], Taphorn [D. C.], Buckup [P. A.] & Ortega [H.] 2018:10, Fig. 5 [European Journal of Taxonomy No. 402; ref. 35787] Madeira-Beni-Madidi-Candelaria River drainages, Candelaria River at La Candelaria, Amazon River basin, Iturralde Province, Bolivia, 13°35'21.88"S, 68°41'31.06"W, elevation 304 meters. Holotype: CBF 13504. Paratypes: CBF, UMSS. •Valid as Astyanax boliviensis Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Current status: Valid as Astyanax boliviensis Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Madeira River drainage, Amazon River basin, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

bonariensis, Anacyrtus (Rhaeboides) Steindachner [F.] 1879:29, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): NMW 62498. Species originally described as above, later as Anacyrtus (Raeboides) bonariensis when illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:23, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [ref. 4228]. Subgenus should have been Roeboides in 1879:23. •Valid as Roeboides bonariensis (Steindachner 1879) -- (Lucena 1988:32 [ref. 22126], Fernández & Butí 1996:252 [ref. 22775], Lucena 1998:36 [ref. 23597], Gómez & Chebez 1996:46 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:53 [ref. 24147], Lucena 2000:155 [ref. 25162], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:17 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:85 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131], Nión et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35565]). •Synonym of Roeboides microlepis (Reinhardt 1851) -- (Lucena 2003:295 [ref. 27452], Koerber 2014:3 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:18 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Roeboides microlepis (Reinhardt 1851). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bondi, Phenacogaster Fowler [H. W.] 1911:419, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 63; ref. 1383] Corisal, Venezuela. Holotype: ANSP 37863. Paratypes: ANSP 37864 (1), 37865 (1, missing); CM [ex ASNP 37866] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Gymnocorymbus bondi (Fowler 1911) -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:128 [ref. 27061], Benine et al. 2015:10 [ref. 33792], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocorymbus bondi (Fowler 1911). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

bondi, Xenagoniates Myers [G. S.] 1942:90, Fig. 1 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 3121] Río Amana, 6 kilometers east of Santa Barbara, Monagas state, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS-SU 36486. Paratypes: CAS-SU 36487 (3, now 2), USNM 130641 [ex CAS-SU 36487] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:27 [ref. 12291], Vari & Howe 1991:41 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Xenagoniates bondi Myers 1942 -- (Taphorn 1992:355 [ref. 23654], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:527 [ref. 31006], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:87 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Xenagoniates bondi Myers 1942. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin and coastal drainages of Venezuela: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

bonita, Moenkhausia Benine [R. C.], Castro [R. M. C.] & Sabino [J.] 2004:68, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2004 (no. 1); ref. 27502] Rio Baía Bonita, 21°09'S, 56°25'W, Parque Baía Bonita, "Aguáio Natural", upper Rio Miranda, Rio Parguay basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, southwestern Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 79805. Paratypes: LIRP 4273 (5), 4274 (3), 4277 (2, c&s); MCP 30686 (3); MZUSP 79806 (4); ZUEC 5972 (3). •Valid as Moenkhausia bonita Benine, Castro & Sabino 2004 -- (Pastana & Dagosta 2014:395 [ref. 33384], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], Koerber et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia bonita Benine, Castro & Sabino 2004. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: La Plata and Madeira River basins, Argentina and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

boops, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:105 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Maldonado on Río de la Plata, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): MCZ 20700. •Deformed specimen. •Synonym of Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger 1887) -- (Malabarba & Kindel 1995:684 [ref. 21922], Braga 1998:26 [ref. 24111], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:117 [ref. 27061], da Silva 2004:55 [ref. 27870], Litz & Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:21 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger 1887). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bopiensis, Astyanax Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Román-Valencia [C.], Taphorn [D. C.], Buckup [P. A.] & Ortega [H.] 2018:16, Fig. 7 [European Journal of Taxonomy No. 402; ref. 35787] Lower Bopi, Colorado River, Bolivia. Lectotype: CAS 38955. Paratypes: CAS 236977. Replacement name for Astyanacinus multidens Pearson 1924, secondarily preoccupied in Astyanax. Catalog number for lectotype designation was miscited as CAS 39955. •Valid as Astyanax bopiensis Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Current status: Valid as Astyanax bopiensis Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Madeira River drainages, upper Amazon River basin, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

boquiae, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:20 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Boquia [= Boquilla?], at western base of Mount Tolima, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56259 [ex CM 5059]. Paratypes: (21, CM and IU) CAS 44332 [ex IU 12831] (10), FMNH 56260 (10). Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367]. Name originally published as "Bryconamericus or Hemibrycon boquiae spec. nov.?" Also see Hemibrycon boquillae Eigenmann 1922, which is an unjustified emendation. •Valid as Hemibrycon boquiae (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Román-Valencia 2000:462 [ref. 25256], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. & Román-Valenca 2006:60 [ref. 28891], Román-Valencia et al. 2006:210 [ref. 28983], Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007:129 [ref. 29189], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2008:73 [ref. 29744], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009:78 [ref. 30718], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:29 [ref. 30722], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2010:340 [ref. 30721], Román-Valencia et al. 2010:103 [ref. 30945], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:1365 [ref. 32877], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:117 [ref. 33572], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon boquiae (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

boquillae, Hemibrycon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:152, 153 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Boquia [= Boquilla?], at western base of Mount Tolima, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56259 [ex CM 5059]. Paratypes: (21, CM and IU) CAS 44332 [ex IU 12831] (10), FMNH 56260 (10). Unjustified emendation and objective synonym of Bryconamericus boquiae Eigenmann 1913. Original name based on locality given as Boquia but later referred to as Boquilla by Eigenmann 1922:153, corresponding with the change in spelling of the specific name boquillae. Eigenmann 1922:153 included both spellings of the name, making it clearly an intentional change. •Synonym of Hemibrycon boquiae (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hemibrycon boquiae (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

borealis, Astyanax bimaculatus var. Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:96 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Magdalena and Cauca, Colombia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown, probably lost. Based on Tetragonopterus maculatus specimens identified by Steindachner 1878:42 and 1880:21. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920]). •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Species inquirenda -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:120 [ref. 34169]). Current status: Uncertain as Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

borealis, Hyphessobrycon Zarske [A.], Le Bail [P.-Y.] & Géry [J.] 2006:25, Figs. 7-10 [Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Tierkunde. v. 55; ref. 28749] Crique St. Anne, Mana, French Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 2006-0787. Paratypes: Géry coll. (7) and (4); IRSNB 837-866 (30), 20947 (6); MNHN 2006-0788 (30), 2006-0789 (3); MTD F 28805-28814 (10), 28843-28852 (10). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon borealis Zarske, Le Bail & Géry 2006. Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon borealis Zarske, Le Bail & Géry 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

borki, Knodus Zarske [A.] 2008:160, Figs. 1-3 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 58 (no. 2); ref. 29918] Near Iquitos, Peru [imported specimens]. Holotype: MTD F 31357. Paratypes: MHNG 2709/085 (1); MTD F 31358-62 (5); NMW 95153 (1); ZFMK 41480 (1); ZMB 33872 (1). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Knodus borki Zarske 2008 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Knodus borki Zarske 2008. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Surroundings of Iquitos, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

bouchellei, Roeboides Fowler [H. W.] 1923:25 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 75; ref. 15402] Pis Pis River, Great Falls, Nicaragua. Holotype: ANSP 51218. Paratypes: ANSP 51219 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Roeboides bouchellei Fowler 1923 -- (Lucena 1998:39 [ref. 23597], Bussing 1998:116 [ref. 24179], Lucena 2000:34 [ref. 24559], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:81 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:158 [ref. 28615], Matamoros et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31241], Lucena 2011:1663 [ref. 31620], McMahan et al. 2013:444 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708], Matamoros et al. 2013:280 [ref. 32755], Angulo et al. 2013:992 [ref. 33194], González-Murcia et al. 2019:290 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides bouchellei Fowler 1923. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Mexico and Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

boulengeri, Hemigrammus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:15 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS 44379 [ex IU 11073]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon boulengeri (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Malabarba 1989:134 [ref. 14217], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Malabarba 2005:86 [ref. 28297], Bertaco et al. 2007:248 [ref. 29277], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35565] dated 1918 without parentheses). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon boulengeri (Eigenmann 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal river drainages of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

bounites, Attonitus Vari [R. P.] & Ortega [H.] 2000:123, Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 24436] Río Candamo, 13°24'S, 70°01'W, Zona Reservada Tambopata Candamo, Province Carabaya, Depto de Puno, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 11840. Paratypes: MUSM 4002 (1), 6728 (1), 6758 (1), 10344 (7), 10365 (3), 10758 (2), 11219 (2), 11688 (6), 12755 (10), 12935 (3); USNM 349701 (10, 1 c&s), 349703 (1), 349705 (1), 349709 (2), 349711-12 (2, 5), 349715 (4). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Attonitus bounites Vari & Ortega 2000 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745] as cf. bounites, Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Attonitus bounites Vari & Ortega 2000. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

bourgeti, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:95 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 89557 [ex MCZ 20768b]. •Valid as Astyanax bourgeti Eigenmann 1908 -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bourgeti Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Brazil and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

brachycephalus, Xiphorhamphus Cope [E. D.] 1894:84, Pl. 4 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ANSP 21728. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21917 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratype. Lectotype established by Fowler 1907:460 [ref. 1374]. •Synonym of Oligosarcus jenynsii (Günther 1864) -- (Menezes 1987:24 [ref. 20060], Malabarba 1989:137 [ref. 14217], Braga 1994:22 [ref. 27878], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:151 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:25 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Oligosarcus jenynsii (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

brachypterygium, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2001:228, Figs. 9-10 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 25645] Bom Jesus, arroio Agua Branca, 28°36'S, 50°24'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, elevation 1050 meters. Holotype: MCP 26094. Paratypes: MCP 8627 (1, c&s), 11661 (5), 14367 (24), 14391 (26, 5 c&s), 22296 (10); MZUSP 62713 (20); NMW 94544 (20); UFRGS 4950 (20); USNM 364303 (20). •Valid as Astyanax brachypterygium Bertaco & Malabarba 2001 -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], de Melo & Buckup 2006:50 [ref. 28622], Bertaco & Lucena 2010:19 [ref. 30750], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Lucena et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587] as brachypterygyrium). Current status: Valid as Astyanax brachypterygium Bertaco & Malabarba 2001. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Uruguay and Jacuí River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

branickii, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1879:151 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 15) (for 19 June 1879); ref. 20478] Zurumilla, Ecuador-Peru border. Syntypes: (several) NMW 57258 (2). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:169 [p. 21 in separate], Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 18782]. •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Habitat: freshwater.

bransfordii, Bramocharax Gill [T. N.] in Gill & Bransford 1877:190 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 29; ref. 1714] Lake Nicaragua, Nicaragua. Lectotype: USNM 16885. Paralectotypes: USNM 437594 (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:9 [ref. 19022]. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1373 [ref. 35414]? •Valid as Bramocharax bransfordii Gill 1877 -- (Villa 1982:102 [ref. 36708], Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985:15 [ref. 19552] as bransfordi, Bussing 1987:72 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:88 [ref. 24179], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:497 [ref. 31006], Angulo et al. 2013:991 [ref. 33194]). •Valid as Astyanax bransfordii (Gill 1877) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2016:129 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1371 [ref. 35414], Angulo et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35879]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bransfordii (Gill 1877). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lake Nicaragua and tributaries, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

breviceps, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:105 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Tocantins, Goiás, Brazil. Syntypes: (many) MCZ 20692 (2), USNM 120274 [ex MCZ 20692] (4). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:10 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Bryconamericus breviceps Eigenmann 1908 -- (Román-Valencia 2002:209 [ref. 27206], Román-Valencia 2003:7 [ref. 27070], Román-Valencia 2005:47 [ref. 28949]). •Valid as Knodus breviceps (Eigenmann 1908) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:143 [ref. 27061], Ferreira & Lima 2006:635 [ref. 28919], Mirande 2010:536 [ref. 31006], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Esguícero & Castro 2014:47 [ref. 33506], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Knodus breviceps (Eigenmann 1908). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

brevimanus, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1864:325 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Río San Gerónimo, Baja Verapaz, Guatemala. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.26.388. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1864.1.24.177 (3), BMNH 2016.9.13.3-4 (2). Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1376 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax brevimanus (Günther 1864) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1373 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax brevimanus (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Highlands of Chiapas, south and east to Quiché and Baja Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

brevioris, Oligosarcus Menezes [N. A.] 1987:10, Fig. 2 [Boletim de Zoologia, Universidad de São Paulo v. 11; ref. 20060] Arroio Cachoeirinha, bacia do Rio Pelotas, Munic. Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, about 28°40'S, 50°40'W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 37508. Paratypes: MCP 6486 (17), 10968 (5); MZUSP 36489 (19), 36492-93 (4, 2); USNM 278960 (17), 278965 (2). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:486 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Oligosarcus brevioris Menezes 1987 -- (Braga 1994:19 [ref. 27878], Gómez & Chebez 1996:48 [ref. 23791], Miquelarena et al. 2002:76 [ref. 26517], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:151 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131], Ribeiro et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29321], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Almirón et al. 2015:589 [ref. 33673], Ribeiro & Menezes 2015:77 [ref. 33768], Mirande & Koerber 2015:25 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus brevioris Menezes 1987. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Uruguay River basin: Argentina and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevipinnis, Creagrutus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:10 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Piedra de Moler, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56095 [ex CM 4887a]. Paratypes: (105, CM and IU) CAS 41341-42 [ex IU 12728-29] (12, 5), 41375 [ex IU 12730] (8); FMNH 56096-98 (10, 5, 10), 75172 (34); USNM 79188 (4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:63 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:28 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:15 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Creagrutus brevipinnis Eigenmann 1913 -- (Harold & Vari 1994:18 [ref. 21969], Vari & Harold 2001:2 [ref. 25842], Román-Valencia 1998:783 [ref. 27073], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Cala 1997:148 [ref. 30645], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:348 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus brevipinnis Eigenmann 1913. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

brevirhinus, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:96 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Jequitinhonha, along the Jequitinhonha Valley, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 20905. •Valid as Astyanax brevirhinus Eigenmann 1908 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Triques et al. 2003:149 [ref. 27248], Zanata & Camelier 2009:175 [ref. 30252], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax brevirhinus Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Jequitinhonha River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevirostris, Chalceus Günther [A.] 1860:420 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1859 (pt 3) (art. 7); ref. 18210] Western Andes of Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.6.16.166 (1), 1860.6.16.196 (1). •Valid as Bryconamericus brevirostris (Günther 1860) -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:1 [ref. 30393], Román-Valencia et al. 2011:844 [ref. 31565], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32807], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:108 [ref. 33608], Román-Valencia et al. 2015:244 [ref. 34022], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:129 [ref. 34894]). ▐ Valid as Eretmobrycon brevirostris (Günther 1860) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Eretmobrycon brevirostris (Günther 1860). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

brevis, Hemigrammus Ellis [M. D.] 1911:161, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1, art. 2); ref. 1269] Lagôas of Rio Grande at Barreiras, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54444 [ex CM 3068]. Paratypes: (38) ?CAS 44380 [ex IU 13290 & CM 3071] (8), FMNH 54434 (28), 54445-46 (7, 2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:64 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hemigrammus brevis Ellis 1911 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Marinho et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29547], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus brevis Ellis 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevispina, Poptella Reis [R. E.] 1989:37, Fig. 22 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 2 (no. 6); ref. 14219] Igarapé Apeu, Boa Vista, Castanhal, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 38562. Paratypes: ANSP (1); BMNH 1911.10.31.416 (1), 1973.10.15.28-29 (2), 1974.5.22.458-460 (3); CAS 66873-74 (5, 3); FMNH 7475 (1), 53469 (5), 53716 (4), 82627 (3); MCP 13526 (3); MCZ 46050 (6); MZUSP 19362 (10), 19368 (1), 19527 (3), 19544 (15, not 13), 19675 (11, not 10), 20339 (2), 20568 (10); CAS-SU 21859 (1), 21867 (1); UMMZ 215339-42 (1, 1, 3, 3); USNM; ZMA. Plus additional paratypes at MCP, MCZ, MZUSP. Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:490-491 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Poptella brevispina Reis 1989 -- (Géry et al. 1991:60 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:236 [ref. 22818], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:210 [ref. 27061], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35633], Garcia-Ayala et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35695]). Current status: Valid as Poptella brevispina Reis 1989. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River, Oiapoque River and Xingu River basins: Colombia, Brazil, Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

brevispini, Hemibrycon Román-Valencia [C.] & Arcila-Mesa [D. K.] 2009:80, Figs. 1-3 [Animal Biodiversity and Conservation vol. 32 (no. 2); ref. 30718] Alto Cauca, Rio Quindio, La Vernada Creek, afluent of Santo Domingo River, 200 meters on road to Quegrada Negra locality, 4°26'47"N, 75°41'02"W, Quindio, Colombia, elevation 1278-1304 meters. Holotype: IUQ 2008. Paratypes: IUQ 542 (40), 883 (6), 1453 (5). •Valid as Hemibrycon brevispini Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009 -- (Román-Valencia et al. 2009:29 [ref. 30722], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2010:340 [ref. 30721], Román-Valencia et al. 2010:103 [ref. 30945] as brevispinni, Román-Valencia et al. 2013:1365 [ref. 32877], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:117 [ref. 33572], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633]). •Probable synonym of Hemibrycon boquiae (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:19 [ref. 33893], García-Melo et al. 2018:[3] [ref. 35894]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon brevispini Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Cauca River system, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

brevoortii, Poecilurichthys Gill [T. N.] 1858:417 [57] [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 6 (nos 10-13, art. 38); ref. 1750] Trinidad Island, West Indies. Syntypes: USNM 1113 (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:34 [ref. 19022]. On p. 57 of separate. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698] with question). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

britskii, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:83, Fig. 31 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Ribeirão Macambira, about 14°20'S, 46°45'W, near bridge on highway GO 112, Iaciara, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 40537. Paratypes: MNRJ 13048 (6); MZUSP 46546 (18), 50540 (12); USNM 292214 (3), 292226 (13), 340952 (4, 2 c&s). •Valid as Creagrutus britskii Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Netto-Ferreira & Moreira 2018:255 [ref. 35759]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus britskii Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

britskii, Moenkhausia Azevedo-Santos [V. M.] & Benine [R. C.] 2016:204, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5 [Zoosystematics and Evolution v. 92 (no. 2); ref. 34837] Rio Içá, approximately 60 km above its mouth, Santo Antônio do Içá Municipality, Amazonas, Brazil, 3°0'7.68"S, 69°2'49.52"W. Holotype: MZUSP 120691. Paratypes: MZUSP. •Valid as Moenkhausia britskii Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016. Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia britskii Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Içá River, Amazon basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

britskii, Planaltina Menezes [N. A.], Weitzman [S. H.] & Burns [J. R.] 2003:579, Figs. 30-36 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 116 (no. 3); ref. 27327] Município de São José do Rio Preto, córrego da Barra Funda, tributary of rio Preto and tributary of rio Turvo, tributary of rio Grande, about 20°37'S. 49°23'W, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 62757. Paratypes: DZSJRP 656 (7), 668 (7), 670 (3), 674 (5); LIRP 2255 (1); MZUSP 26911 (10), 27138 (2), 62758-64 (5, 4, 10, 6, 3, 4, 2); USNM 367195 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:442 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Planaltina britskii Menezes, Weitzman & Burns 2003 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Deprá et al. 2018:17 [ref. 35939]). Current status: Valid as Planaltina britskii Menezes, Weitzman & Burns 2003. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Grande, São José dos Dourados and Tietê river basins, as well as from other, smaller tributaries of the rio Paraná in the State of São Paulo and from the upper rio Paraná floodplain, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

broccae, Spintherobolus Myers [G. S.] 1925:143, Pl. 10 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 16 (no. 1) (art. 4); ref. 12388] Hills behind Río de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 58863 [ex CM 7979a]. Paratypes: BMNH 1925.10.19.1 (1), FMNH 58864 (1), MNHN 1932-0200 [ex SU] (1), CAS-SU 24073 (1, missing in 1995), USNM 92959 (orig. 3, now 2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:59 [ref. 12305], Bertin 1948:23 [ref. 19577], Böhlke 1953:26 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:80 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:40 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Spintherobolus broccae Myers 1925 -- (Sarraf 1997:27 [ref. 22928], Weitzman & Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Malabarba 1999:30 [ref. 23668], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:220 [ref. 27061], Bührnheim et al. 2008:672 [ref. 29955], Jerep & Malabarba 2014:307 [ref. 33376]). Current status: Valid as Spintherobolus broccae Myers 1925. Characidae: Spintherobolinae. Distribution: Lowlands near Rio de Janeiro and Santos, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

browni, Moenkhausia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:13 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Atuataima Falls, Potaro River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52732 [ex CM]. Paratypes: (119, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.239-140 (2)/.241-242 (2)/.243 (1); CAS 61560 [ex IU 11712] (5), 61629 [ex IU 11713] (3), 61792 [ex IU 11714] (10), 62040 [ex IU 11715] (1); FMNH 7488-90 (2, 1, 2), 52677-81 (3, 10, 1, 2, 1), 52684 (1), 53517 (5), 69585 (6), 71293 (18), 52733 (1); MCZ 30012 (2), 30014 (1); NMW 56188-89 (1, 1); CAS-SU 21830 (1), 21924-25 (2, 2); USNM 66238 (2); ZMA 110639 (1), 110649 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:66 [ref. 12305] as CM 1004, Böhlke 1953:25 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:22 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:57 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:30 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Moenkhausia browni Eigenmann 1909 -- (Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:146 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:43 [ref. 28287], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia browni Eigenmann 1909. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and ? Orinoco river basins: Guyana and ? Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

brucutu, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.], Lima [F. C. T.], Di Dario [F.] & Gerhard [P.] 2017:493, Figs. 1-8 [Zootaxa 4232 (no. 4); ref. 35145] Iraquara, Fazenda Pratinha, rio Pratinha, tributary of rio Santo Antônio, rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia State, Brazil, 12°21'13"S, 41°32'51"W. Holotype: ZUEC 12765. Paratypes: ANSP, MNRJ, MZUSP, NPM, UFBA, ZUEC. •Valid as Astyanax brucutu Zanata, Lima, Di Dario & Gerhard 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax brucutu Zanata, Lima, Di Dario & Gerhard 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Paraguaçu basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brumado, Hyphessobrycon Zanata [A. M.] & Camelier [P.] 2010:772, Figs. 1-4 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 4); ref. 31077] Rio Brumado, at Ponte do Coronel, rio de Contas drainage, 13°29'37.0"S, 41°52'0.6"W, Rio de Contas Municipality, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 101246. Paratypes: MZUSP 105730 (5); UFBA 4340 (13, 1 c&s), 4341 (22, 2 c&s). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon brumado Zanata & Camelier 2010 -- (Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Dagosta et al. 2014:366 [ref. 33382], Marinho et al. 2016:519 [ref. 34591]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon brumado Zanata & Camelier 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Brumado, tributary of the rio Contas, a coastal drainage in eastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bucayensis, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.], Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Taphorn [D. C.] & García-Alzate [C. A.] 2013:130, Figs. 1-2 [Animal Biodiversity and Conservation v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 32807] Guayas, Rio Bucay 3 km upstream from bridge on Naranjal-Machala road, 79°42'31'' W, 2°39'45''S, Ecuador, elevation 80 meters. Holotype: MEPN 11125. Paratypes: IUQ, MEPN. •Valid as Bryconamericus bucayensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., D. C. Taphorn & García-Alzate 2013 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, Román-Valencia et al. 2015:244 [ref. 34022], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:131 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus bucayensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn & García-Alzate 2013. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Guayas, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

burgerai, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.] & Camelier [P.] 2009:180, Figs. 6-7 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 30252] Córrego Água Boa on road between Floresta Azul and Almadina, tributary of riacho Pancadinha, itself a tributary of rio Almada, 14°44'42"S, 39°38'40"W, Almadina, Bahia State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 101245. Paratypes: UFBA 4346 (15, 1 c&s). •Valid as Astyanax burgerai Zanata & Camelier 2009 -- (Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax burgerai Zanata & Camelier 2009. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Almada, coastal drainage, southern Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

burnsi, Lepidocharax Ferreira [K. M.], Menezes [N. A.] & Quagio-Grassiotto [I.] 2011:286, Figs. 7-9 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 31387] Rio Paraopeba, São Francisco basin, ca. 20°09'S, 44°10"W, Brumadinho, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 45718. Paratypes: many at CPUFMT, LIRP, MCP, MZUSP. Plus non-type specimens. The specimen depicted by Ferreira et al. 2011:286 fig. 7 [ref. 31387] is not the holotype, as the caption claims, but the paratype MCP 31798. See Deprá et al. 2018:19 [ref. 35939] fig. 8a for the holotype. •Valid as Lepidocharax burnsi Ferreira, Menezes & Quagio-Grassiotto 2011 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Deprá et al. 2018:18 [ref. 35939]). Current status: Valid as Lepidocharax burnsi Ferreira, Menezes & Quagio-Grassiotto 2011. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Tributaries of upper rio São Francisco and rio Doce basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bussingi, Roeboides Matamoros [W. A.], Chakrabarty [P.], Angulo [A.], Garita-Alvarado [C. A.] & McMahan [C. D.] 2013:281, Figs. 2, 3a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 32755] Puntarenas Province, Río Coloradito, about 6 km from the main Road, tributary of the Río Coto drainage, 8°34'12'N, 82°51'33"W. Costa Rica. Holotype: LSUMZ 14799. Paratypes: Many at UCR, LSUMZ. Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:383 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Roeboides bussingi Matamoros, Chakrabarty, Angulo, Garita-Alvarado, McMahan 2013 -- (Angulo et al. 2013:992 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides bussingi Matamoros, Chakrabarty, Angulo, Garita-Alvarado & McMahan 2013. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Costa Rica and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

caballeroi, Bramocharax (Catemaco) Contreras-Balderas [S.] & Rivera-Teillery [R.] 1985:10 [Publicaciones Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Autónoma Nueva Leon v. 2 (no. 1): 7-29. v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 19552] Northwestern shore of Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: UANL 5681. Paratypes: AMNH 55679 [ex UANL 2462] (4); BMNH (3); ENCB-P-3966 (3); IBUNAM-P (3); TU (3), UANL 2368 (22), 2459 (1), 2462 (146, now 142), 2864 (3), 2949 (39); UMML 200245 (4); USNM 325997 (2). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:2 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Bramocharax caballeroi Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:25 [ref. 22290], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:80 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2006:14 [ref. 30386], Miller 2006:156 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Astyanax caballeroi (Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1376 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax caballeroi (Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Catemaco Lake basin, Veracruz, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

cachimbensis, Hyphessobrycon Travassos [H.] 1964:542, Fig. 5 [Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciéncias v. 36 (no. 4); ref. 3712] Rio Cachimbo, Cachimbo, Aeroporto da FAB, 9°22'S, 54°05'W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 9196. Paratypes: MNRJ 9197-98 (1, 1). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon cachimbensis Travassos 1964 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2004:36 [ref. 28039], Zarske & Géry 2006:47 [ref. 28750], Marinho et al. 2014:263 [ref. 33372], Lima et al. 2014:177 [ref. 33535] as aff. cachimbensis, Dagosta et al. 2016:258 [ref. 34377], Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716], Ohara et al. 2017:248 [ref. 35067]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon cachimbensis Travassos 1964. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Cachimbo River, Tapajós River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cacique, Creagrutus Flausino [N.] & Lima [F. C. T.] 2019:2, Figs. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 166 (no. 1); ref. 36726] Holotype. Paratypes: •Valid as Creagrutus cacique Flausino & Lima 2019. Current status: Valid as Creagrutus cacique Flausino & Lima 2019. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Xingu basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

caerulea, Glandulocauda Menezes [N. A.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 2009:317 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 30495] Rio Iguaçu, ca. 25°43'S, 49°44'W, Serrinha, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54895 [ex CM 3557]. Paratypes: (5, CM) CAS 60470 (2), USNM 177725 [ex FMNH 54896] (1), FMNH 54896 (3, now 2). Replacement name for Glandulocauda melanopleura Eigenmann 1911, secondarily preoccupied in Glandulocauda by Hyphessobrycon melanopleurus Ellis 1911. See Menezes & Weitzman 2009:323 [ref. 30495] for remarks on the type locality. •Valid as Glandulocauda caerulea Menezes & Weitzman 2009 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Glandulocauda caerulea Menezes & Weitzman 2009. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Iguaçu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cairoense, Hemibrycon Román-Valencia [C.] & Arcila-Mesa [D. K.] 2009:84, Figs. 5-6 [Animal Biodiversity and Conservation vol. 32 (no. 2); ref. 30718] Quinchia, El Cairo locality, upper Cauca River system, Ramirez Creek, afluent of Italica Creek, Quinchia road to El Cairo, 200 meters from bridge, 5°21'43"N, 75°43'43"W, elevation 1842 meters. Holotype: IUQ 2009. Paratypes: IUQ 534 (63), 537 (2, c&s). Hemibrycon is masculine, therefore mandatory correction to cairoensis. •Valid as Hemibrycon cairoensis Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009 (often as cairoense) -- (Román-Valencia et al. 2009:30 [ref. 30722], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2010:340 [ref. 30721], Román-Valencia et al. 2010:104 [ref. 30945], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:1365 [ref. 32877], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:117 [ref. 33572], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633] as cairoense). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon cairoensis Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Cauca River system, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

calai, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:85, Fig. 32 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Unnamed stream on Rancho El Viento, across Río Meta from Puerto Lopez, 4°08'N, 72°39'W, Meta, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 130527. Paratypes: ANSP 139149 (18), 177718 (12); NRM 16848-49 (1, 10), 43015-16 (2, 5); USNM 353304 (4, 2 c&s), 353307 (4), 353868 (2). Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:406 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Creagrutus calai Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia et al. 2010:95 [ref. 30781], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:351 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus calai Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Western Meta River basin, eastern Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

caldasi, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.], Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Taphorn [D. C.] & García-Alzate [C. A.] 2014:111, Figs. 1-2 [Animal Biodiversity and Conservation v. 37 (no. 2); ref. 33608] Caldas, San José County, Middle Cauca River basin, La Libertad Creek, two hundred meters from La Libertad School, on the San José-Araunca road, 5°63'07.4"N, 75°45'53.6"W, Colombia, elevation 1124 meters. Holotype: IUQ 3714. Paratypes: IUQ 3225 (9), 3772 (2 C&S), 3229 (17), 3691 (1), 3723 (14). •Valid as Bryconamericus caldasi Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn & García-Alzate 2014 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus caldasi Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn & García-Alzate 2014. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Middle Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

caliurus, Charax Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] in Eigenmann, McAtee & Ward 1907:142, Pl. 43 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2) (art. 7); ref. 1261] Laguna Pasito, Paraguay. Holotype (unique): CAS 15682 [ex IU 9969]. •Valid as Cynopotamus caliurus (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1907) -- (Menezes 1976:25 [ref. 7073], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131]). •Synonym of Cynopotamus argenteus (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Menezes 1987:7 [ref. 8072], Braga 1994:12 [ref. 27878] as calliurus, Britski et al. 1999:52 [ref. 24147], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:202 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:18 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:28 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Cynopotamus argenteus (Valenciennes 1837). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

callistus, Tetragonopterus Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:2 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 15 (no. 370); ref. 14722] Carandosiñho near Corumba, Rio Paraguay, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Syntypes: (numerous) BMNH 1900.4.14.63-68 (6), MSNG 37718 (2), MZUT 1365 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:138 [ref. 21559], Tortonese 1961:182 [ref. 10343]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon callistus (Boulenger 1900) -- (Fernández & Butí 1996:252 [ref. 22775], Planquette et al. 1996:286 [ref. 22818], Almirón & Casciotta 1999:344 [ref. 24405], Lasso et al. 2001:95 [ref. 25928]). •Synonym of Hyphessobrycon eques (Steindachner 1882) -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:224 [ref. 22743], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:141 [ref. 24509], Britski et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24147], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:102 [ref. 28130], Hein 2009:2 [ref. 30362], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Hyphessobrycon eques (Steindachner 1882). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

calliurus, Chirodon Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:3 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 15 (no. 370); ref. 14722] Corandasiñho, Brazil; San Lorenzo, Jujuy Province, Argentina. Syntypes: BMNH 1900.4.14.78-82 (5); MSNG 37719 (2); MZUT 1368 (1); NMW 60345 (5), 77966 (2) Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:183 [ref. 10343]. Original genus should have been Cheirodon. •Valid as Odontostilbe calliura (Boulenger 1900) -- (Britski et al. 1999:48 [ref. 24147]). •Valid as Serrapinnus calliurus (Boulenger 1900) -- (Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Gelain et al. 1999:71 [ref. 24205], Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:413 [ref. 24417], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:219 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:113 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:78 [ref. 28131] as Serrapinus, Miquelarena et al. 2008:71 [ref. 29829], Mirande 2010:533 [ref. 31006], Jerep & Malabarba 2014:307 [ref. 33376], Malabarba & Jerep 2014:58 [ref. 33440], Litz & Koerber 2014:12 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:19 [ref. 35117], Jerep et al. 2016:296 [ref. 34362], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Koerber et al. 2017:30 [ref. 35267], Jerep et al. 2018:186 [ref. 35830], Serra et al. 2018:3 [ref. 36023]). Current status: Valid as Serrapinnus calliurus (Boulenger 1900). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos, Paraná-Paraguay and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

calliurus, Knodus Ahl [E.] 1931:208, Fig. 2 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1931 (nos. 4-7); ref. 16254] Rio Capim basin, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 23684. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:92 [ref. 21847], Zarske & Géry 1995:116 [ref. 22674]. •Synonym of Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner 1858) -- (Zarske & Géry 1995:119 [ref. 22674], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061]). •Mention -- (Ferreira & Lima 2006:637 [ref. 28919]). •Not a synonym of Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner 1858) -- (Marinho & Langeani 2016:347 [ref. 34416]). Current status: Uncertain as Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner 1858). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

callops, Microschemobrycon Böhlke [J. E.] 1953:846, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 6 (no. 71) (art. 85); ref. 12366] Camanaos Rapids, Rio Negro, Brazil, about 0°10'S, 66°55'W. Holotype: CAS-SU 17491. Paratypes: ANSP 131519 [ex CAS-SU 17492] (1, c&s); CAS 20691 (2); CAS-SU 17492 (orig. 2), 17493-96 (1, 5, 1, 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Microschemobrycon callops Böhlke 1953 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:145 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Microschemobrycon callops Böhlke 1953. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Orinoco, Negro and Madeira River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

calverti, Grammabrycon Fowler [H. W.] 1941:190, Figs. 99-100 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69606. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Phenacogaster calverti (Fowler 1941) -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:204 [ref. 27061], Lucena & Gama 2007:152 [ref. 29059], Lucena & Malabarba 2010:266, 296 [ref. 30880], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Melo et al. 2016:375 [ref. 35317], Antonetti et al. 2018:279 [ref. 36204]). Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster calverti (Fowler 1941). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of Ceará and Paraíba States, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

capitulatus, Phenacogaster Lucena [Z. M. S. de] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2010:266, Fig. 2 [Zoologia (Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia) v. 27 (no. 2); ref. 30880] Rio Neshuya, Rio de Ucayali system, Coronel Portillom Ucayali, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 20424. Paratypes: MCP 43595 (3 + 1), MUSM 0886 (11, 1 c&s). Phenacogaster is feminine, therefore mandatory correction to capitulata (R. Fricke, 1 May 2016). •Valid as Phenacogaster capitulata Lucena & Malabarba 2010. Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster capitulata Lucena & Malabarba 2010. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Neshuya River system, Ucayali River system, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

caquetae, Knodus Fowler [H. W.] 1945:94, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 1454] Morelia, Río Caquetá drainage, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 71670. Paratypes: ANSP 71671 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Bryconamericus hypopterus Fowler 1943 -- (Román-Valencia 2003:40 [ref. 26840], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35679]). •Valid as Knodus caquetae Fowler 1945 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:143 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893]). •Synonym of Knodus hypopterus (Fowler 1943). Current status: Synonym of Knodus hypopterus (Fowler 1943). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon and Caquetá River basins, Colombia [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

caquetae, Odontostilbe Fowler [H. W.] 1943:230, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Río Porteguasa, Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70495. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Odontostilbe fugitiva Cope 1870 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061], Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:170, 176 [ref. 28728]). Current status: Synonym of Odontostilbe fugitiva Cope 1870. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cardalensis, Hemibrycon Román-Valencia [C.], Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Taphorn [D. C.], Mancera-Rodriguez [N. J.] & García-Alzate [C. A.] 2013:1373, 3b, 4 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 61 (no. 3) (dated Sept.); ref. 32877] Antioquia, border between Municipio de San Rafael and San Carlos, above Playas Reservoir, El Vardal Creek, tributary of Guatapé River, middle section of the Magdalena River drainage, 6°16'56.4"N. 74°55'37.7"W. Colombia, elevation 898 meters. Holotype: IUQ 3190. Paratypes: Many from AUM, CSJ, IUQ. Treated as a noun in apposition. •Valid as Hemibrycon cardalensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn, Mancera-Rodriguez & García-Alzate 2013 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon cardalensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn, Mancera-Rodriguez & García-Alzate 2013. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cardinalis, Hyphessobrycon Myers [G. S.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 1956:1 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 12214] Stream near Tomar [Thomar], about 0°25'S, 63°55'S, Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 48710. Paratypes: (10) CAS-SU 48711 (now 5), 48712 (2, c&s). •Synonym of Paracheirodon axelrodi (Schultz 1956) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:153 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Paracheirodon axelrodi (Schultz 1956). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

carlosi, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 2003:478, Figs. 1-2 [Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Science Naturali - Torino v. 20 (no. 2); ref. 27478] Rio Napo, vicinity of Mondana, 1°51'S, 74°45'W, Amazon river basin, Napo, Ecuador. Holotype: STRI 1321. Paratypes: IUQ 396 (15), 397 (6), 399 (1), 409 (1), 460 (1, c&s); STRI 1322 (10); ZMH 1476 (1), 1755 (1), 1756 (12), 2260 (2). •Valid as Bryconamericus carlosi Román-Valencia 2003 -- (Román-Valencia 2005:49 [ref. 28949], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:1 [ref. 30393], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus carlosi Román-Valencia 2003. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

carolinae, Astyanax Gill [T. N.] 1870:92 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 22; ref. 17630] Río Marañon or Río Napo, Amazon system, Peru or Ecuador. Holotype (unique): USNM 8225. Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:6 [ref. 19022]. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

carrilloi, Hemibrycon Dahl [G.] 1960:467, Fig. [Caldasia v. 8 (no. 39); ref. 9310] Quebrada La Noche, tributary to upper Atrato, western Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN (apparently lost). Paratypes: (4) ICNMHN 126 (3). Type catalog: Cala 1981:3 [ref. 23525], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:15 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Hemibrycon carrilloi Dahl 1960 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon carrilloi Dahl 1960. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Altrato River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

carteri, Vesicatrus Norman [J. R.] 1934:336, Figs. A-C [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 14 (no. 81) (art. 30); ref. 16445] Forest stream tributary to the Cuyuni River, Guyana. Holotype: BMNH 1934.9.12.216 (larger). Paratypes: BMNH 1934.9.12.217 (1). •Valid as Phenacogaster carteri (Norman 1934) -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:204 [ref. 27061], Lucena & Gama 2007:152 [ref. 29059], Lucena & Malabarba 2010:265, 298 [ref. 30880]). Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster carteri (Norman 1934). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Cuyuni River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

carti, Roeboides Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2000:47, Figs. 22 A-C [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 13; ref. 24559] Río Cartí Grande, Comarca de San Blas, 7°26'N, 78°58'W, Panama. Holotype: USNM 359076. Paratypes: STRI 401-402 (2, 16); USNM 293123 (1), 293129 (18), 293156 (42), 293210 (1), 293224 (5), 293229 (1), 293235 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Roeboides carti Lucena 2000 -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2011:1663 [ref. 31620], Matamoros et al. 2013:280 [ref. 32755]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides carti Lucena 2000. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of Comarca de San Blas, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

carvalhoi, Tetragonopterus Melo [B. F.], Benine [R. C.], Mariguela [T. C.] & Oliveira [C.] 2011:50, Figs. 1, 2a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 31233] Laranjal do Jari, Igarapé Iratapuru, rio Jari, Amazon basin, 00°33'30"S, 52°34'45"W, Amapá, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 102268. Paratypes: LMP [= DZSJRP] 5306 (7), 5376 (34, 4 c&s); MZUSP 106813 (15). •Valid as Tetragonopterus carvalhoi Melo, Benine, Mariguela & Oliveira 2011 -- (Silva & Benine 2011:50 [ref. 31347], Silva et al. 2013:1629 [ref. 32576], Araujo & Lucinda 2014:314 [ref. 33377], Melo et al. 2015:711 [ref. 35424], Silva et al. 2016:26 [ref. 34929]). Current status: Valid as Tetragonopterus carvalhoi Melo, Benine, Mariguela & Oliveira 2011. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Distribution: Rio Jari, Amapá, northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cascajalensis, Bryconamericus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1916:284, Pl. 19 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 15); ref. 2962] Río Cascajal at Porto Bello, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 8946. Paratypes: CAS 39438 [ex IU 14016] (1); FMNH 12217-20 (4), 12221-40 (20), 55237 (1); USNM 78448 (orig. 19, now 17). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:10 [ref. 19022]. •Synonym of Bryconamericus emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907) -- (Román-Valencia 2002:178 [ref. 26370], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Eretmobrycon emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907). Current status: Synonym of Eretmobrycon emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

casiquiare, Microschemobrycon Böhlke [J. E.] 1953:843, Pl. 20 (fig. 1) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 6 (no. 71) (art. 85); ref. 12366] São Gabriel Rapids, at São Gabriel village, Rio Negro, Brazil, 0°08'03"S, 67°03'28"W. Holotype: CAS-SU 17497. Paratypes: ANSP 131517-18 (2, c&s), 131520 (1, skeleton); CAS 20689-90 (10, 5); CAS-SU 17498-512 (8, 3, 11, 2, 1, 1, 11, 2, 1, 8, 4, 6, 1, 27, 2), Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Microschemobrycon casiquiare Böhlke 1953 -- (Taphorn 1992:263 [ref. 23654], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:145 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:529 [ref. 31006], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:86 [ref. 35773], Ohara et al. 2019:333 [ref. 36615]). Current status: Valid as Microschemobrycon casiquiare Böhlke 1953. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

catablepta, Dermatocheir Durbin [M. L.] 1909:55 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1166] Tumatumari, above the falls, Guyana. Holotype (unique): FMNH 53553 [ex CM 1198]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:64 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:31 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon catableptus (Durbin 1909) -- (Moreira et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26068], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon catableptus (Durbin 1909). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

caucae, Roeboides Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:162 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Cartago, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 71099 [ex IU 12934]. Paratypes and additional material: CAS 71097 [ex IU 12934] (59); FMNH 56385 (27), 56372-74 (10, 35, 2), 69634 (96), 79755 (128). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:76 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Roeboides dayi (Steindachner 1878) -- (Lucena 2000:24 [ref. 24559], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Roeboides dayi (Steindachner 1878). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

caucanus, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:17 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Piedra Moler, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56229 [ex CM 5031a]. Paratypes: (295, CM and IU) CAS 39510-15 [ex IU 12795-800] (29, 9, 2, 6, 12, 5); FMNH 56228 (6), 56230-34 (25, 12, 2, 11), 69792 (42); UMMZ 63039 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Bryconamericus caucanus Eigenmann 1913 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Román-Valencia 2000:453 [ref. 25256], Román-Valencia 2001:474 [ref. 25946], Román-Valencia 2003:18, 25 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia 2003:46 [ref. 27036], Román-Valencia & Muñoz 2001:459 [ref. 27074], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. & Román-Valenca 2006:60 [ref. 28891], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:456, 1 [ref. 30393], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:466 [ref. 30392], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:108 [ref. 33608]). •Valid as Hemibrycon caucanus (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:19 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633], García-Melo et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35894]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon caucanus (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

caucanus, Creagrutus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:9 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Paila, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56104 [ex CM 4895a]. Paratypes: (70, CM and IU) CAS 41373-74 [ex IU 12736-37] (10, 1), 69304 [ex IU 12738] (8); FMNH 56105-08 (6, 10, 1, 2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:63 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:28 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Creagrutus caucanus Eigenmann 1913 -- (Harold & Vari 1994:5 [ref. 21969], Vari & Harold 2001:2 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Cala 1997:144 [ref. 30645], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:348 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus caucanus Eigenmann 1913. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

caucanus, Gephyrocharax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:24 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Cartago, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56012 [ex CM 4802]. Paratypes: (58, CM and IU) CAS 44275-77 [ex IU 12668-70] (10, 4, 4); FMNH 56013-15 (12, 5, 3), 69553 (6), 95008 (11); USNM 81921 (12). Type catalog: Henn 1928:67 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:38 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:21 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Gephyrocharax caucanus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:224 [ref. 27061], Vanegas-Ríos et al. 2013:276 [ref. 32748], Vanegas-Ríos & Phillip 2013:1333 [ref. 34415], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Vanegas-Ríos 2016:16 [ref. 34359], Vanegas-Ríos 2017:6 [ref. 35531], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Gephyrocharax caucanus Eigenmann 1912. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Cauca River basin and Lake Calima, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

caucanus, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1879:189 [71] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Río Cauca, Colombia. Syntypes: (several) NMW 57372-76 (2, 3, 2, 2, 2); SMNS 2833 (2); ZMUC 993 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:46 [ref. 9588], Fricke 1995:8 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:26 [ref. 29864] dated 1880. •Valid as Astyanax caucanus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31365], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax caucanus (Steindachner 1879). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Ría Cauca, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

caudimaculatus, Charax Lucena [C. A. S. de] 1987:32, Fig. 3 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRGS (Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul) No. 40; ref. 17724] Laguna Cocococha, Reserva National de Tambopata, Madre de Dios, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 5081 [now MHNJP] [ex USNM 280291]. Paratypes: MCP 10115 (11, 2 c&s), USNM 263877 (17). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:13 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Charax caudimaculatus Lucena 1987 -- (Lucena 1989:104 [ref. 12852], Chang & Ortega 1995:2 [ref. 24302], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:201 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Menezes & Lucena 2014:199 [ref. 33369], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Guimarães et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35775]). Current status: Valid as Charax caudimaculatus Lucena 1987. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Madeira River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

caudovittatus, Bryconamericus deuterodonoides Inger [R. F.] 1956:435 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 34 (no. 37); ref. 12201] Río Abácapa, west side of Chimantá-tepui, Venezuela, elevation 1300 feet. Holotype: FMNH 45706. Paratypes: FMNH 45707 (12). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:18 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Bryconamericus deuterodonoides Eigenmann 1914, but a valid subspecies as described but with question -- (Taphorn 1992:140 [ref. 23654]). •Synonym of Bryconamericus cismontanus Eigenmann 1914 -- (Román-Valencia 2003:7 [ref. 27070]). •Synonym of Bryconamericus deuterodonoides Eigenmann 1914 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2003:40 [ref. 26840]). •Synonym of Knodus deuterodonoides (Eigenmann 1914). Current status: Synonym of Knodus deuterodonoides (Eigenmann 1914). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

caudovittatus, Hemigrammus Ahl [E.] 1923:261, fig. [Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 20 (no. 17); ref. 17301] Buenos Aires, Argentina (aquarium import). Syntypes: ZMB (lost in WWII). Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:92 [ref. 21847], Zarske & Géry 1995:110 [ref. 22674]. Misspelled candovittatus by authors. •Mention -- (Almirón et al. 2006:895 [ref. 29163]). •Synonym of Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Zarske & Géry 1995:118 [ref. 22674], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:134 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Eigenmann 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

cayennensis, Hemigrammus unilineatus Géry [J.] 1959:248, Fig. 1 [Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon v. 28 (no. 8); ref. 10038] Small freshwater stream on Cayenne Island, French Guiana. Holotype: MHNG 2179.061. Paratypes: (10) ANSP 94715 (1), SMF 5385 (1), USNM 179757 (2), ZMA 101049 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:19 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621], Vari & Howe 1991:25 [ref. 19022], Weber 1998:7 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Hemigrammus cayennensis Géry 1959 -- (Géry et al. 1991:59 [ref. 21021]). •Synonym of Hemigrammus unilineatus (Gill 1858), but a valid subspecies -- (Planquette et al. 1996:282 [ref. 22818]). •Synonym of Hemigrammus unilineatus (Gill 1858) -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:237 [ref. 22743], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:134 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35509]). Current status: Synonym of Hemigrammus unilineatus (Gill 1858). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

celibela, Moenkhausia Marinho [M. M. F.] & Langeani [F.] 2010:880, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 77 (no. 4); ref. 30927] Igarapé tributary of the Rio Tapajós, at the bridge of the road between Pimental and Itaituba, 2 km from Pimental, Pará State, Brazil, 4°33'48"S, 56°15'40"W. Holotype: MZUSP 102984. Paratypes: DZSJRP, MNRJ, MZUSP, UFRGS. Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:441 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Moenkhausia celibela Marinho & Langeani 2010 -- (Oliveira & Marinho 2016:573 [ref. 34342], Marinho & Langeani 2016:348 [ref. 34416], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], Soares et al. 2017:261 [ref. 35237]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia celibela Marinho & Langeani 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ceros, Moenkhausia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:104 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Lake Hyanuary, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 49161. •Valid as Moenkhausia ceros Eigenmann 1908 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:146 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia ceros Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cerritulus, Creagrutus Netto-Ferreira [A. L.] & Vari [R. P.] 2017:369, Figs. 1-4 [Copeia v. 105 (no. 2); ref. 35453] Río Cachiyacu, tributary of Río Huallaga, Shapaja, Tocache, San Martin, Peru, 8°17'37"S, 76°21'05"W, elevation 520 meters. Holotype: MUSM 54501 (ex-MHNG 2725.023). Paratypes: MHNG, MPEG, MUSM. •Valid as Creagrutus cerritulus Netto-Ferreira & Vari 2017. Current status: Valid as Creagrutus cerritulus Netto-Ferreira & Vari 2017. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Río Huallaga drainage, Amazon basin, eastern Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

chalceus, Tetragonopterus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:70, Pl. 33 (fig. 1) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rivers of equatorial Brazil. Syntypes: MHNN 785 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380] with potential holotype. •Valid as Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Géry et al. 1991:58 [ref. 21021], Taphorn 1992:343 [ref. 23654], Planquette et al. 1996:320 [ref. 22818], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:212 [ref. 27061], Benine et al. 2004:339 [ref. 27973], Zarske & Géry 2006:8 [ref. 29010] with author as Agassiz, Melo et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31233], Silva & Benine 2011:50 [ref. 31347], Silva et al. 2013:1629 [ref. 32576], Araujo & Lucinda 2014:314 [ref. 33377], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:53, 185 [ref. 35004], Melo et al. 2015:711 [ref. 35424], Silva et al. 2016:15 [ref. 34929], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

changae, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:88, Fig. 34 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Río San Alejandro, a tributary of Río Sungarayacu, just above junction with Río sungarayacu, about 9°23'S, 75°11'W, Provincia Pachitea, Huanuco, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 8858. Paratypes: FMNH 84265 (10), MUSM 8859 (16), ROM 72378 (10), USNM 285276 (14, 2 c&s). •Valid as Creagrutus changae Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus changae Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Western tributaries of Ucayali River in depts. Junin, Pasco and Huanuco, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

changae, Hemigrammus Ota [R. P.], Lima [F. C. T.] & Hidalgo [M. H.] 2019:336, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4577 (no. 2); ref. 36619] Aguajal Pozo Minero, Aguajal Cicra, Puerto Maldonado, Departamento Madre de Dios, Peru, 12°33'48"S, 70°07'03"W. Holotype: MUSM 663836. Paratypes: CAS, FMNH, INPA, MCZ, MUSM, ZUEC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Hemigrammus changae Ota, Lima & Hidalgo 2019. Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus changae Ota, Lima & Hidalgo 2019. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Madeira River basin, southeastern Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

chapadae, Astyanax Fowler [H. W.] 1906:349, Fig. 33 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 58; ref. 1373] Headwaters of Rio Paraguay, near Santa Ana da Chapada, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 21828. Paratypes: ANSP 21829 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Bryconamericus chapadae (Fowler 1906) -- (Britski et al. 1999:30 [ref. 24147]). •Valid as Knodus chapadae (Fowler 1906) -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:143 [ref. 27061], Ferreira & Lima 2006:635 [ref. 28919], Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira 2010:470 [ref. 30882], Esguícero & Castro 2014:47 [ref. 33506], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Knodus chapadae (Fowler 1906). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

chaparae, Astyanax Fowler [H. W.] 1943:3, Fig. 2 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 120; ref. 1442] Todos Santos, Río Chapare, Cochabamba, Bolivia, elevation 1000 feet. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69194. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Astyanax chaparae Fowler 1943 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax chaparae Fowler 1943. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

chaparae, Gephyrocharax Fowler [H. W.] 1940:70, 91, Figs. 25-27 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Río Chapare, Río Madeira system, Cochabamba, Bolivia, elevation 1000 feet. Holotype: ANSP 68967. Paratypes: ANSP 68968-78 (11, mixed in jar with 69161-74 not listed in publication as paratypes), 68979 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Gephyrocharax chaparae Fowler 1940 -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:224 [ref. 27061], Vanegas-Ríos & Phillip 2013:1333 [ref. 34415], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). •Synonym of Gephyrocharax major Myers 1929 -- (Vanegas-Ríos 2016:38 [ref. 34359]). Current status: Synonym of Gephyrocharax major Myers 1929. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

charalae, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 2005:50, Figs. 4-6 [Memoria de la Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales v. 65 (no. 163); ref. 28949] El Charal Stream, at Finca El Jaguar, ca. 15 kilometers northeast of Aroa, Rio Aroa System, Yaracuy State, Venezuela, 10°32'56''N 68°58'33''E, elevation 500 meters. Holotype: MHNLS 13504. Paratypes (182): MHNLS 2154 (2), 4716 (37), 4717 (141), uncat. (2). •Valid as Bryconamericus charalae Román-Valencia 2005 -- (Román-Valencia et al. 2008:24 [ref. 29743], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus charalae Román-Valencia 2005. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Aroa River drainage, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

chico, Astyanax Casciotta [J. R.] & Almirón [A. E.] 2004:12, Figs. 1-3 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 54; ref. 27985] Río de Zora in route 34, río San Francisco basin, Jujuy Province, Argentina. Holotype: MACN-Ict 8673. Paratypes: AI 168 (9, 2 c&s), 169 (2); MHNG 2644.100 (2); MTD F 28331-32 (2). Type catalog: Nadalin & López 2015:1 [ref. 34112]. •Valid as Astyanax chico Casciotta & Almirón 2004 -- (Protogino et al. 2006:11 [ref. 28780], Mirande et al. 2006:58 [ref. 28784], Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Abilhoa & Duboc 2007:45 [ref. 29285], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Mirande 2010:516 [ref. 31006], Soneira et al. 2010:785 [ref. 31078], Koerber 2011:3 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:269 [ref. 33857], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax chico Casciotta & Almirón 2004. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: San Francisco River basin, Argentina and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

chlorophthalma, Moenkhausia Sousa [L. M. de], Netto-Ferreira [A. L.] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2010:256, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 30863] Altamira, rio Terez de Maio, tributary of rio Curuá, rio Iriri basin, rio Xingú drainage, 8°45'06"S, 55°02'05"W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 99412. Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, INPA, MCP, MNRJ, MPEG, MZUSP. Spelled clorophthalma on page 262. •Valid as Moenkhausia chlorophthalma Sousa, Netto-Ferreira & Birindelli 2010 -- (Pastana & Dagosta 2014:395 [ref. 33384], Dagosta et al. 2015:424 [ref. 33998] as clorophthalma, Ohara & Marinho 2016:[6] 42 [ref. 34383] as clorophthalma, Soares et al. 2019:237 [ref. 36688]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia chlorophthalma Sousa, Netto-Ferreira & Birindelli 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Xingú River basin, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

chocoensis, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:14 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Istmina, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56235 [ex CM 5036]. Paratypes: (311, CM and IU) CAS 39030-33 [ex IU 12939-42] (141, 9, 5, 11); FMNH 56236-41 (28, 3, 10, 3, 6, 11), 69710 (155), 69777 (54); USNM 236096 [ex 76943] (3, c&s), 79173 (4), 249871 [ex 76943] (2, c&s). Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:10 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Argopleura chocoensis (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:279 [ref. 24413], Román-Valencia 2000:462 [ref. 25256], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:223 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Argopleura chocoensis (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper San Juan River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

chocoensis, Gephyrocharax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:23 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Istmina, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56016 [ex CM 4806]. Paratypes: (36, CM and IU) CAS 44278 [ex IU 12671] (9); FMNH 56017 (10), 75130 (15); USNM 76973 (12), 79208 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:67 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:39 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:21 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Argopleura chocoensis (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Weitzman & Burns 1997:138 [ref. 24512]). •Valid as Gephyrocharax chocoensis Eigenmann 1912 -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:224 [ref. 27061], Vanegas-Ríos & Phillip 2013:1333 [ref. 34415], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Vanegas-Ríos 2016:22 [ref. 34359], Vanegas-Ríos 2017:6 [ref. 35531], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Gephyrocharax chocoensis Eigenmann 1912. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Atrato, León, and San Juan river basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

chocoensis, Hyphessobrycon García-Alzate [C. A.], Román-Valencia [C.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2013:184, Figs. 1-3 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 61 (no. 1); ref. 32440] Nariño, Barbacoas, Quebrada la Tundera afluente del río Quigualpí, 1°39'39"N, 78°09'04"W, Colombia, elevation 45 meters. Holotype: IUQ 3035. Paratypes: AUM 55075 (3); IUQ 2274 (39), 2275 (9), 3036 (1, c&s), 3044 (3, c&s). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon chocoensis García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2013 -- (Carvalho et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33371], García-Alzate et al. 2015:222 [ref. 33855], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon chocoensis García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2013. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

chrysargyreus, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1864:328 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Essequibo River, Guyana. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.21.69. •Valid as Moenkhausia chrysargyrea (Günther 1864) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Géry et al. 1991:57 [ref. 21021], Taphorn 1992:266 [ref. 23654], Planquette et al. 1996:294 [ref. 22818], Lucena & Lucena 1999:235 [ref. 24225], Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:146 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Langeani 2010:886 [ref. 30927], Bertaco et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31234], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745] as chysargyrea, Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Petrolli et al. 2016:168 [ref. 34395], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia chrysargyrea (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

chryseum, Stethaprion Cope [E. D.] 1872:261 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 921] Río Ambyiacu, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8030. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621). •Valid as Stethaprion chryseum Cope 1872 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Stethaprion erythrops Cope 1870 -- (Reis 1989:51 [ref. 14219], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:210 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Stethaprion erythrops Cope 1870. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

cijerri, Creagrutus Bisbal [F. J.] & Sánchez [J.] 1997 [v. 1; ref. 25857] •Not available, name only -- (Vari & Harold 2001:3 [ref. 25842]). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cinarucoense, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.], Taphorn [D. C.] & Ruiz-C. [R. I.] 2008:19, Fig. 1 [Animal Biodiversity and Conservation v. 31 (no. 1); ref. 29743] Sand beach, 6°32'55"N, 67°24'58"W, Cinaruco River, Orinoco River basin, Apure State, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 52002. Paratypes: at IUQ and MCNG. Plus non-type material. Specific name should have been cinarucoensis. •Valid as Bryconamericus cinarucoense Román-Valencia, Taphorn & Ruiz-C. 2008 -- (Zarske et al. 2010:9 [ref. 30816]). •Valid as Knodus cinarucoense (Román-Valencia, Taphorn & Ruiz-C. 2008) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Knodus cinarucoense (Román-Valencia, Taphorn & Ruiz-C. 2008). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

cisalpinoi, Buritia Brant [V.] 1974:148, Fig. [Arquivos do Museu de Historia Natural Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais v. 1; ref. 628] Rio São Francisco, Barra do Pimenta, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MHNI 141. Paratypes: MHNI 042 (1), 142-146 (5). •Synonym of Orthospinus franciscensis (Eigenmann 1914) -- (Reis 1989:43 [ref. 14219]). Current status: Synonym of Orthospinus franciscensis (Eigenmann 1914). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

cismontanus, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:4 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Villavicencio, Orinoco system, Colombia. Holotype (unique): FMNH 56642 [ex CM 5459]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:18 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Bryconamericus cismontanus Eigenmann 1914 -- (Román-Valencia 1999:113 [ref. 24922], Román-Valencia 2003:29 [ref. 27037], Román-Valencia 2003:7 [ref. 27070], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2002:209 [ref. 27206], Román-Valencia 2003:23 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia 2003:482 [ref. 27478], Román-Valencia 2005:54 [ref. 28949], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:24 [ref. 29743], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068] with wrong authorship, Zarske et al. 2010:9 [ref. 30816], Román-Valencia 2010:201 [ref. 31063], Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015:435 [ref. 33665], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35773] as cf. cismontanus). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus cismontanus Eigenmann 1914. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

citrina, Jupiaba Zanata [A. M.] & Ohara [W. M.] 2009:514, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 30674] Apuí, rio Madeira basin, middle rio Aripuanã drainage, igarapé on the left margin of the rio Guariba, Reserva Extrativista do Guariba, Mosaico do Apuí, 8°46'31.0"S, 60°31'27.7"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 32026. Paratypes: many at INPA, MPEG, MZUSP, UFBA. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Jupiaba citrina Zanata & Ohara 2009. Current status: Valid as Jupiaba citrina Zanata & Ohara 2009. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Rio Aripuanã drainage, rio Madeira basin, Amazonas. Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

clavatus, Hyphessobrycon Zarske [A.] 2015:290, Figs. 3-8 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 65 (no. 3); ref. 34028] Peru (aquarium import). Holotype: MTD F33358. Paratypes: MTD. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon clavatus Zarske 2015 -- (Zarske 2016:112 [ref. 34774]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon clavatus Zarske 2015. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin (?), Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

clavitaeniatus, Astyanax Garutti [V.] 2003:3, Fig. 2 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 27817] Surumu, rio Surumu, about 3°30'N, 60°25'W, Roraima, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 5146. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-29167 (5); MZUSP 17748 (2), 17757 (4), 48281 (11). •Valid as Astyanax clavitaeniatus Garutti 2003 -- (Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Langeani 2009:372 [ref. 30985], Freitas et al. 2015:190 [ref. 34055]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax clavitaeniatus Garutti 2003. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Bronco River, Roraima State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cobanensis, Tetragonopterus Bocourt [F.] 1868:62 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 9; ref. 16971] Upper Vera Paz, Coban, Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1907.4.10.2 [ex MNHN] (1); MNHN 0000-5219-5220 (19). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:20 [ref. 19577]. Description very brief. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with queston, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Synonym of Astyanax brevimanus (Günther 1864) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1373 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax brevimanus (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

cochae, Grundulus Román-Valencia [C.], Paepke [H.-J.] & Pantoja [F.] 2003:53, Figs. 1, 3a-6a [Memoria de la Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales v. 155 (for 2001); ref. 27035] Laguna de la Cocha, 1°05'22"N, 77°09'50"W, vereda Romerillo, Nariño, Pasto, Colombia, elevation 2809 meters. Holotype: IUQ 453. Paratypes: IUQ 454 (66), 455 (51); STRI 1369 (1). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:438 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Grundulus cochae Román-Valencia, Paepke & Pantoja 2003 -- (Román-Valencia et al. 2005:543 [ref. 28433], Román-Valencia et al. 2010:107 [ref. 30946], Mirande 2010:523 [ref. 31006], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Grundulus cochae Román-Valencia, Paepke & Pantoja 2003. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: La Cocha Lake, southern Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cochui, Creagrutus Géry [J.] 1964:56, Fig. 12 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 13 (no. 4, Dec.); ref. 2264] Upper Amazon, region surrounding Iquitos, Peru. Holotype: USNM 200426 [ex Géry coll. 400.1]. Paratypes: (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:15 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Creagrutus cochui Géry 1964 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Géry & Renno 1989:5 [ref. 13420], Vari & Harold 2001:91 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Cala 1997:148 [ref. 30645], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633], Netto-Ferreira & Moreira 2018:255 [ref. 35759]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus cochui Géry 1964. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cochui, Microbrycon Ladiges [W.] in Roloff 1949:337, Figs. 1-2 [Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 43 (no. 12); ref. 32871] Upper Amazon, South America. Syntypes: MHNG 2187.75 (1), ZSM 5894-99 (6 now 5), Type catalog: Weber 1998:8 [ref. 23532], Neumann 2011:246 [ref. 31652]. Also in Arnold 1949:68 [ref. 22892], based on Ladiges description. This appeared first as Ladiges in Roloff 1949 (email from T. Litz, Aug. 19, 2013), but the description in part was taken from Ladiges 1950, and Roloff cited the pages in Ladiges. Also appeared as Microbrycon cuchui Ladiges 1950:306, Figs. 1-3 [ref. 12958] were types were listed. •Valid as Tyttocharax cochui (Ladiges 1949) (? not 1950) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Weitzman & Ortega 1995:134 [ref. 21874], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:228 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia et al. 2012:519 [ref. 32203], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745] as Tythocharax, Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Tyttocharax cochui (Ladiges 1949). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cocibolca, Astyanax Bussing [W. A.] 2008:1362, Figs. 1, 3 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 56 (no. 3); ref. 30066] Isletas de Granada, Lake of Nicaragua, depth 1.5 meters, elevation 31 meters. Holotype: LACM 56648-1. Paratypes: AMNH 30236 (20), LACM 56648-2 (50), UCR 24-16 (924), 61-4 (301), 62-2 (238), 242-7 (4), 538-6 (3), 539-6 (60), 540-5 (3), 547-6 (1), 552-3 (1), 553-2 (1), 1061-4 (2), 1075-8 (3). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:367 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Astyanax cocibolca Bussing 2008 -- (Angulo et al. 2013:991 [ref. 33194], Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1379 [ref. 35414], Angulo et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35879]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax cocibolca Bussing 2008. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lake Nicaragua and rivers draining into it: Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

coelestinus, Hyphessobrycon Myers [G. S.] in Eigenmann & Myers 1929:535 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 5); ref. 1263] Lagoa Bonita, into São Bartholomeu, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 60476 [ex IU 17665]. Paratypes: CAS 57602 [ex IU 17666] (15). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon coelestinus Myers 1929 -- (Zarske & Géry 1997:310 [ref. 23715], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2004:36 [ref. 28039], Zarske & Géry 2006:47 [ref. 28750], García-Alzate et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29671], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Marinho et al. 2014:263 [ref. 33372], Marinho et al. 2016:519 [ref. 34591]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon coelestinus Myers 1929. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

coeruleus, Bryconamericus Jerep [F. C.] & Shibatta [O. A.] 2017:2, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 3) e170028; ref. 35610] Rio Keller, rio Ivaí basin, Marialva, Paraná State, Brazil, 23°38'30.0"S, 51°51'32.0"W. Holotype: MZUSP 121505. Paratypes: DZSJRP, MZUEL, NUP •Valid as Bryconamericus coeruleus Jerep & Shibatta 2017. Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus coeruleus Jerep & Shibatta 2017. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Rio Tibagi, rio Piquiri and rio Ivaí drainages, upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

coeruleus, Hemigrammus Durbin [M. L.] in Eigenmann 1908:99 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Manacapuru, Amazon River, Brazil. Syntypes: (103) MCZ 20801 (97). Author is M. L. Durbin. Original says 103 specimens, the type of 46 mm. •Valid as Hemigrammus coeruleus Durbin 1908 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus coeruleus Durbin 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

colifax, Aphyocharax Taphorn [D. C.] & Thomerson [J. E.] 1991:113, Fig. 1 [Revista Unellez de Ciencia y Tecnologia v. 4 (nos 1-2) [1986]; ref. 19015] Middle Río Oris, tributary of Río Paraguá, Campamento Turumbán, Bolivar State, Heres District, Venezuela, about 6°18'N, 63°54'W. Holotype: MCNG 17127. Paratypes: FMNH 97153 (4); MBUCV-V-17003 (4); MCNG 2629 (1), 17128 (3), 17129 (1), 17130 (4), 17234 (6), 17261 (1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:3 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Aphyocharax colifax Taphorn & Thomerson 1991 -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:198 [ref. 27061], Willink et al. 2003:3 [ref. 26755], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocharax colifax Taphorn & Thomerson 1991. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

collettii, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1882:179 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Hyavary, Brazil; Obidos, Amazon River, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) ?MCZ 20843 (42) Obidos, ?MCZ 90154 [ex MCZ 20840a] (3) Obidos; NMW 57379-82 (3, 3, 2, 5). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:33, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [ref. 14353]. •Valid as Moenkhausia collettii (Steindachner 1882) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708] as colletti, Taphorn 1992:269 [ref. 23654], Planquette et al. 1996:295bis [ref. 22818], Lasso et al. 2001:96 [ref. 25928], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:146 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Marinho et al. 2015:576 [ref. 33708], Petrolli et al. 2016:168 [ref. 34395], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701], Soares & Bührnheim 2016:399 [ref. 34972], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia collettii (Steindachner 1882). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

colombianus, Hemibrycon Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:8 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Río San Gil, Santander, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56653 [ex CM 5470]. Paratypes: (15) CAS 44350 [ex IU 13162] (1), 44351 [ex IU 13163] (1), 44352 [ex IU 13164] (1), 44353 [ex IU 13165] (5); FMNH 56654-56 (1, 1, 5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:64 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hemibrycon colombianus Eigenmann 1914 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007:129 [ref. 29189], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2008:73 [ref. 29744], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009:78 [ref. 30718], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2010:340 [ref. 30721], Román-Valencia et al. 2010:103 [ref. 30945], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:1365 [ref. 32877], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:117 [ref. 33572], García-Alzate et al. 2015:90 [ref. 33838], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon colombianus Eigenmann 1914. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: San Gil River, Santander, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

colombiensis, Astyanax asymmetricus Fowler [H. W.] 1945:97, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 1454] Morelia, Río Caquetá drainage, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 71672. Paratypes: (6) ANSP 71673-78 (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621]. •Questionably a synonym of Jupiaba asymmetrica (Eigenmann 1908) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Jupiaba asymmetrica (Eigenmann 1908). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Habitat: freshwater.

columbianus, Hyphessobrycon Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 2002:23, Figs. 1-2, 8 [Das Aquarium, Monatsmagazin für Vivaristik v. 36 (no. 391); ref. 25832] Darien, small stream about 6 kilometers downstream from Acandi, entry of the Rio Acandi, Colombia, Atlantic coast. Holotype: MTD F 25497. Paratypes: MTD F 25498 (1). Plus additional non-type material. Type catalog: Zarske 2003:17 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon columbianus Zarske & Géry 2002 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], García-Alzate et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30716], García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], García-Alzate et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32440], Carvalho et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33371], García-Alzate et al. 2015:222 [ref. 33855], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon columbianus Zarske & Géry 2002. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

comma, Moenkhausia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:102 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Lago Cudajas, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 20972 (2). •Valid as Moenkhausia comma Eigenmann 1908 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:146 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Lucinda 2006:66 [ref. 28492], Bertaco et al. 2011:607 [ref. 31234], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia comma Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

compressus, Hemigrammus Meek [S. E.] 1904:87, Fig. 25 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] Río Papaloapam basin at El Hule, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 4641. Paratypes: BMNH 1905.12.6.4-5 (2); FMNH 4642 (17), 4662 (11) 105930 [ex FMNH 4642] (2); MCZ 29911 [ex IU 11126] (2); USNM 55728 [ex FMNH] (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:24 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon compressus (Meek 1904) -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:25 [ref. 22290], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:77 [ref. 22947], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:225 [ref. 22743], Zarske & Géry 1997:310 [ref. 23715], Almirón & Casciotta 1999:344 [ref. 24405], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:81 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:157 [ref. 28615], García-Alzate et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29671], García-Alzate & Román-Valencia 2008:13 [ref. 30008], Malabarba et al. 2012:49 [ref. 31810], García-Alzate et al. 2013:183 [ref. 32440], García-Alzate et al. 2013:861 [ref. 32692], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708], Dagosta et al. 2014:366 [ref. 33382], Carvalho & Malabarba 2015:514 [ref. 34032], García-Alzate et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35253], Pastana et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35596]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon compressus (Meek 1904). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Atlantic slope rivers and streams of southern Mexico, Belize and Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

compressus, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1864:319 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Essequibo River, Guyana. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.21.67. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1845.6.22.182 (1), 1845.6.22.185 (1), 1845.6.22.308 (1), 1854.2.25.6 (1), 1864.1.21.68 (1). Lectotype selected by Reis 1989:23 [ref. 14219]. •Valid as Poptella compressa (Günther 1864) -- (Reis 1989:20 [ref. 14219], Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302], Lasso et al. 2001:96 [ref. 25928], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:210 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:50, 185 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35633], Garcia-Ayala et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35695], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Poptella compressa (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco and Amazon River basins; coastal drainages of northern South America: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

condei, Asiphonichthys Géry [J.] & Knöppel [H.-A.] 1976:48, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 7335] Rio Tarumazinho, tributary of the lower Rio Négro above Manaus, Brazil. Holotype: MHNG 2229.05 [ex Géry Coll. 728]. Paratypes: 252 (3 c&s) Inst. Limnologie, Plön, Germany; INPA, Brazil; Géry Coll.; R. Geisler Coll. (9); MNHN 1980-1423 (2). Type catalog: Weber 1998:6 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Charax condei (Géry & Knöppel 1976) -- (Lucena 1987:34 [ref. 17724], Lucena 1989:104 [ref. 12852], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:201 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Lucena 2014:200 [ref. 33369], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Charax condei (Géry & Knöppel 1976). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

condotensis, Hyphessobrycon Regan [C. T.] 1913:465 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 3656] Río Condoto and Río San Juan, Colombia. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1913.10.1.19-21 (3). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon condotensis Regan 1913 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], García-Alzate et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30716], García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], García-Alzate et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32440], Carvalho et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33371], García-Alzate et al. 2015:222 [ref. 33855], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon condotensis Regan 1913. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Condoto and San Juan River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

conspicua, Moenkhausia Soares [I. M.] & Bührnheim [C. M.] 2016:393, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4208 (no. 4); ref. 34972] Igarapé near Tabocal community, rio Curuá-Una, Mojuí dos Campos, Pará, Brazil, 2°37'35.9"S, 54°42'36.3"W. Holotype: INPA 38782. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MCP, MPEG, MZUSP, UFAM, UFOPA, ZUEC. Plus additional non-type specimens. •Valid as Moenkhausia conspicua Soares & Bührnheim 2016. Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia conspicua Soares & Bührnheim 2016. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lower Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

conventus, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:13 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Soplaviento, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56261 [ex CM 5060]. Paratypes: (70, CM and IU) CAS 39439 [ex IU 12802] (14); FMNH 56262 (14), 71290 (43); USNM 79174 (4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:18 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:10 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Argopleura conventus (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Román-Valencia 2000:462 [ref. 25256], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:223 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Argopleura conventus (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

copei, Hydrolycus Gill [T. N.] 1870:93 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 22; ref. 17630] Río Marañon or Río Napo, Amazon system, Peru or Ecuador. Syntypes: USNM 55664 (orig. 4, now 3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:26 [ref. 19022]. •Synonym of Charax tectifer (Cope 1870)-- (Toledo-Piza et al. 1999:256 [ref. 24227], Menezes & Lucena 2014:223 [ref. 33369]). Current status: Synonym of Charax tectifer (Cope 1870). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

copei, Stethaprion Steindachner [F.] 1882:180 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Tabatinga, Amazon River, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW (3, apparently lost). Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:40 [ref. 14353]. •Valid as Brachychalcinus copei (Steindachner 1882) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Reis 1989:65 [ref. 14219], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:209 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35633], Garcia-Ayala et al. 2017:570 [ref. 35695]). Current status: Valid as Brachychalcinus copei (Steindachner 1882). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

copei, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1882:179 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Santarém, Amazon River, Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) ?MCZ 89960 (30) Obidos; NMW 57383 (5). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:35, Pl. 6 (fig. 6) [ref. 14353]. •Valid as Moenkhausia copei (Steindachner 1882) -- (Taphorn 1992:269 [ref. 23654], Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:146 [ref. 27061], Petrolli et al. 2016:168 [ref. 34395], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], Soares & Bührnheim 2016:399 [ref. 34972], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia copei (Steindachner 1882). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

copelandi, Hyphessobrycon Durbin [M. L.] in Eigenmann 1908:101 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: (100) CAS 42683 [ex IU 12653] (5), MCZ 20771 (88), USNM 120271 [ex MCZ 20771] (6). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:26 [ref. 19022]. Author is M. L. Durbin. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon copelandi Durbin 1908 -- (Géry et al. 1991:58 [ref. 21021], Chang & Ortega 1995:2 [ref. 24302], Planquette et al. 1996:288 [ref. 22818], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:226 [ref. 22743], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:145 [ref. 24509], Keith et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24547], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701], Ohara et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35494], Pastana et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35596], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35633], Guimarães et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35965]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon copelandi Durbin 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

coracoralinae, Xenurobrycon Moreira [C. R.] 2005:856, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 118 (no. 4); ref. 28474] Rio Agapito at BR-070 road, 13 kilometers west of Goiás, tributary of rio Vermelh, rio Araguaia basin, about 15°56'S, 50°09'W, munic. de Goiás, estado de Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 83366. Paratypes: Many lots at MNRJ, MZUSP, USNM. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Xenurobrycon coracoralinae Moreira 2005 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mendonça et al. 2016:[7] [ref. 34350]). Current status: Valid as Xenurobrycon coracoralinae Moreira 2005. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cordovae, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1880:12 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 6 (no. 31) (art. 2); ref. 14279] Río de Cordova (Plata), Argentina. Syntypes: BMNH 1872.4.4.4-11 (8). •Valid as Astyanax cordovae (Günther 1880) -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Zarske & Géry 1999:204 [ref. 24913], Azpelicueta, Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena et al. 2005:19 [ref. 28188], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax cordovae (Günther 1880). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Primero River, western Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

correntinus, Tetragonopterus Holmberg [E. L.] 1891:188 [Revista Argentina de Historia Natural (Buenos Aires) v. 1; ref. 2192] Corrientes, Río Paraná, Argentina. No types known. •Species inquirenda in Ctenobrycon -- (Benine & Cassati in Reis et al. 2003:126 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax correntinus (Holmberg 1891) -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], López et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Mirande et al. 2006:10 [ref. 28757], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333], Mirande 2010:517 [ref. 31006], Soneira et al. 2010:785 [ref. 31078], Koerber 2011:3 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax correntinus (Holmberg 1891). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná River, in Perichón, near Corrientes City, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

cosmops, Moenkhausia Lima [F. C. T.], Britski [H. A.] & Machado [F. A.] 2007:47, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 29395] Sapezal, córrego Vinte e Cinco de Maio, near its mouth at the rio Papagaio, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 93494. Paratypes: (31) ANSP 187100 (1); MP 41348 (1); MNRJ 30777 (1); MZUSP 78722 (2), 91122 (3), 93495 (17 + 3 c&s), 93496 (3). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Moenkhausia cosmops Lima, Britski & Machado 2007 -- (Marinho & Langeani 2010:887 [ref. 30927], Pastana & Dagosta 2014:395 [ref. 33384], Dagosta et al. 2015:424 [ref. 33998], Ohara & Lima 2015:167 [ref. 34046], Ohara & Marinho 2016:[6] 42 [ref. 34383], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia cosmops Lima, Britski & Machado 2007. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

costae, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1907:84 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 44 (no. 6) (for 28 Feb. 1907); ref. 20499] Rio São Francisco, Joazeiro, Rio Grande; Cidade da Barra, Santa Rita do Rio Prato, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) MNHN 1907-0178 [ex NMW] (4); MZUT 1682 (3); NMW 57391-98 (8?), 57401-06 (6?), 57408-09 (2?) 57411 (1); ZSM 7586-87 [ex NMW 57393] (2). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:138 [ref. 21559], Bertin 1948:17 [ref. 19577], Neumann 2011:247 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Moenkhausia costae (Steindachner 1907) -- (Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:146 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:42 [ref. 28287], Petrolli & Benine 2015:417 [ref. 33887], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia costae (Steindachner 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: São Francisco and Itapicuru River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

costai, Nematocharax Bragança [P. H. N.], Barbosa [M. A.] & Mattos [J. L.] 2013:4, Figs. 1-3 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 32664] Cambiriba Stream, Balneário Guaíro, Contas River basin, 14°36'16"S, 40°06'08"W, Municipio de Iguaí, Estado da Bahia, Brazil, altitude 347 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 8216. Paratypes: UFRJ 8215 (3), 8265 (1 c&s). •Synonym of Nematocharax venustus Weitzman, Menezes & Britski 1986 -- (Menezes et al. 2015:453 [ref. 33689], Barreto et al. 2018:1159 [ref. 36378]). Current status: Synonym of Nematocharax venustus Weitzman, Menezes & Britski 1986. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

costaricensis, Astyanax aeneus var. Meek [S. E.] 1914:105 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 10); ref. 2961] Costa Rica. Syntypes: FMNH 6349 (1), 7866-73 (5, 39, 15, 2, 6, 61, 49, 25); UMMZ 162475 (5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Bussing 1998:81 [ref. 24179]). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Synonym of Astyanax nicaraguensis Eigenmann & Ogle 1907 -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1393 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax nicaraguensis Eigenmann & Ogle 1907. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

cotinho, Moenkhausia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:104 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Parahyba do Norte at Joao Pessoa and Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 21013 (2), 21070 (3). •Valid as Moenkhausia cotinho Eigenmann 1908 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:221 [ref. 23654], Lima & Toledo-Piza 2001:1062 [ref. 25823], Benine 2002:292 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:146 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2006:11 [ref. 29010], Benine et al. 2007:262 [ref. 29279], Benine et al. 2009:161 [ref. 30250], Sousa et al. 2010:262 [ref. 30863], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Pastana & Dagosta 2014:395 [ref. 33384], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Dagosta et al. 2015:424 [ref. 33998], Ohara & Marinho 2016:[6] 42 [ref. 34383] as cf. cotinho, Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35679], Soares et al. 2019:237 [ref. 36688]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia cotinho Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

courensis, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.], Carvalho [F. R.] & Jerep [F. C.] 2010:269, Figs. 5-6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 30864] Rio dos Couros at Parque Portal da Chapada, tributary of rio Tocantinzinho, upper rio Tocantins basin, Alto Paraíso de Goías, Goías State, Brazil, 14°09'58"S, 47°35'43"W, elevation 1135 meters. Holotype: UFRGS 11499. Paratypes: MCP 44403 (20), 44404 (1); UFRGS 9934 (5), 11290 (107, 5 c&s), 11295 (5), 11588 (38, 2 c&s). •Valid as Astyanax courensis Bertaco, Carvalho & Jerep 2010 -- (Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax courensis Bertaco, Carvalho & Jerep 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio dos Couros basin, upper rio Tocabntins basin, Goías, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

coxeyi, Hemibrycon Fowler [H. W.] 1943:1, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 119; ref. 13202] Napo-Pastaza, Río Marañon basin, Hacienda Las Mascota, río Topo, tributary of río Pastaxa, 1°25'S, 78°11'W, Ecuador. Holotype: ANSP 70155 (poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621]. Original locality corrected. •Questionably a synonym of Hemibrycon polyodon (Günther 1864) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:130 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Hemibrycon polyodon (Günther 1864) -- (Bertaco & Malabarba 2010:756 [ref. 31076]). •Valid as Hemibrycon coxeyi Fowler 1943 -- (Román-Valencia et al. 2006:210 [ref. 28983], Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007:123 [ref. 29189], Román-Valencia et al. 2007:185 [ref. 29496], Román-Valencia et al. 2010:101[ref. 30945], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:118 [ref. 33572]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon coxeyi Fowler 1943. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Marañon River basin, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

cracentis, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:93, Fig. 26 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Rio Tapajós, sandy beaches on an island located 5 kilometers south of Itiatuba, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 15213. Paratypes: MCP 22018 (3), USNM 353862 (2, 1 c&s). •Valid as Creagrutus cracentis Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Dagosta & Pastana 2014:578 [ref. 33181], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus cracentis Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Lower portions of Tapajós River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

crassiceps, Rachoviscus Myers [G. S.] 1926:566, fig'd [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 37 (no. 24); ref. 3094] Supposedly near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lectotype: USNM 92971. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 18146 (1), USNM 94216 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:26 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Weitzman & Cruz 1980:1009 [ref. 8528]; they also suggest type locality probably is the region of Paranaguá, Brazil. Also as a separate, pp. 1-2. •Valid as Rachoviscus crassiceps Myers 1926 -- (Weitzman & Cruz 1981:1007 [ref. 8528], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:155 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Rachoviscus crassiceps Myers 1926. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal River basins of Paraná and northern Santa Catarina states, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cremnobates, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2001:224, Figs. 2-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 25645] Rio Grande do Sul, São Francisco de Paula, tributary of rio Santa Cruz, 29°23'S, 50°32'W, Brazil, elevation 850 meters. Holotype: MCP 26093. Paratypes: MCP 11142 (25, 5 c&s), 11650 (34, 2 c&s), 21101 (12), 22295 (78), 22297 (9), 25660 (15); MZUSP 62712 (20); NMW 94543 (20); UFRGS 4949 (20); USNM 364302 (20). •Valid as Astyanax cremnobates Bertaco & Malabarba 2001 -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], de Melo & Buckup 2006:50 [ref. 28622], Ruiz-C. & Román-Valenca 2006:60 [ref. 28891], Bertaco & Lucena 2010:19 [ref. 30750], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Lucena et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Bertaco 2014:498 [ref. 33320], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax cremnobates Bertaco & Malabarba 2001. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Jacui and Maquiné River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

crenatus, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:95, Fig. 37 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Quebrada Sanare in Yay, 9°45'N, 69°43'W, Lara, Venezuela. Holotype: MHNLS 505. Paratypes: INHS 28851 (5), MHNLS 12900 (6, 1c&s). •Valid as Creagrutus crenatus Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus crenatus Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Tocuyo River, Caribbean versant, north-central Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

crenatus, Stethaprion Eigenmann [C. H.] 1916:80, Figs. 2-3; Pl. 16 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 6); ref. 1233] San Joaquín, Bolivia. Holotype: FMNH 56413 [ex CM 5228a]. Paratypes: FMNH 56414 [not 56415] (2), 56941 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:68 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Stethaprion crenatum Eigenmann 1916 -- (Reis 1989:55 [ref. 14219], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:210 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Garcia-Ayala et al. 2017:572 [ref. 35695]). Current status: Valid as Stethaprion crenatum Eigenmann 1916. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Purus, Madeira, and lower Amazon River basins: Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

crenuchoides, Hasemania Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 1999:91, Figs. 1-2 [Spixiana (München) v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 23982] Corrego Planaltina, oberer Rio São Bartolomeu, Goias, Brazil, elevation 1050 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 52732 [ex ZSM 22656a]. Paratypes: Géry coll. 1010.1-5 (5); MHNG 2594.44 (5); MTD F 21538-42 (5), F 21543-45 (3nc&s); ZFMK 20543-47 (5), ZMB 32959 (5); ZSM 22656a (55). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:17 [ref. 27474], Herder et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31087], Neumann 2011:245 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Hasemania crenuchoides Zarske & Géry 1999 -- (Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:128-129 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Malabarba 2007:350 [ref. 29142], Zanata & Serra 2010:21 [ref. 30751], Bertaco & Carvalho 2010:30 [ref. 30752], Serra & Langeani 2015:483 [ref. 33944]). Current status: Valid as Hasemania crenuchoides Zarske & Géry 1999. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin and upper Tocantins in the Distrito Federal, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

crisnejas, Moenkhausia Pearson [N. E.] in Eigenmann & Myers 1929:524 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 5); ref. 1263] Paipay, Río Crisnejas, Amazon System, Peru. Syntypes: CAS 60477 [ex IU 17641] (24). •Valid as Moenkhausia crisnejas Pearson 1929 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:146 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia crisnejas Pearson 1929. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Crisnejas River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cristiani, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 1999:110, Fig. 1 [Revista Actualidos Biológicas v. 20 (no. 69) (1998); ref. 24922] Upper Meta River, tributary to río Guayuriba, 4°07'N, 74°15'W, Meta Dept., Colombia. Holotype: ICNMNH 3445. Paratypes: ICNMNH 3446-49 (1, 7, 5, 3); IUQ 381-382 (20, 11). Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:10 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Bryconamericus cristiani Román-Valencia 1999 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2003:40 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Zarske et al. 2010:9 [ref. 30816], Román-Valencia 2010:201 [ref. 31063], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32807]). •Valid as Hemibrycon cristiani Román-Valencia 1999 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35773] not Colombia). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon cristiani (Román-Valencia 1999). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Ríio Meta, Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cryptogrammus, Microschemobrycon Ohara [W. M.], Jerep [F. C.] & Cavallaro [M. R.] 2019:327, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4576 (no. 2); ref. 36615] Igarapé tributary of Rio Curuá, Rio Xingu basin, 15 km north from Castelo dos Sonhos, Altamira, Pará State, Brazil, 8°10'25"S, 55°7'43"W. Holotype: MZUSP 123748. Paratypes: MNRJ, MZUSP. •Valid as Microschemobrycon cryptogrammus Ohara, Jerep & Cavallaro 2019. Current status: Valid as Microschemobrycon cryptogrammus Ohara, Jerep & Cavallaro 2019. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Curuá drainage, Rio Xingu basin, Pará State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cubilhuitz, Astyanax Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2017:1380, Fig. 32 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Spring origin of short stream with underground drainage to Río Dolores, Cubilhuitz, Icbolay, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, elevation 300 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 250290. Paratypes: UMMZ. •Valid as Astyanax cubilhuitz Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax cubilhuitz Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Río Dolores, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

cupreus, Hemigrammus Durbin [M. L.] in Eigenmann 1918:168, Pl. 20 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 2); ref. 1240] Jatuarana, Lago Saraca, Amazon system, Brazil. Syntypes: CAS 42675 [ex IU 12651, MCZ 20952] (2); ?MCZ 21067 (6), ?21069 (9?, orig. 6), 89964 (orig. 11). Author is M. L. Durbin. Appeared first in Eigenmann 1910:436 [ref. 1224] without description. •Valid as Hemigrammus cupreus Durbin 1918 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus cupreus Durbin 1918. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

curimata, Characinus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:271, 279 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Suriname. No types known. •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). Characidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cuvieri, Tetragonopterus Lütken [C. F.] 1875:131 [5] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 3); ref. 2856] Rio São Francisco; Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9581 (2); ZMB 9198 (2); ZMUC 306, 308, 310, 312, 314, 315, 328, 329, 363. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:21 [ref. 19577], Nielsen 1974:46 [ref. 9588]. On p. 5 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:210 (and p. XII of summary), Pl. 5 (fig. 12) [ref. 19674]. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

cyanotaenia, Hyphessobrycon Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 2006:43, Figs. 14-16 [Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Tierkunde. v. 55; ref. 28750] Rio Guamá, Para, Brazil (aquarium import). Probably upper Rio Juruena or Rio Guaporé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MTD F 28760. Paratypes: Géry coll. (2); MTD F 28761-62 (2), 28763-64 (2). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon cyanotaenia Zarske & Géry 2006 -- (Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Teixeira et al. 2014:613 [ref. 33097], Dagosta et al. 2016:254 [ref. 34377], Marinho et al. 2016:519 [ref. 34591], Ohara et al. 2017:249 [ref. 35067]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon cyanotaenia Zarske & Géry 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Rio Juruena and upper Rio Guaporé, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cyclolepis, Parecbasis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1914:45 [Indiana University Studies No. 20; ref. 1230] São Antonio de Rio Madeira, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 56677 [ex CM 5495]. Paratypes: FMNH 56678 [ex CM 5496] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:59 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:64 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Parecbasis cyclolepis Eigenmann 1914 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:153 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:529 [ref. 31006], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Parecbasis cyclolepis Eigenmann 1914. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cylindricus, Hemigrammus Durbin [M. L.] 1909:62 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1166] Tumatumari, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53426 [ex CM 1461]. Paratypes: BMNH 1911.10.31.395 (1); CAS 44412-14 [ex IU 11915-17] (1, 4, 5); FMNH 7349 (1), 53037 (1), 53038-40 (3, 5, 1), 69538 (9); MCZ 29974 (1); CAS-SU 21916 (1); USNM 66191 [ex CM] (1); ZMA 100984 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:65 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:24 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:18 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:24 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hemigrammus cylindricus Durbin 1909 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus cylindricus Durbin 1909. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Essequibo River, Guyana and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

cyprinoides, Charax Meuschen [F. C.] 1778:38 [Museum Gronovianum; ref. 17682] Original not seen. Not available, published in a rejected work (Opinion 260). •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). Characidae. Habitat: freshwater.

daguae, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:23 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Córdova, Colombia. Holotype (unique): FMNH 56251 [ex CM 5052]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:60 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Astyanax daguae Eigenmann 1913 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax daguae Eigenmann 1913. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

daguae, Hyphessobrycon panamensis var. Eigenmann [C. H.] (ex Hildebrand) 1922:141 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Dagua and Patia basins, Colombia. Syntypes: FMNH ?56516 (1), 56526-29 (1, 2, 2, 2), 58316 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:48 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Hyphessobrycon panamensis Durbin 1908 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:139 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hyphessobrycon panamensis Durbin 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

dahli, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 2000:451, Fig. 1 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 48 (no. 2/3); ref. 25256] Quebrada Babosa afluent río Sabunde, río Patia system, río Telembi basin, on road to Tumaco at kilometer 98, about 1°37'N, 78°23'W, Depto. de Nariño, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMNH 2722. Paratypes: ICNMNH 2339 (21), 2349 (7), 2353 (5), 3450 (6), uncat. (3); IUQ 218-220 (14, 13, 4). Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:11 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Bryconamericus dahli Román-Valencia 2000 -- (Román-Valencia 2003:28 [ref. 26840], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:115-116 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Román-Valencia et al. 2011:844 [ref. 31565], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32807], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:133 [ref. 34894]). •Valid as Eretmobrycon dahli (Román-Valencia 2000) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Román-Valencia et al. 2015:243 [ref. 34022], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Eretmobrycon dahli (Román-Valencia 2000). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

dalmata, Amazonspinther Bührnheim [C. M.], Carvalho [T. P.], Malabarba [L. R.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 2008:665, Figs. 1-5, 6a, 7, 11, 12 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 29955] Stream crossing road Transamazônica about 12 kilometers west of Humaitá to Lábrea, Madeira River basin, 7°34'25"S, 63°06'39"W, Jumaitá-Canutama, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 38623. Paratypes: many at ANSP, INPA, MCP, MNRJ. •Valid as Amazonspinther dalmata Bührnheim, Carvalho, Malabarba & Weitzman 2008. Current status: Valid as Amazonspinther dalmata Bührnheim, Carvalho, Malabarba & Weitzman 2008. Characidae: Spintherobolinae. Distribution: Small streams of middle rio Purus (rio Açuá) and middle and loewer rio Madeira basins, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dariensis, Hemibrycon Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1916:285, Pl. 20 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 15); ref. 2962] Mouth of Río Yape, Río Tuyra basin, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 8947. Paratypes: CAS 44343 [ex IU 14001 and 15335] (4); FMNH 12661-74 (8, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 2, 3); USNM 78594 (orig. 9, now 8). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:23 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hemibrycon dariensis Meek & Hildebrand 1916 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007:129 [ref. 29189], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2008:74 [ref. 29744], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009:78 [ref. 30718], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2010:340 [ref. 30721], Mirande 2010:534 [ref. 31006], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:118 [ref. 3572], García-Alzate et al. 2015:90 [ref. 33838], Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon dariensis Meek & Hildebrand 1916. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Panama and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

dasalmas, Moenkhausia Bertaco [V. A.], Jerep [F. C.] & Carvalho [F. R.] 2011:58, Figs. 1-5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 31234] Tributary of the rio das Almas, rio Paranã drainage, about 8 kilometers north of Cavalcante on road GO 241, between Cavalcante and Minaçu, 13°43'13"S, 47°27'20"W, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: UFRGS [= DZUFRGS] 11221. Paratypes: MZUSP 106076 (8); UFRGS [= DZUFRGS] 11194 (24, 3 c&s), 11589 (4). The name dasalmas is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Moenkhausia dasalmas Bertaco, Jerep & Carvalho 2011 -- (Bertaco et al. 2011:37 [ref. 31403], Marinho et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34376], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia dasalmas Bertaco, Jerep & Carvalho 2011. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tributaries of rio das Almas, upper rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dayi, Anacyrtus (Rhaeboides) Steindachner [F.] 1878:91 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 15 (no. 12) (for 9 May 1878); ref. 20476] Cienaga, Río Magdalena, Colombia. Holotype (unique): NMW 67132. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:61 [p. 45 of separate] [ref. 4227]. •Valid as Roeboides dayi (Steindachner 1878) -- (Taphorn 1992:318 [ref. 23654], Galvis et al. 1997:52 [ref. 23651], Lucena 1998:39 [ref. 23597], Lucena 2000:24 [ref. 24559], Marín 2000:66 [ref. 26252], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2011:1663 [ref. 31620], Matamoros et al. 2013:280 [ref. 32755], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides dayi (Steindachner 1878). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Central and South America: Colombia and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

decurrens, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:20 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Soplaviento, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56255 [ex CM 5055]. Paratypes: CAS 39542 [IU 12829] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:18 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hemibrycon decurrens (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Román-Valencia 2000:462 [ref. 25256], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon decurrens (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Lower Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

delimai, Charax Menezes [N. A.] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2014:202, Fig. 10 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 33369] Amazonas, community of São Pedro, rio Tiquié, rio Negro drainage, 0°16’04"N, 69°58’21"W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 81505. Paratypes: MZUSP 64359 (1), 81325 (1). 84988 (1), •Valid as Charax delimai Menezes & Lucena 2014. Current status: Valid as Charax delimai Menezes & Lucena 2014. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Rio Tiquié, Rio Negro basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

delimai, Hyphessobrycon Teixeira [T. F.], Netto-Ferreira [A. L.], Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Sousa [L. M. de] 2016:460, Figs. 1, 2, 3a, 4 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 88 (no. 2); ref. 34088] Igarapé Tatu, tributary of Rio Novo, Rio Tapajós basin, Pará, Brazil, 6°18'24.8"S, 55°46'38.0"W. Holotype: MZUSP 115065. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MCNIP, MZUEL, MZUSP, ZUEC. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon delimai Teixeira, Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli & Sousa 2016. Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon delimai Teixeira, Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli & Sousa 2016. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Novo and Rio Jamanxin, Rio Tapajós basin, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

delotaenia, Ceratobranchia Chernoff [B.] & Machado-Allison [A.] 1990:283, Figs. 20-21 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 142; ref. 19495] Mouth of Río Carbon, below Atalaya, Cuzco/Madre de Dios border, Depto. de Cuzco, Peru, 12°53'S, 71°20'W. Holotype: ANSP 163721 [ex ANSP 143770]. Paratypes: ANSP 143770-73 (1, 1, 1, 2); FMNH 98311 (1). •Valid as Ceratobranchia delotaenia Chernoff & Machado-Allison 1990 -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:2 [ref. 24302], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:120 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Ceratobranchia delotaenia Chernoff & Machado-Allison 1990. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

delta, Knodus Géry [J.] 1972:56, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Acta Humboldtiana (Series Geologica, Palaeontologica et Biologica Nr. 2) No. 2; ref. 1595] Creek near Puerto Napo, upper Río Napo, Ecuador. Holotype: ZMH H1473. Paratypes: MNHN 1980-1444 (1), ZMH H1473a (5). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:156 [ref. 22013]. •Valid as Bryconamericanus delta (Géry 1972) -- (Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Barriga S. 2012:106 [ref. 35745] with author as Román-Valencia 2000). •Valid as Knodus delta Géry 1972 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:143 [ref. 27061], Ferreira & Lima 2006:635 [ref. 28919], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32807], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Knodus delta Géry 1972. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

dentatus, Aphyocharax Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:516 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] Laguna del Río Paraguay, Asuncion, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 59722 [ex IU 10032]. Paratypes: AMNH 1469 (2); CAS 59723 [ex IU 10036] (orig. 4, now 3), 59724 [ex IU 10037] (1), 59725 [ex IU 10038] (orig. 4, now 2), 59726 [ex IU 10034-35] (3), 76471 [ex IU 10033] (2 not 1); NMW 62798 (1). •Valid as Aphyocharax dentatus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:45 [ref. 24147], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:198 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:76 [ref. 28131], Mirande 2010:526 [ref. 31006], Sarmiento et al. 2014:43, 183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:17 [ref. 35117], Terán et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35096], Koerber et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35267], Brito et al. 2018:398 [ref. 36071]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocharax dentatus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Paraguay and Paraná River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

dentatus, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:19 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Piedra de Moler, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56253 [ex CM 5054a]. Paratypes: (38, CM and IU) CAS 39543-45 (now 1, 7, 1); FMNH 56274 (1), 56252 (5), 56254 (7), 69709 (8); USNM 79175 (orig. 4, now 3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:18 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:10 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hemibrycon dentatus (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Taphorn 1992:197 [ref. 23654], Galvis et al. 1997:50 [ref. 23651], Román-Valencia 2000:462 [ref. 25256], Román-Valencia 2001:475 [ref. 25946], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon dentatus (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

denticulatus, Tetragonopterus Silva [G. S. C.], Melo [B. F.], Oliveira [C.] & Benine [R. C.] 2013:1617, Figs. 1, 2b, 3e [Journal of Fish Biology v. 82 (no 5); ref. 32576] Aragarças, Rio Araguaia, Amazon basin, 15°53'31.5"S, 52°15'01.0"W, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 111002. Paratypes: LBP 1518 (5, 1 c&s), 1629 (1), 5751 (4, 1 c&s); MZUSP 88119 (2). •Valid as Tetragonopterus denticulatus Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2013 -- (Araujo & Lucinda 2014:314 [ref. 33377], Melo et al. 2015:711 [ref. 35424], Silva et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34929], Urbanski et al. 2018:[6] [ref. 35973]). Current status: Valid as Tetragonopterus denticulatus Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2013. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

depressirostris, Astyanax Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1908:[3] [Kosmos, Rio de Janeiro [Rev. Art. Sci. Litt.] v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1907); ref. 3715] Rio Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 18241 [ex 2621A]. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 2621 (5). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1953:396 [ref. 12732]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:396 [ref. 12732] [specimen subsequently isolated]. •Valid as Astyanax depressirostris Miranda Ribeiro 1908 -- (Lucena & Lucena 2002:119 [ref. 26205], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556]). •Species inquirenda -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax depressirostris Miranda Ribeiro 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

descalvadensis, Roeboides Fowler [H. W.] 1932:359, Fig. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 84; ref. 16366] Descalvados, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 53718. Paratypes: ANSP 53719 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Roeboides descalvadensis Fowler 1932 -- (Lucena 1988:33 [ref. 22126], Lucena 1998:36 [ref. 23597], Britski et al. 1999:53 [ref. 24147], Lucena 2000:155 [ref. 25162], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2007:127 [ref. 29256], Mirande 2010:494 [ref. 31006], Koerber 2011:2 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:3 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:51, 185 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:18 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides descalvadensis Fowler 1932. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Widespread in South America: Paraná, Paraguay and Amazonas basins. Habitat: freshwater.

deuterodonoides, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:5 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Río Negro, Quebrada at Villavicencio, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56644 [ex CM 5461]. Paratypes: (13) CAS 61221 [ex IU 13156] (6), FMNH 56645 (6). •Valid as Bryconamericus deuterodonoides Eigenmann 1914 -- (Taphorn 1992:140 [ref. 23654], Román-Valencia 1999:113 [ref. 24922], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2003:40 [ref. 26840], Zarske et al. 2010:9 [ref. 30816], Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015:435 [ref. 33665]). •Valid as Knodus deuterodonoides (Eigenmann 1914) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Knodus deuterodonoides (Eigenmann 1914). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River and Lake Maracaibo basins: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

diagonicus, Hemigrammus Mendonça [M. B.] & Wosiacki [W. B.] 2011:211, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2011 (no. 2); ref. 31415] Lago do Piranha, Juruti, Lower Amazon, 2°12'40.2"S, 56°06'59.1''W, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MPEG 10321. Paratypes: INPA 34093 (1); MPEG 10307 (2), 10308 (1), 10311 (2 c&s), 17382 (3 + 1 c&s). •Valid as Hemigrammus diagonicus Mendonça & Wosiacki 2011. Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus diagonicus Mendonça & Wosiacki 2011. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Balaio and Piranha lakes, lower Amazon River, Pará State, Brazil. Habitat: marine.

dialepturus, Cheirodon Fink [W. L.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 1974:5, Figs. 1-5 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 172; ref. 7132] Creek at bridge 12 miles west of Santiago on road to Sona, River San Pedro basin, Veraguas Province, Panama. Holotype: USNM 208524. Paratypes: ANSP 121989 (2), BMNH 1973.2.16.3-4 (2), CAS 16060 (2), FMNH 71702 (2), MCZ 49067 (2), USNM 208523 (orig. 144, now 132, 3 c&s); ZMA 112473 (2). Other material in USNM. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:16 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:23 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:14 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Cheirodon dialepturus Fink & Weitzman 1974 -- (Bussing 1987:68 [ref. 22927]). •Valid as Compsura dialeptura (Fink & Weitzman 1974) -- (Bussing 1998:103 [ref. 24179]). •Valid as "Odontostilbe" dialeptura (Fink & Weitzman 1974) -- (Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:427 [ref. 24417]). •Not in Odontostilbe -- (Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:193 [ref. 28728]). •Valid as Odontostilbe dialeptura (Fink & Weitzman 1974) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:217 [ref. 27061], Angulo et al. 2013:992 [ref. 33194] with question, Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Odontostilbe dialeptura (Fink & Weitzman 1974). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Pacific versant rivers, Costa Rica and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

diamantina, Lepidocharax Ferreira [K. M.], Menezes [N. A.] & Quagio-Grassiotto [I.] 2011:283, Figs. 2-5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 31387] Rio Santo Antônio, a tributary to rio Paraguaçu, ca. 12°31'S, 41°34'W, Palmeiras, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 37509. Paratypes: MNRJ 21997 (55, 1 c&s), MZUSP 160499 (9). The species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Lepidocharax diamantina Ferreira, Menezes & Quagio-Grassiotto 2011 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Lepidocharax diamantina Ferreira, Menezes & Quagio-Grassiotto 2011. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

diamantina, Moenkhausia Benine [R. C.], Castro [R. M. C.] & Santos [A. C. A.] 2007:260, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 29279] Foz do rio Toalhas, rio Paraguaçu basin, Munic. de Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 30168. Paratypes: AMNH 239393 (5); LIRP 768 (14, 2 c&s); MNRJ 21995 (17, 2 c&s); MZUSP 49233 (4). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Moenkhausia diamantina Benine, Castro & Santos 2007 -- (Sousa et al. 2010:262 [ref. 30863], Marinho & Langeani 2010:887 [ref. 30927], Marinho et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34376]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia diamantina Benine, Castro & Santos 2007. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper and middle Paraguaçu River: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

diancistrus, Hyphessobrycon Weitzman [S. H.] 1977:349, Figs. 1-3, 6 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 90 (no. 2); ref. 7295] Río Vichada, Vichada, ca. 4°14'N, 70°20'W, 50 kilometers west of San José de Ocuné, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 216607. Paratypes: BMNH 1977.1.12.1-2 (2), MZUSP 13179-80 (2), USNM 216606 (2, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:26 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:467 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon diancistrus Weitzman 1977 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], Benine & Lopes 2008:67 [ref. 29589], García-Alzate et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29671], García-Alzate et al. 2008:142 [ref. 29919], García-Alzate & Román-Valencia 2008:13 [ref. 30008], García-Alzate et al. 2010:39 [ref. 30724], García-Alzate et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30716], García-Alzate et al.2010:801 [ref. 30824], García-Alzate et al. 2010:455 [ref. 31066], García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], Dagosta et al. 2014:366 [ref. 33382], Lima et al. 2014:177 [ref. 33535], García-Alzate et al. 2015:223 [ref. 33855], Bragança et al. 2015:260 [ref. 34051], García-Alzate et al. 2017:125 [ref. 35253], Ohara et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35494], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:87 [ref. 35773], Guimarães et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35965]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon diancistrus Weitzman 1977. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

diaphanus, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1878:691 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Río Huallaga at Moyabamba, Peru. Lectotype: ANSP 21216. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21217-18 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratypes. Lectotype established by Fowler 1906:339, Fig. 27 [ref. 1373]. •Valid as Bryconamericus diaphanus (Cope 1878) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32807], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:108 [ref. 33608], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus diaphanus (Cope 1878). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

diastatos, Hyphessobrycon Dagosta [F. C. P.], Marinho [M. M. F.] & Camelier [P.] 2014:366, Figs. 1-2, 6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 33382] Bahia, São Desidério, rio Galheirão (or rio da Estiva) at BR-020 road, affluent of rio Grande, rio São Francisco basin, 12°58’42.7"S, 45°59’28.7"W, Brazil, elevation 802 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 114030. Paratypes: INPA, MCP, MZUSP. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon diastatos Dagosta, Marinho & Camelier 2014 -- (Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon diastatos Dagosta, Marinho & Camelier 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio São Francisco basin to Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dichrourus, Tetragonopterus Kner [R.] 1858:80 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 56219 (4), 57593 (2). •Valid as Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner 1858) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:272 [ref. 23654], Fernández & Butí 1996:253 [ref. 22775], Britski et al. 1999:34 [ref. 24147], see Gómez & Chebez 1996:50 [ref. 23791], Lasso et al. 2001:96 [ref. 25928], Britski & de Silimon 2001:119 [ref. 27195], Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:146 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:28 [ref. 27366], Benine et al. 2004:72 [ref. 27502], Menni 2004:78 [ref. 28131], Mirande 2010:507 [ref. 31006], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Litz & Koerber 2014:16 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Petrolli & Benine 2015:417 [ref. 33887], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], Melo et al. 2016:375 [ref. 35317], Nión et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35565] with author without parentheses, Koerber et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner 1858). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon, Paraguay and Orinoco River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

dicropotamicus, Cyanocharax Malabarba [L. R.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 2003:109, Figs. 3, 6, 14, 24-28 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 27141] Rio Forqueta, Marquês de Souza, Lageado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 82262. Paratypes: MCP 19510 (63, 5 c&s), 19516 (30); MNRJ 23845 (20); MZUSP 18984 (34); USNM 337244 (20), 337599 (14). •Valid as Cyanocharax dicropotamicus Malabarba & Weitzman 2003 -- (Casciotta et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32076], Protogino & Miquelarena 2012:581 [ref. 32123]). •Valid as Diapoma dicropotamicus (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Diapoma dicropotamicus (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Northern tributaries of the Jacuí River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dientonito, Roeboides dayi Schultz [L. P.] 1944:304, Fig. 39 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Palmar at the bridge, 70 kilometers southwest of Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121370. Paratypes: USNM 121371 (orig. 91, now 90), 121372-73 (14, 2), 121374 (orig. 24, now 23), 121375 (now 106), 121376-77 (2, 26), 121378 (now 0), 121379 (orig. 155, now 149), 121380-82 (1, 21, 20), 121384 (71); Géry coll. [ex USNM 121379] (6);MCZ 37270 [ex USNM 121383]; UMMZ 145028 [ex USNM 121378] (6 or 5); ZMA 110437 [ex USNM 121375] (6), 113846 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:24 [ref. 19236], Vari & Howe 1991:37-38 [ref. 19022]. •Mention -- (Taphorn 1992:318 [ref. 23654]). •Valid as Roeboides dientonito Schultz 1944 -- (González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Lucena 1998:39 [ref. 23597], Lucena 2000:18 [ref. 24559], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2011:1663 [ref. 31620], Phillip et al. 2013:17 [ref. 32896], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:87 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides dientonito Schultz 1944. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Lake Maraicabo and Orinoco River basin and rivers of northwestern Guyana: Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela; Trinidad and Tobago. Habitat: freshwater.

dierythrura, Odontostilbe Fowler [H. W.] 1940:68, Figs. 23-24 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Todos Santos, Río Chapare, Bolivia. Holotype: ANSP 68915. Paratypes: ANSP 68916-48 (33) [non-types 67196-97 (2) and 67198 (1, c&s) mixed with paratypes and not separable]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Odontostilbe dierythrura Fowler 1940 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:217 [ref. 27061], Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:193 [ref. 28728], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Odontostilbe dierythrura Fowler 1940. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

difficilis, Notropocharax Marini [T. L.], Nichols [J. T.] & La Monte [F. R.] 1933:6, Fig. 3 [American Museum Novitates No. 618; ref. 2889] Rio Mogi-Guassú, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: AMNH 12247. Paratypes: AMNH 12248 (5). •Synonym of Aphyocharax dentatus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:198 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:17 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Aphyocharax dentatus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Habitat: freshwater.

diktyota, Moenkhausia Lima [F. C. T.] & Toledo-Piza [M.] 2001:1058, Figs 1-2 [Copeia 2001 (no. 4); ref. 25823] Rio Negro, igarapé at São João, near Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, 0°24'S, 65°02'W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 62614. Paratypes: INPA 16200 (1); MZUSP 62615 (9, 1 c&s), 64107 (2); USNM 363175 (1). •Valid as Moenkhausia diktyota Lima & Toledo-Piza 2001 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Benine et al. 2007:262 [ref. 29279], Benine et al. 2009:161 [ref. 30250] as dyktiota, Marinho & Langeani 2010:887 [ref. 30927], Dagosta et al. 2015:424 [ref. 33998], Ohara & Marinho 2016:[6] 42 [ref. 34383]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia diktyota Lima & Toledo-Piza 2001. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Orinoco basin, Brazil and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

diquensis, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:14 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Soplaviento, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56272 [ex CM 5072]. Paratypes: (19, CM and IU) CAS 39013 [ex IU 12820] (7), FMNH 56273 (6), 69690 (5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:18 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Argopleura diquensis (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Román-Valencia 2000:462 [ref. 25256], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:223 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Argopleura diquensis (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

dispar, Roeboides Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2001:63, Fig. 1 [Biotemas v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 25666] Fos do [rio] Arara, bacia do rio Juruá, Reserva Extrativista Alto Juruá, Acre, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 63600. Paratypes: MCP 26487 (2); MZUSP 26157 (8), 26397-98 (1, 1), 34721 (2), 35953 (4), 50455 (1), 63601 (7). •Valid as Roeboides dispar Lucena 2001 -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:51, 185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides dispar Lucena 2001. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

dissensus, Astyanax Lucena [C. A. S. de] & Thofehrn [S. B.] in Lucena [C. A. S. de], Castro [J. B.] & Bertaco [V. A.] 2013:538, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 3); ref. 32914] Rio Grande do Sul, Candiota, arroio Candiota, downstream of Thermoelectric Power Plant, rio Jaguarão drainage, 31°34’36"S, 53°40’22"W, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 47000. Paratypes: many at MCN, MCP, UFRGS. •Valid as Astyanax dissensus Lucena & Thofehrn 2013 -- (Bertaco 2014:498 [ref. 33320], Koerber & Litz 2014:2 [ref. 34967], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:2 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax dissensus Lucena & Thofehrn 2013. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Laguna dos Patos system and rio Uruguay drainage, Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

dissimilis, Astyanax Garavello [J. C.] & Sampaio [F. A. A.] 2010:859, Fig. 8 [Brazilian Journal of Biology v. 70 (no. 3); ref. 31053] Rio Canoinhas, tributary to Rio Iguaçu near the bridge on highway BR 280 from Mafra to Itaiópolis, Canoinhas, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 105969. Paratypes: many at LISDEBE, MHNCI, MZUSP. •Valid as Astyanax dissimilis Garavello & Sampaio 2010 -- (Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax dissimilis Garavello & Sampaio 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Rio Iguaçu basin, Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

divisorensis, Hemibrycon Bertaco [V. A.], Malabarba [L. R.], Hidalgo [M. H.] & Ortega [H.] 2007:252, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 29278] Upper río Tapiche, Zona Reservada Sierra del Divisor, río Ucayali drainage, 7°12'02"S, 73°53'00"W, Loreto, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 28860. Paratypes: MCP 41346 (6, 2 c&s), 41347 (5); MUSM 28039 (12, 1 c&s), 28040 (19). •Valid as Hemibrycon divisorensis Bertaco, Malabarba, Hidalgo & Ortega 2007 -- (Bertaco & Malabarba 2010:766 [ref. 31076], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon divisorensis Bertaco, Malabarba, Hidalgo & Ortega 2007. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Tributary to Ucayali River, Loreto, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

dnophos, Astyanax Lima [F. C. T.] & Zuanon [J.] 2004:118, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 27933] Rio Xingú, Costa Júnior, 3°29'37"S, 52°20'10"W, Altamira, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 22072. Paratypes: CAS 219762 (1); INPA 20505 (1), 20506 (4), 20507 (1), 20510 (2), 20512 (9), 20513 (3), 20516 (2), 20517 (3, 1 c&s); MZUSP 82460 (3, 1 c&s), 84416 (1), 84417 (1); UMMZ 243665 (1); ZUEC 4482 (3). •Synonym of Moenkhausia heikoi (Lima & Géry 2004) -- (Lima et al. 2006:31 [ref. 32268]). •Valid as Astyanax dnophos Lima & Zuanon 2004 -- (Marinho et al. 2014:263 [ref. 33372]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax dnophos Lima & Zuanon 2004. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lower Xingú River, region of Altamira, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

doceanus, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1877:572 [14] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Doce, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) MNHN 1913-0135 and 0136 (2); NMW 57389 (2), 57591 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:17 [ref. 19577]. On p. 14 of separate. •Valid as Moenkhausia doceana (Steindachner 1877) -- (Zarske & Géry 2001:9 [ref. 25156], Zarske & Géry 2002:19 [ref. 26554] dated 1875, Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Lucinda 2006:66 [ref. 28492], Bertaco et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31234], Carvalho et al. 2014:377 [ref. 33383], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35679]). •Synonym of Moenkhausia vittata (Castelnau 1855) -- (Silva & Malabarba 2016:270 [ref. 34515]). Current status: Synonym of Moenkhausia vittata (Castelnau 1855). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

dolinae, Astyanax da Graça [W. J.], Oliveira [C. A. M.], Lima [F. C. T.], da Silva [H. P.] & Fernandes [I. M.] 2017:3, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 91 (no. 4); ref. 35556] Dolina Água Milagrosa, Rio Paraguai basin, município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, 16°02'34"S, 57°31'40"W. Holotype: MCP 49961. Paratypes: ANSP, CPUFMT, MCP, MZUSP, NUP, ZUEC. •Valid as Astyanax dolinae da Graça, Oliveira, Lima, da Silva & Fernandes 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax dolinae da Graça, Oliveira, Lima, da Silva & Fernandes 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

doriae, Pseudocorynopoma Perugia [A.] 1891:646 [46], Fig. [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 10; ref. 3431] Rio de la Plata. Holotype (unique): MSNG 9224. Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:183 [ref. 10343]. On p. 46 of separate. •Valid as Pseudocorynopoma doriae Perugia 1891 -- (Malabarba 1989:138 [ref. 14217], Weitzman & Menezes 1998:186 [ref. 23843], Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:279 [ref. 24413], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:227 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:21 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:76 [ref. 28131] as doriai, Litz & Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33622], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mirande & Koerber 2015:22 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Pseudocorynopoma doriae Perugia 1891. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Southern Brazil to La Plata region: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

dorioni, Bramocharax bransfordi Rosen [D. E.] 1970:3, Figs. 1, 2, 4, 6-9 [American Museum Novitates No. 2435; ref. 7781] Río Semococh, 15 kilometers by road south of Sebol, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 29411. Paratypes and other specimens: AMNH 29412 (orig. 53, now 49), 29413 (22, 4 c&s), 29414 (6), AMNH 27816SD (3 skeletons); MCZ 48687 [ex UMMZ 187926] (2); UNAL 5705 [ex AMNH 29412] (4); UMMZ 187926 (23, 3 skel.); UMMZ 187930 (11), 187944 (8). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:2 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Bramocharax dorioni Rosen 1970 -- (Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985:15 [ref. 19552], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax dorioni (Rosen 1970) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1382 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax dorioni (Rosen 1970). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Usumacinta River basin, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsalis, Hyphessobrycon Zarske [A.] 2014:162, Figs. 21-23 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 64 (no. 2); ref. 33403] Manaus (Import), Brazil. Holotype: MTD F 33119. Paratypes: MTD F 33120-28 (9), 33172-83 (12). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon dorsalis Zarske 2014 -- (Ohara et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35494], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:86 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon dorsalis Zarske 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsimaculatus, Tyttobrycon Géry [J.] 1973:118, Figs. 20-22 [Studies on the Neotropical Fauna v. 8; ref. 1596] Río Chaparé, tributary of Río Mamoré, lower Todos Santos, central Bolivia, about 16°45'S, 65°07'W. Holotype: ZFMK 2916. Paratypes: (34) ANSP 139720 (1), Géry coll. (7, 2 lots), ZFMK 2624 (1), 2952-56 (5), 2960-62 (3), 2963-79 (18); ZMA 113851 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:25 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621], Herder et al. 2010:118 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Tyttobrycon dorsimaculatus Géry 1973 -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:158 [ref. 27061], Marinho et al. 2013:739 [ref. 33025], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Tyttobrycon dorsimaculatus Géry 1973. Characidae: Aphyoditeinae. Distribution: Bolivia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsinuda, Moenkhausia Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 2002:13, Figs. 1-3 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden No. 52; ref. 26554] Río Ipurupuru, not far from the crossing of the river and the road to San Ramón, about 73 kilometers north of Trinidad, 14°12'538"S, 64°56'268'W, Departamento Beni, Bolivia. Holotype: MTD F 24833. Paratypes: MTD F 24834-35 (1, 1); CIRA-UTB 969 (1); Géry Private coll. 1041:1-2 (2). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:18 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Moenkhausia dorsinuda Zarske & Géry 2002 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2014:378 [ref. 33383], Sarmiento et al. 2014:49, 185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia dorsinuda Zarske & Géry 2002. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsomaculatus, Knodus Ferreira [K. M.] & Netto-Ferreira [A. L.] 2010:470, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 77 (no. 3); ref. 30882] Jacareacanga, tributary of the Teles Pires River, Tapajós River basin, 9°18'30"S, 56°47'38"W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 102823. Paratypes: MZUSP 98279 (2), 98299 (2). •Valid as Knodus dorsomaculatus Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira 2010 -- (Esguícero & Castro 2014:47 [ref. 33506], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Knodus dorsomaculatus Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira 2010. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Tributary of Teles Pires River, Tapajós River basin, Pará State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

douradilho, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] 2014:493, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 3794 (no. 3); ref. 33320] Rio Grande do Sul State, municipality of Maquiné, Barra do Ouro District, rio Maquiné basin, rio Tramadaí system, arroio Encantado, 29°36’28"S, 50°12’15"W, Brazil. Holotype: MCN 19858. Paratypes: MCN, MCP. •Valid as Astyanax douradilho Bertaco 2014 -- (Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax douradilho Bertaco 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Tramandaí system, coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

drepanon, Odontostilbe Fowler [H. W.] 1913:529, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Rio Madeira tributary, near Porto Velho, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 39210. Paratypes: ANSP 39211-16 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Cheirodon drepanon (Fowler 1913) -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:2 [ref. 24302]). •Synonym of Odontostilbe fugitiva Cope 1870 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061], Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:170 [ref. 28728]). Current status: Synonym of Odontostilbe fugitiva Cope 1870. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

drilos, Monotocheirodon Menezes [N. A.], Weitzman [S. H.] & Quagio-Grassiotto [I.] 2013:135, Figs. 9-10 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 53 (no. 10); ref. 32808] Sandia, Zona Reservada Tambopata-Candamo, stream Ebebahuaceji (empties into Rio Candamo), 13°14'56.4"S, 70°00'34.5"W, Bolivia. Holotype: MUSM 41541. Paratypes: ANSP, MUSM, USNM. •Valid as Monotocheirodon drilos Menezes, Weitzman & Quagio-Grassiotto 2013. Current status: Valid as Monotocheirodon drilos Menezes, Weitzman & Quagio-Grassiotto 2013. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

dulima, Creagrutus Albornoz-Garzón [J. G.], Conde-Saldaña [C. C.], García-Melo [J. E.], Taphorn [D. C.] & Villa-Navarro [F. A.] 2018:342, Figs. 1, 2A, 3 [Zootaxa 4482 (no. 2); ref. 36150] Quebrada Chumba, upper Río Magdalena drainage, Ibagué, Departamento Tolima, Colombia, 4°29'06"N, 75°05'49"W, elevation 973 meters. Holotype: CZUT-IC 17663. Paratypes: CP-UCO, CZUT-IC, IAvHP, ICNMHN. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Creagrutus dulima Albornoz-Garzón, Conde-Saldaña, García-Melo, Taphorn & Villa-Navarro 2018. Current status: Valid as Creagrutus dulima Albornoz-Garzón, Conde-Saldaña, García-Melo, Taphorn & Villa-Navarro 2018. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Río Magdalena basin, Departamento Tolima, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

duragenys, Hyphessobrycon Ellis [M. D.] 1911:155, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1, art. 2); ref. 1269] Rio Tietê at Mogy das Cruces, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH [ex CM 3023] (missing). Paratypes: (14) CAS 51792 [ex IU 13293 & CM 3024] (2), FMNH 54402-03 (5, 9). Type catalog: Henn 1928:65 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:48 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon duragenys Ellis 1911 -- (Almirón & Casciotta 1999:344 [ref. 24405], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27061], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Carvalho et al. 2014:247 [ref. 33371], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon duragenys Ellis 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Tietê and Paraíba do Sul River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

durbinae, Hemigrammus Ota [R. P.], Lima [F. C. T.] & Pavanelli [C. S.] 2015:220, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 3948 (no. 2); ref. 33748] Amazonas, Careiro, lago Castanho, lago Janauacá complex, rio Solimões basin, approx. 3°48'S, 60°23'W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 115984. Paratypes: ANSP, CZFCEN, INPA, MNHNP, MZUSP, NUP, UFRO-I, ZUEC. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Hemigrammus durbinae Ota, Lima & Pavanelli 2015 -- (Koerber et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus durbinae Ota, Lima & Pavanelli 2015. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

ecai, Bryconamericus da Silva [J. F. P.] 2004:58, Fig. 3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 27870] Creek in Linha Brazil, parallel to the road from Vila Deodoro to Venâncio Aires (tributary to arroio Castelhano, rio Taquari, laguna dos Patos drainage), about 29°33'S, 52°17'W, Venâncio Aires, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 19608. Paratypes: MCP 17494 (75, 7 c&s). •Valid as Bryconamericus ecai da Silva 2004 -- (Langeani et al. 2005:389 [ref. 28234], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus ecai da Silva 2004. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos drainage, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ecuadorensis, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C], Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Taphorn B. [D. C.], Jiménez-Prado [P.] & García-Alzate [C. A.] 2015:244, Figs. 1-6 [Animal Biodiversity and Conservation v. 38 (no. 2); ref. 34022] Esmeraldas Province, Santiago River, Ecuador, 78°51'28.1''W, 00°55'53.1''N, elevation 24 meters. Holotype: IUQ 3813. Paratypes: CEMZ, IUQ, MEPN. •Valid as Bryconamericus ecuadorensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn B., Jiménez-Prado & García-Alzate 2015. •Probably valid as Eretmobrycon ecuadorensis (Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn B., Jiménez-Prado & García-Alzate 2015) based on type locality. Current status: Valid as Eretmobrycon ecuadorensis (Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn B., Jiménez-Prado & García-Alzate 2015). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

ecuadorensis, Megalamphodus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:99 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] Maranjito, Río Chan Chan, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): CAS [ex IU 13628] (missing). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon ecuadorensis (Eigenmann 1915) -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:135-136 [ref. 27061], ?García-Alzate et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30716], ?García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], ?García-Alzate et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32440], García-Alzate et al. 2015:223 [ref. 33855]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon ecuadorensis (Eigenmann 1915). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Guyanas River basin, Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

ecuadorensis, Odontostilbe Bührnheim [C. M.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2006:179, Figs. 14-16 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 28728] Río Aguarico, 00°06'N, 76°51'W, Santa Cecilia, Napo, Ecuador. Holotype: ANSP 170608. Paratypes: Many lots at ANSP, FMNH, KU, MEPN. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Odontostilbe ecuadorensis Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006. Current status: Valid as Odontostilbe ecuadorensis Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Ecuador and Ecuador-Peru border. Habitat: freshwater.

ecuadoriensis, Hyphessobrycon Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:9 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Los Ríos, forest pool near Vinces, western Ecuador (ca. 1°33'S, 79°44'W). Holotype: CAS 61602 [ex IU 13105a]. Paratypes: AMNH 5329 (18); BMNH 1924.3.3.44-45 (2); CAS 32454 [ex IU 13105] (1853); FMNH 10290-313 (total 23), 56601 (83); MCZ 30951 (29); MNHN 1980-1439 [ex CAS 13105] (1); CAS-SU 22776 (17); UMMZ 160151 (16); ZMA 113819 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:24 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:19 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:48 [ref. 12367]. Apparently not the same as Megalamphodus ecuadorensis Eigenmann 1915. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon ecuadoriensis Eigenmann & Henn 1914 -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:231 [ref. 22743], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:139 [ref. 34894], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon ecuadoriensis Eigenmann & Henn 1914. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Astyanax Evermann [B. W.] & Kendall [W. C.] 1906:83, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1482); ref. 1282] Río Primero, Córdoba Province, central Argentina. Holotype: USNM 55570. Paratypes: CAS 39563 [ex IU 11071] (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:6 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Bryconamericus eigenmanni (Evermann & Kendall 1906) -- (Malabarba & Kindel 1995:684 [ref. 21922], Braga 1998:26 [ref. 24111], Miquelarena & Aquino 1999:523 [ref. 23980], Azpelicueta & Almirón 2001:280 [ref. 26007], Miquelarena et al. 2002:70 [ref. 26517], Casciotta et al. 2002:163 [ref. 26551], López et al. 2002:61 [ref. 26808], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2004:64 [ref. 27664], da Silva 2004:55 [ref. 27870], Almirón et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27986], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Langeani et al. 2005:389 [ref. 28234], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mirande & Koerber 2015:21 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus eigenmanni (Evermann & Kendall 1906). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Primero River, tributary to Laguna Mar Chiquita, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Cheirodon Meek [S. E.] 1912:70 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 7); ref. 2960] La Junta, Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7683 [not 7583]. Paratypes: FMNH 43150 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:23 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Carlana eigenmanni (Meek 1912) -- (Fink & Weitzman 1974:26 [ref. 7132], Villa 1982:105 [ref. 36708], Weitzman et al. 1986:342 [ref. 5984], Bussing 1987:81 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:100 [ref. 24179], Cardoso in Reis et al. 2003:213 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:500 [ref. 31006], Angulo et al. 2013:992 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Carlana eigenmanni (Meek 1912). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Pacific and Atlantic drainages: Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Moenkhausia Géry [J.] 1964:30, Fig. 5 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 13 (no. 4, Jan.); ref. 1582] Río Manacacias into upper Río Meta, at Restrepo, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 198640. Paratypes: (7) ANSP 112249 (1), 139712 (1); Géry's coll. M.358 (orig. 7); MNHN 1980-1445 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621], Vari & Howe 1991:30 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Moenkhausia eigenmanni Géry 1964 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Bertaco et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31234], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia eigenmanni Géry 1964. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Meta River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Othonocheirodus Myers [G. S.] 1927:114 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 3096] Cayumba rapids of the Río Huallaga, Peru [not Río Cayumba]. Holotype: IU 17674 (not at CAS in 1996). Paratypes: CAS 17946 [IU 17675] (4), MCZ 31569 (1), CAS-SU 18068 [ex IU 17675 and CAS 17946] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:25-26 [ref. 12291]. For locality correction see Myers 1934:43 [ref. 24240]. •Valid as Othonocheirodus eigenmanni Myers 1927 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Malabarba 1998:231 [ref. 23844], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:152 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745] as cf. eigenmanni, Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633] but missing species). Current status: Valid as Othonocheirodus eigenmanni Myers 1927. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Ecuador?, Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanniorum, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1894:89, Pl. 6 (fig. 8) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 21598. Paratypes: ANSP 21599-601 (3), 21602 (1, c&s), 21627-28 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratypes. •Valid as Astyanax eigenmanniorum (Cope 1894) -- (Malabarba 1989:129 [ref. 14217], Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], Butí 1998:310 [ref. 25279], Garutti & Britski 2000:85 [ref. 24769], Azpelicueta & Garcia 2000:252 [ref. 25142], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:257 [ref. 26608], Miquelarena et al. 2002:76 [ref. 26517] as cf. eigenmanniorum, López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Castro & Vari 2004:332 [ref. 27972] as cf. eigenmanniorum, Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena et al. 2005:19 [ref. 28188], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Mirande et al. 2006:58 [ref. 28784], de Melo & Buckup 2006:50 [ref. 28622], Vari & Castro 2007:156 [ref. 29039], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333] as cf eigenmanniorum, Bertaco & Lucena 2010:19 [ref. 30750], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Mirande 2010:515 [ref. 31006] as cf. eigenmanniorum, Garavello & Sampaio 2010:861 [ref. 31053], Soneira et al. 2010:785 [ref. 31078], Lucena et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Bertaco 2014:498 [ref. 33320], Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax eigenmanniorum (Cope 1894). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lower Paraná, Uruguay and Laguna dos Patos drainage: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

eilyos, Hyphessobrycon Lima [F. C. T.] & Moreira [C. R.] 2003:25, Figs. 6-7 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 27320] Ribeirão do Sapo, kilometer 464.04 of Ferronorte railroad, 17°31'11"S, 53°15'33"W, município de Alto Araguaia, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 75126. Paratypes: MCZ 162371 (5); MNRJ 24781 (5); MZUSP 41406 (179, 5 c&s), 73344 (11), 73363 (1); USNM 371923 (5). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon eilyos Lima & Moreira 2003 -- (Bertaco & Malabarba 2005:87 [ref. 28297], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Dagosta et al. 2014:366 [ref. 33382]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon eilyos Lima & Moreira 2003. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

elachylepis, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] & Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2005:390, Figs. 2-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 28387] Ribeirão Arara, about 500 meters from mouth of rio Maranhão at Rosariana, Niquelândia, Goiás, Brazil, about 14°02'S, 48°26'W. Holotype: MCP 37568. Paratypes: MCP 15862 (2), 15922 (1), 16054 (15, 2 C&S); MZUSP 30258 (17), 40533 (112), 58093 (16); UNT 740 (1), 1891 (10), 2033 (36), 2036 (1), 2037 (3), 2157 (1), 2158 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Astyanax elachylepis Bertaco & Lucinda 2005 -- (Protogino et al. 2006:12 [ref. 28780], Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax elachylepis Bertaco & Lucinda 2005. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tocantins River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

elachys, Hyphessobrycon Weitzman [M. J.] 1985:800, Figs. 1-5 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 98 (no. 4); ref. 8125] Río Aguaray-guazu system, 3 kilometers northeast of Lima, San Pedro Dept., Paraguay, 23°55'S, 56°29'W. Holotype: USNM 232393. Paratypes: ANSP 153539 (2); BMNH 1984.12.21.2-3 (2); CAS 56018 (2); MNHNP (2); MZUSP 28655 (4); UMMZ 206595 (26 or 32), 212725 (16); USNM 232381 (1), 268474 (79). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:26 [ref. 19022] but they did not list USNM 232381, Oyakawa 1996:468 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon elachys Weitzman 1985 -- (Weitzman et al. 1986:342 [ref. 5984], Géry & Römer 1997:70 [ref. 23712], Gómez & Chebez 1996:50 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24147], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27366], Lucena 2003:95 [ref. 27437], Casciotta et al. 2003:101 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Almirón et al. 2004:674 [ref. 27987], Almirón et al. 2006:895 [ref. 29163], Mirande 2010:511 [ref. 31006], Ingenito et al. 2013:38 [ref. 32568], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716], Ohara et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35144], Koerber et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon elachys Weitzman 1985. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

elassonaktis, Jupiaba Pereira [T. N. A.] & Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2007:54, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 1614; ref. 29302] Peixe, rio Tocantins downstream UHE Peixe-Angical, about 12°15'S, 48°23'W, Tocantins, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 41465. Paratypes: MCP 41466 (20); UNT 5568 (8), 5569 (19), 5573 (1), 5575 (1 c&s), 5576 (3), 5577 (3), 5578 (1), 5579 (1), 7610 (132, 6 c&s). •Valid as Jupiaba elassonaktis Pereira & Lucinda 2007 -- (Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30519]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba elassonaktis Pereira & Lucinda 2007. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Tocantins River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

elatior, Ceratobranchia Tortonese [E.] 1942:67 [57], Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia e di Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino (Ser. 4) v. 49 (no. 117) (for 1941-1942); ref. 10294] Río Zamora, Río Matanon system, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): MZUT 3558. On p. 57 of separate. •Valid as Ceratobranchia elatior Tortonese 1942 -- (Chernoff & Machado-Allison 1990:278 [ref. 19495], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:120-121 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Ceratobranchia elatior Tortonese 1942. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1882:179 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Obidos, Amazon River, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) ?MCZ 90014 (2) Obidos; NMW 57390 (8). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:36, Pl. 7 (fig. 4) [ref. 14353]. •Valid as Hemigrammus elegans (Steindachner 1882) -- (Taphorn 1992:206 [ref. 23654] as cf. elegans, Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Carvalho 2005:147 [ref. 28675], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus elegans (Steindachner 1882). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Tapajõs River basins in Brazil; Apure and Aguaro River basins, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

eliasi, Chrysobrycon Vanegas-Ríos [J. A.], Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] & Ortega [H.] 2011:732, Figs. 1-4 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 31720] Río Madre de Dios basin, Creek Loboyoc, 12°27'07.27"S, 69°07'42.53"W, Tambopata, Madre de Dios, Peru, elevation 210 meters. Holotype: MUSM 39970. Paratypes: MLP 10831 [ex AI 287] (3, 2 c&s); Al 288 (2); MUSM 39971 (14), 39972 (8), 39973 (2), 39974 (3). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Nadalin & López 2015:3 [ref. 34112]. •Valid as Chrysobrycon eliasi Vanegas-Ríos, Azpelicueta & Ortega 2011 -- (Vanegas-Ríos et al. 2014:297 [ref. 33375], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Vanegas-Ríos et al. 2015:180 [ref. 34047], Vanegas-Ríos & Urbano-Bonilla 2017:2355 [ref. 35265]). Current status: Valid as Chrysobrycon eliasi Vanegas-Ríos, Azpelicueta & Ortega 2011. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Río Madre de Dios basin and upper río Manuripe basin, upper río Madeira, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

ellisae, Hyphessobrycon Bragança [P. H. N.], Ottoni [F. P.] & Rangel-Pereira [F. S.] 2015:256, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 34051] Coastal Piauí river basin, Sergipe State, northeastern Brazil, 11°15'S, 37°16'W. Holotype: UFRJ 5281. Paratypes: UFRJ. •Permanently invalid, preoccupied by Hyphessobrycon ellisae Pearson 1924. •In the synonymy of Hyphessobrycon sergipanus Bragança, Ottoni & Rangel-Pereira 2016 -- (Bragança et al. 2016:373 [ref. 34918]). •Synonym of Hyphessobrycon itaparicensis Lima & Costa 2001 -- (Zanata et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35863]). Current status: Synonym of Hyphessobrycon itaparicensis Lima & Costa 2001. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

ellisi, Hyphessobrycon Pearson [N. E.] 1924:39, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Espia, Bolivia. Syntypes: (55) CAS 47167 [ex IU 17343] (37), CAS-SU 24660 [ex IU 17343] (3), UMMZ 66505 (14), USNM 117544 [ex UMMZ 66505, orig. IU 17343] (1). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:24 [ref. 12291], Vari & Howe 1991:26 [ref. 19022]. First appeared as ellisi; named after Mrs. Marion Durbin Ellis, therefore a mandatory correction to ellisae. •Valid as Bryconacidnus ellisae (Pearson 1924) (often as ellisi) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], Baicere-Silva et al. 2011:381 [ref. 31395], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745] as ellisi, Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004] as ellisi, Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Bryconacidnus ellisae (Pearson 1924). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Bramocharax Meek [S. E.] 1907:110 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 2959] Lago Managua at Managua, Nicaragua. Holotype: FMNH 5922. Paratypes: FMNH 5919 (18, 3 c&s), 5920-21 (2, 1), 33077-83 (7). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Bramocharax bransfordii Gill 1877 -- (Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Astyanax bransfordii (Gill 1877) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1371 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bransfordii (Gill 1877). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Microschemobrycon Géry [J.] 1973:97, Figs. 9-11 [Studies on the Neotropical Fauna v. 8; ref. 1596] Rio Suiazinho, Rio Xingú basin, Brazil, 12°49'S, 51°46'W. Holotype: BMNH 1972.11.15.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1972.11.15.2 (1), 1972.11.15.3-4 (2); Géry coll. 0680 (1). •Valid as Microschemobrycon elongatus Géry 1973 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:145 [ref. 27061], Ohara et al. 2019:333 [ref. 36615]). Current status: Valid as Microschemobrycon elongatus Géry 1973. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Xingú, Tapajós and Tocantins River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

embera, Astyanax Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Román-Valencia [C.], Taphorn [D. C.], Buckup [P. A.] & Ortega [H.] 2018:6, Fig. 2 [European Journal of Taxonomy No. 402; ref. 35787] Patía River Basin (Pacific Coast), Telembí River drainage, in Telembí River at mouth of Yamunde River, 1 km below Barbacoas, Barbacoas Municipality, Nariño Department, Colombia, 01°39'56"N, 78°09'12"W, elevation 61 meters. Holotype: IUQ 3614. Paratypes: IUQ. •Valid as Astyanax embera Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Current status: Valid as Astyanax embera Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Middle portion of the Telembí River drainage, Pacific coast of Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

emperador, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] & Ogle [F.] 1907:26 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Empire Station, Panama. Holotype: USNM 55651. Paratypes: USNM 306565 [ex USNM 55651] (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:6 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Bryconamericus emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907) -- (Román-Valencia 2000:453 [ref. 25256], Román-Valencia 2002:178 [ref. 26370], Román-Valencia 2003:20, 28 [ref. 26840], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia & Vanegas-Rios 2009:393 [ref. 30843], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1416 [ref. 35414]). •Valid as Eretmobrycon emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Eretmobrycon emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Colombia and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

endy, Astyanax Mirande [J. M.], Aguilera [G.] & Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] 2006:59, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 1286; ref. 28784] Orán, Río Bermejo basin, tributary of Río Bermejo in is intersection with Ruta Provincial 19, near Estancia Santa Rosa, 22°43'18"S, 64°24'13"W, Salta, Argentina. elevation about 440 meters. Holotype: CI-FML 3834. Paratypes: CI-FML 3835 (14), 3836 (13). Plus nontype material. •Valid as Astyanax endy Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2006 -- (Abilhoa & Duboc 2007:45 [ref. 29285], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333], Mirande 2010:515 [ref. 31006], Koerber 2011:3 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax endy Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Argentina and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

eos, Hyphessobrycon Durbin [M. L.] 1909:69 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1166] Creek between Potaro Landing and Kangaruma, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52795 [ex CM 1194]. Paratypes: (67, ex CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.412 (1), .413-414 (2); CAS 60401 [ex IU 11770] (5), 61605 [ex IU 11771] (10); FMNH 7353-54 (0, 2), 52796-97 (10, 5), 69689 (6); MCZ 30036-37 (1, 2); CAS-SU 21920-21 (1, 2); USNM 66195-96 (1, 1), 165449 (1); ZMA 100983 (1), 101031 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:65 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:24 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:20 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:48 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:26 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon eos Durbin 1909 -- (Zarske & Géry 1997:310 [ref. 23715], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon eos Durbin 1909. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Guyana (?). Habitat: freshwater.

ephimeros, Attonitus Vari [R. P.] & Ortega [H.] 2000:129, Figs. 1, 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 24436] Río Picha, Puerto Huallana, Quebrada Mapichiriato, 11°50'S, 73°20'W, Río Urubamba basin, Province La Convencion, Depto de Cusco, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 11501. Paratypes: MUSM 12757-60 (5, 8, 3, 1); USNM 349696 (4, 1 c&s), 349708 (8, 2 c&s), 349713 (1), 349914 (3). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Attonitus ephimeros Vari & Ortega 2000 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:538 [ref. 31006], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Attonitus ephimeros Vari & Ortega 2000. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Aguaytia and Pachitea rivers in Ucayali River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

ephippiatus, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:98, Fig. 39 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Upper Río Siapa, Campamento Siapa (Siapa Base Camp), Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV V-29068. Paratypes: MBUCV V-18623 (3), V-29069 (24); USNM 355116 (7, c&s). •Valid as Creagrutus ephippiatus Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:122-123 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus ephippiatus Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Siapa River, southern tributary of Casiquiare River, upper Negro River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

epiagos, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.] & Camelier [P.] 2008:29, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 1908; ref. 29887] Morro do Chapéu, rio Ferro Doido, above Cachoeira do Ferro Doido, tributary of rio Jacuípe, Paraguaçu drainage, 11°37'34.0"N, 41°00'11.5"W, Bahia, Brazil, elevation 899 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 89568. Paratypes: ANSP 189081 (20); MCUSP 89569 (20); UFBA 02792 (344, 3 c&s), 02794 (6). •Valid as Astyanax epiagos Zanata & Camelier 2008 -- (Zanata & Camelier 2009:175 [ref. 30252], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax epiagos Zanata & Camelier 2008. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Ferro Doido, tributary of rio Jacuípe, Paraguaçu drainage, coastal Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

epicharis, Hyphessobrycon Weitzman [S. H.] & Palmer [L.] 1997:214, Figs. 1-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 22743] Río Baria head waters, 3 kilometers downstream from Neblina base camp, Amazonas, Venezuela, 0°55'N, 66°10'W, elevation 120 meters. Holotype: MBUCV-V-20800. Paratypes: AMNH 59336-40 (6, 12, 18, 1, 110); ANSP 167762 (25); CAS 75430 (55); FMNH 100609 (25); MBUCV-V 20801-02 (7, 220); MCZ 56849 (72); MHNG 2516.56 (55); MZUSP 27792 (2), 42379 (55); UMMZ 218698 (110); USNM 272354 (283), 272358 (4), 272362 (172), 315611 (6). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon epicharis Weitzman & Palmer 1997 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], Hein 2009:3 [ref. 30362], García-Alzate et al. 2017:125 [ref. 35253], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon epicharis Weitzman & Palmer 1997. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

eques, Chirodon Steindachner [F.] 1882:179 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Villa Bella and Obidos, Amazon River, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 59810 (2), 62693 (7). Original genus should have been Cheirodon. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:37 [ref. 14353]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon eques (Steindachner 1882) -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:224 [ref. 22743], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:140 [ref. 24509], Britski et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24147], López et al. 2002:27 [ref. 27366], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:102 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Almirón et al. 2004:674 [ref. 27987], Almirón et al. 2006:895 [ref. 29163], Hein 2009:2 [ref. 30362], Mirande 2010:510 [ref. 31006], Sarmiento et al. 2014:47, 184 [ref. 35004], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Bragança et al. 2015:260 [ref. 34051], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35267], Ohara et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35494], Pastana et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35596], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35679], Guimarães et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35965]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon eques (Steindachner 1882). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Guaporé River basins; Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana (introduced), Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

eremus, Astyanax Ingenito [L. F. S.] & Duboc [L. F.] 2014:282, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 33374] Paraná, Balsa, Nova, rio Canivete, at Fazenda Amola-Faca/Registro, tributary to the rio Iguaçu, 25°35’09"S, 49°44’01"W, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 39677. Paratypes: MCP 46942 (10, 2 c&s), MHNCI 12485 (8 plus 5), MNRJ 39678 (11, 2 c&s), NUP 13501 (8). •Valid as Astyanax eremus Ingenito & Duboc 2014 -- (da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax eremus Ingenito & Duboc 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tributary to the rio Iguaçu, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ericae, Hyphessobrycon Moreira [C. R.] & Lima [F. C. T.] 2017:124, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4318 (no. 1); ref. 35562] Igarapé do Almeidas, rio Trombetas basin, Almeidas plateau, Floresta Nacional Saracá-Taquera, Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil, 1°43'15''S, 56°25'3''W. Holotype: MNRJ 50000. Paratypes: INPA, MNRJ, MZUSP, ZUEC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon ericae Moreira & Lima 2017. Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon ericae Moreira & Lima 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Middle Amazon basin, Pará, Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

erythrophthalmus, Hemigrammus Ladiges [W.] 1931:249, Fig. 5 [Der Aquarienfisch- und Naturfreund v. 2 (no. 11); ref. 35796] Amazon. No types known. Also in Ladiges 1934:12 [ref. 20522]. Could date to an earlier work of C. Brüning. Senior synonym of Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis Ahl 1937, but name not used as valid for the last 70 years. •In the synonymy of Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis Ahl 1937. Current status: Synonym of Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis Ahl 1937. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

erythrops, Stethaprion Cope [E. D.] 1870:562, Fig. [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pebas, Amazon system, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8031. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Stethaprion erythrops Cope 1870 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Reis 1989:51 [ref. 14219], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:210 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:505 [ref. 31006], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35633], Garcia-Ayala et al. 2017:572 [ref. 35695]). Current status: Valid as Stethaprion erythrops Cope 1870. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

erythropterus, Tetragonopterus Holmberg [E. L.] 1891:189 [Revista Argentina de Historia Natural (Buenos Aires) v. 1; ref. 2192] Rio de la Plata, Paraná; Buenos Aires, Argentina. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Astyanax erythropterus (Holmberg 1891) -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Soneira et al. 2010:780 [ref. 31078], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax erythropterus (Holmberg 1891). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Middle and lower río Paraná and Río de la Palta basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

erythrostigma, Hemigrammus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:33, Fig. [The Fish Culturist v. 22 (no. 5); ref. 17878] Probably border area between Peru and Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70208. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon erythrostigma (Fowler 1943) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:234 [ref. 22743] with comment on type locality, Zarske & Géry 1997:310 [ref. 23715], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:167 [ref. 24507], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Malabarba 2005:87 [ref. 28297], Miquelarena & López 2006:824 [ref. 29070], Bertaco et al. 2007:248 [ref. 29277], Hein 2009:3 [ref. 30362], García-Alzate et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30716], García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], García-Alzate et al. 2015:223 [ref. 33855], Pastana et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35596], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon erythrostigma (Fowler 1943). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

erythrozonus, Hemigrammus Durbin [M. L.] 1909:56 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1166] Erukin, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53546 [ex CM 1448]. Paratypes: (32) BMNH 1911.10.31.386-387 (2); CAS 44383 [ex IU 11905] (5); FMNH 7344 (2), 53025 (5); CAS-SU 21949 [ex IU 11905] (2), 21950 [ex IU 11905] (2); MCZ [ex CM/IU] 29976 (2); USNM 66187 [ex CM] (2); ZMA 101032 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:65 [ref. 12305], Nijssen et al. 1982:18 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:24 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hemigrammus erythrozonus Durbin 1909 -- (Taphorn 1992:218 [ref. 23654], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:512 [ref. 31006], Mendonça & Wosiacki 2011:214 [ref. 31415], Carvalho et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35509], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus erythrozonus Durbin 1909. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Essequibo River, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

erythrurus, Aphyocharax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:313, Pl. 44 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Rockstone sand-bank, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53579 [ex CM 1879]. Paratypes: (39) AMNH 7101 (3); BMNH 1911.10.31.421-422 (2); CAS 59721 [ex IU 12161] (4, now 2); FMNH 7327 (2), 53406-07 (4, 1), 53967 (1), 69539 (6); MCZ 29945 (2); CAS-SU 21912 (2); USNM 66095 [ex CM] (2); ZMA 102158 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:57 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:21 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:14 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:9 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:5 [ref. 19022]. •May be the same as Aphyocharax alburnus (Günther 1869) -- (Taphorn 1992:107 [ref. 23654], Willink et al. 2003:5 [ref. 26755]). •Valid as Aphyocharax erythrurus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:198 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:76 [ref. 28131], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633], Brito et al. 2018:398 [ref. 36071]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocharax erythrurus Eigenmann 1912. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Guyana and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

erythrurus, Hyphessobrycon Ahl [E.] 1928:51, Figs. [Das Aquarium: eine Zeitschrift mit Bildern für Liebhaber, Schulen und Naturfreunde, Berlin 1928 (no. 4); ref. 35574] Probably Brazil. Syntypes: (5) ZMB 20828 (1). Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:92 [ref. 21847]. Zarske & Géry 1995:112 [ref. 22674] treat ZMB 20828 as holotype but that does not establish a lectotype; it may be the only surviving type however. Described in more detail by Ahl 1928:319 [ref. 15831]. •Synonym of Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Zarske & Géry 1995:118 [ref. 22674], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:134 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Eigenmann 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

eschwartzae, Hyphessobrycon García-Alzate [C. A.], Román-Valencia [C.] & Ortega [H.] 2013:865, Figs. 3-5 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 61 (no. 2); ref. 32692] La Cachuela, Río Madre de Dios, Tambopata, Río das Dios, 12°16'38.2"S, 69°09'8.12"W, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 42392. Paratypes: Many at AUM, IUM, MUSM. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Ortega 2013 -- (Lima et al. 2014:177 [ref. 33535], García-Alzate et al. 2017:127 [ref. 35253], Ohara et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35494], Moreira & Lima 2017:133 [ref. 35562]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Ortega 2013. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Río Madre de Dios, Rio Madeira basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

essequibensis, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:17 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Tumatumari, Potaro River, Essequibo, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53519 [ex CM 1018]. Paratypes: (174, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.321-325 (5), .326-327 (2); CAS 39144-46 [ex IU 11721-23] (24, 1, 25); FMNH 7454 (5), 52685-87 (26, 1, 1), 52869 (1), 52962 (26), 71289 (20); MCZ 29958 (2); NMW 62766 (5); CAS-SU 21956 (5); USNM 66107 (now 4); ZMA 101010 (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:60 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:22 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:14 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:6 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax essequibensis Eigenmann 1909 -- (Géry et al. 1996:8 [ref. 22155]). •Valid as Jupiaba essequibensis (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Zanata 1997:124 [ref. 24112], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061], Pereira & Lucinda 2007:54 [ref. 29302], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30519]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba essequibensis (Eigenmann 1909). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

essequibensis, Cynopotamus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:403 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Potaro Landing, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53673 [ex CM 2146]. Paratypes: (8) BMNH 1911.10.31.437 (1), CAS 44219 [ex IU 12319] (2), FMNH 53674-75 (1, 3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:70 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:31 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Cynopotamus essequibensis Eigenmann 1912 -- (Menezes 1976:30 [ref. 7073], Menezes 1987:8 [ref. 8072], Planquette et al. 1996:218 [ref. 22818], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:202 [ref. 27061], Menezes 2007:60 [ref. 29297]). Current status: Valid as Cynopotamus essequibensis Eigenmann 1912. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of Amapá State (Brazil), Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

eugeniae, Aulixidens Böhlke [J. E.] 1952:775 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 5 (no. 56) (art. 81); ref. 592] Río Curamoni, Canal de Casiquiare, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS-SU 16940. Paratypes: Géry coll. [ex CAS-SU] (1), CAS-SU 16941 (2), 16942 (now 7, orig. 10), 16943 (2); USNM 157368 [ex CAS-SU 16942] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:22 [ref. 12291], Vari & Howe 1991:8 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Aulixidens eugeniae Böhlke 1952 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:537 [ref. 31006], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Aulixidens eugeniae Böhlke 1952. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

euryodous, Bryconamericus deuterodonoides Schultz [L. P.] 1944:344, Fig. 51 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Guárico and tributaries between San Sebastián and San Casimiro, Aragua state, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121437. Paratypes: MCZ 37264 [ex USNM 121438] (5), UMMZ 145041 [ex USNM 121438] (5), USNM 121438 (orig. 408, now 388), ZMA 102144 [ex USNM 121438] (orig. 10, now 8). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:15 [ref. 19236], Vari & Howe 1991:10 [ref. 19022]. •Synonym of Bryconamericus deuterodonoides Eigenmann 1914, but a valid subspecies as described but with question -- (Taphorn 1992:140 [ref. 23654]). •Synonym of Bryconamericus deuterodonoides Eigenmann 1914 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2003:40 [ref. 26840]). •Synonym of Knodus deuterodonoides (Eigenmann 1914). Current status: Synonym of Knodus deuterodonoides (Eigenmann 1914). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

eurystaenia, Moenkhausia Marinho [M. M. F.] 2010:656, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 30977] Rio Von den Steinen, on the road to Agua Limpa, 13°14'19"S, 54°53'01"W, rio Ronura drainge, rio Xingú basin, Nova Ubiratã, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 106058. Paratypes: CPUFMT 610 (3); DZAJRP 12547 (3), INPA 34095 (3), MCP 4557 (3), MPEG 18924 (3), MZUSP 91404 (109, 3 c&s); USNM 398648 (3).l Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:442 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Moenkhausia eurystaenia Marinho 2010 -- (Marinho et al. 2014:263 [ref. 33372], Marinho et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34376]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia eurystaenia Marinho 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Xingú basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

eurytaenia, Phenacogaster Lucena [Z. M. S. de], Antonetti [D. A.] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] in Antonetti, Lucena & Lucena 2018:272, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 28 (no. 3) [no. IEF-1075]; ref. 36204] Downstream of Usina Hidrelétrica de Serra da Mesa, rio Tocantins, Campinaçu, Goiás State, Brazil, 13°50'55"S, 48°15'45"W. Holotype: MZUSP 119015. Paratypes: MCP, MZUSP, UNT. •Valid as Phenacogaster eurytaenia Lucena, Antonetti & Lucena 2018. Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster eurytaenia Lucena, Antonetti & Lucena 2018. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Upper and middle rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

euspilurus, Deuterodon Fowler [H. W.] 1945:102, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 1454] Río Morelia, Caquetá drainage, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 71679. Paratypes: ANSP 71680-84 (5), 71685 (1, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:46 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Odontostilbe fugitiva Cope 1870 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Odontostilbe euspilurus (Fowler 1945) -- (Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:193 [ref. 28728], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Odontostilbe euspilurus (Fowler 1945). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

exodon, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, McAtee & Ward 1907:139 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2) (art. 7); ref. 1261] Puerto Max, Paraguay. Holotype: IU 10298a (may be now included in MCZ 29909). Paratypes: (10) BMNH 1909.6.15.11 (1); CAS 39564 [ex IU 10297] (orig. 3, now 2), 39565 [ex U 10298] (orig. 5, now 4, missing), 39566 [IU ex 11264] (2); MCZ 29909 [ex IU 10298] (2); NMW 62701 (2); ?ZMB 17188 (2). •Valid as Bryconamericus exodon Eigenmann 1907 -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:50 [ref. 23791], Braga 1998:26 [ref. 24111], Britski et al. 1999:32 [ref. 24147], Azpelicueta & Almirón 2001:280 [ref. 26007], Miquelarena et al. 2002:70 [ref. 26517], Casciotta et al. 2002:163 [ref. 26551], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27366], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:582 [ref. 27482], Casciotta et al. 2004:64 [ref. 27664], da Silva 2004:55 [ref. 27870], Almirón et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27986], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Langeani et al. 2005:389 [ref. 28234], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Mirande 2010:536 [ref. 31006] as cf. exodon and exodon, Baicere-Silva et al. 2011:381 [ref. 31395], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:289 [ref. 33374], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015:440 [ref. 33665], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mirande & Koerber 2015:21 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35267], Jerep & Shibatta 2017:10 [ref. 35610]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus exodon Eigenmann 1907. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

exodon, Epicyrtus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:46 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Amazon. No types known. •Synonym of Exodon paradoxus Müller & Troschel 1844 -- (Lucena in Reis et al. 2003:127-128 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Exodon paradoxus Müller & Troschel 1844. Characidae: Exodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

falcata, Saccoderma Dahl [G.] 1955:17 [Revista Linneana v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 19186] Tributaries of Río Sinú or from the Pechilí system, Colombia. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (158). Not treated in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061]. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

falsus, Hemigrammus ocellifer Meinken [H.] 1958:232 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 11 (no. 8); ref. 21338] Amazon. Holotype: ZMH H1183. Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:156 [ref. 22013]. Also described as new in Meinken 1959:305 [ref. 12010]. •Questionably a synonym of Hemigrammus ocellifer (Steindachner 1882) -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:133 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Hemigrammus ocellifer (Steindachner 1882) -- (Frankel 2002:285 [ref. 30814]). •Valid as Hemigrammus falsus Meinken 1958 -- (Zarske 2015:10 [ref. 33782], Lima et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34590]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus falsus Meinken 1958. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Chalceus Cuvier [G.] 1819:352, Pl. 26 (fig. 2) [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie v. 5; ref. 1017] Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-9896 (2) Rio São Francisco, A-8653 and A-8654 (2) Rio São Francisco. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:17-18 [ref. 19577]. •Valid as Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Villa 1982:101 [ref. 36708], Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Bussing 1987:68 [ref. 22927], Malabarba 1989:129 [ref. 14217] as aff. fasciatus, Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:24 [ref. 22290], Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Galvis et al. 1997:40 [ref. 23651], Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:18 [ref. 27632], Butí & Cancino 1999:70 [ref. 25277], Garutti & Britski 2000:85 [ref. 24769], Casatti et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25929], Romero & Paulson 2001:22 [ref. 26040], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:244 [ref. 26608] as cf. fasciatus, Miquelarena et al. 2002:77 [ref. 26517], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720] as cf fasciatus, Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Wilkens & Strecker 2003:545 [ref. 27317], López et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401] as cf. fasciatus, Centrofante et al. 2003:361 [ref. 27416], Casciotta et al. 2003:94 [ref. 28130], Casciotta et al. 2003:808 [ref. 27667] as cf. fasciatus, Castro & Vari 2004:332 [ref. 27972], Mirande et al. 2004:221 [ref. 27659] as cf. fasciatus, Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Mirande et al. 2006:14 [ref. 28757] as cf. fasciatus, Protogino et al. 2006:10 [ref. 28780], Mirande et al. 2006:58 [ref. 28784], Artoni et al. 2006:197 [ref. 29207] as aff. fasciatus, Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333] as cf. fasciatus, Zanata & Camelier 2009:175 [ref. 30252], Garutti & Venere 2009:378 [ref. 30493] with question, Bertaco & Lucena 2010:19 [ref. 30750] as aff. fasciatus, Garavello & Sampaio 2010:861 [ref. 31053] as aff. fasciatus, Lucena et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Bertaco 2014:498 [ref. 33320] as aff. fasciatus, Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321] as aff. fasciatus, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698] not argentina, Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857] as aff. fasciatus, Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424] as fasciatus and cf. fasciatus, Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561] as aff. fasciatus, Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966] as aff. fasciatus, Melo et al. 2016:375 [ref. 35317], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633], Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684] as aff. fasciatus, Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil [widely reported from the Amazon River basin and other basins, but probably erroneous: Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Uruguay and Venezuela]. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Chalceus Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:215 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Río Padauiri. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Chalceus fasciatus Cuvier 1819. •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Hemibrycon Román-Valencia [C.], Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Taphorn [D. C.], Mancera-Rodriguez [N. J.] & García-Alzate [C. A.] 2013:1370, Figs. 1-2, 3a [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 61 (no. 3) (dated Sept.); ref. 32877] Antioquia, Municipio de San Vicente, Vereda Corrientes, middle section of the Magdalena River Basin, La Magdalena Creek, tributary of the Nare River, 6°18'42.4"N, 75°15'28.7"W, Colombia, elevation 1882 meters. Holotype: IUQ 3191. Paratypes: AUM, IUQ, CSJ. •Valid as Hemibrycon fasciatus Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn P., Mancara-Rodriguez & García-Alzate 2013 -- (Román-Valencia et al. 2014:118 [ref. 33572], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon fasciatus Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn P., Mancera-Rodriguez & García-Alzate 2013. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Middle Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

fasslii, Tetragonopterus (Aequidens) Steindachner [F.] 1915:48 [34], Pl. 4 (fig. 7) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Western Colombia. Holotype (unique): NMW. On p. 34 of separate; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. •Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. •Valid as Astyanax fasslii (Steindachner 1915) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax fasslii (Steindachner 1915). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

felipponei, Pedalibrycon Fowler [H. W.] 1943:314, Figs. 4-6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1444] Río Gi, Departamento del Iluranto, Uruguay. Holotype: ANSP 70332. Paratypes: ANSP 67820 (1), 67831 (1, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:46 [ref. 13621]. •In part a synonym of Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Malabarba 1989:133 [ref. 14217], Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844]). •Valid as Odontostilbe felipponei (Fowler 1943) -- (Casciotta et al. 1992:8 [ref. 21059]). •Synonym of Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:19 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

fernandezi, Hyphessobrycon Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1972:20, Pl. 20 [Análisis ictiológico del complejo hidrográfico; ref. 19696] Cerca a Aroa en la via a Duaca, 10°29'50"N, 68°52'20"W, finca de Atria, Quebrada Cupa, Venezuela. Neotype: MBUCV-V 34105. Neotype designated by García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2008:149 [ref. 29919]; originally a holotype and 61 paratypes (apparenbtly lost) from Río Yaracuy drainage, Venezuela. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon fernandezi Fernández-Yépez 1972 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], García-Alzate et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29919], García-Alzate & Román-Valencia 2008:15 [ref. 30008], García-Alzate et al.2010:801 [ref. 30824], García-Alzate et al. 2013:861 [ref. 32692], Marinho et al. 2014:263 [ref. 33372], Lima et al. 2014:177 [ref. 33535], Dagosta et al. 2016:258 [ref. 34377], Ohara et al. 2017:249 [ref. 35067], García-Alzate et al. 2017:125 [ref. 35253]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon fernandezi Fernández-Yépez 1972. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal Caribbean drainages of Venezuela and the Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

festae, Tetragonopterus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:2 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 13 (no. 329); ref. 14677] Río Vinces, western Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1898.11.4.65-70 (6), MSNG 34953 (1), MZUF 2698 (1), MZUT 1743 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:138 [ref. 21559], Tortonese 1961:182-183 [ref. 10343], Vanni 1991:221 [ref. 20099]. •Valid as Astyanax festae (Boulenger 1898) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:124 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax festae (Boulenger 1898). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

figueiredoi, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:101, Fig. 40 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Rio Maranhão, upper Rio Tocantins basin, about 35 air kilometers north of Brasilia, about 15°32'S, 47°49'W, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 50542. Paratypes: MNRJ 14482 (2), 17334 (2), 17339 (3); MZUSP 50543 (9); USNM 292221 (11). •Valid as Creagrutus figueiredoi Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus figueiredoi Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Tocantins River drainage in upper Tocantins and Araguaia River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

figueiredoi, Knodus Esguícero [A. L. H.] & Castro [R. M. C.] 2014:40, Figs. 1-4. 5c [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 33506] Guiratinga Municipality, Rio das Gasças, upper Rio Araguaia basin, 16°13'11"N, 53°35'59"W, Brazil. Holotype: LIRP 10238. Paratypes: DZSJRP, INPA, LIRP, NUP. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:441 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Knodus figueiredoi Esguícero & Castro 2014. Current status: Valid as Knodus figueiredoi Esguícero & Castro 2014. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Rio das Gasças, upper Rio Araguaia basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

figueiredoi, Kolpotocheirodon Malabarba [L. R.], Lima [F. C. T.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 2004:322, Figs. 5-6 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 117 (no. 3); ref. 27971] Rio Pratinha, Fazenda Pratinha, 12°21'13"S, 41°32'57"W, Iraquara, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 70037. Paratypes: MCP 22345 (5), MZUSP 55219 (26, 2 c&s, 2 histology prep.). •Valid as Kolpotocheirodon figueiredoi Malabarba, Lima & Weitzman 2004 -- (Malabarba & Jerep 2014:76 [ref. 33440]). Current status: Valid as Kolpotocheirodon figueiredoi Malabarba, Lima & Weitzman 2004. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Paraguaça River drainage, Brasil. Habitat: freshwater.

filamentosus, Hemigrammus Zarske [A.] 2011:4, Figs. 1-5 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 61 (no. 1); ref. 31376] Rio Araguaya basin, Brazil [imported]. Holotype: MTD F 32438. Paratypes: MTD F 32439-32455 (7). •Valid as Hemigrammus filamentosus Zarske 2011 -- (Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716] as cf. filamentosus). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus filamentosus Zarske 2011. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Araguaya River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

filiferus, Zygogaster Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:23 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Apulo, Colombia. Holotype (unique): CAS 62258 [ex IU 12847]. •Valid as Astyanax filiferus (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31365], Torres-Mejia et al. 2012:505 [ref. 32312], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax filiferus (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

filigerus, Aphyocharax Cope [E. D.] 1870:564 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pebas, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8073. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:46 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Prionobrama filigera (Cope 1870) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:154 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Prionobrama filigera (Cope 1870). Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

finitimus, Tetragonopterus Bocourt [F.] 1868:62 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 9; ref. 16971] Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico. Lectotype: MNHN 2016-321. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-5223 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:20-21 [ref. 19577]. Description very brief. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1386 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Valid as Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1384 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Gulf coast of Mexico, states of Veracruz, Tabasco, and northern Oaxaca and Chiapas. Habitat: freshwater.

fischeri, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1879:151 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 15) (for 19 June 1879); ref. 20478] Río Mamoni, Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW. Species described in above abstract only, and not listed or described in subsequent main work (Steindachner 1879 [ref. 18782]). •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1400 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

flammeus, Hyphessobrycon Myers [G. S.] 1924:330, Fig. [The Fish Culturist v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 15459] Original stock form near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: USNM 92969 (2) [Aquarium bred]. Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:26 [ref. 19022]. Also appeared in Myers 1925:97-99 [ref. 30479]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon flammeus Myers 1924 -- (Lima & Costa 2001:237 [ref. 25700], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33371], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon flammeus Myers 1924. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal rivers of Rio de Janeiro State and rio Paraiba do Sul basin, Sao Paula State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

flava, Moenkhausia Britzke [R.], Troy [W. P.], Oliveira [C.] & Benine [R. C.] 2018:3, Figs. 1-2, 4, 6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 16 (no. 2) (e170086); ref. 36024] Tributary of rio Sepotuba, rio Paraguay basin, Córrego São Jorge, Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 14°27'24.9"S, 57°34'32.7"W. Holotype: MZUSP 123719. Paratypes: LBP, MZUEL, MZUSP. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Moenkhausia flava Britzke, Troy, Oliveira & Benine 2018. Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia flava Britzke, Troy, Oliveira & Benine 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper rio Sepotuba drainage, rio Paraguay basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

flavescens, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:104, Fig. 41 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Río Toguino basin, RíoTiguino No. 3, unnamed tributary of Río Tiguino, 1°07'35"S, 76°56'52"W, Pastaza, Ecuador. Holotype: MEPN 4622. Paratypes: MEPN 4642 (7), 6380 (7); USNM 340974-75 (8, 4). •Valid as Creagrutus flavescens Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus flavescens Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

flaviolimai, Gymnocorymbus Benine [R. C.], Melo [B. F.], Castro [R. M. C.] & Oliveira [C.] 2015:21, Figs. 8a, 13 [Zootaxa 3956 (no. 1); ref. 33792] Rio Guaporé, Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brazil, 12°26'42.0"S, 64°13'37.9"W. Holotype: INPA 47805. Paratypes: INPA, MZUSP, UFRO-ICT, USNM. •Valid as Gymnocorymbus flaviolimai Benine, Melo, Castro & Oliveira 2015. Current status: Valid as Gymnocorymbus flaviolimai Benine, Melo, Castro & Oliveira 2015. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rondônia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

foncensis, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.], Vanegas-Ríos [J. A.] & Ruiz-C. [R. I.] 2009:458, Fig. 1 [Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 80 (no. 2); ref. 30393] Vereda Los Chinitos, sistema río Magdalena medio, cuenca del río Fonce, río Pienta vía a Encino aprox. 10 kilometers de Charalá, 6°13'00"N, 73°10'12"W, municipio de Charalá, departamento de Santander, Colombia, elevation 1658 meters. Holotype: IUQ 1941. Paratypes: Véase Apéndice I. [published later, pers. comm. second author]. Many lots at IUQ, 3 lots at AMNH. •Valid as Bryconamericus foncensis Román-Valencia, Vanegas-Ríos & Ruiz-C. 2009 -- (Román-Valencia et al. 2014:108 [ref. 33608], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). •Valid as Hemibrycon foncensis (Román-Valencia, Vanegas-Ríos & Ruiz-C. 2009) -- (García-Melo et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35894]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon foncensis (Román-Valencia, Vanegas-Ríos & Ruiz-C. 2009). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

forestii, Moenkhausia Benine [R. C.], Mariguela [T. C.] & Oliveira [C.] 2009:162, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 30250] Cáceres, rio Sepotuba, rio Paraguay basin, 15°46'07"S, 57°38'54"W, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 97827. Paratypes: LBP 3793 (10); MZUSP 19111 (10), 90270 (16, 2 c&s). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Moenkhausia forestii Benine, Mariguela & Oliveira 2009 -- (Dagosta et al. 2015:424 [ref. 33998]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia forestii Benine, Mariguela & Oliveira 2009. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tributaries of rio Paraguay drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

fowleri, Axelrodia Géry [J.] 1965:33, Pl. 4 (fig. 14) [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 1584] Vicinity of Iquitos, Upper Amazon, Peru. Holotype: SMF 7212. Paratypes: Géry coll. 0186 (3), SMF 7649 (2). •Valid as Axelrodia fowleri Géry 1965 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Axelrodia stigmatias (Fowler 1913) -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Axelrodia stigmatias (Fowler 1913). Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Habitat: freshwater.

franciscensis, Fowlerina Eigenmann [C. H.] 1914:45 [Indiana University Studies No. 20; ref. 1230] Lagoas of Rio Grande at Barreiras, Rio São Francisco system, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 56426 [ex CM 5240]. Paratypes: (130+, CM and IU) CAS 44267 [ex IU 13195] (4), FMNH 15021-24 (4), 56741-50 (20, 2, 7, 2, 5, 20, 27, 7, 26, 23). Additional material: MCZ 20921 (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:68 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:36 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Orthospinus franciscensis (Eigenmann 1914) -- (Reis 1989:43 [ref. 14219], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:210 [ref. 27061], Reis et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34496]). Current status: Valid as Orthospinus franciscensis (Eigenmann 1914). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

francisci, Raeboides Steindachner [F.] 1908:192 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 13) (for 14 May 1908); ref. 18807] Lagoon at Bana (Lagoa Viana, Lagoa do Porto); Rio São Francisco, River Grande do Norte; River Preto at Santa Rita, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 56891-94 (7, 71, 19, 25), 56896 (13), ?56898-900 (56, ?, 4), 56920-22 (?, 16, 9), 56895 (7), 56897 (2). Original genus is correctly Roeboides. •Synonym of Roeboides xenodon (Reinhardt 1851) -- (Lucena 1988:38 [ref. 22126], Lucena 1998:36 [ref. 23597], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:206 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2007:134 [ref. 29256]). Current status: Synonym of Roeboides xenodon (Reinhardt 1851). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

franciscoensis, Ephippicharax Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Myers 1929:506, Pl. 70 (figs. 3 & 5) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 5); ref. 1263] Barreiras, Lagoa do Rio Grande, Brazil. Holotype: CM 5240. Paratypes: CM 5561-5570 (more than 130), MCZ (3). •Synonym of Orthospinus franciscensis (Eigenmann 1914) -- (Reis in Reis et al. 2003:210 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Orthospinus franciscensis (Eigenmann 1914). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

franciscoensis, Phenacogaster Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:173, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Boqueiras, near mouth of Rio Porto, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54599 [ex CM 3231]. Paratypes: (19, CM) CAS 62201 [ex IU 13281, CM 3234] (2), FMNH 15141 (1), 54600-03 (3, 4, 5, 5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:67 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:65 [ref. 12367]. Original as franciscoënsis. •Valid as Phenacogaster franciscoensis Eigenmann 1911 -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:204 [ref. 27061], Lucena & Gama 2007:152 [ref. 29059], Lucena & Malabarba 2010:266, 298 [ref. 30880], Antonetti et al. 2018:279 [ref. 36204], Lucena & Lucena 2019:5 [ref. 36690]). Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster franciscoensis Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

franciscoensis, Tetragonopterus Silva [G. S. C.], Melo [B. F.], Oliveira [C.] & Benine [R. C.] 2016:32, Fig. 12 [Zootaxa 4200 (no. 1); ref. 34929] Minas Gerais, Três Marias, Rio São Francisco, Brazil, 18°30'S, 45°17'W. Holotype: MZUSP 120566. Paratypes: LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Tetragonopterus franciscoensis Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2016. Current status: Valid as Tetragonopterus franciscoensis Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2016. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

frankei, Hyphessobrycon Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 1997:309, Figs. 1, 3 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 50 (no. 5); ref. 23715] Brook at Carretera Central, 10 kilometers west of Aguaytia, River Ucayali area, Dept. Loreto, Peru. Holotype: MTD F 17706. Paratypes: MHNG 2586.31-.33 (4, 2, 60); MTD F 16599-16603 (5), F 17707-30 (24). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:18 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon frankei Zarske & Géry 1997 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon frankei Zarske & Géry 1997. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Ucayali River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

fredcochui, Boehlkea Géry [J.] 1966:212, Figs. 5-6 [Ichthyologica, the Aquarium Journal v. 37 (no. 5); ref. 1588] "Upper Amazon" [Colombia]. Holotype: ANSP 111675 [ex Géry coll. 0124.1]. Paratypes: ANSP 111676 [ex Géry coll. 0124.18-19] (2); MHNG 2184.038 [ex Géry coll. 0124.4, .6, .8] (3), MHNG 2184-047 [ex 0124.2-3, .5, .7, & .9-17] (13) [of which 1 is in ANSP 111668, 2 at USNM]; MNHN 1980-1425 (2); ZMA 113828 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:14 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:46 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hemibrycon fredcochui Géry 1966 -- (Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007:129 [ref. 29189], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2008:74 [ref. 29744]). •Valid as Boehlkea fredcochui Géry 1966 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061], Zarske 2008:164 [ref. 29918], Bertaco & Malabarba 2010:767 [ref. 31076], Baicere-Silva et al. 2011:381 [ref. 31395], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Soares et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35609], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Boehlkea fredcochui Géry 1966. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

fugitiva, Odontostilbe Cope [E. D.] 1870:566, Fig. [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Affluent of lower río Napo basin, río Mazán, upper río Amazonas, Loreto, Peru. Neotype: MUSM 27501. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:46 [ref. 13621]. Holotype apparently lost or unidentifiable -- see Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:175 [ref. 28728]. Neotype designated by Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:175 [ref. 28728]. •Valid as Cheirodon fugitiva (Cope 1870) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708]). •Valid as Odontostilbe fugitiva Cope 1870 -- (Malabarba 1998:219 [ref. 23844], Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:429 [ref. 24417], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061], Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:169 [ref. 28728], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Odontostilbe fugitiva Cope 1870. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

fulgens, Tetragonopterus Bocourt [F.] 1868:62 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 9; ref. 16971] Cuernovaca, Mexico. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5194 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:20 [ref. 19577]. Description very brief. •Synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1389 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

fuscoauratus, Tetragonopterus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:66, Pl. 33 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Near Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-9821 (8). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:17 [ref. 19577]. Originally spelled fusco-auratus. •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Habitat: freshwater.

galusdae, Cheirodon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1928:44, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 1245] Río Locomilla at San Xavier, Chile. Holotype: CAS 59760 [ex IU 15506]. Paratypes: (110) CAS 59761 [ex IU 15506] (27); ?FMNH 77551 (3); USNM 84319 [ex IU] (9), 221997 [ex USNM 221997] (1, c&s). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:23 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:14 [ref. 19022]. Named for Piedro Galusda, a man. The spelling galusdae is acceptable as early workers almost certainly Latinized the name first, and then added an "e" (Art. 31.1.1) [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012] -- suggest using galusadae. •Valid as Cheirodon galusdae [sic] Eigenmann 1928 -- (Campos 1982:141 [ref. 8500], Pequeño 1989:40 [ref. 14125], Casciotta et al. 1992:10 [ref. 21059], Ruiz & Berra 1994:14 [ref. 21384], Campos et al. 1996:69 [ref. 23440], Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Dyer 2000:84 [ref. 26678], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061] dated 1927, López et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27366] as cf. galusdae, Menni 2004:78 [ref. 28131], Mantinian et al. 2008:37 [ref. 34297] as galusdai). Current status: Valid as Cheirodon galusdae Eigenmann 1928. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Pacific versant basins in southern Chile; possibly Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

galvisi, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 2000:457, Fig. 5 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 48 (no. 2/3); ref. 25256] Alto Río Putumaya basin, Valle de Sibundoy, about 5°00'N, 77°23'W, Munic. de Sibundoy, Dept. del Putumayo, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMNH 2720. Paratypes: ICNMNH 2721 (12); IUQ 221-223 (10, 5, 5), 310 (3). Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:11 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Bryconamericus galvisi Román-Valencia 2000 -- (Román-Valencia 2001:474 [ref. 25946], Román-Valencia 2003:46 [ref. 27036], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2003:48 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:108 [ref. 33608]). •Valid as Hemibrycon galvisi (Román-Valencia 2000) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon galvisi (Román-Valencia 2000). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Putumayo River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

gamma, Knodus Géry [J.] 1972:52, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Acta Humboldtiana (Series Geologica, Palaeontologica et Biologica Nr. 2) No. 2; ref. 1595] Río Villano, affluent of River Cururay, Ecuador. Holotype: ZMH H1861. Paratypes: ZMH H2211 (2), Géry coll. (1). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:156 [ref. 22013]. •Valid as Bryconamericus gamma (Géry 1972) -- (Román-Valencia 2003:24 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia 2005:54 [ref. 28949]). •Mention -- (Ferreira & Lima 2006:637 [ref. 28919], Esguícero & Castro 2014:47 [ref. 33506]). •Valid as Knodus gamma Géry 1972 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:143 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Knodus gamma Géry 1972. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

gandhiae, Astyanax Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Román-Valencia [C.], Taphorn [D. C.], Buckup [P. A.] & Ortega [H.] 2018:13, Fig. 6 [European Journal of Taxonomy No. 402; ref. 35787] Upper Cenepa River drainage, Marañon River Basin, Condorcanqui Province, Department of Amazonas, Peru, 3°58'15"S, 78°41'15"W. Holotype: MUSM 46845. Paratypes: MUSM. •Valid as Astyanax gandhiae Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Current status: Valid as Astyanax gandhiae Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

garujo, Deuterodon Lucena [Z. M. S. de] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] 1992:130, Fig. 5 [Communicações do Museu de Ciêcias da PUCRS v. 5 (nos 1-12); ref. 21970] Rio Garuvá, Paraná, Garuvá, about 25°59'S, 48°55'W, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 14654. Paratypes: MCP 13973 (710), ?MZUSP 43765 (2); plus additional material. Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:465 [ref. 23140]. •Synonym of Deuterodon langei Travassos 1957 -- (Lucena & Lucena 2002:128 [ref. 26205], Lucena et al. in Reis et al. 2003:127 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Deuterodon langei Travassos 1957. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

geayi, Cheirodontops Schultz [L. P.] 1944:319, Figs. 42-43 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Guárico and tributaries between San Sebastián and San Casimiro, Aragua state, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121507. Paratypes: CAS-SU 18144 [ex USNM 121508] (1), MCZ 37235 [ex USNM 121508] (1), UMMZ 145039 [ex USNM 121508] (1), USNM 121508 (now 3, orig. 6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:23 [ref. 12291], Vari & Howe 1991:15 [ref. 19022]. •Mention -- (Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:193 [ref. 28728]). •Valid as Cheirodontops geayi Schultz 1944 -- (Taphorn 1992:158 [ref. 23654], Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:429 [ref. 24417], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Cheirodontops geayi Schultz 1944. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

geayi, Tetragonopterus (Markiana) nigripinnis Pellegrin [J.] 1909:347 [6] [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 14 (no. 7)[1908]; ref. 3423] Río Apure, Orinoco System, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1898-0017. On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Markiana geayi (Pellegrin 1909) -- (Taphorn 1992:248 [ref. 23654], Zarske & Géry 2002:13 [ref. 26554], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:144 [ref. 27061], Baicere-Silva et al. 2011:372 [ref. 31394], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Markiana geayi (Pellegrin 1909). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

geisleri, Hemigrammus Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 2007:6, Figs. 1-6 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 57 (no. 1); ref. 29231] 35 kilometers northwest of Obidos Igarapé, Para, Brazil. Holotype: MTD F 30612. Paratypes: At MTD and Géry private coll. •Valid as Hemigrammus geisleri Zarske & Géry 2007 -- (Ota et al. 2014:278 [ref. 33373], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus geisleri Zarske & Géry 2007. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

geisleri, Microschemobrycon Géry [J.] 1973:93, Figs. 7-8 [Studies on the Neotropical Fauna v. 8; ref. 1596] Igarapé, about 35 kilometers northwest from Obidos, Rio Curuçamba drainage, lower Amazon basin, Brazil. Holotype: MHNG 2229.09 [ex Géry coll. 0672]. Paratypes: (3). Type catalog: Weber 1998:8 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Microschemobrycon geisleri Géry 1973 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:145 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745] as cf. geisleri, Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35633], Ohara et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36615]). Current status: Valid as Microschemobrycon geisleri Géry 1973. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Madeira, Negro, Tapajós and lower Amazon River basins: Brazil, Ecuador?, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

georgetti, Hyphessobrycon Géry [J.] 1961:121, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin of Aquatic Biology v. 2 (no. 22); ref. 9348] Side branch of Sipaliwini River, a swampcreek in Paru savannah, Suriname. Holotype: ZMA 103269. Paratypes: ANSP 139706 (1), MNHN 1982-0807 (1), ZMA 104184 (9), and other paratypes in Géry coll. M.163. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:20 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:46 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon georgettae Géry 1961 -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:235 [ref. 22743], Géry & Römer 1997:70 [ref. 23712], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], Hein 2009:9 [ref. 30362], Dagosta et al. 2014:366 [ref. 33382]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon georgettae Géry 1961. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

georgiae, Moenkhausia Géry [J.] 1965:104, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 35; ref. 7962] Middle Mana River, between "Saut-Chien" and "Saut-Topi-Topi", Suriname. Holotype: ZMA 104223. Paratypes: (56) ANSP 94708 (1), 112246 (1), 139714 (2); ZMA 104224 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:22 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Moenkhausia georgiae Géry 1965 -- (Géry et al. 1991:55 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:296 [ref. 22818], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:43 [ref. 28287], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[10] [ref. 35679]). •Valid as Tetragonopterus georgiae (Géry 1965) -- (Silva et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34929]). Current status: Valid as Tetragonopterus georgiae (Géry 1965). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Several river basins: French Guiana, Brazil, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

georgiae, Parapristella Géry [J.] 1964:44, Figs. 9-10 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 13 (no. 4, Jan.); ref. 1582] Río Manacacias into Upper Río Meta, at Restrepo, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 198641. Paratypes: Géry coll. M.343 (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:32 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Parapristella georgiae Géry 1964 -- (Taphorn 1992:292 [ref. 23654], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:153 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Parapristella georgiae Géry 1964. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

georgiae, Petitella Géry [J.] & Boutière [H.] 1964:474, Fig. 1 [Vie et Milieu Suppl. No. 17; ref. 1599] Lagunas village, lower Río Huallago, Loreto District, Peru. Holotype: MHNG 2150.28 [ex Géry coll. M.314,1]. Paratypes: ANSP 139710 (6); MHNG 2150.28 (1), 2150.29-64 (37), 2150.6588 (31); MNHN 1980-1447 (2); ZFMK 1419 (1); ZSM 26332 (3). Type catalog: Busse 1984:218 [ref. 28342], Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621], Weber 1998:8 [ref. 23532], Herder et al. 2010:118 [ref. 31087], Neumann 2011:247 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Petitella georgiae Géry & Boutière 1964 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:153 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Petitella georgiae Géry & Boutière 1964. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

gephyrus, Creagrutus Böhlke [J. E.] & Saul [W. G.] 1975:25, Figs. 1-4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 127 (no. 3); ref. 7109] Río Aguarico at Santa Cecilia, Napo Province, Ecuador. Holotype: ANSP 130516. Paratypes: ANSP 130517 (1), 130519-22 (4); KU 13468 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Creagrutus gephyrus Böhlke & Saul 1975 -- (Vari & Harold 1998:256 [ref. 23845], Vari & Harold 2001:108 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Dagosta & Pastana 2014:578 [ref. 33181], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus gephyrus Böhlke & Saul 1975. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Andean piedmont rivers of eastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

geryi, Knodus Lima [F. C. T.], Britski [H. A.] & Machado [F. A.] 2004:577, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2004 (no. 3); ref. 27909] Rio do Peixe, tributary of rio Cabaçal, fazenda Entre Rios, at the bridge, 14°55'00"S, 58°27'24"W, Barra dos Bugres, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 83354. Paratypes: FMNH 112958 (1), MZUSP 78863 (28, 2 c&s). •Valid as Knodus geryi Lima, Britski & Machado 2004 -- (Ferreira & Lima 2006:636 [ref. 28919], Esguícero & Castro 2014:47 [ref. 33506], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Knodus geryi Lima, Britski & Machado 2004. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

geryi, Roeboexodon Myers [G. S.] 1960:209 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 3129] Maroni Basin, French Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 1958-0038. Paratypes: Géry priv. coll. (6). Based on Exodon guyanensis of Géry 1959 [ref. 1579] (not of Puyo). Géry 1959:347 [ref. 1579] named a neotype for Puyo's Exodon guyanensis, and that is the holotype of Roeboexodon geryi Myers 1960; guyanensis and Myer's geryi are automatically the same species; a species that might diiffer from Puyo's original species (see also Art. 75.6 of the Code). See comments in Lucena & Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:155-156 [ref. 27061] and Moreira & Lima 2011:315 [ref. 31389]. •Valid as Roeboexodon geryi Myers 1960 -- (Lucena & Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:155-156 [ref. 27061], Lucena & Lucinda 2004:73 [ref. 27957], Mirande 2010:491 [ref. 31006]). •Synonym of Roeboexodon guyanensis (Puyo 1948) -- (Moreira & Lima 2011:313 [ref. 31389], Mol et al. 2012:287 [ref. 32867]). Current status: Synonym of Roeboexodon guyanensis (Puyo 1948). Characidae: Exodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gibbicervix, Tetragonopterus Pellegrin [J.] 1909:152 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 15 (no. 4); ref. 3424] Amazon River, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 1909-0182 (1) Tabatinga, 1909-0320 (1) Tonnantins, 1909-0321 (2) Teffé; NMW 57516 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:22 [ref. 19577]. •Species inquirenda in Ctenobrycon -- (Benine & Cassati in Reis et al. 2003:127 [ref. 27061]). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

gibbosus, Cynopotamus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:321, Pl. 645 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Mana River; Essequibo River; Amazon. Syntypes: MNHN A-9843 (2) Mana R., A-9844 (5) Essequibo. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:24 [ref. 19577]. •Synonym of Charax gibbosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:201 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Lucena 2014:204 [ref. 33369]). Current status: Synonym of Charax gibbosus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gibbosus, Salmo Linnaeus [C.] 1758:311 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Suriname. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1853.11.12.35 (left halfskin). Type information: Wheeler 1989:208, Fig. 1A [ref. 21873]. •Valid as Charax gibbosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Lucena 1987:36 [ref. 17724], Lucena 1989:104 [ref. 12852], Taphorn 1992:152 [ref. 23654], Chang & Ortega 1995:6 [ref. 24302], Lasso et al. 2001:95 [ref. 25928], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:201 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131], Menezes & Lucena 2014:204 [ref. 33369], Sarmiento et al. 2014:45, 184 [ref. 35004], Nión et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35565], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Charax gibbosus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Essequibo River basins and coastal rivers of Suriname, Guyana, Bolivia, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

gibbosus, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1877:562 [4], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Parahyba [Paranaiba], Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 57518-19 (2, 1). On p. 4 of separate. •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Zarske & Géry 2006:8 [ref. 29010] with author as Agassiz, Silva et al. 2016:15 [ref. 34929]). Current status: Synonym of Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ginesi, Acestrocephalus Lasso [C. A.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2000:443, Fig. 1 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 48 (no. 2/3); ref. 25255] Río Cinaruco, beach in front of Laguna Larga, Muñoz district, 6°33'45"N, 67°24'W, Apure State, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 34681. Paratypes: MCNG 12098 (5), 17956 (2), 18029 (4), 23305 (5), 26048 (3), 37820 (14), 37821 (1 c&s), 37822-25 (6, 5, 5, 5); MNHLS 12762 (1), 12807 (3). •Valid as Acestrocephalus ginesi Lasso & Taphorn 2000 -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:200 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento 2016:537 [ref. 34727]). •Synonym of Acestrocephalus sardina (Fowler 1913) -- (Menezes 2006:387 [ref. 28897]). Current status: Synonym of Acestrocephalus sardina (Fowler 1913). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gisleni, Astyanax Dahl [G.] 1943:218 [4], Fig. [Förhanglingar / Klungl. Fysiografiska sällskapet i Lund = Proceedings of the Royal Physiographic Society at Lund. v. 12 (no. 18); ref. 13198] Río Aburrá, tributary via Río Porce to River Nechí, Magdalena system, Medellín, Antióquia, Colombia, elevation about 1500 meters. Syntypes: (13) ZMUL. Orig. as Gisléni. On p. 4 of separate. •Valid as Astyanax gisleni Dahl 1943 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax gisleni Dahl 1943. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

giton, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:97 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Paraíba River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 20936. Paralectotypes: CAS 42482 [ex IU 15266] (1). •Valid as Astyanax giton Eigenmann 1908 -- (Azpelicueta & Garcia 2000:252 [ref. 25142], de Melo 2001:5 [ref. 27458], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Vari & Castro 2007:159 [ref. 29039], Mirande et al. 2007:37 [ref. 29333]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax giton Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraíba River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

glandipedis, Planaltina Menezes [N. A.], Weitzman [S. H.] & Burns [J. R.] 2003:571, Figs. 22-29 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 116 (no. 3); ref. 27327] Carumbataí, rio Corumbataí, about 22°13'S, 47°38'W, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 62752. Paratypes: CZSJRP 671 (4), MZUSP 62753-56 (11, 7, 1, 3), 63690 (3); USNM 362135 (11), 362136 (5), 362137 (2). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:442 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Planaltina glandipedis Menezes, Weitzman & Burns 2003 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Deprá et al. 2018:17 [ref. 35939]). Current status: Valid as Planaltina glandipedis Menezes, Weitzman & Burns 2003. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Rivers draining the cuestas of São Paulo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

goeldii, Charax Fowler [H. W.] 1913:568, Fig. 22 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Río Madeira tributary, near Porto Velho, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 39308. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621]. •Possibly valid as Cynopotamus goeldii (Fowler 1913). •Synonym of Galeocharax gulo (Cope 1870) -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:203 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Galeocharax goeldii (Fowler 1913) -- (Menezes 2007:21 [ref. 29171], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Giovannetti et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35215]). Current status: Valid as Galeocharax goeldii (Fowler 1913). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Río Madre de Dios, río Beni, rio Mamoré and rio Guaporé, Madeira River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

gonzalezoi, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 2002:180, Fig. 2 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 50 (no. 1); ref. 26370] Río Bongie, 9°21'35"N, 82°36'35"W, Panama. Holotype: IUQ 377. Paratypes: STRI 00534 (10), 00575 (72), 00581 (16), 00584-85 (21, 1), 00591 (1); IUQ 446 (4). As gonzalezoi, the "o" apparently denotes endearment, C. Scharpf, Nov. 2013, apparently that sure be removed. •Valid as Bryconamericus gonzalezoi Román-Valencia 2002 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Vanegas-Rios 2009:393 [ref. 30843], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Angulo et al. 2013:992 [ref. 33194]). •Valid as Eretmobrycon gonzalezoi (Román-Valencia 2002) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] as gonzalezi). Current status: Valid as Eretmobrycon gonzalezi (Román-Valencia 2002). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Costa Rica and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

gorgonae, Cheirodon Evermann [B. W.] & Goldsborough [E. L.] 1909:99, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 22; ref. 14372] Small pool below the spillway of the reservoir dam at Gorgona, Panama Canal Zone. Holotype: USNM 64094. Paratypes: (11) ? BMNH 1909.2.25.50 (1), FMNH (1, missing), IU (1, not at CAS), CAS-SU (1, missing), USNM 64095 (4), USNM 127086 [ex USBF 1706/5421] (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:14 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Cheirodon gorgonae Evermann & Goldsborough 1909 -- (Fink & Weitzman 1974:14 [ref. 7132]). •Valid as Compsura gorgonae (Evermann & Goldsborough 1909) -- (Bussing 1998:104 [ref. 24179], Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:427 [ref. 24417], Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:280 [ref. 24413], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Compsura gorgonae (Evermann & Goldsborough 1909). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Pacific and Atlantic versant rivers of Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

gouldingi, Cynopotamus Menezes [N. A.] 1987:2, Fig. 1 [Beaufortia v. 37 (no. 1); ref. 8072] Rio Madeira at Calama, Territory of Rondônia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 35474. Paratypes: MZUSP 34316 (26), USNM 278962 (5), ZMA 119460 (3). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:461 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Cynopotamus gouldingi Menezes 1987 -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:202 [ref. 27061], Menezes 2007:60 [ref. 29297], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Cynopotamus gouldingi Menezes 1987. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Tocantins and Araguaia river basins, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

goya, Moenkhausia Deprá [G. C.], Azevedo-Santos [V. M.], Vitorino Júnior [O. B.], Dagosta [F. C. P.], Marinho [M. M. F.] & Benine [R. C.] 2018:88, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4514 (no. 1); ref. 36283] Ribeirão Dois Irmãos, tributary of rio das Almas, rio Maranhão basin, Pirenópolis, Goiás, Brazil, 15°42'50"S, 49°2'39"W, elevation 713 meters. Holotype: MCP 51734. Paratypes: LBP, MCNIP, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP, NUP, ZUEC. •Valid as Moenkhausia goya Deprá, Azevedo-Santos, Vitorino Júnior, Dagosta, Marinho & Benine 2018. Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia goya Deprá, Azevedo-Santos, Vitorino Júnior, Dagosta, Marinho & Benine 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

goyacensis, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:96 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Vermelho, rio Araguaia tributary, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 89558. •Valid as Astyanax goyacensis Eigenmann 1908 -- (Garutti 1998:120 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Garutti & Langeani 2009:371, 372 [ref. 30985], Garavello & Sampaio 2010:862 [ref. 31053], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Marinho et al. 2015:576 [ref. 33708], Freitas et al. 2015:190 [ref. 34055], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax goyacensis Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins basin, Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

goyanensis, Astyanacinus Miranda Ribeiro [P. de] 1944:1, Fig. [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Série. Zoologia No. 29; ref. 9903] Rio do Couro, Veadeiros, Estado do Goias, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 4129. Paratypes: MNRJ 2843 (7). •Valid as Astyanacinus goyanensis Miranda Ribeiro 1944 -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax goyanensis Miranda-Ribeiro 1944 -- (Bertaco et al. 2010:266 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138] with authorship as Bertaco, Carvalho & Jerep 2010, Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax goyanensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1944). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tributaries of the rio dos Couros, affluent of rioTocantinzinho and rio Paraná basin, Upper rio Tocantinzinho basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

graciliceps, Rachoviscus Weitzman [S. H.] & Cruz [C. A. G. da] 1981:1003, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 93 (no. 4); ref. 8528] About 1 kilometer north of Prado, about 500 meters from Atlantic, Bahia, Brazil, 17°19'S, 39°14'W. Holotype: MZUSP 14387. Paratypes: MNRJ 10585-86 (2), MZUSP 14388-90 (3), USNM 220355 (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:37 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:493 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Rachoviscus graciliceps Weitzman & Cruz 1981 -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:155 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Rachoviscus graciliceps Weitzman & Cruz 1981. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal River basins of southern Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilimus, Moenkhausia lepidurus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:104 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Villa Bella; Serpa, Amazon River, Brazil. Syntypes: (21) MCZ 20983 (now 13), USNM 120279 [ex MCZ 20983] (4) Serpa. Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:30 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Moenkhausia gracilima Eigenmann 1908 -- (Géry 1992:71 [ref. 20972], Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Langeani 2010:60 [ref. 30941], Marinho & Langeani 2010:887 [ref. 30927], Oliveira & Marinho 2016:573 [ref. 34342], Marinho & Langeani 2016:348 [ref. 34416], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701], Soares et al. 2017:261 [ref. 35237]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia gracilima Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Madeira, Tapajós, and Trombetas basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilior, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:98 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Obidos and Villa Bella, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 20716 (1), 20838 (1), 21012 (1). •Valid as Astyanax gracilior Eigenmann 1908 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Garutti & Venere 2009:378 [ref. 30493]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax gracilior Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilior, Hyphessobrycon Géry [J.] 1964:12, Figs. 10-11 [Beiträge zur Neotropischen Fauna v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 1580] Small creek connecting "Zapote Cocha" and "Caño Yarina", on edge of Río Pacaya, tributary of lower Río Ucayali, Peru. Holotype: ZFMK 1329. Paratypes: MHNG 2150.12-13 (2), ZFMK 1330 (1). Type catalog: Busse 1984:218 [ref. 28342], Herder et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon gracilior Géry 1964 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Dagosta et al. 2014:366 [ref. 33382], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon gracilior Géry 1964. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Peru, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Aphyocharax Fowler [H. W.] 1940:61, Figs. 16-17 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Río Pilcomayo, Villa Montes, Bolivia. Holotype: ANSP 68864. Paratypes: ANSP 68865 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Aphyocharax gracilis Fowler 1940 -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:198 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:21 [ref. 27366], Sarmiento et al. 2014:43, 183 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocharax gracilis Fowler 1940. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Charax Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:154 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Tropical America. No types known. •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Cheirodon Géry [J.] 1960:29, Pl. 2 (fig. 4); Figs. 12-13 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 41 (no. 1/2); ref. 1605] Sable Creek, Upper Mana, French Guiana. Holotype: SMF 4785. Paratypes: ANSP 139705 (1); Géry coll. 57 che 02-32-9 to 11 (3), 57 Che 02-19-2 to 8 (?); SMF 4791 (2); ZMA 113856. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:16 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Odontostilbe gracilis (Géry 1960) -- (Casciotta et al. 1992:8 [ref. 21059], Planquette et al. 1996:330 [ref. 22818], Keith et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24547], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701]). •Not in Odontostilbe -- (Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:193 [ref. 28728]). •Valid as Serrapinnus gracilis (Gáry 1960) -- (Zarske 2012:16 [ref. 31902], Jerep et al. 2016:296 [ref. 34362]). Current status: Valid as Serrapinnus gracilis (Géry 1960). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Guyana and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:111, Fig. 44 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Río Santiago, at La Poza, 4°01'S, 77°47'W, Provincia Condorcanqui, Amazonas, Peru. Holotype: LACM 41724-27. Paratypes: LACM 41724-32 (10); MUSM 8864 (10), 10760 (6); USNM 341370 (10, 2 c&s), 344534 (4). •Valid as Creagrutus gracilis Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus gracilis Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazonas and Loreto States of Peru and various localities along eastern slobe of Andean Cordilleras in Ecuador: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Tetragonopterus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1875:133 [7] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 3); ref. 2856] Lagoa Santa, 19°38'S, 43°53'W, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9583 [ex ZMUC] (4); NMW 68066 (5); SMNS 2047 (4); ZMB 9201 (1); ZMUC 522-529 (8), 539 (1), 650 (1), 651 (1), 661 (1), 662 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:23 [ref. 19577], Nielsen 1974:46 [ref. 9588], Fricke 1995:9 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:26 [ref. 29864] with author as Reinhardt. On p. 7 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:217 (and p. XIV of summary), Pl. 5 (fig. 16) [ref. 19674]. Authorship sometimes seen as Reinhardt in Lütken. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon gracilis (Lütken 1875) -- (Fernández & Butí 1996:252 [ref. 22775], Lima & Gerhard 2001:110 [ref. 25355], Britski 2001:21 [ref. 26046]). •Valid as Hemigrammus gracilis (Lütken 1875) -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Mendonça & Wosiacki 2011:214 [ref. 31415], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus gracilis (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

grammica, Aphyodite Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:314, Pl. 44 (fig. 5) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Konawaruk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53408 [ex CM 1882]. Paratypes: CAS 59711 [ex IU 12162] (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:58 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:10 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Aphyodite grammica Eigenmann 1912 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:529 [ref. 31006], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35679], Esguícero & Castro 2017:756 [ref. 35694]). Current status: Valid as Aphyodite grammica Eigenmann 1912. Characidae: Aphyoditeinae. Distribution: Essequibo River and Rio Negro basins: Guyana and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

grandis, Astyanax Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1912:67 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 6); ref. 10934] Río Juan Díaz, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7571. Paratypes: (196) FMNH 12199-204 (75, 12, 31, 11, 25, 36), 12211-16 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 13089 (6), 13089 (6), 32015-16 (1, 1). Questionable paratypes: FMNH 12205-10 (12, 13, 15, 13, 15, 9). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Synonym of Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1401 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

grandisquamis, Tetragonopterus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1845:27, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Horae Ichthyologicae Nos 1 & 2; ref. 3071] Suriname. Syntypes: ?ZMB 3593 (1). •Valid as Moenkhausia grandisquamis (Müller & Troschel 1845) -- (Géry et al. 1991:56 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:298 [ref. 22818], Lucena & Lucena 1999:235 [ref. 24225], Benine 2002:292 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:43 [ref. 28287], Benine et al. 2007:262 [ref. 29279], Marinho & Langeani 2010:886 [ref. 30927], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Petrolli et al. 2016:168 [ref. 34395], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837] as aff. grandisquamis and grandisquamis, Soares et al. 2017:261 [ref. 35237], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia grandisquamis (Müller & Troschel 1845). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

griemi, Hyphessobrycon Hoedeman [J. J.] 1957:87, Figs. 1-3 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 10 (no. 4); ref. 12143] Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: ZMA 101936a. Paratypes: ZMA 101936b (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:20 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon griemi Hoedeman 1957 -- (Lima & Costa 2001:237 [ref. 25700], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136-137 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33371], Bragança et al. 2015:260 [ref. 34051], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561] as aff. griemi, Guimarães et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35965]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon griemi Hoedeman 1957. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Eastern coastal rivers from São Paulo to northern Santa Catarina states, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gronovii, Salmo Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:83, 659 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] America. Based on Gronovius, Zoophy. 377. •Same as Charax gracilis Gronow in Gray 1854. Current status: Synonym of Charax gracilis Gronow 1854. Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gronovii, Tetragonopterus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:143 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Suriname. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4402 (1), 4414 (1), A-9810 (1), A-9812 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:18-19 [ref. 19577]. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061] with question). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

grosvenori, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1927:365, Pl. 99 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 4); ref. 12292] Río Comberçiato, Río Urubamba basin, Peru, elevation 1800 feet. Holotype: MCZ 31562. Paratypes: CAS 44363 [ex IU 13757] (4), 44364 [ex IU 13761] (2), 44365 [ex IU 16048] (4); FMNH 58061-62 (2, 1); MCZ 30987 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:18 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Bryconamericus grosvenori Eigenmann 1927 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32807], Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015:435 [ref. 33665], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus grosvenori Eigenmann 1927. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

guabirubae, Hyphessobrycon flammeus Godoy [M. P. de] 1987:220, Fig. a [Peixes do estado de Santa Catarina; ref. 21117] Guabiruba, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Syntypes: Author's coll. (4). •Synonym of Hyphessobrycon griemi Hoedeman 1957 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hyphessobrycon griemi Hoedeman 1957. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

guahibo, Chrysobrycon Vanegas-Ríos [J. A.], Urbano-Bonilla [A.] & Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] 2015:172, Figs. 1-2, 4-6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 2); ref. 34047] Fuente de Oro, small drainages flowing into the Guaviare River basin, Orinoco River basin, Colombia, 3°17'39"N, 73°32'02"W, elevation 258 meters. Holotype: MPUJ 7160. Paratypes: CI-FML, MLP, MPUJ. Type catalog: Nadalin & López 2015:3 [ref. 34112]. •Valid as Chrysobrycon guahibo Vanegas-Ríos, Urbano-Bonilla & Azpelicueta 2015 -- (Vanegas-Ríos & Urbano-Bonilla 2017:2355 [ref. 35265], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chrysobrycon guahibo Vanegas-Ríos, Urbano-Bonilla & Azpelicueta 2015. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

guanes, Creagrutus Torres-Mejia [M.] & Vari [R. P.] 2005:812, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2005 (no. 4); ref. 28477] Río Fonce, beside road from San Gil to Charalá, 6°28'39.4"N, 73°07'3.0"W, Río Magdalena system, Velle de San José, Santander, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN 8520. Paratypes: ICNMHN 8521 (25), 8522 (1), 9893 (20, 1 c&s), 9894 (9), 9895 (1), 9896 (3), 9897 (2, 2 c&s), 9898 (2, 2 c&s). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:14 [ref. 36127]. The specific name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Creagrutus guanes Torres-Mejia & Vari 2005 -- (Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:348 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus guanes Torres-Mejia & Vari 2005. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Middle Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

guaporensis, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:176, Pl. 7 (fig. 4) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Rio Guaporé at Maciel, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54709 [ex CM 3351]. Paratypes: CAS 68729 [ex IU 13268 and CM 3352] (1), FMNH 54710 [ex CM 3352] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:60 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Astyanax guaporensis Eigenmann 1911 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Marinho et al. 2015:576 [ref. 33708]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax guaporensis Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Madeira basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

guaporensis, Microschemobrycon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:56, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] Rio Guaporé at Maciél, Amazon system, Brazil. Holotype (unique): FMNH 57926 [ex CM 6910a]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:59 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:57 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Microschemobrycon guaporensis Eigenmann 1915 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:145 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Ohara et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36615]). Current status: Valid as Microschemobrycon guaporensis Eigenmann 1915. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Guaporé River drainage, Madeira River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

guarani, Hyphessobrycon Mahnert [V.] & Géry [J.] 1987:307, Figs. 1-2 [Bonner Zoologische Beiträge v. 38 (no. 4); ref. 9115] Upper Río Paraná at Puerto Bertoni, Departamento Alto Paraná, 25°38'S, 54°40'W, Paraguay. Holotype: MHNG 2366.99. Paratypes: MHNG 2366.100 (orig. 77, 6 c&s), 2367.1 (34), 2367.2 (41), 2367.3 (4), 2367.4 (77); MNHN 1988-0467 (2); MZUSP 38399 [ex MHNG 2366.100] (3); USNM 290840 [ex MHNG 2366.100] (3), ZFMK 15521-23 (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:26 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:468 [ref. 23140], Weber 1998:7 [ref. 23532], Herder et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon guarani Mahnert & Géry 1987 -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:50 [ref. 23791], Almirón & Casciotta 1999:345 [ref. 24405], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Almirón et al. 2004:674 [ref. 27987], Almirón et al. 2006:895 [ref. 29163], Miquelarena & López 2010:5 [ref. 30749], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Dagosta et al. 2014:373 [ref. 33382], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117]). •Valid as Diapoma guarani (Mahnert & Géry 1987) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Koerber et al. 2015:2 [ref. 35179], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Koerber et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:3 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Diapoma guarani (Mahnert & Géry 1987). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: South America: upper Paraná River basin: Argentina and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

guaricana, Astyanax Oliveira [C. A. M.], Abilhoa [V.] & Pavanelli [C. S.] 2013:292, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 32756] Paraná State, municipality of São José dos Pinhais, Arraial, Guaricana Reservoir, affluent of the rio Cubatao, 25°42;29"S, 48°58'25"W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 112224. Paratypes: Many at MHNCI, MZUSP. •Valid as Astyanax guaricana Oliveira, Abilhoa & Pavanelli 2013 -- (da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]), Current status: Valid as Astyanax guaricana Oliveira, Abilhoa & Pavanelli 2013. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

guatemalensis, Anacyrtus Günther [A.] 1864:347 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Río Chagres, Panama. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.26.310. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.311-312 (2), USNM 133137 [ex BMNH 1864.1.26.366] (1), ZMB 6833 (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:4 [ref. 19022]. Lectotype selected by Miller & Carr 1974:121 [ref. 24560]. •Valid as Roeboides guatemalensis (Günther 1864) -- (Villa 1982:105 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:91 [ref. 22927], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:25 [ref. 22290], Bussing 1998:117 [ref. 24179], Lucena 2000:42 [ref. 24559], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2011:1663 [ref. 31620], Matamoros et al. 2013:280 [ref. 32755]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope drainages, Guatemala to Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

guaytarae, Bryconamericus scopiferus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:7 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Río Patía at mouth of River Guáytara, Pacific Slope, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56657 [ex CM 5474]. Paratypes: CAS 40844 [ex IU 13168] (1). Non-types: CAS 40841-43 [ex IU 12792-04] (4, 25, 38), FMNH (122, 3 localities). Type catalog: Henn 1928:63 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:19 [ref. 12367] with 122 paratypes from 3 localities (but original description only includes one paratype). Spelled guaitarae in Eigenmann 1922:151 [ref. 1243] and authors. •Valid as Bryconamericus guaytarae Eigenmann & Henn 1914 -- (Román-Valencia 2003:21, 28 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia 2003:46 [ref. 27036], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2003:28 [ref. 26840] with Wilson included as an author, Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Román-Valencia et al. 2011:844 [ref. 31565]). •Valid as Eretmobrycon guaytarae (Eigenmann & Henn 1914) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Eretmobrycon guaytarae (Eigenmann & Henn 1914). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Patía River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

guejarensis, Hemibrycon Román-Valencia [R.], Ruiz-C. [R. I.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2018:41, Figs. 2C, 3 [Revista de Investigaciones de la Universidad del Quindío v. 29 [for 2017]; ref. 36348] Pringamosal Creek, Blanco River system, Guaviare River drainage, Orinoco River basin, Buenavista village, Vista Hermosa County, Meta, Colombia, [ca. 3°07'01"N 73°52'19"W], elevation 384 meters. Holotype: IUQ 2484. Paratypes: AUM, IUQ, Geographical coordinates of type locality provided by Román-Valencia et al. 2018:41 [ref. 36348] are incorrect. •Valid as Hemibrycon guejarensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn 2018. Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon guejarensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn 2018. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Guaviare River drainage, Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

guianensis, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:16 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Warraputa, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53518 [ex CM 1013] [?51518]. Paratypes: (214, CM and IU) ANSP 39093 (1); BMNH 1911.10.31.314-318 and 319-320 (5 + 2); CAS 39208 [ex IU 11717 (26)/CAS-SU 21945 (6)] (32), 39209-11 [ex IU 11718-20] (1, 1, 10); FMNH 7452-53 (6, 2), 52682-83 (10, 1), 52862 (26); MCZ 29960-61 (xxx); NMW 58824 (4), 62783 (1); CAS-SU 21957 (2); USNM 66105-06 (5, 1), 120394 (2); ZMA 101028 (1), 101035 (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:60 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:22 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:14 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621], Vari & Howe 1991:6 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax guianensis Eigenmann 1909 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Garutti & Venere 2009:378 [ref. 30493], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], Marinho et al. 2015:569 [ref. 33708], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax guianensis Eigenmann 1909. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Texas (U.S.A.) to Argentina: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

guianensis, Brachychalcinus Boeseman [M.] 1952:303 [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 31 (no. 26); ref. 12683] Itabu Creek, New River drainage, Guyana. Lectotype: FMNH 51535. Paralectotypes: FMNH 59525 (8, now 5); RMNH 18473 (1), 23430 [ex FMNH 59525] (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke 1958:81 [ref. 12050]. •Valid as Brachychalcinus guianensis Boeseman 1952 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Brachychalcinus orbicularis (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Reis 1989:60 [ref. 14219], Chang & Ortega 1995:7 [ref. 24302], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:209 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Brachychalcinus orbicularis (Valenciennes 1850). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

guizae, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 2003:38, Figs. 4-9 [Memoria de la Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales v. 155 (for 2001); ref. 27036] La Chiquita Stream, afluent of Inbi stream, 300 meters from the bridge vía Ricaurte-Ospina, 1°13'43"N, 78°02'11"W, upper Río Guiza, Palmar trail, Municipality of Ricaurte, Department of Nariño, Colombia, elevation 1041 meters. Holotype: IUQ 450. Paratypes: IUQ 451-452 (63, 6), STRI 1370 (1). Date of publiation needs research; we date to 2003 in Memoria 55 for 2001. •Valid as Bryconamericus guizae Román-Valencia 2003 -- (Román-Valencia 2003:32 [ref. 26840] dated 2001, Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus guizae Román-Valencia 2003. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Mira River basin, Pacific slope, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

gulo, Cynopotamus Cope [E. D.] 1870:565 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pebas, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 8053 (Böhlke holotype), ANSP 8054-55 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratypes. •Valid as Galeocharax gulo (Cope 1870) -- (Menezes 1976:43 [ref. 7073], Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:203 [ref. 27061], see Taphorn 1992:185 [ref. 23654], Planquette et al. 1996:220 [ref. 22818], Menezes 2007:22 [ref. 29171], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Giovannetti et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35215], Koerber et al. 2017:28 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Galeocharax gulo (Cope 1870). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Widely distributed in Amazon and Orinoco basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

guppyi, Tetragonopterus Regan [C. T.] 1906:384, Pl. 21 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1906 (pt 2) (art. 1) (for 10 Apr. 1906); ref. 15700] Glenside Estate stream, at the foot of the northern range of hills, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Syntypes: BMNH 1906.6.23.13-17 (5). Román-Valencia et al. 2018:40 [ref. 36348] report lectotype BMNH 1906.6.23. •Synonym of Hemibrycon taeniurus (Gill 1858) -- (Bertaco & Malabarba 2010:762 [ref. 31076]). •Valid as Hemibrycon guppyi (Regan 1906) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007:123 [ref. 29189], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009:79 [ref. 30718], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:118 [ref. 33572], García-Alzate et al. 2015:90 [ref. 33838], Román-Valencia et al. 2018:40 [ref. 36348]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon guppyi (Regan 1906). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Trinidad Island, West Indies. Habitat: freshwater.

guyanensis, Bryconamericus Zarske [A.], Le Bail [P.-Y.] & Géry [J.] 2010:4, Figs. 1-4 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 60 (no. 1); ref. 30816] Mana, crique Eau Claire at 7 kilometers of Saül, French Guyana. Holotype: MNHN 2010-0036. Paratypes: at IRSNB, MHNG, MNHN, MTD, ZFMK. Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Bryconamericus guyanensis Zarske, Le Bail & Géry 2010 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus guyanensis Zarske, Le Bail & Géry 2010. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: River basins of French Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

guyanensis, Exodon Puyo [J.] 1948:78 [1], Fig. 1 [Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse v. 83 (nos 1-2); ref. 13029] Confluent of Ouaqui and Tampoc, Upper Maroni River, French Guiana. Neotype: MNHN 1959-0038. On p. 1 of separate. Neotype designated by Géry 1959:347 [ref. 1579]; original 3 syntypes apparently lost. See nomenclatural comments in Lucena & Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:155-156 [ref. 27061]; neotype not regarded as valid by them, but that is probably incorrect since the designation was in 1959 and does not come under the 1999 code. See also Moreira & Lima 2011:315 [ref. 31389] who correctly regard the neotype as valid.. •Species inquirenda -- (Lucena & Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:155 [ref. 27061]). •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Roeboexodon guyanensis (Puyo 1948) -- (Géry et al. 1991:44 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:318 [ref. 22818], Moreira & Lima 2011:313 [ref. 31389]). Current status: Valid as Roeboexodon guyanensis (Puyo 1948). Characidae: Exodontinae. Distribution: Amazon, Tocantins, Xingú and Tapajós River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

guyanensis, Hemigrammus Géry [J.] 1959:254, Fig. 3 [Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon v. 28 (no. 8); ref. 10038] Sable creek, tributary to upper Mana, French Guiana. Holotype: MHNG 2181.23 [ex Géry coll. T 18-1-19]. Paratypes: (23 + 56 + 14) ANSP 94718 (4), 112219 (4), 139701 (3); MNHN 1980-1436 (3); SMF 5378-79 (2); USNM 179756 (8); ZMA 100630 (2), 113854 (2); ZSM 26750 [ex Géry coll., ex MHNG 2181.24] (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:19 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621], Weber 1998:7 [ref. 23532], Neumann 2011:246 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Hemigrammus guyanensis Géry 1959 -- (Géry et al. 1991:59 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:276 [ref. 22818], Zarske & Géry 2002:26 [ref. 26553], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27061], Zarske et al. 2006:23 [ref. 28749], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862], Lima et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34590], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus guyanensis Géry 1959. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Maroni, Mana, Approuague and Oyapak rivers, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnodontus, Psalidodon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:166, Pl. 4 (figs. 2-3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Rio Iguaçu at Porto União, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54574 [ex CM 3204]. Paratypes: CAS 22779 [ex IU 13304] (1), FMNH 71559 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:67 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:70 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Psalidodon gymnodontus Eigenmann 1911 -- (López et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26808], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:154 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax gymnodontus (Eigenmann 1911) -- (Pavanelli & Oliveira 2009:569, 573 [ref. 30986]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax gymnodontus (Eigenmann 1911). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Iguaçu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnogenys, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:179, Pl. 9 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Porto União, Rio Iguaçu, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54707 [ex CM 3350]. Paratype: FMNH 54708 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:61 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Astyanax gymnogenys Eigenmann 1911 -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:50 [ref. 23791], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], López et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26808], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Vera Alcaraz et al. 2009:189 [ref. 30252], Pavanelli & Oliveira 2009:569 [ref. 30986], Garavello & Sampaio 2010:851 [ref. 31053], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax gymnogenys Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Iguaçu River basin and Paraná basin: Argentina and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gyrospilus, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:113, Fig. 45 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Río Saguaz, Río Guanare-Apure drainage, bridge near park on road to Chabasquén (=Paraíso de Chabasquén, 9°23'30"N, 70°00'30"W), Portuguesa, Venezuela. Holotype: INHS 69479. Paratypes: INHS 51282 (32), USNM 359486 (8). •Valid as Creagrutus gyrospilus Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus gyrospilus Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Western Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

haerteli, Opisthanodus Ahl [E.] in Schreitmüller 1935:97, Abb. 1 [Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 32 (no. 7); ref. 21413] Amazon River at Pará, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMB 20793. Paralectotypes: ZMB 32428 (1). Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:92 [ref. 21847], Zarske & Géry 1995:116, Fig. 11 [ref. 22674]. Described later by Ahl 1935:47 [ref. 79]. Also appeared as new in Ahl in Anonymous 1936:91 [ref. 35697]. Lectotype selected by Zarske & Géry 1995:116 [ref. 22674]. •Synonym of Moenkhausia pittieri Eigenmann 1920 -- (Zarske & Géry 1995:119 [ref. 22674], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:149 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Moenkhausia pittieri Eigenmann 1920. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

hamatilis, Astyanax Camelier [P.] & Zanata [A. M.] 2014:477, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 84 (no. 2); ref. 33136] Rio Utinga, tributary of Rio Santo Antônio, on road BR 242, Rio Paraguaçu basin, Sao José Village, Lençóis¸ Bahia State, Brazil, 12°30'14.7"S, 41°12'24.1"W, elevation 363 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 111500. Paratypes: ANSP, MCP, MZUSP. UFBA. •Valid as Astyanax hamatilis Camelier & Zanata 2014 -- (Marinho et al. 2015:576 [ref. 33708], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:270 [ref. 33857], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145], Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax hamatilis Camelier & Zanata 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hamatus, Hyphessobrycon Bertaco [V. A.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2005:84, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 28297] Mambaí, córrego Cana Brava, tributary of rio Vermelho, rio Tocantins drainage, 14°29'S, 46°06'W, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 34000. Paratypes: MCP 33929 (11), 33930 (10, 1 c&s), 33931 (6, 1 c&s); MZUSP 84411 (6). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon hamatus Bertaco & Malabarba 2005 -- (Miquelarena & López 2006:824 [ref. 29070], Bertaco et al. 2007:248 [ref. 29277], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon hamatus Bertaco & Malabarba 2005. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tributaries of Vermelho River, Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hamatus, Tyttobrycon Géry [J.] 1973:129, Figs. 31-34 [Studies on the Neotropical Fauna v. 8; ref. 1596] Upper Amazon basin, in a tributary of the Maranon, not far from Iquitos, Peru (precise locality unknown). Holotype: MHNG 2172.30 [ex Géry coll. 0677]. Paratypes: ANSP 139719 (1); Géry coll. (orig. 10, now 9, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621], Weber 1998:9 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Tyttobrycon hamatus Géry 1973 -- (Géry & Römer 1997:70 [ref. 23712], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:158-159 [ref. 27061], Marinho et al. 2013:739 [ref. 33025], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Tyttobrycon hamatus Géry 1973. Characidae: Aphyoditeinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

hanseni, Pristicharax Fowler [H. W.] 1949:1, Figs. 1-6 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 216; ref. 1460] Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 72104. Paratypes: ANSP 72105-08 (4), 72109 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hasemania hanseni (Fowler 1949) -- (Zarske & Géry 1999:95 [ref. 23982], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Serra 2010:21 [ref. 30751], Serra & Langeani 2015:485 [ref. 33944]). Current status: Valid as Hasemania hanseni (Fowler 1949). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Goiás State (exact locality unknown), Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hanstroemi, Astyanax Dahl [G.] 1943:217 [3], Fig. [Förhanglingar / Klungl. Fysiografiska sällskapet i Lund = Proceedings of the Royal Physiographic Society at Lund. v. 12 (no. 18); ref. 13198] Río Batatal, tributary to Río San Jorge, Magdalena system, Munic. of Ayapel, Bolivar Dept., Colombia. Holotype (unique): ZMUL. Originally as Hanströni. On p. 3 of separate. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:3 [ref. 33698] with question). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

haraldi, Bryconella Géry [J.] 1965:28, Pl. 4 (fig. 13) [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 1584] Igarapé Préto, along Upper Amazon, near Belem, about 60 kilometers below Leticia, Brazil. Holotype: SMF 7220. Paratypes: Géry coll. 0189 (orig. 6); MNHN 1980-1427 (1); SMF 7221-35 (15); ZMA 113864 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:15 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Bryconella pallidifrons (Fowler 1946) -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:119 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Bryconella pallidifrons (Fowler 1946). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

haraldi, Hemigrammus pulcher Géry [J.] 1961:44, Fig. 2 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 9353] Lake between Paraná-Pará and Paraná-Comatia, upper Rio Solimões, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 196672. Paratypes: (5) ANSP 112214 (1); SMF 5382 (1), 7207 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621], Vari & Howe 1991:25 [ref. 19022]. Also appeared as new in Anonymous 1962:154 [ref. 31370]. •Valid as Hemigrammus haraldi Géry 1961 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:131-132 [ref. 27061], Lima et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34590]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus haraldi Géry 1961. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin in western Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

haraldschultzi, Hyphessobrycon Travassos [H.] 1960:5, Fig. 1 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 8 (no. 6); ref. 11956] Ilha do Bananal, Goiaz, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 9207. Paratypes: MNRJ 9208-09 (2, c&s), 9210-11 (9, 33); USNM 179749 (39 of 41). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:27 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon haraldschultzi Travassos 1960 -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:235 [ref. 22743], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Malabarba 2005:87 [ref. 28297], Hein 2009:9 [ref. 30362], Pastana et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35596], Guimarães et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35965]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon haraldschultzi Travassos 1960. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:10 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Porto Alegre, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 56659 [ex CM 5476]. Paratypes: CAS 39212 [ex IU 13170] (3), FMNH 56660 (6). Type catalog: Henn 1928:61 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Astyanax alburnus (Hensel 1870) -- (Malabarba 1987:126 [ref. 11587], Malabarba 1989:128 [ref. 14217], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Cyanocharax alburnus (Hensel 1870) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Diapoma alburnum (Hensel 1870). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Charax Steindachner [F.] 1915:348 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 52 (no. 27); ref. 20500] Mouth of Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW. Species described in more detail in Steindachner 1915:589 [ref. 15070]. •Synonym of Roeboides myersii Gill 1870 -- (Lucena 1988:35 [ref. 22126], Lucena 1998:36 [ref. 23597], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:206 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2003:300 [ref. 27452]). Current status: Synonym of Roeboides myersii Gill 1870. Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Hyphessobrycon Fowler [H. W.] 1913:545, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Rio Madeira, above Falls of Guajaramirim, Brazil, about 10°47'S, 65°23'W. Holotype (unique): ANSP 39230. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:48 [ref. 13621]. •Valid, placement uncertain -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:238 [ref. 22743]). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon hasemani Fowler 1913 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2016:184 [ref. 35004], Ohara et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35494], Pastana et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35596]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon hasemani Fowler 1913. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Madeira River, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Moenkhausia lepidura Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:102, Pls. 15 (fig. 3), 101 (fig. 5) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 1); ref. 1236] Santarém, Amazon River, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): FNNH 55055 [ex CM 3746]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:66 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:57 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Moenkhausia hasemani Eigenmann 1917 -- (Géry 1992:73 [ref. 20972], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Langeani 2010:61 [ref. 30941], Marinho & Langeani 2010:887 [ref. 30927], Oliveira & Marinho 2016:573 [ref. 34342], Marinho & Langeani 2016:348 [ref. 34416]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia hasemani Eigenmann 1917. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon basin and drainages of the Guiana Shield: Brazil, Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Odontostilbe Fowler [H. W.] 1940:89, Figs. 49-51 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Boca Chapare, Río Chimore, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Holotype: ANSP 69100. Paratypes: ANSP 69101-22 (22), 69125 (1, c&s); Géry coll. (2) [ex ANSP 69123-24]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:48 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Odontostilbe dierythrura Fowler 1940 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:217 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontostilbe dierythrura Fowler 1940. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

hastatus, Astyanax Myers [G. S.] 1928:87 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 2 (no. 7); ref. 3100] Southeastern Brazil (possibly in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro). Holotype: USNM 92952. Paratypes: USNM 94312 (29). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:6 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax hastatus Myers 1928 -- (de Melo 2001:11 [ref. 27458], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2007:37 [ref. 29333]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax hastatus Myers 1928. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal streams in vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hastatus, Odontostilbe Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:27 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Soplaviento, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56383 [ex CM 5103]. Paratypes: (25, CM and IU) FMNH 56300 (10, 1 c&s), 69555 (3); CAS 70919 [ex IU 12861] (9); USNM 79223 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:59 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:61 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:32 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Saccoderma hastata (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:427 [ref. 24417], Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:280 [ref. 24413], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:219 [ref. 27061] as hastatus, López et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:78 [ref. 28131], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Saccoderma hastata (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

hauxwellianus, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1870:560 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pebas, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 8137 (Böhlke holotype), ANSP 8138-42 (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:48 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratypes. •Valid as Ctenobrycon hauxwellianus (Cope 1870) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Benine & Cassati in Reis et al. 2003:126 [ref. 27061], Benine et al. 2010:59 [ref. 31067], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321]). •Synonym of Ctenobrycon spilurus (Valenciennes 1850) -- (see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Ctenobrycon hauxwellianus (Cope 1870). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

heikoi, Moenkhausia Géry [J.] & Zarske [A.] 2004:30, Figs. 1-7 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 28287] Rio Iriri, a left-hand tributary of the Rio Xingú well above Altamira, at edge of island between Rio Novo and Igarapé Grota, about 10 kilometers below mouth of River Novo, Para, Brazil, about 4°25'S, 53°40'W. Holotype: MZUP 83536. Paratypes: MHNG 2644.30 (1), MTD F 27909 (1). Plus one non-type specimen. •Valid as Moenkhausia heikoi Géry & Zarske 2004 -- (Lima et al. 2006:32 [ref. 32268], Pastana & Dagosta 2014:395 [ref. 33384], Marinho et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34376], Lima & Flausino 2016:94 [ref. 34408], Soares et al. 2017:261 [ref. 35237]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia heikoi Géry & Zarske 2004. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Xingú River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heliacus, Hyphessobrycon Moreira [C. R.], Landim [M. I.] & Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2002:428, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2002 (no. 2); ref. 26016] Ribeirão Macuco (= Córrego Duas-bocas), tributary of rio Teles Pires, rio Tapajós basin, 71.9 kilometers north from Sinop, munic. Cláudia, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, 11°15'S, 55°19'W. Holotype: MZUSP 52891. Paratypes: MCP 20697 (12); MZUSP 52893 (15), 62940 (4 c&s), 62941-43 (3, 2, 1); UFRJ 4646 (4 c&s), 4647 (3); USNM 348911 (12). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon heliacus Moreira, Landim & Costa 2002 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2003:95 [ref. 27437], Ingenito et al. 2013:38 [ref. 32568], Teixeira et al. 2014:613 [ref. 33097], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon heliacus Moreira, Landim & Costa 2002. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Teles Pires River in upper Tapajós basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

helleri, Hemibrycon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1927:406, Pl. 96 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 4); ref. 12292] Río Comberçiato, Paipay, Peru, elevation 1800 feet. Holotype: ?MCZ 31565 (1) or 30980 (1). Paratypes: CAS 44354 [ex IU 13754] (5), FMNH 58439 (3). Additional original material: CAS 44355 [ex IU 17611] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hemibrycon helleri Eigenmann 1927 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061], Bertaco et al. 2007:256 [ref. 29278], Bertaco & Malabarba 2010:741 [ref. 31076], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:118 [ref. 33572], García-Alzate et al. 2015:90 [ref. 33838], Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon helleri Eigenmann 1927. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Río Urubamba and río Comberciato, upper río Ucayali drainage, Cusco, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

hemigrammoides, Moenkhausia Géry [J.] 1965:109, Fig. 6 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 35; ref. 7962] Matoekasie creek, on the road Albina-Moengo, Cottica River basin, Suriname. Holotype: ZMA 104227. Paratypes: (19) MNHN 1980-1446 (1); ZMA 104228-29 (4, 6). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:22 [ref. 19236]. Dated 1966 in Géry & Zarske 2004:42 [ref. 28287]. •Valid, placement uncertain -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:239 [ref. 22743]). •Valid as Moenkhausia hemigrammoides Géry 1965 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:302 [ref. 22818], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:42 [ref. 28287], Pastana & Dagosta 2014:390 [ref. 33384], Dagosta & Marinho 2016:[7] [ref. 34498], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], Carvalho et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35509]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia hemigrammoides Géry 1965. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal rivers of French Guiana, Suriname and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hemigrammus, Aphyocheirodon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:59, Fig. 18; Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] Jacquara, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57819 [ex CM 6802]. Paratypes: (31) CAS 75171 [ex IU 14132] (3), FMNH 57820-22 (20, 4, 1), CAS-SU 17517 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:58 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:21 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:10 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Aphyocheirodon hemigrammus Eigenmann 1915 -- (Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:429 [ref. 24417], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:215 [ref. 27061], Reis et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34496]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocheirodon hemigrammus Eigenmann 1915. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hemigrammus, Asiphonichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:403, Pl. 60 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Gluck Island, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53665 [ex CM 2137]. Additional original material: CAS 38954 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:69 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:11 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Charax hemigrammus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Lucena 1987:39 [ref. 17724], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:201 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Lucena 2014:206 [ref. 33369]). Current status: Valid as Charax hemigrammus (Eigenmann 1912). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Amazon and Essequibo River basins: Brazil and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

hemigrammus, Bryconamericus Pearson [N. E.] 1924:44 [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Río Popoi, Upper Beni, Bolivia. Syntypes: CAS 39616 [ex IU 17353] (7), UMMZ 66499 (4). •Valid as Bryconacidnus hemigrammus (Pearson 1924) -- (Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:115 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Bryconacidnus hemigrammus (Pearson 1924). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Madeira River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

henni, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:6 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Vinces, western Ecuador. Holotype: FMNH 56594 [ex CM 5410]. Paratypes: (many) CAS 39034 [ex IU 13102] (1), 39035 [ex IU 13102] (38), 39036 [ex IU 13124] (132); FMNH 56595-96 (6, 4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:18 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Phenacobrycon henni (Eigenmann 1914) -- (Weitzman & Menezes 1998:186 [ref. 23843], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:226 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:147 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Phenacobrycon henni (Eigenmann 1914). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

henseli, Astyanax de Melo [F. A. G.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2006:46 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 28622] Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7479. Replacement for Tetragonopterus aeneus Hensel 1870, preoccupied in Tetragonopterus by T. aeneus (Günther 1860). •Valid as Astyanax henseli de Melo & Buckup 2006 -- (Bertaco & Lucena 2010:19 [ref. 30750], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], Lucena et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Bertaco 2014:493 [ref. 33320], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:270 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561] with author as Melo & Buckup, Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax henseli de Melo & Buckup 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hepsetus, Hydrocyon Cuvier [G.] 1829:312 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Non-types: MNHN A-9851 (3, poor condition) Buenos Aires. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:7-8 [ref. 19577] but dated to Valenciennes 1847. On Quoy & Gaimard 1824-25, pl. 48 (fig. 2) [ref. 3574]. •Valid as Acestrorhampus hepsetus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004]). •Valid as Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Menezes & Géry 1983:589 [ref. 8307], Menezes 1987:31 [ref. 20060], Gómez & Chebez 1996:47 [ref. 23791], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:151 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29321], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Ribeiro & Menezes 2015:77 [ref. 33768], Mirande & Koerber 2015:25 [ref. 35117], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35565] with author as Steindachner 1867). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier 1829). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Southeastern Brazil and La Plata River basin: Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

herbertaxelrodi, Hyphessobrycon Géry [J.] 1961:29, Fig. 4 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 9 (no. 9, May); ref. 9352] Coxim on the Rio Taquary [= Taquari], Rio Paraguay [= Paraguai] basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 196089. Paratypes: Géry coll. M.1152-54 (orig. 3), SMF 5376 (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:27 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi Géry 1961 -- (Britski et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24147], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2004:36 [ref. 28039], Mirande 2010:511 [ref. 31006], Lima et al. 2014:177 [ref. 33535], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Ohara & Lima 2015:570 [ref. 33846], Marinho et al. 2016:247 [ref. 34376], Dagosta et al. 2016:258 [ref. 34377], García-Alzate et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35253]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi Géry 1961. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Parguay River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

hermosus, Astyanax Miquelarena [A. M.], Protogino [L. C.] & López [H. L.] 2005:14, Fig. 1 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 112 (no. 1); ref. 28188] Valle Hermoso, 31°07'S, 64°29'W, San Francisco River, Primero River basin, Punilla Dept., Córdoba Province, Argentina. Holotype: ILPLA 1690. Paratypes: ILPLA 1691 (18, 2 c&s), 1692 (6, c&s); MHNG 2647.68 (4), MLP 9665 [ex ILPLA 1691]. Type catalog: Koerber 2007:2 [ref. 29776], Miquelarena et al. 2009:42 [ref. 34389], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:4 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Astyanax hermosus Miquelarena, Protogino & López 2005 -- (Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Protogino et al. 2006:11 [ref. 28780], Mirande et al. 2006:65 [ref. 28784], Vari & Castro 2007:157 [ref. 29039], Abilhoa & Duboc 2007:45 [ref. 29285], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Koerber 2011:3 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:24 [ref. 35117], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax hermosus Miquelarena, Protogino & López 2005. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Primero River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

hesperus, Hysteronotus Böhlke [J. E.] 1958:35, Pl. 3 (fig. 2); Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 110; ref. 12050] Río Pucuno, Napo-Pastaza, tributary of upper River Napo, Province Napo-pastaza, Ecuador, 0°46'S, 77°12'W. Holotype: USNM 164056. Paratypes: ANSP 75912-14 (1, 1, 1), 79159 (2); USNM 164042 (1), 175124 (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:28 [ref. 19022], Böhlke 1984:48 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hysteronotus hesperus Böhlke 1958 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708]). •Valid as Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke 1958) -- (Weitzman & Menezes 1998:187 [ref. 23843], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:223 [ref. 27061], Vanegas-Ríos et al. 2011:731 [ref. 31720], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Vanegas-Ríos et al. 2014:297 [ref. 33375], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Vanegas-Ríos et al. 2015:181 [ref. 34047], Vanegas-Ríos & Urbano-Bonilla 2017:2355 [ref. 35265], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke 1958). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

heterandria, Pseudocorynopoma Eigenmann [C. H.] 1914:39 [Indiana University Studies v. 2 (no. 20); ref. 12389] Xiririca, Rio Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 56407 [ex CM 5222]. Paratypes: (10) FMNH 56408 (8). Type catalog: Henn 1928:68 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:71 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Pseudocorynopoma heterandria Eigenmann 1914 -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:227 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Pseudocorynopoma heterandria Eigenmann 1914. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Coastal clearwater rivers in São Paulo and Paraná states, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heteresthes, Aphyocarax Ulrey [A. B.] 1894:612 [American Naturalist v. 28 (no. 331); ref. 12356] Brazil. Syntypes: (6) CAS 76377 (4), CAS-SU 2161 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:21 [ref. 12291]. Original genus should have been Aphyocharax. Species was also described as new in Ulrey 1895:293 [ref. 12371]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon heteresthes (Ulrey 1894) -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], Dagosta et al. 2014:366 [ref. 33382]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon heteresthes (Ulrey 1894). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Still known only from the type locality, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heteresthes, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:105 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Tapajos, Brazil. Syntypes: (many) MCZ 89966 [ex MCZ 20862a] (34), USNM 120247 [ex MCZ 20862a] (6). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:10 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Bryconamericus heteresthes Eigenmann 1908 -- (Román-Valencia 2002:209 [ref. 27206] as heretesthes, Román-Valencia 2003:7 [ref. 27070], Román-Valencia 2003:23, 43 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia 2005:56 [ref. 28949], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393]). •Valid as Knodus heteresthes (Eigenmann 1908) -- (Planquette et al. 1996:244 [ref. 22818] as heterestes, Keith et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24547] as heterestes, Silva in Reis et al. 2003:143 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2006:56 [ref. 28753], Ferreira & Lima 2006:635 [ref. 28919], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32807], Esguícero & Castro 2014:47 [ref. 33506], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Knodus heteresthes (Eigenmann 1908). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

heterodon, Holesthes Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:87, Fig. 32; Pl. 15 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] Jaguara, Rio Grande emptying into Rio Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57890 [ex CM 6875a]. Paratypes: (109) ANSP 134940 (1, c&s); CAS 98919 [ex IU 14115, CM 6876] (4); FMNH 57881-89 (15, 21, 7, 5, 1, 10, 4, 1, 1), 57891 (17), 57893 (1), 57896 (3); CAS-SU 17522 [ex FMNH 57891 & CM 6876] (5, 1 missing). Type catalog: Henn 1928:58 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:24 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:47 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:48 [ref. 13621]. Genus emended on p. 83 from Holoshesthes Eigenmann 1903. •Valid as Holesthes heterodon Eigenmann 1915 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708]). •Valid as Serrapinnus heterodon (Eigenmann 1915) -- (Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:429 [ref. 24417], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:219 [ref. 27061], Jerep & Malabarba 2014:307 [ref. 33376], Malabarba & Jerep 2014:58 [ref. 33440], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Jerep et al. 2016:296 [ref. 34362], Ingenito et al. 2016:1 [ref. 34700] as maybe an introduction, Petry et al. 2016:303 [ref. 34966], Melo et al. 2016:376 [ref. 35317], Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684]). Current status: Valid as Serrapinnus heterodon (Eigenmann 1915). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Sao Francisco and upper Paraná River basins and coastal drainages from northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heterodon, Xenurobrycon Weitzman [S. H.] & Fink [S. V.] 1985:88, Figs. 5, 12, 30, 34e, 55, 65 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 421; ref. 5203] Río Bobonaza at Sarayacu, Pastaza, 1°16'S, 78°31'W, Ecuador. Holotype: KU 17925. Paratypes: FMNH 87544 (12), 94940 (12); KU 17926 (2); MCZ 54255 (10 or 12); USNM 219389 (2), 219390 (2 c&s), 219391 (12). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:41 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Xenurobrycon heterodon Weitzman & Fink 1985 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Weitzman 1987:113 [ref. 5982], Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:280 [ref. 24413], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:228 [ref. 27061], Moreira 2005:855 [ref. 28474], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mendonça et al. 2016:[7] [ref. 34350], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Xenurobrycon heterodon Weitzman & Fink 1985. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

heterorhabdus, Tetragonopterus Ulrey [A. B.] 1894:610 [American Naturalist v. 28 (no. 331); ref. 12356] Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) CAS 44415 [ex IU 5496] (9), 44416 [ex IU 5500] (6); CAS-SU 2174 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:27 [ref. 12291]. Species was also described as new in Ulrey 1895:286 [ref. 12371]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus (Ulrey 1894) -- (Zarske & Géry 1998:20 [ref. 23983], Lasso et al. 2001:95 [ref. 25928] as cf. heterorhabdus, Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2004:36 [ref. 28039], García-Alzate et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29671], García-Alzate et al. 2008:140 [ref. 29919], García-Alzate & Román-Valencia 2008:15 [ref. 30008], García-Alzate et al. 2010:39 [ref. 30724], García-Alzate et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30716], García-Alzate et al.2010:801 [ref. 30824], García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], García-Alzate et al. 2013:861 [ref. 32692], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Lima et al. 2014:177 [ref. 33535], Marinho et al. 2014:263 [ref. 33372], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], García-Alzate et al. 2015:223 [ref. 33855], Dagosta et al. 2016:258 [ref. 34377], García-Alzate et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35253], Moreira & Lima 2017:133 [ref. 35562], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus (Ulrey 1894). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

heterostomus, Probolodus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:164, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Campos on Rio Paraíba, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54328 [ex CM 2973]. Paratypes: FMNH 54329-30 (3, 2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:59 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:70 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Probolodus heterostomus Eigenmann 1911 -- (Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:154 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:501 [ref. 31006], Santos & Castro 2014:405 [ref. 33386]). Current status: Valid as Probolodus heterostomus Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Paraíba do Sul basin, coastal basins of southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heterura, Compsura Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:61, Fig. 19; Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] Rio Itapicurú at Queimadas, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57825 [ex CM 6808]. Paratypes: (13) FMNH 57826 (10), UMMZ [ex FMNH 57826] (1), CAS-SU 17513 [ex FMNH 57826, ex CM 6809] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:58 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:23 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:27 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Compsura heterura Eigenmann 1915 -- (Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:416 [ref. 24417], Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:280 [ref. 24413], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:217 [ref. 27061], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684]). Current status: Valid as Compsura heterura Eigenmann 1915. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: São Francisco and Parnaíba River basins and Atlantic versant rivers in Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heterurus, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] & Wilson [C.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:11 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Río Truando, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56577 [ex CM 5392]. Paratypes: CAS 39213 [ex IU 13085] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:61 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

hexastichos, Hyphessobrycon Bertaco [V. A.] & Carvalho [T. P.] 2005:440, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 28388] Comodora, rio Mutum on road BR 364 to cidade de Vilhena, tributary of rio Juruena, upper rio Tapajós drainage, 13°05'08"S, 59°53'32"W, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 37648. Paratypes: MCP 37649 (145, 4 c&s). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon hexastichos Bertaco & Carvalho 2005. Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon hexastichos Bertaco & Carvalho 2005. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Mutum River, headwaters of Tapajós River, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hildae, Gymnotichthys Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1950:10, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Novedades Cientificas, Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Serie Zoológica No. 2; ref. 1323] Río Autana, Hoya del Río Sipapo, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MHNLS 963 [ex AFY 48164]. Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:41 [ref. 23639]. •Valid as Gymnotichthys hildae Fernández-Yépez 1950 -- (Géry 1992:78 [ref. 20972], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:128 [ref. 27061], Reis et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34496]). •Synonym of Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner 1858) -- (Marinho & Langeani 2016:340 [ref. 34416]). Current status: Synonym of Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner 1858). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

hildae, Hyphessobrycon Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1950:18, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Novedades Cientificas, Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Serie Zoológica No. 2; ref. 1323] Río Autana, Hoya del Río Sipapo, Estaso Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MHNLS 989 [ex AFY 48170]. Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:42 [ref. 23639]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon hildae Fernández-Yépez 1950 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon hildae Fernández-Yépez 1950. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Autana River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

hildebrandi, Creagrutus Schultz [L. P.] 1944:330, Figs. 47-48 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Táchira, 7 kilometers northern of San Antonio, Catatumbo system, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121482. Paratypes: MCZ [ex USNM 121486] (10); MHNG [ex USNM 121496 ex Géry] (6); MNHN 1980-1433 [ex USNM 121496] (1); UMMZ 145032 [ex USNM 121496] (10); USNM 121483-85 (1, 20, 97), 121486 (orig. 334, now 314), 121487 (orig. 229, ?now 219), 121488-95 (159, 154, 148, 10, 66, 11, 261, 16), USNM ? (now 387, orig. 403); ZMA 102113 (7) and 113826 (1) [ex USNM 121486] (orig. 10) and ZMA [ex USNM 121487] (10); MHNG [ex USNM 121496 through Géry] (6). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:17 [ref. 19236], Vari & Howe 1991:15-16 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Creagrutus hildebrandi Schultz 1944 -- (Harold & Vari 1994:20 [ref. 21969], Galvis et al. 1997:46 [ref. 23651], Vari & Harold 2001:2 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Cala 1997:147 [ref. 30645], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:349 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus hildebrandi Schultz 1944. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

hildebrandi, Roeboides Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:162, Pl. 25 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Istmina, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56884 [ex CM 5186; IU 12933]. Paratypes: CAS 71109 [ex IU 12933] (17, now 9), FMNH 56841 [ex CM 5186] (8); Additional material: FMNH 56369 [ex CM 5185] (12), 56370 [ex CM 5187] (1), 56377-80 [ex CM 5195-98] (1, 5, 1, 2), 56559 [ex CM 5373] (5), 56560 [ex CM 5374] (4), 56561 [ex CM 5375] (5); IU 12932 (25), 12944-47, 12959-60 (25), 13063-62 (23, 1, 40, 30, 1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:70 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:76 [ref. 12367] as 44 paratypes from 6 localities, but most of these are not types. Type designated in caption to Pl. 25 (fig. 3). •Synonym of Roeboides occidentalis Meek & Hildebrand 1916 -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:206 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Roeboides occidentalis Meek & Hildebrand 1916. Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

holmi, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:116, Fig. 46 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Provincia Utcubamba, Bagua Grande, San Antonio, Quebrada Jaimito, about 5°47'S, 78°23'W, Amazonas, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 5670. Paratypes: MUSM 8865-66 (7, 5); ROM 55331 (5), 72379 (10); USNM 341368 (6, 1 c&s), 341369 (5). •Valid as Creagrutus holmi Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus holmi Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Marañón River basin, northeastern Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

howesi, Amblystilbe Fowler [H. W.] 1940:85, Figs. 46-48 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Boca Chapare, Río Chimore, Cochabamba, Amazon system, Bolivia. Holotype: ANSP 69070. Paratypes: ANSP 69071-91 (22), 69092 (1, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:48 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Prodontocharax howesi (Fowler 1940) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Prodontocharax howesi (Fowler 1940). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

huambonicus, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1882:177 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Callacate and River Huambo, Peru. Syntypes: (several) NMW 57531 (1). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:25, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [ref. 14353]. •Valid as Hemibrycon huambonicus (Steindachner 1882) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:130 [ref. 27061], Bertaco et al. 2007:256 [ref. 29278], Román-Valencia et al. 2007:181 [ref. 29496], Román-Valencia et al. 2010:101 [ref. 30945], Bertaco & Malabarba 2010:743 [ref. 31076], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon huambonicus (Steindachner 1882). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

hubbsi, Anoptichthys Álvarez [J.] 1947:215, Fig. 1 [Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural v. 8 (nos 1-4); ref. 12993] Cueva de los Sabinos, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: BMNH 1951.12.3.14-17 (4), UANL 998 (3), UMMZ 164103 (33). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:2 [ref. 23752]. Genus misspelled in species heading as Anopitchthys. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus [complex] (Cuvier 1819) -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:23 [ref. 26040]). •Synonym of Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:52 [ref. 28992]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

huberi, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1909:172 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 46 (no. 11) (for 6 May 1909); ref. 18813] Rio Purus, Amazon River basin, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 57532 (1). •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier 1816 -- (Zarske & Géry 2006:8 [ref. 29010], Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Silva et al. 2016:11 [ref. 34929], Koerber et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier 1816. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Habitat: freshwater.

huilae, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 2003:42, Fig. 10 [Memoria de la Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales v. 155 (for 2001); ref. 27036] La Sapayera stream, near the bridge km. 2 vía Guadalupe-Florencia, 1°59'27"N, 75°45'08"W, afluent of La Viciosa stream, río Suaza system, upper Magdalena, Cachimba trail, Municipality of Guadalupe, Department of Huila, Colombia, elevation 952 meters. Holotype: IUQ 422. Paratypes: IUQ 312-313 (8, 3), 423-424 (26, 15), 462-463 (6, 2), 476-477 (2, 5); STRI 00574 (1). Date of publiation needs research; we date to 2003 in Memoria 55 for 2001. •Valid as Bryconamericus huilae Román-Valencia 2003 -- (Román-Valencia 2003:32 [ref. 26840] dated 2001, Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:457 [ref. 30393], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:466 [ref. 30392], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:108 [ref. 33608], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). •Synonym of Hemibrycon tolimae (Eigenmann 1913) -- (García-Melo et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35894]). Current status: Synonym of Hemibrycon tolimae (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

humeralis, Hydrocyon Valenciennes [A.] 1834:Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Argentina [market at Buenos Aires, probably from the río de La Plata basin]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9848. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:24 [ref. 19577]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:9 [ref. 5010]. Pl. 11 was published in 1834. •Valid as Galeocharax humeralis (Valenciennes 1834) -- (Menezes 1976:30 [ref. 7073], Taphorn 1992:185 [ref. 23654], Braga 1994:7 [ref. 27878], Gómez & Chebez 1996:48 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:15 [ref. 27632] dated 1837, Britski et al. 1999:52 [ref. 24147], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:203 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131], Menezes 2007:21 [ref. 29171], Mirande 2010:495 [ref. 31006], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:18 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35565] dated 1837, Giovannetti et al. 2017:[25] [ref. 35215], Koerber et al. 2017:28 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Galeocharax humeralis (Valenciennes 1834). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Rio Paraguai, rio Uruguai and lower rio Paraná basins, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

humilis, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1864:327 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Lake Amatitlan, Guatemala. Syntypes: (at least 4) BMNH 1865.4.29.45-50 (6). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1352 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

hyanuary, Hemigrammus Durbin [M. L.] in Eigenmann 1918:151, Pl. 18 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 2); ref. 1240] Lake Hyanuary. Syntypes: (8) CAS 42676 [ex IU 12648; MCZ 20955] (2), MCZ 20955 (now 4). Author is M. L. Durbin. Appeared first in Eigenmann 1910:436 [ref. 1224] without description. •Valid as Hemigrammus hyanuary Durbin 1918 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Carvalho 2005:147 [ref. 28675], Marinho et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29547], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus hyanuary Durbin 1918. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

hyphesson, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:32 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Tumatumari, Lower Potaro River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52708 [ex CM 1070]. Paratypes: (10, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.334 (1); CAS 39617 [ex IU 11755] (2); FMNH 7451 (1), 52709 (2); MCZ 29957 (1); CAS-SU 21970 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:63 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:22 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:18 [ref. 12367]. Spelled hyphessus in Eigenmann 1912:349 [ref. 1227], but corrected in corrigenda (p. xx). See Planquette et al. 1996:238 [ref. 22818]. •Valid as Bryconamericus hyphesson Eigenmann 1909 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Zarske et al. 2010:9 [ref. 30816], Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015:435 [ref. 33665], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus hyphesson Eigenmann 1909. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Potaro River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

hypopterus, Bryconamericus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:242, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Río Orteguasa, Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70505. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:48 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Bryconamericus hypopterus Fowler 1943 -- (Román-Valencia 2000:460 [ref. 25256], Román-Valencia 2003:482 [ref. 27478], Román-Valencia 2003:23, 43 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393]). •Valid as Bryconacidnus hypopterus (Fowler 1943) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35633]). •Valid as Knodus hypopterus (Fowler 1943) -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:143 [ref. 27061], Ferreira & Lima 2006:635 [ref. 28919], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32807], Esguícero & Castro 2014:47 [ref. 33506], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Knodus hypopterus (Fowler 1943). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

hysginus, Creagrutus Harold [A. S.], Vari [R. P.], Machado-Allison [A.] & Provenzano [F.] 1994:975, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1994 (no. 4); ref. 22027] Río Güiria, near La Toma, Estado Sucre, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-20310. Paratypes: CAS 79623 (9, 1 c&s), 80270 (10); MBUCV-V-20304 (12, 1 c&s), V-24002 (20); MCNG 19691 (148); USNM 326035 (10), 326055 (10, 2 c&s). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:6 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Creagrutus hysginus Harold, Vari, Machado-Allison & Provenzano 1994 -- (Vari & Harold 2001:119 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366] as hysiginus, Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus hysginus Harold, Vari, Machado-Allison & Provenzano 1994. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Rivers draining into Gulf of Paria, Estados Sucre and Monagas, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

hysterosticta, Moenkhausia Lucinda [P. H. F.], Malabarba [L. R.] & Benine [R. C.] 2007:62, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 1525; ref. 29183] Rio Tocantins, Ipueiras, about 11°19'S, 48°28'W, Tocantins, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 32559. Paratypes: MCP 32560 (2), 32561 (19, 4 c&s); UNT 3887 (15), 4474 (7), 4475 (2), 4476 (12). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Moenkhausia hysterosticta Lucinda, Malabarba & Benine 2007 -- (Marinho & Langeani 2010:60 [ref. 30941], Marinho & Langeani 2010:887 [ref. 30927], Bertaco et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31234], Bertaco et al. 2011:37 [ref. 31403], Oliveira & Marinho 2016:573 [ref. 34342], Marinho & Langeani 2016:348 [ref. 34416], Soares et al. 2017:261 [ref. 35237], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia hysterosticta Lucinda, Malabarba & Benine 2007. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

iasy, Jupiaba Netto-Ferreira [A. L.], Zanata [A. M.], Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Sousa [L. M. de] 2009:54, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 2262; ref. 30519] Paranaita, sandy beach on left riverbank of rio Teles, downstram of Sete Quedas rapids, 9°20'38"S, 56°46'42'W, Mat Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 100854. Paratypes: many at INPA, MNRJ, MZUSP. •Valid as Jupiaba iasy Netto-Ferreira, Zanata, Birindelli & Sousa 2009. Current status: Valid as Jupiaba iasy Netto-Ferreira, Zanata, Birindelli & Sousa 2009. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Tributaries of rio Tapajós and from rio Aripuanã, rio Madeira drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ibicuhiensis, Cheirodon interruptus var. Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:74 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] Cacequy [Cacequi], Rio Ibicuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Syntypes: CAS-SU 17515 [ex CM 6816] (1), FMNH 57833 [ex CM 6816] (7), 98573 [ex FMNH 57833] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:23 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:23 [ref. 12367]. Lectotype listed as FMNH 57883 [ex 6861] by Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061] but does not meet the requirements of the 1999 Code unless the code is emended. •Valid as Cheirodon ibicuhiensis Eigenmann 1915 -- (Malabarba 1989:133 [ref. 14217], Casciotta et al. 1992:10 [ref. 21059], Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061], Mantinian et al. 2008:38 [ref. 34297], Miquelarena et al. 2008:61 [ref. 29829], Koerber 2011:2 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:3 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:19 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Cheirodon ibicuhiensis Eigenmann 1915. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos, Uruguay and Tramandaí River basins: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

icae, Moenkhausia lepidurus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:103 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Iça, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: (many) MCZ 20810 (1, missing), 20812 (30). Original as içae. •Synonym of Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner 1858), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Géry 1992:69 [ref. 20972]). •Valid as Moenkhausia icae Eigenmann 1908 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Langeani 2010:66 [ref. 30941], Marinho & Langeani 2010:887 [ref. 30927], Oliveira & Marinho 2016:573 [ref. 34342], Marinho & Langeani 2016:348 [ref. 34416]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia icae Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Solimões, Iça and Japurá River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

icelus, Bryconamericus Dahl [G.] in Dahl & Medem 1964:70, Fig. [Informe sobre la fauna acuatica del Rio Sinu; ref. 19185] Quebrada Guamural, tributary of River Manso del Sinú, Colombia. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: ("100-") SMF 16284 (15). •Valid as Bryconamericus icelus Dahl 1964 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus icelus Dahl 1964. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Sinú River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

ichoensis, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 2000:455, Fig. 3 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 48 (no. 2/3); ref. 25256] Quebrada Chaparraidó, afl. del río Ichó en la vía Tutunendo-San Francisco de Ichó, about 5°38'N, 76°38'W, Alto Atrato, Munic. de Dan Francisco de Ichó, Dept. del Chocó, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMNH 2718. Paratypes: ICNMNH 2719 (10). Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:12 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Bryconamericus ichoensis Román-Valencia 2000 -- (Román-Valencia 2002:212 [ref. 27206], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116-117 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2003:32 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus ichoensis Román-Valencia 2000. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Atrato River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

ifati, Thayeria Géry [J.] 1959:128, Figs. 1-3 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 40 (nos 3/4); ref. 11994] "Gaa Kaba", Maroni, Guiana, north of the 4th parallel. Holotype: SMF 4900. Paratypes: ANSP 112206 (2), 139700 (3); MHNG 2173.40 (43, now 13); MNHN 1980-1450 (2); SMF 4667-73 (7); Géry coll. 25T05b [=57T05b] (orig. 36), 30T05c (10), 32T05d (8); USNM 179762 [ex Géry] (9); ZMA 100650 (2), 113857 (1); ZMH H808 (3); ZSM 26763 (2). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:156 [ref. 22013], Nijssen et al. 1982:24 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:48 [ref. 13621], Vari & Howe 1991:41 [ref. 19022], Weber 1998:9 [ref. 23532] with holotype as MHNG 2173.42, Neumann 2011:247 [ref. 31652]. The status of paratypes is very confused; see online catalogs where possible; some specimens may not be paratypes. Holotype is SMF 4900 as confirmed by Sonia Fisch-Muller, Jan. 2011. •Valid as Thayeria ifati Géry 1959 -- (Géry et al. 1991:60 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:322 [ref. 22818], Lima & Moreira in Reis et al. 2003:157 [ref. 27061], Moreira & Lima 2017:146 [ref. 35664]). Current status: Valid as Thayeria ifati Géry 1959. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Maroni and Approuague River basins, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

igneus, Hyphessobrycon Miquelarena [A. M.], Menni [R. C.], López [H. L.] & Casciotta [J. R.] 1980:237, Fig. 1a [Neotropica (La Plata) v. 26 (no. 76); ref. 8687] Laguna in front of Escuela No. 12, camino Bella Vista-San Roque, Corrientes, Argentina. Holotype: ILPLA 23-IX-80-7. Paratypes: USNM 256727 [from CIMLP ?23-IX-80-8] (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:27 [ref. 19022], Koerber 2007:1 [ref. 29776], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:7 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon igneus Miquelarena, Menni, López & Casciotta 1980 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:103 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Almirón et al. 2004:674 [ref. 27987] dated to 1981, Almirón et al. 2006:895 [ref. 29163], Miquelarena & López 2010:5 [ref. 30749], Teixeira et al. 2014:613 [ref. 33097], Carvalho et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33371], Koerber & Litz 2014:2 [ref. 34967], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966], Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35565] as aff. igneus). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon igneus Miquelarena, Menni, López & Casciotta 1980. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

ignotus, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:122, Fig. 48 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Riacho (small stream) 1, tributary To Rio Preto at road to San Francisco, Município de Diamantino (Rio Arinos basin), Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 45310. Paratypes: MZUSP 42456 (3), 45349 (3), 50165 (2); USNM 326672 (3, 1 c&s), 340960 (3). •Valid as Creagrutus ignotus Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Dagosta & Pastana 2014:580 [ref. 33181], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Netto-Ferreira & Moreira 2018:255 [ref. 35759]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus ignotus Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Tapajós River and Xingu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

iguape, Deuterodon Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, McAtee & Ward 1907:140, Pl. 41 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2) (art. 7); ref. 1261] Iguapé, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS 44226 [ex IU 9265]. •Valid as Deuterodon iguape Eigenmann 1907 -- (Lucena & Lucena 2002:129 [ref. 26205], Lucena et al. in Reis et al. 2003:127 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:502 [ref. 31006]). Current status: Valid as Deuterodon iguape Eigenmann 1907. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

iheringi, Hyphessobrycon Fowler [H. W.] 1941:186, Fig. 96 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69579. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:48 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon iheringi Fowler 1941 -- (Lima & Gerhard 2001:110 [ref. 25355], Lima & Costa 2001:233 [ref. 25700], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon iheringi Fowler 1941. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (still known from the type locality). Habitat: freshwater.

iheringi, Odontostilbe Fowler [H. W.] 1941:183, Fig. 93 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Jaguaribe, Russas, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69539. Paratypes: ANSP 69540-74 (35), 69577 (1, c&s); Géry coll. [ex ANSP 69575-76] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:48 [ref. 13621]. Original genus misspelled Odontostile. •Synonym of Serrapinnus heterodon (Eigenmann 1915) -- (Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:219 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Serrapinnus heterodon (Eigenmann 1915). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

iheringii, Tetragonopterus Boulenger [G. A.] 1887:172 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 19 (no. 111) (art. 23); ref. 17020] São Lorenço, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1886.3.15.30. Paralectotypes: (15) BMNH 1886.3.15.31-34 (4). Lectotype selected by Malabarba & Kindel 1995:679 [ref. 21922]. •Valid as Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger 1887) -- (Malabarba 1989:131 [ref. 14217], Malabarba & Kindel 1995:684 [ref. 21922], Gómez & Chebez 1996:50 [ref. 23791] as iheringi, Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004] as iheringi, Braga 1998:26 [ref. 24111] as iheringi, Miquelarena & Aquino 1999:523 [ref. 23980] as iheringi, Almirón et al. 2001:35 [ref. 26609] as iheringi, Miquelarena et al. 2002:70 [ref. 26517], Miquelarena et al. 2002:77 [ref. 26517] as cf. iheringii, Casciotta et al. 2002:163 [ref. 26551] as iheringii, López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808] as iheringi, Román-Valencia 2003:24 [ref. 26840], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:117 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27366], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:582 [ref. 27482], Casciotta et al. 2003:96 [ref. 28130] as iheringi, Casciotta et al. 2004:64 [ref. 27664], da Silva 2004:55 [ref. 27870], Almirón et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27986], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Langeani et al. 2005:389 [ref. 28234], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Mirande 2010:542 [ref. 31006] as cf.iheringii, Litz & Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015:440 [ref. 33665] as iheringi, Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mirande & Koerber 2015:21 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35565] dated 1897, Jerep & Shibatta 2017:10 [ref. 35610]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger 1887). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos and Uruguay and Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

ikaa, Bryconamericus Casciotta [J. R.], Almirón [A. E.] & Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] 2004:61, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 27664] Arroyo Tateto, 25°47'12.8"S, 53°58'12.9"W, Iguazú basin, Misiones, Argentina. Holotype: MACN-ict 8648. Paratypes: MLP 10454 [ex AI 109] (5); Al 1113 (4); MHNG 2640.35 (4). Type catalog: Nadalin & López 2015:2 [ref. 34112]. •Valid as Bryconamericus ikaa Casciotta, Almirón & Azpelicueta 2004 -- (da Silva 2004:55 [ref. 27870], Almirón et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27986], Langeani et al. 2005:389 [ref. 28234], Koerber 2011:2 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:3 [ref. 33621], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mirande & Koerber 2015:21 [ref. 35117], Jerep & Shibatta 2017:10 [ref. 35610]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus ikaa Casciotta, Almirón & Azpelicueta 2004. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Iguazú River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

ilseae, Roeboides Bussing [W. A.] 1986:45, Fig. 1 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 33 (no. 1) (for June 1985); ref. 8101] Quebrada Bonita, south of Damas and 9 kilometers northwest of Quepos, Costa Rica, elevation 10 meters. Holotype: LACM 43754-1. Paratypes: LACM (8 lots, 89); UCR (10 lots, was 462, 15 c&s); UMMZ 212761 (20); USNM 268667 (2). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:383 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Roeboides ilseae Bussing 1986 -- (Bussing 1987:92 [ref. 22927], Lucena 1998:39 [ref. 23597], Bussing 1998:120 [ref. 24179], Lucena 2000:41 [ref. 24559], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2011:1663 [ref. 31620] dated 1985, Matamoros et al. 2013:280 [ref. 32755], Angulo et al. 2013:992 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides ilseae Bussing 1986. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Pacific slope, Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

inambari, Hemibrycon Bertaco [V. A.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2010:757, Figs. 10-11 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 4); ref. 31076] Río Araza, río Inambari basin, upper río Madre de Dios drainage, Sirihua, Carmanti, Quispicanchi, Cusco, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 35491. Paratypes: many at ANSP, UFRGS, MCP, MUSM. •Valid as Hemibrycon inambari Bertaco & Malabarba 2010 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon inambari Bertaco & Malabarba 2010. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper río Madre de Dios drainage, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

incaicus, Astyanax bimaculatus Tortonese [E.] 1942:62 [52], Pl. 3 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia e di Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino (Ser. 4) v. 49 (no. 117) (for 1941-1942); ref. 10294] Río Zamora, in Río Maranon basin, Ecuador. Holotype: MZUT 3560. Paratypes: (10) MSNG 35975 (3); MZUT (10). Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:183 [ref. 10343]. On p. 52 of separate. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920]). •Valid as Astyanax incaicus Tortonese 1942 -- (Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Langeani 2009:372 [ref. 30985]). •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Río Zamora, Ecuador (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

inconstans, Hemigrammus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Ogle [F.] 1907:17, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Para(?), Brazil. Holotype: USNM 34591 [not 55652]. Paratypes: USNM 306824 (orig. 4, now 1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:24 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon inconstans (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907) -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon inconstans (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

indefessus, Nans Mirande [J. M.], Aguilera [G.] & Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] 2004:717, Figs. 1-3, 5-6 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 111 (no. 4); ref. 28084] Río Bermejo basin, río Pesçado at Estancia Anta Muerta (22°54.3'S, 64°28.2'W), Orán, Salta, Argentina. Holotype: CI-FML 4000. Paratypes: AI 107 (1, c&s), 138 (1), 157 (3); CI-FML 4001, 4003 (3); MNHNG 2643.87 (6) •Valid as Nantis indefessus (Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2004 (after a new name for Nans)). •Valid as Nantis indefessus (Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2004) -- (Mirande 2010:543 [ref. 31006] as cf. indefessus, Koerber 2011:2 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:22 [ref. 35117]). •Valid as Bryconamericus indefussus (Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2004) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Koerber et al. 2015:2 [ref. 35179], Koerber et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35632]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus indefessus (Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2004). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Argentina and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

inequalis, Glandulocauda Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:169, Pl. 5 (fig. 5) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Porto Alegre, ca. 30°02'S, 51°12'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54893 [ex CM 3555]. Paratypes: (6, CM) CAS 60469 [ex IU 13270, CM 3556] (2), FMNH 54894 (4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:68 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:39 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Mimagoniates inequalis (Eigenmann 1911) -- (Weitzman & Fink 1985:109 [ref. 5203], Malabarba 1989:136 [ref. 14217], Menezes & Weitzman 1990:385 [ref. 16172], Weitzman et al. 1996:188 [ref. 24771], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:226 [ref. 27061], Menezes et al. 2008:38 [ref. 31161], Menezes & Weitzman 2009:324 [ref. 30495] in Glandulocaudinae, Mantinian & Miquelarena 2010:416 [ref. 30959], Azpelicueta & Koerber 2012:784 [ref. 32131], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33622], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mirande & Koerber 2015:22 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Mimagoniates inequalis (Eigenmann 1911). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

innesi, Hyphessobrycon Myers [G. S.] 1936:97 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 49; ref. 13726] Likely near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon. Holotype (unique): USNM 102109. Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:27 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon innesi Myers 1936 -- (Schreitmüller 1936:501 [ref. 27793]). •Valid as Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Fuller et al. 1999:186 [ref. 25838], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:153 [ref. 27061], Marshall et al. 2012:378 [ref. 31785], Marinho 2017:2 [ref. 35491], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tributaries of Solimõs River: Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

innesi, Stethaprion Myers [G. S.] 1932:149, fig'd [The Aquarium v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 12369] Lower Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 25228. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:27 [ref. 12291]. Appeared first as above, then in more detail in Myers 1933:604 [ref. 12370]. •Synonym of Stethaprion crenatum Eigenmann 1916 -- (Reis 1989:55 [ref. 14219], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:210 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Stethaprion crenatum Eigenmann 1916. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

inrai, Moenkhausia Géry [J.] 1992:74, Figs. 7-11 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 19 (no. 3); ref. 20972] "Crique Roche au-dessus du Saut Grand Canori, Approuague", French Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 1992-0943. Paratypes: (35) MNHN 1992-0944 (11, now 9), MTD F 27514 [ex Géry coll.] (1), ZMA 120798 (8); plus non-type material. Type catalog: Zarske 2003:18 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Moenkhausia inrai Géry 1992 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:304 [ref. 22818], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:42 [ref. 28287], Marinho & Langeani 2010:60 [ref. 30941], Marinho & Langeani 2010:887 [ref. 30927], Oliveira & Marinho 2016:573 [ref. 34342], Marinho & Langeani 2016:348 [ref. 34416]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia inrai Géry 1992. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Maroni and Approuague River basins, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

insignis, Chirodon Steindachner [F.] 1880:74 [22], Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 42; ref. 14403] Río Cauca, Colombia. Syntypes: (several) NMW 62543-44 (6, 8). On p. 22 of separate. Original genus should have been Cheirodon. •Valid as Chirodon insignis Steindachner 1880 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:44 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Nanocheirodon insignis (Steindachner 1880) -- (Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Zarske 2001:15 [ref. 25834], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:217 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Nanocheirodon insignis (Steindachner 1880). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo and Magdalena River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

insignis, Luetkenia Steindachner [F.] 1876:86 [38], Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Tabatinga, Santarém, Amazon system, Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW; ZSM 23662 (1). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:246 [ref. 31652]. On p. 38 of separate. Species originally as Lütkenia insignis; correction of genus spelling mandatory, •Valid as Stichonodon insignis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Reis in Reis et al. 2003:156-157 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:504 [ref. 31006], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Stichonodon insignis (Steindachner 1876). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

integer, Astyanax Myers [G. S.] 1930:67 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 43; ref. 12360] Guaicaramo, at junction of Río Guavio and Río Upía, Colombia. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 23726. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:22 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Astyanax integer Myers 1930 -- (Taphorn 1992:113 [ref. 23654], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745] as cf. integer, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax integer Myers 1930. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedius, Astyanax scabripinnis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:98 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Paraíba and Rio Santa Clara, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 20684. Paralectotypes: (many) CAS 42485 [ex MCZ 20939 & IU 15253] (1), CAS 42486 [MCZ 20684 & IU 15254] (4); MCZ 20635 (2), MCZ 20684 (6, now 5), 20919 (38), 20930 (2), 95545 (1). Lectotype selected by de Melo 2001:17 [ref. 27458]. •Synonym of Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns 1842), but a valid subspecies -- (Triques et al. 2003:149 [ref. 27248], Oliveira et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35587]). •Valid as Astyanax intermedius Eigenmann 1908 -- (de Melo 2001:17 [ref. 27458], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], Vari & Castro 2007:159 [ref. 29039], Zanata & Camelier 2009:175 [ref. 30252], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Marinho et al. 2015:576 [ref. 33708], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax intermedius Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin and coastal rivers of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedius, Gephyrocharax Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1916:278 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 15); ref. 2962] Chame Point, Chame River, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: FMNH 8945. Paratypes: CAS 44280 [ex IU 13994] (2), FMNH 12511-38 (28), USNM 78556 (orig. 29, now 26). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:39 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:21 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Gephyrocharax intermedius Meek & Hildebrand 1916 -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:224 [ref. 27061], Vanegas-Ríos & Phillip 2013:1333 [ref. 34415], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Vanegas-Ríos 2016:30 [ref. 34359], Vanegas-Ríos 2017:6 [ref. 35531]). Current status: Valid as Gephyrocharax intermedius Meek & Hildebrand 1916. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of the Pacific and Caribbean versants, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedius, Moenkhausia dichrourus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:103 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 20762 (2). See Planquette et al. 1996:306 [ref. 22818]. •Valid as Moenkhausia intermedia Eigenmann 1908 -- (Fernández & Butí 1996:253 [ref. 22775], Miquelarena et al. 1997:67 [ref. 23469], Gómez & Chebez 1996:50 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:34 [ref. 24147], Britski & de Silimon 2001:119 [ref. 27195], Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147-148 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:28 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:107 [ref. 28130], Benine et al. 2004:72 [ref. 27502], Menni 2004:78 [ref. 28131], Mirande 2010:507 [ref. 31006] as cf. intermedia, Sarmiento et al. 2014:49, 185 [ref. 35004], Petrolli & Benine 2015:417 [ref. 33887], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia intermedia Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

interrupta, Tetragonopterus rivularis var. Lütken [C. F.] 1875:215 [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 3); ref. 2856] Not available, published in the synonymy of Tetradonopterus rivularis Lütken; also a junior homonym of Tetragonopterus interruptus Jenyns. •In the synonymy of Hyphessobrycon santae (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:140 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hyphessobrycon santae (Eigenmann 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae.

interruptus, Tetragonopterus Jenyns [L.] 1842:127, Pl. 23 (fig. 4) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Laguna del Diario, 34°54'S, 55°00'W, in Maldonado, Uruguay. Syntypes: BMNH 1917.7.14.16-17 (2). See Calviño 2007:40 [ref. 29380] for information on the type locality. •Valid as Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842), subspecies interruptus -- (Pequeño 1989:40 [ref. 14125], Malabarba 1989:133 [ref. 14217], Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808]). •Valid as Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Campos 1982:129 [ref. 8500], Casciotta et al. 1992:10 [ref. 21059], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], Dyer 2000:89 [ref. 26678], Zarske 2001:15 [ref. 25834], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:110 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:78 [ref. 28131], Mantinian et al. 2008:37 [ref. 34297], Miquelarena et al. 2008:63 [ref. 29829], Mirande 2010:533 [ref. 31006], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:19 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Widespread in South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile (introduced) and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

iota, Hemigrammus Durbin [M. L.] 1909:60 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1166] Gluck Island, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53034 [ex CM 1458]. Paratypes: (11) BMNH 1911.10.31.393 (1); CAS 44417 [ex IU 11913] (2), 44418 [ex IU 11914] (1); FMNH 7347 (1), 53035-36 (2, 1); MCZ 29975 [ex CM] (1); SU 21917 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:65 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:24 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hemigrammus iota Durbin 1909 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Carvalho 2005:147 [ref. 28675], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus iota Durbin 1909. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

ipacarayensis, Aphyocharax Ahl [E.] 1923:32 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 19930] Laguna Ipacaray, Paraguay. Holotype: ZMB 20605 [or 23605]. Paratypes: ZMB 20606 [or 23606] (1). Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:91 [ref. 21847], Zarske & Géry 1995:105 [ref. 22674]. •Synonym of Aphyocharax anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Zarske & Géry 1995:118 [ref. 22674], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:197 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:10 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:17 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Aphyocharax anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ipanquianus, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1877:44 [28] [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17; ref. 18033] Río Urubamba, one of the sources of the Río Ucayale, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 21114 (1), 21115-16 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621] as holotype (21114) and paratypes. On p. 28 of separate. •Valid as Acrobrycon ipanquianus (Cope 1877) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:223 [ref. 27061], Arcila et al. 2014:605 [ref. 33096], Koerber 2014:3 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mirande & Koerber 2015:21 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Acrobrycon ipanquianus (Cope 1877). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Andean Piedmont of Amazon basin and Rio de la Plata Basin: Argentina, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

iporangae, Coelurichthys Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1908:[4], Fig. 6 [Kosmos, Rio de Janeiro [Rev. Art. Sci. Litt.] v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1907); ref. 3715] Ribeirão das Pedras, Iporanga, rio Ribeíra de Iguape system, 24°36'S, 48°34'W, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 92995 [?92995]. Type information: Vari & Howe 1991:15 [ref. 19022]. Genus spelled Coelurichthys in generic account and Coalurichthys in species heading. •Synonym of Mimagoniates microlepis (Steindachner 1877) -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:226 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Weitzman 2009:355 [ref. 30495], Mantinian & Miquelarena 2010:416 [ref. 30959]). Current status: Synonym of Mimagoniates microlepis (Steindachner 1877). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

iqueima, Hemibrycon García-Melo [J. E.], Albornoz‐Garzón [J. G.], García‐Melo [L. J.], Villa‐Navarro [F. A.] & Maldonado‐Ocampo [J. A.] 2018:3, Figs. 1-4, 7-18a, 19b [Journal of Fish Biology v. 92 (no. 6); ref. 35894] Quebrada Bacallá, Magdalena River basin, Suarez municipality, Tolima Department, Colombia, 3°59'12.4"N, 74°50'43.6"W, elevation 314 meters. Holotype: CZUT-IC 16418. Paratypes: CZUT-IC, IAvHP, MPUJ. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Hemibrycon iqueima García-Melo, Albornoz‐Garzón, García‐Melo, Villa‐Navarro & Maldonado‐Ocampo 2018. Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon iqueima García-Melo, Albornoz‐Garzón, García‐Melo, Villa‐Navarro & Maldonado-Ocampo 2018. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Magdalena River basin, western slope of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

irisae, Attonitus Vari [R. P.] & Ortega [H.] 2000:133, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 24436] Mouth of Río Huambo, where it empties into Río Pachitea, about 9°39'S, 74°56'W, Province Pachitea, Depto de Huanuco, Peru, elevation 260 meters. Holotype: MUSM 10759. Paratypes: MUSM 6573 (2), 10315 (3), 12751-53 (8, 2, 1); ROM 55894 (10); USNM 349697 (1), 349698 (10, 2 c&s), 349704 (1), 349710 (1). •Valid as Attonitus irisae Vari & Ortega 2000 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Attonitus irisae Vari & Ortega 2000. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Aguaytia and Pachitea rivers in Ucayali River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

ischyognatha, Moenkhausia Petrolli [M. G.] & Benine [R. C.] 2015:404, Figs. 2-3, 9c [Zootaxa 3986 (no. 4); ref. 33887] Mato Grosso, Gaúcha do Norte, Rio Curisevo, afluente rio Xingu, Porto Vitório, next ribeirão Kevuaieli, Brazil, 13°02'05"S, 53°25'19"W. Holotype: MZUSP 117140. Paratypes: LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Moenkhausia ischyognatha Petrolli & Benine 2015. Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia ischyognatha Petrolli & Benine 2015. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Curisevo, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

isiri, Hyphessobrycon Almirón [A. E.], Casciotta [J. R.] & Koerber [S.] 2006:890, Figs. 1-4 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 113 (no. 4); ref. 29163] Entre Ríos, río Uruguay basin, Arroyo Ubajay, 31°48.94'S, 58°12.41'W, Argentina. Holotype: MZCN-Ict 8907. Paratypes: AI 191 (1), 192 (19, 3 c&s); MHNG 2666.080 (2); MLP 10464 [ex Al 193] (2). Type catalog: Nadalin & López 2015:5 [ref. 34112]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon isiri Almirón, Casciotta & Koerber 2006 -- (Koerber 2011:3 [ref. 31122], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon isiri Almirón, Casciotta & Koerber 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

ita, Astyanax Almirón [A. E.], Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] & Casciotta [J. R.] 2002:4, Figs. 1-4 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 52; ref. 26720] Arroyo Tateto, 25°47'12.8"S, 53°58'12.9"W, a headwater of Arroyo Deseado (tributary of Rio San Antonio), Iguazu basin, Province of Misiones, Argentina. Holotype: MLP 9599. Paratypes: MHNG 2630.09 (7); MLP 9560 [= 9600] (3); MTD F 26487-90 (4). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:14 [ref. 27474], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:4 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Astyanax ita Almirón, Azpelicueta & Casciotta 2002 -- (López et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:670 [ref. 28391], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], Mirande et al. 2006:65 [ref. 28784], Vari & Castro 2007:157 [ref. 29039], Abilhoa & Duboc 2007:45 [ref. 29285], Mirande et al. 2007:37 [ref. 29333], Vera Alcaraz et al. 2009:189 [ref. 30252], Pavanelli & Oliveira 2009:569 [ref. 30986], Garavello & Sampaio 2010:861 [ref. 31053], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Mirande & Koerber 2015:24 [ref. 35117], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax ita Almirón, Azpelicueta & Casciotta 2002. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Arroyo Tateto, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

itaimbe, Cyanocharax Malabarba [L. R.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 2003:97, Figs. 13, 17-23 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 27141] Arroio Facão at Mãe dos Homens, tributary of Rio Canoas-rio Mampituba, Praia Grande, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 25972. Paratypes: MCP 14707 (9), 14710 (47), 14788 (46, 10 c&s), 14838 (13); MNRJ 23841 (15); MZUSP 43544 (10), 43548 (40), 43549 (50); USNM 323410 (51), 323414 (41), 323416 (10). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Cyanocharax itaimbe Malabarba & Weitzman 2003 -- (Casciotta et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32076], Protogino & Miquelarena 2012:581 [ref. 32123]). •Valid as Diapoma itaimbe (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Diapoma itaimbe (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Atlantic coastal drainages, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

itaparicensis, Hyphessobrycon Lima [S. M. Q.] & Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2001:234, Figs. 1-2 [Cybium v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 25700] Small stream in ilha de Itaparica, Estado de Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 58539. Paratypes: MZUSP 57540 (6), UFRJ 4843-4844 (9, 8), UMMZ 365811 (20). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon itaparicensis Lima & Costa 2001 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Camelier 2010:776 [ref. 31077], Carvalho et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33371], Dagosta et al. 2014:373 [ref. 33382], Zanata et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35863], Guimarães et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35965]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon itaparicensis Lima & Costa 2001. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Small coastal streams in the Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion, from Camamu municipality, Bahia State to tributaries of rio Sergipe in Areia Branca municipality, Sergipe State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

itau, Oligosarcus Mirande [J. M.], Aguilera [G.] & Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] 2011:4, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa No. 2994; ref. 31465] Río Bermejo basin, small tributary to Río Itau, near Campo Largo, 22°01'34"S, 63°56'06"W, General San Martín, Salta, Argentina, elevation 690 meters. Holotype: CI-FML 3856. Paratypes: CI-FML 3857 (1), 3858 (1 c&s). •Valid as Oligosarcus itau Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2011 -- (Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:25 [ref. 35117]). •Placement in Oligosarcus is controversial -- (Riveiro & Menezes 2015:41 [ref. 33768]). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus itau Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2011. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Argentina and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

jabonero, Hemibrycon dentatus Schultz [L. P.] 1944:363, Fig. 55 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Chama at Estanques, Mérida state, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121455. Paratypes: USNM: 121456 (601, missing), 121457-59 (11, 2, 4), 121460 (now 42), 121461-65 (1, 3, 9, 2, 25); UMMZ 145038 [ex USNM 121460] (5); MCZ 37300 [ex USNM 121460] (5); ZMA 102112 [ex USNM 121456] (10); MHNG [through Géry, ex USNM 121456] (10). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:18 [ref. 19236], Vari & Howe 1991:23 [ref. 19022]. •Synonym of Hemibrycon dentatus Eigenmann 1913, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Galvis et al. 1997:50 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Hemibrycon jabonero Schultz 1944 -- (Taphorn 1992:198 [ref. 23654], Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:130 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007:123 [ref. 29189], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009:80 [ref. 30718], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:118 [ref. 33572], García-Alzate et al. 2015:90 [ref. 33838], Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35633], Román-Valencia et al. 2018:40 [ref. 36348]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon jabonero Schultz 1944. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

jackrobertsi, Hyphessobrycon Zarske [A.] 2014:147, Figs. 7-10 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 64 (no. 2); ref. 33403] Iquitos (Import), Peru. Holotype: MTD F 33042. Paratypes: MTD F 33043-33051 (9), 33149-33158 (10). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon jackrobertsi Zarske 2014. Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon jackrobertsi Zarske 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

jacobinae, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.] & Camelier [P.] 2008:34, Figs. 4-5 [Zootaxa No. 1908; ref. 29887] Jacobina, Itaitu village, rio da Jaqueira, below Cachoeira Araponga, tributary of rio Itapicuru-mirim, rio Itapicuru basin, 11°22'19.8"N, 40°29'39.7"W, Bahia, Brazil, elevation 535 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 89570. Paratypes: MZUSP 89571 (3); UFBA 02793 (5, 1 c&s). •Valid as Astyanax jacobinae Zanata & Camelier 2008 -- (Zanata & Camelier 2009:175 [ref. 30252], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax jacobinae Zanata & Camelier 2008. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Itapicuru basin, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jacuhiensis, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1894:88, Pl. 6 (fig. 6) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ANSP 21912. Paralectotypes and non-types: (should be 14) ANSP 21606-11 (6), 21683-701 (19) [21702-03 (2) exchanged with Géry], 21913-16 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype established by Fowler 1907:435 [ref. 1374]. •Affinitites with Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) and same as Astyanax maculatus (Müller & Troschel 1845) -- (Malabarba 1989:128 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Astyanax jacuhiensis (Cope 1894) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], de Melo & Buckup 2006:49 [ref. 28622], Bertaco & Lucena 2010:19 [ref. 30750], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Lucena et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al.2013:542 [ref. 32914], Bertaco 2014:498 [ref. 33320], Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565] as jacuihiensis). •Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875) -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:103 [ref. 34169], Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

jacuiensis, Heterocheirodon Malabarba [L. R.] & Bertaco [V. A.] 1999:95, Figs. 3-5 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 12; ref. 24149] Lagoon at left margin of Rio Jacui, near bridge of road BR 290, Cachoeira do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 23670. Paratypes: MCP 9027 (3), 11279 (1, c&s), 11280 (1, c&s), 11283-84 (11, 16), 11358 (1), 11427 (1), 12203 (1), 19417 (39), 19505 (2), 19513 (2); MNRJ 18631 (25); MZUSP 18985 (25), 18993 (10); UFRGS 3825-26 (10, 9 [c&s]); USNM 356386 (25). •Valid as Heterocheirodon jacuiensis Malabarba & Bertaco 1999 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:217 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:12 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Heterocheirodon jacuiensis Malabarba & Bertaco 1999. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Laguna do Patos drainage: Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

jacuiensis, Oligosarcus Menezes [N. A.] & Ribeiro [A. C.] 2010:650, Figs. 1-2a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 30976] Estrela Velha, rio Jacuí, 29°15'46"S, 53°14'05"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 28980. Paratypes: MCP 18876 (6), 26979 (13), 37930 (4), 44405 (8); MZUSP 104604 (4). •Valid as Oligosarcus jacuiensis Menezes & Ribeiro 2010 -- (Ribeiro & Menezes 2015:77 [ref. 33768], Menezes & Ribeiro 2015:545 [ref. 33973], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus jacuiensis Menezes & Ribeiro 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Uruguay and Jacuí river basins, southern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jacunda, Bryconamericus Fowler [H. W.] 1913:555, Fig. 17 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Madeira River, about 200 miles east of 62°20'W, Rondônia, near Porto Velho, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 39292. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Knodus smithi (Fowler 1913) -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:144 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Bryconamericus jacunda Fowler 1913 -- (Román-Valencia 2003:24 [ref. 26840]). •Mention -- (Ferreira & Lima 2006:637 [ref. 28919]). •Valid as Knodus jacunda (Fowler 1913) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Knodus jacunda (Fowler 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Madeira River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jaguaribensis, Cheirodon Fowler [H. W.] 1941:180, Fig. 91 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Jaguaribe, Russas, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69530. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621] as possible synonym of Cheirodon piaba Lütken 1875. •Species incertae sedis in Characidae, valid but not Cheirodon -- ([various authors] in Reis et al. 2003:104 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Cheirodon jaguaribensis Fowler 1941 -- (Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684]). Current status: Valid as Cheirodon jaguaribensis Fowler 1941. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Jaguaribe River basin, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jamesi, Moenkhausia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:102 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Iça; Obidos; Lago do Maximo; Tajapuru, Amazon River, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 20734 (1), 20742 (1), 20816 (2), 20827 (1) •Valid as Moenkhausia jamesi Eigenmann 1908 -- (Zarske & Géry 2002:19 [ref. 26554], Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Lucinda 2006:66 [ref. 28492], Bertaco et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31234], Carvalho et al. 2014:378 [ref. 33383], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Petrolli & Benine 2015:411 [ref. 33887], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia jamesi Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

jancupa, Phenacogaster Malabarba [L. R.] & Lucena [Z. M. S. de] 1995:339, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 21946] Ribeirao Espinheiro, crossing road BR364, Rio Cuiabá drainage, 15°24'S, 56°23'W, Jangada, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 17279. Paratypes: MCP 16129 (34, 2 c&s); MZUSP 48009 (35); USNM 334016 (35). •Valid as Phenacogaster jancupa Malabarba & Lucena 1995 -- (Britski et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24147], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:204 [ref. 27061], Lucena & Gama 2007:152 [ref. 29059], Lucena & Malabarba 2010:266, 300 [ref. 30880]). Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster jancupa Malabarba & Lucena 1995. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Espinheiro creek in upper Paraguay River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

janeiroensis, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:96 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 21057. •Valid as Astyanax janeiroensis Eigenmann 1980 -- (de Melo 2001:26 [ref. 27458], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061] Vari & Castro 2007:159 [ref. 29039], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax janeiroensis Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jatuaranae, Leptobrycon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:46, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] Jatuarana, Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 20952. •Valid as Leptobrycon jatuaranae Eigenmann 1915 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:144 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Leptobrycon jatuaranae Eigenmann 1915. Characidae: Aphyoditeinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jelskii, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1876:590 [40] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] Monterico, Rio Huambo, Huanuco, Peru. Syntypes: (several) NMW 57546 (3), 57548-51 (2, 1, 2, 4), 57553-55 (3, 5, 2). On p. 40 of separate. •Valid as Hemibrycon jelskii (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:130 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007:123 [ref. 29189], Bertaco et al. 2007:256 [ref. 29278], Román-Valencia et al. 2007:185 [ref. 29496] Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009:78 [ref. 30718], Bertaco & Malabarba 2010:749 [ref. 31076], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:118 [ref. 33572], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], García-Alzate et al. 2015:90 [ref. 33838], Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon jelskii (Steindachner 1876). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

jenynsii, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1877:580 [22], Pl. 3 (figs. 1-2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Parahyba, Brazil. Syntypes: (7) NMW 57534-35 (3, 2). On p. 22 of separate. •Valid as Astyanax jenynsii (Steindachner 1877) -- (Bertaco & Malabarba 2001:224 [ref. 25645], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax jenynsii (Steindachner 1877). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Paraíba do Sul, eastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jenynsii, Xiphorhamphus Günther [A.] 1864:356 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Freshwater Lake of Maldonado, Uruguay. Holotype: UMZC [Darwin no. 661] whereabouts unknown. Based on Hydrocyon hepsetus of Jenyns 1840:129 [ref. 2344] (not of Cuvier). •Valid as Oligosarcus jenynsii (Günther 1864) -- (Menezes & Géry 1983:589 [ref. 8307], Menezes 1987:22 [ref. 20060], Malabarba 1989:137 [ref. 14217], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004] as jenynsi, Gómez & Chebez 1996:47 [ref. 23791], Miquelarena et al. 1997:68 [ref. 23469], Butí & Cancino 1999:71 [ref. 25277], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808] as jenynsi, Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:151 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:87 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131] as jenynsi, Ribeiro et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29321], Menezes & Ribeiro 2010:653 [ref. 30976], Mirande 2010:497 [ref. 31006] as cf. jenynsii, Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Fabiano et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33530], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Almirón et al. 2015:589 [ref. 33673], Ribeiro & Menezes 2015:77 [ref. 33768], Menezes & Ribeiro 2015:545 [ref. 33973], Mirande & Koerber 2015:25 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35565] as jenynsi). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus jenynsii (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Streams, rivers and lagoons of coatal areas and interior plains of Rio Grande do Sul state and Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

jequitinhonhae, Tetragonopterus rutilus var. Steindachner [F.] 1877:693 [135], Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Jequitinhonha, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 57759-61 (5, 3, 6). On p. 135 of separate. Name given in caption on p. 693 for the plate. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819), but a valid subspecies -- (Triques et al. 2003:149 [ref. 27248]). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

joanae, Ceratobranchia Chernoff [B.] & Machado-Allison [A.] 1990:286, Figs. 22-23 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 142; ref. 19495] Río Maniapure at crossing of Caicara-Puerto Ayacucho highway, 6°55'48"N, 66°33'22"W, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-18616 [ex ANSP 159214]. Paratypes: ANSP 159215 (1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:5 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Ceratobranchia joanae Chernoff & Machado-Allison 1990 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:121 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Ceratobranchia joanae Chernoff & Machado-Allison 1990. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

joaovitori, Astyanax Oliveira [C. A. M.], Pavanelli [C. S.] & Bertaco [V. A.] 2017:174, Figs. 1a-c [Zootaxa 4320 (no. 1); ref. 35587] Headwaters of rio Araguaia, near Parque Nacional das Emas, municipality of Alto Taquari, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 17°53'52"S, 53°07'38"W. Holotype: MCP 51897. Paratypes: LIRP, MCP, MZUEL, NUP. •Valid as Astyanax joaovitori Oliveira, Pavanelli & Bertaco 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax joaovitori Oliveira, Pavanelli & Bertaco 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper rio Araguaia basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jordanensis, Astyanax Vera Alcaraz [H. S.], Pavanelli [C. S.] & Bertaco [V. A.] 2009:186, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 30253] Rio Iguaçu basin, middle rio Jacu, 25°37'S, 52°03'W, município de Candói, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 99137. Paratypes: MCP 41914 (10), 41915 (4); MHNCI 11714 (10); MZUSP 99138 (12); NUP 5242 (1, c&s), 5245 (1 c&s), 5248 (3), 5251 (4), 5252 (1). •Valid as Astyanax jordanensis Vera Alcaraz, Pavanelli & Bertaco 2009 -- (Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Pavanelli & Oliveira 2009:569 [ref. 30986], Garavello & Sampaio 2010:861 [ref. 31053], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax jordanensis Vera Alcaraz, Pavanelli & Bertaco 2009. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jordani, Anoptichthys Hubbs [C. L.] & Innes [W. T.] 1936:5, Pl. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 342; ref. 2256] Subterranean stream in forested mountain region of southeastern San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 113514. Paratypes: (2) ?UMMZ 114486 (4). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus [complex] (Cuvier 1819) -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:23 [ref. 26040]). •Valid as Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936) -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:24 [ref. 22290], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:52 [ref. 28992]). •Mention -- (Miller 2006:156 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

juanensis, Bryconamericus Regan [C. T.] 1913:464 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 3656] Southwestern Colombia. Syntypes: (10) BMNH 1913.10.1.22-25 (4). •Synonym of Bryconamericus emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907) -- (Román-Valencia 2002:178 [ref. 26370], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:116 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2003:28 [ref. 26840]). •Synonym of Eretmobrycon emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907). Current status: Synonym of Eretmobrycon emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

julliae, Phenacogaster Lucena [Z. M. S. de] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2019:1, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 1): e180134; ref. 36690] Rio Salitre, on the road to Lage, circa 40 km east of Lage, Poços de Doce, rio São Francisco drainage, Campo Formoso, Bahia, Brazil, approximately 10°01'S, 40°42'W. Holotype: MZUSP 123642. Paratypes: MCP, MZUSP. •Valid as Phenacogaster julliae Lucena & Lucena 2019. Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster julliae Lucena & Lucena 2019. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Rio Salitre drainage, Rio São Francisco basin, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

juruena, Tetragonopterus Silva [G. S. C.], Melo [B. F.], Oliveira [C.] & Benine [R. C.] 2016:40, Fig. 15 [Zootaxa 4200 (no. 1); ref. 34929] Mato Grosso, Sapezal, Rio Juruena, upper Rio Tapajós, Brazil, 12°50'59"S, 58°55'36"W. Holotype: LIRP 14033. Paratypes: LIRP, MZUSP. •Valid as Tetragonopterus juruena Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2016 -- (Urbanski et al. 2018:[6] [ref. 35973]). Current status: Valid as Tetragonopterus juruena Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2016. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Tapajós, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

juruenae, Bryconexodon Géry [J.] 1980:2, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1598] Upper Rio Juruena, tributary of Rio Tapajoz, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 14638 [ex USNM 194333]. Paratypes: Géry 0800.1-0800.4 (4); MNHN 1980-1428 [ex USNM 194289] (1); MZUSP 14639 (3), 14640 (2); USNM 194331 (1, missing), 194333 (4), 194350 (1), 194336 (1), 194289 (6), 194366 (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:11 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:453 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Bryconexodon juruenae Géry 1980 -- (Lucena in Reis et al. 2003:119 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:492 [ref. 31006]). Current status: Valid as Bryconexodon juruenae Géry 1980. Characidae: Exodontinae. Distribution: Upper Tapajós River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

juruenae, Cynopotamus Menezes [N. A.] 1987:3, Fig. 2 [Beaufortia v. 37 (no. 1); ref. 8072] Upper Rio Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 35475. Paratypes: MZUSP 35476 (1); USNM 194279 (1), 194296 (1); ZMA 119461 (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:19 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:461 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Cynopotamus juruenae Menezes 1987 -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:202 [ref. 27061], Menezes 2007:60 [ref. 29297]). Current status: Valid as Cynopotamus juruenae Menezes 1987. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Juruena River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

juruna, Hyphessobrycon Faria [T. C.], Lima [F. C. T.] & Bastos [D. A.] 2018:2, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 166 [for 2017] (no. 1); ref. 35883] Rio Mogno, tributary of the Rio Carapanã, Rio Fresco basin, Ourilândia do Norte, Pará, Brazil, 6°33'19"S, 51°14'47"W. Holotype: MPEG 34066. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MNRJ, MPEG, MZUSP, ZUEC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon juruna Faria, Lima & Bastos 2018. Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon juruna Faria, Lima & Bastos 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Middle and lower Rio Xingu basin, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

justae, Moenkhausia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:102 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] [Rio Parahyba do Norte at Joao Pessoa, Parahíba, Brazil]. Probably Manaus, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 21014. •Valid as Moenkhausia justae Eigenmann 1908 -- (Zarske & Géry 2002:19 [ref. 26554], Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Lucinda 2006:66 [ref. 28492], Bertaco et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31234], Carvalho et al. 2014:378 [ref. 33383], Petrolli & Benine 2015:413 [ref. 33887], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia justae Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

kaingang, Planaltina Deprá [G. C.], da Graça [W. J.], Pavanelli [C. S.], Avelino [G. S.] & Oliveira [C.] 2018:11, Figs 2a, 5, 6a, 7 [PLoS ONE v. 13 (no. 5) e0196291; ref. 35939] Rio Keller, between municipalities of Marialva and Bom Sucesso, tributary to the rio Ivaí, upper rio Paraná basin, Paraná State, Brazil, 23°38'30"S, 51°51'33"W, elevation 517 meters. Holotype: MCP 50191. Paratypes: DZSJRP, MCP, NUP, UFRGS. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Planaltina kaingang Deprá, da Graça, Pavanelli, Avelino & Oliveira 2018. Current status: Valid as Planaltina kaingang Deprá, da Graça, Pavanelli, Avelino & Oliveira 2018. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Rio Ivaí and Rio Piquiri drainages, upper rio Paraná basin, Paraná State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kalunga, Hasemania Bertaco [V. A.] & Carvalho [F. R.] 2010:28, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 30752] Cavalcante, córrego in the road GO 241 between Cavalcante and Minaçu, tributary of rio das Almas, rio Paranã drainage, upper rio Tocantins basin, 13°36'56.7"S, 47°31'06.6"W, Goiás State, Brazil, elevation 1163 meters. Holotype: MCP 44289. Paratypes: DZSJRP 12339 (12); MCP 44290 (12); MZUSP 104303 (12); UFRGS 11288 (37), 11289 (82, 5 c&s). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:438 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Hasemania kalunga Bertaco & Carvalho 2010 -- (Zanata & Serra 2010:21 [ref. 30751], Serra & Langeani 2015:485 [ref. 33944]). Current status: Valid as Hasemania kalunga Bertaco & Carvalho 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kayabi, Hyphessobrycon Teixeira [T. F.], Lima [F. C. T.] & Zuanon [J.] 2014:613, Fig. 1-3 [Copeia 2013 (no. 4); ref. 33097] Mato Gosso State, Apiacás, Rio Teles Pires, Lagoa Azul, 9°06'01"S, 57°03'56"W, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 35100. Paratypes: ANSP 199664 (5); INPA 35099 (94), 37745 (4), 36646 (25, 3 c&s); MZUSP 112222 (20), 112223 (1) •Valid as Hyphessobrycon kayabi Teixeira, Lima & Zuanon 2014 -- (Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716], Ohara et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35494]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon kayabi Teixeira, Lima & Zuanon 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lower Rio Teles Pires, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

keithi, Astyanax Géry [J.], Planquette [P.] & Le Bail [P.-Y.] 1996:26, Fig. 10; Pl. 1c [Cybium v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 22155] Maroni, Crique Balaté, Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 1995-1087. Paratypes: IRSNB uncat. (4); Géry coll. 988.1-28 (1 ea.); MHNG 2583.27 (4); MNHN 1996-0110 to 0113 (9, 3, 3, 8); MNRJ uncat. (3); MTD F 17014-17 (4); RMNH uncat. (4). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:14 [ref. 27474]. See also Planquette et al. 1996:256 [ref. 22818]. •Valid as Astyanax keithi Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:258 [ref. 22818]). •Valid as Jupiaba keithi (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996) -- (Zanata 1997:125 [ref. 24112], Keith et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24547], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Lima 2005:273 [ref. 28235], Pereira & Lucinda 2007:54 [ref. 29302], Birindelli et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30143], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30519], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba keithi (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Coastal rivers of French Guiana and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kennedyi, Astyanax (Astyanax) Géry [J.] 1964:28, Fig. 3 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 13 (no. 4, Dec.); ref. 2264] Upper Amazon region, surrounding Iquitos, Peru. Holotype: USNM 200425 [ex Géry coll. 399.1]. Paratypes: (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:7 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax kennedyi Géry 1964 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax kennedyi Géry 1964. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

kennedyi, Hemigrammus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903:520 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] Campo Grande, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 44420 [ex IU 10016]. Paratypes: (41) AMNH 1464 (4, 2 c&s), ANSP 37129 (1); BMNH 1907.4.27.3-4 (2), 1909.6.15.8-9 (2); FMNH 52626 (4); CAS 44419 [ex IU 10012] (6), 44421 [ex IU 10018] (1), 44422 [ex IU 10019] (8), 44423 [ex IU 10063] (5); ZMB 17001 (1), 17145 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:45 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Psellogrammus kennedyi (Eigenmann 1903) -- (Fernández & Butí 1996:253 [ref. 22775], Gómez & Chebez 1996:51 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24147], Benine & Cassati in Reis et al. 2003:154 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:28 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:109 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:78 [ref. 28131], Mirande 2010:517 [ref. 31006], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Mirande & Koerber 2015:25 [ref. 35117], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966], Melo et al. 2016:375 [ref. 35317], Koerber et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Psellogrammus kennedyi (Eigenmann 1903). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Paraguay and São Francisco River basins, Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

keronolepis, Astyanax Silva [P. C.], Malabarba [M. C.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2019:117, Figs. 8-9 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 278; ref. 36458] Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Núcleo Picinguaba, rio Picinguaba (rio da Fazenda), Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil, 23°21'50"S, 4°49'47"W. Holotype: MNRJ 51290. Paratypes: MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP, UFRGS. •Valid as Astyanax keronolepis Silva, Malabarba & Malabarba 2019. Current status: Valid as Astyanax keronolepis Silva, Malabarba & Malabarba 2019. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal streams from Ubatuba (São Paulo State) to Guapimirim River basin (Rio de Janeiro State), Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kerri, Inpaichthys Géry [J.] & Junk [W. J.] 1977:418, Figs. 1-3, 5 [Acta Amazonica v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 1601] Near Humboldt, Aripuanã, Brazil, 10°10'S, 59°25'W. Holotype: INPA 10408 [orig. no. 7600080]. Paratypes: (many) ANSP 139722 (3), MNHN 1980-1442 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Inpaichthys kerri Géry & Junk 1977 -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:141 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:524 [ref. 31006]). Current status: Valid as Inpaichthys kerri Géry & Junk 1977. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Aripuanã River, upper Madeira River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

khardinae, Hyphessobrycon Zarske [A.] 2008:6, Figs. 1-6 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 58 (no. 1); ref. 29615] Surroundings of Tapaua, rio Itaparanga, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 98667. Paratypes: MTD F31212-13 (2); NMW 95128 (1); ZMN 33796 (1), Géry coll. (3). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon khardinae Zarske 2008. Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon khardinae Zarske 2008. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Itaparanga River, Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kiliani, Cheirodon Campos [H.] 1982:154, Figs 10 [Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment v. 17 (nos 2-3); ref. 8500] Río Cau Cau, Chile. Holotype: IZUA 2340. Paratypes: IZUA 276 (50, c&s), 2341 (orig. 6); USNM 227309 [ex IZUA 2341] (1), 227310 [ex IZUA 2341] (1); plus additional material. Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:14 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Cheirodon kiliani Campos 1982 -- (Pequeño 1989:40 [ref. 14125], Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Dyer 2000:84 [ref. 26678], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061], Mantinian et al. 2008:38 [ref. 34297] as killiani). Current status: Valid as Cheirodon kiliani Campos 1982. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Pacific versant rivers of Chile. Habitat: freshwater.

kincaidi, Cyrtocharax Schultz [L. P.] 1950:60 [Review of thirteen genera of South American fishes; ref. 12973] Paraguay. Holotype (unique): USNM 1694. Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:20 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Cynopotamus kincaidi (Schultz 1950) -- (Menezes 1976:26 [ref. 7073], Menezes 1987:8 [ref. 8072], Braga 1994:10 [ref. 27878], Gómez & Chebez 1996:48 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:52 [ref. 24147], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:202 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131], Menezes 2007:60 [ref. 29297], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:18 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:28 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Cynopotamus kincaidi (Schultz 1950). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Paraguay and lower Paraná river basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

klausanni, Hyphessobrycon García-Alzate [C. A.], Urbano-Bonilla [A.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2017:128, Figs. 1, 2A, 3 [ZooKeys No. 668; ref. 35253] Upper Guaviare River drainage, Caño Claro, Mapiripán County, Meta, Colombia, 03°07'05.1"N, 72°30'14.8"W, elevation 209 meters. Holotype: UARC-IC 539. Paratypes: MPUJ, UARC-IC. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon klausanni García-Alzate, Urbano-Bonilla & Taphorn 2017 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon klausanni García-Alzate, Urbano-Bonilla & Taphorn 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

knerii, Anacyrtus (Cynopotamus) Steindachner [F.] 1879:65 [49] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 39; ref. 4227] Cuiabá, Río Paraguay, Irisanga, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 62660 (2). Species not included in earlier abstract [ref. 20476]. On p. 49 of separate. •Valid as Galeocharax knerii (Steindachner 1879) -- (Menezes 1976:45 [ref. 7073], Taphorn 1992:176 [ref. 23654] as kneri, Gómez & Chebez 1996:48 [ref. 23791] as kneri, Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:203 [ref. 27061] with a holotype, López et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27366] as kneri, Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131] as kneri, Menezes 2007:21 [ref. 29171], Mirande & Koerber 2015:18 [ref. 35117]). •Synonym of Galeocharax gulo (Cope 1870) -- (Giovannetti et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35215], Koerber et al. 2017:28 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Galeocharax gulo (Cope 1870). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

kompi, Astyanax Hildebrand [S. F.] 1938:260, Fig. 3 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 12363] Laguna Gulnar or Grande, Volcán, Pacific slope, Panama, elevation 4500 feet. Holotype: USNM 106510. Paratypes: FMNH 36645-50 (6), USNM 109262 (40). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:7 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax kompi Hildebrand 1938 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1416 [ref. 35414], Angulo et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35879]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax kompi Hildebrand 1938. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Chririquí Viejo River basin, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

kontos, Monotocheirodon Menezes [N. A.], Weitzman [S. H.] & Quagio-Grassiotto [I.] 2013:139 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 53 (no. 10); ref. 32808] Río Inambari, Sandia, Muspaypampa, 14°14'41"S, 69°25'51"W, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 42542. Paratypes: MUSM, USNM. •Valid as Monotocheirodon kontos Menezes, Weitzman & Quagio-Grassiotto 2013. Current status: Valid as Monotocheirodon kontos Menezes, Weitzman & Quagio-Grassiotto 2013. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

krenakore, Hyphessobrycon Teixeira [T. F.], Netto-Ferreira [A. L.], Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Sousa [L. M. de] 2016:466, Figs. 3b, 6-8 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 88 (no. 2); ref. 34088] Pond below bridge at road BR163, near Castelo dos Sonhos, tributary of Rio Curuá, Rio Xingu basin, Altamira, Rará, Brazil, 8°15'17.0"S, 55°06'40.0"W. Holotype: MZUSP 97605. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MCNIP, MZUSP. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon krenakore Teixeira, Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli & Sousa 2016. Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon krenakore Teixeira, Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli & Sousa 2016. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Curuá, Rio Xingu basin, Altamira, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kriegi, Cheirodon Schindler [O.] 1937:106 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 74 (no. 13) (for 10 June 1937); ref. 17169] Estancia Centurión, Rio Apa, northeastern Paraguay. Lectotype: ZSM 5859. Paralectotypes: (29) MHNG 5867-5892 (5, now 4); MSNM 2 [ex MSNM 4962] (1), NMW 62548 (5), ZMA 114445 (1); ZSM 5860 (1), 5862--63 (2), 5867-92 (26, now 15). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:17 [ref. 19236]. Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:219 [ref. 27061] has syntypes only as as ZSM 5859-60 and 5867-92. Lectotype established by Schindler 1939:279 [ref. 31247] by use of "Typus" for one syntype. •Valid as Odontostilbe kriegi (Schindler 1937) -- (Casciotta et al. 1992:8 [ref. 21059], Britski et al. 1999:48 [ref. 24147]). •Valid as Serrapinnus kriegi (Schindler 1937) -- (Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:413 [ref. 24417], Zarske 2001:15 [ref. 25834], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:219 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:108 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:78 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena et al. 2008:74 [ref. 29829], Jerep & Malabarba 2014:307 [ref. 33376], Malabarba & Jerep 2014:58 [ref. 33440], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:19 [ref. 35117], Jerep et al. 2016:296 [ref. 34362], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Koerber et al. 2017:31 [ref. 35267], Serra et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36023]). Current status: Valid as Serrapinnus kriegi (Schindler 1937). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Paraguay and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

kullanderi, Astyanax Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1995:258, Fig. 1 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 102 (no. 1); ref. 22032] Stream tributary of River Perdidos, 10 kilometers west of Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 15°32'S, 54°18'W. Holotype: MNRJ 12427. Paratypes: MHNG 2542.17 (3); MNRJ 12428 (5); MZUSP 45288 (3); NRM 21000 (4); UFRJ 1290 (7), 1291 (4, c&s). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:451 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Astyanax kullanderi Costa 1995 -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax kullanderi Costa 1995. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Das Mortes River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kuluene, Tetragonopterus Silva [G. S. C.], Melo [B. F.], Oliveira [C.] & Benine [R. C.] 2016:35, Fig. 13 [Zootaxa 4200 (no. 1); ref. 34929] Mato Grosso, Paranatinga, Rio Culuene, Rio Xingu basin, Brazil, 13°49'00"S, 53°15'00"W. Holotype: MZUSP 120567. Paratypes: LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Tetragonopterus kuluene Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2016 -- (Urbanski et al. 2018:[6] [ref. 35973]). Current status: Valid as Tetragonopterus kuluene Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2016. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Distribution: Rio Xingu basin, Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kunturus, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.], Harold [A. S.] & Ortega [H.] 1995:290, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 21942] Upper Río Comainas, 20 meters upriver of Puesto de Vigilancia No.22, Cordillera del Condor, Peru, 3°56'30"S, 78°24'20"W. Holotype: MUSM 5667. Paratypes: MUSM 5663 (1), 5665 (2), 5668-69 (2, 33), 6593 (1); USNM 335146-48 (1, 2, 2). •Valid as Creagrutus kunturus Vari, Harold & Ortega 1995 -- (Vari & Harold 2001:125 [ref. 25842], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Barriga S. 2042:107 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus kunturus Vari, Harold & Ortega 1995. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Marañón River in northeastern Peru, upper Pastaza River and southwestern portion of Napo River in southeastern Ecuador: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

kuroobi, Hemigrammus Reia [L.] & Benine [R. C.] 2019:408, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4555 (no. 3); ref. 36527] São Gabriel da Cachoeira, tributary of the Rio Miuá, Rio Negro basin, Amazonas State, Brazil, 00°06'12"S, 66°53'8"W. Holotype: MZUSP 123957. Paratypes: INPA, LBP, MNRJ, MZUSP, ZUEC. •Valid as Hemigrammus kuroobi Reia & Benine 2019. Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus kuroobi Reia & Benine 2019. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Miuá drainage, Rio Negro basin, Amazonas State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kurua, Jupiaba Birindelli [J. L. O.], Zanata [A. M.], Sousa [L. M. de] & Netto-Ferreira [A. L.] 2009:12, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 30143] Rio Curuá, rio Iriri drainage, in cofferdam of PCH (= small hydroelectric dam) Buriti, 8°46’09'S, 54°57’02'W, Altamira, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 98000. Paratypes (169): ANSP 187419 (5); AUM 47568 (2); INPA 28857 (2); MNRJ 31913 (2); MZUSP 31864 (1), 77566 (1), 96857 (70), 96939 (1), 97105 (60), 101299 (16), 101306 (1); UFBA 3943 (8). •Valid as Jupiaba kurua Birindelli, Zanata, Sousa & Netto-Ferreira 2009 -- (Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30519]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba kurua Birindelli, Zanata, Sousa & Netto-Ferreira 2009. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Rio Xingú Basin, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kyburzi, Pseudochalceus Schultz [L. P.] 1966:27, Figs. (p. 25, 29) [Ichthyologica, the Aquarium Journal v. 37 (no. 1); ref. 9064] Río Calima, Río Cauca Valley, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 231738 [was USNM 257403-F27]. Paratypes: USNM 171751 (1), 231739 [ex USNM 258173-F1] (1); Géry coll. (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:35 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Pseudochalceus kyburzi Schultz 1966 -- (Bertaco in Reis et al. 2003:155 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2006:37 [ref. 28750], Mirande 2010:498 [ref. 31006], Bertaco & Malabarba 2013:777 [ref. 33026], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pseudochalceus kyburzi Schultz 1966. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal rivers in Pacific, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

lacortei, Nematobrycon Weitzman [S. H.] & Fink [W. L.] 1971:59, Figs. 1-4 [Beaufortia v. 19 (no. 248); ref. 19125] Probably from Río Calima, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 205594. Paratypes: BMNH 1971.3.16.1 (1), CAS 13396 (1), FMNH 70525 (1), USNM 205595-96 (3, 4), ZMA 110740 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:23 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:60 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:31 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Nematobrycon lacortei Weitzman & Fink 1971 -- (Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:150 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Nematobrycon lacortei Weitzman & Fink 1971. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: San Juan River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

lacustris, Tetragonopterus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1875:131 [5] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 3); ref. 2856] Lagoa Santa, 19°38'S, 43°53'W, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9580 [ex ZMUC] (3), NMW 57540 (1), SMNS 2045 (2), ZMB 9200 (2), ZMUC uncat. (25). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:21 [ref. 19577], Nielsen 1974:46 [ref. 9588], Fricke 1995:9 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:26 [ref. 29864]. On p. 5 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:208 (and p. XIII of summary), Pl. 5 (fig. 15) [ref. 19674]. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Britski 2001:21 [ref. 26046]). •Valid as Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875) -- (Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Zanata & Camelier 2009:175 [ref. 30252], Lucena & Soares 2016:103 [ref. 34169], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966] as aff. lacustris, Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Melo et al. 2016:375 [ref. 35317], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632], Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506], Koerber et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages: Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

lambari, Bryconamericus Malabarba [L. R.] & Kindel [A.] 1995:680, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 108 (no. 4); ref. 21922] Small creek under bridge of avenida Ipiranga, Dois Irmaos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 51°07'S, 29°36'W. Holotype: MCP 15448. Paratypes: MCP 15449 (14), 15450 (2, c&s); UFRGS 1784 (7, 2 c&s, 5 stained), 4513 (3), 4539 (1); USNM 324628 (3). •Valid as Bryconamericus lambari Malabara & Kindel 1995 -- (Azpelicueta & Almirón 2001:280 [ref. 26007], Miquelarena et al. 2002:75 [ref. 26517], Casciotta et al. 2002:163 [ref. 26551], Román-Valencia 2003:24 [ref. 26840], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:117 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2004:64 [ref. 27664], da Silva 2004:55 [ref. 27870], Almirón et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27986], Langeani et al. 2005:389 [ref. 28234], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015:435 [ref. 33665], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus lambari Malabarba & Kindel 1995. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Feitoria Creek and tributaries in Caí River basin, Laguna dos Patos drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lambari, Salmo Natterer [J.] in Kner 1859:176 [40] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 17; ref. 2631] Irisanga, Brazil. On p. 40 of separate. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with author as Kner, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819). Characidae: Stethaprioninae.

landoni, Pterobrycon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:3 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Boca de Raspadura, junction of the San Pablo with the Raspadura, Colombia. Holotype (unique): FMNH 56250 [ex CM 5051]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:68 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:71 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Pterobrycon landoni Eigenmann 1913 -- (Bussing 1998:115 [ref. 24179], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:227 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pterobrycon landoni Eigenmann 1913. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Middle and upper Atrato River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

langeanii, Hyphessobrycon Lima [F. C. T.] & Moreira [C. R.] 2003:22, Figs. 1-4 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 27320] Kilometer 476.3 of Ferronorte railroad, 17°25'08"S, 53°13'60"W, córrego Mosquito, município de Alto Araguaia, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 75127. Paratypes: DZSJRP 5467 (5); MCZ 162370 (5); MNRJ 20351 (2), 24780 (5); MZUSP 41405 (62), 41451 (99), , 73256 (259), 73272 (27), 73286 (6), 73309 (30), 73313 (166, 8 c&s), 73322 (97), 73362 (43); USNM 371922 (5); UZEC 6174 (5). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:440 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon langeanii Lima & Moreira 2003 -- (Bertaco & Malabarba 2005:86 [ref. 28297], Bertaco et al. 2007:248 [ref. 29277], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon langeanii Lima & Moreira 2003. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

langei, Deuterodon Travassos [H.] 1957:81, Figs. 9-10 [Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciéncias v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 12121] Córrego da Divisa, Pôrto de Cima, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 8534. Paratypes: MNRJ 8532 (1), 8535 (1), 8610 (1, allotype), 8611-14 (4), 8877-79 (3). •Valid as Deuterodon langei Travassos 1957 -- (Lucena & Lucena 1992:134 [ref. 21970], Lucena & Lucena 2002:129 [ref. 26205], Lucena et al. in Reis et al. 2003:127 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:502 [ref. 31006]). Current status: Valid as Deuterodon langei Travassos 1957. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal basins between Cubatão (northern) River, Santa Catarina State and the Njundiaquara River basin in Paraná State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lassoi, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:128, Fig. 52 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Río Tupe, Río Aroa drainage, about 12 kilometers north or Aroa, on highway 3, 10°30'19"N, 68°52'33"W, Yaracuy, Venezuela. Holotype: INHS 60094. Paratypes: INHS 28890 (1), 34917 (2), 51283 (22); MCNG 24685 (29); MHNLS 4143 (18); USNM 359487 (5). •Valid as Creagrutus lassoi Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus lassoi Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Aroa and Yaracuy River basins, Carinnean versant drainages of north-central Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

lassorum, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 2002:210, Figs. 1-3 [Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", n.s. v. 4 (no. 2) (for Nov.); ref. 27206] Stream El Caño, 10 kilometers from Aragua to Maturin, Rio Guarapiche-San Juan system, Golfo de Paria basin, 9°55'10"N, 63°24'53"W, Monagas State, Venezuela. Holotype: MNHLS 9407. Paratypes: MNHLS 14424 (13, 2 c&s). •Valid as Bryconamericus lassorum Román-Valencia 2002 -- (Román-Valencia 2005:57 [ref. 28949], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:23 [ref. 29743], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus lassorum Román-Valencia 2002. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Golfo de Paria basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

latens, Astyanax Mirande [J. M.], Aguilera [G.] & Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] 2004:215, Figs. 1-4 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 111 (no. 1); ref. 27659] Arroyo El Oculto, 23°07'S, 64°30'W, río Bermejo basin, Province of Salta, Argentina. Holotype: CI-FML 3400. Paratypes: AL 110 (4), 112 (2 c&s); CI-FML 3401-02 (5, 10); MNHG 2640.36 (5). •Valid as Astyanax latens Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2004 -- (Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Mirande et al. 2006:14 [ref. 28757], Mirande et al. 2006:58 [ref. 28784], Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Mirande 2010:513 [ref. 31006], Koerber 2011:3 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:270 [ref. 33857], Mirande & Koerber 2015:24 [ref. 35117], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax latens Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2004. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Argentina and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

lateralis, Coelurichthys Nichols [J. T.] 1913:151 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 26; ref. 14965] South America. Holotype: AMNH 4072. Paratypes: AMNH 4086 (1). See Coelurichthys tenuis Nichold 1913. •Valid as Mimagoniates lateralis (Nichols 1913) -- (Weitzman & Fink 1985:109 [ref. 5203], Menezes & Weitzman 1990:386 [ref. 16172], Weitzman et al. 1996:186 [ref. 24771], Weitzman et al. 1996:183 [ref. 24772], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:226 [ref. 27061], Menezes et al. 2008:38 [ref. 31161], Menezes & Weitzman 2009:339 [ref. 30495], Mantinian & Miquelarena 2010:416 [ref. 30959], Azpelicueta & Koerber 2012:784 [ref. 32131], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Mimagoniates lateralis (Nichols 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Coastal blackwater streams between Santos, São Paulo and Santa Catarina, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

laticeps, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1894:89, Pl. 6 (fig. 7) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 21852. Paratypes: ANSP 21853-63 (11, missing), 21743-46 (4) Géry coll. [ex ANSP 21747] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratypes. Lectotype established by Fowler 1906:348 [ref. 1373]. •Synonym of Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns 1842), but a valid subspecies laticeps (Cope 1894) -- (Malabarba 1989:130 [ref. 14217], Triques et al. 2003:149 [ref. 27248], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565] as scinabripinnis). •Valid as Astyanax laticeps (Cope 1894) -- (Bertaco & Malabarba 2001:231 [ref. 25645], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1053 [ref. 26511], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Casciotta et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27401], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], de Melo & Buckup 2006:50 [ref. 28622], Azpelicueta & Loureiro 2009:3 [ref. 30196], Bertaco & Lucena 2010:12 [ref. 30750], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Lucena et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Bertaco 2014:498 [ref. 33320], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:289 [ref. 33374], Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:270 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax laticeps (Cope 1894). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

latidens, Landonia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:2 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Vinces, Colimes, Río Daule, western Ecuador. Holotype: CAS 55297 [ex IU 5409]. Paratypes: (14) CAS 55298 [ex IU 13100] (13), FMNH 56593 (2). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:50 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Landonia latidens Eigenmann & Henn 1914 -- (Weitzman & Menezes 1998:180 [ref. 23843], Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:280 [ref. 24413], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:225 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:145 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Landonia latidens Eigenmann & Henn 1914. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

latissimus, Moenkhausia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:101 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: (many) MCZ 20767 (9), 20769 (now 9); USNM 120277 [ex MCZ 20769] (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:30 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Moenkhausia latissima Eigenmann 1908 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Carvalho et al. 2014:378 [ref. 33383], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia latissima Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

lativirgatus, Microgenys Pearson [N. E.] in Eigenmann 1927:355 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 4); ref. 12292] Río Pusoc, above Balsas, Peru. Syntypes: CAS 47171 [ex IU 17642] (4). The gender is evidently feminine, so name changed to lativirgata. •Valid as Microgenys lativirgata Pearson 1927 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708] as lativirgatus, Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:144 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Microgenys lativirgata Pearson 1927. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

latus, Chalceus Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:214 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Rio Padauiri, tributary of Rio Negro. No tupes known. Provisionally placed in Chalceus. •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Habitat: freshwater.

latus, Hyphessobrycon Fowler [H. W.] 1941:185, Fig. 95 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69578. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon latus Fowler 1941 -- (Lima & Gerhard 2001:110 [ref. 25355], Lima & Costa 2001:233 [ref. 25700]). •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061] on Britski Pers. comm.). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon latus Fowler 1941. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

latus, Moenkhausia lepidurus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:103 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Northern part of Rio Tapajós, Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: (many) CAS 42760 [ex IU 15259 & MCZ 20860] (5, missing), MCZ 20860 (19), USNM 120278 [ex MCZ 20860] (4). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:30 [ref. 19022]. See Planquette et al. 1996:308 [ref. 22818]. •Valid as Moenkhausia lata Eigenmann 1908 -- (Géry 1992:72 [ref. 20972], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:42 [ref. 28287], Marinho & Langeani 2010:60 [ref. 30941], Marinho & Langeani 2010:887 [ref. 30927], Petrolli & Benine 2015:417 [ref. 33887], Oliveira & Marinho 2016:573 [ref. 34342], Marinho & Langeani 2016:348 [ref. 34416], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], Soares et al. 2017:261 [ref. 35237]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia lata Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tapajós and Oyapock River basins: Brazil and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

lemniscatus, Tetragonopterus Benine [R. C.], Pelição [G. Z.] & Vari [R. P.] 2004:340, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 117 (no. 3); ref. 27973] Tributary to Sisa Creek, north side of stream about 700 meters downstream of crossing of road from Amotopo to Camp Geologie, about 3°42'N, 57°42'W, Nickeri District, Suriname. Holotype: USNM 225366. Paratypes: LIRP 4928 (2 c&s), 4929 (1); NZCS F7062 [ex USNM 225320] (1); USNM 224367 (2), 225523 (2), 374750 (4). •Synonym of Tetragonopterus rara (Zarske, Géry & Isbrücker 2004) -- (Melo et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31233], Silva et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34929]). Current status: Synonym of Tetragonopterus rarus (Zarske, Géry & Isbrücker 2004). Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Habitat: freshwater.

leonidas, Astyanax Azpelicueta [M. de las M.], Casciotta [J. R.] & Almirón [A. E.] 2002:245, Figs. 1-4, 6, 8, 12 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 109 (no. 2); ref. 26608] Headwaters of arroyo Urugua-í (26°10'S, 53°41'W), río Paraná basin, Misiones, Argentina. Holotype: MLP 9580. Paratypes: MHNG 2624.29 (11), MLP 9581 (4). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:4 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Astyanax leonidas Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almirón 2002 -- (Almirón et al. 2002:9 [ref. 26720], López et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena et al. 2005:18 [ref. 28188], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:670 [ref. 28391], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], Protogino et al. 2006:11 [ref. 28780], Mirande et al. 2006:65 [ref. 28784], Vari & Castro 2007:157 [ref. 29039], Abilhoa & Duboc 2007:45 [ref. 29285], Mirande et al. 2007:37 [ref. 29333], Vera Alcaraz et al. 2009:189 [ref. 30252], Pavanelli & Oliveira 2009:569 [ref. 30986], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Soneira et al. 2010:785 [ref. 31078], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Mirande & Koerber 2015:24 [ref. 35117], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax leonidas Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almirón 2002. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

leopoldi, Astyanax Géry [J.], Planquette [P.] & Le Bail [P.-Y.] 1988:9, Figs. 1-3, 6 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 6408] Alicoto Falls, upstream Camopi River, Moyen Oyapok, French Guiana. Holotype: IRSNB 731. Paratypes: IRSNB 732 (99, now 25), 733-737 (2, 8, 5, 3, 2); MHNG 2383-99 (1), 2393-98 (24); MNHN 1981-0367 to 0389 (3, 7, 2), 1981-0392 (2), 1981-0552 (2), 1981-0560 (1), 1981-0565 (5), 1981-0568 (2), 1981-0569 (5). •Valid as Astyanax leopoldi Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1988 -- (Géry et al. 1991:49 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:250 [ref. 22818], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax leopoldi Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1988. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Approuague and Oyapock River basins: Brazil and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

lepiclastus, Cyanocharax Malabarba [L. R.], Weitzman [S. H.] & Casciotta [J. R.] in Malabarba & Weitzman 2003:120, Figs. 33-38 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 27141] Frio Dourados, Linha Várzea, on road between Severiano de Almeida and Aratiba, Severiano de Almeida, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 25751. Paratypes: MCP 12286 (5), 12373 (2 c&s), 12374 (6), 12470 (4), 12790 (2), 12924 (15, 4 c&s), 12972 (3), 12977 (14), 13313 (9), 13362 (2), 14550 (4), 14557 (29, 4 c&s), 15200 (9), 16381 (4), 16398 (2); MLP 10451 [ex Al 103] (5); MNRJ 23842 (8); MZUSP 82259 (9); USNM 357243 (9). Type catalog: Nadalin & López 2015:4 [ref. 34112]. Diapoma is neuter according to Koerber et al. 2015:2 [ref. 35179]. •Valid as Cyanocharax lepiclastus Malabarba, Weitzman & Casciotta 2003 -- (Koerber 2011:2 [ref. 31122], Casciotta et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32076], Protogino & Miquelarena 2012:581 [ref. 32123], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:22 [ref. 35117]). •Valid as Diapoma lepiclastus (Malabarba, Weitzman & Casciotta 2003) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Koerber et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35632]). •Valid as Diapoma lepiclastum (Malabarba, Weitzman & Casciotta 2003) -- (Koerber et al. 2015:2 [ref. 35179], Koerber et al. 2019:3 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Diapoma lepiclastum (Malabarba, Weitzman & Casciotta 2003). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: South America: Uruguay River basin: Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

lepidurus, Tetragonopterus Kner [R.] 1858:80 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Rio Guaporé, Rio Madeira, Rio Amazonas basin, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 57566. Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:176, Pl. 8 [ref. 2631]. Lectotype selected by Marinho & Langeani 2016:344 [ref. 34416]. •Valid as Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner 1858) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Géry 1992 [ref. 20972], Taphorn 1992:275 [ref. 23654], Lucena & Lucena 1999:235 [ref. 24225], Benine 2002:293 [ref. 26541], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Langeani 2010:878 [ref. 30927], Marinho & Langeani 2010:61 [ref. 30941], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Oliveira & Marinho 2016:573 [ref. 34342], Marinho & Langeani 2016:340 [ref. 34416], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701], Soares et al. 2017:262 [ref. 35237], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner 1858). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Bolivia, Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

lepidus, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.], Harold [A. S.], Lasso [C. A.] & Machado-Allison [A.] 1993:352, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 21107] Río Aroa basin, Quebrada El Charal, Finca El Jaguar, Sierra de Aroa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela, about 10°32'N, 68°32'W. Holotype: MHNLS 9659. Paratypes: CAS 79520 (7); MBUCV-V-23560 (12); MHNLS 4144 (12), 4715 (5, ?now 4); USNM 325045 (10). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:41-42 [ref. 23639], Provenzano et al. 1998:6 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Creagrutus lepidus Vari, Harold, Lasso & Machado-Allison 1993 -- (Vari & Harold 2001:131 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus lepidus Vari, Harold, Lasso & Machado-Allison 1993. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Aroa and Urama River basins, Caribbean versant drainages of Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

leptorhynchus, Hypobrycon da Silva [J. F. P.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 1996:46, Figs. 1-2 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 9; ref. 23180] Rio Ibicuí, near pulp mill plant, about 27°33'S, 51°12'W, Rio Uruguai drainage, Campos Novos, Santa Cataarina, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 18862. Paratypes: MCP 12346 (76), 12761 (17); USNM 324629 (10); plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Hypobrycon leptorhynchus da Silva & Malabarba 1996 -- (Almirón et al. 2001:35 [ref. 26609], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:141 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Bryconamericus leptorhynchus (da Silva & Malabarba 1996) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus leptorhynchus (da Silva & Malabarba 1996). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Uruguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

leptoura, Spintherobolus Weitzman [S. H.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 1999:35, Figs. 36-37 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 23668] Rio Quilombo, fazenda Dalila, Registro, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 41854. Paratypes: MCP 19254 (3), MZUSP 51023 (11, 2 c&s), USNM 346386 (3). •Valid as Spintherobolus leptoura Weitzman & Malabarba 1999 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:220 [ref. 27061], Bührnheim et al. 2008:672 [ref. 29955]). Current status: Valid as Spintherobolus leptoura Weitzman & Malabarba 1999. Characidae: Spintherobolinae. Distribution: Lowlands around Ribeira de Igaupe River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lethostigmus, Odontostoechus Gomes [A. L.] 1947:8, Fig. 1; Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 67; ref. 1830] Backwater of Rio Maquiné, tributary to Lagôa dos Quadros, Conceiçao do Arroio County, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: UMMZ 143272. Paratypes: CAS-SU 40188 (1), UMMZ 143271 (orig. 12, now 11), USNM 143847 [ex UMMZ 143271] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:25 [ref. 12291], Vari & Howe 1991:32 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Odontostoechus lethostigmus Gomes 1947 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:151 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:542 [ref. 31006], Baicere-Silva et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31395]). •Valid as Bryconamericus lethostigmus (Gomes 1947) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus lethostigmus (Gomes 1947). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Maquiné, Três Forquilhas, Mampituba and Araranguá River basins, Tramandai-Mampituba freshwater ecoregion, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

leticiae, Charax Lucena [C. A. S. de] 1987:40, Fig. 7 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRGS (Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul) No. 40; ref. 17724] Near Posto de Trocará, igarapé Urubu, Rio Tocantins, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 28660. Paratypes: MCP [ex MZUSP 20633] (1); MZUSP 20331 (5), 20633 (orig. 14, now 13). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:454-455 [ref. 23140]. Original not seen. •Valid as Charax leticiae Lucena 1987 -- (Lucena 1989:104 [ref. 12852], Britski et al. 1999:55 [ref. 24147], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:201 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:17 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:84 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131], Menezes & Lucena 2014:207 [ref. 33369], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:18 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561], Koerber et al. 2017:27 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35679], Guimarães et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35775]). Current status: Valid as Charax leticiae Lucena 1987. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Tocantins and upper Paraguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

leuciscus, Cheirodon Ahl [E.] 1936:19 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 114 (nos 1/2); ref. 13683] Rosario de Sante Fé, Argentina. Lectotype: ZMB 20802. Paralectotypes: ZMB 32432 (3). Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:92 [ref. 21847], Zarske & Géry 1995:108, Fig. 5 [ref. 22674]. Lectotype selected by Zarske & Géry 1995:108 [ref. 22674]. •Synonym of Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Zarske & Géry 1995:118 [ref. 22674], Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Zarske 2001:15 [ref. 25834], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:19 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

leuciscus, Creagrutus Regan [C. T.] 1913:463 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 3656] Río Condoto, Río San Juan basin, southwestern Colombia. Lectotype: BMNH 1913.10.1.6. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1910.1.11.170 (1), 1913.10.1.7 (1). Lectotype selected by Harold & Vari 1994:26 [ref. 21969]. •Synonym of Creagrutus affinis Steindachner 1880 -- (Harold & Vari 1994:23 [ref. 21969], Vari & Harold 2001:2 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:121 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Creagrutus leuciscus Regan 1913 -- (Román-Valencia & Cala 1997:145 [ref. 30645], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:352 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus leuciscus Regan 1913. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Río Condoto, Río San Juan basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

leucometopon, Charax Zuiew [B.] 1789:275, Pl. 5 [Nova Acta Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae v. 4 (for 1788); ref. 17714] No type locality given [Suriname]. Holotype: Dhalberg Collection (whereabouts unknown). •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

leucopomis, Moenkhausia chrysargyrea Fowler [H. W.] 1914:244, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 66; ref. 1390] Rupununi River, Guyana, 2°-3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype: ANSP 39330. Paratypes: ANSP 39331 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Moenkhausia chrysargyrea (Günther 1864) -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:146 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Moenkhausia chrysargyrea (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

levidorsa, Moenkhausia Benine [R. C.] 2002:290, Fig. 1, 3a, 4a [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 26541] Núcleo Aripuanã, Igarapé do Aeroporto, Furo Bahia, above cachoeira de Dardanelos, about 10°10'S, 59°25'W, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 16774. Paratypes: INPA 13259 (20, 2 c&s). •Valid as Moenkhausia levidorsa Benine 2002 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061], Benine et al. 2007:262 [ref. 29279], Marinho & Langeani 2010:887 [ref. 30927], Carvalho et al. 2014:378 [ref. 33383], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia levidorsa Benine 2002. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Middle Tapajõs River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

levis, Hemigrammus Durbin [M. L.] in Eigenmann 1908:100 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Lago Maximo [small lake near Parintins], Villa Bella and Lake Jose Assu, Brazil. Syntypes: (over 300) CAS 42677 [ex IU 12647 & MCZ 20738] (5), CAS 42678 [ex IU 15260 & MCZ 20749] (7); MCZ 89961-62 (64, 18), 20738 (194), 20749 (28), 20829 (3); USNM 120266 [ex MCZ 20738] (6). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:24 [ref. 19022]. Author is M. L. Durbin. Lectotype established as MCZ 20738 by Eigenmann 1918:149 but lot with more than 1 specimen so lectotype designation is not valid. •Valid as Hemigrammus levis Durbin 1908 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061], Zarske et al. 2006:24 [ref. 28749], Marinho et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29547], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus levis Durbin 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

limaesquamis, Anacrytus Cope [E. D.] 1878:686 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Pebas, Peru. Lectotype: ANSP 21460. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21461 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratypes. Genus should have been spelled Anacyrtus. •Synonym of Cynopotamus amazonus (Günther 1868) -- (Menezes 1976:28 [ref. 7073], Menezes 1987:6 [ref. 8072], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:202 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Cynopotamus amazonum (Günther 1868). Current status: Synonym of Cynopotamus amazonum (Günther 1868). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

lindeae, Axelrodia Géry [J.] 1973:111, Figs. 18-19 [Studies on the Neotropical Fauna v. 8; ref. 1596] Rio Curuçamba, about 9 kilometers north of Obidos, lower Amazon basin, Brazil. Holotype: MHNG 2229.08. Paratypes: (23) Géry coll. 0673 (?), ANSP 139717 (2), MNHN 1980-1424 (2), ZMA 101027 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:14 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Axelrodia lindeae Géry 1973 -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:530 [ref. 31006]). Current status: Valid as Axelrodia lindeae Géry 1973. Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Curuçamba River on lower Amazon basin, and middle Madeira River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lineatus, Pseudochalceus Kner [R.] 1863:225, "Fig. 11" (unpublished) [Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu München 1863, v. 2; ref. 5002] Western slopes of the Andes, Ecuador. Syntypes: ?NMW 56738-39 [ex ZSM] (1, 1); ZSM no. 146, 292 [old collection] (2) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:269 [ref. 28925]. Also appeared as new in Kner & Steindachner 1864:35, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [ref. 2649]. •Valid as Pseudochalceus lineatus Kner 1863 -- (Bertaco in Reis et al. 2003:155 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2006:37 [ref. 28750], Bertaco & Malabarba 2013:776 [ref. 33026], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:151 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Pseudochalceus lineatus Kner 1863. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal rivers in Pacific versant of Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

lineatus, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1891:173 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 28 (18); ref. 12571] Iquitos, Peru. Syntypes: NMW 57589-90 (2, 2). Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1891:368, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [ref. 4236]. Objectively invalid, preoccupied by Tetragonopterus lineatus Perugia (Apr.) 1891; replaced by Tetragonopterus steindachneri Eigenmann 1893. •In the synonymy of Bario steindachneri (Eigenmann 1893) -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Bario steindachneri (Eigenmann 1893). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

lineatus, Tetragonopterus Perugia [A.] 1891:644 [44] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 10; ref. 3431] Cáceres (formerly Villa María), Río Paraguay, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Syntypes: ?CAS 39222 [ex IU 11520] (1), MSNG 9233 (2). Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:183 [ref. 10343]. On p. 44 of separate. •Valid as Astyanax lineatus (Perugia 1891) -- (Miquelarena et al. 1997:67 [ref. 23469], Gómez & Chebez 1996:50 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:37 [ref. 24147], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1053 [ref. 26511] as linneatus, Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27401] as linneatus, Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Mirande et al. 2006:58 [ref. 28784], Mirande 2010:519 [ref. 31006], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:24 [ref. 35117], Koerber 2016:142 [ref. 35012], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax lineatus (Perugia 1891). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: La Plata River basin: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

lineomaculata, Moenkhausia Dagosta [F. C. P.], Marinho [M. M. F.] & Benine [R. C.] 2015:418, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4032 (no. 4); ref. 33998] Campos de Júlio, rio Juruena at Fazenda Tiroleza, upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 14°16’37"S, 59°5’22"W. Holotype: MZUSP 117108. Paratypes: MZUSP. •Valid as Moenkhausia lineomaculata Dagosta, Marinho & Benine 2015 -- (Soares et al. 2019:237 [ref. 36688]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia lineomaculata Dagosta, Marinho & Benine 2015. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Tapajós River basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

linnaei, Tetragonopterus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:142 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Cayenne, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9809. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:18 [ref. 19577]. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698] with question). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

littoris, Cheirodon gracilis Géry [J.] 1960:31 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 41 (no. 1/2); ref. 1605] "Dégrad Cacao" Comté River, French Guiana. Holotype: SMF 4783. Paratypes: ANSP 112229 (1); Géry coll. 57 Che 04-23-2 to 12 (orig. 11), 57 Che 04-5-13 to 16 (4); MNHN 1980-1431 (2); ZMA 100614 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:16 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Odontostilbe littoris (Géry 1960) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061]). •Not an Odontostilbe -- (Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:193 [ref. 28728]). •Valid as Serrapinnus littoris (Géry 1860) -- (Zarske 2012:16 [ref. 31902]). Current status: Valid as Serrapinnus littoris (Géry 1960). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Comté River basin, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

loftini, Roeboides Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2011:1664, Fig. 1 [Revista de Biología Tropical v.59 (no. 4); ref. 31620] Río Turbe, tributary of Río San Juan, upper Río Coclé del Norte drainage, Panama, 8°47'05"N, 80°38'10"W. Holotype: STRI 7655. Paratypes: MCP 45775 (3); STRI 7656 (3), 7657 (14 + 1 c&s). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Roeboides loftini Lucena 2011 -- (Matamoros et al. 2013:280 [ref. 32755]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides loftini Lucena 2011. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Río Coclé del Norte drainage, northwestern Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

loisae, Bryconamericus Géry [J.] 1964:46, Fig. 12 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 13 (no. 4, Jan.); ref. 1582] Upper Río Meta [Río Manacacias into upper Río Meta, at Restrepo], Colombia. Holotype: USNM 198645. Paratypes: (7) ANSP 139713 (1), Géry coll. M.356 (orig. 7), MNHN 1980-1426 (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:10 [ref. 19022] plus locality information, Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Bryconamericus loisae Géry 1964 -- (Román-Valencia 1999:112 [ref. 24922], Román-Valencia 2003:7 [ref. 27070], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:117 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2002:209 [ref. 27206], Román-Valencia 2003:24, 46 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia 2005:57 [ref. 28949], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:24 [ref. 29743], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Román-Valencia 2010:201 [ref. 31063], DoNascimiento 2016:528 [ref. 34727]). •Valid as Hemibrycon loisae (Géry 1964) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:App. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon loisae (Géry 1964). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

londonoi, Creagrutus Fowler [H. W.] 1945:3, Figs. 1-3 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 158; ref. 13140] Honda, Río Magdalena basin, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 71610. Paratypes: ANSP 71611-18 (8), 71619 (1, c&s), 71620 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Creagrutus affinis Steindachner 1880 -- (Harold & Vari 1994:23 [ref. 21969], Vari & Harold 2001:2 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:121 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Cala 1997:150 [ref. 30645]). Current status: Synonym of Creagrutus affinis Steindachner 1880. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

longianalis, Pseudochalceus (Pseudochalceus) Géry [J.] 1972:933, Figs. 1-2 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 79 (pt 2, no. 31); ref. 7613] Río Guiza, tributary of Río Mira, at Guayacana, Narino Province, south of Colombia, near border of Ecuador, elevation 240 meters. Holotype: MHNG 1226.90. Paratypes: (12) ANSP 140067 (1), Géry coll. 0690 (orig. 3), MHNG 1226.91-99 (9). Type catalog: Mahnert 1976:475 [ref. 21535], Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621], Weber 1998:8 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Pseudochalceus longianalis Géry 1972 -- (Bertaco in Reis et al. 2003:155 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2006:37 [ref. 28750], Bertaco & Malabarba 2013:776 [ref. 33026], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:153 [ref. 34894], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pseudochalceus longianalis Géry 1972. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal rivers in Pacific: Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

longior, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1878:691 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Moyabamba on Río Huallaga, Peru. Lectotype: ANSP 21222. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21223 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratype. Lectotype established by Fowler 1906:341, Fig. 29 [not 30] [ref. 1373]. •Valid as Astyanax longior (Cope 1878) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax longior (Cope 1878). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

longipinnis, Tetragonopterus Popta [C. M. L.] 1901:85, Fig. [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 23 (no. 2) (art. 10) (for Apr. 1901); ref. 20702] Below Nickerie, between le Manilie-kreek and l'Arrawarra, Suriname. Lectotype: RMNH 13033. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1908.1.27.4 (1), RMNH 7507 (7). Lectotype selected by Reis 1989:28 [ref. 14219]. •Valid as Poptella longipinnis (Popta 1901) -- (Reis 1989:27 [ref. 14219], Reis in Reis et al. 2003:210 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35633], Garcia-Ayala et al. 2017:572 [ref. 35695]). Current status: Valid as Poptella longipinnis (Popta 1901). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin and coastal drainages of Suriname and lower Tocantins River: Brazil, Colombia, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

longirhinus, Astyanax Garavello [J. C.] & Sampaio [F. A. A.] 2010:853, Fig. 4 [Brazilian Journal of Biology v. 70 (no. 3); ref. 31053] Rio Iguaçu, downstream of Salto Santiago dam, between Laranjeiras do Sul and Chopinzinho, Laranjerias do Sul, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 105954. Paratypes: FMNH 105095 (38); MZUSP 105955 (1), 105956 (1); LISDEBE 2598 (4), 2599 (1), 2600 (3). •Valid as Astyanax longirhinus Garavello & Sampaio 2010 -- (da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax longirhinus Garavello & Sampaio 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Iguaçu, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longirostris, Oligosarcus Menezes [N. A.] & Géry [J.] 1983:576, Fig. 4 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 90 (no. 3); ref. 8307] Rio Iguaçu (Paraná basin) at Porto Lupion, Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 25841. Paratypes: MHNG 2098.8-9 (2), MZUSP 25842-48 (7), USNM 228080 (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:32 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:486 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Oligosarcus longirostris Menezes & Géry 1983 -- (Menezes 1987:28 [ref. 20060], Braga 1994:18 [ref. 27878], Gómez & Chebez 1996:47 [ref. 23791], López et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:88 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131], Ribeiro et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29321], Almirón et al. 2015:589 [ref. 33673], Ribeiro & Menezes 2015:77 [ref. 33768], Mirande & Koerber 2015:25 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus longirostris Menezes & Géry 1983. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Argentina and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longirostris, Tetragonopterus fasciatus var. Steindachner [F.] 1907:481 [7] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 116 (1. Abth.); ref. 18797] Rio Cubatao, Santa Catarina, Theresopolis, Brazil. Syntypes: (23) NMW 57508 (2), 57633 (4). On p. 7 of separate. For information regarding the type locality see Lucena & Lucena 1990 [ref. 16142]. •Valid as Astyanax longirostris (Steindachner 1907) -- (Bertaco & Malabarba 2001:232 [ref. 25645]). •Valid as Deuterodon longirostris (Steindachner 1907) -- (Lucena & Lucena 2002:129 [ref. 26205], Lucena et al. in Reis et al. 2003:127 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628]). •Synonym of Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns 1842), but a valid subspecies -- (Triques et al. 2003:149 [ref. 27248]). Current status: Valid as Deuterodon longirostris (Steindachner 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Cubatão River, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longus, Knodus Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 2006:52, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Tierkunde. v. 55; ref. 28753] Río Harinilla [Warinilla] near Choiro, Bolivia, elevation 1400 meters. Holotype: MTD F 28853. Paratypes: Géry coll. (1); MTD F 28854 (1). •Valid as Knodus longus Zarske & Géry 2006 -- (Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Knodus longus Zarske & Géry 2006. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Harinilla River, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

lopesi, Moenkhausia Britski [H. A.] & de Silimon [K. Z. de Sz.] 2001:113, Fig. 2 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 27195] Ribeirão Sozinho na rovia BR 163, entre Rondonópolis e Coxim (ca. 17°30"S, 55°10'W), munic. de Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 64480. Paratypes: ANSP 177924 (10), MCP 26672 (10), MNRJ 21045 (10), MZUSP 64481 (410). The original spelling was lopesi. Apparently apeared in the Zoological Record, printed version for 2006 as M. vanzoi. •Valid as Moenkhausia lopesi Britski & de Silimon 2001 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061] as lopezi, Bertaco et al. 2011:36 [ref. 31403], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia lopesi Britski & de Silimon 2001. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

loretoensis, Hyphessobrycon Ladiges [W.] in Arnold 1938:645, Fig. 9 [Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 35 (no. 41); ref. 30135] Upper Amazon River, Loreto State Peru. Lectotype: ZMH H59 [ex 17759 in part]. Paralectotypes (3): ZMH H183 [ex 17759] (1). Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:157 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:402 [ref. 21161]. Lectotype selected by Ladiges et al. 1958:157 [ref. 19181], not by Géry 1961, see Marinho et al. 2016:247 [ref. 34376]. Originally described as Hyphessobrycon loretonensis, which is obviously a spelling error for loretoensis. Since loretonensis was never used by subsequent authors, the name is here corrected to loretoensis for the sake of stability, though not fully in accordance with ICZN Art. 32.5. Also described by Ladiges 1938:51 [ref. 17153] as Hyphessobrycon loretoensis, which is the formal scientific description, but it is predated by Arnold 1938 by four days. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon loretoensis Ladiges 1938 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Lima et al. 2014:177 [ref. 33535], Ohara & Lima 2015:570 [ref. 33846], Zarske 2015:295 [ref. 34028], Dagosta et al. 2016:258 [ref. 34377], Marinho et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34376], Marinho et al. 2016:519 [ref. 34591], Zarske 2016:112 [ref. 34774], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35633], García-Alzate et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35253]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon loretoensis Ladiges 1938. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

lorien, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.], Burger [R.] & Camelier [P. ] 2018:473, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4438 (no. 3); ref. 35984] Stream tributary of Rio Mucugezinho, itself a tributary of Rio Santo Antônio, Rio Paraguaçu basin, Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis, Bahia State, Brazil, 12°28'02"S, 41°24'56"W, elevation 734 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 123398. Paratypes: MCP, MZUSP, NUP, UFBA. •Valid as Astyanax lorien Zanata, Burger & Camelier 2018 -- (Burger et al. 2019:377 [ref. 36718]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax lorien Zanata, Burger & Camelier 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Rio Paraguaçu basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

loweae, Hyphessobrycon Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Géry [J.] 1994:71, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 20 (no. 3) (1993); ref. 21308] Rio Culune tributary, Rio Xingú basin, 40 kilometers south of Paranatinga, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 15°01'S, 54°03'W (corrected locality 14°43'S, 54°04;W). Holotype: MNRJ 12437. Paratypes: MZUSP 45749-51 (2, 1, 2); UFRJ 1281 (6), 1282 (4, c&s). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:468 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon loweae Costa & Géry 1994 -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:236 [ref. 22743], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2003:95 [ref. 27437], Ingenito et al. 2013:38 [ref. 32568], Teixeira et al. 2014:613 [ref. 33097], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716], Ohara et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35144]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon loweae Costa & Géry 1994. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Araguaia basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

loweae, Moenkhausia Géry [J.] 1992:73, Fig. 6 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 19 (no. 3); ref. 20972] Rio das Mortes at Xavantina, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 44560. Paratypes: BMNH 1992.9.8.2-4 (4); J. Géry coll. G.949 (1); MTD F 27524 [ex Géry coll.] (1), MZUSP 44561-62 (2), 44563 (1). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:481-482 [ref. 23140], Zarske 2003:18 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Moenkhausia loweae Géry 1992 -- (Lucena & Lucena 1999:235 [ref. 24225] as cf loveae, Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Lucinda 2006:66 [ref. 28492], Marinho & Langeani 2010:60 [ref. 30941], Marinho & Langeani 2010:887 [ref. 30927], Bertaco et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31234], Bertaco et al. 2011:37 [ref. 31403], Oliveira & Marinho 2016:573 [ref. 34342], Marinho & Langeani 2016:348 [ref. 34416], Soares et al. 2017:262 [ref. 35237]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia loweae Géry 1992. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Xingu and upper and middle rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lucenorum, Hyphessobrycon Ohara [W. M.] & Lima [F. C. T.] 2015:563, Figs. 1-2, 5 [Zootaxa 3972 (no. 4); ref. 33846] Rondônia, Vilhena, rio Madeira basin, upper rio Machado, tributary of igarapé Piracolina, near road BR 364, Brazil, 12°48’56.5"S, 60°06’37.6"W. Holotype: MZUSP 115556. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP, UFRO, ZUEC. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon lucenorum Ohara & Lima 2015 -- (Zarske 2015:295 [ref. 34028], Ohara et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35494]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon lucenorum Ohara & Lima 2015. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rondônia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lucindai, Serrapinnus Jerep [F. C.] & Malabarba [L. R.] in Malabarba & Jerep 2014:64, Figs. 2c-d, 4b, 6-7 [Zootaxa 3847 (no. 1); ref. 33440] Município de Piranhas, tributary of rio Piranhas, between Piranhas and Bom Jardim de Goiás, 16°21’43.3"S 51°55’10.2972"W, Brazil. Holotype: UFRGS 19198. Paratypes: Many at MCP, UFRGS, UFRJ, UNT. •Valid as Serrapinnus lucindai Jerep & Malabarba 2014 -- (Jerep et al. 2016:296 [ref. 34362]). Current status: Valid as Serrapinnus lucindai Jerep & Malabarba 2014. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

luelingi, Cheirodon Géry [J.] 1964:19, Fig. 16 [Beiträge zur Neotropischen Fauna v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 1580] Small creek connecting "Zapote Cocha" and "Caño Yarina", on edge of Río Pacaya, tributary of lower Río Ucayali, Peru. Holotype: ZFMK 1417. Paratypes: MHNG 2150.16-17 (2), ZFMK 1418 (1). Type catalog: Busse 1984:219 [ref. 28342], Herder et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Cheirodon luelingi Géry 1964 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745]). •Incertae sedis in Characidae -- ([various authors] in Reis et al. 2003:104 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Cheirodon luelingi Géry 1964. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

luelingi, Hemigrammus Géry [J.] 1964:7, Fig. 5 [Beiträge zur Neotropischen Fauna v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 1580] Small creek connecting "Zapote Cocha" and "Caño Yarina", on edge of Río Pacaya, tributary of lower Río Ucayali, Peru. Holotype: ZFMK 1304. Paratypes: MHNG 2150.14-15 (2), ZFMK 1305 (1). Type catalog: Busse 1984:218 [ref. 28342], Herder et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Hemigrammus luelingi Géry 1964 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Zarske & Géry 2002:26 [ref. 26553], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Lima et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34590], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus luelingi Géry 1964. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

luetkenii, Tetragonopterus Boulenger [G. A.] 1887:173 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 19 (no. 111) (art. 23); ref. 17020] San Lorenzo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1885.2.3.78-80 (3), 1886.3.15.35-38 (4). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon luetkenii (Boulenger 1887) -- (Malabarba 1989:135 [ref. 14217], Britski et al. 1999:43 [ref. 24147], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:137-138 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:104 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131] as luetkeni, Almirón et al. 2004:674 [ref. 27987] as luetkeni, Almirón et al. 2006:895 [ref. 29163], Miquelarena & López 2010:6 [ref. 30749] as lüetkenii, Mirande 2010:512 [ref. 31006], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon luetkenii (Boulenger 1887). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal river drainages and Uruguay River basin in Rio Grande do Sul State; Paraíba do Sul River in Rio de Janeiro State; Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

lunatus, Hemigrammus Durbin [M. L.] in Eigenmann 1918:164 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 2); ref. 1240] Amazon River basin. Holotype: MCZ 20964 (1 of 3). Paratypes: CAS 42679 [ex IU 12649 & MCZ 20964] (1); MCZ 20964 (2 of 3), 89963 (1, missing). Author is M. L. Durbin. Appeared first in Eigenmann 1910:436 [ref. 1224] without description. •Valid as Hemigrammus lunatus Durbin 1918 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Britski et al. 1999:39 [ref. 24147], Lasso et al. 2001:95 [ref. 25928], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Ota et al. 2014:270 [ref. 33373], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633], Koerber et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35267], Ota et al. 2019:343 [ref. 36619]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus lunatus Durbin 1918. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and Paraguay River basins in Bolivia (La Paz, Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz), Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Mato Grosso), Paraguay, Ecuador (Napo), Colombia and Peru (Loreto, Madre de Dios). Habitat: freshwater.

macal, Astyanax Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2017:1387, Figs. 10a, 35 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Between San Luis and Millonarios, Cayo District, Macal River, Maya Mountains, highlands of Belize. Holotype: UMMZ 250291. Paratypes: UMMZ •Valid as Astyanax macal Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax macal Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Macal River, Maya Mountains, Belize. Habitat: freshwater.

macarenae, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.], García-Alzate [C. A.], Ruiz-C. [R. I.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2010:197, Figs. 1-2 [Animal Biodiversity and Conservation v.33 (no. 2); ref. 31063] Orinoco River Basin, Blanco River drainage, Pringamosal Creek, 500 meters from La Palestina School, 3°03'15"N, 73°49'54'W, La Palestina village, Vista Herosa, Departamento Meta, Colombia, elevation 282 meters. Holotype: IUQ 2448. Paratypes: Many at AUM, IUQ. •Valid as Bryconamericus macarenae Román-Valencia, García-Alzate, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn 2010 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus macarenae Román-Valencia, García-Alzate, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn 2010. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

machadoi, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:134, Fig. 54 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Upper Río Caura, Caño Yumucukenã, within 4 kilometers its mouth, Departmento Cedeno, Bolivar, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 18852. Paratypes: MCNG 18896 (3), 41717 (6); USNM 359641 (2). •Valid as Creagrutus machadoi Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:123-124 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus machadoi Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

machadoi, Gephyrocharax Ferreira [K. M.], Faria [É. de], Ribeiro [A. C.], Santana [J. C. O.], Quagio-Grassioto [I.] & Menezes [N. A.] 2018:162, Figs. 1-2, 4-8 [Zootaxa 4415 (no. 1); ref. 35911] Rio Sepotuba, Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 14°30'05"S, 57°34'39"W. Holotype: CPUFMT 2429. Paratypes: CPUFMT, MZUSP. •Valid as Gephyrocharax machadoi Ferreira, Faria, Ribeiro, Santana, Quagio-Grassioto & Menezes 2018. Current status: Valid as Gephyrocharax machadoi Ferreira, Faria, Ribeiro, Santana, Quagio-Grassioto & Menezes 2018. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

machadoi, Hemigrammus Ota [R. P.], Lima [F. C. T.] & Pavanelli [C. S.] 2014:266, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 33373] Mato Grosso State, Pontes e Lacerda, igarapé Barreiro, tributary of rio Guaporé, rio Madeira basin, road to Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade, 15°11’34"S, 59°25'26"W, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 39889. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MCP, UFRO-I, MZUSP, ZUEC. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Hemigrammus machadoi Ota, Lima & Pavanelli 2014 -- (Ota et al. 2019:343 [ref. 36619]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus machadoi Ota, Lima & Pavanelli 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Paraguai and rio Madeira basins, Brazil and Río Guaporé basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

macrocephalus, Scissor Günther [A.] 1864:331 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Probably Suriname. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1858.6.14.1. •Valid as Scissor macrocephalus Günther 1864 -- (Reis in Reis et al. 2003:156 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Scissor macrocephalus Günther 1864. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Epicyrtus Kner [R.] 1858:167 [7] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 32 (no. 22); ref. 18871] Original localities: Guaporé River, Cuiaba, Caicara, Marabitanos, Suriname. Lectotype: NMW 62668-6 (78 mm). Paralectotypes: NMW 62653 (1), 62655 (2), 62658 (1), 62666 (3), 62668-1 and 4 (2), 162669-70 (5, 1), 78525 (1). Also appeared in Kner 1860:47 [p. 39 of separate], pl. 6 (fig. 13) [ref. 7130]. Lectotype selected by Lucena 1987:42 [ref. 17724]. •Valid as Charax macrolepis (Kner 1858) -- (Lucena 1987:42 [ref. 17724], Lucena 1989:104 [ref. 12852], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:201 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Lucena 2014:209 [ref. 33369], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Charax macrolepis (Kner 1858). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Guaporé River basin and rio Madeira, Amazonas, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Roeboides Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:84 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Río Cupe, Boca de Cupe, River Tuyra basin, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7590. Paratypes: FMNH 12851-53 (3), 12854-55 (1, 1). •Valid as Phenagoniates macrolepis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Fink & Weitzman 1974:30 [ref. 7132], Galvis et al. 1997:52 [ref. 23651], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:153 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:528 [ref. 31006], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Phenagoniates macrolepis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913). Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Chucunaque and Atrato rivers and Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia, Panama and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Xiphorhamphus Steindachner [F.] 1877:594 [36] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Jequitinhonha, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) not yet found at NMW On p. 36 of separate. •Valid as Oligosarcus macrolepis (Steindachner 1877) -- (Menezes 1987:21 [ref. 20060], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:151-152 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29321], Ribeiro & Menezes 2015:78 [ref. 33768]). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus macrolepis (Steindachner 1877). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Jequitinhonha River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalmus, Bryconamericus Román-Valencia [C.] 2003:8, Figs. 1-6 [Dahlia (Revista de la Asociación Colombiana de Ictiólogos, ACICTIOS). No. 6; ref. 27070] Río Negro, rapid above the mouth of Río Casiquiare, about 10 kilometers north of San Carlos de Río Negro, about 2°02'00"N, 67°25'00"W, Río Orinoco basin, Amazonas State, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUC 29392. Paratypes: IUQ 428 (6), MBUCV 11381 (10). •Valid as Bryconamericus macrophthalmus Román-Valencia 2003 -- (Román-Valencia 2005:58 [ref. 28949], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:25 [ref. 29743], Zarske et al. 2010:9 [ref. 30816], Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015:435 [ref. 33665], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus macrophthalmus Román-Valencia 2003. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalmus, Tetragonopterus Regan [C. T.] 1908:171, Pl. 26 (fig. 4) [Biologia Centrali-Americana; ref. 18482] Motzorongo, Veracruz, southern Mexico. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1857.7.31.10 (1), 1905.12.6.19-22 (4), 1906.6.1.268 (1), 1906.6.1.269-278 (10?). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698] with question). •Synonym of Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1384 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

macropinna, Cyanocharax Malabarba [L. R.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 2003:134, Figs. 5, 8, 16, 45-49 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 27141] Arroio Pai-Passo, on road Santana do Livramento-Alegrete (RS 183), Quaraí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 25973. Paratypes: MCP 9057 (2), 11340 (33), 11341 (4), 11401 (2), 12622 (125), 13350 (8), 14291 (11, 7 c), 14598 (19, 7 c), 15081 (4), 15092 (9), 15099 (5), 16382 (16), 16384 (10); MNRJ 23844 (25); MZUSP 82261 (25); USNM 319750 (50). •Synonym of Cyanocharax uruguayensis (Messner 1962) -- (Malabarba et al. 2004:101 [ref. 27836], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:22 [ref. 35117]). •Synonym of Diapoma uruguayensis (Messner 1962). Current status: Synonym of Diapoma uruguayensis (Messner 1962). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: South America: middle tributaries of Uruguay River basin in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay border regions [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

macropterus, Cheirodon Fowler [H. W.] 1941:182, Fig. 92 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Jaguaribe, Russas, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69531. Paratypes: ANSP 69532-37 (7), 69538 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621]. •Incertae sedis in Characidae, valid species but not in Cheirodon -- ([various authors] in Reis et al. 2003:104 [ref. 27061]). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

macropus, Xenurobrycon Myers [G. S.] & Miranda Ribeiro [P. de] 1945:5, Fig. 1 [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Zoologia, Nova Série No. 32; ref. 3131] Rio Bodoquena, Rio Paraguay system, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ. Paratypes: CAS-SU 40764 (2). Other paratypes in MNRJ (14). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:27 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Xenurobrycon macropus Myers & Miranda Ribeiro 1945 -- (Weitzman 1987:113 [ref. 5982], Weitzman & Burns 1997:139 [ref. 24512], Britski et al. 1999:49 [ref. 24147], Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:280 [ref. 24413], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:228 [ref. 27061], Moreira 2005:855 [ref. 28474], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mendonça et al. 2016:[7] [ref. 34350], Koerber et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Xenurobrycon macropus Myers & Miranda Ribeiro 1945. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Tetragonopterus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1845:14, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Horae Ichthyologicae Nos 1 & 2; ref. 3071] Brazil; Guiana; Suriname. Syntypes: MSNG 9226 [ex ZMB] (2). Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:183 [ref. 10343]. •Affinities with Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Malabarba 1989:128 [ref. 14217]). •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Taphorn 1992:110 [ref. 23654], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

maculicauda, Hyphessobrycon Ahl [E.] 1936:22 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 114 (nos 1/2); ref. 13683] Central Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB (not found). Type mentioned: Paepke 1995:92 [ref. 21847], Zarske & Géry 1995:113 [ref. 22674]. •Questionably valid as Hyphessobrycon maculicauda Ahl 1936 -- (Zarske & Géry 1995:119 [ref. 22674]). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon maculicauda Ahl 1936 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon maculicauda Ahl 1936. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Central Brazil (exact locality unknown). Habitat: freshwater.

maculisquamis, Astyanax Garutti [V.] & Britski [H. A.] 1997:220, Fig. 1 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 40 (no. 14); ref. 23650] Pontes e Lacerda (ca. 15°12'S, 59°22'W), small creek tributary of Rio Guaporé, tributary of Rio Madeira, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 37680. Paratypes: MZUSP 48181 (72). •Valid as Astyanax maculisquamis Garutti & Britski 1997 -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Lucena & Soares 2016:120 [ref. 34169]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax maculisquamis Garutti & Britski 1997. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Guaporé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maculoblongus, Phenacogaster Lucena [Z. M. S. de] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2010:268, Fig. 4 [Zoologia (Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia) v. 27 (no. 2); ref. 30880] Caño Caballepe, 1 kilometer from Tumeremo, Rio Luyuni system, 7°17'N, 61°30'W, Bolivar, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-30230. Paratypes:(many) at ANSP, MBUCV-V, MCP, UF, USNM. Phenacogaster is feminine, therefore mandatory correction to maculoblonga (R. Fricke, 1 May 2016). •Valid as Phenacogaster maculoblonga Lucena & Malabarba 2010 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster maculoblonga Lucena & Malabarba 2010. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

maculosus, Acestrocephalus Menezes [N. A.] 2006:393, Fig. 10 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 28897] Minaçu, córrego Água Parada, tributary of rio de Peixe, Serra de Mesa, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 53974. Paratypes:MNRJ 12714 (1), MZUSP 90162 (1). •Valid as Acestrocephalus maculosus Menezes 2006. Current status: Valid as Acestrocephalus maculosus Menezes 2006. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maculosus, Creagrutus Román-Valencia [C.], García-Alzate [C. A.], Ruiz-C. [R. I.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2010:88, Figs. 1-8 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 21 (no. 1); ref. 30781] Guadualito Creek drainage, 3°05'34"N, 73°51'53"W, Buenos Aires village, Vista Hermosa municípality, Güejar River, Meta State, Colombia. Holotype: IUQ 2506. Paratypes: many at AUM, IUQ. •Valid as Creagrutus maculosus Román-Valencia, García-Alzate, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn 2010 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:352 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus maculosus Román-Valencia, García-Alzate, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn 2010. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

madeirae, Cheirodon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:76, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] San Joaquín, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): FMNH 57864 [ex CM 6847]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:58 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:23 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Odontostilbe madeirae (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Casciotta et al. 1992:8 [ref. 21059]). •Synonym of Serrapinnus micropterus (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844]). Current status: Synonym of Cheirodon micropterus Eigenmann 1907. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

madeirae, Moenkhausia lepidura Fowler [H. W.] 1913:540, Fig. 11 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Tributary of Rio Madeira near Porto Velho, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 39224 (with paratypes). Paratypes: ANSP 39225-27 (3), 39350 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Moenkhausia intermedia Eigenmann 1908 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:147 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Moenkhausia intermedia Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

madeirae, Odontostilbe Fowler [H. W.] 1913:527, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Tributary of Rio Madeira near Porto Velho, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 39193. Paratypes: ANSP 39194-205 (12), 39206 (1), 39207 (1, c&s, dissected), 39209 (1, missing), Géry coll. [ex ANSP 39208] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Odontostilbe fugitiva Cope 1870 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061], Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:170, 176 [ref. 28728]). Current status: Synonym of Odontostilbe fugitiva Cope 1870. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

madeirae, Prionobrama Fowler [H. W.] 1913:535, Fig. 9 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Rio Madeira tributary, near Porto Velho, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 39218. Paratypes: ANSP 39219 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Prionobrama filigera (Cope 1870) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:154 [ref. 27061] with question). Current status: Synonym of Prionobrama filigera (Cope 1870). Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Habitat: freshwater.

madeirae, Tyttocharax Fowler [H. W.] 1913:564, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Rio Madeira tributary, near Porto Velho, Brazil (about 8°45'S, 63°55'W). Holotype: ANSP 39305. Paratypes: ANSP 39306 (1) USNM 92961 (1) [see p. 108, ref. 5203]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Tyttocharax madeirae Fowler 1913 -- (Weitzman & Fink 1985:109 [ref. 5203], Weitzman & Ortega 1995:134 [ref. 21874], Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302], Weitzman & Burns 1997:136 [ref. 24512], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:228 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia et al. 2012:519 [ref. 32203], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745] as Tythocharax, Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Tyttocharax madeirae Fowler 1913. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenae, Anacyrtus (Cynopotamus) Steindachner [F.] 1879:78 [62], Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 39; ref. 4227] Cienaga, Colombia. Syntypes: NMW 62501-02 (2, 2), 62504-05 (1, 2), 77769 (1). On p. 62 of separate. Available from figure, no description. •Valid as Cyrtocharax magdalenae (Steindachner 1879) -- (Galvis et al. 1997:47 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Cynopotamus magdalenae (Steindachner 1879) -- (Menezes 1976:28 [ref. 7073], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:202 [ref. 27061], Menezes 2007:60 [ref. 29297], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Cynopotamus magdalenae (Steindachner 1879). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Magdalena and Cauca River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenae, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] 1916:89 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1/2) (art. 7); ref. 12361] Girardot, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 57006 [ex CM 5822]. Paratypes: CAS 39223 [ex IU 13611] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:61 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Astyanax magdalenae Eigenmann & Henn 1916 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:41 [ref. 23651], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31365], Torres-Mejia et al. 2012:505 [ref. 32312], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax magdalenae Eigenmann & Henn 1916. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Colombian rivers and the Cataumbo River basin, Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenae, Creagrutus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:8 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Girardot, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56088 [ex CM 4880]. Paratypes: (over 100, CM and IU) CAS 41641 [ex IU 12722] (18), 60056-57 [ex IU 12725-26] (6, 8); FMNH 56089 (20), 56092-93 (7, 9), 69730 (72). •Valid as Creagrutus magdalenae Eigenmann 1913 -- (Harold & Vari 1994:16 [ref. 21969], Vari & Harold 2001:2 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:124 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Cala 1997:148 [ref. 30645], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:348 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus magdalenae Eigenmann 1913. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Magdalena River and lower Cauca River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenae, Roeboides Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:161 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Soplaviento, Colombia. Syntypes: FMNH [ex CM 5202] (?); CAS 71123 [ex IU 12950] (35). Additional material: CAS 71100 [ex IU 12949] (42), 71120-21 [ex IU 12952-53] (4, 12), CAS 71122 [ex IU 12957] (7); FMNH 56386-56395 [ex CM 5202-5210] (210) (but not 5202 which are types). Type catalog: Henn 1928:70 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:77 [ref. 12367] but footnote indicated only 2 lots are types; most FMNH lots are other material. •Synonym of Roeboides dayi (Steindachner 1878) -- (Lucena 2000:24 [ref. 24559], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Roeboides dayi (Steindachner 1878). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenensis, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:14 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Girardot, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56263 [ex CM 5063]. Paratypes: (Numerous, CM and IU) BMNH 1924.3.3.37-38 (2); CAS 40827, 61328-32 [ex IU 12821-26] (45, 45, 9, 7, 23, 246); FMNH 56264-65 (33, 40), 56267-71 (2, 10, 8, 24, 30), 56275 (2), 69760 (526); USNM 79176 (4), 236097 (49). Type catalog: Henn 1928:63 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:18 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:11 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Argopleura magdalenensis (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Román-Valencia 2000:462 [ref. 25256], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:223 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Argopleura magdalenensis (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

magoi, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:137, Fig. 55 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Río Chaviripa, where crossed by bridge on road from Caicara to San Fernado de Atabapo, about 7°11'N, 66°18'W, Bolivar, Venezuela. Holotype: UF 80477. Paratypes: ANSP 159834-35 (10, 10), 161405 (1); MBUCV V-17787 (8); UF 11079 (6), 80423 (5); USNM 353305-06 (2, 2), 353863 (1), 353864 (2, 1 c&s), 355118 (2). •Valid as Creagrutus magoi Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:124 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus magoi Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Chaviripa and Parguaza River basins, right bank tributaries to the Orinoco River, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

magoi, Serrabrycon Vari [R. P.] 1986:329, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 99 (no. 2); ref. 5989] Lower portion of Caño Manu, about 2°00'N, 66°57'W, Dept. River Negro, Territory Fed. Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV 14270. Paratypes: BMNH 1985.4.9.4-6 (3); MBUCV-V-14271 to 72 (10, 5); MZUSP 28749 (3); USNM 207259 (5), 207260 (11, 3 c&s). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:39-40 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:496 [ref. 23140], Provenzano et al. 1998:17 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Serrabrycon magoi Vari 1986 -- (Taphorn 1992:324 [ref. 23654], Lima & Toledo-Piza 2001:1062 [ref. 25823], Lucena in Reis et al. 2003:156 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35633], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Serrabrycon magoi Vari 1986. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Brazil, ? Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

mahnerti, Hemigrammus Uj [A.] & Géry [J.] 1989:154, Figs. 5-7 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 96 (no. 1); ref. 16287] Swamp near Panchito Lopez, 4 kilometers from Yabebyry, Misiones, Paraguay. Holotype: MHNG 2412.82. Paratypes: MHNG 2412.83-84 (57, 2 c&s), 2412.85-86 (122, 2 c&s), 2412.87-88 (8, 2 c&s), 2412-89 (2). Type catalog: Weber 1998:7 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Hemigrammus mahnerti Uj & Géry 1989 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27366] as manherti, Casciotta et al. 2003:98 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131] as manherti, Marinho et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29547], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus mahnerti Uj & Géry 1989. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná and Paraguay River basins: Argentina and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

major, Gephyrocharax Myers [G. S.] in Eigenmann & Myers 1929:479 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 5); ref. 1263] Río Popoi [Popoy River], Upper Río Beni, Rurrenabaque, Tumupasa, Ixiamas, Huachi, Amazon system, Bolivia, app. 15°37'0.12"S, 67°17'60.0"W, elevation 532 meters. Lectotype: CAS 236011. Paralectotypes: CAS 44286 [ex IU 17291] (9, now 8). Additional non-type material: CAS 46027 [ex IU 17290] (9), 46028 [ex IU 17293] (1), 46029 [ex IU 17292] (5), 78813 [ex IU 17289] (1). Lectotype selected by Vanegas-Ríos 2016:45 [ref. 34359]. •Valid as Gephyrocharax major Myers 1929 -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:224 [ref. 27061], Vanegas-Ríos & Phillip 2013:1333 [ref. 34415], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745] as Gephyocharax, Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Vanegas-Ríos 2016:38 [ref. 34359], Vanegas-Ríos 2017:6 [ref. 35531], Ferreira et al. 2018:170 [ref. 35911]). Current status: Valid as Gephyrocharax major Myers 1929. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

malabarbai, Serrapinnus Jerep [F. C.], Dagosta [F. C. P.] & Ohara [W. M.] 2018:181, Figs. 1-4, 5A [Copeia v. 106 (no. 1); ref. 35830] Rio Suspiro, tributary to Rio das Mortes, Rio Araguaia basin, Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 14°52'30.92"S, 54°05'01.40"W. Holotype: MZUSP 117117. Paratypes: MZUEL, MZUSP. •Valid as Serrapinnus malabarbai Jerep, Dagosta & Ohara 2018. Current status: Valid as Serrapinnus malabarbai Jerep, Dagosta & Ohara 2018. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Upper Rio das Mortes, Araguaia-Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

manaos, Tetragonopterus Urbanski [B. Q.], Melo [B. F.], Silva [G. S. C.] & Benine [R. C.] 2018:[2], Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 16 (no. 2) (e3170158); ref. 35973] Igapó of rio Negro, Anavilhanas National Park, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, approximately 02°42'S, 60°45'W. Holotype: MZUSP 117250. Paratypes: INPA, LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Tetragonopterus manaos Urbanski, Melo, Silva & Benine 2018. Current status: Valid as Tetragonopterus manaos Urbanski, Melo, Silva & Benine 2018. Characidae: Tetragonopterinae. Distribution: Central Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

manu, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:140, Fig. 56 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Río Manu basin, Parque Nacional Manu, Quebrada Agua Clara, first major quebrada on trial 1 leading from Pakitza, about 11°57'S, 71°17'W, Provincia Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 8867. Paratypes: MUSM 8868 (1); USNM 303067 (2), 313476 (1), 326903 (1, c&s). •Valid as Creagrutus manu Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:124 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus manu Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Manu River basin in southeastern Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

maracaiboensis, Creagrutops Schultz [L. P.] 1944:327, Figs. 45-46 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Negro below mouth of Río Yasa, Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121531. Paratypes: USNM 121532 (orig. 48, now 42, 1 c&s), UMMZ 145042 [ex USNM 121532] (2), MCZ 37280 [ex USNM 121532] (2), MHNG [ex USNM 121532] (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:15 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Creagrutus maracaiboensis (Schultz 1944) -- (Harold & Vari 1994:10 [ref. 21969], Vari & Harold 2001:2 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:124 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Cala 1997:145 [ref. 30645], Harold & Salcedo 2010:382 [ref. 30692], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:348 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus maracaiboensis (Schultz 1944). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo and Río Rancheria basins, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

marajoara, Tyttobrycon Marinho [M. M. F.], Bastos [D. A.] & Menezes [N. A.] 2013:740, Figs.1-9 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 33025] Pará State, Marajó Island, Salvaterra, Vila União, igarapé Olho d’água, 0↑50’51"S, 48°34’01"W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 1909196. Paratypes: ANSP 193488 (4); DZSKRP 18179 (4); INPA 39504 (4); MCP 47859 (4); MPEG 20751 (4), MZUSP 106110 (68, 6 c&s), 108820 (24), 109197 (21), Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:442 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Tyttobrycon marajoara Marinho, Bastos & Menezes 2013. Current status: Valid as Tyttobrycon marajoara Marinho, Bastos & Menezes 2013. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Marajó Island, Pará State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

marciae, Hemibrycon Godoy [M. P. de] 1971:155, Figs. 1-4 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 31 (no. 2); ref. 7670] Cachoeira de Emas, Rio Mogi Guassu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype: EEBP 710. Paratypes: (54). •Synonym of Oligosarcus pintoi Amaral Campos 1945 -- (Menezes 1987:21 [ref. 20060], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:151 [ref. 27061], Koerber et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Oligosarcus pintoi Amaral Campos 1945. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

margareteae, Roeboides Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2003:292, Figs. 5-7 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) v. 93 (no. 3); ref. 27452] Sistema do rio Pindaré-Mearim, lago do Viana, Maranhão, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 38722. Paratypes: ANSP 82289 (1), 95879 (2); UFPI 601 (1), 602 (1); MCZ 46787 (1); MZUSP 5102 (1): USNM 119942 (13), 119944 (3). •Valid as Roeboides margareteae Lucena 2003 -- (Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Melo et al. 2016:375 [ref. 35317], Brito et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36237] as margaretae). Current status: Valid as Roeboides margareteae Lucena 2003. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Mearim, Itapecuru, Munim and Parnaíba rivers, Maranhão and Piauí states, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

marginata, Hasemania Meinken [H.] 1938:225, Fig. [Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 35 (no. 15); ref. 17160] Southeast Brazil (aquarium import). Syntypes: NMB. •Synonym of Hasemania nana (Lütken 1875) -- (Zarske & Géry 1999:94 [ref. 23982], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hasemania nana (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

marginatus, Hemigrammus Ellis [M. D.] 1911:159, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1, art. 2); ref. 1269] Rio Itapicurú at Queimadas, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54430 [ex CM 3053]. Paratypes: (141) FMNH 54431-33 (1, 20, 4), 54435-43 (6, 17, 42, 5, 6, 5, 3, 9, 1), 54452 (1), 54457-59 (1, 1, 1), 54756 (3), 54919 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:65 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:45 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hemigrammus marginatus Ellis 1911 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:209 [ref. 23654], Britski et al. 1999:39 [ref. 24147], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061], Marinho et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29547], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Ota et al. 2015:228 [ref. 33748], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966] as aff. marginatus, Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus marginatus Ellis 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

margitae, Hyphessobrycon Zarske [A.] 2016:106, Figs. 1-4, 10A [Vertebrate Zoology v. 66 (no. 2); ref. 34774] Einzugsgebiet des río Nanay, Loreto, Peru (aquarium import, possibly from the Río Marañón drainage). Holotype: MTD F 35090. Paratypes: MTD. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon margitae Zarske 2016. Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon margitae Zarske 2016. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

margitae, Moenkhausia Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 2001:7, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 25156] Quebrada on road Campo Verde-Nueva Requena (about half way), Ucayali, Peru. Holotype: MTD F 17256. Paratypes: GÉRY Coll. 1029.1-3.2000 (3), 1029.4.2000 (1); MTD F 17257-58 (2); MHNG 2610.01-04 (3, 16, 1, 13); ZFMK 26448 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Zarske 2003:18 [ref. 27474], Herder et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Moenkhausia margitae Zarske & Géry 2001 -- (Zarske & Géry 2002:19 [ref. 26554], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061], Bertaco et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31234], Carvalho et al. 2014:378 [ref. 33383]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia margitae Zarske & Géry 2001. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Ucayali drainage, upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

marionae, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:175, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Six miles from San Luiz de Cáceres, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54711 [ex CM 3353]. Paratypes: CAS 39225 [ex IU 13278] (1), FMNH 54712-13 (3, 5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:61 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367]. See Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791]. •Valid as Astyanax marionae Eigenmann 1911 -- (Britski et al. 1999:37 [ref. 24147], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax marionae Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maromba, Hypobrycon Malabarba [M. C. S. L.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 1994:20, Figs. 1-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21373] Rio das Marombas, under Irineu Bronhausen bridge, Santa Catarina, Brazil, about 27°11'S, 50°38'W. Holotype: MCP 15757. Paratypes: MCP 15640 (3), 15641 (3, 1 c&s); USNM 324629 (2). •Valid as Hypobrycon maromba Malabarba & Malabarba 1994 -- (da Silva & Malabarba 1996:49 [ref. 23180], Almirón et al. 2001:35 [ref. 26609], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:141 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:22 [ref. 35117]). •Valid as Bryconamericus maromba (Malabarba & Malabarba 1994) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus maromba (Malabarba & Malabarba 1994). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Uruguay River basin, Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

maroniensis, Astyanax Géry [J.], Planquette [P.] & Le Bail [P.-Y.] 1996:17, Fig. 7; Pl. 2a [Cybium v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 22155] Antecume Pata, Indian village at the confluence of Litani and Maroni, French Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 1995-1091. Paratypes: IRSNB uncat. (2); Géry coll. 986.1-6 (6); MNHN 1996-0102 (6), 1996-0103 (2); MHNG 2583.26 (2); MTD F 17007-08 (2); RMNH uncat. (2). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:15 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Astyanax maroniensis Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:262 [ref. 22818]). •Valid as Jupiaba maroniensis (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996) -- (Zanata 1997:125 [ref. 24112], Keith et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24547], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Lima 2005:273 [ref. 28235], Pereira & Lucinda 2007:54 [ref. 29302], Birindelli et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30143], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30519]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba maroniensis (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Coastal rivers of French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

martae, Gephyrocharax Dahl [G.] 1943:218 [4], Fig. [Förhanglingar / Klungl. Fysiografiska sällskapet i Lund = Proceedings of the Royal Physiographic Society at Lund. v. 12 (no. 18); ref. 13198] Río Batatal, tributary to Río San Jorge, Río Magdalena system, Munic. of Ayapel, Bolivar Dept., Colombia, elevation about 800 meters. Holotype (unique): MZLU L939/3703. On p. 4 of separate. •Valid as Gephyrocharax martae Dahl 1943 -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:224 [ref. 27061], Vanegas-Ríos et al. 2013:276 [ref. 32748], Vanegas-Ríos & Phillip 2013:1333 [ref. 34415], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Vanegas-Ríos 2016:47 [ref. 34359], Vanegas-Ríos 2017:6 [ref. 35531], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Gephyrocharax martae Dahl 1943. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: San Jorge River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

matei, Hemigrammus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1918:152, Pl. 19 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 2); ref. 1240] Argentina. Holotype: CAS 44436 [ex IU 11438]. Additional material or paratypes: CAS 44437 [ex IU 11438] (1). Appeared first in Eigenmann 1910:436 [ref. 1224] without description. •Valid as Hemigrammus matei Eigenmann 1918 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27366] as mattei, Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131] as mattei, Marinho et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29547], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus matei Eigenmann 1918. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

mavro, Hyphessobrycon García-Alzate [C. A.], Román-Valencia [C.] & Prada-Pedreros [S.] 2010:445, Figs. 1-2, 5 [Caldasia v. 32 (no. 2); ref. 31066] Caño Payara, affuent of the Orinico River, Puerto Carreño, ca. 6°12'N, 62°28'W, Vichada, Colombia. Holotype: IUQ 2791. Paratypes: (total 21) IMCN 3751 (2 c&s), IUQ 1964. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon mavro García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Prada-Pedreros 2010 -- (García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Zarske 2016:114 [ref. 34774] as marvo, García-Alzate et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35253], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon mavro García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Prada-Pedreros 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

maxillaris, Aphyocarax Ulrey [A. B.] 1894:611 [American Naturalist v. 28 (no. 331); ref. 12356] Brazil. Syntypes: (10) CAS-SU 2170 (1), 47059 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:21 [ref. 12291]. Original genus should have been Aphyocharax. Species was also described as new in Ulrey 1895:293 [ref. 12371]. •Valid as Pristella maxillaris (Ulrey 1894) -- (Géry et al. 1991:60 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:334 [ref. 22818], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:237 [ref. 22743], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:154 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:509 [ref. 31006], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35679], Guimarães et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35965]). Current status: Valid as Pristella maxillaris (Ulrey 1894). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon, Orinoco and coastal river drainages of the Guianas: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

maxillaris, Creagrudite Myers [G. S.] 1927:118 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 3096] Sandbank on the Colombian border at Cucuhy, Rio Negro, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 30419 [ex IU 17682]. Paratypes: CAS 30420 [ex IU 17684] (2), CAS-SU 18071 [ex IU 17683] (1), MCZ 31572 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:23 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Creagrutus maxillaris (Myers 1927) -- (Vari & Harold 1998:256 [ref. 23845], Vari & Harold 2001:142 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:124 [ref. 27061], Dagosta & Pastana 2014:578 [ref. 33181], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35633], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:352 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus maxillaris (Myers 1927). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin and rivers draining the Guiana Shield, upper Negro River in Venezuela, and other localities: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

maxillaris, Hasemania Ellis [M. D.] 1911:148, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1, art. 2); ref. 1269] Rio Iguaçu at Porto União, Brazil. Holotype (unique): FMNH 54303 [ex CM 2937]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:64 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hasemania maxillaris Ellis 1911 -- (Zarske & Géry 1999:95 [ref. 23982], López et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26808], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Malabarba 2007:350 [ref. 29142], Zanata & Serra 2010:21 [ref. 30751], Serra & Langeani 2015:485 [ref. 33944]). Current status: Valid as Hasemania maxillaris Ellis 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Iguaçu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maxillaris, Hyphessobrycon Fowler [H. W.] 1932:354, Fig. p. 350 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 84; ref. 16366] Descalvados, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 53660. Paratypes: ANSP 53661-63 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hemigrammus maxillaris (Fowler 1932) -- (Britski et al. 1999:39 [ref. 24147], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Hemigrammus lunatus Durbin 1918 -- (Ota et al. 2014:270 [ref. 33373], Koerber et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Hemigrammus lunatus Durbin 1918. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Brazil (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

maximus, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1876:593 [43], Pl. 7 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] Tullumayo and Monterico, Peru. Syntypes: (several) NMW 57662-63 (1, 2). On p. 43 of separate. •Valid as Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Zarske & Géry 1999:205 [ref. 24913], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745] as cf. maximus, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Peru, Ecuador?, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

meadi, Oligosarcus Menezes [N. A.] 1969:31, 117, Fig. 21 [Arquivos de Zoologia (São Paulo) v. 18 (nos 1-2); ref. 7834] União de Caeté, Minas Gerais, Río das Velhas basin, Uruguay. Holotype: DZSASP 4618. Paratypes: DZSASP 4614-15 (3), 4718-19 (2); MCZ 45859 [ex DZSASP] (2). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:486-487 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Oligosarcus meadi Menezes 1969 -- (Menezes & Géry 1983:589 [ref. 8307]). •Synonym of Oligosarcus argenteus Günther 1864 -- (Menezes 1987:22 [ref. 20060], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:151 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Oligosarcus argenteus Günther 1864. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

meeki, Roeboides Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:163, Pl. 25 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Quibdo, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 55148 [ex CM 3849]. Paratypes: (CM 3849b-x; IU 15032 ("several hundred")). CAS 71125 [ex IU 15032] (12); FMNH 55149 (23), 56375 (24), 56558 (12). Additional material: CM 5192a-g; CAS [ex IU 12938] (30, now 7), CM 5372a-g; IU 13061 (83). Type catalog: Henn 1928:70 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:77 [ref. 12367] as 59 paratypes from 3 localities, but many of these are not types. •Synonym of Roeboides dayi (Steindachner 1878) -- (Lucena 2000:24 [ref. 24559], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Roeboides dayi (Steindachner 1878). Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

megaceps, Hemigrammus Fowler [H. W.] 1945:1, Fig. 3 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 159; ref. 13141] Ninabamba near Ayacucho, Río Ucayali basin, Peru, elevation 1900 meters. Holotype: ANSP 71624. Paratypes: ANSP 71625 (1), 71626 (1, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hemigrammus megaceps Fowler 1945 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Zarske 2015:8 [ref. 33782]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus megaceps Fowler 1945. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Ucayali River basin, Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

megalepis, Bryconamericus Fowler [H. W.] 1941:188, Fig. 98 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69602. Paratypes: ANSP 69603-05 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:51 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Bryconamericus megalepis Fowler 1941 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:117 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus megalepis Fowler 1941. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

megalops, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:29 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Itaituba, rio Tapajós basin, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS 71433 [ex IU 5192]. •Valid as Moenkhausia megalops (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Lucena & Lucena 1999:235 [ref. 24225], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:43 [ref. 28287], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Oliveira & Marinho 2016:573 [ref. 34342], Marinho & Langeani 2016:348 [ref. 34416], Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016:208 [ref. 34837], Soares et al. 2017:256 [ref. 35237], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia megalops (Eigenmann 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Colombia and possibly Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

megalops, Knodus Myers [G. S.] in Eigenmann & Myers 1929:527 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 5); ref. 1263] Río Pichis, Puerto Bermudez, Peru. Holotype (unique): CAS 61845 [ex IU 17668]. •Valid as Knodus megalops Myers 1929 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:143 [ref. 27061], Zarske 2008:169 [ref. 29918], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], Esguícero & Castro 2014:47 [ref. 33506], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Knodus megalops Myers 1929. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

megalopterus, Megalamphodus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:50, Fig. 14; Pl. 7 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57823 [ex CM 6806]. Paratypes: CAS 78887 [ex IU 1362, 14333] (?, missing), FMNH 57824 [ex CM 6807a-b] (orig. 3, now 2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:59 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367]. Species as melanopterus in caption to Fig. 14 (regarded as in error), elsewhere (3 times) as megalopterus. •Valid as Megalamphodus megalopterus Eigenmann 1915 -- (Britski et al. 1999:44 [ref. 24147], Lasso et al. 2001:96 [ref. 25928]). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon megalopterus (Eigenmann 1915) -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:231 [ref. 22743] with comment on locality, Lima & Gerhard 2001:112 [ref. 25355], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061], Malabarba et al. 2012:57 [ref. 31810], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Ohara et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35494], Pastana et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35596]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon megalopterus (Eigenmann 1915). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay and Guaporé River basins: Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

megalostictus, Phenacogaster Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:28 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Tumatumari, Lower Potaro River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53530 [ex CM 1056]. Paratypes: (103) BMNH 1911.10.31.341-343 (3), 1911.10.31.344-345 (2); CAS 48095 [ex IU 11749] (3), 62202 [ex IU 11747] (10, now 2); 62203 [ex IU 11747] (3), 62204 [ex IU 11748] (3), 62205 [ex IU 11750] (2); FMNH 7469 (1), 7568 (2), 52703-04 (5, 5), 53531-34 (1, 1, 1, 1), 69544 (2), 75168 (20); NMW 56564 (2); CAS-SU 21096 (2), 21907 (1); UMMZ 185302 (2); USNM 66276-77 (2, 1); ZMA 100972 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:67 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:26 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:23 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:65 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:33 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Phenacogaster megalostictus Eigenmann 1909 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:295 [ref. 23654] as cf. megalostictus, Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:204 [ref. 27061], Lucena & Gama 2007:152 [ref. 29059], Lucena & Malabarba 2010:265, 300 [ref. 30880], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35679] as megalosticta). •See Planquette et al. 1996:216 [ref. 22818]. Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster megalostictus Eigenmann 1909. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

megalostomus, Hysteronotus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:171, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Rio das Velhas, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54889 [ex CM 3551]. Paratypes: (6, CM) CAS 60471 [ex IU 13171] (4), FMNH 54890 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:68 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:49 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hysteronotus megalostomus Eigenmann 1911 -- (Weitzman & Menezes 1998:186 [ref. 23843], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:225 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Menezes et al. 2016:496 [ref. 34593]). Current status: Valid as Hysteronotus megalostomus Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

megaspilura, Astyanax Fowler [H. W.] 1944:228, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1452] A clear brook of Río Jurubidá, Nuquí, Colombia, elevation 3000 feet. Holotype: ANSP 71418. Paratypes: ANSP 71419-24 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:51 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Astyanax megaspilura Fowler 1944 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax megaspilura Fowler 1944. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

meinkeni, Cheirodon Ahl [E.] 1928:320 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 77 (nos 11/12) (art. 4); ref. 15831] East coast of Brazil, between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. Lectotype: ZMB 20786. Paralectotypes: ZMB 32433 (1). Lectotype selected by Zarske & Géry 1995:109 [ref. 22674] and illustrated in Fig. 6. •Synonym of Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Zarske & Géry 1995:118 [ref. 22674], Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Zarske 2001:15 [ref. 25834], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:19 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

melandetus, Odontostilbe Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:312, Pl. 44 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Guyana. Holotype: CM 1878 (missing from FMNH). Paratypes: CAS 59789 [ex IU 12160] (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:59 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:61 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Aphyocharacidium melandetum (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Planquette et al. 1996:328 [ref. 22818], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocharacidium melandetum (Eigenmann 1912). Characidae: Aphyocharacinae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

melanocheir, Gephyrocharax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:24 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Bernal Creek near Honda, Colombia, 5°12'14.89"N, 74°45'44.32"W, altitude 455 meters. Neotype: FMNH 125572. Paratypes: (30, CM and IU) CAS 44292-93 [ex IU 12696-97] (6, 4); FMNH 56050-51 (6, 4), 69554 (9, now 7, one lost); USNM 79209 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:68 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:39 [ref. 12367]. Holotype FMNH 56049 lost. Neotype designated by Vanegas-Ríos 2016:58 [ref. 34359]. •Valid as Gephyrocharax melanocheir Eigenmann 1912 -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:225 [ref. 27061], Vanegas-Ríos et al. 2013:276 [ref. 32748], Vanegas-Ríos & Phillip 2013:1333 [ref. 34415], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Vanegas-Ríos 2016:52 [ref. 34359], Vanegas-Ríos 2017:6 [ref. 35531], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Gephyrocharax melanocheir Eigenmann 1912. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Magdalena, San Jorge, Ranchería, and Caribbean basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

melanochrous, Hemigrammus Fowler [H. W.] 1913:543, Fig. 12 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Rio Madeira tributary, near Porto Velho, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 39228. Paratypes: ANSP 39229 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:51 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hemigrammus melanochrous Fowler 1913 -- (Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus melanochrous Fowler 1913. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

melanogenys, Glandulocauda Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:168, Pl. 5 (fig. 6) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Município of Santo André, headwaters of rio Tietê, ca. 23°45'S, 46°20'W, Alto da Serra [Campo Grande], São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54891 [ex CM 3553]. Paratypes: (21, CM) CAS 60468 [IU 13287, CM 3554] (2), 60470 [ex IU 13273, CM 3558] (2); FMNH 15025-26 (2), 54892 (18), 54895-96 (1, 2); USNM 177724 [ex FMNH, ex CM 3554] (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:68 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:39 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:23 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Glandulocauda melanogenys Eigenmann 1911 -- (Menezes & Weitzman 1990:384 [ref. 16172], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:225 [ref. 27061], Menezes et al. 2008:38 [ref. 31161]). •Synonym of Glandulocauda melanopleura (Ellis 1911) -- (Menezes & Weitzman 2009:309 [ref. 30495] in Glandulocaudinae). Current status: Synonym of Glandulocauda melanopleura (Ellis 1911). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

melanogramma, Acinocheirodon Malabarba [L. R.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 1999:413, Figs. 1-7 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington No. 112; ref. 24417] Município de Bocaiúva, córrego Cachoeira, tributary to Rio Jequitaí, kilometer 413 of highway BR 135, about 17°28'S, 44°02'W, Rio São Francisco drainage, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 16455. Paratypes: ANSP 16472 (6), 176238 (7); MNRJ 13435 (4); MCP 16472 (6), 18596 (1), 18598 (1); plus non-type material. •Valid as Acinocheirodon melanogramma Malabarba & Weitzman 1999 -- (Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:279 [ref. 24413], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:215 [ref. 27061], Malabarba & Jerep 2014:76 [ref. 33440]). Current status: Valid as Acinocheirodon melanogramma Malabarba & Weitzman 1999. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: São Francisco and Jequitinhonha river basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanopleura, Glandulocauda Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:170, Pl. 5 (fig. 6 or 7) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Rio Iguaçu at Serrinha Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54895 [ex CM 3557]. Paratypes: (5, CM) CAS 60470 (2), USNM 177725 [ex FMNH 54896] (1), FMNH 54896 (3, now 2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:68 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:39 [ref. 12367]. Also appeared in Eigenmann 1911:157, fig. 2 on Pl.3 [ref. 1226]. Secondarily preoccupied in Glandulocauda by Hyphessobrycon melanopleurus Ellis 1911; replaced by Glandulocauda caerulea Meneses & Weitzman 2009. •Valid as Glandulocauda melanopleura Eigenmann 1911 -- (Menezes & Weitzman 1990:384 [ref. 16172], López et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26808], Menezes et al. 2008:38 [ref. 31161], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add.5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Synonym of Glandulocauda caerulea Menezes & Weitzman 2009. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Iguaçu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanopleurus, Hyphessobrycon Ellis [M. D.] 1911:157, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1, art. 2); ref. 1269] Município of Santo André, headwaters of rio Tietê, ca. 23°45'S, 46°20'W, Alto da Serra [Campo Grande], São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54413 [ex CM 3035]. Paratypes: FMNH 54414 [ex CM 3036] (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:65 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:48 [ref. 12367]. Not the same as Glandulocauda melanopleura Eigenmann 1911. See Menezes & Weitzman 2009:316 [ref. 30495] for remarks on the type locality. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon melanopleurus Ellis 1911 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2006:47 [ref. 28750]). •Valid as Glandulocauda melanopleura (Ellis 1911) -- (Menezes & Weitzman 2009:309 [ref. 30495] in Glandulocaudinae, Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Glandulocauda melanopleura (Ellis 1911). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Tietê River basin and adjoining coastal rivers, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanostichos, Hyphessobrycon Carvalho [T. P.] & Bertaco [V. A.] 2006:302, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 28812] Rio Doze de Outubro on road BR 364 between Comorodo and Vilhena, 12°58'39"S, 60°00'30"W, Comodoro, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 39510. Paratypes: MCP 38396 (203, 3 c&s), MZUSP 89646 (25). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon melanostichos Carvalho & Bertaco 2006 -- (Bertaco et al. 2007:248 [ref. 29277], García-Alzate et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29671] as malanostichos, García-Alzate et al. 2013:861 [ref. 32692], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Marinho et al. 2014:263 [ref. 33372], Dagosta et al. 2016:258 [ref. 34377], Ohara et al. 2017:249 [ref. 35067], García-Alzate et al. 2017:127 [ref. 35253]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon melanostichos Carvalho & Bertaco 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Doze de Outubro River, headwaters of Tapajós River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanostigma, Saccoderma Schultz [L. P.] 1944:315, Figs. 40-41 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río San Juan near bridge, southern of Mene Grande, Motatán system, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121519. Paratypes: MCZ 37296 [ex USNM 121525] (4); MHNG [ex USNM 121528] (4), UMMZ 145025 [ex USNM 121530]; CAS-SU 18145 [ex USNM 121528] (6, missing); USNM 121520-24 (5, 44, 24, 3, 3), 121525 (orig. 23, now 19), 121526-27 (7, 4), 121528 (orig. 108, now 98), 121529 (9), 121530 (orig. 4, now 0); ZMA 114669 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:26 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:24 [ref. 19236], Vari & Howe 1991:38-39 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Saccoderma melanostigma Schultz 1944 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:53 [ref. 23651], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:219 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Saccoderma melanostigma Schultz 1944. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

melanotus, Aphyocharax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:312 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Rockstone sand-bank, Guyana. Holotype (unique): FMNH 53578 [ex CM 1877]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:58 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:10 [ref. 12367]. •Valid, placement uncertain -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:238 [ref. 22743]). •Valid as Microschemobrycon melanotus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:145 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35633], Ohara et al. 2019:333 [ref. 36615]). Current status: Valid as Microschemobrycon melanotus (Eigenmann 1912). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Orinoco, Essequibo, Purus and Solimões River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

melanotus, Prodontocharax Pearson [N. E.] 1924:36, Fig. 4; Pl. 12 (figs. 1-2) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Tumupasa, 30 miles northwest of Rurrenabaque, Bolivia, elevation about 1000 feet. Lectotype: CAS 59793 [ex IU 17331]. Paralectotypes: (should be 55) CAS 59794 [ex IU 17332] (2), 208888 (28); CAS-SU 17471 (6, 1 c&s); UMMZ 66491 (12). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:26 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke 1953:660 [ref. 10330] as lecto-holotype. •Valid as Prodontocharax melanotus Pearson 1924 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:531 [ref. 31006], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Netto-Ferreira & Vari 2017:373 [ref. 35453]). Current status: Valid as Prodontocharax melanotus Pearson 1924. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Beni, Itenez and upper Madre de Dios River basins: Bolivia, Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

melanura, Hasemania Ellis [M. D.] 1911:149, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1, art. 2); ref. 1269] Rio Iguaçu at Porto União, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54384 [ex CM 3002]. Paratypes: (49) CAS 44315 [ex IU 13292, CM 3003] (8), FMNH 54385 (39). Type catalog: Henn 1928:64 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hasemania melanura Ellis 1911 -- (Zarske & Géry 1999:95 [ref. 23982], López et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26808], Pavanelli in Reis et al. 2003:129 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Malabarba 2007:350 [ref. 29142], Zanata & Serra 2010:21 [ref. 30751], Serra & Langeani 2015:485 [ref. 33944]). Current status: Valid as Hasemania melanura Ellis 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Iguaçu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanzonus, Creagrutus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:30 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Crab Falls, Essequibo River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52705 [ex CM 1067]. Paratypes: (5, CM and IU) CAS 30421-22 [ex IU 11753-54] (1, 2), FMNH 51706-07 (1, 1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:63 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:28 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Creagrutus melanzonus Eigenmann 1909 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:324 [ref. 22818], Vari & Harold 2001:146 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:124 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35679], Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018:352 [ref. 36150]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus melanzonus Eigenmann 1909. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Cuyani River of eastern Venezuela to Sinnamary River basin French Guiana: French Guiana, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

melasemeion, Hyphessobrycon Fowler [H. W.] 1945:57, Fig. [The Fish Culturist v. 24 (no. 8); ref. 19306] Locality unknown (supposed to be lower Amazon). Holotype (unique): ANSP 71584. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:51 [ref. 13621]. •Status uncertain -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:234 [ref. 22743]). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon melasemeion Fowler 1945 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon melasemeion Fowler 1945. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil (?). Habitat: freshwater.

melasma, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.], Harold [A. S.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 1994:91, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 107 (no. 1); ref. 21268] Río Orituco, first bridge along road from Santa Teresa to Altagracia, Parque Nacional Guatopo, Guarico, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-22198. Paratypes: ANSP 134171 (48); CAS 79622 (10); INHS 60021 (10); MBUCV-V-21257 (74 not 56), V-24020 (2); MCNG 15354 (56), 24622 (34); MHNLS 503 (6); USNM 219615-6 (3, 1). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:269 [ref. 23225], Lasso et al. 1997:42 [ref. 23639], Provenzano et al. 1998:6 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Creagrutus melasma Vari, Harold & Taphorn 1994 -- (Vari & Harold 2001:149 [ref. 25842], Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:124 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento 2016:529 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus melasma Vari, Harold & Taphorn 1994. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin and Tuy and Neveri rivers of Caribbean Sea versant, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

melasopterus, Hemigrammus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:518 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] Aguada, near Arroyo Trementina, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 44381 [ex IU 10039]. Paratypes: (6) AMNH 1035 (1), CAS 44382 [ex IU 10040] (1), CAS [ex IU 10041] (orig. 5, not found); FMNH 52668 (2); ZMB 17147 (2). The spelling melasopterus possibly in error for melanopterus. •Synonym of Hyphessobrycon eques (Steindachner 1882) -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:224 [ref. 22743], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:148 [ref. 24509], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:15 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Hyphessobrycon eques (Steindachner 1882). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

melazonatus, Hyphessobrycon Durbin [M. L.] in Eigenmann 1908:101 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Lago do Maximo, near Parintins, Amazonas, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 20737. Paralectotypes: MCZ 21069 (1). Author is M. L. Durbin. Lectotype established by Eigenmann 1918:196. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon melazonatus Durbin 1908 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon melazonatus Durbin 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

melogrammus, Moenkhausia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:102 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 20825. •Valid as Moenkhausia melogramma Eigenmann 1908 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:9 [ref. 9708], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:148 [ref. 27061], Géry & Zarske 2004:43 [ref. 28287], Barriga S. 2014:108 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia melogramma Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

menezesi, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:153, Figs. 63-64 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Rio Tocantins basin, Ribeirão Paranoa do Meio, at road crossing 11 air kilometers north northeast of Formosa, about 15°25'S, 47°18'W, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 50544. Paratypes: MNRJ 12614 (8), 17333 (10), 17338 (11); MZUSP 50545 (8); USNM 292229 (11, 2 c&s), 350456 [in part ex MNRJ 16566] (10), 350456 [in part ex MNRJ 16562] (5). •Valid as Creagrutus menezesi Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:124 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus menezesi Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Tocans River basin and tentatively Bronco and Negro River near mouth of Branco, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

menezesi, Oligosarcus Miquelarena [A. M.] & Protogino [L. C.] 1996:112, Fig. [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) No. 80; ref. 23181] Upper Urugua-í creek, upper Río Paraná system, Misiones, Argentina, 25°57'S, 54°07'W. Holotype: ILPLA 299. Paratypes: ILPLA 300-306 (2, 1, 2, now 3, 1, 4, 4), MZUSP 48000-02 (3, 2, 3); MLP 10486 (3). Type catalog: Koerber 2007:1 [ref. 29776], Miquelarena et al. 2009:78-80 [ref. 34389], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:10 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Oligosarcus menezesi Miquelarena & Protogino 1996 -- (Miquelarena et al. 1997:68 [ref. 23469], López et al. 2002:61 [ref. 26808], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:152 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:74 [ref. 28131], Ribeiro et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29321], Almirón et al. 2015:589 [ref. 33673], Ribeiro & Menezes 2015:78 [ref. 33768], Mirande & Koerber 2015:25 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Oligosarcus menezesi Miquelarena & Protogino 1996. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

mennii, Bryconamericus Miquelarena [A. M.], Protogino [L. C.], Filiberto [R.] & López [H. L.] 2002:71, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 26517] Cuña-Pirú creek, 27°10'S, 54°57'W, Depto Cainguás, Misiones Province, Argentina. Holotype: ILPLA 1251. Paratypes: ILPLA 1060 (4), 1164 (5), 1165 (5), 1166 (12), 1329 (12, c&s), 1330 (7); MLP 9768 (2). Type catalog: Koerber 2007:2 [ref. 29776], Miquelarena et al. 2009:54-55 [ref. 34389], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:7 [ref. 33466] as menni.. •Valid as Bryconamericus mennii Miquelarena, Protogino, Filiberto & López 2002 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:117 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27366], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:582 [ref. 27482], Casciotta et al. 2004:64 [ref. 27664], da Silva 2004:55 [ref. 27870] as menni, Almirón et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27986], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Langeani et al. 2005:389 [ref. 28234], Mirande 2010:538 [ref. 31006], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Mirande & Koerber 2015:21 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus mennii Miquelarena, Protogino, Filiberto & López 2002. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Tributaries of lower Paraná River in Misiones Province, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

meridae, Knodus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:216 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 7 (no. 38) (art. 24); ref. 1225] Merida, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.5.29.148. •Valid as Bryconamericus meridae (Eigenmann 1911) -- (Galvis et al. 1997:42 [ref. 23651], Román-Valencia 2002:209 [ref. 27206], Román-Valencia 2003:7 [ref. 27070], Román-Valencia 2003:482 [ref. 27478], Román-Valencia 2005:58 [ref. 28949], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:24 [ref. 29743], Román-Valencia et al. 2009:2 [ref. 30393], Román-Valencia 2010:201 [ref. 31063]). •Valid as Knodus meridae Eigenmann 1911 -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:143 [ref. 27061], Ferreira & Lima 2006:635 [ref. 28919], Baicere-Silva et al. 2011:382 [ref. 31395], Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira 2010:470 [ref. 30882], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:129 [ref. 32807], Esguícero & Castro 2014:47 [ref. 33506], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Knodus meridae Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

meridionalis, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:157, Fig. 65 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Ribeirão Chiqueirão, tributary of Rio Jangada that drains into the Rio Cuiabá, about 21 kilometers west of Jangada on road to Barra do Bugres, Município de Jangada, Mato Brosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 50546. Paratypes: FML 2527 (1), MCP 18738 (13), MNHNP 2999 (13), MZUSP 50547 (12, 1 c&s), NRM 22619 (20), USNM 341363 (12, 2 c&s). •Valid as Creagrutus meridionalis Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:124 [ref. 27061], Baicere-Silva et al. 2011:381 [ref. 31395], Dagosta & Pastana 2014:581 [ref. 33181], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Koerber et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus meridionalis Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin in Mato Grosso State and eastern tributaries to Paraguay River: Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

meridionalis, Hyphessobrycon Ringuelet [R. A.], Miquelarena [A. M.] & Menni [R. C.] 1978:248, Figs. 2-3 [Limnobios (La Plata) v. 1 (no. 7); ref. 8888] Canal Delgado, Rio de La Plata, Los Talas, Argentina. Holotype: MLP 8339 [ex ILPLA 30.3.77.1]. Paratypes: MLP 8340 [ex ILPLA 30.3.77.2] (9). Type catalog: Koerber 2007:1 [ref. 29776], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:7 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon meridionalis Ringuelet, Miquelarena & Menni 1978 -- (Malabarba 1989:135 [ref. 14217], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Almirón et al. 2004:674 [ref. 27987], Almirón et al. 2006:895 [ref. 29163], Miquelarena & López 2010:6 [ref. 30749], Litz & Koerber 2014:16 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:26 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon meridionalis Ringuelet, Miquelarena & Menni 1978. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lower Paraná River and coastal river basins of Rio Grande do Sul State: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

metae, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:11 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Río Negro at Villavicencio, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56640 [ex CM 5457]. Paratypes: CAS 39229 [ex IU 13153] (4), FMNH 56641 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:61 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Astyanax metae Eigenmann 1914 -- (Taphorn 1992:116 [ref. 23654], Marín 2000:66 [ref. 26252]). •Synonym of Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061] with question). •Valid as Astyanax metae Eigenmann 1914 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax metae Eigenmann 1914. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

metae, Charax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:238, Pl. 25 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Barrigón, Río Meta, Orinoco System, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 41300 [ex IU 15027]. Paratypes: FMNH 55145 (10); CAS 69117 [ex IU 15027] (30 or 34, now 16); CAS-SU 60707 [ex IU 15028] (8); UMMZ 160226 (1); USNM 83631 [ex IU 15027] (4). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:13 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Charax metae Eigenmann 1922 -- (Lucena 1987:44 [ref. 17724], Lucena 1989:104 [ref. 12852], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:201 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Lucena 2014:211 [ref. 33369], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Charax metae Eigenmann 1922. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Meta River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

metae, Hemibrycon Myers [G. S.] 1930:68 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 43; ref. 12360] Guaicaramo, at junction of Río Guavio and Río Upía, Colombia. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 23727. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:24 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Hemibrycon metae Myers 1930 -- (Taphorn 1992:197 [ref. 23654], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:130 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007:129 [ref. 29189], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2008:74 [ref. 29744], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009:78 [ref. 30718], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2010:340 [ref. 30721], Bertaco & Malabarba 2010:752 [ref. 31076], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:119 [ref. 33572], García-Alzate et al. 2015:90 [ref. 33838], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35773], Román-Valencia et al. 2018:40 [ref. 36348]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon metae Myers 1930. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Southern flank of the Andean Orinoco River basin, Colombia, and Orinoco River and Caribbean basins, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

metae, Hyphessobrycon Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] 1914:233 [Indiana University Studies v. 2 (no. 24); ref. 11067] Barrigona, Río Meta, Orinoco system, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 61751 [ex IU 13421]. Paratypes: (66) CAS 61752 (62). •Valid as Hyphessobrycon metae Eigenmann & Henn 1914 -- (Taphorn 1992:242 [ref. 23654], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061], García-Alzate & Román-Valencia 2008:14 [ref. 30008], García-Alzate et al. 2010:39 [ref. 30724], García-Alzate et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30716], García-Alzate et al. 2010:456 [ref. 31066], García-Alzate et al. 2011:709 [ref. 31266], Carvalho & Langeani 2013:526 [ref. 32913], Lima et al. 2014:177 [ref. 33535], Ohara & Lima 2015:570 [ref. 33846], García-Alzate et al. 2015:223 [ref. 33855], Zarske 2015:295 [ref. 34028], Marinho et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34376], Dagosta et al. 2016:258 [ref. 34377], Marinho et al. 2016:519 [ref. 34591], Zarske 2016:110 [ref. 34774], García-Alzate et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35253], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:87 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon metae Eigenmann & Henn 1914. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Oronico River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

metae, Moenkhausia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:234, Pl. 34 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Barrigón, Río Meta, Orinoco System, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 55610 [ex IU 15026a]. Paratypes: (20) CAS 55609 [ex IU 15026] (now 8), CAS 55608 [ex IU 13951] (6), FMNH 55214 (4). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:57 [ref. 12367]. Also appeared at same time in Eigenmann 1922:167 [ref. 12408]. •Valid as Moenkhausia metae Eigenmann 1922 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:149 [ref. 27061], Bertaco et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31234], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia metae Eigenmann 1922. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Meta River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

metae, Tyttocharax Román-Valencia [C.], García-Alzate [C. A.], Ruiz-C. [R. I.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2012:520, Figs. 1-6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 32203] Arroyo Pringamosal, tributary of arroyo Blanco, 500 meters below Palestina School, 3°05'22"N, 73°49'27"W, río Güejar system, río Orinico basin, Vista Hermosa near Palestina, Meta, Colombia, elevation 240 meters. Holotype: IUQ 2581. Paratypes: many at AUM, IUQ, MPUJ. •Valid as Tyttocharax metae Román-Valencia, García-Alzate, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn 2012 -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Tyttocharax metae Román-Valencia, García-Alzate, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn 2012. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Güejar system, río Orinoco basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

meunieri, Astyanax Géry [J.], Planquette [P.] & Le Bail [P.-Y.] 1996:21, Pl. 2b [Cybium v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 22155] Approuague, Arataye River at Japigny Fall, Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 1995-1086. Paratypes: IRSNB uncat. (5); Géry coll. 987.1-19 (25), 987.26-29 (4); MHNG 2182.98-99 (2, 1); MNHN 1996-0104 (4), 1996-0105 to 0109 (5, 8, 10, 2, 1), 1996-0117 (3); MNRJ uncat. (5); MTD F 17009-13 (5); RMNH uncat. (6); RMNH uncat. (18, 5). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:15 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Astyanax meunieri Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:260 [ref. 22818]). •Valid as Jupiaba meunieri (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996) -- (Zanata 1997:127 [ref. 24112], Keith et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24547], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Lima 2005:273 [ref. 28235], Pereira & Lucinda 2007:54 [ref. 29302], Birindelli et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30143], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30519], Melo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34701]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba meunieri (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Coastal rivers of French Guiana, Brazil and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

mexicanus, Tetragonopterus De Filippi [F.] 1853:166 [3] [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 5; ref. 17378] A lake near Mexico [probably Lake Tequesquitengo, Pacific drainage, Mexico]. Lectotype: ZMUC 941. Paralectotypes: MZUT 159 (3), ZMUC 942 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:138 [ref. 21559], Nielsen 1974:46 [ref. 9588]. On p. 3 of separate. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1391 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus [complex] (Cuvier 1819) -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:22 [ref. 26040]). •Valid as Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Lee et al. 1980:139 [ref. 22416], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:75 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:62 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:25 [ref. 22290], Bussing 1998:80 [ref. 24179], Fuller et al. 1999:180 [ref. 25838], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:80 [ref. 27807], Panaram & Borowsky 2005:409 [ref. 28248], Miller 2006:156 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2006:13 [ref. 30386], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333], Bussing 2009:1361 [ref. 30066], Minckley & Marsh 2009:103 [ref. 31114], Mirande 2010:515 [ref. 31006], Page & Burr 2011:340 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708], Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1389 [ref. 35414], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Balsas River basin, Armería River and other adjacent smaller drainages in Colima, Jalisco, Morelos and Guerrero, Pacific Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

meyburgi, Microschemobrycon Meinken [H.] 1975:217, Figs. 1-2 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 56 (nos 4/6); ref. 21936] Rio Xeriuini, Brazil. Holotype: SMF 12271. Paratypes: MZUSP 48131 [ex SMF 12272] (4), SMF 12272 (orig. 19, now 14). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:480 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Microschemobrycon meyburgi Meinken 1975 -- (Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:145 [ref. 27061], Ohara et al. 2019:333 [ref. 36615]). Current status: Valid as Microschemobrycon meyburgi Meinken 1975. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Branco River drainage, Negro River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

miangi, Moenkhausia Steindachner [F.] 1915:43 [29], Pl. 3 (fig. 5) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Miang, on the Venezuela border. Syntypes: (10) NMW 56297-300 (1, 2, 9, 1). On p. 29 of separate; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. •Valid as Moenkhausia miangi Steindachner 1915 -- (Benine in Reis et al. 2003:149 [ref. 27061], Bertaco et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31234]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia miangi Steindachner 1915. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Branco and upper Caroni River basins: Brazil and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

michaeli, Charax Lucena [C. A. S. de] 1989:98, Fig. 2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 15 (no. 4) [1988]; ref. 12852] Rio Branco (in front of Ile de Maraca), Igarapé do Cujobim, Roraima, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 37276. Paratypes: MCP 11254 (4); MZUSP 33417 (20), 33420 (5), 33425 (6). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:455 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Charax michaeli Lucena 1989 -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:201 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745] as cf. michaeli, Menezes & Lucena 2014:212 [ref. 33369], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Charax michaeli Lucena 1989. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador? and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

microcephalus, Astyanax Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1908:[3] [Kosmos, Rio de Janeiro [Rev. Art. Sci. Litt.] v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1907); ref. 3715] Rio Bethary [Betari], tributary of Rio Ribeira, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 2576A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 2576 (1). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1953:396 [ref. 12732]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:396 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]; same specimen also selected by Bizerril & Perez-Neto 1995:15 [ref. 22473]. •Valid as Bryconamericus microcephalus (Miranda Ribeiro 1908) -- (Bizerril & Perez-Neto 1995:15 [ref. 22473], Román-Valencia 2003:24 [ref. 26840], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:117 [ref. 27061], da Silva 2004:55 [ref. 27870], Langeani et al. 2005:389 [ref. 28234], Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015:440 [ref. 33665], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus microcephalus (Miranda Ribeiro 1908). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

microcephalus, Odontostilbe Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:10 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Río Pilcomayo, La Plata system, Bolivia. Holotype: CAS 59790 [ex IU 11086]. Paratypes: CAS 59791 [ex IU 11086a] (1). •Valid as Odontostilbe microcephala Eigenmann 1907 -- (Casciotta et al. 1992:14 [ref. 21059] as microcephalus, Gómez & Chebez 1996:51 [ref. 23791], Butí & Cancino 1999:72 [ref. 25277] as microcephalus, Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:78 [ref. 28131], Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:193 [ref. 28728], Miquelarena et al. 2008:82 [ref. 29829], Mirande 2010:532 [ref. 31006], Litz & Koerber 2014:12 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:19 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:30 [ref. 35267], Chuctaya et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35862]). Current status: Valid as Odontostilbe microcephala Eigenmann 1907. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: La Plata River basin: Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

microdon, Cheirodon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:80, Fig. 29; Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] Cáceres, Upper Rio Paraguay, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57867 [ex CM 6850]. Paratypes: CAS 59783 [ex IU 14107, CM 6851] (1), FMNH 57868 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:58 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:23 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Odontostilbe microdon (Eigenmann 1915) -- (Britski et al. 1999:47 [ref. 24147]). •Valid as Cheirodon microdon Eigenmann 1915 -- (Jerep & Malabarba 2014:307 [ref. 33376], Malabarba & Jerep 2014:58 [ref. 33440], Jerep et al. 2016:296 [ref. 34362]). •Valid as Serrapinnus microdon (Eigenmann 1915) -- (Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:429 [ref. 24417], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:219 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:78 [ref. 28131], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:19 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:31 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Serrapinnus microdon (Eigenmann 1915). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

microformaa, Hemibrycon Román-Valencia [C.] & Ruiz-C. [R. I.] 2007:122, Figs. 1-4 [Caldasia v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 29189] Certegui, Cuenca alta del Río Atrato, río Chintadó, 100 meters abajo del puente en la vía Yuto-Certegui, Chocó, Colombia. Holotype: IUQ 510. Paratypes: IUQ 511 (7), 512 (1), 513 (2), 514 (4); MTD F 27628 (1). •Valid as Hemibrycon microformaa Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007 -- (Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2008:74 [ref. 29744], Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009:80 [ref. 30718], Román-Valencia et al. 2014:120 [ref. 33572], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon microformaa Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Atrato River, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Acanthocharax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:405, Pl. 61 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Tumatumari, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 54475 [ex CM 2138]. Paratypes: (68) BMNH 1911.10.31.434-436 (3); CAS 38547-49 [ex IU 12315-17] (10, 1, 5); FMNH 7510 (2), 53666 (10, 1 c&s), 53667-68 (2, 5), 69706 (3), 75144 (9); CAS-SU 21935 (2); MCZ 30116 (2); NMW 67140 (2); USNM 66109 [ex CM] (1); ZMA 110658 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:69 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:21 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:13 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:4 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:4 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Acanthocharax microlepis Eigenmann 1912 -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:200 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Acanthocharax microlepis Eigenmann 1912. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:24 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Piedra Moler, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56209 [ex CM 5001]. Paratypes: (numerous, CM and IU) CAS 39341-45 [ex IU 12769-73] (2, 33, 12, 10, 40); FMNH 56210-14 (2, 36, 10, 9, 44), 69559-61 (77, 101, 100), 71291 (137), 95006 (87); USNM 79167 (4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:61 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:7 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax microlepis Eigenmann 1913 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Torres-Mejia et al. 2012:505 [ref. 32312], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax microlepis Eigenmann 1913. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Epicyrtus Reinhardt [J. T.] 1851:46 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1849 (nos 3-5); ref. 3692] River Paraguay, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN A-8657 (dry). See Britski et al. 1999:53 [ref. 24147]. •Valid as Roeboides microlepis (Reinhardt 1851) -- (Lucena 1988:33 [ref. 22126], Lucena 2000:155 [ref. 25162], Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:206 [ref. 27061], Lucena 2003:295 [ref. 27452], Mirande 2010:494 [ref. 31006], Koerber 2011:2 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:3 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:51, 185 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:18 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Koerber et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Roeboides microlepis (Reinhardt 1851). Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: River Paraguay and River Paraná: Brazil, Bolivia (needs confirmation), Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Epicyrtus Kner [R.] 1858:167 [7] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 32 (no. 22); ref. 18871] Brazil. No types known. Also appeared in Kner 1860:47 [p. 9 in separate], Pl. 6 (fig. 13) [ref. 7130]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Epicyrtus microlpeis Reinhardt 1851. Characidae: Characinae. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Paragoniates Steindachner [F.] 1877:591 [33] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Brooks near Rio de Janeiro, Rio dos Macacos, probably at Macacu, ca. 22°26'S, 42°49'W, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 56534. Paralectotypes: (several) NMW 56534:1 (1). On p. 33 of separate. Lectotype apparently selected by Menezes & Weitzman 2009:364 [ref. 30495]. •Valid as Paragoniates microlepis Steindachner 1877 -- (Menezes & Weitzman 1990:386 [ref. 16172]). •Valid as Mimagoniates microlepis (Steindachner 1877) -- (Weitzman et al. 1996:186 [ref. 24771], Weitzman et al. 1996:201 [ref. 24773], Malabarba & Weitzman 1999:422 [ref. 24417], Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:279 [ref. 24413], López et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26808], Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:226 [ref. 27061] dated 1876, Menezes et al. 2008:38 [ref. 31161], Menezes & Weitzman 2009:355 [ref. 30495], Mantinian & Miquelarena 2010:416 [ref. 30959], Azpelicueta & Koerber 2012:784 [ref. 32131], Thomaz et al. 2015: Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34966]). Current status: Valid as Mimagoniates microlepis (Steindachner 1877). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Coastal areas, southern Bahia to northern Rio Grande do Sul states and adjacent basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

microphthalmus, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1864:324 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio Rímac, Peru; Lago de Amatitlán, Guatemala; Pacific coast of Guatemala. Syntypes: (9) BMNH 1863.2.3.8-12 (5) Rio Rimac, ?1864.1.26.349-350 (2) Panama or Guatemala, ?1865.4.29.43-44 (2) Lake Amatilán. Loality as Panama or Guatemala ('Pacific coast of Guatemala' according to Günther 1864:324 [ref. 1974], but 'Pacific coast of Panama' according to jar label and register entry). The Peru syntypes were reidentified as Bryconamericus peruanus (Müller & Troschel 1845) (J. Maclaine, personal communication, Aug. 2009). Lectotype designation is desirable. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698] with question). •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1352 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

micropterus, Cheirodon Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:9 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS 59780 [ex IU 11092]. •Valid as Serrapinnus micropterus (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:219 [ref. 27061], Jerep & Malabarba 2014:307 [ref. 33376], Malabarba & Jerep 2014:58 [ref. 33440], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004]). •Valid as Cheirodon micropterus Eigenmann 1907 -- (Jerep et al. 2016:296 [ref. 34362]). Current status: Valid as Cheirodon micropterus Eigenmann 1907. Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

micropterus, Hemigrammus Meek [S. E.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:15 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Los Castillos, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): CAS 44438 [ex IU 10802]. •Valid as Hemigrammus micropterus Meek 1907 -- (Taphorn 1992:212 [ref. 23654], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061], Marinho et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29547], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:87 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus micropterus Meek 1907. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

micropterus, Megalamphodus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:54, Fig. 16; Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] Rio São Francisco at Lagoa do Porto, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57916 [ex CM 6900a]. Paratypes: (62) CAS [ex IU 14122; CM 6901] (3, missing), CAS 98918 [ex IU 14123; CM 6903] (6), FMNH 57917-20 (14, 9, 25, 1), CAS-SU 17514 [ex CM 6903] (5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:59 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:25 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon micropterus (Eigenmann 1915) -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:232 [ref. 22743], Lima & Gerhard 2001:110 [ref. 25355], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Camelier 2010:776 [ref. 31077], Dagosta et al. 2014:373 [ref. 33382], Bragança et al. 2015:260 [ref. 34051], Pastana et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35596], Zanata et al. 2018:[11] [ref. 35863], Guimarães et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35965]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon micropterus (Eigenmann 1915). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

microschemos, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2006:54, Figs. 2-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 28628] Córrego Palmital, rio Itapemirim drainage, Iúna, Espírito Santo, Brazil, about 20°21'S, 41°31'W. Holotype: MCP 37569. Paratypes: MCP 34366 (31, 3 c&s) •Valid as Astyanax microschemos Bertaco & Lucena 2006 -- (Abilhoa & Duboc 2007:45 [ref. 29285], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35587], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax microschemos Bertaco & Lucena 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Córrego Palmital, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

microstictus, Phenacogaster Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:30 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Tumatumari, Lower Potaro River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52970 [ex CM 1063]. Paratypes: (12, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.340 (1); CAS 62270-71 (3, 1); FMNH 52971-73 (3, 1, 1); MCZ 29953 (1), 29955-56 (2, 1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:67 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:65 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Phenacogaster microstictus Eigenmann 1909 -- (Lucena & Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:204 [ref. 27061], Lucena & Gama 2007:152 [ref. 29059], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35679] as microsticta). Current status: Valid as Phenacogaster microstictus Eigenmann 1909. Characidae: Characinae. Distribution: Essequibo and Demerara River basins: Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

microstoma, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1864:323 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: (at least 15) BMNH, ZMB 4836 (?). •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Habitat: freshwater.

microstomus, Hemigrammus Durbin [M. L.] in Eigenmann 1918:165 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 2); ref. 1240] Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 20782 (1 of 9). Paratypes: CAS 42680 [ex IU 12650 & MCZ 20782-3] (2); MCZ 20782 (8 mixed with holotype), 20783 (orig. 10), 20840 (5); USNM 120267 [ex MCZ 20782] (3). Additional original material: CAS 42681 [ex IU 13274 & CM 2944] (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:25 [ref. 19022]. Author is M. L. Durbin. First mentioned in Eigenmann 1910:436 [ref. 1224] without description. •Valid as Hemigrammus microstomus Durbin 1918 -- (Taphorn 1992:215 [ref. 23654], Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus microstomus Durbin 1918. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

microstomus, Oligobrycon Eigenmann [C. H.] 1915:57, Fig. 17; Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1231] Rio Parahyba at Jacarehy, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57913 [ex CM 6898]. Paratypes: FMNH 57914 [CM 6899a] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:59 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:62 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Oligobrycon microstomus Eigenmann 1915 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:151 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Oligobrycon microstomus Eigenmann 1915. Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Upper and middle Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mikia, Moenkhausia Marinho [M. M. F.] & Langeani [F.] 2010:58, Figs. 1-5 [Zootaxa No. 2577; ref. 30941] Rio Tiquié, rio Negro drainage, igapó at Jabuti village, Amazonas, Brazil, 0°16'31.9"N, 69°53'36.4"W. Holotype: MZUSP 85166. Paratypes: DZSJPR, MNRG, MPEG, MZUSP. Plus many non-type specimens. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:442 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Moenkhausia mikia Marinho & Langeani 2010 -- (Oliveira & Marinho 2016:573 [ref. 34342], Marinho & Langeani 2016:348 [ref. 34416], Soares et al. 2017:262 [ref. 35237], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia mikia Marinho & Langeani 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

mikrostiktos, Hemibrycon Bertaco [V. A.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2010:754, Figs. 16-17 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 4); ref. 31076] Río Aguaytía, río Negro, upper río Ucayali basin, Aguaytía, Padre Abad, Ucayali, Peru, 9°02'34"S, 75°30'45"W. Holotype: MUSM 35490. Paratypes: MCP 44521 (10, 3 c&s), MUSM 15845 (187), UFRGS 12003 (10). •Valid as Hemibrycon mikrostiktos Bertaco & Malabarba 2010 -- (Román-Valencia et al. 2014:120 [ref. 33572], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Hemibrycon mikrostiktos Bertaco & Malabarba 2010. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper río Ucayali drainage, Ucayali. Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

milleri, Hyphessobrycon compressus Durbin [M. L.] in Eigenmann 1908:100 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Los Amates, Zacapa, Río Motagua drainage, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): CAS 70155. Author is M. L. Durbin. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon milleri Durbin 1908 -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:226 [ref. 22743], Almirón & Casciotta 1999:344 [ref. 24405], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061], Malabarba et al. 2012:58 [ref. 31810], Dagosta et al. 2014:366 [ref. 33382]). •Synonym of Hyphessobrycon compressus (Meek 1904) -- (Carvalho & Malabarba 2015:514 [ref. 34032]). Current status: Synonym of Hyphessobrycon compressus (Meek 1904). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Motagua River basin, Guatemala (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

mimus, Hemigrammus Böhlke [J. E.] 1955:229, Fig. 2 [Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science v. 58 (no. 2); ref. 12265] Camanáos on the Rio Negro, about 0°10'S, 66°55'W, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 47759. Paratypes: CAS-SU 47760 (1). •Valid as Hemigrammus mimus Böhlke 1955 -- (Taphorn 1992:218 [ref. 23654] as cf. mimus, Lima & Oyakawa in Reis et al. 2003:132-133 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2007:13 [ref. 29231], Carvalho et al. 2010:253 [ref. 30862], Mendonça & Wosiacki 2011:214 [ref. 31415], Ota et al. 2014:278 [ref. 33373], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammus mimus Böhlke 1955. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Middle Negro and Amazon river basins; upper Orinoco River basin: Brazil and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

minimus, Hyphessobrycon Durbin [M. L.] 1909:68 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1166] Cane Grove Corner, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52794 [ex CM 1193]. Paratypes: CAS 61753 [ex IU 11769] (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:65 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:48 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon minimus Durbin 1909 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061], Dagosta et al. 2014:366 [ref. 33382], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon minimus Durbin 1909. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Guyana and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

minor, Astyanax Garavello [J. C.] & Sampaio [F. A. A.] 2010:854, Fig. 5 [Brazilian Journal of Biology v. 70 (no. 3); ref. 31053] Rio Mato Grande, Águas Claras, Piraquara, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MHNCI 3028. Paratypes: many at FMNH, LISDEBE, MHNCI, MZUSP. •Valid as Astyanax minor Garavello & Sampaio 2010 -- (da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax minor Garavello & Sampaio 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Iguaçu basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

minor, Deuterodon Travassos [H.] 1964:539, Figs. 1-4 [Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciéncias v. 36 (no. 4); ref. 3712] Río Cachimbo, Cachimbo, Aeroporto da FAB, 9°22'S, 54°5'W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 9172. Paratypes: MNRJ 9170 (1, c&s), 9171 (1, 1), 9173 (1 c&s), 9164-65 (1, 1). •Mention -- (Géry et al. 1996:10 [ref. 22155]). •Valid as Jupiaba minor (Travassos 1964) -- (Zanata 1997:127 [ref. 24112], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27061], Zanata & Lima 2005:273 [ref. 28235], Pereira & Lucinda 2007:54 [ref. 29302], Birindelli et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30143], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2009:64 [ref. 30519]). Current status: Valid as Jupiaba minor (Travassos 1964). Characidae: Characids incertae sedis. Distribution: Cachimbo River basin, Pará State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

minor, Hyphessobrycon Durbin [M. L.] 1909:65 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1166] Pool at mouth of Konawaruk River, Konawaruk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52789 [ex CM 1189] (missing). Paratypes: BMNH 1911.10.31.409 (1), CAS 61754 [ex IU 11767] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:65 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:48 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon minor Durbin 1909 -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:229 [ref. 22743], Weitzman & Palmer 1997:145 [ref. 24509], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[9] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon minor Durbin 1909. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

minor, Rhoadsia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] 1914:231 [Indiana University Studies v. 2 (no. 24); ref. 11067] Mindo, Pichincha Province, western Ecuador, elevation 4000 feet (about 1260 meters). Holotype: CAS 62221 [ex IU 13419]. Paratypes: (91) CAS 32457 [ex IU 13420] (95). •Valid as Rhoadsia minor Eigenmann & Henn 1914 -- (Cardoso in Reis et al. 2003:214 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:157 [ref. 34894], Aguirre et al. 2016:555 [ref. 34674]). Current status: Valid as Rhoadsia minor Eigenmann & Henn 1914. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Pacific drainage basins in western Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Hemigrammus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1912:67 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 6); ref. 10934] Río Agua Clara, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7572 (missing). Paratypes: ?CAS 61473 [IU 14003 & USNM 78628] (2), FMNH 12739-770 (32), 12771-75 (1, 1, 3, 15, 16), 32029-31 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:45 [ref. 12367]; holotype missing or mixed with paratypes. •Synonym of Hyphessobrycon panamensis Durbin 1908 -- (Weitzman & Palmer 1997:227 [ref. 22743], Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:139 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hyphessobrycon panamensis Durbin 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Microbrycon Eigenmann [C. H.] & Wilson [C.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:3 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Río Truando, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56606 [ex CM 5422]. Paratypes: CAS 61961 [ex IU 13109] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:68 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:56 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Pterobrycon minutus (Eigenmann & Wilson 1914). •Synonym of Pterobrycon landoni Eigenmann 1913 -- (Weitzman in Reis et al. 2003:227 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pterobrycon landoni Eigenmann 1913. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Microgenys Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:22 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Piedra de Moler, upper Cauca basin, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56215 [ex CM 5007]. Paratypes: CAS 47170 [ex IU 12818] (1), FMNH 56216 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:66 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:56 [ref. 12367]. The genus is evidently feminine, so name changed to minuta. •Valid as Microgenys minuta Eigenmann 1913 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:144 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Microgenys minuta Eigenmann 1913. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

miraensis, Bryconamericus Fowler [H. W.] 1945:99, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 1454] Ricaurte on the Río Guebo, Río Mira basin, Nariño Dept., Pacific Slope of southwestern Colombia, elevation 3900 feet. Holotype: ANSP 71686. Paratypes: ANSP 71687-92 (6), 71693 (1, c&s), 71694 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:51 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Bryconamericus miraensis Fowler 1945 -- (Román-Valencia 2000:453 [ref. 25256], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:117 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2003:21, 32 [ref. 26840], Román-Valencia et al. 2008:1749 [ref. 30068], Román-Valencia et al. 2011:844 [ref. 31565]). •Valid as Eretmobrycon miraensis (Fowler 1945) -- (Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Eretmobrycon miraensis (Fowler 1945). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Mira River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

mitopterus, Cheirodon Fink [W. L.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 1974:12, Figs. 6-7 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 172; ref. 7132] Río Tucue at junction of river and road between Tucue and Tambo, Río Cocle del Norte basin, Cocle Province, Panama. Holotype: USNM 208539. Paratypes: ANSP 121987 (1), BMNH 1973.2.16.1 (1), USNM 208513 (8 [orig. cites 7], 1 c&s). Plus non-type material at USNM. Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:14-15 [ref. 19022], Böhlke 1984:51 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Compsura mitoptera (Fink & Weitzman 1974) -- (Bussing 1998:104 [ref. 24179]). •Valid as "Odontostilbe" mitoptera (Fink & Weitzman 1974) -- (Malabarba & Weitzman 2000:280 [ref. 24413], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:218 [ref. 27061]). •Not in Odontostible -- (Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006:193 [ref. 28728]). Current status: Valid as Odontostilbe mitoptera (Fink & Weitzman 1974). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Distribution: Cocle de Norte River basin, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

mizquae, Astyanax Fowler [H. W.] 1943:4, Fig. 3 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 120; ref. 1442] Río Mizque, Ele Ele, Cochabamba, Bolivia, elevation 5000 feet. Holotype: ANSP 69176. Paratypes: ANSP 69177-92 (16, 1 missing), Géry coll. (1) [ex ANSP 69177]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:51 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Knodus mizquae (Fowler 1943) -- (Silva in Reis et al. 2003:143 [ref. 27061], Zarske & Géry 2006:52 [ref. 28753], Ferreira & Lima 2006:637 [ref. 28919], Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira 2010:470 [ref. 30882], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32807], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Knodus mizquae (Fowler 1943). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

moenkhausii, Poecilurichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:522 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] Brook near Arroyo Trementina, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 55102 [ex IU 10001]. Paratypes: AMNH 1463 (2); CAS 55103 [ex IU 10002] (1), 55104 [IU 10003] (orig. 9, now 4); FMNH 52601 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:68 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Ferreira & Lima 2006:637 [ref. 28919], Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira 2010:470 [ref. 30882], Román-Valencia et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32807], Barriga S. 2014:107 [ref. 35745] as cf. moenkhausii, Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35633], Koerber et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35267], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506]). Current status: Valid as Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador?, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru.

moisae, Moenkhausia Géry [J.], Planquette [P.] & Le Bail [P.-Y.] 1995:67, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 22 (nos 3-4); ref. 21963] Balaté Creek, lower Maroni River, French Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 1995-1073. Paratypes: IRSCNB 807 (8); MHNG 2512-100 (8); MNHN 1995-1074 to 1082 (9); MTD F 16998-7001 (2, 2); plus 33 specimens in Géry coll. Type catalog: Zarske 2003:19 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Moenkhausia moisae Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1995 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:310 [ref. 22818], Benine in Reis et al. 2003:149 [ref. 27061], Zanata et al. 2010:2624 [ref. 30712], Bertaco et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31234], Carvalho et al. 2014:378 [ref. 33383]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia moisae Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1995. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Maroni and Mana River basins, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

mojicai, Chrysobrycon Vanegas-Ríos [J. A.] & Urbano-Bonilla [A.] 2017:2346, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 90 (no. 6); ref. 35265] Colombia, Amazonas Department, Leticia, Amacayacu National Natural Park, Amazon River basin, unnamed forest stream tributary of Matamatá River, 3°48'23"S, 70°15'58"W, elevation 86 meters. Holotype: IAvH-P 13932. Paratypes: IAvH-P, MPUJ. Plus additional non-type specimens. •Valid as Chrysobrycon mojicai Vanegas-Ríos & Urbano-Bonilla 2017 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chrysobrycon mojicai Vanegas-Ríos & Urbano-Bonilla 2017. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

molinus, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:159, Fig. 66 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Rio Araguaia basin, riacho (small stream) tributary to Ribeirão Lajeadinho, Município de Alto Araguaia, about 17°19'S, 53°12'W, mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP 41461. •Valid as Creagrutus molinus Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:124 [ref. 27061], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus molinus Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

monicae, Moenkhausia Marinho [M. M. F.], Dagosta [F. C. P.], Camelier [P.] & Lima [F. C. T.] 2016:243, Fig. 1 [Copeia v. 104 (no. 1); ref. 34376] Rio Buriti, tributary of Rio Papagaio at Ilha do Papagaio, Rio Juruena drainage, Rio Tapajós basin, Sapezal, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 12°48’02.8"S, 58°23’54.5"W. Holotype: MZUSP 115489. Paratypes: INPA, MCP, MZUEL, MZUSP, UFRO-I, USNM, ZUEC. •Valid as Moenkhausia monicae Marinho, Dagosta, Camelier & Lima 2016 -- (Lima & Flausino 2016:94 [ref. 34408]). Current status: Valid as Moenkhausia monicae Marinho, Dagosta, Camelier & Lima 2016. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

moniliger, Hyphessobrycon Moreira [C. R.], Lima [F. C. T.] & Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2002:74, Figs. 1-5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 26068] Pool behind house of farm Praia Alta 2, Araguaçú to Barreira do Piqui road, 27 kilometers north from Araguaçú, rio Agua Fria basin, 12°42'S, 49°55'W, município de Araguaçú, Tocantins, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 67466. Paratypes: ANSP 177976 (5); FMNH 109198 (5); MCP 27055 (5); MNRJ 21508 (5); MZUSP 52199 (25, 2 c&s), 52203 (1); UFRJ 1538 (12), 1898 (6); USNM 365042 (5). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon moniliger Moreira, Lima & Costa 2002 -- (Lima & Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Malabarba 2005:87 [ref. 28297], Ingenito et al. 2013:42 [ref. 32568], Teixeira et al. 2016:474 [ref. 34088], Pastana & Ohara 2016:396 [ref. 34716]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon moniliger Moreira, Lima & Costa 2002. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Araguaia-Tocantins River and upper Tapajós River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

monodon, Chirodon Cope [E. D.] 1894:91, Pl. 6 (fig. 9) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ANSP 21561. Paralectotypes: (2) ANSP 21562 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:51 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratype. Original genus should have been Cheirodon. Lectotype established by Fowler 1906:332 [ref. 1373]. •Synonym of Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Malabarba 1989:133 [ref. 14217], Malabarba 1998:215 [ref. 23844], Malabarba in Reis et al. 2003:216 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:19 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842). Characidae: Cheirodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

montagi, Hyphessobrycon Lima [F. C. T.], Coutinho [D. P.] & Wosiacki [W. B.] 2014:168, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 3872 (no. 2); ref. 33535] Pará, Juruti, Igarapé Socó Barroso, (tributary of rio Arapiuns), 2°27'54"S, 56°00'25"W, Brazil. Holotype: MPEG 29970. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MCP, MPEG, ZUEC. Plus many non-type specimens. •Valid as Hyphessobrycon montagi Lima, Coutinho & Wosiacki 2014 -- (Zarske 2015:10 [ref. 33782], Moreira & Lima 2017:133 [ref. 35562]). Current status: Valid as Hyphessobrycon montagi Lima, Coutinho & Wosiacki 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Arapiuns basin, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

moorii, Tetragonopterus Boulenger [G. A.] 1892:11, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 10 (no. 55) (art. 2); ref. 533] Upper Paraguay Chapala Plateau, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1892.4.20.51. Paralectotype: BMNH 1892.4.20.50. Lectotype from Ruiz-C. et al. 2018:30 [ref. 35787]. •Valid as Astyanacinus moorii (Boulenger 1892) -- (Britski et al. 1999:37 [ref. 24147], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Bertaco et al. 2010:266 [ref. 30864], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004]). •Valid as Astyanax moorii (Boulenger 1892) -- ( Ruiz-C. et al. 2018:30 [ref. 35787]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax moorii (Boulenger 1892). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

motatanensis, Bryconamericus beta Schultz [L. P.] 1944:341, Fig. 50 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río San Juan at bridge south of Mene Grande, Motatán system, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121477. Paratypes: USNM 121478 (orig. 77, now 74), 121479-80 (10, 1), 121481 (orig. 45, now 35, 1 missing); MHNG (2) [through Géry, ex USNM 121478] (2); MCZ 37291 [ex USNM 121481] (5); UMMZ 145030 [ex USNM 121481] (5). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:9-10 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Bryconamericus motatanensis Schults 1944 -- (Román-Valencia 2003:29 [ref. 27037], Román-Valencia 2003:7 [ref. 27070], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:117 [ref. 27061], Román-Valencia 2002:209 [ref. 27206], Román-Valencia 2003:482 [ref. 27478], Román-Valencia 2005:60 [ref. 28949], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893] genus uncertain, DoNascimiento 2016:528 [ref. 34727]). Current status: Valid as Bryconamericus motatanensis Schultz 1944. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Orinoco and Lake Maracaibo basins, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

mucipu, Creagrutus Vari [R. P.] & Harold [A. S.] 2001:162, Fig. 68 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 613; ref. 25842] Rio Tocantins, at port of Rubao, 13°44'31"S, 48°08'29"W, Município de Minaçu, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 19511. Paratypes: MNRJ 17337 (6), USNM 350449 (2). •Valid as Creagrutus mucipu Vari & Harold 2001 -- (Vari & Harold in Reis et al. 2003:124 [ref. 27061], Mirande et al. 2013:763 [ref. 33366], Thomaz et al. 2015:Add. 5 [ref. 33893], Netto-Ferreira & Moreira 2018:255 [ref. 35759], Flausino & Lima 2019:1 [ref. 36726]). Current status: Valid as Creagrutus mucipu Vari & Harold 2001. Characidae: Stevardiinae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins and Xingu River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mucronatus, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:19 [Annal