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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Clupeidae: [ 570 ] records


abbreviata, Harengula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:296 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Australia. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:42 [ref. 9739]. •Status uncertain, regarded as a nomen dubium; possibly same as Herklotsichthys castelnaui (Ogilby 1897) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:153 [ref. 12442]). •Mention -- (Gomon et al. 1994:221 [ref. 22532]). •Incertae sedis -- (Paxton et al. 2006:336 [ref. 28995]). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

abrau, Harengula Maliatsky [S.] 1930:65 [Azovsko-Chernomorskogo nauchno-issledovatel'skii instituta. Sta. v. 6; ref. 17202] Lake Abrau, near Novorossiysk, Russia. Syntypes: ZIN 22043 (7, missing in 1993). ZISP 28351 was designated as lectotype by Svetovidov 1952:208 [ref. 21481] but it was not part of the original type series (N. Chernova, pers. comm.) •Valid as Clupeonella abrau (Maliatsky 1930) -- (Berg 1948:166 [ref. 12882], Whitehead 1985:51 [ref. 5141], Mogil'chenko 1991:45 [ref. 24826], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:728 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:29 [ref. 23573], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:37 [ref. 28183], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:75 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Valid as Clupeonella abrau (Maliatsky 1930). Clupeidae. Distribution: Lake Abrau, Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

acutirostris, Pellonula Boulenger [G. A.] 1899:63, Pl. 36 (fig. 7) [Annales du Musee du Congo (Ser. Zoology) v. 1 (fasc. 4); ref. 549] Coquilhatville, Upper Congo. Syntypes: BMNH 1899.9.26.66 (1), MRAC 491 (1). •Valid as Potamothrissa acutirostris (Boulenger 1899) -- (Poll et al. 1984:51 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:155 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Potamothrissa acutirostris (Boulenger 1899). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

advena, Clupea Philippi [R. A.] 1879:161, Pl. 10 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 45 (pt. 1); ref. 18551] Chile. No types known. As "Clupea oder Alausa advena in main heading. •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842) -- (Whitehead 1985:61 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

aesarnensis, Clupeichthys Wongratana [T.] 1983:388, Fig. 2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Ubonrat reservoir, Konkhan, Thailand. Holotype: KUMF 2844a. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.8.17.15-21 (7), CTNRC (Cter. Thai Nat. Ref. Coll.) (uncat. 48), KUMF 2844b (9), NIFI uncat. (5, 33 and 55). •Valid as Clupeichthys aesarnensis Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:182 [ref. 5141], Rainboth 1996:60 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 1998:21 [ref. 23436], Kottelat 2001:28 [ref. 25780], Roberts 2008:125 [ref. 29745], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:40 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Clupeichthys aesarnensis Wongratana 1983. Clupeidae. Distribution: Mekong basin and Xe Bangfai. Habitat: freshwater.

aestivalis, Clupea Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:21 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Mitchill 1815:456, Pl. 5 (fig. 6) [ref. 13292]. •Valid as Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill 1814) -- (Lee et al. 1980:61 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:65 [ref. 22186], Whitehead 1985:192 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:67 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:102 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:51 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:33 [ref. 18983], Desfosse et al. in Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:217 [ref. 21581], Murdy et al. 1997:78 [ref. 23144], Scott & Crossman 1998:119 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:42 [ref. 25838], Munroe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:112 [ref. 26158], Scharpf 2003:13 [ref. 26883], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:810 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2005:9 [ref. 28940], Page & Burr 2011:147 [ref. 31215], Schmidt & Morse 2011:229 [ref. 31775], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:67 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill 1814). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic: Atlantic coast from Canada to northern Florida. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

aestuarina, Caspialosa caspia Berg [L. S.] 1932:88, Fig. 94 [Les poissons des eaux douces de l'U.R.S.S. Part 1; ref. 278] Northern Caspian Sea, Russia. No types known. •Synonym of Caspialosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1948:140 [ref. 12882]). •In genus Alosa based on placement of caspia Eichwald by Svetovidov 1973 [ref. 7169]. •Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838) -- (Heckman 1991:135 [ref. 24828]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838). Clupeidae. Distribution: Russia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

aestuarius, Spratelloides Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1913:55, Fig. [Marine biological report: for the year ended ... and for the half year ending ...; to be presented to the Provincial Council; Union of South Africa, Province of the Cape of Good Hope. No. 1 (art. 2); ref. 14154] Tidal portion of Zwartkops River, near Port Elizabeth, and tidal rivers near East London, South Africa. Syntypes: SAM 10822-25 (1, 1, 1, 14). •Valid as Gilchristella aestuaria (Gilchrist 1913) -- (Poll et al. 1984:44 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:168 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:201 [ref. 6284], Skelton 1993:109 [ref. 24071], Poll & Gosse 1995:129 [ref. 24781], Skelton 2001:109 [ref. 27406], Stiassny 2002:67 [ref. 25890] but does not occur in Madagascar, Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:108 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2018:54 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Gilchristella aestuaria (Gilchrist 1913). Clupeidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

africana, Alosa Regan [C. T.] 1916:8 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 18 (no. 103) (art. 1); ref. 15064] Algeria. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1868.4.30.1. •Hybrid between Alosa alosa and Alosa fallax (Kartas 1991:213 [ref. 24841]). •Synonym of Alosa algeriensis Regan 1916 -- (Kottelat 1997:37 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

afzeliusi, Pellonula Johnels [A. G.] 1954:352 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 6 (no. 17); ref. 12650] Gambia River, Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1977.11.29.1-2, .3-4, 5-9 (5), 10-14 (2, 2, 5, 5); NRM 10241 (4), 11143-45 (49, 1, 66), 11149 (9), 13900 (35), 13917 (2), 14442 (117). •Valid as Pellonula afzeliusi Johnels 1954 -- (Poll et al. 1984:48 [ref. 6172]). •Synonym of Pellonula leonensis Boulenger 1916, but a valid subspecies afzeliusi Johnels 1954 -- (Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781]). •Synonym of Pellonula leonensis Boulenger 1916 -- (Whitehead 1985:142 [ref. 5141], Lévêque et al. 1989:114 [ref. 26480], Paugy et al. 1990:332 [ref. 26477], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:105 [ref. 21589], Gourène & Teugels 1991:220 [ref. 20013], Lévèque et al. 1991:138 [ref. 31367], Munroe 2016:1732 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Synonym of Pellonula leonensis Boulenger 1916. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

agone, Cyprinus Scopoli [J. A.] 1786:71 [Deliciae florae et faunae Insubricae; ref. 18712] Lake Lugano, Switzerland. Neotype: MHNG 656.48. Type catalog: Weber 1998:6 [ref. 23532] with species as agonus. Genus originally as Ciprinus. Neotype designated by Kottelat 1997:37 [ref. 22952]. Spelled agonus by Bloch & Schneider 1801:445 [ref. 471]. •Valid as Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Kottelat 1997:36 [ref. 22952], Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726], Fricke et al. 2007:25 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:65 [ref. 29996], Bianco & Delmastro 2011:2 [ref. 31648], Bianco 2013:2 [ref. 32897], Kukuev & Orlov 2018:33 [ref. 36609]). Current status: Valid as Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae. Distribution: Lakes of Switzerland and northern Italy, introduced in central Italy. Habitat: freshwater.

agonus, Cyprinus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:445 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Not available; an incorrect subsequent spelling of agone Scopoli 1786. Clupeidae.

agrachanica, Caspialosa brashnikovi Mikhailovsky [A. A.] 1941:563 [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Ser. A (Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS), Leningrad v. 30 (no. 6); ref. 13210] Region of islands Tyulenyi and Dargui, northern Caspian Sea. Neotype: ZIN 17334. Original syntypes: ZIN 1182-1199 (not at ZIN). Neotype designated by Svetovidov 1951:263, fig. 40 [ref. 21481]. •Synonym of Caspialosa brashnikovi [braschnikowi] (Borodin 1904) -- (Berg 1948:119 [ref. 12882] as agrakhanika). •See also Dorofeeva 1998:24 [ref. 23573]. •Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904), but a valid subspecies agrachanica (Mikhailovsky 1941) as described -- (Whitehead 1985:196 [ref. 5141], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:726 [ref. 24702] as braschnikowii). Current status: Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

alabamae, Alosa Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] in Evermann 1896:203 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 21 (for 1894) (art. 4); ref. 14611] Black Warrior River at Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 47689-90 (1, 1). •Valid as Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann 1896 -- (Lee et al. 1980:62 [ref. 22416], Whitehead 1985:193 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:68 [ref. 23100], Robison & Buchanan 1988:107 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:35 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:39 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:122 [ref. 22809], Knight & Hastings 1994:149 [ref. 25560], Mettee et al. 1996:115 [ref. 25836], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:331 [ref. 23897], Musick et al. 2000:11 [ref. 24959], Ross et al. 2001:103 [ref. 25978], Scharpf 2003:13 [ref. 26883], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:811 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:66 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:135 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2005:9 [ref. 28940], Page & Burr 2011:150 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:68 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann 1896. Clupeidae. Distribution: Scattered localities, eastern and Gulf Coast, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

alba, Clupea Yarrell [W.] 1828:137, Pl. 5 (figs. 2, 5-6) [Zoological Journal, London v. 4 (art. 15) (for June-Oct. 1828); ref. 17745] Mouth of the Thames River. No types known. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:115 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

alba, Rogenia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:341, Pl. 598 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Mouth of the Tamise River, Great Britain. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3713 (1), 0000-3714 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:283 [ref. 293]. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

albella, Kowala Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:362, Pl. 602 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0665. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-3231 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:287 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:16 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:53 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:91 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:203 [ref. 6284], Paxton et al. 1989:156 [ref. 12442], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:212 [ref. 24016], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:274 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:10 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:65 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:106 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:111 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:495 [ref. 25919], Munroe et al. 1999:1808 [ref. 24728], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:235 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Zhang 2001:88 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:20 [ref. 27712], Heemstra et al. 2004:3317 [ref. 27945], Paxton et al. 2006:332 [ref. 28995], Yoshino in Kimura & Yoshino 2009:30 [ref. 30440], Larson et al. 2013:36 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:38 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:412 [ref. 33460], Yoshino in Kimura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:153 [ref. 34104], Stern et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34733], Ali et al. 2018:307 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:55 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:30 [ref. 36273], Yoshino in Kimura et al. 2018:37 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

alepidota, Clupea Hermann [J.] 1804:315 [Observationes zoologicae; ref. 2146] America. No types known. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

algeriensis, Alosa finta Regan [C. T.] 1916:10 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 18 (no. 103) (art. 1); ref. 15064] Algeria. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1868.4.30.2. Additional material: (1). •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:199 [ref. 5141]). •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803), but a valid subspecies -- (Kartas 1991:213 [ref. 24841]). •Questionably valid as Alosa algeriensis Regan 1916 -- (Kottelat 1997:37 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726]). •Valid as Alosa algeriensis Regan 1916 -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:66 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Valid as Alosa algeriensis Regan 1916. Clupeidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea and adjacent watersheds. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

allecia, Clupea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:57 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:33 [ref. 3595]. •In the synonymy of the younger named Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Poll et al. 1984:52 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:93 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:215 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

alosa, Clupea Linnaeus [C.] 1758:318 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.179 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:207 [ref. 13434]. •Valid as Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1948:145 [ref. 12882], Svetovidov 1973:105 [ref. 7169], Poll et al. 1984:41 [ref. 6172], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:269 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:194 [ref. 5141], Wheeler 1985:24-25 [ref. 20705], Lelek 1987:58 [ref. 22962], Whitehead 1990:208 [ref. 14039], Quignard & Douchement 1991:89 [ref. 24829], Kottelat 1997:37 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:726 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:24 [ref. 23573], Swinney et al. 2000:35 [ref. 25136], Azeroual et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25366], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:174 [ref. 26753], Hanel 2003:48 [ref. 27894], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:32 [ref. 28183], Hanel & Lusk 2005:186 [ref. 28804], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:67 [ref. 29996], Munroe 2016:1729 [ref. 34560], Martins & Carneiro 2018:27 [ref. 36550], Kukuev & Orlov 2018:33 [ref. 36609]). Current status: Valid as Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Distribution: Europe, eastern Atlantic (including Baltic Sea, North Sea). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

altiforma, Hyrtlinus Fowler [H. W.] 1958:6 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 310; ref. 1470] South America. Holotype: ANSP 78122. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865 -- (Whitehead 1985:65 [ref. 5141], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

altior, Chatoessus chacunda var. Günther [A.] 1868:411 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Ganges,India; Siam, Borneo. Syntypes: (7) BMNH. •Valid as Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1922) -- (Kottelat 2013:58 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

altus, Chatoessus Gray [J. E.] 1834:no page number, Pl. 91 (fig. 2) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] India. No types known. Published about 1 Oct. 1834. •Questionably a synonym of Nematalosa nasus (Bloch 1795) -- (Whitehead 1985:248 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:62 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Nematalosa nasus (Bloch 1795). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

amazonica, Clupea Steindachner [F.] 1879:183 [65] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Amazon River at Pará, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 1004:1. Paralectotypes: NMW 1004:2-4 (3). Non-type: NMW 1004:5 (1). Type information and lectotype designation: Whitehead 1970:12 [ref. 11605]. On p. 65 of separate. •Valid as Rhinosardinia amazonica (Steindachner 1879) -- (Whitehead 1985:126 [ref. 5141], Cervigón 1992:301 [ref. 23827], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27061], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:829 [ref. 26997], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Rhinosardinia amazonica (Steindachner 1879). Clupeidae. Distribution: Venezuela to Brazil (Atlantic drainages), Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

anale, Dorosoma Meek [S. E.] 1904:93, Fig. 26 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] El Hule, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 4637. Paratypes: FMNH 4681 (7), 4708 (2), 43148 (2), 72606 (2); ?USNM 55738 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:33 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Dorosoma anale Meek 1904 -- (Whitehead 1985:232 [ref. 5141], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:8 [ref. 22290], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:61 [ref. 22947], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:117 [ref. 24550], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2003:13 [ref. 26883], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2005:9 [ref. 28940], Miller 2006:92 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Dorosoma anale Meek 1904. Clupeidae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Mexico and Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

anchovia, Sardinella Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:269 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3746. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-3380 (1), 0000-3747 (1), 0000-5484 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:285 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:25-26 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype regarded as established by Longley & Hildebrand 1941:7 [ref. 18452] with the statement, "The first fish in table 1, first mentioned by Valenciennes' description of S. anchovia, may be regarded as the type of that species. The other four are S. brasiliensis (Steindachner)." •Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Whitehead 1985:93 [ref. 5141], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:146 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:825 [ref. 26997]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

anomalura, Clupea Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:350 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] Not available; manuscript name mentioned in passing; from Batavia, Java. Clupeidae.

ansorgii, Odaxothrissa Boulenger [G. A.] 1910:541 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 6 (no. 36); ref. 577] Quanza River at Cambambe; Lucala River at Kalenge; Bengo River at Cabiri, Angola. Syntypes: ANSP 37972 (1) Quanza River at Cambambe; BMNH 1910.11.28.52-53 (2) Cambambe, 1910.11.28.54-56 (3) Kalenge, 1910.11.28.57 (1) Bengo R.; ZMB 18205 (1). Additional material: BMNH 1911.6.1.170 (1, skeleton). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Cynothrissa ansorgii (Boulenger 1910) -- (Poll et al. 1984:42 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:136 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781]). •Valid as Odaxothrissa ansorgii Boulenger 1910 -- (Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:106 [ref. 21589], Gourène & Teugels 1991:451 [ref. 19026], Lévèque et al. 1991:133 [ref. 31367], Teugels 2007:197 [ref. 30016], Munroe 2016:1739 [ref. 34560], Skelton 2019:230 [ref. 36564]). Current status: Valid as Odaxothrissa ansorgii Boulenger 1910. Clupeidae. Distribution: West-central Africa: Ivory Coast, Republic of Congo and lower Congo River, Senegal to Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

antipodum, Clupea sprattus var. Hector [J.] 1872:133 [Notes on the edible fishes of New Zealand; ref. 18270] Foveaux Strait and Wellington, New Zealand. Syntypes: (2). Also spelled antipodarum in literature. •Valid as Sprattus antipodum (Hector 1872) -- (Whitehead 1985:45 [ref. 5141], Paulin et al. 1989:78 [ref. 24556], Gomon 2008:193 [ref. 30616], Stewart & Struthers 2015:303 [ref. 34231]). Current status: Valid as Sprattus antipodum (Hector 1872). Clupeidae. Distribution: New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

antiqua, Potamalosa Ogilby [J. D.] 1897:70 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 22 (pt 1); ref. 3272] Syntypes: MNHN 1897-0389 (1) Nepean R., Victoria, Australia. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:284 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:23-24 [ref. 9739]. No separate description given; species cited as type of genus Potamalosa. •Valid as Potamalosa antiqua Ogilby 1897 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:156 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Potmalosa richmondia (Macleay 1879) -- (Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:23 [ref. 9739], Whitehead 1985:186 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 2006:331 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Potamalosa richmondia (Macleay 1879). Clupeidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

apicalis, Alosa Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] in Schomburgk 1848:675 [19] [The history of Barbados; comprising a geographical description of the island and an account of its geology and natural productions.; ref. 17812] Barbados, West Indies. Syntypes: ZMB 3856-57 (1, 2). Appeared first as above; reprinted in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1848:19. •Synonym of Harengula humeralis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:64 [ref. 5141], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:820 [ref. 26997]). Current status: Synonym of Harengula humeralis (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

aquosus, Chatoessus Richardson [J.] 1846:307 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] China seas. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1964.11.6.5 (skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:209 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Konosirus punctatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Whitehead 1985:240 [ref. 5141], Youn & Kim 1998:56 [ref. 25737], Zhang 2001:100 [ref. 26586], Jang et al. 2003:119 [ref. 27681], Kottelat 2013:62 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:547 [ref. 34656]). Current status: Synonym of Konosirus punctatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

arabica, Clupea Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:298 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

arabica, Harengula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:298 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Al Muwaylih, Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 3839 (?2). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:42 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys punctatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:41 [ref. 29757] with question, Whitehead 1985:80 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys punctatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

arabica, Nematalosa Regan [C. T.] 1917:313 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 19 (no. 112); ref. 3665] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.11.11.312. •Valid as Nematalosa arabica Regan 1917 -- (Whitehead 1985:242 [ref. 5141], Randall 1995:67 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:153 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:306 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Nematalosa arabica Regan 1917. Clupeidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden to Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

arcuata, Clupea Jenyns [L.] 1842:134 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Bahia Blanca, Montevideo, Chile. Syntypes: (2) UMZC [Darwin no. 416] (2). •Valid as Ramnogaster arcuata (Jenyns 1842) -- (Whitehead 1985:123 [ref. 5141], Pequeño 1989:27 [ref. 14125], Cione et al. 1998:335 [ref. 23325], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27366], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Ramnogaster arcuata (Jenyns 1842). Clupeidae. Distribution: Near mouth of La Plata River: Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: marine.

argentata, Corica Swainson [W.] 1839:294 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:50 [ref. 16826]. Lectotype designation not researched. •Unneeded new name for, and objective synonym of Corica soborna Hamilton 1822 -- (Whitehead 1985:180 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Corica soborna Hamilton 1822. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

argentina, Clupea Swainson [W.] 1839:386 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Pernambuco, Brazil. •Treated as a forgotten name in the synonymy of Lile piquitinga (Schreiner & Ribeiro 1903) -- (Whitehead 1985:128 [ref. 5141]). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

argyrochloris, Alausa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:440 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Mumbai, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-2738. Non-types: MNHN 0000-3753 (2) Mauritius. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:281 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:7 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Kottelat (2013: 63). •Synonym of Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:226 [ref. 5141], Fricke 1999:77 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:63 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argyrotaenia, Rogenia Bleeker [P.] 1852:26 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7088. Paralectotypes: (20) RMNH 23361 (some of 39). Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:457 [ref. 16828] as argijrotaenia with 47 specimens from Muntok, Batavia, Java. Lectotype selected by Whitehead et al. 1966:72, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) •Synonym of Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:119 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1795 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

asovi, Alosa caspia tanaica natio Pavlov [P. I.] (ex Grimm) 1959:106, 107 [Inst. Akad. Nauk. USSR, Kiev; ref. 22963] Infrasubspecific, not available; from Azov Sea. Source given as 'Grimm' (O. von Grimm). •In the synonymy of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), subspecies tanaica (Grimm 1901) -- (Mogil'chenko 1991:181 [ref. 24826]). •In the synonymy of Alosa tanaica (Grimm 1901) -- (Kottelat 1997:40 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa tanaica (Grimm 1901). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

atchafalayae, Signalosa Evermann [B. W.] & Kendall [W. C.] 1898:127, Pl. 7 (fig. 4) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 17 (art. 5) (for 1897); ref. 1281] Atchafalaya River at Melville, Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 48790. Paratypes: CAS-SU 5775 (2); USNM 48791 (2), 127043 (2); USFC 532. •Synonym of Dorosoma petenense (Günther 1867) -- (Lee et al. 1980:70 [ref. 22416], Whitehead 1985:236 [ref. 5141], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:115 [ref. 24550], Ross et al. 2001:112 [ref. 25978], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Dorosoma petenense (Günther 1867), but a valid subspecies -- (La Rivers 1994:240 [ref. 23389]). Current status: Synonym of Dorosoma petenense (Günther 1867). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

atlanticus, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:526, 529, Fig. 33 [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] Atlantic. No types known. Minimal description; for the "Smalls". •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

atricauda, Clupea Günther [A.] 1868:426 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Ceram, Indonesia. Holotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.31. Paratypes: (3) ?BMNH 1867.11.28.40 (1). Perhaps can be considered a replacement name for Harengula melanurus Bleeker 1853, secondarily preoccupied by Clupea melanura Cuvier 1829 (and Alausa melanura Valenciennes 1847), but Günther includes three nominal species with question in synonymy and provides a description; specimens above were ones seen by Günther (if regarded as an original description). •Valid as Sardinella atricauda (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead 1985:92 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1809 [ref. 24728], Stern et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34733]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella atricauda (Günther 1868). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

aureus, Clupanodon Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:52, Pl. 21 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Brazil. Syntypes: MHNN 1159 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. •Valid as Brevoortia aurea (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:210 [ref. 5141], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:58 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], López et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27366], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], Menni 2004:71 [ref. 28131], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Fabiano et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33530], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Brevoortia aurea (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Clupeidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Habitat: marine.

aurita, Sardinella Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:263, Pl. 594 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Lectotype: MNHN A-9824. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-0663 (2), B-3085 [ex MNHN A-9824] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:284 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:26 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:37 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Svetovidov 1973:103 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:278 [ref. 13675], Poll et al. 1984:52 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:93 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:71 [ref. 23100], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:203 [ref. 6284], Whitehead 1990:215 [ref. 14039], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:101 [ref. 21589], Cervigón 1991:81 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:42 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:301 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:137 [ref. 25472], Chen et al. 1997:12 [ref. 26476], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:346 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:146 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:69 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Kim et al. 2001:193 [ref. 25730], Zhang 2001:74 [ref. 26586], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:37 [ref. 26753], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:825 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Fricke et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29533], Teugels 2007:189 [ref. 30016], Wirtz et al. 2007:26 [ref. 30263], Vasil'eva 2007:50 [ref. 30517], Bogorodsky et al. 2011:50 [ref. 31559], Page et al. 2013:68 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:27 [ref. 33341], Parin et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33547], Munroe 2016:1735 [ref. 34560], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966] as cf. aurita, Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565], Martins & Carneiro 2018:26 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:553 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western and eastern Atlantic, including Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara and Black Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aurovittata, Clupea Swainson [W.] 1838:265, Fig. 56 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. No description, based on figure. Also in Swainson 1839:293, 385 [ref. 4303]. •Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Poll et al. 1984:52 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:93 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:215 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

autumnalis, Caspialosa brashnikovi Berg [L. S.] 1915:6, Pl. 1 (figs. 2-3) [Materialy k' poznaniyu russkago rybolovstva [Materials to the knowledge of the Russian fishery.], Petrograd v. 4 (no. 6) (art. 9); ref. 276] Southern Caspian Sea. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. See Dorofeeva 1998:24 [ref. 23573]. •Synonym of Caspialosa brashnikovi [braschnikowi] (Borodin 1904) -- (Berg 1948:118 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Whitehead 1985:196 [ref. 5141], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:726 [ref. 24702] as braschnikowii). Current status: Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

autumnalis, Clupea harengus subform Nilsson [S.] 1832:23 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Not available, a subforma of forma oceanica, infrasubspecific. Clupeidae.

azovi, Clupeonella delicatula Vladimirov [V. I.] 1950:126 [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR v. 70 (no. 1); ref. 20907] Sea of Azov at Berdyansk, Ukraine. Syntypes: (many) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann 1840) -- (Svetovidov 1973:101 [ref. 7169], Heckman 1991:71 [ref. 24828], Kottelat 1997:41 [ref. 22952], Parin et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann 1840). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bahiensis, Pellonula Steindachner [F.] 1879:181 [63], Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Bahia, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 2870. Paralectotypes: (8) NMW 2870 (larger of 2), ?76436 (4). Type information and lectotype designation: Whitehead 1970:14 [ref. 11605]. On p. 63 of separate. •Valid as Rhinosardinia bahiensis (Steindachner 1879) -- (Whitehead 1985:127 [ref. 5141], Cervigón 1992:301 [ref. 23827] as baiensis, Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27061], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:829 [ref. 26997]). Current status: Valid as Rhinosardinia bahiensis (Steindachner 1879). Clupeidae. Distribution: Along Atlantic coast from Orinoco River to northeastern Brazil: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bahusica, Clupea harengus subform Nilsson [S.] 1832:23 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Not available, a subforma of forma oceanica, infrasubspecific. Clupeidae.

balticus, Alosa fallax Kukuev [E. I.] & Orlov [A. M.] 2018:32, Figs. 2-4 [Biologiya Vnutrennykh 2018 (no. 4); ref. 36609] Curonian Lagoon, Baltic Sea, Russia. Holotype: ZIN 56152. Paratypes: ZIN. Combined with the feminine genus Alosa, the name should have been baltica. •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

balticus, Clupea sprattus var. Schneider [G.] 1908:96 [Rapports et Proces-Verbaux des Reunions Commission Internationale pour l'Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Mediterranee Monaco v. 9; ref. 21149] Baltic Sea. No types known. Appeared first as name only in Schneider 1904:66 [ref. 18705]. •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Berg 1948:157 [ref. 12882], Svetovidov 1973:105 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:281 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:49 [ref. 5141], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:728 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:30 [ref. 23573], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577]). •Synonym of Sprattus spratus (Linnaeus 1758) subspecies balticus (Schneider 1908) -- (Parin et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Distribution: Baltic Sea (if valid). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bassensis, Clupea (Pomolobus) McCulloch [A. R.] 1911:16, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Biological Results Endeavour [v. 1] (pt 1); ref. 2936] Off Storm Bay, and Flinders Island, Tasmania, Australia. Syntypes: AMS E.6496 (1), I.10382-83 (3). •Synonym of Sprattus novaehollandiae (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:48 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:158 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:225 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:335 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus novaehollandiae (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bellonii, Trichis Plumier [C.] in Lacepède 1803:448 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Name only, in synonymy of Clupea alosa; not available. Clupeidae.

benacensis, Alosa lacustrus forma Barbieri [C.] 1907:140, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Rivista mensile di Pesca (lacustre, fluviale, marina) (Pavia) Anno 9 (no. 4-5, 6); ref. 21775] Lake Garda, Italy. Original not seen. •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803), subspecies lacustris (Fatio 1890) -- (Quignard & Douchement 1991:257 [ref. 24829]). •Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Kottelat 1997:36 [ref. 22952], Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

bentincki, Clupea Norman [J. R.] 1936:491 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 17 (no. 100) (art. 51); ref. 13731] Talcahuano, Chile. Paratypes and holotype (orig. 11): BMNH 1935.8.27.5-10 (7, including holotype), 1935.8.27.11-15 (5); USNM 103779 (1). •Valid as Strangomera bentincki (Norman 1936) -- (Whitehead 1985:130 [ref. 5141], Pequeño 1989:27 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Clupea bentincki Norman 1936 -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:74 [ref. 14235]). Current status: Valid as Strangomera bentincki (Norman 1936). Clupeidae. Distribution: Chile. Habitat: marine.

bergi, Caspialosa volgensis Tanassiychuk [N. P.] 1940:103 [C. R. Acad. Sci. Moscow v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 17248] Near villiage of Nikolskoye, 240 kilometers above Astrakhan, Volga Delta, northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Syntypes: (several) ZIN 29212 (1). •Synonym of Caspialosa kessleri (Grimm 1887) -- (Berg 1948:130 [ref. 12882]). •In genus Alosa based on placement of kessleri by Svetovidov 1973 [ref. 7169]. •Synonym of Alosa kessleri (Grimm 1887) -- (Whitehead 1985:201 [ref. 5141]). •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838), subspecies kessleri (Grimm 1887) -- (Heckman 1991:325 [ref. 24828]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa kessleri (Grimm 1887). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

berlangai, Opisthonema Berry [F. H.] & Barrett [I.] 1963:119, Fig. 1B [Bulletin of the Inter-American Tuna Commission v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 4187] East end of bay on northeastern corner of Barrington (Sante Fe) Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: USNM 196807 [ex UCLA W55-314]. Paratypes: FMNH 63871 (6); MCZ 41619 (6); SIO 15-365 (1) (ex UCLA W55-117), 15-538 (1) (ex UCLA W54-288), 15-539 (3) (ex UCLA W53-147), 15-541 (14) (ex UCLA W55-314), 15-542 (1) (ex UCLA W60-134), 15-543 (3) (ex UCLA W53-10), 62-304 (6); UF 19279 [ex TABL 105845] (10); USNM 196808 (30). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:111 [ref. 21035], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:62 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Opisthonema berlangai Berry & Barrett 1963 -- (Whitehead 1985:68 [ref. 5141], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:186 [ref. 24023], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Opisthonema berlangai Berry & Barrett 1963. Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

bianalis, Sauvagella madagascariensis forme Bertin [L.] 1940:300 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 12 (no. 6); ref. 293] Madagascar. Lectotype: MNHN A-5174 (stained). Paralectotypes: MNHN A-5175 (11 + 1 stained). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:28 [ref. 9739], Fricke et al. 2018:57 [ref. 35805]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:28 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Spratellomorpha bianalis (Bertin 1940) -- (Poll et al. 1984:54 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:169 [ref. 5141], Fricke et al. 2018:57 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Spratellomorpha bianalis (Bertin 1940). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

biharensis, Corica Kamal [M. Y.] & Ahsan [S. N.] 1979:29, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Inland Fishery Society of India v. 10 (Dec. 1978); ref. 8819] Ganga River at Rajmahal, District Santhal Parganas, Bihar, India. Holotype: ZSI F7129/2. Paratypes: ZSI F7130/2 (2). •Synonym of Corica soborna Hamilton 1822 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:113 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Corica soborna Hamilton 1822. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bimaculata, Megalops Lesueur [C. A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:104 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:43 [ref. 9739]. Not available, name mentioned in passing; no locality. •In the synonymy of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Whitehead 1985:233 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae.

bipunctata, Clupea Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:298 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype: ZMB 3841. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

bipunctata, Harengula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:298 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:42 [ref. 9739]. Based on a drawing. •Questionably a synonym of Herklotsichthys punctatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:41 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:42 [ref. 9739], Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bishopi, Alosa Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] in Schomburgk 1848:675 [19] [The history of Barbados; comprising a geographical description of the island and an account of its geology and natural productions.; ref. 17812] Barbados, West Indies. No types known. Appeared first as above; reprinted in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1848:19. •Questionably a synonym of Harengula clupeola (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:63 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Uncertain as Harengula clupeola (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

blackburni, Macrura Whitley [G. P.] 1948:266 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 3); ref. 4709] Port Hedland, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.2010. Paratypes: AMS IB.2009 (1), IB.2011 (1), IB.2012-15 (4). •Valid as Herklotsichthys blackburni (Whitley 1948) -- (Whitehead 1985:74 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:153 [ref. 12442], Munroe et al. 1999:1783 [ref. 24728], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:327 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys blackburni (Whitley 1948). Clupeidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Corica Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1936:229 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 15 (pt 3); ref. 13698] Middle course of Kapuas River, Borneo. Syntypes: (many). •Valid as Clupeichthys bleekeri (Hardenberg 1936) -- (Whitehead 1985:183 [ref. 5141], Roberts 1989:24 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:16 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:147 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Clupeichthys bleekeri (Hardenberg 1936). Clupeidae. Distribution: Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

blochii, Clupeonia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:353 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 6551 (right skin). Syntypes: ZMB 6551 (right skin), 21893 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:41 [ref. 9739], Paepke 1999:65 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:220 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bolivari, Alosa fallax Lozano Rey [L.] 1929:660, Pl. 30 (fig. 3) [Memorias de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural Madrid v. 15; ref. 16057] Er Rif coasts, Melilla, Spanish Morocco, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803), subspecies nilotica (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1808) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169]). •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803), subspecies algeriensis (Regan 1916) -- (Kartas 1991:213 [ref. 24841]). •Synonym of Alosa algeriensis Regan 1916 -- (Kottelat 1997:37 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa algeriensis Regan 1916. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

borealis, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:529 [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] Not available; no distinguishing features; for the "Frühjahrshering von Island." •In the synonymy of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

borneensis, Clupeoides Bleeker [P.] 1851:275 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 325] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.33 (1), RMNH 7115 (1), 23480 [ex 7115] (5). •Valid as Clupeoides borneensis Bleeker 1851 -- (Whitehead 1985:174 [ref. 5141], Kottelat et al. 1993:16 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:59 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 1998:21 [ref. 23436], Kottelat 2001:28 [ref. 25780], Roberts 2008:125 [ref. 29475], Roberts 2008:126 [ref. 29475], Tan & Kottelat 2009:25 [ref. 30261], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:40 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Clupeoides borneensis Bleeker 1851. Clupeidae. Distribution: Asia; southern Borneo and Laos. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

borysthenis, Alosa kessleri pontica natio Pavlov [P. I.] 1959:32, Fig. 10 [Inst. Akad. Nauk. USSR, Kiev; ref. 22963] Infrasubspecific, not available; from lower Dnieper River, Ukraine. •In the synonymy of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Kolarov 1991:337 [ref. 24842]). •In the synonymy of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:39 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brachysoma, Alausa Bleeker [P.] 1854:527 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5965] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.14. •Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:220 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brachysoma, Sardinella Bleeker [P.] 1852:19 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.38. Paralectotypes or Bleeker specimens: (15) AMS I.129 (1), RMNH 7089 (14). Lectotype selected by Whitehead et al. 1966:50 [ref. 6860]. •Valid as Sardinella brachysoma Bleeker 1852 -- (Whitehead 1985:95 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:156 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Munroe et al. 1999:1810 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Zhang 2001:85 [ref. 26586], Paxton et al. 2006:332 [ref. 28995], Stern et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34733], Fricke et al. 2018:56 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella brachysoma Bleeker 1852. Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar; India to Indonesia, south to Northern Territory (Australia). Habitat: marine.

braschnikowi, Clupea caspiopontica var. Borodin [N. A.] 1904:180 [13], Fig. 4 [Vestnik Rybopromyshlennosti St. Petersburg v. 19 (no. 3); ref. 18876] Near Fort Aleksandrovsk, middle Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan. Lectotype: ZIN 13051 (280 mm). Paralectotypes: ZIN 13051 (7 of 8, with lectotype). On p. 13 of separate. Spelled Braschnicowii on p. 14. Also described in Borodin 1905:268 [ref. 15340]. Spelled braschnikovi in literature. Lectotype established by Svetovidov 1952:258 [ref. 21481]. •Valid as Caspialosa brashnikovi, with subspecies -- (Berg 1948:116 [ref. 12882], Whitehead 1985:195 [ref. 5141], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:726 [ref. 24702] as braschnikowii). •Valid as Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904) -- (Whitehead 1985:195 [ref. 5141] as braschnikovi, Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Dorofeeva 1998:24 [ref. 23573] as braschnikowii, Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:32 [ref. 28183], Fricke et al. 2007:25 [ref. 29533] as braschnikovi, Esmaeili et al. 2010:366 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:859 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:27 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea and its watersheds. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brasiliensis, Clupea Steindachner [F.] 1879:182 [64] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 1156. Paralectotypes: ?NMW 1155 (1), 1157-62 (3, 2, 2, 4, 1, 4). On p. 64 of separate. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1970:8 [ref. 11605]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Clupea brasiliensis Bloch & Schneider 1801, replaced by Clupea janeiro Eigenmann 1894. See Munroe & Nizinski 2003:825 [ref. 26997]. See Figueiredo et al. 2010:282 [ref. 30889] who treat as a nomen protectum. •Treated as valid as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner 1879) -- (Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:93 [ref. 14275], Whitehead 1985:96 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:72 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:43 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:301 [ref. 23827], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:826 [ref. 26997] as tentatively valid). •Valid as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner 1879) -- (Figueiredo et al. 2010:282 [ref. 30889] as a nomen protectum, Angulo et al. 2013:990 [ref. 33194], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner 1879). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brauneri, Caspialosa Nikolskii [A. M.] 1923:5 [Byulleten Vseukr. Gosud. Chernomorski-azov. Nauchno-promysl. v. 8-9; ref. 21484] Near Dniestr River mouth, northwestern Black Sea, Ukraine. No types known. Based on Brauner 1912:123. •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169]). •Synonym of Alosa maeotica (Grimm 1901) -- (Whitehead 1985:202 [ref. 5141], Kolarov 1991:309 [ref. 24842], Kottelat 1997:39 [ref. 22952], Dorofeeva 1998:26 [ref. 23573], Parin et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa maeotica (Grimm 1901). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brevicaudata, Brevoortia tyrannus var. Goode [G. B.] 1878:34 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 1 (no. 15); ref. 18142] Noank, Connecticut, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 129797. Paralectotypes: USNM 14044 (3), 14846 (4). Lectotype from USNM records, not designated here. •Synonym of Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802). Current status: Synonym of Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

breviceps, Chatoessus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:848 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 3454] New Hannover, Bismarck Archipelago, western Pacific. Holotype: ZMB 9818. Genus originally as Chatoëssus. •Synonym of Anodontostoma selangkat (Bleeker 1852) -- (Whitehead 1985:254 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1789 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:58 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Anodontostoma selangkat (Bleeker 1852). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevidorsalis, Sauvagella madagascariensis forme Bertin [L.] 1940:300 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 12 (no. 6); ref. 293] Madagascar. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3794. •Synonym of Sauvagella madagascariensis (Sauvage 1883) -- (Poll et al. 1984:53 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:169 [ref. 5141], Stiassny 2002:68 [ref. 25890], Fricke et al. 2018:56 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Sauvagella madagascariensis (Sauvage 1883). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

brevis, Alosa Bleeker [P.] 1848:638 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 2 (no. 9); ref. 315] Bima, Sumbawa Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Lost. •Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:220 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1802 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

britannicus, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:526, 529, Figs. 11, 20, 33B [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] English Channel. No types known. Minimal description; for the "Kanalhering". •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brunnichii, Clupea Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:424 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

bryoporus, Spratelloides Cope [E. D.] 1873:25 [2] [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 13 (for 17 Jan. 1873); ref. 929] Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 1211. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621]. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847 -- (Okada 1961:292 [ref. 6363], Whitehead 1985:117 [ref. 5141], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:547 [ref. 34656]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bulan, Clupalosa Bleeker [P.] 1849:12 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura Straits near Bangcallang, Kammal and Surabaya, and Jakarta, Semarang, etc., Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.37. •Synonym of Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:91 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1808 [ref. 24728], Stern et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34733]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

bulgarica, Alosa Drensky [P.] 1934:79 (German p. 85), Fig. 1 [Izvestija na Carskite Prirodonaucni Instituti va Sofija = Mitteilungen aus den Königlichen Naturwissenschaftlichen Instituten in Sofia, Bulgraien = Bulletin des Institutions Royales d'Histoire Naturelle à Sofia, Bulgarie v. 7; ref. 16420] Lower Resovska River, south of Burgas, Bulgaria coasts of the Black Sea. Lectotype: NMNHS 300/2. Lectotype selected by Karapetkova in Hoestlandt 1991:129 (not investigated, see Kottelat 1997:40 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Alosa tanaica (Grimm 1901) -- (Kottelat 1997:40 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:35 [ref. 26753]). •Valid as Alosa bulgarica Drensky 1934 -- (Michajlova 1989:25 [ref. 20062]). •Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies bulgarica Drensky 1934 -- (Svetovidov 1973:106 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:271 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:197 [ref. 5141], Lelek 1987:58 [ref. 22962], Karpaetkova 1991:129 [ref. 24830], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:726 [ref. 24702], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:163 [ref. 28369]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838). Clupeidae. Distribution: Subspecies is a Bulgarian endemic. Habitat: freshwater.

bulleri, Clupea (Opisthonema) Regan [C. T.] 1904:255 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 13 (no. 76) (art. 30); ref. 15198] Las Peñas, Jalisco state, western Mexico. Lectotype: BMNH 1892.9.5.131. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1892.9.5.132 (1). Lectotype selected by Berry & Barrett 1963:123 [ref. 4187] (paralectotype regarded by them as a different species). •Valid as Opisthonema bulleri (Regan 1904) -- (Whitehead 1985:69 [ref. 5141], Bussing & López S. 1994:46 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1025 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:189 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:68 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Opisthonema bulleri (Regan 1904). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific.western Mexico to Peru. Habitat: marine.

bulleri, Fluvialosa Whitley [G. P.] 1948:267 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 3); ref. 4709] Ord River, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.2945-001. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:7 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:6 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead 1985:244 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:155 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:330 [ref. 28995], Moore et al. 2009:6 [ref. 30117]). Current status: Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

caerulea, Clupea Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:457 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Smith 1986:395 [ref. 22186]). •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842) -- (Parrish et al. 1989:2021 [ref. 19496], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:238 [ref. 36362]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

caerulea, Meletta Girard [C. F.] 1854:138 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1817] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 1240-43 (4), 1252 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Sardinops caeruleus (Girard 1854) -- (Whitehead 1985:57 [ref. 5141], Allen & Robertson 1994:61 [ref. 22193], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1023 [ref. 22829]). •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842), but a valid subspecies caeruleus (Girard 1854) -- (McAllister 1990:53 [ref. 14674], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:189 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:188 [ref. 24555] with question). •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842) -- (Mecklenburg et al. 2002:135 [ref. 25968]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleovittata, Clupea Richardson [J.] 1846:305 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; Chinese seas. No types known. Originally as caeruleo-vittata. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:209 [ref. 11606]). Not available, on Official Index (Opinion 901). •Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Poll et al. 1984:52 [ref. 6172]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cagius, Clupanodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:250, 383 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Rivers and ponds of northern Behar, India. No types known. •Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:228 [ref. 5141], Ara et al. 2018:83 [ref. 36281]). Current status: Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

caillentassard, Megalops Blandowski [W.] 1855:131, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria v. 2 (art. 15); ref. 34539] Vicinity of Boston, Eyre Peninsula, South Australia, Australia; Darling River, Australia No types known. Name not available, as p. 131 and Pl. 1 were omitted from distributed journal copies and reprints by order of the Council, of 7 Apr. 1858, therefore not meeting criteria of publication according to ICZN Art. 8.1.1.; publication disclaimed according to ICZN Art. 8.2. See remarks under ref. 34539; see also Iredale & Whitley 1932 [ref. 2299]. •Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868). Current status: Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

caledonicus, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:527, 529, Figs. 28, 29A [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] Hebrides. No types known. Minimal description; for the "Hebridenhering". •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

californica, Alausa Gill [T. N.] 1862:281 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1666] California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 4484 (4). •Synonym of Sardinops caeruleus (Girard 1854) -- (Whitehead 1985:57 [ref. 5141]). •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842). Current status: Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

callolepis, Harengula Goode [G. B.] in Goode & Bean 1879:152 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 74); ref. 18134] Bermuda. Syntypes: USNM 21243 (1). •Synonym of Harengula humeralis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:64 [ref. 5141], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:145 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Harengula humeralis (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

cameronensis, Sardinella Regan [C. T.] 1917:380 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 19 (no. 113); ref. 15126] Cameroon, western Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1866.6.26.2-3 (2). •Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:103 [ref. 7169], Poll et al. 1984:53 [ref. 6172], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:279 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:106 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:221 [ref. 14039], Munroe 2016:1736 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

campi, Signalosa mexicana Weed [A. C.] 1925:143 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 12 (no. 11); ref. 30342] Resaca de la Guerra, near Media Luna Ranch, Brownsville, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: FMNH 11413. Paratypes: FMNH 11407-12 (6), 11414-626 (213), 1148-900 (53), 11627-79 (53), 11680-775 (96), 11776-810 (35), 11811-21 (11), 11822-47 (26). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:79 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Dorosoma petenense (Günther 1867) -- (Lee et al. 1980:70 [ref. 22416], Whitehead 1985:236 [ref. 5141], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Dorosoma petenense (Günther 1867). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

captivai, Opisthonema Rivas [L. R.] 1972:1, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1972 (no. 1); ref. 7639] 22 kilometers north of Punta Caribana, Colombia, Oregon II station 10255. Holotype: USNM 204704. Paratypes: GCRL 3853 (5); UF 19280 [ex TABL 107121] (9), 19627 [ex TABL 107120] (15); USNM 204705 (10), 208566 (20). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:111 [ref. 21035]. •Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Whitehead 1985:72 [ref. 5141], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:824 [ref. 26997]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

caribbaea, Harengula pensacolae Rivas [L. R.] 1950:294, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 100 (no. 3263); ref. 12972] Fox Bay, Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 79534. Paratypes: USNM 79498 (47, now 48), 79515 (49), 79537-38 (1, 3), 128360 (13). •Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Current status: Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

carolinensis, Clupea Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:140 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Central Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.109 (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:206 [ref. 13434]. •Synonym of Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802) -- (Wheeler 1958:206 [ref. 13434]). Current status: Synonym of Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caspia, Clupea Eichwald [C. E. von] 1838:134 [Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou v. 11; ref. 18063] Caspian Sea. Type illustrated in Berg 1948:137 [ref. 12882]. Also appeared as new in Eichward 1838:99 [ref. 34622]. See also Dorofeeva 1998:29 [ref. 23573] •Valid as Caspialosa caspia (Eichwald 1838) -- (Berg 1948:137 [ref. 12882]). •Valid as Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), with subspecies -- (Svetovidov 1973:106 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:270 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:197 [ref. 5141], Hoestlandt 1991:127 [ref. 24825], Heckman 1991:135 [ref. 24828], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:33 [ref. 28183], Fricke et al. 2007:26 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:67 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:47 [ref. 30517], Esmaeili et al. 2010:366 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:859 [ref. 34062], Çiçek et al. 2015:143 [ref. 35151], Esmaeili et al. 2017:27 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838). Clupeidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea basin. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

caspia, Clupeonella delicatula Svetovidov [A. N.] 1941:808 [C. R. (Doklady) Acad. Sci. URSS v. 31 (no. 8); ref. 18864] Volga Delta, Russia, Caspian Sea. Lectotype: ZIN 15883 (152 mm, jar not found in 1996). Paralectotypes: ZIN 15883 (5 juv.). Also described as new in Svetovidov 1945:208 [ref. 13154]. Lectotype established by Svetovidov 1952:199 [ref. 21481]. •Synonym of Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann 1840), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Kozlovsky 1991:55 [ref. 24827], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:728 [ref. 24702]). •Synonym of Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann 1840) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:38 [ref. 28183]). •Valid as Clupeonella caspia Svetovidov 1941 -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:76 [ref. 29996], Esmaeili et al. 2010:366 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:860 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Clupeonella caspia Svetovidov 1941. Clupeidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea basin. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

caspiopontica, Clupea Borodin [N. A.] 1904:177 [11], Figs. 1 (no. 2), 3 [Vestnik Rybopromyshlennosti St. Petersburg v. 19 (no. 3); ref. 18876] Caspian Sea. not at ZIN. Originally as caspio-pontica. On p. 11 of separate. Also described in Borodin 1905:266 [ref. 15340]. Based on literature sources, types not investigated. Apparently an unneeded new name, based on previously-described species and a variety named by Borodin. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

castelnaui, Kowala Ogilby [J. D.] 1897:66 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 22 (pt 1); ref. 3272] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Ogilby specimens: QM I.34 (1), I.245 (1). •Valid as Herklotsichthys castelnaui (Ogilby 1897) -- (Roberts 1978:27 [ref. 8886], Whitehead 1985:75 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:153 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:35 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:221 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:32 [ref. 25488], Munroe et al. 1999:1796 [ref. 24728], Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471], Paxton et al. 2006:327 [ref. 28995], Gomon 2008:189 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys castelnaui (Ogilby 1897). Clupeidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

centralis, Poecilothrissa Poll [M.] 1974:151, Fig. 1 [Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Académie Royale de Belgique (Ser. 5) v. 60 (no. 2); ref. 7530] Bokuma, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: MRAC 88319. Paratypes: BMNH 1899.9.26.68 (1); MRAC 472-473 (2), 493 (1), 93670-71 (2), 94277-82 (6), 94488-91 (3), 96572 (1), 96574 (1), 104908-23 (16), 101646-47 (2), ?188189-612 (424). Type catalog: Derijst 1991:63 [ref. 21528]. •Synonym of Microthrissa congica (Regan 1917) -- (Gourène & Teugels 1990:142 [ref. 16771]). •Valid as Poecilothrissa centralis Poll 1974 -- (Poll et al. 1984:50 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:148 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:125 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Poecilothrissa centralis Poll 1974. Clupeidae. Distribution: Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

cepediana, Megalops Lesueur [C. A.] 1818:361 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2735] Markets of Baltimore and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Possible syntypes and Lesueur specimens: MNHN 0004 (1), 3630 (1, dry), 3631 (1, dry), 3632 (3, dry), 3633 (2, dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:277-278 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:16-17 [ref. 9739]. As Dorosoma lacepedi in literature. •Valid as Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Lee et al. 1980:69 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:71 [ref. 22186], Whitehead 1985:233 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:70 [ref. 23100], Robison & Buchanan 1988:110 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:53 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:39 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:35 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:41 [ref. 23239], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:8 [ref. 22290], Etnier & Starnes 1993:126 [ref. 22809], Desfosse et al. in Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:212 [ref. 21581], Warren et al. 1994:132 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:149 [ref. 25560], Baxter & Stone 1995:52 [ref. 23374], Stauffer et al. 1995:49 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:45 [ref. 23394], Mettee et al. 1996:121 [ref. 25836], Murdy et al. 1997:70 [ref. 23144], Sigler & Sigler 1996:59 [ref. 25943], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:337 [ref. 23897], Scott & Crossman 1998:133 [ref. 24570], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:116 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:46 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:22 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:108 [ref. 25978], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2003:14 [ref. 26883], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:817 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Bailey et al. 2004:70 [ref. 27882], Miller & Robison 2004:70 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:140 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2005:10 [ref. 28940], Miller 2006:92 [ref. 28615], Minckley & Marsh 2009:78 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:151 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:77 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: eastern U.S.A. to Mexico; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ceresioverbana, Alosa lacustris forma Barbieri [C.] 1907:140, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Rivista mensile di Pesca (lacustre, fluviale, marina) (Pavia) Anno 9 (no. 4-5, 6); ref. 21775] Lake Maggiore, Italy; Lake Laguno, Switzerland. Original not seen. •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803), subspecies lacustris (Fatio 1890) -- (Quignard & Douchement 1991:257 [ref. 24829]). •Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Kottelat 1997:36 [ref. 22952], Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

chacunda, Clupanodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:246, 283 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River estuary, India. No types known. •Valid as Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:252 [ref. 5141], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:152 [ref. 12442], Ataur Rahman 1989:257 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:104 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:15 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:274 [ref. 24014], Randall 1995:67 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:100 [ref. 27969] with author as Hamilton-Buchanan, Rainboth 1996:62 [ref. 22772], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:113 [ref. 23922], Munroe et al. 1999:1788 [ref. 24728], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:236 [ref. 24754], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:342 [ref. 25191], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Zhang 2001:106 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:281 [ref. 31338], Randall 2005:57 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:325 [ref. 28995], Kimura in Kimura & Yoshino 2009:29 [ref. 30440], Fricke et al. 2011:355 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:34 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:58 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:36 [ref. 34464], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:17 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:151 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:306 [ref. 36183], Suresh et al. 2018:64 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

champil, Clupea Gray [J. E.] 1834:no page number, Pl. 91 (figs. 5-6) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] India. No types known. Published about 1 Oct. 1834. •Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:228 [ref. 5141], Ara et al. 2018:83 [ref. 36281]). Current status: Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

chanpole, Clupanodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:249, 283, Pl. 18 (fig. 74) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Bengal, India. No types known. Species name misspelled champole by Cuvier 1831:236 [ref. 30376]. Simultaneous synonym of chacunda Hamilton, precedence given to chacunda. •Synonym of Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:252 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:104 [ref. 20764] with question, Munroe et al. 1999:1788 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:58 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chapra, Clupanodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:248, 383 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Upper parts of Ganges River, Gandak River in Saran, Bihar, India. Holotype: ZSI F4648/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:99 [ref. 20743]. •Valid as Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822) -- (Shrestha 1978:33 [ref. 15970], Whitehead 1985:228 [ref. 5141], Ataur Rahman 1989:248 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:96 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:497 [ref. 23778], Banik & Choudhury 1996:579 [ref. 24736], Menon 1999:7 [ref. 24904], Rafique 2000:323 [ref. 25220], Rafique et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27173], Mirza 2003:3 [ref. 27265], Ataur Rahman 2003:271 [ref. 31338], Shrestha 2008:47 [ref. 29923], Ahmed et al. 2013:285 [ref. 32872], Psomadakis et al. 2015:152 [ref. 34104], Ara et al. 2018:83 [ref. 36281], Suresh et al. 2018:69 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Distribution: India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

chavesi, Dorosoma Meek [S. E.] 1907:112 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 2959] Laguna Jenicero, Granada, Nicaragua. Holotype: FMNH 5928 (1 of 6). Paratypes: FMNH 5925-27 (15, 30, 6), 5928 (5 of 5), 14631-39 (9), 52272 (7); UMMZ 162482 [ex FMNH 14629-30, 14640] (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:33 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Dorosoma chavesi Meek 1907 -- (Whitehead 1985:234 [ref. 5141], Bussing 1987:65 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:68 [ref. 24179], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2003:1 [ref. 26883], Angulo et al. 2013:990 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Dorosoma chavesi Meek 1907. Clupeidae. Distribution: Lakes Managua and Nicaragua and tributaries, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Habitat: freshwater.

chilcae, Ethmidium Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:82, Fig. 17 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Chilca Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 127806. Paratypes: (11) USNM 53526 (3), 77531 (5), 77618 (1), 83024 (1), 83036 (1). •Synonym of Brevoortia maculata (Valenciennes 1847), but a valid subspecies -- (Pequeño 1989:27 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Ethmidium maculatum (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:217 [ref. 5141], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:188 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Synonym of Ethmidium maculatum (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysochloris, Pomolobus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1820:171 [Western Revue and Miscellaneous Magazine: a monthly publ., devoted to literature and science, Lexington, KY v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 7309] Ohio River, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Rafinesque 1820:39 [ref. 3592]. •Valid as Alosa chrysochloris (Rafinesque 1820) -- (Lee et al. 1980:63 [ref. 22416], Whitehead 1985:198 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:68 [ref. 23100], Robison & Buchanan 1988:109 [ref. 23393], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:38 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:34 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:40 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:123 [ref. 22809], Warren et al. 1994:132 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:149 [ref. 25560], Stauffer et al. 1995:46 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:43 [ref. 23394], Mettee et al. 1996:117 [ref. 25836], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:332 [ref. 23897], Fuller et al. 1999:43 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:22 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:105 [ref. 25978], Scharpf 2003:13 [ref. 26883], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:812 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Bailey et al. 2004:68 [ref. 27882], Miller & Robison 2004:68 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:137 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2005:9 [ref. 28940], Page & Burr 2011:149 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:69 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Alosa chrysochloris (Rafinesque 1820). Clupeidae. Distribution: East-central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chrysopterus, Chatoessus Richardson [J.] 1846:308 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Chinese sea. No types known. Type information: Whitehead 1970:209 [ref. 11606]. •Questionably a synonym of Nematalosa nasus (Bloch 1795) -- (Whitehead 1985:248 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:62 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Nematalosa nasus (Bloch 1795) -- (Munroe et al. 1999:1807 [ref. 24728]). •Synonym of Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Zhang 2001:98 [ref. 26586]). Current status: Synonym of Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chrysotaenia, Clupea Cocco [A.] 1840:240 [Il Maurolico, Giornale di Scienze, Lettere e Arti v. 4 (fasc. 6); ref. 23130] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Not in current literature. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

chrysotaenia, Harengula Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:187 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Not available, no distinguishing features; with author as Bleeker. Clupeidae.

chtamalocephala, Caspialosa pontica morpha Isachenko [V. L.] 1925:110, 116 [Trudy Vseukrainskoj Gosudarstvennoj Cernomorsko-Azovskoj Naucno-Promyslovoj Opytnoj Stancii; = Arbelten der All-Ukranischen Wissenschaftlich-Praktischen Staats-Station des Schwarzen und Asow Meeres, Narodnyj Komissariat Zemiedelija Ukrainskoj SSR v. 1; ref. 18328] Dnieper River at Otchakov, Ukraine. Syntypes: (10). Apparently not available, infrasubspecific; from mouth of Dnieper River, Otchakov, Ukraine; perhaps validated later. •Synonym of Caspialosa kessleri (Grimm 1887), subspecies pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Berg 1948:124 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:204 [ref. 5141], Kolarov 1991:337 [ref. 24842]). •Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:39 [ref. 22952], Parin et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cimbrica, Clupea harengus subform Nilsson [S.] 1832:24 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Not available; apparently as a subform of Clupea harengus forma taeniensis (Baltic Sea); infrasubspecific and no distinguishing features. Clupeidae.

cimbricus, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:528, 529, Figs. 38, 41 [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] North Sea. No types known. Minimal description; for the "Jütland-Herring". •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

clupeoides, Amblygaster Bleeker [P.] 1849:73 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 316] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia, Strait of Makassar, western Pacific. Lectotype: RMNH 7094 (1). Paralectotypes: RMNH 23307 [ex RMNH 7094] (8). Bleeker specimens: AMS I.93 (1), NMV A935 (1). •Valid as Amblygaster clupeoides Bleeker 1849 -- (Whitehead 1985:86 [ref. 5141], Myers 1999:60 [ref. 23965], Munroe et al. 1999:1785 [ref. 24728], Zhang 2001:70 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:19 [ref. 27712] as clupeioides, Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:55 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2011:355 [ref. 31242], Mary et al. 2017:468 [ref. 35219]). Current status: Valid as Amblygaster clupeoides Bleeker 1849. Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

clupeola, Clupea Cuvier [G.] 1829:318 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Martinique Island, West Indies. Neotype: MNHN 0000-3379. Non-types: MNHN B-3083 [ex MNHN 0000-3379], 0000-0928 (3), 0000-3237 (9). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:10 [ref. 9739]. Available from footnote as, "Espèces voisines de la blanquette par les formes: le Cailleu, Duham., sec. III, pl. xxxi, f. 3 (Cl. clupeola, N.)." Neotype designated by Whitehead 1967:24 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Harengula clupeola (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:63 [ref. 5141], Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:76 [ref. 14235], Robins & Ray 1986:70 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:86 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:41 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:298 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:339 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:113 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:144 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:819 [ref. 26997], Smith et al. 2003:10 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Matamoros et al. 2009:8 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:26 [ref. 33341], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Harengula clupeola (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

coerulea, Alausa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:432 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] No locality [= Chile]. Syntypes: not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:35-36 [ref. 9739]. •Questionably a synonym of Ethmidium maculatum (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:34 [ref. 9739], Whitehead 1985:217 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Uncertain as Ethmidium maculatum (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

collettei, Herklotsichthys Wongratana [T.] 1987:105, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 100 (no. 1); ref. 8020] Shark Bay, 26°10'S, 113°11'E, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.25464-004. Paratypes: AMS IB.1637 (1); CSIRO C 2880 and C 2881 (18), C2895 (12); WAM P.2544-001 (1), P.2545-001 (1), P.22574-001 (1), P.23870-001 (1), P.25464-002 (6), P.26667-001 (1), P.27380-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:7 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:6 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Herklotsichthys collettei Wongratana 1987 -- (Munroe et al. 1999:1783 [ref. 24728], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:327 [ref. 28995], Hata et al. 2015:42 [ref. 34420]). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys collettei Wongratana 1987. Clupeidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

come, Chatoesus Richardson [J.] 1846:62, Pl. 38 (figs. 7-10) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Western Australia. Syntypes: BMNH 1971.4.26.1 (1). Genus should have been spelled Chatoessus. Based on one specimen and Clupea thrissa of Russell. •Valid as Nematalosa come (Richardson 1846) -- (Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:20 [ref. 6441], Whitehead 1985:243 [ref. 5141], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:155 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Munroe et al. 1999:1803 [ref. 24728], Nakabo 2000:247 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Kottelat 2001:13 [ref. 25482], Sakai et al. 2001:86 [ref. 25693], Zhang 2001:104 [ref. 26586], Nakabo 2002:247 [ref. 26001], Paxton et al. 2006:330 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2011:355 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:35 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Nematalosa come (Richardson 1846). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

commersoni, Clupeonia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:350 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Mumbai, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-2206. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3078 [ex MNHN 0000-2206] (1), 0000-2958 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:286-287 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:12 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:64 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Sardinella melanura (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:108 [ref. 5141], Fricke 1999:75 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella melanura (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

communis, Alosa Yarrell [W.] 1836:136, Fig. [A history of British fishes; ref. 4812] Thames and Severn rivers, U.K. No types known. •Synonym of Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:105 [ref. 7169], Poll et al. 1984:41 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:194 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:208 [ref. 14039], Quignard & Douchement 1991:89 [ref. 24829], Kottelat 1997:37 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

congica, Poecilothrissa Regan [C. T.] 1917:202 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 19 (no. 110); ref. 3668] Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo. Syntypes: BMNH 1896.3.9.25 (1) Monsembe, 1899.9.26.65 (1) Coquillatville. •Valid as Microthrissa congica (Regan 1917) -- (Gourène & Teugels 1990:142 [ref. 16771]). •Valid as Poecilothrissa congica Regan 1917 -- (Poll et al. 1984:50 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:149 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:125 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Poecilothrissa congica Regan 1917. Clupeidae. Distribution: West-central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

copii, Hyperlophus Ogilby [J. D.] 1897:72 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 22 (pt 1); ref. 3272] Maroubra, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.3669 (12), USNM 48827 (2). •Synonym of Hyperlophus vittatus (Castelnau 1875) -- (Whitehead 1985:188 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:155 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:329 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Hyperlophus vittatus (Castelnau 1875). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cortius, Clupanodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:249, 383 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Brahmaputra River, near Goyalpara, India. No types known. •Synonym of Gonialosa manmina (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:256 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Gonialosa manmina (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

coval, Clupea Cuvier [G.] 1829:318, Pl. 186 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Available from footnote as, "Cl. coval, N., Russ., 186, etc." Based on Russell 1803:70, known (Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:37 [ref. 9739]). •Questionably the same as Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847). •Status uncertain -- (Whitehead 1985:119 [ref. 5141]). •Synonym of Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Munroe et al. 1999:1795 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ctenolepis, Alausa Bleeker [P.] 1852:74 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 16832] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Muntok; Singapore (which one as new locality). Lectotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.23. Paralectotypes: (2) RMNH 7111 (1). Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:32 [ref. 16826] with 2 syntypes from Batavia, Muntok, Banka Island; earliest not established. Lectotype selected by Whitehead et al. 1966:85. •Synonym of Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:226 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1821 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:63 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cubana, Harengula pensacolae Rivas [L. R.] 1950:298, Fig. 40, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 100 (no. 3263); ref. 12972] Buenavista Anchorage (Cayo Buenavista), Pinar del Río Province, northwestern Cuba. Holotype: USNM 132472. Paratypes: USNM 82321 (83, now 82), 124308 (32, now 31). •Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Current status: Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cuga, Clupea (Antu) bentincki de Buen [F.] 1958:89, Fig. 1 [Revista de Biologia Marina, Valparaiso v. 8 (nos 1-3); ref. 695] Coast of Chile. Syntypes: EBMC 13-15 (4), EMBC 2-12 (12), EMBC (49), EMBC (58). •Synonym of Strangomera bentincki (Norman 1936) -- (Whitehead 1985:130 [ref. 5141]). •Synonym of Strangomera bentincki (Norman 1936), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Pequeño 1989:27 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Clupea bentincki Norman 1936 -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Strangomera bentincki (Norman 1936). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

cultriventris, Clupea Nordmann [A. von] 1840:522 [Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée; ref. 3209] Pont-Euxin [Black Sea]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3681 (3) Odessa, Black Sea. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:282-283 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:10-11 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Clupeonella delicatula (Nordmann 1840) [which is itself preoccupied] -- (Berg 1948:165 [ref. 12882]). •Valid as Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann 1840) -- (Svetovidov 1973:101 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:274 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:52 [ref. 5141], Hoestlandt 1991:53 [ref. 24825], Heckman 1991:71 [ref. 24828], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:41 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:728 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:29 [ref. 23573], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:36 [ref. 26753], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:37 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:164 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:26 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:76 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:49 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:164 [ref. 31251], Parin et al. 2014:58 [ref. 33547], Çiçek et al. 2015:143 [ref. 35151], Özuluğ & Saç 2019:25 [ref. 36599]). Current status: Valid as Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann 1840). Clupeidae. Distribution: Black Sea, Sea of Azov, Sea of Marmara and adjacent watersheds. Habitat: brackish, marine.

curensis, Clupea (Alosa) Suvorov [E. K.] 1907:162 [24], Fig. 4 [Trudy Kasp. Exped. 1904 v. 1; ref. 14359] Southern Caspian Sea, near mouth of Kura River, Azerbaijan. Lectotype: ZIN 13984. Paralectotypes: ZIN 13984 (2, with lectotype). On p. 24 of separate. Lectotype established by Svetovidov 1952:279 [ref. 21481]. •Valid as Caspialosa curensis (Suvorov 1907) -- (Berg 1948:120 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa brashnikowi (Borodin 1904), but a valid subspecies -- (Whitehead 1985:196 [ref. 5141] as brashnikovi, Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608]). •See Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608]. •Valid as Alosa curensis (Suvorov 1907) -- (Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573], Esmaeili et al. 2010:366 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:859 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:28 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36089] once misspelled kurensis). Current status: Valid as Alosa curensis (Suvorov 1907). Clupeidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea basin. Habitat: brackish.

cuvierii, Alosa Malm [A. W.] 1877:654 [ ref. 2881] Original as Linnéi. Tentatively regarded as an unneeded replacement name for Clupea alosa Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid "Strickland tautonomy"). •Synonym of Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:105 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:194 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:208 [ref. 14039], Quignard & Douchement 1991:89 [ref. 24829], Kottelat 1997:37 [ref. 22952], Dorofeeva 1998:24 [ref. 23573]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cyanonoton, Alosa Storer [D. H.] 1848:242 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 2 (1845-1848); ref. 18841] Provincetown, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Questionably a synonym of Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill 1814) -- (Smith 1986:66 [ref. 22186], Whitehead 1985:192 [ref. 5141]). •Synonym of Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill 1814) -- (Scott & Crossman 1998:120 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill 1814). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dactylolepis, Fimbriclupea Whitley [G. P.] 1940:399, Fig. 5 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 4); ref. 4699] Port Sampson, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS I.13254. Paratypes: AMS 13255-57 (3). •Synonym of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849) -- (Whitehead 1985:100 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:157 [ref. 12442], Munroe et al. 1999:1813 [ref. 24728], Paxton et al. 2006:332 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

dakini, Sardinops Whitley [G. P.] 1937:114 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 4689] Thursday Island, northern Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM I.5309 (1), I.5336-37 (1, 1). •Synonym of Amblygaster sirm (Walbaum 1792) -- (Whitehead 1985:88 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:152 [ref. 12442], Munroe et al. 1999:1787 [ref. 24728], Paxton et al. 2006:324 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Amblygaster sirm (Walbaum 1792). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

danubii, Alosa pontica var. Antipa [G.] 1904:300 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 41 (no. 19); ref. 129] Northwest coast of Black Sea and lower Danube [Donau] River, Romania. Syntypes: ?NMW 4239 (4). Appeared in more detail in Antipa 1906:17, Pl. 1 (figs. 4-8) [ref. 6859]. •Synonym of Caspialosa kessleri (Grimm 1887), subspecies pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Berg 1948:124 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:204 [ref. 5141], Kolarov 1991:337 [ref. 24842], Dorofeeva 1998:27 [ref. 23573]). •Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952], Parin et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dayi, Sardinella Regan [C. T.] 1917:381 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 19 (no. 113); ref. 15126] Karwar, India. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1912.5.2.2. •Synonym of Sardinella jussieui (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:102 [ref. 5141]). •Valid as Sardinella dayi Regan 1917 -- (Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:20 [ref. 27712]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella dayi Regan 1917. Clupeidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

dekimpei, Laeviscutella Poll [M.], Whitehead [P. J. P.] & Hopson [A. J.] 1965:280, Figs. 1-4 [Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Académie Royale de Belgique (Ser. 5) v. 51 (no. 3); ref. 3524] Dawenia Dam, near Tema, coast of Ghana. Holotype: BMNH 1965.2.10.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1965.2.10.2-11 (10), MRAC 142828-37 (10). Type catalog: Derijst 1991:48 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Laeviscutella dekimpei Poll, Whitehead & Hopson 1965 -- (Poll et al. 1984:45 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:165 [ref. 5141], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:109 [ref. 21589], Poll & Gosse 1995:129 [ref. 24781], Teugels 2007:199 [ref. 30016]). Current status: Valid as Laeviscutella dekimpei Poll, Whitehead & Hopson 1965. Clupeidae. Distribution: West-central Africa. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

delicatula, Clupea Nordmann [A. von] 1840:524 [Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée; ref. 3209] Black Sea [ = Odessa, Ukraine]. Lectotype: ZIN 2254. Paralectotypes: ZIN 2254 (5 of 6). Lectotype selected by Svetovidov 1952. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Clupea delicatula Bennett 1831. •Wrongly treated as valid -- (Berg 1948:161 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann 1840) -- (Svetovidov 1973:101 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:274 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:52 [ref. 5141], Hoestlandt 1991:53 [ref. 24825], Heckman 1991:71 [ref. 24828], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:41 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:728 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:29 [ref. 23573], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:36 [ref. 26753], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:37 [ref. 28183], Parin et al. 2014:58 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea cultriventris (Nordmann 1840). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dentibranchialus, Minyclupeoides Roberts [T. R.] 2008:126, Figs. 1-2 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 56 (no. 1); ref. 29745] Takeo-Angkor Borei flood plain near Takeo during rainy season, Mekong Basin, Cambodia. Holotype: ZRC 50699. Paratypes CAS 224372 (13, 3 c&s); ZRC 50700 (32, 9 c&s). Author is T. R. Roberts. •Valid as Minyclupeoides dentibranchialus Roberts 2008. Current status: Valid as Minyclupeoides dentibranchialus Roberts 2008. Clupeidae. Distribution: Lower Mekong River, Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

derzhavini, Caspialosa brashnikovi Tarasevich [V. M.] 1946:49 [Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR, otel biologii i sel'skokhozyaistvennyhk nauk [Bull. Acad. Sci. Azerbaijan SSR] Issue 1, yr. 12 (no. 3); ref. 19605] Near Apsheron Peninsula, Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Caspialosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904) -- (Berg 1948:465 [ref. 12882], Whitehead 1985:195 [ref. 5141]). •Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

desmaresti, Clupea Risso [A.] 1827:479 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] •See account of Engraulis desmaresti Risso 1827. Current status: Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838). Clupeidae.

desmaresti, Engraulis Risso [A.] 1827:455 (479), Pl. 9 (fig. 22) [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Appeared as Clupea desmaresti on p. 479; see Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:47-48 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838) -- (Whitehead 1990:219 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dispilonotus, Harengula Bleeker [P.] 1852:456 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 16828] Bangka, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.28. Paralectotypes: RMNH 7101 (2). Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:49 [ref. 16826]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1964:279 [ref. 23125]. •Valid as Herklotsichthys dispilonotus (Bleeker 1852) -- (Whitehead 1985:76 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1797 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34319], Motomura et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys dispilonotus (Bleeker 1852). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia east to Philippines, north to Vietnam. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dobrogica, Sardina Antipa [G.] 1904:302 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 41 (no. 19); ref. 129] Black Sea, Romania. No types known. Appeared in more detail in Antipa 1906:42 [ref. 6859]. •Synonym of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Svetovidov 1973:102 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:55 [ref. 5141], Parin et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dollfusi, Harengula Chabanaud [P.] 1933:1, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 627; ref. 16475] Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: (7) MNHN 1966-0343 (1), 1966-0344 (1); MOM (not present in 1995). •Synonym of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849) -- (Dor 1984:41 [ref. 29757], Stern et al. 2014:48 [ref. 36018]). •Synonym of Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:14 [ref. 9739], Whitehead 1985:91 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1808 [ref. 24728], Golani & Fricke 2018:30 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

dorsalis, Alausa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:418 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Gorée, Senegal. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3175. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3087 [ex MNHN 0000-3175] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:281 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:7 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:86 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825) -- (Poll et al. 1984:42 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:219 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:210 [ref. 14039], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:103 [ref. 21589], Munroe 2016:1731 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Synonym of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dubia, Clupea harengula Bleeker [P.] (ex Valenciennes) 1872:108 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 428] Trincomale, Sri Lanka. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0666. Replacement for Sardinella lineolaa Valenciennes 1847; a simulitaneous homonym of Clupea lineolata Valenciennes 1824, when both are placed in Clupea. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

durbanensis, Clupea Regan [C. T.] 1906:4, Pl. 4 [Annals of the Natal Government Museum v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 3628] Durban Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1905.6.8.19-20 (2). •Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:220 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:202 [ref. 6284], Munroe et al. 1999:1802 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:62 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

eba, Alausa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:417 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Gorée, Senegal. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0003. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3086 [ex MNHN 0000-0003] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:287 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:7 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:49 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:103 [ref. 7169], Poll et al. 1984:53 [ref. 6172], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:279 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:106 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:219 [ref. 14039], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:101 [ref. 21589], Munroe 2016:1736 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

eichwaldii, Clupea Grimm [O. von] 1901:67 [Vestnik Rybopromyshlennosti St. Petersburg v. 16 (no. 2); ref. 18161] Azov Sea, Russia. Syntypes: ZIN 16108-13 (1, 1 juv., 1 juv., 1, 3, 5) •Synonym of Caspialosa kessleri (Grimm 1887), subspecies pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Berg 1948:124 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:204 [ref. 5141], Kolarov 1991:337 [ref. 24842], Dorofeeva 1998:27 [ref. 23573], Parin et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33547]) Current status: Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

elata, Caspialosa kiselevitschi morpha Morozov [A. V.] 1928:73 [Trudy Naucnogo Instituta Rybnogo Chozjajstva v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 19612] Not available, infrasubspecific; from Krasnovodsk Bay, Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan. Clupeidae.

electra, Sardinella Hata [H.] & Motomura [H.] 2019:274, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4565 (no. 2); ref. 36571] Ishigaki Fishing Port, Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, Japan. Holotype: URM-P 32904. Paratypes: KAUM, URM. •Valid as Sardinella electra Hata & Motomura 2019. Current status: Valid as Sardinella electra Hata & Motomura 2019. Clupeidae. Distribution: Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Habitat: marine.

ellipticus, Chatoessus Kirtland [J. P.] 1838:169, 195 [Report on the zoology of Ohio; ref. 18399] Not available, no distinguishing features; from the Ohio River, U.S.A. •In the synonymy of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Whitehead 1985:233 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae.

elongata, Caspialosa brauneri morpha Isachenko [V. L.] 1925:128 [Trudy Vseukrainskoj Gosudarstvennoj Cernomorsko-Azovskoj Naucno-Promyslovoj Opytnoj Stancii; = Arbelten der All-Ukranischen Wissenschaftlich-Praktischen Staats-Station des Schwarzen und Asow Meeres, Narodnyj Komissariat Zemiedelija Ukrainskoj SSR v. 1; ref. 18328] Not available, infrasubspecific; from Mouth of Dnieper River, Otchakov, Ukraine. •In the synonymy of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169]). •In the synonymy of Alosa maeotica (Grimm 1901) -- (Whitehead 1985:202 [ref. 5141], Kolarov 1991:309 [ref. 24842], Kottelat 1997:39 [ref. 22952], Dorofeeva 1998:26 [ref. 23573], Parin et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa maeotica (Grimm 1901). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

elongata, Clupea Lesueur [C. A.] 1818:234 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2735] Coast of Marblehead and Sandy Bay, Massachusetts, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Whitehead 1985:115 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

elongata, Clupea alosa var. De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:533 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] Regarded as without distinguishing features, not available. From France. •Questionably in the synonymy of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803) -- (Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952] who treats as infrasubspecific). Current status: Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

elongata, Escualosa Wongratana [T.] 1983:392, Fig. 8 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Sunday market (Sanarm-luang), Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype: BMNH 1973.1.18.1. Paratypes: CUB (uncat. 1). •Valid as Escualosa elongata Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:118 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1794 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122]). Current status: Valid as Escualosa elongata Wongratana 1983. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Pacific (Thailand). Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Chatoessus Macleay [W.] 1883:209 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 14342] Mary River, Maryborough, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.6018. A figure of the holotype was provided by Whitley 1943:130 [ref. 4702]. •Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead 1985:244 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:155 [ref. 12442], Munroe et al. 1999:1804 [ref. 24728], Paxton et al. 2006:330 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

engrauliformis, Clupea Borodin [N. A.] 1904:335 [Vestnik Rybopromyshlennosti St. Petersburg v. 19 (no. 6); ref. 22541] Near Buinak, Caspian Sea, Russia. Lectotype: ZIN 13860 (124 mm). Paralectotypes: ZIN 16119 (1), 30983 (?), 42863 (9), 13860 (5+, with lectotype). Also described in Borodin 1906:198 [2], Fig. 1 [ref. 16986]; on p. 2 of separate. Lectotype established by Svetovidov 1952:205 [ref. 21481]. •Valid as Clupeonella engrauliformis (Borodin 1904) -- (Berg 1948:168 [ref. 12882], Whitehead 1985:53 [ref. 5141], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:728 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:30 [ref. 23573], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:38 [ref. 28183], Esmaeili et al. 2010:366 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:860 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Clupeonella engrauliformis (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea basin. Habitat: brackish, marine.

erebi, Chatoessus Günther [A.] 1868:407 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Mary River, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: BMNH 1866.6.19.6. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1846.3.24.2 (1, stuffed), 1846.3.24.12 (1, skin), 1846.3.24.- (1 skin), 1867.5.6.4 (1), 1867.5.6.5 (1, skeleton), 1867.5.6.99 (1, skeleton), 1867.5.13.6 (1); SAMA F1063 (1). Lectotype apparently designated by Nelson & Rothman 1973:152 [ref. 7578] [needs research]. •Valid as Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868) -- (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:60 [ref. 25473], Whitehead 1985:244 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:155 [ref. 12442], Allen & Leggett 1990:533 [ref. 20887], Larson & Martin 1990:2 [ref. 16606], Briggs & McDowall in McDowall 1996:44 [ref. 22909], Pusey et al. 2000:72 [ref. 24466], Munroe et al. 1999:1802 [ref. 24728], Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471], Unmack 2001:1060 [ref. 25797], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2002:65 [ref. 25930], Morgan et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27718], Hammer & Walker 2004:88 [ref. 28129], Paxton et al. 2006:330 [ref. 28995], Morgan et al. 2011:10 [ref. 31262], Hammer et al. 2012:63 [ref. 32389], Larson et al. 2013:36 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35250], Kuiter 2018:15 [ref. 36369]). Current status: Valid as Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868). Clupeidae. Distribution: Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

erythraea, Spratella Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1852:26 [Fische und deren Skelette; ref. 3846] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. Apparently not available as above, no description. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:41 [ref. 29757] with question). •Whitehead 1985:80 [ref. 5141] dated this species to Klunzinger 1870:599 and placed as a synonym of Herklotsichthys punctatus (Rüppell 1837). •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Kotelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae.

esca, Cyprinus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:446 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Thames River, England. No types known. Based on Pennant 1769:371. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:115 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

etemi, Caspiolosa tanaica Battalgil [F.] 1941:171 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 6 (nos 1-2); ref. 13194] Lake Manyas, Asia Minor. Spelling of original genus should have been Caspialosa. •Status uncertain -- (Svetovidov 1973:106 [ref. 7169]). •Questionably a synonym of Alosa tanaica (Grimm 1901) -- (Kottelat 1997:40 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Uncertain as Alosa tanaica (Grimm 1901). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

eumorphus, Chatoessus Gosse [P. H.] 1851:290 [A naturalist's sojourn in Jamaica; ref. 18149] Jamaica. •Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Whitehead 1985:72 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

eupleura, Microthrissa Lönnberg [E.] & Rendahl [H.] 1920:168 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 6 (no. 31); ref. 15241] Lower Congo. Syntypes: NRM 9919 (4). •Valid as Poecilothrissa eupleura (Lönnberg & Rendahl 1920) -- (Poll et al. 1984:50 [ref. 6172]). •Possibly the same as Poecilothrissa congica Regan 1917 -- (Whitehead 1985:149 [ref. 5141]). •Synonym of Microthrissa congica (Regan 1917) -- (Gourène & Teugels 1990:142 [ref. 16771]). •Synonym of Poecilothrissa congica Regan 1917. Current status: Synonym of Poecilothrissa congica Regan 1917. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

euxina, Sardinella Antipa [G.] 1906:46, Pl. 3 (figs. 12-18) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 78; ref. 6859] Coast of Constanza. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Svetovidov 1973:103 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:93 [ref. 5141] as cuxina, Whitehead 1990:215 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

exile, Clupea Kishinouye [K.] 1911:383, Pl. 30 (fig. 1) [Journal of the College of Agriculture, Imperial University Tokyo v. 2 (no. 7); ref. 18418] Chichijima, Bonin Islands. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

exile, Dorosoma cepedianum Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:585 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 328); ref. 2473] Galveston, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 30913 (2, lost). Based on Galveston form of Dorosoma cepedianum; types taken from Jordan & Gilbert 1882:248 [ref. 2472]. •Synonym of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Whitehead 1985:233 [ref. 5141], Scott & Crossman 1998:134 [ref. 24570], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:116 [ref. 24550], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

exilis, Clupeoides Fowler [H. W.] 1935:92, Fig. 12 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 13881] Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 60508. Paratypes: ANSP 60509-18 and 61476-86 (21, in one jar), 61487 (1), 61488 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Clupeoides borneensis Bleeker 1851 -- (Whitehead 1985:174 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Clupeoides borneensis Bleeker 1851. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

fallax, Clupea Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:424, 452 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Seine River at Rouen, France. Neotype: MNHN 0000-3188. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:278-279 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:11 [ref. 9739]. Putative neotype designated by Whitehead 1967:79 [ref. 6464] and accepted by Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:11 [ref. 9739]. •Italian populations questionably a synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726]). •Valid as Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803) -- (Berg 1948:144 [ref. 12882], Svetovidov 1973:107 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:271 [ref. 13675], Poll et al. 1984:41 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:199 [ref. 5141], Lelek 1987:61 [ref. 22962], Whitehead 1990:209 [ref. 14039], Quignard & Douchement 1991:211, 225 [ref. 24829], Lévèque et al. 1991:133 [ref. 31367], Bianco et al. 1996:55 [ref. 26724], Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:26 [ref. 23573], Azeroual et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25366], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:33 [ref. 28183], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:65 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:48 [ref. 30517], Parin et al. 2014:53 [ref. 33547], Barbieri et al. 2015:39 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:143 [ref. 35151], Munroe 2016:1730 [ref. 34560], Neumann et al. 2016:303 [ref. 35036], Martins & Carneiro 2018:28 [ref. 36550], Kukuev & Orlov 2018:33 [ref. 36609]). Current status: Valid as Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803). Clupeidae. Distribution: Baltic Sea, North Sea, northeastern Atlantic and adjacent estuaries. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fasciata, Clupea Lesueur [C. A.] 1818:233 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2735] Massachusetts, U.S.A. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Clupea fasciata Lacepède 1803. •Questionably a synonym of Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill 1814) -- (Whitehead 1985:192 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill 1814). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fasciata, Clupeonia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:349 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Saint-Denis, Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0895. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:286 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:12 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ficta, Alosa Duhamel du Monceau [H. L.] 1776:320, Pl. I, figs. 1-7 [ ref. 35387] Originally described as Alosa ficta aut falsa, not binominal. Published in a rejected work, see ICZN Opinion 859. •Valid as Alosa ficta Duhamel 1776 -- (Spillmann 1961:30 [ref. 35397] with date 1772). •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803) -- (Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803). Clupeidae.

fijiense, Harengula Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:3 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Fiji Islands. Holotype: USNM 82799. Paratypes: USNM 179013 (1). Later treated as Harengula fijiensis by Fowler & Bean. Harengula and Sardinella are feminine, therefore mandatory change to fijiensis when placed in either genus. •Valid as Sardinella fijiensis (Fowler & Bean 1923) (often as fijiense) -- (Whitehead 1985:97 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1811 [ref. 24728], Randall 2005:55 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2011:355 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella fijiensis (Fowler & Bean 1923). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fimbriata, Alausa Kner [R.] & Steindachner [F.] 1867:386 [31], Pl. 3 (fig. 15) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 54 (pt 3); ref. 2640] Valparaíso?, Chile. No types known. Type information: Whitehead 1970:16 [ref. 11605]. On p. 31 of separate. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fimbriata, Clupea Forster [J. R.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:299 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] San Jago, Cape Verde Islands. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Clupea fimbriata Bowdich 1825. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fimbriata, Clupea Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:234, Fig. 44 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] St. Louis, Senegal. Neotype: BMNH 1900.6.28.25. Neotype established by Whitehead 1967:589 [ref. 22241]; original locality Cape Verde Is. probably in error. •Valid as Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825) -- (Whitehead 1967 [ref. 22241], Poll et al. 1984:42 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:219 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:210 [ref. 14039], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:103 [ref. 21589], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466], Teugels 2007:193 [ref. 30016], Wirtz et al. 2007:6, 26 [ref. 30263], Munroe 2016:1731 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Valid as Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Sahara to Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fimbriata, Spratella Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:359, Pl. 601 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Malabar coast, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3227. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3084 [ex MNHN 0000-3227] (4). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:287 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:29 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:50 [ref. 6464]. On Official List of Specific Names in Zoology (Opinion 901). •Valid as Sardinella fimbriata (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Dor 1984:41 [ref. 29757], Whitehead 1985:98 [ref. 5141], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:213 [ref. 24016], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:108 [ref. 27969], Munroe et al. 1999:1812 [ref. 24728], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Zhang 2001:86 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:20 [ref. 27712], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Kottelat 2013:63 [ref. 32989], Stern et al. 2016:9 [ref. 34733], Ali et al. 2018:307 [ref. 36183], Hata & Motomura 2019:81 [ref. 36574]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella fimbriata (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

finta, Clupea Cuvier [G.] 1829:320 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] "jusque dans le Nil." No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:38 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726]). •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803) -- (Berg 1948:144 [ref. 12882], Svetovidov 1973:107 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:271 [ref. 13675], Poll et al. 1984:41 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:199 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:209 [ref. 14039], Quignard & Douchement 1991:211, 225 [ref. 24829], Lévèque et al. 1991:133 [ref. 31367], Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952], Munroe 2016:1730 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

floridana, Harengula pensacolae Rivas [L. R.] 1950:301, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 100 (no. 3263); ref. 12972] Old Rhodes Key, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 62584. Paratypes: USNM 123750 (15), 125311 (14). •Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Current status: Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fluviatilis, Ehirava Deraniyagala [P. E. P.] 1929:35, Pl. 14 [Spolia Zeylanica (The Ceylon Journal of Science, Section B.--Zoology & Geology) v. 15 (pt 1); ref. 1115] Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Holotype: BMNH 1929.7.1.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1929.7.1.2-9 (13), NMSL FF14 (lost), ZSI F11043/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:98 [ref. 20743]. Type information: Pethiyagoda 1991:335 [ref. 20075]. •Valid as Ehirava fluviatilis Deraniyagala 1929 -- (Whitehead 1985:172 [ref. 5141], Pethiyagoda 1991:51 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:116 [ref. 20764], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Ehirava fluviatilis Deraniyagala 1929. Clupeidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

flyensis, Nematalosa Wongratana [T.] 1983:393, Fig. 9 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] 450 kilometers up river from Toro Pass, Fly River, New Guinea. Holotype: BMNH 1979.8.17.3. Paratypes: AMS B.9954 (1); BMNH 1977.11.17.22-25 (4); KFRS F.5639.02 [ex USNM 217026] (5); USNM 217022 (12), 217024-25 (3, 1), 217026 (76, now 70). •Valid as Nematalosa flyensis Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:245 [ref. 5141], Allen 1991:46 [ref. 21090], Munroe et al. 1999:1784 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Valid as Nematalosa flyensis Wongratana 1983. Clupeidae. Distribution: Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater.

forsteri, Harengula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:299 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] San Tiago, Cape Verde Islands. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:42-43 [ref. 9739]. Description based on drawing in BMNH labelled Clupea fimbriata, claimed to be by George Forster, but no such drawing found by Whitehead, 1978; more likely based on a tracing by Sarah Bowdich of her own drawing. •Synonym of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825) -- (Poll et al. 1984:42 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:219 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:210 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

frisius, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:528, 529, Figs. 34-36 [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] Zuidersee, Holland. No types known. Minimal description; for the "Zuidersee-Herring". •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fuegensis, Clupea Jenyns [L.] 1842:133 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Off Cape Ines, Tierra del Fuego, depth 13 fathoms. Holotype (unique): UMZC [Darwin no. 838]. •Valid as Clupea fuegensis Jenyns 1842 -- (Stepien 1990:600 [ref. 19879]). •Valid as Sprattus fuegensis (Jenyns 1842) -- (Whitehead 1985:46 [ref. 5141], Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:70 [ref. 14235], Pequeño 1989:27 [ref. 14125], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:51 [ref. 22530], López et al. 1996:15 [ref. 23681] as fueguensis, Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:60 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808] as fueguensis). Current status: Valid as Sprattus fuegensis (Jenyns 1842). Clupeidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

galatheae, Nematalosa Nelson [G. J.] & Rothman [N. N.] 1973:158, Figs. 1A, 8B, 9, 13D [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 150 (art. 2); ref. 7578] Off Pakchan River, Gulf of Thailand, Andaman Sea. Holotype: CAS 17815. Paratypes: AMNH 28928 (3), BMNH 1971.10.4.1 (1), CAS 17816 (3), USNM 206329 (1), ZMUC P18516 (1). Additional material: CAS 24838 (1), CAS-SU 30694 (1), BMNH 1889.2.1.1877 (1), FMNH 2369 (1), MHNL 3699 (2), ZMUC 101 (1). •Valid as Nematalosa galatheae Nelson & Rothman 1973 -- (Whitehead 1985:246 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:110 [ref. 20764], Munroe et al. 1999:1805 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:13 [ref. 25482], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Kottelat 2013:62 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nematalosa galatheae Nelson & Rothman 1973. Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gasterostea, Clupea Wiegmann [A. F. A.] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:53 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Not available, name published in the synonymy of Clupanodon aureus. Clupeidae.

gibbosa, Clupea Bleeker [P.] 1849:72 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 316] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Neotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.46. Possible syntypes: AMS I.86 (1), RMNH 7100 (some of 26). Bleeker specimens: MNHN 0000-2040 (1), NMV 46041-41 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:287 [ref. 293]. Neotype (as putative neotype) selected by Whitehead et al. 1966:57 [ref. 6860]. •Synonym of Sardinella jussieu (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Youn & Kim 1998:53 [ref. 25737]). •Valid as Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849) -- (Dor 1984:41 [ref. 29757], Whitehead 1985:100 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:203 [ref. 6284], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:157 [ref. 12442], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:275 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:10 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:65 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:111 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:111 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:495 [ref. 25919], Munroe et al. 1999:1813 [ref. 24728], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:235 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:137 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Zhang 2001:82 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:21 [ref. 27712], Paxton et al. 2006:332 [ref. 28995], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264], Ho & Shao 2011: 24 [ref. 31432], Larson et al. 2013:37 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:38 [ref. 34464], Stern et al. 2014:48 [ref. 36018], Psomadakis et al. 2015:154 [ref. 34104], Stern et al. 2016:9 [ref. 34733], Motomura et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:307 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:56 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:30 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:37 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849). Clupeidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to northern Western Australia; eastern Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

godanahiai, Gudusia Srivastava [G. J.] 1968:6, Fig. 4 [Fishes of eastern Uttar Pradesh; ref. 7922] Ramgarh Tal, Gorakhpur, eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Holotype: ZSI. Paratypes: ZSI (1). •Valid as Gudusia godanahiai Srivastava 1968 -- (Shrestha 1978:34 [ref. 15970]). •Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:228 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:96 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:8 [ref. 24904], Ara et al. 2018:83 [ref. 36281]). Current status: Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

goni, Sardinella Stern [N.], Rinkevich [B.] & Goren [M.] 2016:16, Figs. 2D, 4D [Journal of Fish Biology v. 89 (no. 5); ref. 34733] Boracay Island, Philippines. Holotype: PNM 15191. Paratypes: SMNHTAU. •Valid as Sardinella goni Stern, Rinkevich & Goren 2016. Current status: Valid as Sardinella goni Stern, Rinkevich & Goren 2016. Clupeidae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

goniognathus, Clupeichthys Bleeker [P.] 1855:275 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 351] Lahat, Palembang Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens (or holotype): 1867.11.28.36 (1). •Valid as Clupeichthys goniognathus Bleeker 1855 -- (Whitehead 1985:183 [ref. 5141], Kottelat et al. 1993:16 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:60 [ref. 22772], Roberts 2008:125 [ref. 29475], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Clupeichthys goniognathus Bleeker 1855. Clupeidae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

gossei, Congothrissa Poll [M.] 1964:8, Figs. 1-7, Pls. 1-5 [v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 3523] Yaekela, near Yangambi, Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: MRAC 140153. Paratypes: BMNH 1967.9.19.1 (1), 1967.9.19.2 (1 c&s); MRAC 120019-22 (4), 140154-155 (1), 140156-63 (8). Type catalog: Derijst 1991:37 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Congothrissa gossei Poll 1964 -- (Poll & Teugels 1984:56 [ref. 19941], Whitehead 1985:166 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:85 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Congothrissa gossei Poll 1964. Clupeidae. Distribution: Central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

gotoi, Herklotsichthys Wongratana [T.] 1983:391, Fig. 6 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Mimiko River, Papua New Guinea. Holotype: BMNH 1913.12.9.179. Paratypes: USNM 242185 (1). •Valid as Herklotsichthys gotoi Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:77 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:153 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Munroe et al. 1999:1798 [ref. 24728], Paxton et al. 2006:327 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:35 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys gotoi Wongratana 1983. Clupeidae. Distribution: New Guinea and northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gracilis, Alosa finta Regan [C. T.] 1916:10 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 18 (no. 103) (art. 1); ref. 15064] Lake Garda, Italy. Holotype: BMNH 1896.10.32.4. Paratypes: (2) BMNH •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803) -- (Whitehead 1985:199 [ref. 5141]). •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803), subspecies lacustris (Fatio 1890) -- (Quignard & Douchement 1991:257 [ref. 24829]). •Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Kottelat 1997:36 [ref. 22952], Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Lile Castro-Aguirre [J. L.] & Vivero [J. M.] 1990:140, 143, Figs. 1-2 [Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México v. 33; ref. 19197] Laguna Oriental y Occidental de Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: ENCB-IPN 6204-A. Paratypes: BMNH 1990.1.17.1-10 (10); ENCB-IPN 6204-B (10), 4229 (120), 6221 (200), P-831 (90). Type catalog: Guzmán 2011:171 [ref. 32186]. •Valid as Lile gracilis Castro-Aguirre & Vivero 1990 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:9 [ref. 22290], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1024 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:110 [ref. 24550], Castro-Aguirre et al. 2002:1 [ref. 26610], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:95 [ref. 28615], Di Dario et al. 2011:549 [ref. 31478], Guzmán 2011:171 [ref. 32186], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Lile gracilis Castro-Aguirre & Vivero 1990. Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Honduras. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

granigera, Sardinella Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:267 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3225. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:286 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:27 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:103 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:279 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:106 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:219 [ref. 14039], Munroe 2016:1736 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grimmi, Clupea caspiopontica var. Borodin [N. A.] 1904:180, 184 [Vestnik Rybopromyshlennosti St. Petersburg v. 19 (no. 3); ref. 18876] Ashur-ade, near Astrabad Bay, Caspian Sea, Iran. Lectotype: ZIN 13045 (34 cm). Paralectotypes: ZIN 13045 (5 of 6, with lectotype). Lectotype selected by Svetovidov 1952:277, fig. 46 [ref. 21481]. •Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Whitehead 1985:195, 196 [ref. 5141] as brashnikovi, Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:726 [ref. 24702] as braschnikowii). •See also Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573]. Current status: Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea. Habitat: freshwater.

grimmi, Clupeonella Kessler [K. F.] 1877:187, Pl. 6 (fig. 24) [The Aralo-Caspian Expedition; ref. 2597] Middle Caspian Sea, 560-1750 feet [80-250 Russian fathoms]. Lectotype: ZIN 10934 (31.5 mm). Paralectotypes: (many) BMNH 1897.7.5.41-44 (4), ZIN 10934 (2 of 3), 11272 (6+). Lectotype selected by Svetovidov 1952:20 [ref. 21481]. •Valid as Clupeonella grimmi Kessler 1877 -- (Berg 1948:167 [ref. 12882], Whitehead 1985:54 [ref. 5141], Coad 1995:9 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:728 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:30 [ref. 23573], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:38 [ref. 28183], Esmaeili et al. 2010:366 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:860 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Clupeonella grimmi Kessler 1877. Clupeidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea basin. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guborni, Corica Gray [J. E.] 1834:no page number, Pl. 91 (figs. 7-8) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] India. Not available; an incorrect subsequent spelling of Corica soborna Hamilton 1822. An index gives corrections for misspellings on plates, and there the name was given as "Dr. Hamilton's Corica. Corica Soborni" [still a misspelling but intent as Corica soborna Hamilton is clear]. Clupeidae.

gunteri, Brevoortia Hildebrand [S. F.] 1948:31, Fig. 7 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 107 (no. 18); ref. 13057] Aransas Bay, Rockport, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 129798. Paratypes: TU 10792 [ex USNM 129802] (1); USNM 120041 (1), 129799-801 (1, 2, 1), 129803-08 (1, 1, 31, 3, 1, 1). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:117 [ref. 20861], Bart & Taylor 1993:30 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Brevoortia gunteri Hildebrand 1948 -- (Whitehead 1985:211 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:68 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:40 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:333 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:107 [ref. 24550], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:828 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:91 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Brevoortia gunteri Hildebrand 1948. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

haihoensis, Clupanodon Oshima [M.] 1926:3 [Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 3314] Haiho, Hainan Island, China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Clupanodon punctatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Kuang & Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:18 [ref. 26639]). •Synonym of Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1985:239 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1791 [ref. 24728], Zhang 2001:98 [ref. 26586], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

halec, Clupea Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:20 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Mitchill 1815:451 [ref. 13292]. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Smith 1986:395 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

haleciformis, Sprattus Girgensohn [O. G. L.] 1846:534 [Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg v. 5 (no. 4-6); ref. 12458] Appeared as Sprattus haleciformis?, apparently as a replacement name for Sprattus sprattus because of Strickland tautonymy. •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

harengus, Clupea Linnaeus [C.] 1758:317 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European seas. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1853.11.12.111 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:207 [ref. 13434]. Misspelled arengus by Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:9 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:183 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 [often as a valid subspecies] -- (Berg 1948:148 [ref. 12882], Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:273 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:115 [ref. 5141], Smith 1986:395 [ref. 22186], Grant 1986:714 [ref. 22454], Robins & Ray 1986:69 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:114 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:51 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:73 [ref. 23144], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:28 [ref. 23573], Munroe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:141 [ref. 26158], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:828 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:36 [ref. 28183], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Møller et al. 2010:22 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:117 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:56 [ref. 33547], Afonso et al. 2016:14, 126 [ref. 36199], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:59 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Distribution: North Atlantic and adjacent Arctic areas. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hasseltii, Anodontostoma Bleeker [P.] 1849:15 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura Straits near Kammal and Surabaya; seas near Jakarta, Semarang, etc., Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: part of RMNH 7082 (7), 11775 (14). •Synonym of Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:252 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1788 [ref. 24728], Paxton et al. 2006:325 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hepsetus, Clupea Martens [G. von] 1824:412 [Reise nach Venedig.; ref. 17602] Venice, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Based on several other sources. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

heterurus, Clupea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1818:355 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 3 (no. 5) (art. 3) (Sept.); ref. 3586] Ohio River, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Whitehead 1985:233 [ref. 5141], Scott & Crossman 1998:134 [ref. 24570], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hiemalis, Clupea harengus forma Nilsson [S.] 1832:23 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Not available, a subforma of forma oceanica, infrasubspecific. Clupeidae.

holodon, Clupea Regan [C. T.] 1916:5 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 18 (no. 103) (art. 1); ref. 15064] Stewart Island, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1889.10.26.9. •Synonym of Sprattus antipodum (Hector 1872) -- (Whitehead 1985:45 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus antipodum (Hector 1872). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

horni, Chatoessus Zietz [A. H. C.] 1896:180, Pl. 16 (fig. 6) [Report on the work of the Horn Expedition to Central Australia. Part 2; ref. 14621] Red Bank Creek; Idracowara, Finke River; McDonnell Range, Northern Territory, Australia. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1897.1.20.59-63 (4 or 5); SAMA F1063 (1). Type catalog: Glover 1976:169 [ref. 19449]. •Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead 1985:244 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:155 [ref. 12442], Munroe et al. 1999:1804 [ref. 24728], Paxton et al. 2006:330 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:36 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hualiensis, Harengula Chu [K.-Y.] & Tsai [C.-F.] 1958:116, Pl. 3 (figs. 2-4) [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 11 (nos 1/2); ref. 12059] Hualien, Taiwan. Neotype: NTUM 97567. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:24 [ref. 31432]. Originally a holotype NTUM 12567 and 19 paratypes, apparently lost. Neotype designated by Shen & Wang 1991:59 [ref. 19308]. •Valid as Sardinella hualiensis (Chu & Tsai 1958) -- (Whitehead 1985:101 [ref. 5141], Shen & Wang 1991:60 [ref. 19308], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Zhang 2001:76 [ref. 26586], Ho & Shao 2011:24 [ref. 31432], Stern et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34733], Hata & Motomura 2019:279 [ref. 36571]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella hualiensis (Chu & Tsai 1958). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

humeralis, Clupea Cuvier [G.] 1829:318 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:290 [ref. 293] dated to 1847. Type catalog and discussion: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:38-39 [ref. 9739]. Available from footnote as, "La Sardine de la Martinique (Cl. humeralis, N.), Duham, ib., f. 4." Based on Duhamel 1776:548, Pl. 31 (fig. 4). •Valid as Harengula humeralis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:64 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:71 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:85 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:299 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:340 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:145 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:820 [ref. 26997], Smith et al. 2003:10 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Matamoros et al. 2009:8 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:27 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Harengula humeralis (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hypselocephala, Caspialosa pontica morpha Isachenko [V. L.] 1925:113, 116 [Trudy Vseukrainskoj Gosudarstvennoj Cernomorsko-Azovskoj Naucno-Promyslovoj Opytnoj Stancii; = Arbelten der All-Ukranischen Wissenschaftlich-Praktischen Staats-Station des Schwarzen und Asow Meeres, Narodnyj Komissariat Zemiedelija Ukrainskoj SSR v. 1; ref. 18328] Not available, infrasubspecific; from Mouth of Dnieper River, Otchakov, Ukraine. Publication in an available way dates to Fowler 1973 who treated the name as a valid subspecies. •In the synonymy of Caspialosa kessleri (Grimm 1887), subspecies pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Berg 1948:124 [ref. 12882]). •In genus Alosa based on treatment of other varieties by Svetovidov 1973 [ref. 7169]. •In the synonymy of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Whitehead 1985:204 [ref. 5141]). •In the synonymy of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952], Parin et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hypselocephala, Caspialosa pontica Fowler [H. W.] 1973:236 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 26 (nos 3/4); ref. 9329] Mouth of Dnieper River, Otchakov, Ukraine. Syntypes: (12). This name appeared first as infrasubspecific in Isachenko 1925; apparently first published in an available way as above with reference to Isachenko and to Berg 1925. •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Kolarov 1991:337 [ref. 24842]). •Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hypselosoma, Clupeoides Bleeker [P.] 1866:293 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 14051] Bandjermasin, Borneo. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.35. Original as Clupeoïdes. •Valid as Clupeoides hypselosoma Bleeker 1866 -- (Whitehead 1985:175 [ref. 5141], Roberts 1989:25 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:16 [ref. 23448], Roberts 2008:126 [ref. 29475], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Clupeoides hypselosoma Bleeker 1866. Clupeidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

hypselosoma, Harengula Bleeker [P.] 1855:427 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 18667.11.29.29 (1), RMNH 7114 (1). •Synonym of Sardinella brachysoma Bleeker 1852 -- (Whitehead 1985:95 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1810 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella brachysoma Bleeker 1852. Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

ignota, Clupea Günther [A.] 1868:417 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Not available, name on specimen from Finland mentioned under Clupea harengus. Clupeidae.

ilisha, Clupanodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:243, 382, Pl. 19 (fig. 73) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges estuaries, Patua, Goyakarra, Calcutta, and Dhasa, India. No types known. •Valid as Hilsa ilisha (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:249 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:100 [ref. 20764], Carpenter et al. 1997:110 [ref. 23922], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710]). •Valid as Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:222 [ref. 5141], Coad 1991:13 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:9 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:3 [ref. 23831], Randall 1995:66 [ref. 22896], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Munroe et al. 1999:1784 [ref. 24728], Rafique 2000:323 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:3 [ref. 27265], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:272 [ref. 31338], Esmaeili et al. 2010:366 [ref. 33391], Kottelat 2013:63 [ref. 32989], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:860 [ref. 34062], Psomadakis et al. 2015:155 [ref. 34104], Esmaeili et al. 2017:30 [ref. 35254], Ali et al. 2018:307 [ref. 36183], Ara et al. 2018:83 [ref. 36281], Esmaeili et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36089], Fricke et al. 2018:58 [ref. 35805], Suresh et al. 2018:74 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to South China Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

imitans, Caspialosa kessleri volgensis infra. Berg [L. S.] 1948:133 [Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries No. 27; ref. 12882] Appeared as Caspialosa kessleri isp. [infraspecies] volgensis imitans, nom. nov. Not available, infrasubspecific. In the genus Alosa based on placement of kessleri by Svetovidov 1973 [ref. 7169]. Clupeidae.

immaculata, Alosa Bennett [E. T.] 1835:92 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1835 (pt 3); ref. 16793] Near Trabzon [Trebizond], Turkey, Black Sea. No types known. •Doubtfully a senior synonym of Caspialosa kessleri (Grimm 1887) -- (Berg 1948:124 [ref. 12882], Whitehead 1985:204 [ref. 5141]). •In the synonymy of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Kolarov 1991:337 [ref. 24842]). •Valid as Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:35 [ref. 26753], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:33 [ref. 28183], Fricke et al. 2007:26 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:69 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:48 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:164 [ref. 31251], Parin et al. 2014:54 [ref. 33547], Çiçek et al. 2015:143 [ref. 35151], Artüz & Fricke 2019:553 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835. Clupeidae. Distribution: Black Sea, Azov Sea and adjacent watersheds. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

immaculata, Clupea Kishinouye [K.] 1908:96, Pls. 19 (fig. 1), 21 (fig. 4) [Journal of the Imperial Fisheries Bureau v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 14325] Northern Saga Prefecture and Kiusiu, Japan; Amoy, Swatow, China. Syntypes: apparently destroyed. •Synonym of Sardinella jussieu (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Youn & Kim 1998:53 [ref. 25737]). •Synonym of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849) -- (Whitehead 1985:100 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1813 [ref. 24728], Stern et al. 2014:48 [ref. 36018]). •Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Zhang 2001:74 [ref. 26586] dated 1907). •Synonym of Sardinops melanostictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Zhang 2001:90 [ref. 26586]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

indiana, Amblygaster Mary [A. A.], Balasubramanian [T.], Selvaraju [S.] & Shiny [A.] 2017:464, Figs. 1, 2A, 3-6 [Zootaxa 4247 (no. 4); ref. 35219] Eraviputhenthurai landing centre, fish market, west coast, India, 11°15'49.26"N, 77°08'11.67"E. Holotype: ZSI/MBRC/540. Paratypes: FMS/CASMB, FTRC/FSRS, JUDES/FSD, RC/RGCA, SATYABHAMAU, ZSI/MBRC. •Valid as Amblygaster indiana Mary, Balasubramanian, Selvaraju & Shiny 2017. Current status: Valid as Amblygaster indiana Mary, Balasubramanian, Selvaraju & Shiny 2017. Clupeidae. Distribution: West coast of India. Habitat: marine.

indica, Clupea Gray [J. E.] 1834:no page number, Pl. 91 (fig. 1) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] India. No types known. Published about 1 Oct. 1834. •Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:228 [ref. 5141], Menon 1999:7 [ref. 24904], Ara et al. 2018:83 [ref. 36281]). Current status: Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

indigena, Clupea Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:21 [22] [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. On p. 22 of 1898 reprint. Also in Mitchill 1815:454 [ref. 13292]. •Synonym of Alosa sapidissima (Wilson 1811) -- (Whitehead 1985:206 [ref. 5141] with question, Smith 1986:71 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa sapidissima (Wilson 1811). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

inermis, Clupea Basilewsky [S.] 1855:242 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Oriental Sea, Beijing [Peking], China. Holotype or syntypes: ZIN 5655 (1). •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies pallasii Valenciennes 1847 -- (Berg 1948:155 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847 -- (Okada 1961:292 [ref. 6363], Whitehead 1985:117 [ref. 5141], Youn & Kim 1998:53 [ref. 25737], Zhang 2001:63 [ref. 26586], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:547 [ref. 34656]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

insociabilis, Chatoessus Abbott [C. C.] 1861:365 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 12 (for 1860); ref. 15625] 2 miles below Trenton, Mercer County, New Jersey, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 23030-31 (2) Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Whitehead 1985:233 [ref. 5141], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

isingleena, Clupea Richardson [J.] 1846:304 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Chinese Seas. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1963.6.17.1 (dry). Type information: Whitehead 1970:209 [ref. 11606]. Not available, on Official Index (Opinion 901). •In the synonymy of Sardinella richardsoni Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:110 [ref. 5141]). •In the synonymy of Sardinella nymphaea (Richardson 1846) -- (Zhang 2001:80 [ref. 26586]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella nymphaea (Richardson 1846). Clupeidae.

islandicus, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:529 [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] Not available; no distinguishing features; for the "Sommerhering von Island." •In the synonymy of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:100 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

issatschenkovi, Alosa kessleri pontica natio Pavlov [P. I.] 1959:36 [Inst. Akad. Nauk. USSR, Kiev; ref. 22963] Infrasubspecific, not available; from Dniepr River, Ukraine. •In the synonymy of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Kolarov 1991:337 [ref. 24842]). •In the synonymy of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:39 [ref. 22952]). •See also Dorofeeva 1998:27 [ref. 23573]. Current status: Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835. Clupeidae.

ivernicus, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:526, 529, Figs. 39A-B [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] Ireland. No types known. Minimal description; for the "Klondyke-Herring". •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

jaguana, Harengula Poey [F.] 1865:189 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 13954] Cuba. No types known. Poey specimens: ZMB 5953 (1). Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195] not a holotype. •Valid as Harengula jaguana Poey 1865 -- (Lee et al. 1980:71 [ref. 22416], Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:92 [ref. 14275], Whitehead 1985:65 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:71 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:87 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:42 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:299 [ref. 23827], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:63 [ref. 22947], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:341 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:112 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:145 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634] as cf. jaguana, Ross et al. 2001:112 [ref. 25978], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:821 [ref. 26997], Smith et al. 2003:10 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:94 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Fabiano et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33530], Pinheiro et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34324], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

janeiro, Clupea Eigenmann [C. H.] 1894:627 [Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences v. 7 (art. 5); ref. 1214] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Replacement name for Clupea brasiliensis Steindachner 1879, preoccupied by Clupea brasiliensis Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Treated in the synonymy of Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner 1879) -- (Whitehead 1985:96 [ref. 5141]). •Valid as Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann 1894) -- (Dennis et al. 2004:71 [ref. 31601], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565]). •Synonym of Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner 1879) -- (Figueiredo et al. 2010:281 [ref. 30889] with bresiliensis as a nomen protectum). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner 1879). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

japonica, Nematalosa Regan [C. T.] 1917:313 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 19 (no. 112); ref. 3665] Inland Sea of Japan. Syntypes: BMNH 1905.6.7.2-4 (3). •Valid as Nematalosa japonica Regan 1917 -- (Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:20 [ref. 6441], Whitehead 1985:247 [ref. 5141], Youn & Kim 1998:55 [ref. 25737] as japonicus, Munroe et al. 1999:1806 [ref. 24728], Nakabo 2000:247 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:13 [ref. 25482], Sakai et al. 2001:86 [ref. 25693], Zhang 2001:105 [ref. 26586], Nakabo 2002:247 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:151, 498 [ref. 26218], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:36 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Nematalosa japonica Regan 1917. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand to China and Taiwan, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

javanicum, Gonostoma Hyrtl [C. J.] 1855:49 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 10 (1 Abth.); ref. 18321] Java, Indonesia (implied from name). Syntypes: RMNH 2685 (2). •Synonym of Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:252 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1788 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

javanicus, Elops Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1851:422 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 16891] Name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Dussumieria hasseltii, not available. •In the synonym of Dussumieria acutus Valenciennes 1847 -- (Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989] with author as Bleeker). Current status: Synonym of Dussumieria acutus Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae.

jonesi, Sardinella Lazarus [S.] 1983:78, Fig. 1 D [Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India v. 20 (nos 1-2) (for 1978); ref. 8317] Vizhinjam, 8°22'N, 76°59'E, near Trivandrum, Kerala State, India. Holotype: CMFRI/T/118/1. Paratypes: CMFRI-VZM 90/F/30.10 (35). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

jussieu, Clupanodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:469, 471, Pl. 11 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:37 [ref. 9739]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:75 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Based on a Commerson drawing. •Synonym of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849) -- (Dor 1984:42 [ref. 29757], Whitehead 1985:102 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1813 [ref. 24728]). •Nomen dubium -- (Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:37 [ref. 9739]). •Valid as Sardinella jussieu (Lacepède 1803) -- (Chen et al. 1997:12 [ref. 26476], Youn & Kim 1998:53 [ref. 25737] as jussieui, Fricke 1999:74 [ref. 24106] after neotype designation as jussieui, Zhang 2001:82 [ref. 26586], Youn 2002:151, 498 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377] as jessieui and author as Valenciennes, Fricke et al. 2009:22 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2018:56 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella jussieu (Lacepède 1803). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Madagascar and Mascarenes, India and Sri Lanka; possibly also Western Pacific: Vietnam, China, Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

jussieui, Clupeonia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:346, Pl. 599 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2208. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:286 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:13 [ref. 9739]. •Probably the same as Sardinella jussieu (Lacepède 1803) -- (see Fricke 1999:75 [ref. 24106], Stern et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34733]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella jussieu (Lacepède 1803). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

kaidakensis, Caspialosa caspia Kazancheev [E. N.] 1936:25 [Rybnoe Khozyaistvo SSSR No. 3; ref. 21747] Kaidak, Caspian Sea. No types known. Original not seen. •Synonym of Caspialosa caspia (Eichwald 1838) subspecies salina (Svetovidov 1936) -- (Berg 1948:142 [ref. 12882]). •In genus Alosa based on placement of caspia by Svetovidov 1973 [ref. 7169]. Current status: Synonym of Alosa. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

kanagurta, Alausa Bleeker [P.] 1852:34 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta; Muntok, Bangka, Indonesia (? which one). Lectotype: BMNH 186711.28.26. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: (10) AMS B.7787 (1) Assam; MNHN 0000-3693 (1), NMV 46003 (1), RMNH 7110 (4), SMNS 760 (1, syntype, not found, probably lost). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:281-282 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:51 [ref. 9739], Fricke 1991:11 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:28 [ref. 29864]. Appeared as name only in Bleeker 1850:160 [ref. 324] and 1852:445 [ref. 16828]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1966:80. •Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:220 [ref. 5141], Kottelat et al. 1993:17 [ref. 23448] as keele, Carpenter et al. 1997:109 [ref. 23922], Munroe et al. 1999:1802 [ref. 24728], Fricke et al. 2018:55 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

kelee, Clupea Cuvier [G.] 1829:320 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:39 [ref. 9739]. Available from footnote as, "Cl. kelée, id, 195" = Cl. kelée, N. Russel, 195." Based on Kelee, Russell 1803:75, Pl. 195 (upper fig.). •Valid as Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:220 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:202 [ref. 6284], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:99 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:17 [ref. 23448] as keele, Goren & Dor 1994:10 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:66 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:104 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:109 [ref. 23922], Munroe et al. 1999:1802 [ref. 24728], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:13 [ref. 25482] as keele, Zhang 2001:92 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:20 [ref. 27712], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:37 [ref. 34464], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:152 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:306 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:55 [ref. 35805], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:35 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:70 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to New Guinea, north to Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

kenderlensis, Caspialosa brashnikovi Budamshin [B. I.] 1938:36 Kendyrli Bay, Caspian Sea. Original not seen by us or by Whitehead. •Synonym of Alosa brashnikovi [braschnikowi] (Borodin 1904) -- (Whitehead 1985:195 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

kertschi, Alosa brashnikovi maeotica natio Pavlov [P. I.] (ex Grimm) 1959:106-107 [Inst. Akad. Nauk. USSR, Kiev; ref. 22963] Name only, not available, from Kertsch (Kerch, Ukraine). Source given as 'Grimm' (O. von Grimm). Current status: Synonym of Alosa maeotica (Grimm 1901). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

kessleri, Clupea Grimm [O. von] 1887:7, 16 [Sel'skoe khozyaistvo i lesovodstvo 1887 (no. 2); ref. 20032] Volga River delta, Astrakhan. Lectotype: ZIN 15925. Paralectotypes: ZIN 15922 (1). Lectotype selected by Berg 1913:32 [ref. 14941]. •Valid as Caspialosa kessleri (Grimm 1887) -- (Berg 1948:127 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Heckman 1991:325 [ref. 24828]). •Valid as Alosa kessleri (Grimm 1887) -- (Whitehead 1985:201 [ref. 5141], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:26 [ref. 23573], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:70 [ref. 29996], Esmaeili et al. 2010:366 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:859 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:28 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Alosa kessleri (Grimm 1887). Clupeidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea basin. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

killarnensis, Alosa finta Regan [C. T.] 1916:9 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 18 (no. 103) (art. 1); ref. 15064] Killarney Lake, Ireland. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1912.3.1.21 (?1). •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Whitehead 1985:199 [ref. 5141], Lelek 1987:61 [ref. 22962], Quignard & Douchement 1991:254 [ref. 24829]). •Valid as Alosa killarnensis Regan 1916 -- (Kottelat 1997:39 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:71 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Valid as Alosa killarnensis Regan 1916. Clupeidae. Distribution: Killarney Lake, Ireland. Habitat: freshwater.

kisselevitschi, Caspialosa Bulgakov [G. P.] 1926:37, Pl. 2 [Bjulleten' Sredneaziatskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta = Bulletin de l'Université de l'Asie Centraale = Ortaasija Davlat Darilfununinin axbari v. 13; ref. 15578] Gassan-Kuli, southern Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan. Syntypes: (62) whereabouts unknown. Svetovidov 1952:272 [ref. 21481] states that type is at Middle Asian University at Toshkent. See also Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573]. •Synonym of Caspialosa brashnikovi [braschnikowi] (Borodin 1904) -- (Berg 1948:118 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904), but a valid subspecies kisselevitschi (Bulgakov 1926) -- (Whitehead 1985:196 [ref. 5141], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:726 [ref. 24702] as braschnikowii). Current status: Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

knipowitschi, Caspialosa Iljin [B. S.] 1927:69 [Festschrift für Prof. N. M. Knipowitsch, 1885-1925.; ref. 15858] Southwestern Caspian Sea, Iran. Lectotype: ZIN 31892 (212 mm). Paralectotypes: (94) ZIN 31892 (3 of 4, with lectotype), 25602 (2). Lectotype perhaps established in Berg 1948:144, Fig. 89 [ref. 12882] but designated by Svetovidov 1952:238 [ref. 21481]. •Synonym of Caspialosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1948:143 [ref. 12882]). •In genus Alosa based on placement of caspia Eichwald by Svetovidov 1973 [ref. 7169]. •Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Whitehead 1985:197 [ref. 5141], Heckman 1991:147 [ref. 24828], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

koningsbergeri, Clupea (Harengula) Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1912:14 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) (Sect. 2) v. 17 (no. 3); ref. 14893] Aru Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: ZMA 100864-65 (9, 1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:10 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Herklotsichthys koningsbergeri (Weber & de Beaufort 1912) -- (Whitehead 1985:78 [ref. 5141], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:154 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Munroe et al. 1999:1799 [ref. 24728], Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:328 [ref. 28995] as koningsbergeri). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys koningsbergeri (Weber & de Beaufort 1912). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

kowal, Clupea Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] (ex Russel) 1837:79 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Escualosa thoricata (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

kowala, Spratella Bleeker [P.] 1851:492 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16898] Rio and Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7091. Paralectotypes: (25) BMNH 1867.11.28.43 (1), RMNH 23479 [ex RMNH 7091] (some of 17). Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:28 [ref. 16826]. •Synonym of Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:91 [ref. 5141], Stern et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34733]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

kunzei, Harengula Bleeker [P.] 1856:209 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 16861] Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7097. Paralectotypes and/or Bleeker specimens: (2) ?BMNH 1867.11.28.30 (1); RMNH 23738 (1), 24954 (1). Lectotype selected by Whitehead 196:44, Pl. 5 (Fig. 1). •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

laccia, Clupea Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:377 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Genus misspelled Cuplea in original. Corresponds to Clupea 20-radiata on p. 389. Appeared as Clupea laccia vel 20-radiata in Devincenzi 1925:316, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

lacia, Sardinia Gruvel [A.] & Bouyat [A.] 1906:157, 160 [Les pêcheries de la côte occidentale d'Afrique; ref. 30367] Rio de Oro, western Sahara. No types known. Name only, not available. Genus name should have been Sardina. Current status: Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838). Clupeidae.

laciniata, Corica Fowler [H. W.] 1935:92, Fig. 11 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 13881] Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 61415. Paratypes: ANSP 61416-57 and 60519-50 (74, in one jar), 60551 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Corica laciniata Fowler 1935 -- (Whitehead 1985:179 [ref. 5141], Kottelat et al. 1993:17 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:59 [ref. 22772], Munroe et al. 1999:1783 [ref. 24728], Roberts 2008:125 [ref. 29475], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Corica laciniata Fowler 1935. Clupeidae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lacustris, Alosa finta var. Fatio [V.] 1890:51 [Faune des Vertébrés de la Suisse. Vol. V; ref. 14495] Lake Lugano, Switzerland. Lectotype: MHNG 656.48. Type catalog: Weber 1998:5 [ref. 23532]. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1997:37 [ref. 22952]. •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Whitehead 1985:199 [ref. 5141], Lelek 1987:61 [ref. 22962], Quignard & Douchement 1991:257 [ref. 24829]). •Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Kottelat 1997:36 [ref. 22952], Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:65 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

lariana, Alosa lacustrus forma Barbieri [C.] 1907:140, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Rivista mensile di Pesca (lacustre, fluviale, marina) (Pavia) Anno 9 (no. 4-5, 6); ref. 21775] Lake Como, Italy. Original not seen. •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803), subspecies lacustris (Fatio 1890) -- (Quignard & Douchement 1991:257 [ref. 24829]). •Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Kottelat 1997:36 [ref. 22952], Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

laticosta, Clupea Lowe [R. T.] 1843:90 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1843 (pt 11); ref. 2832] Off Madeira. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Svetovidov 1973:102 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:55 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:213 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

latulus, Clupea Cuvier [G.] 1829:318 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:39 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 and of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 and 104 [ref. 7169]). •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1985:49 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:224 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

latulus, Harengula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:280, Pl. 595 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Caen, France. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0931. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-3236 (5), CAS-SU 32769 [ex MNHN 0000-3236] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:289 [ref. 293], Böhlke 1953:11-12 [ref. 12291], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:14-15 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:26 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Harengula clupeola (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:63 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Harengula clupeola (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lauta, Kowala Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1279 [297] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia; Japan. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.442-443 (2, left half skins). On p. 297 of separate. Based on Clupea kowal of Temminck & Schlegel and 2 specimens. •Synonym of Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:91 [ref. 5141], Stern et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34733]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

leachii, Clupea Yarrell [W.] 1832:230 [The Philosophical Magazine and Annals of Philosophy, London, N. S. v. 9 (no. 51); ref. 33437] Mouth of the Thames and Medway rivers, U. K. No types known. Appeared in Yarrell 1831:34 [ref. 33438], Yarell 1832:240 [ref. 33439] and Yarrell 1832:277, Pl. 12 [ref. 17747]. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:115 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leiogaster, Sardinella Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:270 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3742. Bleeker specimens: NMV A938 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:288 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:27 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Sardinella leiogaster Valenciennes 1847 -- (Dor 1984:42 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Amblygaster leiogaster (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:19 [ref. 6441], Whitehead 1985:86 [ref. 5141], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:152 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:98 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Anderson et al. 1998:21 [ref. 23611], Munroe et al. 1999:1786 [ref. 24728], Nakabo 2000:246 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Zhang 2001:72 [ref. 26586], Nakabo 2002:246 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:16 [ref. 27510], Paxton et al. 2006:324 [ref. 28995], Kimura in Kimura & Yoshino 2009:28 [ref. 30440], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264], Mary et al. 2017:468 [ref. 35219], Motomura et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:54 [ref. 35805], Suresh et al. 2018:63 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Amblygaster leiogaster (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Indonesia, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

leiogastroides, Sardinella Bleeker [P.] 1854:255 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 345] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7093. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.40 (1), 1867.11.28.42 (1). Original as leiogastroïdes. •Synonym of Amblygaster sirm (Walbaum 1792) -- (Whitehead 1985:88 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1787 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Amblygaster sirm (Walbaum 1792). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lembesseensis, Stolothrissa Fowler [H. W.] 1949:239, Figs. 5-8 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 101; ref. 1461] Oka, Congo system, French Equatorial Africa. Holotype: ANSP 71862. Paratypes: (10) ANSP 71863-72 (9). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Potamothrissa obtusirostris (Boulenger 1909) -- (Poll et al. 1984:51 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:156 [ref. 5141] but as tembessensis). Current status: Synonym of Potamothrissa obtusirostris (Boulenger 1909). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

lemuru, Sardinella Bleeker [P.] 1853:500 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.41. Paralectotypes: (11) RMNH 7103 (some of 9), 28926 [ex RMNH 76326] (1); ?MNHN 0000-3226 (1). Bleeker specimens: NMV A2051 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:286 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:51 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead et al. 1966:48 [ref. 6860]. •Valid as Sardinella lemuru Bleeker 1853 -- (Whitehead 1985:103 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:157 [ref. 12442], Munroe et al. 1999:1814 [ref. 24728], Kim et al. 2001:190 [ref. 25730], Nakabo 2000:245 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:138 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:245 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:151, 499 [ref. 26218], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:16 [ref. 27510], Paxton et al. 2006:333 [ref. 28995], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:38 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella lemuru Bleeker 1853. Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Andaman Sea east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

leonensis, Pellonula Boulenger [G. A.] 1916:172, Fig. 111 [Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa v. 4; ref. 585] Northern Sherbo District, Sierra Leone. Syntypes: BMNH 1915.4.13.11-12 (2). •Valid as Pellonula leonensis Boulenger 1916 -- (Poll et al. 1984:49 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:142 [ref. 5141], Lévêque et al. 1989:114 [ref. 26480], Paugy et al. 1990:332 [ref. 26477], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:105 [ref. 21589], Gourène & Teugels 1991:220 [ref. 20013], Lévèque et al. 1991:138 [ref. 31367], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781], Dankwa et al. 1999:12 [ref. 28023], Teugels 2007:195 [ref. 30016], Munroe 2016:1732 [ref. 34560], Pezold et al. 2016:102 [ref. 34870]). Current status: Valid as Pellonula leonensis Boulenger 1916. Clupeidae. Distribution: West-central Africa: Senegal to Congo. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

leonensis, Sierrathrissa Thys van den Audenaerde [D. F. E.] 1969:386, Figs. 1-2 [Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines v. 80 (3-4); ref. 6582] Waanje ferry near Pujehun, 7°24'N, 11°45'W, Sierra Leone. Holotype: MRAC 174.610. Paratypes: (79) MRAC 174611-12 (2), 174613-48 (36), 174649-52 (4), 174653-701 (49, 3 c&s). •Valid as Sierrathrissa leonensis Thys van den Audenaerde 1969 -- (Poll et al. 1984:54 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:162 [ref. 5141], Paugy et al. 1990:336 [ref. 26477], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:110 [ref. 21589], Poll & Gosse 1995:129 [ref. 24781], Dankwa et al. 1999:12 [ref. 28023]). Current status: Valid as Sierrathrissa leonensis Thys van den Audenaerde 1969. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

leucocephala, Clupeonella Berg [L. S.] 1913:27, Pl. 14 (figs. 1, 1a, 2) [Maerialy k' Poznaniju russkago rybolovstva, g.U.Z.iZ., Department' Zemledelija v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14941] Sumgait and Gyurgenchai, Azerbaijan, Caspian Sea. Syntypes: ZIN 13045 (6), 13715 (2) and 32501 (1). Also appeared in Berg 1913:477 [ref. 273]. Based on literature and specimens. •Synonym of Alosa brashnikovi [braschnikowi] (Borodin 1904) -- (Whitehead 1985:195 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

libertatis, Meletta Günther [A.] 1867:603 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Libertad, western coast of Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.181. •Valid as Opisthonema libertate (Günther 1867) -- (Whitehead 1985:70 [ref. 5141], Pequeño 1989:27 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:61 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:46 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1022 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:190 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:192 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:109 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:48 [ref. 25838], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:120 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:284 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:96 [ref. 28615], Minckley & Marsh 2009:76 [ref. 31114], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:68 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:92 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Opisthonema libertate (Günther 1867). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Chile. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lile, Meletta Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:378 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Pondicherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3173. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3076 [ex MNHN 0000-3173] (1), 3229 (10). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:282 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:17 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:72 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:119 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1795 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

limnoica, Clupea melanostoma Alonso de Arámburu [A. S.] 1961:2, Figs. 1, 2a [Notas del Museo de La Plata v. 20 (no. 186); ref. 7253] Laguna de Chascomús, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype: MLP 12-X-58-31 (apparently lost). Paratypes: MLP 18-II-33-40 (1), 12-X-58-30 (4), MLP 6514 [ex 12-X-58-32] (2), MLP 6484 [ex 10-IX-58-44] (1), 12-XI-58-34 (1). Lost MLP 12-X-58-30 (4), MLP 12-XI-58-34 (1) and MLP 12-XI-58-34 (1). Type catalog: Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:1 [ref. 33466]. •Possible synonym of Ramnogaster melanostoma (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Whitehead 1985:124 [ref. 5141]). •Synonym of Platanichthys platana (Regan 1917) -- (Whitehead 1985:121 [ref. 5141], Cione et al. 1998:335 [ref. 23325], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27061] with question, López et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:71 [ref. 28131], Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117] with question). •Synonym of Ramnogaster melanostoma (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27061] with question, Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117] with question). Current status: Synonym of Ramnogaster melanostoma (Eigenmann 1907). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lineata, Alosa Storer [D. H.] 1848:242 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 2 (1845-1848); ref. 18841] Provincetown, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Alosa mediocris (Mitchill 1814). Current status: Synonym of Alosa mediocris (Mitchill 1814). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lineolata, Clupea Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:256 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:39 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 or Clupea pallasi Valenciennes 1847 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). •Questionably a synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847 -- (Whitehead 1985:117 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lineolata, Sardinella Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:272 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0666. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3073 [ex MNHN 0000-0666] (1), 0000-3106 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:289 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:27 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:44 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lippa, Harengula Whitley [G. P.] 1931:142, Fig. 1 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 4); ref. 16345] Port Hedland, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.12828 [ex WAM P.18]. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Herklotsichthys lippa (Whitley 1931) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:154 [ref. 12442], Munroe et al. 1999:1800 [ref. 24728], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:328 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:35 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys lippa (Whitley 1931). Clupeidae. Distribution: Northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

longianalis, Sauvagella madagascariensis forme Bertin [L.] 1940:300 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 12 (no. 6); ref. 293] Madagascar. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3795. Unneeded subspecies name (forme longianalis) for the nominate taxon madagascariensis. •Synonym of Sauvagella madagascariensis (Sauvage 1883) -- (Poll et al. 1984:53 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:169 [ref. 5141], Stiassny 2002:68 [ref. 25890], Fricke et al. 2018:56 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Sauvagella madagascariensis (Sauvage 1883). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

longiceps, Sardinella Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:273 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3743. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3089 [ex MNHN 0000-3743] (5). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:285 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:27-28 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:44 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Sardinella longiceps Valenciennes 1847 -- (Dor 1984:42 [ref. 29757], Whitehead 1985:104 [ref. 5141], Goren & Dor 1994:10 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:65 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:112 [ref. 23922], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:236 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:21 [ref. 27712], Bogorodsky et al. 2011:50 [ref. 31559], Psomadakis et al. 2015:154 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35490] as cf. longiceps, Ali et al. 2018:307 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:30 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella longiceps Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: Somalia, Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf east to India. Habitat: marine.

losera, Odaxothrissa Boulenger [G. A.] 1899:64, Pl. 31 (fig. 1) [Annales du Musee du Congo (Ser. Zoology) v. 1 (fasc. 4); ref. 549] Coquilhatville, Upper Congo. Syntypes: BMNH 1899.9.26.61 (1), MRAC 494 (1). •Valid as Odaxothrissa losera Boulenger 1899 -- (Poll et al. 1984:47 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:139 [ref. 5141], Gourène & Teugels 1991:449 [ref. 19026], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Odaxothrissa losera Boulenger 1899. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

lossei, Herklotsichthys Wongratana [T.] 1983:392, Fig. 7 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Persian Gulf, 30°08'N, 46°54'E. Holotype: BMNH 1976.8.19.78. Paratypes: BMNH 1976.8.19.51-63 (13), 1976.8.19.64-77 (21); ZMUC C.1 (1), C.2-4 (3). •Valid as Herklotsichthys lossei Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:79 [ref. 5141], Goren & Dor 1994:10 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:64 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:110 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264], Ali et al. 2018:306 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys lossei Wongratana 1983. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: marine.

lutipinnis, Pristigaster Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:340 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28126 (1), 28209 (1), 28320 (1, not found in 1980). •Valid as Pliosteostoma lutipinnis (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Whitehead 1985:284 [ref. 5141], Allen & Robertson 1994:61 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:48 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1416 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:119 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Pliosteostoma lutipinnis (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

maccullochi, Harengula Whitley [G. P.] 1931:143, Fig. 2 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 4); ref. 16345] Port Hedland, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.12827 [ex WAM P.17]. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys koningsbergeri (Weber & de Beaufort 1912) -- (Whitehead 1985:78 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:154 [ref. 12442], Munroe et al. 1999:1799 [ref. 24728], Paxton et al. 2006:328 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys koningsbergeri (Weber & de Beaufort 1912). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

macedonica, Clupea Vinciguerra [D.] 1921:325 [4], Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 3). v. 9 (no. 49); ref. 15333] Lake Besikia [Volvi], Macedonia, Greece. Syntypes: (several) MSNG 11571 (5 or 2, not found), 39497 [? = 11571] (12). Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:181 [ref. 10343]. On p. 4 of separate. •Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Whitehead 1985:197 [ref. 5141]). •Valid as Alosa macedonica (Vinciguerra 1921) -- (Economidis & Sinis 1986:724 [ref. 8969], Economidis & Sinis 1991:297 [ref. 24839], Kottelat 1997:39 [ref. 22952], Dorofeeva 1998:24 [ref. 23573], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:71 [ref. 29996], Barbieri et al. 2015:39 [ref. 35029]). Current status: Valid as Alosa macedonica (Vinciguerra 1921). Clupeidae. Distribution: Lakes Volvi and Koronia (extirpated), Greece. Habitat: freshwater.

macrocephala, Clupea Swainson [W.] 1839:387 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Mersey River, near Liverpool, England. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Clupea macrocephala Lacepède 1803. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrochira, Clupea Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:348 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing. Clupeidae.

macrolepis, Clupea Steindachner [F.] 1879:31 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Cleveland Bay near Townsville, 19°16'S, 146°48'E, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2292. Type information: Whitehead 1970:11 [ref. 11605]. Type catalog: Fricke 1995:10 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:28 [ref. 29864]. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:13 [ref. 4228]. •Synonym of Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:119 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:153 [ref. 12442], Munroe et al. 1999:1795 [ref. 24728], Paxton et al. 2006:326 [ref. 28995], Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrophthalma, Clupea Ranzani [C.] 1842:320, Pl. 23 [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 18607] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 947. •Synonym of Harengula clupeola (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:63 [ref. 5141], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:113 [ref. 24550] as macrophtalma, Munroe & Nizinski 2003:819 [ref. 26997]). Current status: Synonym of Harengula clupeola (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macroura, Clupea Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:437 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Not available, name mentioned in passing in synonymy; from Java, Indonesia. Clupeidae.

macrura, Clupea van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:329 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar I Deel (no. 21); ref. 5105] Not available, name only from Java, as a species [although capitalized] (see Alfred 1961:83 [ref. 20553], Kottelat 1987:369 [ref. 5962]). Clupeidae.

macrura, Clupea Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1852:32 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.22 (1). Not available; manuscript name mentioned in the synonymy of Alausa macrurus Bleeker. Name listed by Maxwell 1921:17, 87 [ref. 30344] with reference to Alausa macrura Bleeker 1852. Subsequent use of name not researched. •In the synonymy of Tenualosa macrura (Bleeker 1852). Current status: Synonym of Tenualosa macrura (Bleeker 1852). Clupeidae.

macrurus, Alausa Bleeker [P.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1852:31 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Neotype: RMNH 7112. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.22 (1, apparently missing), MNHN 0000-2039 (1), RMNH 24701 [ex RMNH 7112] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:282 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:51 [ref. 9739]. Neotype designated by Whitehead 1965:143. [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Tenualosa macrura (Bleeker 1852) -- (Whitehead 1985:223 [ref. 5141], Kottelat et al. 1993:17 [ref. 23448], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:114 [ref. 27969], Munroe et al. 1999:1819 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2013:63 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Tenualosa macrura (Bleeker 1852). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

maculata, Alausa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:430 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Valparaíso, Chile. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1890. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:280 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:8 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Brevoortia maculata (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Pequeño 1989:27 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Ethmidium maculatum (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:217 [ref. 5141], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:188 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Valid as Ethmidium maculatum (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Peru and Chile. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Chatoessus Richardson [J.] (ex Gray) 1846:308 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; Chinese Seas. Holotype (unique): Cambridge Philos. Inst. (whereabouts unknown). Based on a drawing and a specimen (see Whitehead 1970:210 [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1985:239 [ref. 5141], Youn & Kim 1998:56 [ref. 25737], Munroe et al. 1999:1791 [ref. 24728], Zhang 2001:98 [ref. 26586], Kottelat 2013:58 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

maculosa, Harengula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:292 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:43 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Harengula humeralis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:64 [ref. 5141], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:145 [ref. 25013], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:820 [ref. 26997]). Current status: Synonym of Harengula humeralis (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

madagascariensis, Spratelloides Sauvage [H.-E.] 1883:160 [17] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 7; ref. 3897] Madagascar. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3794 to 0000-3795 (1, 1), A-5174 to A-5175 (1, 12). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:300 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:29 [ref. 9739, Fricke et al. 2018:57 [ref. 35805]]. On p. 17 of separate. The syntypes MNHN A-5174 and A-5175 are now identified as Spratelloides bianalis (Bertin 1940) according to Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:28 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Sauvagella madagascariensis (Sauvage 1883) -- (Poll et al. 1984:53 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:169 [ref. 5141], Reinthal & Stiassny 1997:354 [ref. 22780], Stiassny 2002:68 [ref. 25890], Fricke et al. 2018:56 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Sauvagella madagascariensis (Sauvage 1883). Clupeidae. Distribution: Madagascar. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

maderensis, Clupea Lowe [R. T.] 1838:189 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Off Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: BMNH 1855.12.26.496-500. •Valid as Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:103 [ref. 7169], Poll et al. 1984:52 [ref. 6172], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:279 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:106 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:203 [ref. 6284], Whitehead 1990:219 [ref. 14039], Gourène & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:101 [ref. 21589], Santos et al. 1997:122 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:30 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:83 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:38 [ref. 26753], Teugels 2007:191 [ref. 30016], Wirtz et al. 2007:26 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32972], Munroe 2016:1736 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838). Clupeidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Gibraltar to Angola including Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maeotica, Clupea Grimm [O. von] 1901:67 [Vestnik Rybopromyshlennosti St. Petersburg v. 16 (no. 2); ref. 18161] Kerch Strait, between Black and Azov seas. Neotype: ZIN 32230 (25.7 mm, 1 of 50). Neotype designated by Svetovidov 1952:255, footnote [ref. 21481]. •Synonym of Caspialosa brashnikovi [braschnikowi] of later date -- (Berg 1948:119 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169]). •Valid as Alosa maeotica (Grimm 1901) -- (Whitehead 1985:202 [ref. 5141], Kolarov 1991:309 [ref. 24842], Kottelat 1997:39 [ref. 22952], Vasil'eva 1996:147 [ref. 24890], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:35 [ref. 26753], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:34 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:163 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:26 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:72 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:49 [ref. 30517], Parin et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33547], Çiçek et al. 2015:143 [ref. 35151], Artüz & Fricke 2019:553 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Alosa maeotica (Grimm 1901). Clupeidae. Distribution: Black Sea, Sea of Azov and adjacent watersheds. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

majalis, Clupea harengus Nilsson [S.] 1832:23 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Not available, a subforma of forma oceanica, infrasubspecific. Clupeidae.

major, Clupea Duhamel du Monceau [H. L.] 1776:316 [ ref. 35387] Published in a rejected work, see ICZN Opinion 859. •Synonym of Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Spillmann 1961:25 [ref. 35397]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae.

major, Clupea Alosa Pollini [C.] 1816:21 [Viaggio al Lago di Garda e al Monte Baldo; ref. 18566] Name only, not available. •In the synonymy of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Kottelat 1997:36 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae.

majorina, Harengula Storey [M. H.] 1938:32, Figs. 9, 12, 17 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 12326] Santos, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 31742. Paratypes: CAS 5583-84 (1, 1), 20262 [ex IU 10780] (1), 60379 [ex IU 10780] (1); MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 772 [ex CAS 5585] (1); CAS-SU 32768 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291], Britski 1969:201 [ref. 12401], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]. •Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865 -- (Whitehead 1985:65 [ref. 5141], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:821 [ref. 26997], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

malabaricus, Spratelloides Day [F.] 1873:240 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1873 (pt 1) (art. 4) (for 4 Mar. 1873); ref. 18824] Sea, ascending rivers in Malabar, India. Lectotype: ZSI 2246. Paralectotypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.8288 (1, paralectotype); BMNH 1889.2.1.2048 (1); FMNH 2379 (1); NMW 4558 (1); RMNH 2726 (1), 8585 (1); ZIN 8220 (1), ZMB 10413 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:299 [ref. 25110]. Lectotype selected by Talwar & Whitehead 1971:63 [ref. 4320]. •Valid as Dayella malabarica (Day 1873) -- (Whitehead 1985:173 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:114 [ref. 20764], Indra 1994:408 [ref. 24015], Rema Devi et al. 1996:130 [ref. 24021], Raju Thomas et al. 2002:49 [ref. 26359], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Dayella malabarica (Day 1873). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean, southwestern India. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

malayana, Alosa Bleeker [P.] 1866:294 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 14051] Jakarta, Bantam, Cheribon, Surabaya, Pasuruan, Java; Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia [which one]. Lectotype: RMNH 7180. Paralectotypes: (5) RMNH 23481 [ex RMNH 7108] (1). Bleeker specimens: NMV A2049 (1). •Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:220 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1802 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:62 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

malleti, Sundasalanx Siebert [D. J.] & Crimmen [O.] in Siebert 1997:20, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the Natural History Museum London (Zoology) v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 22941] Barito River basin, Sungai Barito at Muara Laung, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 6069. Paratypes: BMNH 1996.7.18.147-311 (164), MZB 6097 (20), USNM 320689 (5). Check spelling, is it malleti or malletti; Kottelat 2013 spells it malletti. •Valid as Sundasalanx malleti Siebert & Crimmen 1997 -- (Britz & Kottelat 1999:338 [ref. 24233], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:147 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:64 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Sundasalanx malleti Siebert & Crimmen 1997. Clupeidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

manmina, Clupanodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:247, 383 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Freshwater branches of Ganges River, India. No types known. •Valid as Gonialosa manmina (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:256 [ref. 5141], Ataur Rahman 1989:256 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:107 [ref. 20764], Rafique 2000:323 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:3 [ref. 27265], Ataur Rahman 2003:280 [ref. 31338] as manminna, Suresh et al. 2018:68 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Gonialosa manmina (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Distribution: Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India and Bangladesh. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

manulensis, Clupea Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:132 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines. No types known. Apparently an overlooked available name. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

marisalbi, Clupea harengus pallasi natio Berg [L. S.] 1923:501 [Freshwater fishes of Russia. Second edition; ref. 16807] Solovetzkye Islands, White Sea, Russia. Original not seen. Originally as Maris-albi. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies pallasi Valenciennes 1847 -- (Berg 1948:152 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies -- (Svetovidov 1973:100 [ref. 7169]). •Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847, or as a valid subspecies, Clupea pallasii marisalbi Berg 1923 -- (Rass & Wheeler 1991:137 [ref. 20079], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:28 [ref. 23573], Parin et al. 2014:57 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34440], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:547 [ref. 34656]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

marquesensis, Sardinella Berry [F. H.] & Whitehead [P. J. P.] 1968:209, Figs. 1-6 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 81; ref. 7868] Taiohae Bay, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, 8°55'S, 140°06'W. Holotype: USNM 201946. Paratypes: ANSP 52615 (1), 109212-13 (2); BMNH 1967.11.4.1-2 (2), 1967.11.4.3 (4); BPBM 5592-93 (1, 2); CAS 24045-46 (2, 1); FMNH 74075-76 (1, 1); MCZ 29507 (7), 45898-99 (1, 1); MNHN 1967-0590 (2), 1967-0591 (1); RMNH 25824-25 (2, 1); CAS-SU 66228-29 (1, 1); UF 19281-85 [ex TABL] (3, 7, 2, 39, 26); UMMZ 186866-67 (2); USNM 65861 (25), 179874 (19), 201947-48 (2, 3). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:113 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:28 [ref. 9739], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:77 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Sardinella marquesensis Berry & Whitehead 1968 -- (Whitehead 1985:107 [ref. 5141], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Randall 2005:56 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:149 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:101 [ref. 30952], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella marquesensis Berry & Whitehead 1968. Clupeidae. Distribution: South Pacific: Marquesas Islands endemic; introduced in Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

mattowaca, Clupea Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:451, Pl. 5 (fig. 8) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] Long Island, New York, U.S.A. No types known. Species name misspelled matowaka by Cuvier 1831:236 [ref. 30376]. •Synonym of Alosa mediocris (Mitchill 1814) -- (Smith 1986:67 [ref. 22186] as mattowacca, Whitehead 1985:203 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa mediocris (Mitchill 1814). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mauritiana, Clupea Bennett [E. T.] 1833:32 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1833 (pt 1); ref. 16786] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Kottelat (2013) declared a nomen oblitum; not been used as a valid name since 1899. •Same as Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Fricke 1999:73 [ref. 24106] who advocates continuing current usage, Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:319 [ref. 2886], Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

mediocris, Clupea Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:20 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Alosa mediocris (Mitchill 1814) -- (Lee et al. 1980:64 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:66 [ref. 22186], Whitehead 1985:203 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:68 [ref. 23100], Page & Burr 1991:34 [ref. 18983], Desfosse et al. in Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:223 [ref. 21581], Murdy et al. 1997:75 [ref. 23144], Munroe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:116 [ref. 26158], Scharpf 2003:13 [ref. 26883], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:827 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2005:9 [ref. 28940], Page & Burr 2011:149 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:71 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Alosa mediocris (Mitchill 1814). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic: Atlantic coast from Canada to Florida. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

medirastre, Opisthonema Berry [F. H.] & Barrett [I.] 1963:118, Fig. 1A [Bulletin of the Inter-American Tuna Commission v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 4187] Chorrera Bay, Gulf of Panama, eastern Pacific. Holotype: USNM 196804. Paratypes: CAS 22805-07 (1, 3, 1); FMNH 63869-70 (3, 2); MCZ 41620-21 (2, 3); CAS-SU 55020 (4), 57086 (2), 58311 (2), 60182-83 (3, 2); UF 19278 (2); SIO 15-249 (109) (ex UCLA W50-40), 15-544 (3) (ex UCLA W55-60), 15-547 (2) (ex UCLA W56-356), 15-548 (3) (ex UCLA W58-148), 15-549 (1) (ex UCLA W56-121), 15-550 (8) (ex UCLA W56-129), 15-568 (1) (ex UCLA W59-91), 46-229 (1) (ex UCLA W53-185); USNM 127804 (1), 196805-06 (5, 3); YPM 4359-62 (1, 3, 3, 1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:113 [ref. 21035], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:62 [ref. 12367], Moore & Boardman 1991:10 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Opisthonema medirastre Berry & Barrett 1963 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:72 [ref. 9277], Whitehead 1985:71 [ref. 5141], Bussing & López S. 1994:46 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1025 [ref. 22829] with wrong author, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:187 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:189 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:120 [ref. 25206], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:68 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:94 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Opisthonema medirastre Berry & Barrett 1963. Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

mediterranea, Meletta Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:369 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Toulon, France, western Mediterranean Sea. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3745. Paralectotypes: B-3092 [ex MNHN 0000-3745] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:285 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:17 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:41 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Svetovidov 1973:103 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:93 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:215 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

megalops, Clupea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1818:206 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 13337] Delaware River, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811) -- (Whitehead 1985:205 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

megalops, Sundasalanx Siebert [D. J.] & Crimmen [O.] in Siebert 1997:23, Fig. 14 [Bulletin of the Natural History Museum London (Zoology) v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 22941] Sungai Barito drainage, at mouth of Sungai Sapen, a small left tributary of Sungai Joloi, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 6100. Paratypes: BMNH 1996.7.18.1 (1, c&s). •Valid as Sundasalanx megalops Siebert & Crimmen 1997 -- (Kottelat 2013:64 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Sundasalanx megalops Siebert & Crimmen 1997. Clupeidae. Distribution: Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

mekongensis, Sundasalanx Britz [R.] & Kottelat [M.] 1999:338, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 4); ref. 24233] Confluence of Nam Leuk and Nam Ngang, 18°22'04"N, 103°05'27"E, Bolikhamsai Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 43686. Paratypes: CMK 12209 (251), 13233 (5), 13503 (500), 15114 (10 c&s and 5 s), 15115 (13 c&s and 5 s), 15116 (1 c&s and 1 s); LARRI uncat. (17), uncat. (50); NRM 42603 (40); ZRC 43687 (40). •Valid as Sundasalanx mekongensis Britz & Kottelat 1999 -- (Kottelat 2001:28 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:64 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:40 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Sundasalanx mekongensis Britz & Kottelat 1999. Clupeidae. Distribution: Mekong River basin and Xe Bangfai in Laos and Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

melanosticta, Clupea Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:237, Pl. 107 (fig. 3) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Coast of Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3258a. Paralectotypes: BMNH uncat. (1), RMNH 3258b-d (3). Bleeker specimens: NMV 46043 (1). Alausa melanosticta Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:444 [ref. 1012] is a new combination for this species. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:174 [ref. 12876]. See Grove & Lavenberg 1997:190 [ref. 24023]. •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842) -- (Parrish et al. 1989:2021 [ref. 19496], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:135 [ref. 25968]). •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842), but a valid subspecies -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:69 [ref. 26385]). •Valid as Sardinops melanostictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:19 [ref. 6441], Whitehead 1985:58 [ref. 5141], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:8 [ref. 24670], Youn & Kim 1998:52 [ref. 25737], Nakabo 200/0:244 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Shimizu 2001:20 [ref. 25799], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:17 [ref. 25650], Zhang 2001:89 [ref. 26586], Nakabo 2002:244 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:151, 499 [ref. 26218], Motomura et al. 2010:74 [ref. 31256], Parin et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Valid as Sardinops melanosticta (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

melanostomus, Pomolobus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1907:452, Pl. 23 (fig. 6) [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 8 (for 1906); ref. 10024] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype: Princeton Univ. (not located). Paratypes: CAS-SU 36026 (7), CAS [ex IU 11364] (7?, missing) Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. As Pomolobus? melanostomus originally. •Valid as Ramnogaster melanostomus (Eigenmann 1907) (often seen as melanostoma) -- (Whitehead 1985:124 [ref. 5141], Cione et al. 1998:340 [ref. 23325], Sverlij et al. 1998:10 [ref. 27632], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:9 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:71 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:71 [ref. 28131], Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622] as melanostoma with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565] as melanostoma). Current status: Valid as Ramnogaster melanostoma (Eigenmann 1907). Clupeidae. Distribution: Lower portions of rivers along margin of La Plata River: Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

melanura, Alausa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:441 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] New Guinea; Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific; Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3233 (3), 0000-3736 (2), 0000-3739 to 0000-3741 (1, 1, 2), A-2207 (6). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:290 [ref. 293]. Perhaps can be regarded as an independent proposal, not Clupea melanura Cuvier 1829. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

melanura, Clupea Cuvier [G.] 1829:318 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Neotype: MNHN 0000-3233. Non-types: MNHN B-3090 [ex MNHN 0000-3233] (2). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:11 [ref. 9739]. Available from footnote as, "Cl. melanura, N., Lacéd., V, xi, 3, sous le nom de Clupanodon Jussieu, mais la description se rapporte à la fig. xi, 3, nommée variété du clupanodon chinois." Neotype designated by Whitehead 1967:62 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Sardinella melanura (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor 1984:42 [ref. 29757], Whitehead 1985:108 [ref. 5141], Randall 1995:65 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:113 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:112 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:75 [ref. 24106], Munroe et al. 1999:1815 [ref. 24728], Nakabo 2000:245 [ref. 25086], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:139 [ref. 27511], Motomura et al. 2001:83 [ref. 25595], Sakai et al. 2001:86 [ref. 25693], Zhang 2001:77 [ref. 26586], Nakabo 2002:245 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:56 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:333 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2009:22 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:355 [ref. 31242], Psomadakis et al. 2015:154 [ref. 34104], Stern et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34733], Fricke et al. 2018:56 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella melanura (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to northern Gilbert Islands (Kiribati), Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Dampier Archipelago (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia) south to 23°03'S and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanurus, Harengula Bleeker [P.] 1854:245 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 16901] Ceram, Indonesia. Syntypes: (4) BMNH 1867.11.28.31 (1), RMNH 7095 (1 or more of 6). Non-type Bleeker specimens: MNHN 0000-3737 to 3738 (4, 2), A-7660 (1); NMV A937 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:287-288 [ref. 293]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Clupea melanura Cuvier 1829 when both were in Clupea, replaced by Clupea atricauda Günther 1868 and by Harengula valenciennesi Bleeker 1868. •Synonym of Sardinella atricauda (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead 1985:92 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1809 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella atricauda (Günther 1868). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

melastoma, Clupea Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:237, Pl. 108 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Bay of Simabara, Nagasaki, Japan. No types known. Based on figure and manuscript of Burger. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

membras, Clupea Pallas [P. S.] 1814:211 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Baltic Sea. No types known. Perhaps not independent of Clupea harengus membras Wulff 1765. •Permanently invalid, preoccupied by Clupea harengus membras Wulff 1765. •In the synonymy of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies membras Wulff 1765. Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

membras, Clupea Wulff [J. C.] (ex Linnaeus) 1765:39 [Ichthyologia, cum amphibiis regni Borussici. Methodo Linnaena disposita.; ref. 17844] Rivers of Borussia [Prussia], Germany. No types known. Validates the Clupea harengus membras of Linnaeus 1761:128 [ref. 7169].. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies membras Wulff 1765 -- (Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Parin et al. 2014:56 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Distribution: Baltic Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

membras, Clupea harengus Linnaeus [C.] 1760:128 [Fauna Svecica, sistens Animalia Sveciae Regni, ed. II; ref. 13326] Baltic Sea. No types known. Not a trinominial in Linnaeus 1761, but a vernacular name; dates to Wulff 1765:39 [ref. 17844]. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies [subspecies sometimes wrongly dating to Linnaeus] -- (Berg 1948:150 [ref. 12882], Svetovidov 1973:100 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:115 [ref. 5141], Scott & Scott 1988:118 [ref. 25518], Dorofeeva 1998:28 [ref. 23573], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:36 [ref. 28183]). •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies membras Wulff 1765 -- (Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

menhaden, Clupea Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:21 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] Coast of New York, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Mitchill 1815:453, Pl. 5 (fig. 7) [ref. 13292]. •Synonym of Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802) -- (Whitehead 1985:215 [ref. 5141], Smith 1986:395 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mento, Cynothrissa Regan [C. T.] 1917:204, Fig. 1.1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 19 (no. 110); ref. 3668] Agberi, southern Nigeria. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1902.11.10.61. •Valid as Cynothrissa mento Regan 1917 -- (Poll et al. 1984:42 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:137 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781]). •Valid as Odaxothrissa mento (Regan 1917) -- (Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:108 [ref. 21589], Gourène & Teugels 1991:454 [ref. 19026], Lévèque et al. 1991:138 [ref. 31367], Dankwa et al. 1999:12 [ref. 28023], Teugels 2007:197 [ref. 30016], Munroe 2016:1739 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Valid as Odaxothrissa mento (Regan 1917). Clupeidae. Distribution: West-central Africa: Ghana to Nigeria, and Volta River and Lake Volta, Ghana. Habitat: freshwater.

mesops, Sundasalanx Siebert [D. J.] & Crimmen [O.] in Siebert 1997:23, Fig. 13 [Bulletin of the Natural History Museum London (Zoology) v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 22941] Barito River drainage, Sungai Laung at desa Maruwei, 0°21.986'S [or N], 114°44.103'E, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 6098. Paratypes: BMNH 1996.7.18.2-51 (50), MZB 6099 (10). •Valid as Sundasalanx mesops Siebert & Crimmen 1997 -- (Kottelat 2013:64 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Sundasalanx mesops Siebert & Crimmen 1997. Clupeidae. Distribution: Kalimantanm, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

mexicanus, Chatoessus Günther [A.] 1868:409 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Mexico, New Orleans, and East Indies. Syntypes: (3 + several) BMNH 1857.7.31.21 (2?) Mexico. •Synonym of Dorosoma petenense (Günther 1867) -- (Whitehead 1985:236 [ref. 5141], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:115 [ref. 24550], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Dorosoma petenense (Günther 1867). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

microlepis, Alausa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:439 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Bengal. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3696. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3082 [ex MNHN 0000-3696] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:282 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:8 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:88 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:228 [ref. 5141], Menon 1999:7 [ref. 24904], Ara et al. 2018:83 [ref. 36281]). Current status: Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

microps, Sundasalanx Roberts [T. R.] 1981:300, Figs. 1b, 2b, 3, 4b, 5b, 6b [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 9); ref. 6588] Kapuas River at Kampong Nibung, Borneo, 0°39'N, 112°10.5'E. Holotype: MZB 3000. Paratypes: MZB 3001, CAS 44220 (34), USNM 227793 (6). •Valid as Sundasalanx microps Roberts 1981 -- (Roberts 1984:213 [ref. 5318], Roberts 1989:27 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 1991:275 [ref. 13588], Kottelat et al. 1993:82 [ref. 23448], Parenti & Lim 2005:178 [ref. 28285], Tan & Kottelat 2009:25 [ref. 30261], Kottelat 2013:64 [ref. 32989]). •See Kottelat 1998:21 [ref. 23436]. Current status: Valid as Sundasalanx microps Roberts 1981. Clupeidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

minima, Clupea Storer [D. H.] (ex Peck) 1839:438 [113] [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 2 (nos 3-4) (art. 12); ref. 4278] New Hampshire, U.S.A. Syntypes: (several) whereabouts unknown. On p. 113 of separate. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Whitehead 1985:115 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

minor, Arengus Cornide [J.] 1788:91 [Ensayo de una historia de los peces y otras producciones marinas de la costa de Galicia; ref. 5057] Not available, on Official Index (Opinion 799); from Galicia coast of Spain. •In the synonymy of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Svetovidov 1973:102 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:55 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:213 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

minor, Clupea Alosa Pollini [C.] 1816:21 [Viaggio al Lago di Garda e al Monte Baldo; ref. 18566] Name only, not available. •In the synonymy of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Kottelat 1997:36 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae.

minuta, Microthrissa Poll [M.] 1974:154, Fig. 2 [Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Académie Royale de Belgique (Ser. 5) v. 60 (no. 2); ref. 7530] Garamba River, Garamba National Park, tributary of Dungu River, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: MRAC 188615. Paratypes: IRSNB 697 (1); MRAC 188616-33 (18), 188634-51 (16), 188652-71 (19). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:7 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:57 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Microthrissa minuta Poll 1974 -- (Poll et al. 1984:46 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:151 [ref. 5141], Gourène & Teugels 1990:148 [ref. 16771], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781], Kullander & Roberts 2012:368 [ref. 31751] as cf minuta). Current status: Valid as Microthrissa minuta Poll 1974. Clupeidae. Distribution: West-central Africa: Congo River basin. Habitat: freshwater.

miodon, Pellonula Boulenger [G. A.] 1906:546, Pl. 30 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 6, no. 1); ref. 573] Lake Tanganyika (6 localities). Syntypes: BMNH 1906.9.8.7 (1), 1906.9.8.8-9 (2), 1906.9.8.10 (1), 1906.9.8.11 (1), 1906.9.8.12-13 (2), 1906.9.8.14-18 (5), 1906.9.8.19-25 (7), 1906.9.8.16-28 (3, c&s), 1972.11.8.1 (1). Some syntypes are also syntypes of Stolothrissa tanganicae Regan 1917. •Valid as Limnothrissa miodon (Boulenger 1906) -- (Poll et al. 1984:45 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:160 [ref. 5141], Gourène & Teugels 1993:367 [ref. 22318], Skelton 1993:110 [ref. 24071], Poll & Gosse 1995:129 [ref. 24781], Skelton 2001:110 [ref. 27406], De Vos et al. 2001:129 [ref. 26059], Marshall 2011:65 [ref. 31755]). Current status: Valid as Limnothrissa miodon (Boulenger 1906). Clupeidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganykia; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

mirabilis, Clupea Girard [C. F.] 1854:138 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1817] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 1319-20 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847 -- (Okada 1961:292 [ref. 6363], Whitehead 1985:117 [ref. 5141], Youn & Kim 1998:53 [ref. 25737], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:134 [ref. 25968]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

miri, Microthrissa Daget [J.] 1954:67, Fig. 12 [Mémoires de l'Institut français d'Afrique Noire No. 36; ref. 11989] Diafarabé, Sudan. Holotype: MNHN 1925-214. Paratypes: MNHN 1925-0179 (24), 1960-0400 to 0404 (9, 2, 33, 162), 1960-0404 (1), 1960-0405 (3, now 1), B-3093 [ex MNHN 1960-0405] (2, regarded as a different species). Type catalog: Blanc 1961:261-262 [ref. 20870], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:20-21 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Pellonula miri (Daget 1954) -- (Poll et al. 1984:49 [ref. 6172]). •Synonym of Pellonula leonensis Boulenger 1916, but a valid subspecies miri DAget 1954 -- (Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781]). •Synonym of Pellonula leonensis Boulenger 1916 -- (Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:20 [ref. 9739], Whitehead 1985:142 [ref. 5141], Lévêque et al. 1989:114 [ref. 26480], Paugy et al. 1990:332 [ref. 26477], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:105 [ref. 21589], Gourène & Teugels 1991:220 [ref. 20013], Lévèque et al. 1991:138 [ref. 31367], Munroe 2016:1732 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Synonym of Pellonula leonensis Boulenger 1916. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

mizun, Clupea Kishinouye [K.] 1908:98, Pl. 20 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Imperial Fisheries Bureau v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 14325] Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Syntypes: apparently destroyed. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

modesta, Pellonula Fischer [J. G.] 1885:75 [Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten v. 2; ref. 18083] Elobey, Equatorial Guinea. Lectotype: ZMH H186 [10168]. Paralectotypes: ZMH H187 [ex 10168] (1), ZMH H188 [ex 10167] (1). Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:156 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:401 [ref. 21161]. Lectotype selected by Ladiges et al. 1958:156 [ref. 19181]. •Synonym of Pellonula vorax Günther 1868 -- (Poll et al. 1984:50 [ref. 6172], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:105 [ref. 21589]). •Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838) -- (Whitehead 1985:106 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:219 [ref. 14039], Gourène & Teugels 1991:224 [ref. 20013], Munroe 2016:1736 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe 1838). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

modestus, Chatoessus Day [F.] 1870:622 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 3) (art. 3) (for 9 Dec. 1869); ref. 14093] Bassein River, as high as Een-gay-gyee Lake, Myanmar. Lectotype: ZSI F2695 (figured specimen). Paralectotypes/or Day specimens: (many) AMS B.7637 (1, paralectotype); BMNH 1889.2.1.1879 (1); RMNH 2585 (1); ZSI F8022/1 (1), F8023/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:98 [ref. 20743], Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:300 [ref. 25110]. Original as Chatoëssus. Lectotype selected by Talwar & Whitehead 1971:73 [ref. 4320]. •Valid as Gonialosa modesta (Day 1870) -- (Whitehead 1985:257 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:108 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Gonialosa modesta (Day 1870). Clupeidae. Distribution: Asian rivers. Habitat: freshwater.

moeruensis, Poecilothrissa Poll [M.] 1948:15, Fig. 6 [Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique v. 24 (no. 21); ref. 13069] Lake Moero [Lake Mweru], 9°18'S, 28°56'E, Kilwa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: MRAC 6372. Paratypes: (560) MRAC 3546-731 (186, 6 c&s), 4051-52 (2), 4055-71 (71), 4188-95 (8), 4196 (1), 4806-4936 (131), 5679-5844 (166), 6373-6382 (10), 6387-6389 (3), 6393-6402 (10), 6925-30 (6), 9278-9307 (30). Type catalog: Derijst 1991:63 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Microthrissa moeruensis (Poll 1948) -- (Gourène & Teugels 1990:144 [ref. 16771]). •Valid as Poecilothrissa moeruensis Poll 1948 -- (Poll et al. 1984:50 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:150 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:125 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Poecilothrissa moeruensis Poll 1948. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Africa (Lake Mweru). Habitat: freshwater.

moluccensis, Harengula Bleeker [P.] 1853:609 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 337] Ternate, Ambon, and Ceram, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7098 (? missing). Paralectotypes (3) or Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.27 (1), 1867.11.28.30 (1); MNHN 0000-3739 to 3741 (1, 1, 2); NMV A939 (3); RMNH 24955 (1 or more of 29); SMNS 10585 (1 paralectotype). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:290-291 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:51 [ref. 9739], Fricke 1991:12 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:28 [ref. 29864]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead et al. 1963:43. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:41 [ref. 29757], Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

moriaac, Alosa kessleri pontica natio Pavlov [P. I.] 1959:38 [Inst. Akad. Nauk. USSR, Kiev; ref. 22963] Not an independent description but a spelling error for (Alosa pontica) moriac Antipa 1909; from Danube and Dnieper rivers, Ukraine and Romania; also infrasubspecific. •In the synonymy of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:39 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835. Clupeidae.

moriac, Alosa pontica var. Antipa [G.] 1909 [Publicatiuniule fondului Vasilie Adamachi, Academia Româna [Fauna ichtiologica a romaniei, de dr. Gr. Antipa]. v. 3 (no. 16); ref. 15922] Original not seen. •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Whitehead 1985:204 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

muelleri, Clupea Klunzinger [C. B.] 1879:261 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 22); ref. 18913] Northwestern coast of New Zealand. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2590. Type catalog: Fricke 1992:9 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:28 [ref. 29864] dated 1880. Name appeared as Mülleri in original. Also appeared in Klunzinger 1880:416 [92 of separate] [ref. 2624]. •Valid as Sprattus muelleri (Klunzinger 1879) -- (Whitehead 1985:47 [ref. 5141], Paulin et al. 1989:78 [ref. 24556], Stewart & Struthers 2015:304 [ref. 34231]). Current status: Valid as Sprattus muelleri (Klunzinger 1879). Clupeidae. Distribution: New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

muhlisi, Clupeonella Neu [W.] in Woltereck & Neu 1934:446, Fig. 1 [Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie, Leipzig v. 30 (nos 5-6); ref. 16469] Turkey, Sea of Marmara (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Synonym of Clupeonella abrau (Maliatsky 1930) -- (Whitehead 1985:51 [ref. 5141]). •Synonym of Clupeonella abrau (Maliatsky 1930), but a valid subspecies -- (Mogil'chenko 1991:45, 48 [ref. 24826], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:728 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:29 [ref. 23573]). •Valid as Clupeonella muhlisi Neu 1934 -- (Fricke et al. 2007:26 [ref. 29533], Çiçek et al. 2015:143 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Clupeonella muhlisi Neu 1934. Clupeidae. Distribution: Turkey: Uluabat Gölü, Bursa Province. Habitat: brackish, marine.

multispinus, Clupeoides Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1941:219 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 2037] Lower course of Digoel River, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): not researched. •Synonym of Clupeoides papuensis (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886) -- (Whitehead 1985:176 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Clupeoides papuensis (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

murmanica, Clupea harengus harengus natio Tikhonov [V. N.] 1941:26 [Trans. Knipowitch Polar Scient. Inst. Sea-Fisher. Oceanogr. v. 7; ref. 21148] Apparently not available, infrasubspecific (from Murman coast); publication in an available way as a species or subspecies not researched. •In the synonymy of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:100 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

musica, Alosa Girard [C. F.] 1855:199 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1819] Caldera Bay, Valpariso, Chile. Holotype (unique): USNM 75831. •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842) -- (Whitehead 1985:61 [ref. 5141], Parrish et al. 1989:2021 [ref. 19496]). •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842), but a valid subspecies musica (Girard 1855) -- (Pequeño 1989:27 [ref. 14125], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:189 [ref. 24023]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

nasica, Clupanodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:468, 472 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Malabar, India. MZB 3898. Unneeded new name for Clupea nasus Bloch 1795. •Objective synonym of Nematalosa nasus (Bloch 1795) -- (Whitehead 1985:248 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1807 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:62 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Nematalosa nasus (Bloch 1795). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nasus, Clupea Bloch [M. E.] 1795:116, Pl. 429 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Malabar, India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3898. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:65 [ref. 24282] with locality as Indian Ocean. On p. 117 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Nematalosa nasus (Bloch 1795) -- (Whitehead 1985:248 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:202 [ref. 6284] in Nematalosus, Al-Hassan 1987:422 [ref. 22503], Ataur Rahman 1989:255 [ref. 24860], Barman 1991:464 [ref. 30273], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:111 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:25 [ref. 15702], Nelson & McCarthy 1995:379 [ref. 21593], Randall 1995:67 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:106 [ref. 27969], Rainboth 1996:62 [ref. 22772], Carpenter et al. 1997:113 [ref. 23922], Munroe et al. 1999:1807 [ref. 24728], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:236 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703] as nausus, Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:13 [ref. 25482], Zhang 2001:103 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:20 [ref. 27712], Ataur Rahman 2003:279 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:62 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:153 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:306 [ref. 36183], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:36 [ref. 36460], Jawad et al. 2018:99 [ref. 36262], Suresh et al. 2018:72 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Nematalosa nasus (Bloch 1795). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern Korea and southern Japan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

neglecta, Clupea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1818:206 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 13337] Long Island, New York, U.S.A. No types known. First published as name only in Rafinesque 1817:453 [ref. 18585]. •Synonym of Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802) -- (Smith 1986:395 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

neglecta, Sardinella (Sardinella) Wongratana [T.] 1983:390, Fig. 4 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Formosa Bay, Kenya, 2°59'S, 40°19'E. Holotype: BMNH 1966.11.16.106. Paratypes: BMNH 1966.11.16.80-81 (2), 1966.11.16.92-93 (2), 1966.11.16.94-105 (11). Other specimens: BMNH 1913.4.7.2 (1), 1966.11.16.82-91 (10), 1966.11.17.1 (1). •Valid as Sardinella neglecta Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:109 [ref. 5141], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella neglecta Wongratana 1983. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Indean Ocean. Habitat: marine.

neohowii, Sardinella Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:274 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Cananoror Mahé, coast of Malabar, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3744. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3080 [ex MNHN 0000-3744] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:285 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:28 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:47 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Sardinella longiceps Valenciennes 1847 -- (Whitehead 1985:104 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella longiceps Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

neopilchardus, Clupea Steindachner [F.] 1879:29 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Hobson's Bay, 37°51'S, 144°56'E, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2250 (not found in 1995, probably lost). Type catalog: Fricke 1995:10 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:28 [ref. 29864]. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:12 [ref. 4228]. Type information: Whitehead 1970:16 [ref. 11605]. •Valid as Sardinops neopilchardus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Whitehead 1985:59 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:157 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:78 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:34 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:223 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:32 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847]). •See Grove & Lavenberg 1997:190 [ref. 24023]. •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842), but a valid subspecies -- (Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471]). •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842) -- (Paxton et al. 2006:334 [ref. 28995], Gomon 2008:191 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842). Clupeidae. Distribution: Australia and New Zealand [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Caspialosa caspia Kisselevitz [K.] 1923:115, Pl. 4 [The clupeids of the Caspi-Volga district; ref. 15452] Caspian Sea opposite Dzambai. Syntypes: (10) MLSU (1), ZIN 15938 (2). •Synonym of Caspialosa saposchnikovi [saposchnikowii] (Grimm 1887) -- (Berg 1948:121 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa brashnikovi [braschnikowi] (Borodin 1904) -- (Whitehead 1985:195 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrescens, Alosa pontica var. Antipa [G.] 1904:300 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 41 (no. 19); ref. 129] Northwest coast of Black Sea and lower Danube [Donau] River, Romania. Syntypes: ?NMW 92939 (3). Appeared in more detail in Antipa 1906:21, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-3) [ref. 6859]. •Synonym of Caspialosa kessleri (Grimm 1887), subspecies pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Berg 1948:124 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:204 [ref. 5141], Kolarov 1991:337 [ref. 24842]). •Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952], Parin et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nigricaudata, Sardinella Chan [W. L.] 1965:7, Fig. 19 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 1/3); ref. 20948] Bushman Bay, Malekula Island, Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 63325 [ex CAS-SU 25031]. •Synonym of Sardinella melanura (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:108 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1815 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella melanura (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigrofasciata, Lile Castro-Aguirre [J. L.], Ruiz-Campos [G.] & Balart [E. F.] 2002:2, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences v. 101 (no. 1); ref. 26610] Bahía de Guásimas, Sonora, Mexico, depth 1.5 meters. Holotype: CICIMAR 2032. Paratypes: CICIMAR 2039 (1), 4922 (35); CIBN 1886 (50), 3001 (2); IBUN-AM P9529 (2), Plus non-type material in Appendix 1. •Valid as Lile nigrofasciata Castro-Aguirre, Ruiz-Campos & Balart 2002 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Di Dario et al. 2011:549 [ref. 31478], Page et al. 2013:68 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Lile nigrofasciata Castro-Aguirre, Ruiz-Campos & Balart 2002. Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Peru. Habitat: marine.

nilotica, Clupea Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1809:[289], Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4182] Nile River, Egypt. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:39 [ref. 9739]. The page number is from a different edition. •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1948:145 [ref. 12882], Svetovidov 1973:107 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:199 [ref. 5141], Lelek 1987:61 [ref. 22962], Bianco 1988:148 [ref. 22383], Quignard & Douchement 1991:265 [ref. 24829], Mrakovcic et al. 1995:183 [ref. 23079], Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952], Dorofeeva 1998:26 [ref. 23573], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:34 [ref. 26753], Vasil'eva 2007:48 [ref. 30517]). •Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726], Fricke et al. 2007:25 [ref. 29533]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

nirchi, Caspialosa Morozov [A. V.] 1928:72 [Trudy Naucnogo Instituta Rybnogo Chozjajstva v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 19612] Krasnovodsk Bay, Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan. Syntypes: (many) whereabouts unknown. See also Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573]. •Synonym of Caspialosa brashnikovi [braschnikowi] (Borodin 1904) -- (Berg 1948:119 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904), but a valid subspecies nirchi (Morozov 1928) -- (Whitehead 1985:196 [ref. 5141] as brashnikovi, Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:726 [ref. 24702] as braschnikowii). Current status: Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

noctivagus, Thrattidion Roberts [T. R.] 1972:4, Figs. 1-2 [Breviora No. 382; ref. 3775] Sanaga River at Edea, Cameroon. Holotype: MCZ 48161. Paratypes: AMNH 55296 [ex MCZ 48162] (2, c&s), MCZ 48162 (175, 11 c&s), MRAC 76-51-P-1-9 (10). •Valid as Thrattidion noctivagus Roberts 1872 -- (Poll et al. 1984:55 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:163 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:129 [ref. 24781], Teugels 2007:203 [ref. 30016]). Current status: Valid as Thrattidion noctivagus Roberts 1972. Clupeidae. Distribution: West-central Africa: Sanaga River, Cameroon. Habitat: freshwater.

nordmanni, Alosa Antipa [G.] 1904:301 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 41 (no. 19); ref. 129] Danua [Dunay] River near Vilkovo, Ukraine. Neotype: ZIN 15497 (1 of 5, 154 mm). Syntypes: ?NMW 88576 (6) Black Sea and Lower Danube. Appeared in more detail in Antipa 1906:28, Pl. 2 (figs. 6-10) [ref. 6859]. Neotype designated by Svetovidov 1952 [ref. 21481]. •Synonym of Caspialosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1948:135 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Svetovidov 1973:106 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:271 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:197 [ref. 5141], Kolarov 1991:155 [ref. 24832], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:163 [ref. 28369]). •Synonym of Alosa tanaica (Grimm 1901) -- (Kottelat 1997:40 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:35 [ref. 26753], Parin et al. 2014:53 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa tanaica (Grimm 1901). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

normani, Microthrissa Whitehead [P. J. P.] 1986:281, Figs. 2-3 [Cybium v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 6756] Birrim [Birim] River, Ghana. Holotype: BMNH 1986.1.1.1. Paratypes: (19) BMNH 1986.1.1.2-11, MNHN 1986-0449, CAS-SU 64818 (9). Other specimens: CAS-SU 64818 (6). Named for D. M. Norman, sex not given; but name emended to normanae in a subsequent paper by Whitehead himself. That change is not a mandatory one (not included in Art. 32), but it appears that the incorrect subsequent spelling leonensis is in prevailing usage and should be continued. •Valid as Microthrissa normani Whitehead 1986 -- (Gourène & Teugels 1988:362 [ref. 16242] as normanae, Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781] as normani). •Synonym of Pellonula leonensis Boulenger 1916, with species spelled normanae -- (Lévêque et al. 1989:114 [ref. 26480], Paugy et al. 1990:336 [ref. 26477], Gourène & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:105 [ref. 21589], Gourène & Teugels 1990:151 [ref. 16771], Lévèque et al. 1991:138 [ref. 31367], Gourène & Teugels 1991:220 [ref. 20013], Munroe 2016:1732 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Synonym of Pellonula leonensis Boulenger 1916. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

norvegivus, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:528, 529 [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] Norway. No types known. Minimal description; for the "Norwegischer Hering (Form B)." •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

notacanthoides, Clupea (Alosa) Steindachner [F.] 1869:149 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 19) (for 15 July 1869); ref. 20467] "Mazatlan" [= Chile]. Holotype (unique): NMW 77050. Type information: Whitehead 1970:18 [ref. 11605] as type lost. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1870:309 [p. 20 of separate], Pl. 7, [ref. 4217]. •Synonym of Ethmidium maculatum (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:217 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Ethmidium maculatum (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

notacanthus, Clupea Günther [A.] 1868:443 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Valparaíso, Chile. Syntypes: BMNH 1848.6.14.42-43 (2). •Synonym of Ethmidium maculatum (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:217 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Ethmidium maculatum (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

notata, Alosa DeKay [J. E.] 1842:263 [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing under Alosa sadina. Clupeidae.

notata, Dorosoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1820:172 [Western Revue and Miscellaneous Magazine: a monthly publ., devoted to literature and science, Lexington, KY v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 7309] Ohio River, below falls, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Rafinesque 1820:40 [ref. 3592]. •Synonym of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Whitehead 1985:233 [ref. 5141], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

notata, Megalops Lesueur [C. A.] 1818:361 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2735] Guadeloupe Island, West Indies. No types known. •Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Whitehead 1985:72 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

novaehollandiae, Meletta Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:376 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9312. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:283 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:17-18 [ref. 9739]. Original as Novae Hollandiae. •Valid as Sprattus novaehollandiae (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:48 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:158 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:225 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:335 [ref. 28995], Gomon 2008:193 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Sprattus novaehollandiae (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia; possibly New Zealand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

novaehollandiae, Potamalosa Ogilby [J. D.] 1897:504 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 21 (pt 4); ref. 3271] No types known. Misidentified type species, not of Valenciennes, see account of genus Potamalosa. •In the synonymy of Potamalosa richmondia (Macleay 1879). Current status: Synonym of Potamalosa richmondia (Macleay 1879). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nymphaea, Clupea Richardson [J.] 1846:304 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Chinese seas. Holotype (unique): BMNH (apparently lost). Type information: Whitehead 1970:209 [ref. 11606]. Not available, on Official Index (Opinion 901). •In the synonymy of Sardinella lemuru Bleeker 1853 -- (Whitehead 1985:103 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1814 [ref. 24728]). •Valid as Sardinella nymphaea (Richardson 1846) - (Zhang 2001:80 [ref. 26586]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella lemuru Bleeker 1853. Clupeidae.

obtusirostris, Meletta Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:375 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Seychelles. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0900. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3072 [ex MNHN 0000-0900] (10). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:290 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:18 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:34 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

obtusirostris, Pellonula Boulenger [G. A.] 1909:158, Fig. 126 [Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa v. 1; ref. 14364] Aruwimi River, Upper Congo. Syntypes: BMNH 1907.4.20.43-44 (2). •Valid as Potamothrissa obtusirostris (Boulenger 1909) -- (Poll et al. 1984:51 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:156 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Potamothrissa obtusirostris (Boulenger 1909). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

oceanica, Clupea harengus forma Nilsson [S.] 1832:23 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Norway. No types known. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellata, Clupea Pappe [C. W. L.] 1853:29 [Synopsis of the edible fishes at the Cape of Good Hope; ref. 18517] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, southeastern Atlantic. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:77 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842) -- (Parrish et al. 1989:2021 [ref. 19496]). •See Grove & Lavenberg 1997:190 [ref. 24023]. •Valid as Sardinops ocellatus (Pappe 1853) -- (Whitehead 1985:60 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:204 [ref. 6284], Whitehead 1990:223 [ref. 14039], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:138 [ref. 25472], Fricke 1999:76 [ref. 24106], Munroe 2016:1738 [ref. 34560], Fricke et al. 2018:56 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Sardinops ocellatus (Pappe 1853). Clupeidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Angola to South Africa, in the Indian Ocean north to Delagoa Bay; Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

oeresundica, Clupea harengus oceanica subform Nilsson [S.] 1832:23 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Not available, a subforma of forma oceanica, infrasubspecific. Clupeidae.

oglina, Megalops Lesueur [C. A.] 1818:359 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2735] Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Lee et al. 1980:72 [ref. 22416], Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:95 [ref. 14275], Whitehead 1985:72 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:70 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:83 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:42 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:300 [ref. 23827], Planquette et al. 1996:76 [ref. 22818] with wrong author, Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:63 [ref. 22947], Murdy et al. 1997:69 [ref. 23144], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:345 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:108 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:146 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639] as Opistonema, Munroe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:158 [ref. 26158], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:824 [ref. 26997], Smith et al. 2003:10 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Matamoros et al. 2009:8 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:68 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:27 [ref. 33341], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ogura, Clupea Kishinouye [K.] 1911:384, Pl. 30 (fig. 2) [Journal of the College of Agriculture, Imperial University Tokyo v. 2 (no. 7); ref. 18418] Futani Harbor, Chichijma, Bonin Islands. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ohiensis, Alosa Evermann [B. W.] 1902:277, Figs. 1-2 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 27 (for 1901) Appendix 9; ref. 11567] Falls of the Ohio River, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 50469. Paratypes: AMNH 2163 (1); FMNH 3865 (1), 4489 (1, missing); CAS [ex IU 9550] (1, missing); MCZ 28810 (1); CAS-SU 12672-73 (1, 1); USNM 21346 (1), 50470 (1); USFC (2); plus non-type material. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:11 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:7 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann 1896 -- (Lee et al. 1980:62 [ref. 22416], Whitehead 1985:193 [ref. 5141], Etnier & Starnes 1993:123 [ref. 22809]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann 1896. Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

okinawensis, Clupea Kishinouye [K.] 1908:96, Pls. 19 (fig. 2), 21 (fig. 5) [Journal of the Imperial Fisheries Bureau v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 14325] Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Syntypes: apparently lost. •Synonym of Amblygaster leiogaster (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:87 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1786 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Amblygaster leiogaster (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Caspialosa brashnikovi Mikhailovsky [A. A.] 1941:560 [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Ser. A (Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS), Leningrad v. 30 (no. 6); ref. 13210] Near Karadashly, E. coast of southern Caspian Sea. Lectotype: ZIN 32187. Paralectotypes: ZIN 32187 (15, with lectotype). Lectotype selected by Svetovidov 1952:269, fig. 42 [ref. 21481]. •Synonym of Caspialosa brashnikovi [braschnikowi] (Borodin 1904) -- (Berg 1948:119 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904), but a valid subspecies orientalis (Mikhailovsky 1941) as described -- (Whitehead 1985:196 [ref. 5141] as brashnikovi, Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:726 [ref. 24702] as braschnikowii). •See also Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573]. Current status: Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

osbeckii, Chatoessus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:106 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Coasts of China. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3675. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3079 [ex MNHN 0000-3675] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:277 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:10 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:98 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1985:239 [ref. 5141], Youn & Kim 1998:56 [ref. 25737], Zhang 2001:98 [ref. 26586], Kottelat 2013:58 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

otaitensis, Clupea Valenciennes [A.] (ex Solander) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:351 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:40 [ref. 9739]. Based on Commerson manuscript; from Tahiti. •Nomen nudum -- (Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:39 [ref. 9739], Whitehead 1985:108 [ref. 5141]). Clupeidae.

otidus, Stolephorus Ringuelet [R. A.] 1942:435 [Revista del Museo de La Plata v. 2 (Zool. No. 17); ref. 21772] Not available, no distinguishing features; from Laguna Chascomús, Argentina. •Synonym of Platanichthys platana (Regan 1917) -- (Whitehead 1985:121 [ref. 5141] with question, Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Platanichthys platana (Regan 1917). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ovalis, Clupea Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:691 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. No types known. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. •Valid as Herklotsichthys ovalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Zhang 2001:67 [ref. 26586]). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys ovalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pacifica, Sardinella Hata [H.] & Motomura [H.] 2019:76, Figs. 1-2 [ZooKeys Nr. 829; ref. 36574] Manila Harbor, Manila Bay, Luzon Island, the Philippines. Holotype: BMNH 1985.4.12.1. Paratypes: BMNH, CAS, KAUM, USNM. •Valid as Sardinella pacifica Hata & Motomura 2019. Current status: Valid as Sardinella pacifica Hata & Motomura 2019. Clupeidae. Distribution: West Pacific: the Philippines. Habitat: marine.

palaeostomi, Caspialosa tanaica Sadowsky [A.] 1934:139 [Trudy Zoologicheskogo Sektora, Akademija Nauk SSSR, Zakavkazskij Fillal v. 1; ref. 18651] Palaeostomi Lake, not far from Rionmündung, west Georgia, Eurasia. Neotype: ZIN 31740 (1 of 50, 146.5 mm). Neotype designated by Svetovidov 1952:231 [ref. 21481]. Name spelled paleostomi by Pavlov 1959:105, 107 [ref. 22963]. •Synonym of Caspialosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Berg 1948:136 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Svetovidov 1973:106 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:271 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:197 [ref. 5141], Mogil'chenko 1991:171 [ref. 24826], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573], Sokolov 1998:25 [ref. 23571], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:164 [ref. 31251]). •Synonym of Alosa tanaica (Grimm 1901) -- (Kottelat 1997:40 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:35 [ref. 26753]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa tanaica (Grimm 1901). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

palasah, Clupea Cuvier [G.] 1829:320 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types known, MNHN specimens are not types. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:281 [ref. 293] dated to 1847, Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:40 [ref. 9739]. Putative neotype (MNHN 3685) suggested by Whitehead 1967:92 [ref. 6464]. Available from footnote as, "Cl. palasah, N. Russel, 198" [Palasah, Russell 1803:77, Pl. 198]. •Synonym of Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:222 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:63 [ref. 32989], Ara et al. 2018:83 [ref. 36281]). Current status: Synonym of Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pallasii, Clupea Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:253 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Kamchatka, Russia. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:40 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1948:155 [ref. 12882], Scott & Scott 1988:118 [ref. 25518], Cheng & Zhou 1997:67 [ref. 26385]). •Valid as Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847 -- (Okada 1961:292 [ref. 6363], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:71 [ref. 9277], Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:19 [ref. 6441], Whitehead 1985:117 [ref. 5141], Grant 1986:714 [ref. 22454], Matarese et al. 1989:44 [ref. 26885] as pallasi, McAllister 1990:53 [ref. 14674] as pallasi, Rass & Wheeler 1991 [ref. 20079], Swift et al. 1993:130 [ref. 22379], Kubota & Tsukada 1996:56 [ref. 24966], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702] as pallasi, Dorofeeva 1998:28 [ref. 23573], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670] as pallasi, Youn & Kim 1998:54 [ref. 25737], Musick et al. 2000:11 [ref. 24959], Nakabo 2000:246 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:17 [ref. 25650], Pietsch et al. 2001:139 [ref. 25688], Zhang 2001:62 [ref. 26586], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:134 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:246 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:151, 497 [ref. 26218], Fedorov et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27579], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:36 [ref. 28183], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:117 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:56 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:163 [ref. 34033], Pietsch & Orr 2015:19 [ref. 34694], Tohkairin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 35331], Afonso et al. 2016:14, 127 [ref. 36199], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:547 [ref. 34656], Kells et al. 2016:92 [ref. 35888], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:26 [ref. 34440], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:61 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Distribution: North Pacific and adjacent Arctic Ocean. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pallida, Spratella de Buen [F.] 1952:7 [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 4 (no. 67); ref. 12240] Duranzno, arroyo Chileno near Río Negro Reservoir, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM CI 1800. Paratypes: (19?) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:2 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. •Synonym of Platanichthys platana (Regan 1917) -- (Whitehead 1985:121 [ref. 5141], Cione et al. 1998:345 [ref. 23325], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:71 [ref. 28131] as pallidae, Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Platanichthys platana (Regan 1917). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

papalina, Alosa Canestrini [G.] 1872:135 [Pesci d'Italia. Parts I-II; ref. 14130] Trieste and Venice, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Apparently an unneeded new name for Clupanodon phalerica Risso 1827, included in synonymy by Canestrini. •Synonym of Sprattus spratus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus spratus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

papalina, Clupea Bonaparte [C. L.] 1846:34 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano 7a Adunanza, Napoli, Part 2; ref. 519] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Syntypes: ANSP 1263-67 (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:104 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:49 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:224 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

papalina, Clupea Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1860:127 [Prospetti sistematici degli animali delle provincie Venete et del mare Adriatico; ref. 18470] Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Described independently from and preoccupied by Clupea papalina Bonaparte 1846; name is objectively invalid. Also as Chiereghini in Ninni 1872:44 [ref. 17995] where Chiereghini name and description are quoted. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

papuensis, Corica Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:19 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 14464] Strickland River, New Guinea. Holotype: AMS B.9955. Paratypes: AMS B.9956 (3), MCZ 27562 [ex AMS 9957] (2); QM I.787 (1). •Valid as Clupeoides papuensis (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886) -- (Roberts 1978:26 [ref. 8886], Allen 1991:45 [ref. 21090], Allen et al. 2000:33 [ref. 27467], Allen et al. 2008:36 [ref. 30265]). Current status: Valid as Clupeoides papuensis (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886). Clupeidae. Distribution: New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater.

papuensis, Fluvialosa Munro [I. S. R.] 1964:152, Fig. 3 [Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 3058] Strickland River, Papua New Guinea. Holotype: AMS B.9953. Paratypes: AMS B.9954 (1), KFRS F.5639.01 (1). •Valid as Nematalosa papuensis (Munro 1964) -- (Roberts 1978:27 [ref. 8886] as cf. papuensis, Whitehead 1985:250 [ref. 5141], Allen 1991:46 [ref. 21090], Munroe et al. 1999:1784 [ref. 24728], Allen et al. 2008:38 [ref. 30265]). Current status: Valid as Nematalosa papuensis (Munro 1964). Clupeidae. Distribution: Fly-Strickland river system, Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater.

paracome, Fluvialosa Whitley [G. P.] 1948:267 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 3); ref. 4709] Noonkanbah, Fitzroy River, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.2619-001. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:7 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:6 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead 1985:244 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:155 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:330 [ref. 28995], Moore et al. 2009:6 [ref. 30117]). Current status: Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

parva, Microthrissa Regan [C. T.] 1917:202 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 19 (no. 110); ref. 3668] Coquilhatville and Lake Tumba, Democratic Republic of Congo. Syntypes: BMNH 1899.9.26.62-63 (2) Coquilhatville, BMNH 1899.9.26.67-69 (3) Tumba Lake. •Valid as Nannothrissa parva (Regan 1917) -- (Poll et al. 1984:47 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:145 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:125 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Nannothrissa parva (Regan 1917). Clupeidae. Distribution: West-central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

parvula, Clupea Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:20 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Mitchill 1815:452 [ref. 13292]. •Synonym of Alosa mediocris (Mitchill 1814) -- (Smith 1986:67 [ref. 22186]). •Synonym of Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811) -- (Whitehead 1985:205 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

parvula, Clupea Alosa Pollini [C.] 1816:21 [Viaggio al Lago di Garda e al Monte Baldo; ref. 18566] Name only, not available. •In the synonymy of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Kottelat 1997:36 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae.

patronus, Brevoortia Goode [G. B.] 1878:39 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 1 (no. 15); ref. 18142] Brazos Santiago, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes or possible syntypes: MCZ 17827 [ex USNM 891] (2); USNM 891 (?2 of 10), 892 (2), 5864 (2), 129846 [ex 891] (2), 133642 [ex 893] (4), 133643 [ex USNM 893] (2). •Valid as Brevoortia patronus Goode 1878 -- (Whitehead 1985:212 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:69 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:40 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:119 [ref. 25836], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:334 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:107 [ref. 24550], Ross et al. 2001:106 [ref. 25978], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:814 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:138 [ref. 27995], Miller 2006:91 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:435 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Brevoortia patronus Goode 1878. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pectinata, Alosa Jenyns [L.] 1842:135, Pl. 25 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Bahia Blanca, northern Patagonia. Syntypes: BMNH 1843.2.8.47 (1, dry), BMNH 1917.7.25.1 (1, dry). •Synonym of Brevoortia aurea (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:58 [ref. 25942], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117]). •Valid as Brevoortia pectinata (Jenyns 1842) -- (Whitehead 1985:213 [ref. 5141], Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:72 [ref. 14235], Gómez & Chebez 1996:46 [ref. 23791], López et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27366], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Brevoortia pectinata (Jenyns 1842). Clupeidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pensacolae, Harengula Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1879:152 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 74); ref. 18134] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 22831. Paralectotypes: USNM 22831 (1 of 2). Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 73, p. 3247 under Sardinella humeralis in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865 -- (Lee et al. 1980:71 [ref. 22416], Whitehead 1985:65 [ref. 5141], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:112 [ref. 24550], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:821 [ref. 26997], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

perakensis, Corica Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1936:5, Pl. 1 [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 12; ref. 10994] Perak River, Perak, Malaysia. Holotype: CAS-SU 30976. Paratypes: (11) CAS-SU 68220 [ex CAS-SU 30976] (9), ZRC 1442 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:11 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Clupeichthys perakensis (Herre 1936) -- (Whitehead 1985:184 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:519 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Clupeichthys perakensis (Herre 1936). Clupeidae. Distribution: Malaysia and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

perforata, Clupeonia Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1276 [294] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang; Malay Peninsula; Singapore; Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.845. On p. 294 of separate. •Synonym of Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:91 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1808 [ref. 24728], Stern et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34733], Fricke et al. 2018:55 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

pernambucana, Sardinella Schreiner [C.] & Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:6 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 12 (1902); ref. 15045] Pernambuco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 1835. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1953:397 [ref. 12732]. •Synonym of Rhinosardinia bahiensis (Steindachner 1879) -- (Whitehead 1985:127 [ref. 5141], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinosardinia bahiensis (Steindachner 1879). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

persara, Nematalosa Nelson [G. J.] & McCarthy [L.] 1995:380, Fig. 1 (below) [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 41 (no. 4); ref. 21593] Road Bay, Saudi Arabia. Holotype: AMNH 56108. Paratypes: AMNH 56109 (16). Non-types: AMNH, BMNH, BPBM. •Valid as Nematalosa persara Nelson & McCarthy 1995 -- (Randall 1995:67 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:113 [ref. 23922], Ali et al. 2018:307 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Nematalosa persara Nelson & McCarthy 1995. Clupeidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

persica, Caspialosa caspia var. Iljin [B. S.] 1927:72 [Festschrift für Prof. N. M. Knipowitsch, 1885-1925.; ref. 15858] Astrabad Bay, southeastern Caspian Sea, Iran. Lectotype: ZIN 16413 (147.5 mm). Paralectotypes: ZIN 16413 (3, with lectotype). Lectotype selected by Svetovidov 1952:241 [ref. 21481]. •Synonym of Caspialosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Berg 1948:142 [ref. 12882]). •In genus Alosa based on placement of caspia Eichwald by Svetovidov 1973 [ref. 7169]. •Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Whitehead 1985:197 [ref. 5141], Heckman 1991:177 [ref. 24828], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

peruana, Harengula Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Callao, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 83156. •Synonym of Harengula thrissina (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Whitehead 1985:66 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1020 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:114 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Harengula peruana Fowler & Bean 1923 -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:190 [ref. 24023]). •Synonym of Harengula thrissina (Jordan & Gilbert 1882), but a valid subspecies -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:189 [ref. 24555], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Synonym of Harengula thrissina (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific, including Galápagos Islands (subspecies peruana). Habitat: brackish, marine.

petenensis, Meletta Günther [A.] 1867:603 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Lake Petén [Petén Itza], Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.372 (1). •Valid as Dorosoma petenense (Günther 1867) -- (Lee et al. 1980:70 [ref. 22416], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:71 [ref. 9277], Whitehead 1985:236 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:70 [ref. 23100], Robison & Buchanan 1988:111 [ref. 23393], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:40 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:36 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:41 [ref. 23239], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:9 [ref. 22290], Desfosse et al. in Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:215 [ref. 21581], Warren et al. 1994:132 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:149 [ref. 25560], Stauffer et al. 1995:51 [ref. 23376], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1018 [ref. 22829], Cross & Collins 1995:47 [ref. 23394], Mettee et al. 1996:123 [ref. 25836], Sigler & Sigler 1996:62 [ref. 25943], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:62 [ref. 22947], Murdy et al. 1997:71 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:337 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:115 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:47 [ref. 25838], Ross et al. 2001:110 [ref. 25978], Moyle 2002:114 [ref. 26449], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2003:13 [ref. 26883], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:828 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:72 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:141 [ref. 27995], Mundy 2005:148 [ref. 28379], Scharpf 2005:10 [ref. 28940], Miller 2006:93 [ref. 28615], Minckley & Marsh 2009:79 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:151 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:92 [ref. 35888], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:78 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Dorosoma petenense (Günther 1867). Clupeidae. Distribution: North and Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Mexico and U.S.A.; introduced elsewhere such as the southeastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

phalerica, Clupanodon Risso [A.] 1827:452 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:37 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:104 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:49 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:224 [ref. 14039], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:38 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29533]). •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies phalericus (Risso 1827) -- (Berg 1948:159 [ref. 12882], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:281 [ref. 13675], Dorofeeva 1998:30 [ref. 23573], Fricke et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29533], Parin et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33547]). •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies sprattus -- (Reshetnikov et al. 1997:728 [ref. 24702]). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pilchardus, Clupea Bloch [M. E.] 1795:40, Pl. 406 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Atlantic. Syntypes: ZMB 6550 (1, right skin, missing). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:65 [ref. 24282]. Apparently described independently of Walbaum 1792, but similarly based on Artedi in part. On p. 32 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Paepke 1999:65 [ref. 24282]). Current status: Synonym of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pilchardus, Clupea harengus var. Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:38 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Cornwall, England, northeastern Atlantic. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:20 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. On Official list of Specific Names in Zoology. •Valid as Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Svetovidov 1973:102 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:276 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:55 [ref. 5141], Parrish et al. 1989:2020 [ref. 19496], Whitehead 1990:213 [ref. 14039], Santos et al. 1997:25 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:29 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:19 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:37 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:49 [ref. 30517], Parin et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33547], Munroe 2016:1734 [ref. 34560], Martins & Carneiro 2018:24 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:553 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792). Clupeidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

piltschardus, Clupea Pallas [P. S.] 1814:204 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Widespread in Europe. No types known. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pinensis, Harengula pensacolae Rivas [L. R.] 1950:302, Fig. 41, Pl. 5 (figs. 4-6) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 100 (no. 3263); ref. 12972] Isle of Pines, opposite Siguanea Island, Cuba. Holotype: USNM 107399. Paratypes: USNM 124319 (5). •Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Current status: Synonym of Harengula jaguana Poey 1865. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pinguis, Clupea Günther [A.] 1872:425 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 10 (no. 60) (art,. 60); ref. 18195] Misool [Misol] Island, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1870.8.31.49-50 (2). •Synonym of Amblygaster sirm (Walbaum 1792) -- (Whitehead 1985:88 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1787 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Amblygaster sirm (Walbaum 1792). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pinnula, Sardinella Bean [T. H.] 1912:122 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 25; ref. 232] Bermuda. Syntypes: USNM 74086 (5). •Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Whitehead 1985:93 [ref. 5141], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:147 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

piquitinga, Sardinella Schreiner [C.] & Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:6 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 12 (1902); ref. 15045] Mercado de São Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) MNRJ. •Valid as Lile piquitinga (Schreiner & Miranda Ribeiro 1903) -- (Whitehead 1985:128 [ref. 5141], Cervigón 1991:89 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:300 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:109 [ref. 24550], Castro-Aguirre et al. 2002:1 [ref. 26610], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:823 [ref. 26997], Di Dario et al. 2011:549 [ref. 31478], Angulo et al. 2013:990 [ref. 33194], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966]). Current status: Valid as Lile piquitinga (Schreiner & Miranda Ribeiro 1903). Clupeidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: fresh and brackish waters of Atlantic drainage of Costa Rica, Venezuela and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

platana, Lile Regan [C. T.] 1917:394 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 19 (no. 113); ref. 15126] Río de la Plata. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.8.29.15. See Cione et al. 1998:343 [ref. 23325] for comments on locality. •Valid as Platanichthys platana (Regan 1917) -- (Whitehead 1985:121 [ref. 5141], Cione et al. 1998:335 [ref. 23325], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27061], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27192], López et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:71 [ref. 28131], Di Dario et al. 2011:550 [ref. 31478], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Fabiano et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33530], Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Platanichthys platana (Regan 1917). Clupeidae. Distribution: Lagoons, estuaries and lower parts of rivers in southeastern South America: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

platycephalus, Alausa Bleeker [P.] 1863:123, Pl. 26 (fig. 2) [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Ashantee, Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3310. Holotype figured by Boeseman 1963:Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [ref. 21734]. •Synonym of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825) -- (Poll et al. 1984:43 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:219 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:210 [ref. 14039], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:103 [ref. 21589]). Current status: Synonym of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

platygaster, Clupea Günther [A.] 1868:448 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Replacement name for Alausa brachysoma Bleeker 1853, secondarily preoccupied by Sardinella brachysoma Bleeker 1852. •Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:220 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1802 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:62 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

platyrhynchus, Sundasalanx Siebert [D. J.] & Crimmen [O.] in Siebert 1997:23, Figs. 15-16 [Bulletin of the Natural History Museum London (Zoology) v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 22941] Kapuas River mainstream, about 7 kilometers southwest of Nanga Silat, about 0°19'N, 111°45'E, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 5944 [ex CMK 6979]. Paratypes: CMK 6892 (8), 6979 (12), 7898 (3, c&s). •Valid as Sundasalanx platyrhynchus Siebert & Crimmen 1997 -- (Britz & Kottelat 1999:344 [ref. 24233], Tan & Kottelat 2009:25 [ref. 30261], Kottelat 2013:64 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Sundasalanx platyrhynchus Siebert & Crimmen 1997. Clupeidae. Distribution: Borneo and Sumatra. Habitat: freshwater.

platysoma, Platycephalus Zugmayer [E.] 1912:595 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 10 (no. 60); ref. 14897] Gwadar, Pakistan. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:271 [ref. 28925]. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pontica, Clupea Eichwald [C. E. von] 1838:135 [Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou v. 11; ref. 18063] Near Odessa, Ukraine, Black Sea. No types known. Also appeared as new in Eichward 1838:100 [ref. 34622]. •Synonym of Caspialosa kessleri (Grimm 1887), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1948:124 [ref. 12882]). •Valid as Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:272 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:204 [ref. 5141], Hoestlandt 1991:323 [ref. 24825], Kolarov 1991:337 [ref. 24842], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Vasil'eva 1996:147 [ref. 24890], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:27 [ref. 23573], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:35 [ref. 26753], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:163 [ref. 28369]). •Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:34 [ref. 28183], Parin et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Valid as Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838). Clupeidae. Distribution: Sea of Azov and Black Sea (if valid). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

posterus, Amblygaster Whitley [G. P.] 1931:144 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 4); ref. 16345] Fremantle District, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS I.12826 [ex WAM 10710]. Paratypes: AMS I.11224-25 (1, 1), I.13186-88 (1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Sardinella lemuru Bleeker 1853 -- (Whitehead 1985:103 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:157 [ref. 12442], Munroe et al. 1999:1814 [ref. 24728], Paxton et al. 2006:333 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella lemuru Bleeker 1853. Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

potamophilus, Clupea (Clupeoides) Bleeker [P.] 1870:[101], Pl. 260 (fig. 5) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 428] Bandjermasin, Borneo. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Plate published in 1870, text in 1872. •Unnecessary substitute for and objective synonym of Clupeoides hypselosoma Bleeker 1866 -- (Roberts 1989:25 [ref. 6439], Whitehead 1985:175 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Clupeoides hypselosoma Bleeker 1866. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

praecox, Sundasalanx Roberts [T. R.] 1981:299, Figs. 1a, 2a, 4a, 5a, 6a [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 9); ref. 6588] Khlong Falamee, flowing into inner lake of Tale Sap, 2 kilometers west of Pak Payoon, Isthmus of Kra, southern Thailand, depth 1-2 meters. Holotype: MCZ 47129. Paratypes: AMNH 48633 (5); BMNH (5); KUMF (10); CAS 48022 (1), 52031 (7, c&s); MCZ 54390 (orig. 119, now 92 or 89, 3 c&s); MNHN 1981-0884 (5); RMNH 28738 (5, now 3); USNM 227316 (5) •Valid as Sundasalanx praecox Roberts 1981 -- (Roberts 1984:214 [ref. 5318], Kottelat 1991:275 [ref. 13588], Rainboth 1996:169 [ref. 22772], Ng & Tan 1999:352 [ref. 24159], Britz & Kottelat 1999:338 [ref. 24233], Kottelat 2013:64 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Sundasalanx praecox Roberts 1981. Clupeidae. Distribution: Mekong River basin, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

praestabilis, Alosa DeKay [J. E.] 1842:255, Pl. 15 (fig. 41) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Eastern U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Alosa sapidissima (Wilson 1811) -- (Smith 1986:71 [ref. 22186], Whitehead 1985:206 [ref. 5141], Dorofeeva 1998:27 [ref. 23573]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa sapidissima (Wilson 1811). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

probatowi, Clupea palassi natio Makushok [M. E.] 1935:23 [Za Ribn. Industr. Severa No. 1; ref. 17593] Syntypes: (many). Not available, infrasubspecific; from Yugorskii Shar Strait, Kara Sea, Russia. •In the synonymy of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies suworowi Rabinerson 1927 -- (Svetovidov 1973:100 [ref. 7169], Parin et al. 2014:58 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

profundis, Clupea De Vis [C. W.] in Saville-Kent 1889:11 [Preliminary Report of the Food-Fish of Queensland; ref. 18384] Name only, not available; from Queensland, Australia; subsequent publication in an available way not researched. •In the synonymy of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:154 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:328 [ref. 28995], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae.

pseudoharengus, Clupea Wilson [A.] 1811:"CLU" [The Cyclopedic; or, universal dictionary of arts, sciences, and letters. v. 9; ref. 17839] Probably Delaware River at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811) -- (Lee et al. 1980:65 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:65 [ref. 22186], Whitehead 1985:205 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:67 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:105 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:51 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:37 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:33 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:124 [ref. 22809], Desfosse et al. in Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:220 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:48 [ref. 23376], Murdy et al. 1997:76 [ref. 23144], Scott & Crossman 1998:120 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:43 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:47 [ref. 26594], Munroe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:118 [ref. 26158], Scharpf 2003:13 [ref. 26883], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:827 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Bailey et al. 2004:69 [ref. 27882], Scharpf 2005:9 [ref. 28940], Minckley & Marsh 2009:77 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:148 [ref. 31215], Schmidt & Morse 2011:229 [ref. 31775], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern North America: Labrador to South Carolina (U.S.A.) and the Great Lakes; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pseudohispanica, Sardinia Poey [F.] 1860:311 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 17768 (5), 17771 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:171 [ref. 22926]. Originally pseudo-hispanica. •Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Whitehead 1985:93 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pseudopterus, Spratella Bleeker [P.] 1852:432 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 16827] Pamangkat, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7116. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.45 (1). Lectotype selected bu Whitehead et al. 1966:76. •Synonym of Corica soborna Hamilton 1822 -- (Whitehead 1985:180 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Corica soborna Hamilton 1822. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pumila, Spratella Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:357, Pl. 600 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Normandy coasts, France. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:46 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:104 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:49 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:224 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

punctata, Clupea Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:78, Pl. 21 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 567. Paralectotypes: SMF 4649 (1), 6650 (1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:40 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Herklotsichthys punctatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:40 [ref. 29757], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:275 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:80 [ref. 5141], Goren & Dor 1994:10 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:64 [ref. 22896], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Zhang 2001:66 [ref. 26586], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:37 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29533], Randall 2007:101 [ref. 30952], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:30 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys punctatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden; eastern Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

punctata, Harengula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:297 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea and Red Sea. No types known. Apparently not the same as Clupea punctata Rüppell 1837. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

punctatus, Chatoessus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:240, Pl. 109 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Bays on coast of southwestern Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3315a (largest of 2). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1771-D1772 (2, dry), 3314b (1 of 2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:177 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Clupanodon punctatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Berg 1948:146 [ref. 12882], Kuang & Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:18 [ref. 26639], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:35 [ref. 23876], Chen et al. 1997:13 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:71 [ref. 26385], Wang et al. 2001:52 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Konosirus punctatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:19 [ref. 6441], Whitehead 1985:240 [ref. 5141], Kim 1997:153 [ref. 24032], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:728 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:30 [ref. 23573], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Youn & Kim 1998:56 [ref. 25737], Nakabo 2000:247 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kolpakov & Barabanshchikov 2001:423 [ref. 25413], Kottelat 2001:13 [ref. 25482], Shimizu 2001:21 [ref. 25799], Zhang 2001:99 [ref. 26586], Kim & Park 2002:50 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:247 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:151, 498 [ref. 26218], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:38 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2013:62 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:547 [ref. 34656], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:35 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Konosirus punctatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Clupeidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Vietnam and China to Korea, Russia and Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pusilla, Clupea Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:20 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Mitchill 1815:452 [ref. 13292]. •Questionably a synonym of Alosa mediocris (Mitchill 1814) -- (Whitehead 1985:203 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Uncertain as Alosa mediocris (Mitchill 1814). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

quadrimaculata, Clupea Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:78, Pl. 21 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Bay of Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 4648. Paralectotypes: SMF 78 (1), 4649-52 (4). Lectotype selected by Dor 1984:41 [ref. 29757]. •Valid as Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:41 [ref. 29757], Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:19 [ref. 6441], Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:201 [ref. 6284], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:154 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:47 [ref. 15987], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:274 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:10 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:64 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:111 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:32 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:47 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:60 [ref. 23965], Munroe et al. 1999:1801 [ref. 24728], Nakabo 2000:246 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:342 [ref. 25191], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:135 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:86 [ref. 25693], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:246 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:16 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:55 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:148 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:319 [ref. 28867], Paxton et al. 2006:328 [ref. 28995], Randall 2007:100 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:22 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:355 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:120 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:35 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:24 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:152 [ref. 34104], Hata et al. 2015:40 [ref. 34420], Miesen et al. 2016:83 [ref. 34492], Koeda et al. 2016:10[ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:55 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:30 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Philippines, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia at 21°38'S, Queensland (Australia) south to 16°35'S, and New Caledonia; introduced in Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ranelayi, Clupea De Vis [C. W.] in Saville-Kent 1889:11 [Preliminary Report of the Food-Fish of Queensland; ref. 18384] Name only, not available; from Queensland, Australia. •In the synonymy of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:154 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:328 [ref. 28995], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae.

rechingeri, Clupea Steindachner [F.] 1906:1424 [56] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 115 (1. Abth.); ref. 4242] Upolu, Samoa Islands. Syntypes: (2) NMW (not found). Type information: Whitehead 1970:7 [ref. 11605]. On p. 56 of separate. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

reevesii, Alosa Richardson [J.] 1846:305 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Chinese seas. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1963.8.20.2 (skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:208 [ref. 11606]. •Valid as Macrura reevesi (Richardson 1846) -- (Zheng et al. 1989:22 [ref. 21202], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:36 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:7 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:70 [ref. 26385] as reevesii, Yue & Chen 1998:24 [ref. 26415] as reevesi). •Valid as Tenualosa reevesii (Richardson 1846) -- (Whitehead 1985:224 [ref. 5141], Youn & Kim 1998:55 [ref. 25737], Munroe et al. 1999:1820 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:14 [ref. 25482], Zhang 2001:93 [ref. 26586], Youn 2002:151, 500 [ref. 26218], Kimura in Kimura & Yoshino 2009:31 [ref. 30440], Kottelat 2013:63 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:47 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Tenualosa reevesii (Richardson 1846). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Andaman Sea to South China Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

resticularia, Nematalosa Nelson [G. J.] & McCarthy [L.] 1995:379, Fig. 1 (above) [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 41 (no. 4); ref. 21593] Tarut Island, Saudi Arabia. Holotype: AMNH 56100. Paratypes: AMNH 56101 (19). Additional material: AMNH, BPBM and ZMUC. •Valid as Nematalosa resticularia Nelson & McCarthy 1995 -- (Randall 1995:67 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:114 [ref. 23922]). Current status: Valid as Nematalosa resticularia Nelson & McCarthy 1995. Clupeidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Somalia and Gulf of Aden to Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

rhodanensis, Alosa finta Roule [L.] 1924:263 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 49; ref. 21151] Rhone River, France. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:36 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Whitehead 1985:199 [ref. 5141], Quignard & Douchement 1991:274 [ref. 24829], Le Corre et al. 2000:119 [ref. 25367]). •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169], Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:36 [ref. 9739], Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

richardsoni, Chatoessus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:144 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Murray River, Victoria, Australia. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:36 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868) -- (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:215 [ref. 25473], Whitehead 1985:244 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:155 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:330 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Nematalosa erebi (Günther 1868). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

richardsoni, Sardinella (Clupeonia) Wongratana [T.] 1983:390, Fig. 5 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] China. Holotype: BMNH 1963.6.17.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1935.4.18.9 (1), BMNH 1965.7.5.1-10 (10). •Valid as Sardinella richardsoni Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:110 [ref. 5141], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Stern et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34733]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella richardsoni Wongratana 1983. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

richmondia, Clupea Macleay [W.] 1879:380 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 4 (pt 3); ref. 17574] Richmond River, New South Wales, Australia. No types known. •Valid as Potamalosa richmondia (Macleay 1879) -- (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:58 [ref. 25473], Whitehead 1985:186 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:156 [ref. 12442], Briggs & McDowall in McDowall 1996:46 [ref. 22909], Allen et al. 2002:66 [ref. 25930], Paxton et al. 2006:331 [ref. 28995], Kuiter 2018:16 [ref. 36369]). Current status: Valid as Potamalosa richmondia (Macleay 1879). Clupeidae. Distribution: Australia: New South Wales, eastern Victoria. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

robusta, Sauvagella Stiassny [M. L. J.] 2002:71, Fig. 4 [Copeia 2002 (no. 1); ref. 25890] River Ambomboa, 16-18 kilometers de Mandritsara, Madagascar. Holotype: AMNH 231420. Paratypes: AMNH 211130 (4), 231419 (46, 3 c&s); MCZ 159273 (2); MHNG 2613.07 (8); MRAC 2001-66-P-1-2 (1); UMMZ 235207 (119), 237202 (60, 3 c&s). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:57 [ref. 35805]. •Valid as Sauvagella robusta Stiassny 2002 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:57 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Sauvagella robusta Stiassny 2002. Clupeidae. Distribution: Northwestern Madagascar. Habitat: freshwater.

rostellatus, Apterogaterus De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:533 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] No distinguishing features, not available; from Noirmoutier coast, France. Clupeidae.

rouxi, Harengula Poll [M.] 1953:46, Fig. 16 [Résultats Scientifiques. Expédition Océanographique Belge dans les Eaux Côtières Africaines de l'Atlantique Sud (1948-1949). Bruxelles. v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12713] Cape Lopez Bay, South Atlantic, 0°42'S, 8°49'E, surface. Holotype: IRSNB 132. Paratypes: IRSNB 133 (9), MRAC 94996-99 (4). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:7 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:46 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Sardinella rouxi (Poll 1953) -- (Whitehead 1985:111 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:222 [ref. 14039], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:102 [ref. 21589], Wirtz et al. 2007:6, 26 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32972] needs confirmation, Munroe 2016:1737 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella rouxi (Poll 1953). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Congo. Habitat: brackish, marine.

royauxi, Microthrissa Boulenger [G. A.] 1902:26, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Annales du Musee du Congo (Ser. Zoology) v. 2 (fasc. 2); ref. 562] Ubangi River at Banzyville, Zair [Democratic Republic of Congo], about 4°18'N, 21°11'E. Syntypes: BMNH 1901.12.26.13. (1), MRAC 1233-34 (1, 1), 1256 (1). •Valid as Microthrissa royauxi Boulenger 1902 -- (Whitehead 1985:152 [ref. 5141], Gourène & Teugels 1988:362 [ref. 16242], Gourène & Teugels 1990:136 [ref. 16771], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Microthrissa royauxi Boulenger 1902. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

rufa, Clupea Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:424, 452 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Seine River, between Pointe du Hode to Aisiers, France. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:41 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803) -- (Svetovidov 1973:107 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:198 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:209 [ref. 14039], Quignard & Douchement 1991:211, 225 [ref. 24829], Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952]). •Questionably a synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

rusa, Alosa Mauduyt [F.] 1849:49 [Bulletin Société Académique d'Agriculture, Belles-Lettres, Sciences et Arts de Poitiers 1848, v. 3, fasc. 9-12; ref. 17615] Vienne river at Châtellerault, France. No types known. •Synonym of Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:37 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

russac, Alosa pontica var. Antipa [G.] 1904:301 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 41 (no. 19); ref. 129] Danube [Donau] River estuary, Romania. Syntypes: ?NMW 4247 (1). Appeared in more detail in Antipa 1906:22, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-5) [ref. 6859]. •Synonym of Caspialosa kessleri (Grimm 1887), subspecies pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Berg 1948:124 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838) -- (Svetovidov 1973:108 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:204 [ref. 5141], Kolarov 1991:337 [ref. 24842]). •Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835 -- (Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952], Parin et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sagax, Clupea Jenyns [L.] 1842:134 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Lima, San Lorenzo Island, Peru. Holotype: BMNH 1917.7.25.2 (skin). •Synonym of Sardinops ocellatus (Pappe 1853) -- (Munroe 2016:1738 [ref. 34560] with Peru as type locality). •Valid as Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:72 [ref. 9277], Whitehead 1985:61 [ref. 5141], Matarese et al. 1989:46 [ref. 26885], Parrish et al. 1989:2029 [ref. 19496], McAllister 1990:53 [ref. 14674], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:188 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:188 [ref. 24555], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:135 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:108 [ref. 28072], Paxton et al. 2006:333 [ref. 28995], Gomon 2008:191 [ref. 30616], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957] as subspecies sagax, Page et al. 2013:68 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:238 [ref. 36362], Stewart & Struthers 2015:302 [ref. 34231], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Pietsch & Orr 2015:19 [ref. 34694], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:94 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

salina, Caspialosa caspia Svetovidov [A. N.] 1936:51 [C. R. (Doklady) Acad. Sci. URSS v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 13750] Mertvyi Kultuk and Kaydak bays, northeastern Caspian Sea. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Caspialosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1948:142 [ref. 12882]). •In genus Alosa based on placement of caspia Eichwald by Svetovidov 1973 [ref. 7169]. •Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838) -- (Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573]). •Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

samarensis, Sardinella Roxas [H. A.] 1935:275, Pl. 2 (fig. 11) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 55 (no. 3) (for Nov. 1934); ref. 15736] Barrio Cinco, Catbalogan, Samar Island, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 41217 (destroyed in WWII). Paratypes: BSMP 41218-19 (2, destroyed in WWII). •Synonym of Sardinella lemuru Bleeker 1853 -- (Whitehead 1985:103 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1814 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella lemuru Bleeker 1853. Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

sapidissima, Clupea Wilson [A.] 1811:"Clupea" [The Cyclopedic; or, universal dictionary of arts, sciences, and letters. v. 9; ref. 17839] Probably Delaware River at Philadelphia, Pennslyvania, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Alosa sapidissima (Wilson 1811) -- (Lee et al. 1980:67 [ref. 22416], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:71 [ref. 9277], Smith 1986:69 [ref. 22186], Whitehead 1985:206 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:68 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:109 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:51 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:34 [ref. 18983], Desfosse et al. in Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:225 [ref. 21581], Chereshnev 1996:599 [ref. 24659], Murdy et al. 1997:74 [ref. 23144], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:27 [ref. 23573], Scott & Crossman 1998:128 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:44 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:64 [ref. 26594], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:17 [ref. 25650], Chereshnev et al. 2001:35 [ref. 26736], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:136 [ref. 25968], Munroe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:125 [ref. 26158], Moyle 2002:117 [ref. 26449], Scharpf 2003:13 [ref. 26883], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:813 [ref. 26997], Wydoski & Whitney 2003:45 [ref. 27816], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:34 [ref. 28183], Scharpf 2005:9 [ref. 28940], McPhail 2007:46 [ref. 31199], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:117 [ref. 31212], Page & Burr 2011:150 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:56 [ref. 33547], Pietsch & Orr 2015:19 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:92 [ref. 35888], Robins et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Alosa sapidissima (Wilson 1811). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern North America: Labrador and Newfoundland to Florida, U.S.A.; introduced into the Pacific, range now from Russia to Mexico; and introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

saposchnikowii, Alosa Grimm [O. von] 1885:2 [Astrakhanskii Spravochnyi Listok. v. 99 (5 May); ref. 32249] Delta of the Volga River [45.85°N, 47.57°E], Russia. Lectotype (?): ZIN 15921 (1 of 6, 200 mm). Paralectotypes: ZIN 15868 (?6, now 5), ?USNM [ex ZIN 15868] (1). Non-types from ref. 20032: ZIN 15867 (1) 15880 (9, now 5), 15881 (1, lost), 15882 (1), 15921 (5, with lectotype), 15923 (1, lost). Appeareed first as above in a newspaper -- see Bogutskaya & Kerzhner 2007:139 [ref. 32248].; then as Grimm 1887:16 [ref. 20032]. The original spelling was saposchnikowii. Lectotype designation discussed by Bogutskaya & Kerzhner 2007:139 [ref. 32248] and attributed with question to Svetovidov 1952:223. •Valid as Caspialosa saposchnikovi (Grimm 1885) -- (Berg 1932:76 [ref. 278], Berg 1948:121 [ref. 12882]). •Valid as Alosa saposchnikowii Grimm 1885 -- (Whitehead 1985:208 [ref. 5141], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:28 [ref. 23573], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:34 [ref. 28183], Esmaeili et al. 2010:366 [ref. 33391] dated 1887, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:859 [ref. 34062] dated 1887, Esmaeili et al. 2017:28 [ref. 35254] dated 1887, Esmaeili et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Alosa saposchnikowii Grimm 1885. Clupeidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea basin. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

saraica, Caspialosa caspia knipowitschi natio Berg [L. S.] 1948:144 [Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries No. 27; ref. 12882] Appeared as Caspialosa caspia knipowitschi natio saraica nom. nov.; from Sara I. Not available, infrasubspecific. •In the synonymy of Caspialosa caspia (Eichwald 1838) -- (Berg 1948:144 [ref. 12882]). •In genus Alosa based on placement of caspia Eichwald by Svetovidov 1973 [ref. 7169]. •In the synonymy of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), subspecies knipowitschi (Iljin 1927) -- (Heckman 1991:147 [ref. 24828]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838). Clupeidae.

sardina, Clupanodon Risso [A.] 1827:451 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Svetovidov 1973:102 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:55 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:213 [ref. 14039], Parin et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sardina, Clupea Cuvier [G.] 1829:319 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Britain; Mediterranean Sea. Based on a brief description and reference to "Duham. sect. III, Pl. xvi, f. 4." Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sardina, Harengula Poey [F.] 1860:310 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes or Poey specimens: MCZ 17736 (2), 17868 (1); USNM 4794 (2); ZMB 5967 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:171 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 17868 as holotype. •Synonym of Harengula humeralis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:64 [ref. 5141], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:145 [ref. 25013], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:820 [ref. 26997]). Current status: Synonym of Harengula humeralis (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

sardinacaroli, Clupea Curtiss [A.] 1938:44 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sardinella, Clupea Vallot [J.-N.] 1837:277 [Ichthyologie française, ou histoire naturelle des poissons d'eau douce de la France.; ref. 17873] France and Italy. No types known. Original not seen, taken from Kottelat. Kottelat 1997:90 [ref. 22952] "restricted" the type locality to Lakes of Savoie, but the Code does not provide for such restriction in that manner. •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803) -- (Kottelat 1997:38 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786) -- (Bianco 2002:62 [ref. 26726]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa agone (Scopoli 1786). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sarensis, Caspialosa brashnikovi Mikhailovsky [A. A.] 1941:564 [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Ser. A (Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS), Leningrad v. 30 (no. 6); ref. 13210] Sara Island, Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan. Lectotype: ZIN 32184. Paralectotypes: ZIN 31284 (19, with lectotype), 32185 (26), 37475 (10), 38074-75 (25, 24). Lectotype selected by Svetovidov 1951:266 [ref. 21481]. •Synonym of Caspialosa brashnikovi [braschnikowi] (Borodin 1904) -- (Berg 1948:119 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904), but a valid subspecies satensis (Mikhailovsky 1941) as described -- (Whitehead 1985:196 [ref. 5141] as brashnikovi, Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:726 [ref. 24702] as braschnikowii). •See also Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573]. Current status: Synonym of Alosa braschnikowi (Borodin 1904). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

scandicus, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:528, 529 [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] Norway. No types known. Minimal description; for the Norwegischer-Herring (Form A)". •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

schaleh, Clupea Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xvii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Izmir, Turkey, Aegean Sea (Mediterranean Sea); Istanbul, Turkey, Sea of Marmara (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

schelderensis, Clupea harengus subform Nilsson [S.] 1832:23 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Not available, a subforma of forma oceanica, infrasubspecific. Clupeidae.

schlegelii, Meletta Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:93 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3716. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:291 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:18 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Sardinella brachysoma Bleeker 1852 -- (Whitehead 1985:95 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:156 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Munroe et al. 1999:1810 [ref. 24728], Paxton et al. 2006:332 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:37 [ref. 32988] as schelgeli). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella brachysoma Bleeker 1852. Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

schoneveldii, Clupea Krøyer [H. N.] 1846:193, Fig. [Danmarks Fiske; ref. 18437] Baltic Sea, Eckernförde, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany No types known. Based on "Latulus" of Von Schonevelde 1624:41 [ref. 36058]. •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:104 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:49 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:224 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

schrammii, Alausa Bleeker [P.] 1849:11 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [7]; ref. 321] Boleling, northern Bali, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7083. Paralectotypes: RMNH 23302 [ex RMNH 7083] (2, poor condition). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.32 (1). Lectotype selected by Whitehead et al. 1966:42. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scombrina, Alausa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:442 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Cananor, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3748. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3091 [ex MNHN 0000-3748] (6). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:285-286 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:8 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:46 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Sardinella longiceps Valenciennes 1847 -- (Whitehead 1985:104 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella longiceps Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

scoticus, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:527, 529, Fig. 18 [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] Firth of Forth, Scotland. No types known. Minimal description; for the "Firth of Forth-Herring". •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

selangkat, Chatoessus Bleeker [P.] 1852:47 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 27664. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.64 (1). Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:458 [ref. 16828]. •Valid as Anodontostoma selangkat (Bleeker 1852) -- (Whitehead 1985:254 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1789 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2013:58 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Anodontostoma selangkat (Bleeker 1852). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

senegalensis, Alosa Bennett [E. T.] 1831:147 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 5778] Senegal, Atlantic coast of North Africa. No types known. •Synonym of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Svetovidov 1973:102 [ref. 7169]). •In the synonymy of the later named Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Poll et al. 1984:52 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:93 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:215 [ref. 14039], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:101 [ref. 21589], Munroe 2016:1735 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

senegalensis, Meletta Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:370 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Senegal. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:43-44 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825) -- (Poll et al. 1984:42 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:219 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:210 [ref. 14039], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:103 [ref. 21589]). Current status: Synonym of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

septemtrionalis, Clupea harengus Schnakenbeck [W.] 1931:529 [Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere v. 21 (nos 3-4); ref. 21147] Not available, no distinguishing features; for the Färöer-Hering. •In the synonymy of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Svetovidov 1973:99 [ref. 7169]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

serdinka, Spratella Nikolskii [A. M.] 1923:2 [Byulleten Vseukr. Gosud. Chernomorski-azov. Nauchno-promysl. v. 6-7; ref. 14150] Northwestern Black Sea. Syntypes: ZIN 21081-82 (6, 3), 23449 (8). •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:104 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:49 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:224 [ref. 14039]). •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus(Linnaeus 1758), subspecies serdinka (Nikolskii 1923) -- (Parin et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

serrata, Rhinosardinia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:445, Fig. 39; Pl. 62 (figs. 3-4) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Morawhanna, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53927 [ex CM 2443]. Paratypes: (295) AMNH 7141 (10); BMNH 1911.10.31.452-455; CAS 60381-82 [ex IU 12558-59] (25, 7); CAS-SU 21972 (5); FMNH 7329 (5), 53928-29 (26, 8), 69558 (177); MCZ 30191 (5); USNM 66284 (5); ZMA 101009 (5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:52 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:11 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:75 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Rhinosardinia amazonica (Steindachner 1879) -- (Whitehead 1985:126 [ref. 5141], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinosardinia amazonica (Steindachner 1879). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

setosa, Clupea Steindachner [F.] 1869:149 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 19) (for 15 July 1869); ref. 20467] Liberia or Gabon [not Mexico]. Holotype (unique): NMW 76999. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1870:311 [p. 22 of separate], Pl. 6, [ref. 4217]. Whitehead 1970:17 [ref. 11605] and 1990:210 [ref. 14039] states that NMW 4173 includes the lectotype and paralectotype, but labels to that lot are dated 1878 thus specimens are apparently from a later collection. •Synonym of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825) -- (Poll et al. 1984:43 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:219 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:210 [ref. 14039], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:103 [ref. 21589]). Current status: Synonym of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sicula, Clupanodon Rafinesque [C. S.] in Bonaparte 1846:34 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano 7a Adunanza, Napoli, Part 2; ref. 519] Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic? Genus name as Cl., error for Clupea sicula, name in synonymy of Clupea sardina Cuvier and not available. Clupeidae.

sicula, Clupea Swainson [W.] 1839:385 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

signifer, Chatoessus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:264, Pl. 41 (fig. 132) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York, U.S.A. Holotype or syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Whitehead 1985:72 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

sima, Clupea Linnaeus [C.] 1758:319 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Asia. No types known. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sindensis, Clupea Day [F.] 1878:638, Pl. 163 (fig. 2) [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Karachi, Pakistan. Lectotype: ZSI 2630. Possible types and/or Day specimen: AMS B.7642 (1, paralectotype) Mumbai; BMNH 1889.2.1.1919-24 (6); RMNH 2519 (1); ZSI 2614 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:302 [ref. 25110]. Lectotype selected by Talwar & Whitehead 1971. •Valid as Sardinella sindensis (Day 1878) -- (Whitehead 1985:112 [ref. 5141], Randall 1995:66 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:112 [ref. 23922], Zhang 2001:84 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:860 [ref. 34062], Psomadakis et al. 2015:155 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:307 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella sindensis (Day 1878). Clupeidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman east to western India. Habitat: marine.

sinensis, Clupea Linnaeus [C.] 1758:319 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] China. No types known. •Nomen dubium; possibly the same as Tenualosa reevesii (Richardson 1846) -- (Whitehead 1985:224 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1820 [ref. 24728], Zhang 2001:93 [ref. 26586], Kottelat 2013:63 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Tenualosa reevesii (Richardson 1846). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sirm, Clupea harengus var. Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:38 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] [No locality stated] Red Sea. No types known. •Valid as Sardinella sirm (Walbaum 1792) -- (Dor 1984:42 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Amblygaster sirm (Walbaum 1792) -- (Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:19 [ref. 6441], Whitehead 1985:88 [ref. 5141], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:152 [ref. 12442], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:273 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:64 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:98 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:110 [ref. 23922], Myers 1999:60 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:72 [ref. 24106], Munroe et al. 1999:1787 [ref. 24728], Nakabo 2000:246 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:132 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Zhang 2001:69 [ref. 26586], Nakabo 2002:246 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:16 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:55 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:324 [ref. 28995], Kimura in Kimura & Yoshino 2009:29 [ref. 30440], Fricke et al. 2009:21 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:355 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:34 [ref. 32988], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:412 [ref. 33460], Mary et al. 2017:468 [ref. 35219], Motomura et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:305 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:54 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:30 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Amblygaster sirm (Walbaum 1792). Clupeidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to northern Gilbert Islands (Kiribati), Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Dampier Archipelago (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

smaragdina, Clupea Günther [A.] 1868:437 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Not available, name on specimen mentioned under Clupea menhaden. Clupeidae.

smithi, Brevoortia Hildebrand [S. F.] 1941:224 [Copeia 1941 (no. 4); ref. 13239] Vicinity of Beaufort, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 118723. Paratypes: MCZ 37230 [ex USNM 84368] (1), USNM 84368 (orig. 2, now 1). •Valid as Brevoortia smithi Hildebrand 1941 -- (Whitehead 1985:214 [ref. 5141], Robins & Ray 1986:69 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:40 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:335 [ref. 23897], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:815 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Brevoortia smithi Hildebrand 1941. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

smithi, Dorosoma Hubbs [C. L.] & Miller [R. R.] 1941:232 [Copeia 1941 (no. 4); ref. 11741] Flood pool between 2 branches of Río Piaxtla, about 12 miles from ocean, near the town of Piaxtla, Sinaloa, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 133749. Paratypes: UMMZ 133750 (4). •Valid as Dorosoma smithi Hubbs & Miller 1941 -- (Whitehead 1985:237 [ref. 5141], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:9 [ref. 22290], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1024 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:117 [ref. 24550], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2003:14 [ref. 26883], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2005:10 [ref. 28940], Miller 2006:93 [ref. 28615], Minckley & Marsh 2009:74 [ref. 31114], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Dorosoma smithi Hubbs & Miller 1941. Clupeidae. Distribution: Northwestern Mexico (Pacific drainages). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

soborna, Corica Hamilton [F.] 1822:253, 383 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Mahananda River, Bihar, India. No types known. Incorrectly spelled Corica guborni by Gray 1834:Pl. 91 (figs. 7-8) with correction in index to Corica soborni (also a misspelling). Locality of Bihar (not Orissa) provided by H. Bleher email 7/20/2016. •Valid as Corica soborna Hamilton 1822 -- (Whitehead 1985:180 [ref. 5141], Ataur Rahman 1989:252 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:113 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:17 [ref. 23448], Munroe et al. 1999:1783 [ref. 24728], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:276 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:59 [ref. 32989], Suresh et al. 2018:66 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Corica soborna Hamilton 1822. Clupeidae. Distribution: India, Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

sphaerocephala, Clupeonella Berg [L. S.] 1913:20, Pl. 12 (figs. 1, 1a) [Maerialy k' Poznaniju russkago rybolovstva, g.U.Z.iZ., Department' Zemledelija v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14941] Off Tyuleniy Island, north of Agrakhan Bay, Russia, Caspian Sea. Lectotype: ZIN 15928 (190 mm). Paralectotypes: (30+) ZIN 15928 (3, with lectotype), 32157 (11), 32159 (13). Also appeared in Berg 1913:475 [ref. 273]. Lectotype established by Svetovidov 1952:227. •Valid as Caspialosa sphaerocephala (Berg 1913) -- (Berg 1948:122 [ref. 12882]). •Valid as Alosa sphaerocephala (Berg 1913) -- (Whitehead 1985:209 [ref. 5141], Coad 1995:8 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:28 [ref. 23573], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:34 [ref. 28183], Esmaeili et al. 2010:366 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:859 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Alosa sphaerocephala (Berg 1913). Clupeidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea basin. Habitat: brackish.

spilura, Harengula Guichenot [A.] 1863:C-16 [Faune ichthyologique 2nd Partie, Annexe C.; ref. 1943] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1324 (2, poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:291 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:15 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Herklotsichthys spilurus (Guichenot 1863) -- (Whitehead 1985:82 [ref. 5141], Fricke 1999:74 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:22 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2018:55 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Herklotsichthys spilurus (Guichenot 1863). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Madagascar, Réunion (western Mascarenes) [there now extinct]. Habitat: marine.

sprattellides, Clupea Ogilby [J. D.] 1892:24 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 3266] Parramatta River, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.3034 (1), I.11311-12 (1, 1); ?MNHN 1895-0391 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:284 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:11-12 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Hyperlophus vittatus (Castelnau 1875) -- (Whitehead 1985:188 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:154 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:329 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Hyperlophus vittatus (Castelnau 1875). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sprattus, Clupea Linnaeus [C.] 1758:318 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European seas. Syntypes: Probably LS 46 & 47; others lost. Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:27 [ref. 20705]. Misspelled spratus by Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:9 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:183 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:104 [ref. 7169], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:280 [ref. 13675], Whitehead 1985:49 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:224 [ref. 14039], Arruda 1997:30 [ref. 24952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:728 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:30 [ref. 23573], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:38 [ref. 26753], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:38 [ref. 28183], Fricke et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:51 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:164 [ref. 31251], Çiçek et al. 2015:143 [ref. 35151], Martins & Carneiro 2018:25 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:553 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: North Sea south to Morocco. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

squamopinnata, Alosa Couch [J.] 1865:123, Pl. 206 (fig. 1) [The history of the fishes of the British islands v. 4; ref. 18055] Bristol, England. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2004.12.8.6 (skin, in 3 pieces). •Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Alosa fallax (Lacepède 1803). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

stanleyana, Pellonula Regan [C. T.] 1917:201 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 19 (no. 110); ref. 3668] Stanley Falls [actually Cette Cama], Democratic Republic of Congo. Syntypes: BMNH 1889.11.20.9-10 (2). •Synonym of Pellonula vorax Günther 1868 -- (Poll et al. 1984:50 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:144 [ref. 5141], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:105 [ref. 21589], Gourène & Teugels 1991:218 [ref. 20013], Munroe 2016:1733 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Synonym of Pellonula vorax Günther 1868. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

stappersii, Microthrissa (Potamothrissa) Poll [M.] 1948:17, Fig. 7 [Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique v. 24 (no. 21); ref. 13069] Lake Moero [Lake Mweru], Lukonzolwa, Democratic Republic of Congo [in error]. Holotype: MRAC 9308. Paratypes: (514) MRAC 9308-10140 (833, including holotype). Type catalog: Derijst 1991:57 [ref. 21528]. Type locality probably Lake Tanganykia (Gourène & Teugels 1993:367 [ref. 22318]). •Synonym of Limnothrissa miodon (Boulenger 1906) -- (Gourène & Teugels 1993:367 [ref. 22318]). •Valid as Limnothrissa stappersii (Poll 1948) -- (Poll et al. 1984:46 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:161 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:129 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Limnothrissa stappersii (Poll 1948). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Africa: Lake Tanganyika; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

stereolepis, Harengula Ogilby [J. D.] 1898:759 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 22 (pt 4); ref. 14688] Erub [= Darnley] Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.12175. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:154 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:328 [ref. 28995], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

stewarti, Nannothrissa Poll [M.] & Roberts [T. R.] 1976:235, Figs. 1-2 [Revue de Zoologie Africaine v. 90 (no. 1); ref. 7384] Lake Mai-Ndombe or Inongo, near Ipeke, Congo River basin, 2°32'S, 18°16'E. Holotype: MRAC 75-50-P-1. Paratypes: BMNH 1975.12.18.1 (1); MCZ 51477 (2), 51478 (2, c&s); MRAC 75-50-P-2-3 (2), 75-50-P-4-6 (3); USNM 214834 (3, 1 c&s). •Valid as Nannothrissa stewarti Poll & Roberts 1976 -- (Poll et al. 1984:47 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:146 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:125 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Nannothrissa stewarti Poll & Roberts 1976. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

stolifera, Clupea Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:339 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.305-311; MCZ 35995 [ex SU] (6), ?MNHN 1887-0380 [ex USNM] (4), USNM 28125 (many). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:291 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:12 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Lile stolifera (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Whitehead 1985:129 [ref. 5141], Castro-Aguirre & Vivero 1990:135 [ref. 19197], Allen & Robertson 1994:61 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:46 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1021 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:110 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:185 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:189 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:110 [ref. 24550], Castro-Aguirre et al. 2002:1 [ref. 26610], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:95 [ref. 28615], Minckley & Marsh 2009:75 [ref. 31114], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957], Di Dario et al. 2011:549 [ref. 31478], Angulo et al. 2013:990 [ref. 33194], Page et al. 2013:68 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Lile stolifera (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to northern Peru, including Galápagos Islands. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

striata, Alausa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:429 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Bahia, Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3735. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3088 [ex MNHN 0000-3735] (1), 3938 (2, dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:289 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:8-9 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:75 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Whitehead 1985:72 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

suhia, Clupea Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1912:437, Pl. 38 (fig. 1) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 7 (pt 5); ref. 14837] Gandak River, Saran, Bihar, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI. •Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead 1985:228 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:96 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:7 [ref. 24904], Ara et al. 2018:83 [ref. 36281]). Current status: Synonym of Gudusia chapra (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sulcata, Clupea Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:377 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Genus misspelled Cuplea and with question. Corresponds to Clupea 38-radiata on p. 389. Appeared as Clupea sulcata vel 38-radiata in Devincenzi 1925:316, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as unidentifiable. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sulinae, Clupea Antipa [G.] 1904:302 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 41 (no. 19); ref. 129] Black Sea and estuary of Sulina Branch, Danube Delta, Romania. No types known. Appeared in more detail in Antipa 1906:38, Pl. 3 (figs. 1-6) [ref. 6859]. •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:104 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:49 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:224 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sundaica, Clupea (Harengula) Bleeker [P.] 1870:[105], Pl. 271 (fig. 5) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 428] Java, Indonesia; Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7099 (now 1). Paralectotypes: RMNH 23362 [ex RMNH 7099] (some of 25). Plate published in 1870, text published in 1872. •Synonym of Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:91 [ref. 5141], Stern et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34733]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella albella (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

suoerii, Meletta Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:375 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Wabash River, U.S.A. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3695. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3081 [ex MNHN 0000-3695] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:279 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:19 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:84 [ref. 6464]. •In the synonymy of the younger name Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann 1896 -- (Whitehead 1985:193 [ref. 5141] as a forgotten name). Current status: Synonym of Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann 1896. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

suworowi, Clupea harengus pallasi natio Rabinerson [A. I.] 1927:66 [Trudy Instituta po Izucheniya Severa, Nauchno-Technicheskoe Upravlenie VSNC, Moskva v. 34 (no. 166); ref. 18583] Barents Sea. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Infrasubspecific when proposed as above. Apparently validated by Svetovidov 1973 who treated suworowi as a subspecies. •Synonym of Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies -- (Svetovidov 1973:101 [ref. 7169]). •Synonym of Clupea pallasi Valenciennes 1847, but a valid subspecies suworowi Rabinerson 1927 -- (Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dolgov 2013:915 [ref. 33112]). •Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847, but a valid subspecies -- (Parin et al. 2014:58 [ref. 33547]). •Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847 -- (Mecklenburg et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34440], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:547 [ref. 34656]). Current status: Synonym of Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

suworowi, Clupeonella Berg [L. S.] 1913:28, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Maerialy k' Poznaniju russkago rybolovstva, g.U.Z.iZ., Department' Zemledelija v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14941] Volga River delta, Russia. Holotype (unique): ZIN 15927. Also appeared in Berg 1913:477 [ref. 273]. Also spelled suvorovi in literature. •Valid as Clupeonella suworowi Berg 1913 -- (Berg 1948:123 [ref. 12882]). •See also Dorofeeva 1998:28 [ref. 23573]; now in Alosa. •See Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702]. Current status: Valid as Alosa suworowi (Berg 1913). Clupeidae. Distribution: Russia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

taeniensis, Clupea harengus forma Nilsson [S.] 1832:24 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Norway. No types known. Regarded as infrasubspecific and not available. Clupeidae.

taiwanensis, Sardinella Raja [B. T. A.] & Hiyama [Y.] 1969:90, Pl. 2 [Records of Oceanographic Works in Japan v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 21771] Taiwan. Syntypes: FUMT P3459 (12). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:24 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849) -- (Whitehead 1985:100 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1813 [ref. 24728], Zhang 2001:83 [ref. 26586], Ho & Shao 2011:24 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

tampo, Chatoessus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:117 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] No locality. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:36-37 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:36 [ref. 9739], Kottelat 2013:58 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Anodontostoma chacunda (Hamilton 1822). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tanaica, Clupea Grimm [O. von] 1901:67 [Vestnik Rybopromyshlennosti St. Petersburg v. 16 (no. 2); ref. 18161] Don River near Rostov-na-Donu, Russia. Lectotype: ZIN 16115 (1 of 2, 147 mm) [not 16125]. Paralectotypes: ZIN 16115 (1 of 2), 16126 (6). Lectotype selected by Svetovidov 1952:235 [ref. 21481]. Name spelled tanais by Pavlov 1959:106, 107 [ref. 22963] with author as Eichwald. •Synonym of Caspialosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1948:135 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Svetovidov 1973:107 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:197 [ref. 5141], Mogil'chenko 1991:181 [ref. 24826], Vasil'eva 1996:147 [ref. 24890], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:25 [ref. 23573], Parin et al. 2014:53 [ref. 33547]). •Valid as Alosa tanaica (Grimm 1901) -- (Kottelat 1997:40 [ref. 22952], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:35 [ref. 26753], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:35 [ref. 28183], Fricke et al. 2007:26 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:73 [ref. 29996], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:164 [ref. 31251], Çiçek et al. 2015:143 [ref. 35151], Artüz & Fricke 2019:553 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Alosa tanaica (Grimm 1901). Clupeidae. Distribution: Black Sea, Sea of Azov, Sea ogf Marmara and adjacent watersheds. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tanganicae, Stolothrissa Regan [C. T.] 1917:206, Fig. 2.2 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 19 (no. 110); ref. 3668] Vua and Ndanvie, Lake Tanganyika. Syntypes: (4 of the following) BMNH 1906.9.8.7 (1), 1906.9.8.8-9 (2), 1906.9.8.10 (1), 1906.9.8.11 (1), 1906.9.8.12-13 (2), 1972.11.8.1 (1). •Valid as Stolothrissa tanganicae Regan 1917 -- (Poll et al. 1984:54 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:158 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:129 [ref. 24781], De Vos et al. 2001:129 [ref. 26059], Kullander & Roberts 2012:360, 368[ref. 31751]). Current status: Valid as Stolothrissa tanganicae Regan 1917. Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Africa: Lake Tanganyika and Lukuga River basin. Habitat: freshwater.

tawilis, Harengula Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:273, Pl. 1 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 2103] Lake Taal, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 13198 (presumed destroyed). Paratypes: (77) BSMP (presumed destroyed). •Valid as Sardinella tawilis (Herre 1927) -- (Whitehead 1985:113 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1784 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2013:63 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella tawilis (Herre 1927). Clupeidae. Distribution: Philippines (Lake Taal). Habitat: freshwater.

tembang, Spratella Bleeker [P.] 1851:214 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 330] Unneeded substitute name for Clupea gibbosa Bleeker 1849:72 [ref. 316]; for types and localities see Clupea gibbosa. •Synonym of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849) -- (Whitehead 1985:100 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1813 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker 1849). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

tenuifilis, Megalops Cuvier [G.] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:54 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Not available, name in the synonymy of Megalops thrissoides. Clupeidae.

tenuis, Pellonula Nichols [J. T.] & Griscom [L.] 1917:675, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 37 (art. 25); ref. 3185] Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: AMNH 5842. Paratypes: AMNH 5843 (now 8, 2 c&s), 6241 (1); FMNH 55297 [ex AMNH 5843] (5, c c&s); MRAC 15656-58 (3, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:64 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Potamothrissa obtusirostris (Boulenger 1909) -- (Poll et al. 1984:51 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:156 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Potamothrissa obtusirostris (Boulenger 1909). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

terrasae, Sardinella aurita var. Lozano Rey [L.] 1950:14, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Rapports et procès-verbaux des réunions / Conseil permanent international pour l'exploration de la mer No. 126; ref. 18457] Coasts of western Sahara; Canary Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Svetovidov 1973:103 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:93 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:218 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thailandiae, Anodontostoma Wongratana [T.] 1983:394, Fig. 11 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Songkhla, Gulf of Thailand. Holotype: CUB =CUMZ (uncat.). Paratypes: BMNH 1858.8.15.97-98 (3), 1894.1.19.76 (1), 1967.11.13.56-57 (2), 1978.8.18.157 (1), 1979.8.16.37-39 (3), 1979.8.16.40-43 (4); CUB = CUMZ (uncat. 1). •Valid as Anodontostoma thailandiae Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:255 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:105 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:15 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:62 [ref. 22772] as thailandae, Munroe et al. 1999:1790 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2013:58 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Anodontostoma thailandiae Wongratana 1983. Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thibaudeaui, Clupea (Alosa) Durand [J.] 1940:6, Pl. 1 [Institut Océanographic de l'Indochine Note 36; ref. 13008] Phnom-Penh, Cambodia. Holotype: ION. Paratypes: (4). •Valid as Tenualosa thibaudeaui (Durand 1940) -- (Whitehead 1985:225 [ref. 5141], Rainboth 1996:61 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 1998:21 [ref. 23436], Munroe et al. 1999:1784 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2001:28 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:63 [ref. 32989],, Kottelat 2015:40 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Tenualosa thibaudeaui (Durand 1940). Clupeidae. Distribution: Mekong River basin in Laos, Thailand and Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

thoracata, Kowala Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:363 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3172. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3075 [ex MNHN 0000-3172] (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:282 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:16 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:71 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:119 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:153 [ref. 12442], Allen 1991:46 [ref. 21090], Allen et al. 1992:298 [ref. 21400], Kottelat et al. 1993:17 [ref. 23448], Randall 1995:66 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:103 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Munroe et al. 1999:1795 [ref. 24728], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:235 [ref. 24754], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:134 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Zhang 2001:65 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:6 [ref. 27710], Paxton et al. 2006:326 [ref. 28995], Kimura in Kimura & Yoshino 2009:30 [ref. 30440], Larson et al. 2013:34 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:37 [ref. 34464], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:152 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35490], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:34 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:67 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Oman east to Philippines, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

thrissa, Clupea Linnaeus [C.] 1758:318 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] China. Syntypes: ZMUU Linn. Coll. 107 (1). Type catalog: Goode & Bean 1885:206 [ref. 1841], Lönnberg 1896:31 [ref. 23530], Wheeler 1985:26-27 [ref. 20705], Wheeler 1991:158-159, Fig. 3 [ref. 20102]. •Valid as Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1985:239 [ref. 5141], Kuang & Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:17 [ref. 26639], Zheng et al. 1989:23 [ref. 21202], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:34 [ref. 23876], Chen et al. 1997:13 [ref. 26476], Youn & Kim 1998:56 [ref. 25737], Munroe et al. 1999:1791 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:14 [ref. 25482], Zhang 2001:98 [ref. 26586], Youn 2002:151, 497 [ref. 26218], Kottelat 2013:58 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:55 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Valid as Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

thrissa, Opisthonema Gill [T. N.] 1861:37 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 13; ref. 1767] Based on Clupanodon thrissa of Lacepède 1803. •Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:146 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur 1818). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

thrissina, Clupea Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:353 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 290); ref. 12308] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 2524 (?), 6339 (not found in 1980), 6388 (3). •Valid as Harengula thrissina (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:72 [ref. 9277], Whitehead 1985:66 [ref. 5141], Allen & Robertson 1994:60 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:46 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1020 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:109 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:190 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:189 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:113 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:284 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:92 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:92 [ref. 35888], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Harengula thrissina (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Clupeidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thrissoides, Megalops Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:54 [misprinted 45], Pl. 22 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Bahia, Brazil. As Clupanodon thrissoides on plate. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tobarana, Clupea Natterer [J.] in Diesing 1836:25 [Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 18471] Not available, no distinguishing characters mentioned. Clupeidae.

toli, Alausa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:435 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3939 (dry). Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-3940 (1, dry), 0000-3684 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:9 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:93 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Macrura toli (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:26 [ref. 19756]). •Valid as Hilsa toli (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:251 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:101 [ref. 20764], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710]). •Valid as Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:226 [ref. 5141], Kottelat et al. 1993:17 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:61 [ref. 22772], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:116 [ref. 27969], Fricke 1999:77 [ref. 24106], Munroe et al. 1999:1821 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:274 [ref. 31338], Parenti & Lim 2005:179 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:63 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:39 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:156 [ref. 34104], Jawad et al. 2018:100 [ref. 36262], Suresh et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes 1847). Clupeidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific; Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Persian Gulf east to western Indonesia, north to south China Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

torresiensis, Clupea De Vis [C. W.] in Saville-Kent 1889:11 [Preliminary Report of the Food-Fish of Queensland; ref. 18384] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. •In the synonymy of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:154 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:328 [ref. 28995], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae.

translucidus, Hyperlophus McCulloch [A. R.] 1917:165, Pl. 29 (fig. 3) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 11 (no. 7); ref. 15122] Sans Souci, Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.11403. Paratypes: AMS I.18464-001 (5). •Valid as Hyperlophus translucidus McCulloch 1917 -- (Whitehead 1985:188 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:154 [ref. 12442], Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471], Paxton et al. 2006:329 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Valid as Hyperlophus translucidus McCulloch 1917. Clupeidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

triza, Clupea Linnaeus [C.] 1759:251 [Amoenitates Academicae, Stockholm v. 4 (no. 61); ref. 24770] China Sea. No types known. Syntypes: ZMUU Linn. Coll. 107 (1). Also appeared in Richardson 1846:307 [ref. 3742]; see Whitehead 1985:239 [ref. 5141]. Objective junior synonym of Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758). •Synonym of Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1985:239 [ref. 5725], Munroe et al. 1999:1791 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:58 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tropica, Clupea Linnaeus [C.] 1758:319 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Ascension Island, 7°57'S, 14°22'W, South Atlantic. No types known. Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tscharchalensis, Clupea cultriventris var. Borodin [N. A.] 1896:88 [8], Fig. 2 [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 1 (nos 1-2); ref. 16981] Lake Charkhal, Ural River basin, Kazakhstan. Syntypes: (many) ZIN ?10622 (1, not found), 10857 (3). On p. 8 of separate. •Synonym of Clupeonella delicatula (Nordmann 1840) [preoccupied] -- (Berg 1948:164 [ref. 12882]). •Synonym of Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann 1840), subspecies caspia (Svetovidov 1941) but treated as a separate form -- (Mitrofanov et al. 1986:168 [ref. 35970], Kozlovsky 1991:67 [ref. 24827]). •Synonym of Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann 1840) -- (Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:37 [ref. 28183]). •Valid as Clupeonella tscharchalensis (Borodin 1896) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:77 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Valid as Clupeonella tscharchalensis (Borodin 1896). Clupeidae. Distribution: Volga and Ural drainages. Habitat: freshwater.

tyrannus, Clupea Latrobe [B. H.] 1802:77 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society v. 5 (art. 10); ref. 17488] Chesapeake Bay, northeastern U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802) -- (Whitehead 1985:215 [ref. 5141], Smith 1986:395 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:69 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:112 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:51 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:72 [ref. 23144], Munroe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:133 [ref. 26158], Munroe & Nizinski 2003:816 [ref. 26997], Nelson et al. 2004:67 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:75 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

valenciennesi, Harengula (Paralosa) Bleeker [P.] 1868:300 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 2; ref. 423] Waigeo, Indonesia. Available as "Harengula (Paralosa) valenciennesi Blkr = Har. melanurus Blkr." Essentially a replacement name for Harengula melanurus Bleeker 1853, preoccupied by Clupea melanura Cuvier 1829 when both are in Clupea. •Synonym of Sardinella atricauda (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead 1985:92 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella atricauda (Günther 1868). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

vanhyningi, Signalosa atchafalayae Weed [A. C.] 1925:145 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 12 (no. 11); ref. 30342] Prairie Creek, 6 miles southeast of Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: FMNH 11395. Paratypes: FMNH 11396-98 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:79 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Dorosoma petenense (Günther 1867) -- (Lee et al. 1980:70 [ref. 22416], Whitehead 1985:236 [ref. 5141], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Dorosoma petenense (Günther 1867). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vanicoris, Harengula Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:187 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Based on Alausa melanura of Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:441, not Clupea Melanura Cuvier. •Synonym of Sardinella melanura (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:108 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella melanura (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

variegata, Clupea Day [F.] 1870:623 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 3) (art. 3) (for 9 Dec. 1869); ref. 14093] Irrawaddy River and its branches, Myanmar. Lectotype: ZSI 2245. Paralectotypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.7676 (1, paralectotype) Bassein; BMNH 1870.6.14.38 (1); NMW 76614 (1); RMNH 2586 (1); ZSI B43 (1), B168 (1), ?A1020 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762]. Lectotype selected by Talwar & Whitehead 1971:70. •Valid as Gudusia variegata (Day 1870) -- (Whitehead 1985:229 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:97 [ref. 20764], Shrestha 2008:48[ref. 29923], Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Gudusia variegata (Day 1870). Clupeidae. Distribution: Asia: India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

venenosa, Meletta Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Seychelles. Non-types: MNHN 1892-0149 and 0150 (1, 1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:44 [not p. 19] [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:41 [ref. 29757], Whitehead 1985:81 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:61 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:30 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837). Clupeidae. Habitat: marine.

venosa, Meletta Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:374 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] New York, U.S.A. Lectotype: MNHN A-7641. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3077 [ex MNHN A-7641] (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:279 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:19 [not p. 44] [ref. 9739] but spelled venenosa (which is a separate species). Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:84 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811) -- (Smith 1986:69 [ref. 22186], Whitehead 1985:205 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

venulosa, Clupea Steinitz [W.] 1927:91 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 74 (nos 1/4) (art. 11); ref. 15823] Bay at Haifa, Israel, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): Zool. Mus. der Univ. Breslau [now UWZM]. Also appeared in Steinitz 1927:323, Figs. 1-3 [ref. 16060]. •Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847 -- (Svetovidov 1973:103 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:93 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:218 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella aurita Valenciennes 1847. Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

venulosus, Clupeoides Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1912:3, Fig. 1 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) (Sect. 2) v. 17 (no. 3); ref. 14893] Lorentz River, Irian Jaya, New Guinea. Lectotype: ZMA 114870. Paralectotypes: ZMA 100939 (2), 100936 (5). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:10 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Roberts 1978:26 [ref. 8886]. •Valid as Clupeoides venulosus Weber & de Beaufort 1912 -- (Roberts 1978:26 [ref. 8886], Whitehead 1985:177 [ref. 5141], Allen 1991:45 [ref. 21090], Allen et al. 2000:34 [ref. 27467], Roberts 2008:126 [ref. 29475], Allen et al. 2008:37 [ref. 30265]). Current status: Valid as Clupeoides venulosus Weber & de Beaufort 1912. Clupeidae. Distribution: Lorentz and Fly river systems, New Guinea (Papua and PNG). Habitat: freshwater.

vernalis, Clupea Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:454, Pl. 5 (fig. 9) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811) -- (Smith 1986:69 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vigintiradiata, Clupea Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:389 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Originally as Clupea 20-radiata; corresponds to Cuplea [sic] laccia on p. 377. •Appeared as Clupea laccia vel 20-radiata in Devincenzi 1925:316, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802). Current status: Synonym of Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe 1802). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

virescens, Clupea DeKay [J. E.] 1842:252, Pl. 13 (fig. 37) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Bay of New York, New York, U.S.A. No types known. Appeared as name only in DeKay 1840:12 [ref. 17392]. •Synonym of Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811) -- (Whitehead 1985:205 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

viridescens, Clupea DeKay [J. E.] 1842:252 [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Alosa mediocris (Mitchill 1814) -- (Smith 1986:67 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa mediocris (Mitchill 1814). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vistonica, Alosa caspia Economidis [P. S.] & Sinis [A. I.] 1986:729, Fig. 3 [Journal of Natural History v. 20 (no. 3); ref. 8969] Lake Vistonis, Greece. Holotype: MZUTH D-351. Paratypes: BMNH 1987.3.30.1-3 (3); MZUTH C346 (7), D20 (1), E15 (8), VA-75/76 (26), Z30 (3). •Synonym of Alosa caspia (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Economidis & Sinis 1991:199 [ref. 24839], Economidis 1995:203 [ref. 23025]). •Valid as Alosa vistonica Economidis & Sinis 1986 -- (Kottelat 1997:41 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:73 [ref. 29996], Barbieri et al. 2015:40 [ref. 35029]). Current status: Valid as Alosa vistonica Economidis & Sinis 1986. Clupeidae. Distribution: Lake Vistonis, Greece (possibly extinct). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

vittata, Clupeonia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:352 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Neotype: MNHN 0000-3233. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:13 [ref. 9739]. "Lectotype" designated by Whitehead 1967:66 [ref. 6464], but recognized as a neotype by Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:13 [ref. 9739]. •Objective synonym of Sardinella melanura (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor 1984:42 [ref. 29757], Whitehead 1985:108 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1815 [ref. 24728], Fricke et al. 2018:56 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Sardinella melanura (Cuvier 1829). Clupeidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vittata, Meletta Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:46 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Richmond River, Melbourne, Australia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3755 (5). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:284 [ref. 293] but wrong citation, Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:20 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Hyperlophus vittatus (Castelnau 1875) -- (Whitehead 1985:188 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:154 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:35 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:222 [ref. 22532], Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:329 [ref. 28995], Gomon 2008:190 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Hyperlophus vittatus (Castelnau 1875). Clupeidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vittata, Odaxothrissa Regan [C. T.] 1917:205 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 19 (no. 110); ref. 3668] Unganda River at Banzyville = Yasanyama, Oubangui River. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1901.12.26.12. •Synonym of Odaxothrissa losera Boulenger 1899 -- (authors). •Valid as Odaxothrissa vittata Regan 1917 -- (Poll et al. 1984:48 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:140 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Odaxothrissa vittata Regan 1917. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

vlaminghi, Fluvialosa Munro [I. S. R.] 1956:15, Fig. 177 [Fisheries news-letter (Australia) v. 15 (no. 12); ref. 19263] Collie River, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.1835. Paratypes: AMS IB.1833-34 (1, 1), IB.1836-37 (1, 1). •Valid as Nematalosa vlaminghi (Munro 1965) -- (Whitehead 1985:251 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:156 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:331 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Valid as Nematalosa vlaminghi (Munro 1956). Clupeidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

volgensis, Clupeonella caspia Berg [L. S.] (ex Meissner) 1913:34, Pl. 5 [Maerialy k' Poznaniju russkago rybolovstva, g.U.Z.iZ., Department' Zemledelija v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14941] Podovskaya tonya near Cherny Yar, mouth of Volga River, Russia. Lectotype: ZIN 15926. Paralectotypes: ZIN 17377 (2), 17410 (1), 17373-74 (2, 1), 17376 (1). Lectotype selected by Svetovidov 1952:292 [ref. 21481]. •Synonym of Caspialosa kessleri (Grimm 1887) -- (Berg 1948:130 [ref. 12882]). •In genus Alosa based on placement of kessleri by Svetovidov 1973 [ref. 7169]. •Synonym of Alosa pontica (Eichwald 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Heckman 1991:369 [ref. 24828]). •Synonym of Alosa kessleri (Grimm 1887), but a valid subspecies -- (Whitehead 1985:201 [ref. 5141], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:727 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:26 [ref. 23573]). •Valid as Alosa volgensis (Berg 1913) -- (Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:35 [ref. 28183], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:74 [ref. 29996], Esmaeili et al. 2010:366 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:859 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Alosa volgensis (Berg 1913). Clupeidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea basin. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vorax, Pellonula Günther [A.] 1868:452 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] West Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1847.4.4.27 (1) Niger R., 1853.10.28.1 (1) Fraser Coll., 1847.4.4.27 (1) Niger R., 1864.10.12.1 (1). •Valid as Pellonula vorax Günther 1868 -- (Poll et al. 1984:49 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:144 [ref. 5141], Lévêque et al. 1989:114 [ref. 26480], Paugy et al. 1990:336 [ref. 26477], Gourene & Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:105 [ref. 21589], Gourène & Teugels 1991:218 [ref. 20013], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781], Teugels 2007:195 [ref. 30016], Munroe 2016:1733 [ref. 34560], Skelton 2019:226, 230 [ref. 36564]). Current status: Valid as Pellonula vorax Günther 1868. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Africa: Sierra Leone south to Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Alausa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:391, Pl. 604 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Paris market, presumeably Seine River, France. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3676. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-3133 (1), 0000-3398 (1), 0000-5434 (1); referred to different species by Whitehead & Bauchot: MNHN 0000-3134 (2), 0000-3163 (1), 0000-3395 (7), 0000-3396 (1), 0000-3397 (3), 0000-3677 and 0000-3680 (1, 1, 1, 1), 0000-3682 (3), 0000-3683 (2), 0000-3750 (1), 0000-3752 (1), 0000-6263 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:279-280 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:9-10 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:78 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:105 [ref. 7169], Poll et al. 1984:41 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:194 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:208 [ref. 14039], Quignard & Douchement 1991:89 [ref. 24829], Kottelat 1997:37 [ref. 22952], Dorofeeva 1998:24 [ref. 23573]). Current status: Synonym of Alosa alosa (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Meletta Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:366, Pl. 603 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] La Rochelle, France. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3717. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3094 [ex MNHN 0000-3717] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:283 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:20 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:21 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:104 [ref. 7169], Whitehead 1985:49 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:224 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus 1758). Clupeidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

whiteheadi, Gonialosa Wongratana [T.] 1983:394, Fig. 10 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Kokariet, Tenasserim, Myanmar. Holotype: BMNH 1893.2.16.75. •Valid as Gonialosa whiteheadi Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:258 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:109 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:60 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Gonialosa whiteheadi Wongratana 1983. Clupeidae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

whiteheadi, Microthrissa Gourène [G.] & Teugels [G. G.] 1988:358, Fig. 2 [Cybium v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 16242] Nyonga, Democratic Republic of Congo, 8°39'S, 26°18'E. Holotype: MRAC 23240. Paratypes: MRAC 23241-243 (3), 27821 (1), 29282-85 (4), 29319-20 (2), 29344-47 (4), 29348-49 (2), 29356-62 (7), 29373-75 (3), 29424-31 (7, 2c&s), 102387 (1), 120319-21 (3), 79-1-P-28-29 (2). Additional material: MRAC 1233. •Valid as Microthrissa whiteheadi Gourène & Teugels 1988 -- (Gourène & Teugels 1990:138 [ref. 16771], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Microthrissa whiteheadi Gourène & Teugels 1988. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

whiteheadi, Potamothrissa Poll [M.] 1974:156, Fig. 3 [Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Académie Royale de Belgique (Ser. 5) v. 60 (no. 2); ref. 7530] Lwiro, Hombo River, tributary of Luhoko River, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: MRAC 188672. Paratypes: MRAC 164699-700 (2), 188673-82 (10). Type catalog: Derijst 1991:63 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Potamothrissa whiteheadi Poll 1974 -- (Poll et al. 1984:51 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:157 [ref. 5141], Poll & Gosse 1995:127 [ref. 24781]). Current status: Valid as Potamothrissa whiteheadi Poll 1974. Clupeidae. Distribution: Western Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

zunasi, Harengula Bleeker [P.] 1854:417 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 13964] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (?): BMNH 1867.11.28.182. •Valid as Harengula zunasi Bleeker 1854 -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:68 [ref. 26385], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Wang et al. 2001:50 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Sardinella zunasi (Bleeker 1854) -- (Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:19 [ref. 6441], Whitehead 1985:113 [ref. 5141], Kim 1997:152 [ref. 24032], Sato et al. 1998:30 [ref. 24972], Youn & Kim 1998:53 [ref. 25737], Kim et al. 2001:190 [ref. 25730], Nakabo 2000:245 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Shimizu 2001:20 [ref. 25799], Zhang 2001:78 [ref. 26586], Kim & Park 2002:49 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:245 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:151, 499 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33547], Stern et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34733]). Current status: Valid as Sardinella zunasi (Bleeker 1854). Clupeidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.