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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Cynoglossidae: [ 255 ] records


abbreviata, Plagusia Gray [J. E.] 1834:no page number, Pl. 94 (fig. 3) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] China. Lectotype: BMNH 2004.11.5.1(stuffed). Paralectotypes: BMNH 2004.11.5.2 (stuffed). Lectotype apparently designated by Chabanaud 1947 [needs research]. •Questionably valid as Cynoglossus abbreviatus (Gray 1834) -- (Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314]). •See Kottelat 2001:64 [ref. 25482]. •Valid as Cynoglossus abbreviatus (Gray 1834) -- (Menon 1977:93 [ref. 7071], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:356 [ref. 6441], Kim & Choi 1994:808 [ref. 22283], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:211 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:373 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:466 [ref. 26385] dated 1832, Uyeda & Sasaki 2000:405 [ref. 25120], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1390 [ref. 25182], Wang et al. 2001:325 [ref. 26566] dated 1832, Nakabo 2002:1390 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:441, 688 [ref. 26218], Wang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34517]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus abbreviatus (Gray 1834). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

acaudatus, Cynoglossus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1906:162, Pl. 46 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 4; ref. 1647] Amatikulu River mouth, 26-27 fathoms; Cape Point, 480-600 fathoms; Durban, KwaZulu-NAtal, South Africa. Syntypes: (12) SAM 15468 (1). •Valid as Cynoglossus acaudatus Gilchrist 1906 -- (Menon 1977:53 [ref. 7071] but as ecaudatus and with a holotype, Heemstra 1986:865 [ref. 5660], Quéro & Maugé 1989:391 [ref. 19513], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Yokogawa et al. 2008:121 [ref. 29585] as ecaudatus, Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160], Fricke et al. 2018:373 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus acaudatus Gilchrist 1906. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: ast and South Afria to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

acinaces, Cynoglossus Jenkins [J. T.] 1910:130 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 5 (art. 12); ref. 14478] Sunderbuns, Kulna District, Bangladesh, depth 10 fathoms. Lectotype: ZSI F4149/1. Paralectotypes: ZSI F4149/1 (3). Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:67 [ref. 7071]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton 1822 -- (Menon 1977:66 [ref. 7071], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1042 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton 1822. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

acumineata, Plagusia Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:44 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia. Syntypes: MNHN A-5189 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:333 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Paraplagusia acumineata (with author as Bloch 1787) -- (Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1856 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) -- (Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Desoutter et al. 2001:333 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:468 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Australia (if valid). Habitat: brackish, marine.

acutirostris, Cynoglossus (Areliscus) Norman [J. R.] 1939:104, Fig. 35 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Gulf of Aden, northwestern Indian Ocean, station 194, depth 220 meters. Holotype: BMNH 2016.5.1.1. Paratypes: (17) BMNH 1939.5.24.1800-1809 (10), BMNH 2016.5.1.2 (1), MNHN 1939-0268 [ex BMNH] (1), USNM 109493 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922]. A lectotype selected by Menon 1977:85 [ref. 7071] (BMNH 1939.5.24.1800), but a holotype was established in the original publication. •Valid as Cynoglossus acutirostris Norman 1939 -- (Menon 1977:84 [ref. 7071], Krupp 1987:249 [ref. 11627], Klausewitz 1994:466 [ref. 23564], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Wang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34517], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160], Golani & Fricke 2018:175 [ref. 36273], Fricke 2019:39 [ref. 36893]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus acutirostris Norman 1939. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

africana, Plagusia marmorata var. Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1906:163, Pl. 47 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 4; ref. 1647] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 15469. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

anonyma, Solea Basilewsky [S.] 1855:262 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] China. No types at ZIN. •Questionably a synonym of Cynoglossus robustus Günther 1873 -- (Li & Wang 1995:338 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Uncertain as Cynoglossus robustus Günther 1873. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

arabicus, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1954:464 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 12642] South coast of Arabia, John Murray Expedition, station 54, depth 1046 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1939.6.24.1839. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:351 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Symphurus arabicus Chabanaud 1954 -- (Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683], Lee et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30387]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus arabicus Chabanaud 1954. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

arawak, Symphurus Robins [C. R.] & Randall [J. E.] 1965:331, Fig. 1a [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 9248] Lagoen, Curaçao, Caribbean Sea, depth 45 feet. Holotype: ANSP 101985. Paratypes: UF 12269 (1); 215490 [ex UMML 15490] (2), 215491 [ex UMML 15491] (2), 215492 [ex UMML 15492] (2); UPR 2313 (1); USNM 198200 (2). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:111 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:67 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Symphurus arawak Robins & Randall 1965 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:296 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:306 [ref. 23827], Munroe 1998:30 [ref. 23285], Munroe 2003:1940 [ref. 27118], Smith et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:85 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus arawak Robins & Randall 1965. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

arel, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:159 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Lectotype: ZMB 2431. Paralectotypes: (3, lost) Type catalog: Paepke 1999:68 [ref. 24282]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:68 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1977:60 [ref. 7071], Dor 1984:271 [ref. 29757], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:356 [ref. 6441], Ataur Rahman 1989:34 [ref. 24860], Coad 1991:27 [ref. 15702], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:209 [ref. 21500], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:235 [ref. 24016] as areal, Krishnan & Mishra 1994:300 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:341 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:363 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:599 [ref. 27969] with author as Schneider, Carpenter et al. 1997:231 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:177 [ref. 26476], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1389 [ref. 25182], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187 [ref. 25703], Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314] with author as Schneider, Nakabo 2002:1389 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:49 [ref. 31338], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:47 [ref. 27712] with author as Schneider, Ho et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31461], Kimura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:322 [ref. 31170], Yoshida et al. 2013:221 [ref. 34464], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:95 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:328 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:403 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160], Ali et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36183], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:299 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Indonesia, north to southern Japan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

atramentatus, Symphurus Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:177 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific coast of Colombia, 7°57'N, 78°55'W, Albatross station 2795, depth 33 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.257-258 (2?); MCZ 35922 (1); CAS-SU 3 (7); USNM 41157 (1), 41367-68 (1, 1), 41471 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:143 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Symphurus atramentatus Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Munroe & Nizinski 1990:994 [ref. 19193], Allen & Robertson 1994:290 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:148 [ref. 23101], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1043 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:114 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:618 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:218 [ref. 24555], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Munroe & McCosker 2001:194 [ref. 25948], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], González-Murcia et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus atramentatus Jordan & Bollman 1890. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

atricauda, Aphoristia Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:23 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 106); ref. 2466] San Diego Bay, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique) (?): USNM 27396 (1 of 3, orig. 5). Jordan & Gilbert specimens: NMW 43597 (1). atricauda is a noun in apposition; ending not changed when in Symphurus. •Valid as Symphurus atricauda (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:294 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:624 [ref. 26885], Munroe & Nizinski 1990:994 [ref. 19193], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1044 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:115 [ref. 24545], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:216 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:501 [ref. 24550], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:72 [ref. 34694] as atricaudus, Kells et al. 2016:338 [ref. 35888] as atricaudus). Current status: Valid as Symphurus atricauda (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

attenuatus, Cynoglossus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:11, Pl. 29 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] Tugela River mouth, bearing north by west distant 4.5 miles, depth 24 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.12.31.10 (1), SAM 15460 (9). •Valid as Cynoglossus attenuatus Gilchrist 1904 -- (Menon 1977:39 [ref. 7071], Heemstra 1986:866 [ref. 5660], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160], Fricke et al. 2018:373 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus attenuatus Gilchrist 1904. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Westen Indian Ocean: South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

aubentoni, Cynoglossus Stauch [A.] 1966:126, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 38 (no. 2); ref. 21931] Ba Klaut, Petit Lac, Cambodia. Holotype: MNHN 1965-0466. Paratypes: MNHN 1965-0465 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922] •Synonym of Cynoglossus feldmanni (Bleeker 1854) -- (Menon 1977:89 [ref. 7071], Rainboth 1996:223 [ref. 22772], Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus feldmanni (Bleeker 1854). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater.

aurolimbata, Plagiusa Richardson [J.] 1846:280 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton; coasts of China. No types known. Originally as auro-limbata. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 28b [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846) -- (Menon 1977:75 [ref. 7071], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

australis, Rhinoplagusia Rendahl [H.] 1922:190 [Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne v. 60; ref. 3701] Roebuck Bay, northwestern Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Specimen ZMUO J5232 is labeled holotype but is not a type according to Pethon 1969:1, 6 [ref. 19268]. •Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) -- (Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Hoese & Bray 2006:1857 [ref. 29000], Kottelat 2013:468 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

australis, Symphurus strictus var. McCulloch [A. R.] 1907:349, Fig. 55 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 6 (no. 5); ref. 15157] Tasman Sea, depth 800 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS I.7898. •Valid as Symphurus australis McCulloch 1907 -- (Munroe & Amaoka 1998:390 [ref. 23626], Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003:815 [ref. 27261], Hoese & Bray 2006:1858 [ref. 29000], Lee et al. 2009:346 [ref. 30207]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus australis McCulloch 1907. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

bathyspilus, Symphurus Krabbenhoft [T. J.] & Munroe [T. A.] 2003:811, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2003 (no. 4); ref. 27261] Northern Mindano and vicinity, 8°36'26"N, 124°36'08"E, Abatross station 5503, Philippines, depth 416 meters. Holotype: USNM 113185. Paratypes: AMS I.43130-001 (3); MNHN 50-1 (1), 50-3 (1), 2003-1078 (3); USNM 138060-61 (24, 16). •Valid as Symphurus bathyspilus Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003 -- (Shao et al. 2008:265 [ref. 29952], Lee et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30387], Munroe et al. 2011:64 [ref. 31567], Fricke et al. 2014:192 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus bathyspilus Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Indonesia east to Philippines and New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

beauforti, Cynoglossus Chabanaud [P.] 1951:3, Figs. 1-3 [Beaufortia v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 18874] Timor Sea, depth 216 meters. Holotype: ZMA 108001. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:108 [ref. 19236], Desoutter et al. 2001:348 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus suyeni Fowler 1934 -- (Menon 1977:86 [ref. 7071], Desoutter et al. 2001:348 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus suyeni Fowler 1934. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

bengalensis, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1853:152, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 8); ref. 341] Hooghly River, Calcutta, India. Lectotype: RMNH 6794. Paralectotypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.7798 (1) Calcutta, RMNH 26211 [ex RMNH 6794] (1). Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:70 [ref. 7071]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1977:68 [ref. 7071], Ataur Rahman 2003:47 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bergi, Symphurus Thompson [W. F.] 1916:414, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 50 (no. 2133); ref. 4391] Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype: USNM 76852. Paratypes: BMNH 1930.9.2.39 [ex SU] (1), CAS-SU 22725 (13), USNM 76892 (9). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:143 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Symphurus jenynsi Evermann & Kendall 1906 -- (Munroe 1998:99 [ref. 23285]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus jenynsi Evermann & Kendall 1906. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: marine.

bilineatus, Achirus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:659, 663 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] China; East Indies [Indonesia]. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Kottelat (2013:764 [ref. 28887]) indicates that this is based on the same material as Pleuronectes bilineatus Bloch 1787 -- a misidentification and new combination. He calls it Cynoglossus quadrilineatus (Bleeker 1851). We here maintain the prevailing usage with Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède 1802) as a valid species. •Valid as Arelia bilineata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:1389 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1389 [ref. 26193], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:109 [ref. 32413]). •Valid as Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Menon 1977:36 [ref. 7071], Kyushin et al. 1982:268 [ref. 19754], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:208 [ref. 21500], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:223 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:355 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:363 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:600 [ref. 27969], Rainboth 1996:223 [ref. 22772], Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:232 [ref. 23922], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3897 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Hoese & Bray 2006:1854 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31461] as billineatus, Kimura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:323 [ref. 31170], Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432], Larson et al. 2013:228 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:222 [ref. 34464], Fricke 2015:7 [ref. 33807], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:96 [ref. 34319], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160], Motomura et al. 2017:226 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:374 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:176 [ref. 36273], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:300 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède 1802). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bilineatus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] 1787:29, Pl. 188 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] China Lectotype: ZMB 2432. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:68 [ref. 24282], locality erroneously as Indian Ocean. On p. 21 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:68 [ref. 24282]. Dor 1984:272, footnote [ref. 29757] incorrectly cited this name as preoccupied by Achirus bilineatus Lacepède 1802. Kottelat (2013:763 [ref. 32887]) determined that bilineata Bloch, "Cynoglossus bilineatus" and Paraplagusia blochii (replacement name) refer to the same organism; and, to avoid tautonymy, he renamed Paraplagusia bilineata as P. bleekeri. He did not consider the specimen ZMB 2432 as lectotype, and incorrectly synonymised the species with Cynoglossus quadrilineatus (Bleeker 1851). •Synonym of Cynoglossus quadrilineatus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Kottelat 2013:764 [ref. 32887]). •Valid as Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) -- (Dor 1984:273 [ref. 29757], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Heemstra 1986:867 [ref. 5660], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Quéro & Maugé 1989:393 [ref. 19513], Ataur Rahman 1989:31 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1044 [ref. 20764], Chapleau & Renaud 1993:801 [ref. 21017], Kottelat et al. 1993:170 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:301 [ref. 24014], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Kottelat & Lim 1995:250 [ref. 23210], Li & Wang 1995:326 [ref. 16193], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:602 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Fricke 1999:575 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1388 [ref. 25182], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:188 [ref. 25703], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:303 [ref. 27511] dating to 1784, Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3901 [ref. 26314], Nakabo 2002:1388 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:46 [ref. 31338], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:436 [ref. 28072], Hoese & Bray 2006:1856 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:14 [ref. 31461], Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432], Larson et al. 2013:229 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:468 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:330 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:405 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2018:374 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:176 [ref. 36273], Jeong in Kimura et al. 2018:302 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:319 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes (Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan, south to Geographe Bay (Western Australia), Bateman's Bay (New South Wales, Australia) and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: brackish, marine.

billykrietei, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] 1998:38, Fig. 16 [Fishery Bulletin v. 96 (no. 1); ref. 23285] Off Virginia, 36°41.4'-41.8'N, 74°40.1'-39.7'W, U.S.A., depth 275 meters. Holotype: USNM 326637. Paratypes: ARC 8703371 (1), 8705134 (1); MCZ 64849 (6), 91580 (1), 99447 (4); USNM 291328-29 (1, 1), 326634 (3); VIMS 3073 (1), 4891 (2), 5511 (3), 5572 (6), 5581 (1), 9191 (6). The author states that there are 69 paratypes but that is incorrect. •Valid as Symphurus billykrietei Munroe 1998 -- (Moore et al. 2003:232 [ref. 27076], Munroe 2003:1941 [ref. 27118], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2003:966 [ref. 28221], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:875 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus billykrietei Munroe 1998. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Paraplagusia Kottelat [M.] 2013:765 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 61 (no. 2); ref. 32887] Java. Holotype: RMNH 17879. Paratypes: many localities. Lectotype of Plagusia blochii Bleeker 1851 as selected by Menon 1980:16 [ref. 6798] was designated the holotype (Kottelat 2013). Described as a replacement name for Plagusia blochii Bleeker 1851, which here retained as being in prevailing usage. •Valid as Paraplagusia bleekeri Kottelat 2013 -- (Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:302 [ref. 36460]). •Synonym of Paraplagusia blochii (Bleeker 1851). Current status: Synonym of Paraplagusia blochii (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Java, Indonesia (if valid). Habitat: brackish, marine.

blochii, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1851:411 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Malay Archipelago. Holotype: RMNH 17879. Bleeker specimens: (7) NMV 46287 (1); RMNH 6777 (some of 6), 26749 [ex 6777] (now 6). Lectotype selected by Menon 1980:16 [ref. 6798] as RMNH 17879 has no status. See Remarks by Kottelat (2013:765 [ref. 32887]) under Paraplagusia bilineata. He renamed this species as Paraplagusia bleekeri. •Most of these go in Paraplugusia bleekeri Kottelat 2013. •Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineatus (Bloch 1787) -- (Kottelat 2013:469 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Paraplagusia blochii (Bleeker 1851) [sometimes as blochi] -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Chapleau & Renaud 1993:801 [ref. 21017], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:225 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:328 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:365 [ref. 22896], Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1388 [ref. 25182] as blochi, Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:304 [ref. 27511] as blochi, Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Nakabo 2002:1388 [ref. 26193] as blochi, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377] as blochi, Hoese & Bray 2006:1857 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:14 [ref. 31461] as blochi, Larson et al. 2013:230 [ref. 32988] as blochi, Yoshida et al. 2013:223 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Paraplagusia blochii (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Oman, Indonesia and Philippines [H. Imamura, ref. 34464]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

borneensis, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1858:6 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 7); ref. 364] Singkawang, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6792. Originally as borneënsis. •Valid as Cynoglossus borneensis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Menon 1977:34 [ref. 7071] with older trulla in synonymy, Kottelat et al. 1993:169 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:250 [ref. 23210], Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314]). •Synonym of Cynoglossus trulla (Cantor 1849) -- (Rainboth 1996:224 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus trulla (Cantor 1849). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

brachycephalus, Cynoglossus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:12, Pl. 30 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] 2.5 miles off Umhlanga River mouth, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pieter Faure station 12498, depth 6-22 fathoms. Syntypes: SAM 15645 (13) apparently lost. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Cynoglossus brachycephalus Bleeker 1870. •Synonym of Cynoglossus acaudatus Gilchrist 1906 -- (Menon 1977:52 [ref. 7071] as ecaudatus). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus acaudatus Gilchrist 1906. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

brachycephalus, Cynoglossus Bleeker [P.] 1870:38, Pl. 294 (fig. 6) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 428] Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 17877 [ex RMNH 6800]. Paralectotypes: RMNH 6800 (1 of 3). Text published in 1870, Plate in 1872. •Synonym of Cynoglossus kopsii (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:42 [ref. 7071] as kopsi, Dor 1984:272 [ref. 29757] as kopsi, Li & Wang 1995:348 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:364 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Cynoglossus brachycephalus Bleeker 1870 -- (Wang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34517], Naito & Endo 2019:[9][ref. 36572]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus brachycephalus Bleeker 1870. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

brachyrhynchos, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1851:414 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6796. Paralectotypes: (1) RMNH 26207 [ex RMNH 6796] (up to 1 of 9). Non-type Bleeker material: BMNH 1862.6.3.15 (1). Lectotype selected in Menon 1977:78 [ref. 7071]. •Mention in synonymy of Plagusia puncticeps Richardson 1846 -- (Dor 1984:273 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846) -- (Menon 1977:75 [ref. 7071], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brachysoma, Ammopleurops Bleeker [P.] 1872:153 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 431] China. Based on a painting, no types known. Original as Ammopleurops? brachysoma. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Plagusia Cuvier [G.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:89, Pl. 50 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. Syntypes: MHNN 691 (1) Bahia. Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:150 [ref. 21784, Desoutter et al. 2001:349-350 [ref. 25922]. Based on a Cuvier manuscript. •Synonym of Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Munroe 1991:269 [ref. 15142], Munroe 1998:141 [ref. 23285], Desoutter et al. 2001:350 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevirostris, Cynoglossus Day [F.] 1877:437, Pl. 97 (fig. 6) [The fishes of India Part 3; ref. 4886] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F2690 (caudal fin damaged). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:160 [ref. 20743], Talwar & Chakrapany 1970:122 [ref. 35966], Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus semifasciatus Day 1877 -- (Menon 1977:70 [ref. 7071]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus semifasciatus Day 1877. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

brevis, Cynoglossus Günther [A.] 1862:500 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Ganges River. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.12.26.602 [ex Zool. Soc.]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846) -- (Menon 1977:75 [ref. 7071], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1043 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

broadhursti, Cynoglossus Waite [E. R.] 1905:73, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 4562] Off Carnarvon to northward of Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.7232-34 (3), WAM P.13258-001 (1) between Fremantle and Geraldton, WAM (1 lost). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:43 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117] with remarks on locality. •Valid as Cynoglossus broadhursti Waite 1905 -- (Menon 1977:51 [ref. 7071], Gomon et al. 1994:865 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1854 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:821 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus broadhursti Waite 1905. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia, South Australia. Habitat: marine.

browni, Cynoglossus senegalensis morpha Chabanaud [P.] 1949:204 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 21 (no. 2); ref. 12942] Off the coast of Sierra Leone. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1949-0023. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922]. Described as a "morpha nova" but in the sense of a subspecies; accepted as available; probably would date to a later worker if regarded as unavailable. •Valid as Cynoglossus browni Chabanaud 1949 -- (Torchio 1973:635 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1326 [ref. 13677], Menon 1977:35 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1990:1050 [ref. 18967], Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922], Hattour 2016:165 [ref. 36731], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3035 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus browni Chabanaud 1949. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Southwestern Mediterranean, eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Cynoglossus Regan [C. T.] 1905:26 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 85) (art. 2); ref. 3624] Inland Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.6.248. •Synonym of Cynoglossus robustus Günther 1873 -- (Menon 1977:64 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:215 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:338 [ref. 16193], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus robustus Günther 1873. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

buchanani, Cynoglossus Day [F.] 1870:522 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 3) (art. 7) (for 11 Nov. 1869); ref. 18819] ?India or Myanmar. Syntypes: (2) ?AMS B.7785 (1), ZSI A.463 (lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:295 [ref. 25110]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1977:68 [ref. 7071], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cadenati, Cynoglossus Chabanaud [P.] 1947:441 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 19 (no. 6); ref. 13080] Rufisque, coast of Senegal, western Africa. Holotype: MNHN 1949-0020. Paratype: MNHN B-2547 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus suyeni Fowler 1934 -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922] but apparently in error). •Valid as Cynoglossus cadenati Chabanaud 1947 -- (Menon 1977:53 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1990:1051 [ref. 18967], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3036 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160], Naito & Endo 2019:[9][ref. 36572]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus cadenati Chabanaud 1947. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Western Sahara to Angola. Habitat: marine.

callopterus, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] & Mahadeva [M. N.] 1989:460, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 102 (no. 2); ref. 17699] Peru, 5°59'S, 81°12'W to 5°58'S, 81°11'W, depth 65-70 meters. Holotype: CAS 64023. Paratypes: BMNH 1956.3.1.3-4 (2); CAS 24189 (11); LACM 33827-55 (4); SIO 63-518 (9), 63-521 (2); UF 47590 (1), 226069 [ex UMML 26069] (33), 234317 [ex UMML 34317] (2); USNM 164492 (2); plus additional non-type specimens. •Valid as Symphurus callopterus Munroe & Mahadeva 1989 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:148 [ref. 23101], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1045 [ref. 22829], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:218 [ref. 24555], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Munroe & Robertson 2005:580 [ref. 28389], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus callopterus Munroe & Mahadeva 1989. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

canariensis, Cynoglossus Steindachner [F.] 1882:42 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 19 (no. 5) (for 9 Feb. 1882); ref. 20486] Arglim [Argain] Bank, Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): NMW 43773. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:13 [p. 13 in separate], Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [ref. 18784]. Type redescribed in Chabanaud 1954 [ref. 20965]. •Valid as Cynoglossus canariensis Steindachner 1882 -- (Menon 1977:28 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1990:1051 [ref. 18967], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3037 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus canariensis Steindachner 1882. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Eastern central Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cantori, Trulla Kaup [J. J.] 1858:109 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2579] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Presumed syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.431 (2, stuffed). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:353 [ref. 25922]. Unneeded new name for Plagusia trulla Cantor 1849; probably to avoid Strickland tautonymy. •Synonym of Cynoglossus borneensis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Menon 1977:34 [ref. 7071], Desoutter et al. 2001:353 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Cynoglossus trulla (Cantor 1849) -- (Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus trulla (Cantor 1849). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

cantoris, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1853:78, 153 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 8); ref. 341] Malay Peninsula. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.429 (skin), 1860.3.19.478 (skin). Based on Plagusia potous of Cantor 1849 (not of Cuvier). Günther 1862:502 [ref. 1969] treats Cynoglossus cantoris Bleeker on p. 502 and Trulla cantori Kaup 1858 (replacement name for Plagusia trulla Cantor) in Cynoglossus, but the difference in spelling apparently avoids homonymy. •Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1977:60 [ref. 7071]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

capensis, Plagusia Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:71 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:350 [ref. 25922] as no type at MNHN. •Unidentifiable -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:350 [ref. 25922]). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Trulla Kaup [J. J.] 1858:109 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2579] Presumably Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:353 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Cynoglossus capensis (Kaup 1858) -- (Menon 1977:59 [ref. 7071], Heemstra 1986:866 [ref. 5660], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:180 [ref. 25472], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Desoutter et al. 2001:353 [ref. 25922], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:436 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus capensis (Kaup 1858). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caribbeanus, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] 1991:280, Figs. 2, 4e, 5, 6d [Fishery Bulletin v. 89 (no. 2); ref. 15142] Mayaguez Bay, Puerto Rico. Holotype: USNM 313487. Paratypes: ANSP 118553 (1); FMNH 61574 (1); UF 205297 [ex UMML 5297] (1), 230087 [ex UMML 30087] (6); UPRM 740 (2), 1588 (1), 2926 (8); USNM 313513 (2). •Valid as Symphurus caribbeanus Munroe 1991 -- (Munroe 1998:120 [ref. 23285], Munroe 2003:1942 [ref. 27118]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus caribbeanus Munroe 1991. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

carpenteri, Cynoglossus Alcock [A. W.] 1889:287, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 85] 68 miles east of mouth of Devi River, Máhánaddi delta, Bay of Bengal, Investigator, depth 68 fathoms. Lectotype: ZSI F12434. Paralectotypes: ZSI F12433 (1). Non-types: BMNH 1890.7.31.10-12 [ex ZSI] (3), 1890.11.28.27-29 [ex ZSI] (3); MNHN 1890-0359 to 0362 [ex ZSI] (4). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:160 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:46 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 22 (fig. 5) [ref. 20534]. Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:84 [ref. 7071]. •Valid as Cynoglossus carpenteri Alcock 1889 -- (Menon 1977:83 [ref. 7071], Randall 1995:363 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:232 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:328 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160], Fricke 2019:39 [ref. 36893]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus carpenteri Alcock 1889. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

ceratophrys, Arelia Kaup [J. J.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1858:108 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2579] Indonesia Syntypes: (2) MNHN 0000-0174 (1) [ex RMNH]. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:329 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus monopus (Bleeker 1849) -- (Menon 1977:73 [ref. 7071], Desoutter et al. 2001:329 [ref. 25922], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus monopus (Bleeker 1849). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

chabanaudi, Symphurus Mahadeva [M. N.] & Munroe [T. A.] 1990:939, Figs. 2, 3a-b [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 103 (no. 4); ref. 19177] Jiquilisco Bay, El Potrero, El Salvador, 13°16'N, 88°38'W, depth 5 meters. Holotype: USNM 305717. Paratypes: BMNH 1956.3.1.6-14 (9); CAS 20696 (10), 24199 (5); LACM 30714-15 (3), 30716-11 (4); SIO 47-53 (1), 80-23 (5); UCLA W52-46 (4), W53-196 (19), W53-275 (11); UCR 1122-3 (2); USNM 119742 (1), 164493-94 (1, 10), 220701 (4), 226606 (2), 291339 (1), 305718-19 (5, 7); YPM 638 or 630 (1). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:10 [ref. 16741], Angulo et al. 2015:384 [ref. 35212].. •Valid as Symphurus chabanaudi Mahadeva & Munroe 1990 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:291 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:146 [ref. 23101], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1046 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:217 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:501 [ref. 24550], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:793 [ref. 25089], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:454 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:392 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus chabanaudi Mahadeva & Munroe 1990. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

civitatum, Symphurus Ginsburg [I.] 1951:198, Pl. 3 (fig. H) [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 36 (pt. 3); ref. 12891] Off Mississippi Delta, Louisiana, U.S.A., 29°06'30"N, 89°40'00"W, depth 9.5 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 155227. Paratypes: USNM 86139-40 (2, 1), 86153 (1), 120081-82 (1, 1), 154945-54 (3, 1, 5, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3), 155226 (1), 157399-403 (3, 3, 1, 1, 1). For comments on spelling of name see Munroe 1991:266 [ref. 15142], but the name civitatum (= of the states) is probably given to refer to the United States, so this noun should not be corrected. •Valid as Symphurus civitatum Ginsburg 1951 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:296 [ref. 23100] as civitatus, Boschung 1992:177 [ref. 23239] as civitatus). •Valid as Symphurus civitatum Ginsburg 1951 (often seen as civitatium) -- (Munroe 1991:263 [ref. 15142], Munroe 1998:125 [ref. 23285], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:500 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:343 [ref. 25013], Munroe 2003:1943 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:876 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565] with author as Guinsburg, Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus civitatum Ginsburg 1951. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cleopatridis, Cynoglossus Chabanaud [P.] 1949:146 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 74; ref. 13002] Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea, 28°49'N, 32°44'E. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1949-0024. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:330-331 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus dollfusi (Chabanaud 1931) -- (Menon 1977:54 [ref. 7071], Dor 1984:271 [ref. 29757]). •Status uncertain and with confusion of 2 taxa named dollfusi by Chabanaud -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:331 [ref. 25922]). •Valid as Cynoglossus cleopatridis Chabanaud 1949 -- (Munroe & Kong 2016:22 [ref. 34480], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160], Munroe 2017:31 [ref. 35375], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:176 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus cleopatridis Chabanaud 1949. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Suez. Habitat: brackish, marine.

conexiales, Pleuronectes Larrañaga [D. A.] in Devincenzi 1925:302 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Serie 2) v. 1 (pt. 6); ref. 20322] Based on Larrañaga manuscript [as Pleuronectes minimus in Larrañaga 1923 [ref. 22561] with Conexiales as name only on p 372]. Originally as P. conexiales vel minimus. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:302, 321; Devincenzi regarded as a possible synonymn of Symphurus plagusia (Bloch & Schneider 1801) so name conexiales was not treated as valid when proposed and is not available (from Uruguay). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae.

crepida, Cynoglossus Fricke [R.], Golani [D.] & Appelbaum-Golani [B.] 2017:79, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 25; ref. 35160] Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba, Israel, vicinity of Eilat, ca. 29°30'N, 34°56'30"E, depth 440 meters. Holotype (unique): HUJ 18063. •Valid as Cynoglossus crepida Fricke, Golani & Appelbaum-Golani 2017 -- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[23] 261 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:176 [ref. 36273], Fricke 2019:39 [ref. 36893]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus crepida Fricke, Golani & Appelbaum-Golani 2017. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

cynoglossus, Achirus Hamilton [F.] 1822:132, 373 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River tidal mouths, India. Syntypes: ? BMNH 1860.3.19.434-435 (skins). Based on a drawing, reproduced by Hora 1929:Pl. 19 (figs. 2-3). •Valid as Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1977:68 [ref. 7071], Ataur Rahman 1989:32 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1041 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:169 [ref. 23448], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:600 [ref. 27969], Rainboth 1996:223 [ref. 22772], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187 [ref. 25703], Munroe 2001:3898 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:47 [ref. 31338], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:217 [ref. 27510], Khan 2003:11 [ref. 27710], Matsuura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:323 [ref. 31170], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:222 [ref. 34464], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2015:96 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:329 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160], Motomura et al. 2017:227 [ref. 35490], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:300 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan east to Philippines, north to northern Vietnam. Habitat: brackish, marine.

deltae, Cynoglossus Jenkins [J. T.] 1910:130 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 5 (art. 12); ref. 14478] Off Morelganj, Khulna District, Sunderbans, Bangladesh, depth 10 fathoms. Lectotype: ZSI F4150/2. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1928.3.20.133 [ex ZSI] (1) (not this species [ref. 35160]). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:160 [ref. 20743]. Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:70 [ref. 7071]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1977:68 [ref. 7071], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1041 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diabolicus, Symphurus Mahadeva [M. N.] & Munroe [T. A.] 1990:949, Figs. 2, 4a [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 103 (no. 4); ref. 19177] West of San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands, 0°46'S, 89°42'W, depth 271 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 135653. •Valid as Symphurus diabolicus Mahadeva & Munroe 1990 -- (Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1047 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:619 [ref. 24023], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Munroe & McCosker 2001:188 [ref. 25948], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus diabolicus Mahadeva & Munroe 1990. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands, Cocos Island (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

digramma, Cynoglossus kopsi morpha Chabanaud [P.] 1951:273 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 4 (no. 39) (art. 26); ref. 21930] Arafura sea, Challenger. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.2.26.147 (1), 1890.2.26.148 (1), 1908.3.23.148 (1); MNHN 1890-0134 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:331 [ref. 25922] and with incorrect interpretation of the code regarding establishment of a lectotype. Probably should be considered as infrasubspecific; not used in the sense of a subspecies. •In the synonymy of Cynoglossus kopsii (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:42 [ref. 7071] but as digramata and incorrectly with a holotype, Desoutter et al. 2001:331 [ref. 25922] but as diagramma and wrongly treated as available and with wrong types, Wang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34517], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus kopsii (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae.

diomedeana, Aphoristia Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:589 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 543); ref. 1842] Off Cape Romano, Florida, U.S.A., 25°04'30"N, 83°21'15"W, Albatross station 2414, depth 24 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 37347. •Valid as Symphurus diomedeanus [often as diomedianus] (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (de Lema & de Oliveira 1977:5 [ref. 7244], Robins & Ray 1986:296 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:177 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:305 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:39 [ref. 24489], Kurtz & Matsuura 1994:141 [ref. 22162], Munroe 1998:91 [ref. 23285], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:256 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1944 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:877 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565] as diomedianus, Marceniuk et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus diomedeanus (Goode & Bean 1885). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

diplasios, Cynoglossus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1902:367, Fig. 29 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1289); ref. 2447] Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT [orig. no. 43] (probably lost). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Menon 1977:37 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:223 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:355 [ref. 16193], Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède 1802). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dipterigia, Plagusia Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:123, Pl. 31 (fig. 3) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Northern Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 3455. Rüppell specimens: SMF 1357 (1). •Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) -- (Dor 1984:273 [ref. 29757], Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212] as dypterygia, Kottelat 2013:468 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dispar, Cynoglossus Day [F.] 1877:434, Pl. 96 (fig. 2) [The fishes of India Part 3; ref. 4886] Sind, Pakistan. Lectotype: ZSI 2715. Paralectotypes and Day specimens: AMS B.7941 (1, non-type), B.7942 (1, non-type); BMNH 1889.2.1.4061 (1); 1889.2.1.4062-63 (2); NMW 43774 (1); ?RMNH 3565 [from Day] (1); ZSI 1141 (1), 1144 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:296 [ref. 25110]. Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:41 [ref. 7071]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Valid as Cynoglossus dispar Day 1877 -- (Menon 1977:40 [ref. 7071], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:329 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus dispar Day 1877. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: India and Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

dollfusi, Cynoglossus (Trulla) Chabanaud [P.] in Gruvel & Chabanaud 1937:8, Figs. 9-12 [Mémoires présentées à l'Institut d'Égypte N. S., v. 35; ref. 17405] Suez, Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Holotype (unique): MNHN (not found). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:348 [ref. 25922]. Regarded as independent of Paraplagusia dollfusi Chabanaud 1931 (see Desoutter et al. 2001:348 [ref. 25992]). But, on the contrary, a new combination for Paraplagusia dollfusi Chabanaud 1931 according to Munroe & Kong 2016:21 [ref. 34480]. •Placement uncertain -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:348 [ref. 25922]). •In the synonymy of Cynoglossus dollfusi (Chabanaud 1931) -- (Munroe & Kong 2016:21 [ref. 34480]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus dollfusi (Chabanaud 1931). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

dollfusi, Paraplagusia Chabanaud [P.] 1931:303 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 56; ref. 785] Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, 28°54'-28°49'N, 32°44'-32°47'E. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1950-0077. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:349 [ref. 25922]. •Status uncertain, in Cynoglossus and not dollfusi Chabanaud 1931 -- (See Desoutter et al. 2001:349 [ref. 25922]). •Valid as Cynoglossus dollfusi (Chabanaud 1931) -- (Menon 1977:54 [ref. 7071], Dor 1984:271 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Munroe & Kong 2016:21 [ref. 34480], Wang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34517], Munroe 2017:12 [ref. 35375], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:176 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus dollfusi (Chabanaud 1931). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Suez. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Cynoglossus Day [F.] 1873:525 [The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology v. 11; ref. 17368] Gwadur, Pakistan. Holotype (unique): ZSI (lost in 1943). Day specimens: NMW 43775 (1), ZSI 1142 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Valid as Cynoglossus dubius Day 1873 -- (Menon 1977:32 [ref. 7071], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:253 [ref. 24754], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:329 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus dubius Day 1873. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

durbanensis, Cynoglossus Regan [C. T.] 1921:2 [Annals of the Durban Museum v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 15326] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: BMNH 1920.7.23.37. Paralectotypes: (2) BMNH 1920.7.23.38 (1), SAM (none found in 1996). Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:80 [ref. 7071]. •Valid as Cynoglossus durbanensis Regan 1921 -- (Menon 1977:79 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1986:432 [ref. 6212], Heemstra 1986:866 [ref. 5660], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus durbanensis Regan 1921. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

elongata, Aphoristia Weber [M.] 1913:444, Fig. 84 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] 7°36'S, 117°30.8'E, station 314, depth 694 meters. Lectotype: ZMA 100246. Paralectotypes: ZMA 100247-50 (1, 1, 1, 1), plus 1 missing -- possibly BMNH 1930.9.2.140. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Aphoristia ornata elongata Günther 1862, replaced by Symphurus regani Weber & de Beaufort 1929. Lectotype selected by Chabanaud 1955:44 [ref. 22240] for regani. •Synonym of Symphurus regani Weber & de Beaufort 1929. Current status: Synonym of Symphurus regani Weber & de Beaufort 1929. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Aphoristia ornata var. Günther [A.] 1868:473 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 6 (pt 7, no. 14); ref. 1994] Pacific coast of Panama. Syntypes: (2) ?BMNH 1864.1.20.422 (1), 1956.3.1.1 (1). •Valid as Symphurus elongatus (Günther 1868) -- (Munroe & Nizinski 1990:994 [ref. 19193], Bussing & López S. 1994:148 [ref. 23101], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1048 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:617 [ref. 24023], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:217 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:502 [ref. 24550], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:454 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:392 [ref. 34894], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus elongatus (Günther 1868). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

elongatus, Cynoglossus Günther [A.] 1862:501 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.477 (skin). Based on literature sources and 1 specimen. •Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1977:60 [ref. 7071], Li & Wang 1995:341 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fallax, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1957:183 [Beaufortia v. 5 (no. 62); ref. 12056] Siboga, Kai Islands, Indonesia, 5°26'06"S, 132°32'05"E, depth 397 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 100273 (not returned by Chabanaud). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:109 [ref. 19236], Desoutter et al. 2001:351 [ref. 25922] as type not at MNHN. •Doubtfuly valid as Symphurus fallax Chabanaud 1957 -- (Lee et al. 2013:381 [ref. 32506]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus fallax Chabanaud 1957. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Kaai Islands, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Plagusia DeKay [J. E.] 1842:304 [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] South Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. Based on a Holbrook illustrations, brief description. •Synonym of Symphurus plagiusa (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Munroe 1998:104 [ref. 23285]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus plagiusa (Linnaeus 1766). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciolaris, Symphurus Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:566 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Gulf of California, Mexico. Syntypes: CAS-SU 15 (5), USNM 44406 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:143 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Symphurus fasciolaris Gilbert 1892 -- (Munroe & Nizinski 1990:994 [ref. 19193], Allen & Robertson 1994:290 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:146 [ref. 23101], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1049 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:217 [ref. 24555], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], Munroe & Robertson 2005:581 [ref. 28389], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus fasciolaris Gilbert 1892. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

favosquamis, Plagiusa Richardson [J.] 1846:281 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton; coasts of China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 28c [ref. 11606]). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

feldmanni, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1854:455 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 338] Pengaron, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6782. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.6.3.10 (1). •Valid as Cynoglossus feldmanni (Bleeker 1854) -- (Menon 1977:89 [ref. 7071], Kottelat et al. 1993:169 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:223 [ref. 22772], Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus feldmanni (Bleeker 1854). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indonesia and Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

formosana, Paraplagusia Oshima [M.] 1927:200 [Japanese Journal of Zoology v. 1 (no. 5) (art. 14); ref. 3315] Taihoku fish market [Taipei], Taiwan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown (probably lost). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) -- (Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Li & Wang 1995:327 [ref. 16193], Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:468 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fuscus, Symphurus Brauer [A.] 1906:296 [Die Tiefsee-Fische v. 15; ref. 632] Off eastern coast of Africa, 0°27'04"S, 42°47'03"E, depth 638 meters. Syntypes: ZMB 17686 (1), 22430 (1). •Valid as Symphurus fuscus Brauer 1906 -- (Munroe & McCosker 2001:196 [ref. 25948], Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683], Lee et al. 2009:347 [ref. 30207], Munroe et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31567]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus fuscus Brauer 1906. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

gilchristi, Cynoglossus Regan [C. T.] 1920:222 [Annals of the Durban Museum v. 2 (pt 5) (art. 19); ref. 3671] Umlanga River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1903.9.29.2. Gilchrist specimens (possibly can be considered types): SAM 15465 (5 + 13). Described from one specimen but based also on Cynoglossus brachycephalus of Gilchrist 1905:12, Pl. 30. •Valid as Cynoglossus gilchristi Regan 1920 -- (Menon 1977:80 [ref. 7071], Dor 1984:272 [ref. 29757], Heemstra 1986:866 [ref. 5660], Quéro & Maugé 1989:391 [ref. 19513], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160], Fricke et al. 2018:374 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus gilchristi Regan 1920. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Natal (South Africa) and East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

gilesii, Aphoristia Alcock [A. W.] 1889:293, Pl. 17 (fig. 2) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 85] Bay of Bengal, 20°17'N, 88°51'E, Investigator, depth 353 meters. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11684. Alcock specimens: BMNH 1939.5.24.1827-1834 (8?), ZSI F13630 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:161 [ref. 20743] incorrectly with F13630 as holotype; Talwar 1977:638-639 [ref. 26599]. Figured in Alcock 1895: Pl. 14 (fig. 4) [ref. 20532]. •Valid as Symphurus gilesii (Alcock 1889) -- (Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683] as gilesi, Lee et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30387]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus gilesii (Alcock 1889). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ginsburgi, Symphurus Menezes [N. A.] & Benvegnú [G. de Q.] 1976:146, Fig. 5 [Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo v. 30 (no. 11); ref. 7069] Argentine basin, Rio Grande do Sul, 31°31'S, 49°52'W, depth 200 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 12339. Paratypes: (87) MNHN 1975-0270 (3); MZUSP 12314-38 (1 ea.), 12340-96 (1 ea.), 12899-12903 (1 ea.); USNM 290667 (2). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:333 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Symphurus ginsburgi Menezes & Benvegnú 1976 -- (Kurtz & Matsuura 1994:141 [ref. 22162], Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204], Munroe 1998:50 [ref. 23285], Desoutter et al. 2001:333 [ref. 25922], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2003:966 [ref. 28221], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565] as guinsburgi). Current status: Valid as Symphurus ginsburgi Menezes & Benvegnú 1976. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

goreensis, Cynoglossus Steindachner [F.] 1882:42 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 19 (no. 5) (for 9 Feb. 1882); ref. 20486] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype (unique): NMW 43776. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:12 [p. 12 in separate], Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [ref. 18784]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus senegalensis (Kaup 1858) -- (Menon 1977:31 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1052 [ref. 18967], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:866 [ref. 21590], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3039 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus senegalensis (Kaup 1858). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gorgonae, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1948:510 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 20 (no. 6); ref. 13001] Gorgona Island, (Pacific) Colombia, depth 30 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1926.7.12.81. Paratypes: BMNH 1926.7.12.82-83 (2). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:351 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Symphurus gorgonae Chabanaud 1948 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:146 [ref. 23101], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1050 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Munroe & McCosker 2001:195 [ref. 25948], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2003:966 [ref. 28221], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus gorgonae Chabanaud 1948. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Cynoglossus Günther [A.] 1873:244 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 12 (no. 69) (art. 31); ref. 2004] Shanghai, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1873.7.30.57-58 (3). •Questionably valid as Cynoglossus gracilis Günther 1873 -- (Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314]). •Valid as Cynoglossus gracilis Günther 1873 -- (Menon 1977:95 [ref. 7071] with a holotype, Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:356 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:213 [ref. 21500], Kim & Choi 1994:809 [ref. 22283], Li & Wang 1995:369 [ref. 16193], Zhu 1995:190 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:466 [ref. 26385], Uyeda & Sasaki 2000:404 [ref. 25120], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1390 [ref. 25182], Wang et al. 2001:324 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:1390 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:441, 688 [ref. 26218], Wang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34517], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus gracilis Günther 1873. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

grammica, Plagiusa Richardson [J.] 1846:280 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; coasts of China. Syntypes: Cambridge Philosophical Soc. (2, whereabouts unknown) Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

grandisquamis, Plagusia Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1214 [323] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.433 (skin). On p. 232 of separate. •Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1977:60 [ref. 7071], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

guineensis, Cynoglossus Osório [B.] 1909:104, Pl. (fig. 2) [Memorias do Museu Bocage, Lisboa fasc. 1; ref. 18937] Boloma, Portugese Guinea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Originally as guinéensis. •Synonym of Cynoglossus senegalensis (Kaup 1858) -- (Menon 1977:31 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1052 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus senegalensis (Kaup 1858). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guttata, Plagusia Macleay [W.] 1878:362, Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 17573] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Lectotype: AMS I.16283.001 [ex MAMU F226]. Paralectotypes: AMS I.16283-001 [ex MAMU F226] (5). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. Lectotype selected by McCulloch & Whitley 1925: Fig. 2 and p. 352 [ref. 29229]. •Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) -- (Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Larson et al. 2013:229 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Paraplagusia guttata (Macleay 1878) -- (Li & Wang 1995:332 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Ho et al. 2009:14 [ref. 31461], Larson et al. 2013:229 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Paraplagusia guttata (Macleay 1878). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hamiltonii, Cynoglossus Günther [A.] 1862:504 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Unneeded replacement name for Achirus cynoglossus Hamilton 1822 (to avoid Strickland tautonymy). •Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hardenbergi, Cynoglossus (Areliscus) Norman [J. R.] 1931:422, Fig. 2 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 13; ref. 16316] Palembang Fish Market, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1931.4.23.54. •Synonym of Cynoglossus feldmanni (Bleeker 1854) -- (Menon 1977:89 [ref. 7071], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Cynoglossus hardenbergi Norman 1931 -- (Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus hardenbergi Norman 1931. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

hernandezi, Symphurus Saavedra-Díaz [L. M.], Munroe [T. A.] & Acero P. [A.] 2003:945 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 72 (no. 3); ref. 28221] Magdalena region off Bocas de Ceniza, 11°09'44'N, 74°40'00"W to 11°09'43"N, 74°39'40"W, Colombia, depth 204 meters. Holotype: INVEMAR-PEC 3751. Paratypes ICNMNH 6442 (3), 6443 (3); INVEMAR-PEC 3195 (2), 3196 (1), 3197 (1), 3756 (4), 3757 (2), 3758 (3); UF 120607 (2), 12068 (3); USNM 368418 (5). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Symphurus hernandezi Saavedra-Díaz, Munroe & Acero P. 2003. Current status: Valid as Symphurus hernandezi Saavedra-Díaz, Munroe & Acero P. 2003. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Colombia: Caribbean coast. Habitat: marine.

heterolepis, Cynoglossus Weber [M.] 1910:237 [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 32 (pt. 4) (art. 28); ref. 14597] Lorentz River, western New Guinea. Syntypes: BMNH 1913.12.15.36 (1, Menon's holotype); FMNH 52501 [ex CM 759] (1) Lorentz R.; ZMA 109408-11 (1, 6, 2, 1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:108 and see also p. 3 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:30 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Cynoglossus heterolepis Weber 1910 -- (Menon 1977:87 [ref. 7071] with a holotype, Roberts 1978:70 [ref. 8886], Allen 1991:207 [ref. 21090], Allen et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27467], Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314], Allen et al. 2002:322 [ref. 25930], Hoese & Bray 2006:1854 [ref. 29000], Allen et al. 2008:189 [ref. 30265], Larson et al. 2013:228 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160], Pusey et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus heterolepis Weber 1910. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Northern Territory, Australia and New Guinea (Papua Province, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hollandi, Areliscus Jordan [D. S.] & Metz [C. W.] 1913:62, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 2490] Pusan, South Korea. Holotype (unique): FMNH 55627 [ex CM 4369]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:88 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:11 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus gracilis Günther 1873 -- (Menon 1977:95 [ref. 7071], Kim & Choi 1994:809 [ref. 22283], Wang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34517]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus gracilis Günther 1873. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

holothuriae, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1948:510 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 20 (no. 6); ref. 13001] Holothuria Bank, northwestern Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1892.1.14.34. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:351 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Symphurus microrhynchus (Weber 1913) -- (Munroe & Marsh 1997:191 [ref. 22936], Desoutter et al. 2001:351 [ref. 25922], Hoese & Bray 2006:1858 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Symphurus holothuriae Chabanaud 1948 -- (Lee et al. 2016:[11] [ref. 34740]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus holothuriae Chabanaud 1948. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

hondoensis, Symphurus Hubbs [C. L.] 1915:494, Pl. 27 (fig. 9) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 48 (no. 2082); ref. 2224] Suruga Gulf, Japan, Albatross station 5066, depth 211-293 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 75675. •Synonym of Symphurus strictus Gilbert 1905, but a valid subspecies -- (Li & Wang 1995:382 [ref. 16193]). •Valid as Symphurus hondoensis Hubbs 1915 -- (Munroe & Amaoka 1998:385 [ref. 23626], Nakabo 2000:1392 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1392 [ref. 26193], Shao et al. 2008:265 [ref. 29952], Lee et al. 2009:346 [ref. 30207], Lee et al. 2013:395 [ref. 32506]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus hondoensis Hubbs 1915. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

honoris, Cynoglossus cadenati Chabanaud [P.] 1949:206 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 21 (no. 2); ref. 12942] Coast of Sierra Leone. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1949-0021. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus cadenati Chabanaud 1947 -- (Menon 1977:54 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1990:1051 [ref. 18967], Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus cadenati Chabanaud 1947. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

hunteri, Cynoglossus von Bonde [C.] 1925:293 [Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 15530] Twenty-five miles south 41° east from Pt. Vermetha, Mozambique, depth 3 meters. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Possibly the same as Cynoglossus lachneri Menon 1977 -- (Heemstra 1986:866 [ref. 5660]). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

immaculata, Cynoglossus puncticeps var. Pellegrin [J.] & Chevey [P.] 1940:154 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 65; ref. 13132] Bac Lieu, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1940-0039. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:331 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846) -- (Menon 1977:76 [ref. 7071], Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989], Voronina et al. 2016:404 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

insularis, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.], Brito [A.] & Hernández [C.] 2000:492, Figs. 1-4 [Copeia 2000 (no. 2); ref. 24450] Punta de Tifirabe, El Hierro, Canary Islands. Holotype: TFMC VP000487. Paratypes: AMNH 210760 (6), 210825 (2), 210865 (12); MCM 725 (1); MMF 22999 (1); SMNS 12336 (4); TFMC VP000406-409 (1, 1, 2, 1); USNM 352409 (6), 357413 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 2005:30 [ref. 29864]. •Valid as Symphurus insularis Munroe, Brito & Hernández 2000 -- (Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3040 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus insularis Munroe, Brito & Hernández 2000. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Cynoglossus Alcock [A. W.] 1889:288 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 85] 32 miles southewest of Puri, Bay of Bengal, Investigator, depth 7 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F12264. Type catalog: Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:46 [ref. 22148]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus lida (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:81 [ref. 7071]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus lida (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

interruptus, Cynoglossus Günther [A.] 1880:70, Pl. 30 (fig. B) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Yokohama market, Japan. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.92 (1), 1890.2.26.146 (1). •Valid as Cynoglossus interruptus Günther 1880 -- (Menon 1977:45 [ref. 7071] with 1879.5.14.92 as holotype, Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:356 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:218 [ref. 21500], Kim & Choi 1994:805 [ref. 22283], Li & Wang 1995:358 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1391 [ref. 25182], Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314], Shimizu 2001:45 [ref. 25799], Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1391 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:441, 688 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Yokogawa et al. 2008:116 [ref. 29585] with revised range, Ho et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:111 [ref. 32413], Fricke et al. 2014:191 [ref. 33932], Kwun & Kim 2016:209 [ref. 34467], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160], Naito & Endo 2019:[9][ref. 36572]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus interruptus Günther 1880. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines north to Korea, Taiwan and Japan, south to New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

inusita, Cynoglossus Jordan [D. S.], Tanaka [S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1913:335 [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 33 (art. 1); ref. 6448] Tokyo, Kobe, Onomichi and Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: USNM. Based on Cynoglossus robustus of Jordan & Starks 1907:239 (not of Günther). •Synonym of Cynoglossus robustus Günther 1873 -- (Menon 1977:64 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:215 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:338 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus robustus Günther 1873. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

itina, Trulla Snyder [J. O.] 1909:609 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 36 (no. 1688); ref. 4151] Naha market, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 62957. •Valid as Cynoglossus itinus (Snyder 1909) -- (Menon 1977:48 [ref. 7071], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:356 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:216 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:378 [ref. 16193], Uyeda & Sasaki 2000:401 [ref. 25120], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1390 [ref. 25182], Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314], Nakabo 2002:1390 [ref. 26193], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:47 [ref. 27712], Evseenko 2003:S71 [ref. 28535], Yokogawa et al. 2008:121 [ref. 29585], Ho et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:112 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1058 [ref. 31980], Parin et al. 2014:549 [ref. 33547], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:97 [ref. 34319], Wang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34517], Voronina et al. 2016:403 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus itinus (Snyder 1909). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: eastern India to China and Japan. Not in China or Vietnam [ref. 34517]; now Japan and Southeast Asia. Habitat: marine.

japonica, Plagusia Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:187, Pl. 95 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Nagasaki Bay, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1299 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1298 (1, stuffed), 3582-3584 (3), 3585a-d [as "var.?"] (4), 4835 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:152 [ref. 12876]. Probably not independent from Pleuronectes japonicus Houttuyn 1782 (but see remarks under that species). •Valid as Paraplagusia japonica (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Chapleau & Renaud 1993:801 [ref. 21017], Kim & Choi 1994:809 [ref. 22283], Li & Wang 1995:330 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1388 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:45 [ref. 25799], Youn 2002:441, 689 [ref. 26218], Ho et al. 2009:14 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:114 [ref. 32413], Voronina et al. 2016:405 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Paraplagusia japonica (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Pacific, from Japan to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Pleuronectes Houttuyn [M.] 1782:317 [Verhandelingen der Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, Haarlem v. 20 (pt 2); ref. 2220] Nagasaki, Japan. No types known. See Boeseman 1995:6 [ref. 21811]. This name predates Pleuronectes japonica (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) [= Plagusia japonica Temminck & Schlegel 1846 (Cynoglossidae)] but apparently has not been used as a valid name since 1899; suppression is recommended if regarded as belonging to Paraplagusia. Current status: Synonym of Paraplagusia japonica (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Pacific, from Japan to Papua New Guinea (if valid). Habitat: marine.

javanica, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1851:414 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6797. Paralectotypes: RMNH 26206 [ex RMNH 6797] (some of 16). Lectotype selected in Menon 1977:77 [ref. 7071]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846) -- (Menon 1977:75 [ref. 7071], Li & Wang 1995:351 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

jenynsi, Symphurus Evermann [B. W.] & Kendall [W. C.] 1906:108, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1482); ref. 1282] Probably from market at Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): USNM 55573. •Valid as Symphurus jenynsi Evermann & Kendall 1906 -- (Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:316 [ref. 14235], Kurtz & Matsuura 1994:141 [ref. 22162], Munroe 1998:99 [ref. 23285], López et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26808] also as jenynsii, Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus jenynsi Evermann & Kendall 1906. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

joyneri, Cynoglossus Günther [A.] 1878:486 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 18236] Tokyo, Japan. Lectotype: BMNH 1878.4.15.94. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1878.4.15.95 (1). Lectotype selected by Chabanaud 1951:269 [ref. 21930]. •Valid as Cynoglossus joyneri Günther 1878 -- (Menon 1977:46 [ref. 7071], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:356 [ref. 6441], Lu & Wu in Kuang et al. 1986:337 [ref. 26639], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:221 [ref. 21500], Kim & Choi 1994:805 [ref. 22283], Li & Wang 1995:361 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:463 [ref. 26385], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1391 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:45 [ref. 25799], Wang et al. 2001:321 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:1391 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:441, 689 [ref. 26218], Yokogawa et al. 2008:121 [ref. 29585], Ho et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31461], Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:113 [ref. 32413], Larson et al. 2013:229 [ref. 32988] as cf joyneri, Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160], Naito & Endo 2019:[9][ref. 36572]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus joyneri Günther 1878. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China and Taiwan north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

kapuasensis, Cynoglossus Fowler [H. W.] 1905:519, Fig. 16 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 57; ref. 1370] Kapuas River, West Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 109737 [ex WIAP 2402]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:67 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Cynoglossus kapuasensis Fowler 1905 -- (Menon 1977:91 [ref. 7071], Roberts 1989:184 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:169 [ref. 23448], Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:169 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus kapuasensis Fowler 1905. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

kaupii, Arelia Bleeker [P.] 1860:73 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 375] Benkulen, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6783. •Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1977:60 [ref. 7071]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

kopsii, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1851:494 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16898] Rio [Rhio or Riouw], Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7680. Paralectotypes: (1). Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:44 [ref. 7071]. •Valid as Cynoglossus kopsii (Bleeker 1851) -- (Dor 1984:272 [ref. 29757] as kopsi, Quéro & Maugé 1989:392 [ref. 19513] as kopsi, Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:348 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:364 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:232 [ref. 23922] as kopsi, Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314] as kopsi, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715] as kopsi, Hoese & Bray 2006:1855 [ref. 29000], Yokogawa et al. 2008:121 [ref. 29585], Ho et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31461], Larson et al. 2013:229 [ref. 32988] as kopsi, Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:96 [ref. 34319] as kopsi, Wang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34517], Voronina et al. 2016:403 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160], Motomura et al. 2017:227 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:374 [ref. 35805], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36460] as kopsi, Fricke et al. 2019:318 [ref. 36673], Naito & Endo 2019:[1] [ref. 36572], Naito & Endo 2019:[9] [ref. 36572]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus kopsii (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to northern Vietnam and Taiwan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

kyaropterygium, Symphurus Menezes [N. A.] & Benvegnú [G. de Q.] 1976:140, Fig. 2 [Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo v. 30 (no. 11); ref. 7069] Santa Catarina, Brazilian coast, 26°34'S, 48°10'W, depth 50-54 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 12425. Paratypes: MNHN 1975-0265 to 0267 (2, 1, 1); MZUSP 12783-84 (1, 1), 12913 (1), 12914-15 (2), 12916-18 (1, 1, 1); USNM 290666 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:333-334 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Symphurus kyaropterygium Menezes & Benvegnú 1976 -- (Kurtz & Matsuura 1994:141 [ref. 22162], Munroe 1998:75 [ref. 23285], Desoutter et al. 2001:333 [ref. 25922], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus kyaropterygium Menezes & Benvegnú 1976. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lachneri, Cynoglossus Menon [A. G. K.] 1977:40, Pl. 5 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 238; ref. 7071] Mombasa fish market, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: USNM 201852. Paratypes: MCZ 11551 (1); NMW 43874 or 43814 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 419-420 (now 1); USNM 171046 (1), 203693 (1); ZSI F6207/2 (1), F6208/2 (1), F6209/2 (3). See Das 2003:377 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Cynoglossus lachneri Menon 1977 -- (Dor 1984:272 [ref. 29757], Heemstra 1986:866 [ref. 5660], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:364 [ref. 22896], Quéro 1997:327 [ref. 23236], Fricke 1999:575 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213], Psomadakis et al. 2015:330 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:374 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:176 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus lachneri Menon 1977. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

lactea, Plagusia Bonaparte [C. L.] 1833:fasc. 5, punt. 27, Pl. 102 (fig. 4) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 516] Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 8706-19 (14). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:67 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Symphurus nigrescens Rafinesque 1810 -- (Desoutter 1990:1053 [ref. 18967], Munroe 1990:467 [ref. 19191], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:156 [ref. 26753]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus nigrescens Rafinesque 1810. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: marine.

lagoensis, Cynoglossus Regan [C. T.] 1915:129 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 15 (no. 85); ref. 15006] Lagos, Nigeria. Lectotype: BMNH 1914.11.2.72. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1914.11.2.71 (1), 1935.5.11.288 (1). Lectotype selected by Chabanaud 1949:207 [ref. 14921]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus canariensis Steindachner 1882 -- (Menon 1977:28 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1990:1051 [ref. 18967], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3037 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus canariensis Steindachner 1882. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leei, Symphurus Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:178 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific coast of Colombia, 8°16'30"N, 79°37'45"W, Albatross station 2804, depth 47 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 35906 [ex USNM 41134] (1), ?35916 [ex USNM 41485] (1); CAS-SU 39 (21); USNM 41134 (1), 41483 (6), 41485 (7), 175122 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:143 [ref. 12291]. Named after Prof. L. A. Lee and Mr. Thomas Lee, so mandatory change to leeorum (ICZN Art. 31.1.2). •Valid as Symphurus leei Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Munroe & Nizinski 1990:994 [ref. 19193], Allen & Robertson 1994:291 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:146 [ref. 23101], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1051 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:215 [ref. 24555], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Robertson et al. 2017:105 [ref. 35676], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). •Valid as Symphurus leeorum Jordan & Bollman 1890. Current status: Valid as Symphurus leeorum Jordan & Bollman 1890. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

leucochilus, Symphurus Lee [M.-Y.], Munroe [T. A.] & Shao [K.-T.] 2014:563, Figs. 1-5 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 85 (no. 3); ref. 33409] Da-Shi fish market, Taiwan. Holotype: USNM 408271. Paratypes: ASIZP, NMMB-P, USNM. From prepublication copy. •Valid as Symphurus leucochilus Lee, Munroe & Shao 2014 -- (Lee et al. 2016:[11] [ref. 34740]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus leucochilus Lee, Munroe & Shao 2014. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

lida, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1851:413 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6791. Paralectotypes (4) and Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.6.3.14 and .16 (1, 1); RMNH 26208 [ex RMNH 6791] (?4 of 5). •Valid as Cynoglossus lida (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:81 [ref. 7071], Heemstra 1986:867 [ref. 5660], Quéro & Maugé 1989:392 [ref. 19513], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:300 [ref. 24014], Li & Wang 1995:350 [ref. 16193], Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:436 [ref. 28072], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1058 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:191 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160], Fricke et al. 2018:374 [ref. 35805], Suresh et al. 2018:321 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus lida (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines and New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

lighti, Cynoglossus (Areliscus) Norman [J. R.] 1925:270 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 16 (no. 92) (art. 37); ref. 15556] Amoy, China. Lectotype: BMNH 1924.12.15.87. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1924.12.15.88-89 (2), 1924.12.15.90 (1). Kottelat (2013) lists an inland record in Hainen. Lectotype selected by Chabanaud 1951:270 [ref. 21930]. •Valid as Cynoglossus lighti Norman 1925 -- (Li & Wang 1995:363 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:464 [ref. 26385], Nakabo 2000:1391 [ref. 25182], Wang et al. 2001:322 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:1391 [ref. 26193]). •Synonym of Cynoglossus joyneri Günther 1878 -- (Menon 1977:47 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:221 [ref. 21500], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus joyneri Günther 1878. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

ligulata, Bibronia Cocco [A.] 1844:26 [6], Fig. 2 [Giornale del Gabinetto Letterario di Messina Anno 3, Tomo 5; ref. 866] Gulf of Patti, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Neotype: CSI 2507. On p. 6 of separate. Original spelling was liculata regarded as in error by all authors and emended to ligulata. Neotype designated by Torchio 1971 [ref. 19717]. •Valid as Symphurus ligulatus (Cocco 1844) -- (Torchio 1973:636 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1327 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1053 [ref. 18967], Munroe 1990:467 [ref. 19191], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643] as ligulata, Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003:815 [ref. 27261], Goren & Galil 2015:511 [ref. 33910], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3041 [ref. 34618], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus ligulatus (Cocco 1844). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

lineolatus, Cynoglossus Steindachner [F.] 1867:588 [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 55 (pts 4-5); ref. 4213] Hong Kong, southern China Sea. Holotype (unique): NMW 43781. •Valid as Cynoglossus lineolatus Steindachner 1867 -- (Feng in Pan et al. 1991:534 [ref. 23876], Li & Wang 1995:345 [ref. 16193]). •Synonym of Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Menon 1977:37 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:223 [ref. 21500]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus lineolatus Steindachner 1867. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

lingua, Cynoglossus Hamilton [F.] 1822:32, 365 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Calcutta and salt estuaries, India [Bay of Bengal]. Possibly the type: BMNH 1861.4.2.15 (skin) Based on a drawing, reproduced by Hora 1929, Pl. 15 (figs 1-2) [ref. 23132]. •Valid as Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton 1822 -- (Menon 1977:65 [ref. 7071], Dor 1984:272 [ref. 29757], Ataur Rahman 1989:33 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1042 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:27 [ref. 15702], Kottelat et al. 1993:169 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:601 [ref. 27969], Rainboth 1996:224 [ref. 22772], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187 [ref. 25703], Munroe 2001:3899 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:11 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:48 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:223 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160], Munroe 2017:29 [ref. 35375] not Red Sea, Ali et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36183], Suresh et al. 2018:322 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton 1822. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India east to Philippines. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

longirostris, Paraplagusia Chapleau [F.], Renaud [C. B.] & Kailola [P. J.] 1991:240, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 38 (no. 3); ref. 19032] Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, Western Australia, 13°51'S, 128°48'E, depth 50 meters. Holotype: WAM P.29719-001. Paratypes: AMS I.20402-002 (2); CSIRO CA 2094 (1), CA 2115 (1); KFRS F04130 (8, not found); NMC 90-0204 (1), 90-0205 (1); NTM S.0055 (1), S.0059 (2), S.10031-110 (3), S.10173-001 (4); WAM P.29719-002 (5, 1 c&s), P.29753-001 (7, 1 c&s). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. Specimens not found in KFRS (Pogonoski, Appleyard & White, pers. comm. 9/18/2016). •Valid as Paraplagusia longirostris Chapleau, Renaud & Kailola 1991 -- (Chapleau & Renaud 1993:801 [ref. 21017], Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1857 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:230 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Paraplagusia longirostris Chapleau, Renaud & Kailola 1991. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Symphurus Lee [M.-Y.], Munroe [T. A.] & Kai [Y.] 2016:[3], Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 64 (no. 1); ref. 34740] Off Kyoto, Wakasa Bay, Sea of Japan, 35°45'N, 35°20'E, depth 90-100 meters. Holotype: FAKU 135349. Paratypes: ASIZP, BSKU, FAKU, NSMT-P, USNM. •Valid as Symphurus longirostris Lee, Munroe & Kai 2016. Current status: Valid as Symphurus longirostris Lee, Munroe & Kai 2016. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Japan. Habitat: marine.

lubbocki, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] 1990:485, Fig. 4a [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 47 (no. 2); ref. 19191] Klinka Klub Bay, Ascension Island, eastern Atlantic, depth 20 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1979.1.5.237. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.1.5.238 (1). •Valid as Symphurus lubbocki Munroe 1990 -- (Munroe et al. 2000:499 [ref. 24450], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3042 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus lubbocki Munroe 1990. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

luctuosus, Cynoglossus Chabanaud [P.] 1948:813 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 14 (no. 119) (art. 74); ref. 13044] Tannur, Madras, India. Holotype: BMNH 1932.2.6.8. Paratypes: BMNH 1932.2.6.1-7 and 1932.2.6.9 (8). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:348-349 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus macrostomus Norman 1928 -- (Menon 1977:72 [ref. 7071]). •Valid as Cynoglossus luctuosus Chabanaud 1948 -- (Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus luctuosus Chabanaud 1948. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: India. Habitat: brackish, marine.

luzonensis, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1955:32 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 45 (no. 1); ref. 12266] Near Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 138043. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:351 [ref. 25922] •Valid as Symphurus luzonensis Chabanaud 1955 -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Lee et al. 2013:381 [ref. 32506] with question). Current status: Valid as Symphurus luzonensis Chabanaud 1955. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Pacific off the Philippines. Habitat: marine.

maccullochi, Cynoglossus Norman [J. R.] 1926:302, Fig. 13 [Biological Results Endeavour v. 5 (pt 5); ref. 3216] 7-10 miles northwest of Hummocky Island, Australia, depth 14-16 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS E. 2693. •Synonym of Cynoglossus maculipinnis Rendahl 1921 -- (Menon 1977:50 [ref. 7071]). •Valid as Cynoglossus maccullochi Norman 1926 -- (Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847] as mccullochi, Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314] as mccullochi, Hoese & Bray 2006:1855 [ref. 29000], Wang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34517], Motomura et al. 2017:228 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus maccullochi Norman 1926. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

macrocephalus, Paraplagusia Bleeker [P.] 1865:28, Pl. 246 (fig. 3) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 428] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6779. Plate published in 1865? (or 1869), text in 1870. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

macrolepidota, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1851:415 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6785. Paralectotypes: (possible 6) RMNH 26209 [ex RMNH 6785] (4 of 5), SMNS 10586 (1). Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:60 [ref. 7071]. Type information as given by Fricke 1991:12 [ref. 13474] apparently is in error, transposed with Plagusia marmorata Bleeker 1851. Type catalog: Fricke 2005:30 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:271 [ref. 29757], Munroe 2001:3896 [ref. 26314] with author as Schneider). •Valid as Cynoglossus macrolepidotus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Li & Wang 1995:342 [ref. 16193], Mishra et al. 1999:89 [ref. 25315], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus macrolepidotus (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

macrophthalmus, Cynoglossus Norman [J. R.] 1926:306, Fig. 15 [Biological Results Endeavour v. 5 (pt 5); ref. 3216] 20 miles off Bustard Head Light, Australia, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS E.1978. •Valid as Cynoglossus macrophthalmus Norman 1926 -- (Menon 1977:99 [ref. 7071], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1855 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:229 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus macrophthalmus Norman 1926. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Symphurus Norman [J. R.] 1939:106, Fig. 37 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Gulf of Aden. Holotype: BMNH 1939.5.24.1825-1826 (133-mm spec.). Paratypes: BMNH 1939.5.24.1825-1826 (smallest of 2). •Valid as Symphurus macrophthalmus Norman 1939 -- (Munroe & McCosker 2001:196 [ref. 25948], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683], Munroe et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31567]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus macrophthalmus Norman 1939. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

macrorhynchos, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1851:413 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Tjilankaham, Bantam Province [West Java Province], Java, Indonesia. No types known. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton 1822 -- (Menon 1977:65 [ref. 7071], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton 1822. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

macrostomus, Cynoglossus Norman [J. R.] 1928:204, Fig. 20 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 30 (pt 2); ref. 15867] Hooghly River estuary near Calcutta, India. Holotype: ZSI 1460. Paratypes: BMNH 1889.2.1.4074 (1), 1889.2.1.4076 (1). Type catalog: Talwar & Chakrapany 1970:123 [ref. 35966]. •Valid as Cynoglossus macrostomus Norman 1928 -- (Menon 1977:72 [ref. 7071], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1042 [ref. 20764], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:253 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:89 [ref. 25315], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus macrostomus Norman 1928. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: India to China. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculipinnis, Cynoglossus Rendahl [H.] 1921:17 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 61 (no. 9); ref. 3700] 45 nautical miles west-southwest of Cape Jaubert, northwestern Australia, depth 72 feet. Holotype (unique): NRM 9896. •Valid as Cynoglossus maculipinnis Rendahl 1921 -- (Menon 1977:50 [ref. 7071], Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3894 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1855 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:223 [ref. 32988], Jeong in Kimura et al. 2018:301 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus maculipinnis Rendahl 1921. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: northern Vietnam; northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

maculopinnis, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.], Tyler [J.] & Tunnicliffe [V.] 2011:55, Figs. 1-7 [Zootaxa 3061; ref. 31567] Volcano--19 near Marker 40, Tonga Arc, 24°48.439'S, 177°0.009'W, western Pacific Ocean, depth 561 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 398820. Non-types: 56 specimens observed but not collected [not regarded as types]. •Valid as Symphurus maculopinnis Munroe, Tyler & Tunnicliffe 2011. Current status: Valid as Symphurus maculopinnis Munroe, Tyler & Tunnicliffe 2011. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Tonga Arc, western Pacific Ocean (holotype) [a vent species]. Habitat: marine.

maldivensis, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1955:369 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 27 (no. 5); ref. 12185] Maldives, 4°45'36"N, 72°52'12"E, depth 256-293 meters. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1939.5.24.1815 (incomplete). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:351 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Symphurus maldivensis Chabanaud 1955 -- (Adam et al. 1998:15 [ref. 23610], Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003:815 [ref. 27261], Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683], Lee et al. 2009:347 [ref. 30207]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus maldivensis Chabanaud 1955. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

marginata, Aphoristia Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1886:153 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 12 (no. 5); ref. 1844] Off mouth of Mississippi River, 28°42'N, 88°40'W, Blake station 171, depth 321 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 27967. Paratypes: USNM 131634 (1). Additional specimens: (14). •Valid as Symphurus marginatus (Goode & Bean 1886) -- (Kurtz & Matsuura 1994:141 [ref. 22162], Munroe 1998:62 [ref. 23285], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Moore et al. 2003:232 [ref. 27076], Munroe 2003:1945 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2003:961 [ref. 28221], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:878 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus marginatus (Goode & Bean 1886). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

marleyi, Cynoglossus (Trulla) Regan [C. T.] 1921:418 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 7 (no. 41); ref. 3672] 15-20 miles off Umvoti River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 130 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1921.3.1.21. •Valid as Cynoglossus marleyi Regan 1921 -- (Menon 1977:85 [ref. 7071], Heemstra 1986:867 [ref. 5660], Fricke et al. 2017:83, 85 [ref. 35160], Fricke 2019:39 [ref. 36893]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus marleyi Regan 1921. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

marmorata, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1851:411 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (15) ?NMV 46253 (1), RMNH 8501 (11), SMNS 10587 (2). Type catalog: Fricke 2005:30 [ref. 29864]. Type information as given by Fricke 1991:12 [ref. 13474] apparently is in error, transposed with Plagusia marmorata Bleeker. •Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) -- (Dor 1984:273 [ref. 29757], Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1044 [ref. 20764], Munroe 2001:3901 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1856 [ref. 29000], Kottelat 2013:468 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:374 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marmoratus, Symphurus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:349, Fig. 102 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Cape Lassa, Jolo Island and vicinity, Philippines, 5°49'40"S, 120°24'30"E, Albatross station D.5561, depth 10 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93092. Paratypes: USNM 93208 (1). •Valid as Symphurus marmoratus Fowler 1934 -- (Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003:815 [ref. 27261]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus marmoratus Fowler 1934. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

medium, Compsomidiama Chabanaud [P.] 1951:1, Figs. 1-4 [Beaufortia V. 1 (no. 7); ref. 802] Nias Island, Indian Ocean, off western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ZMA 100245a. Paratypes: ZMA 100245b (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:108 [ref. 19236], Desoutter et al. 2001:348 [ref. 25922]. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

megasomus, Symphurus Lee [M.-Y.], Chen [H.-M.] & Shao [K.-T.] 2009:342, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2009 (no. 2); ref. 30207] Off northeastern coast of Taiwan, [Da-shi Fish Market]. Holotype: ASIZP 67640. Paratypes: many at AMS, ASIZP, BSKU, MNHN, USNM. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:63 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Symphurus megasomus Lee, Chen & Shao 2009 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:63 [ref. 31432], Lee et al. 2013:395 [ref. 32506]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus megasomus Lee, Chen & Shao 2009. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

melampetala, Plagusia Richardson [J.] 1846:281 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, coast of China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 29a [ref. 11606] as melamptela). •Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1977:60 [ref. 7071]). •Valid as Cynoglossus melampetalus (Richardson 1846) -- (Feng in Pan et al. 1991:533 [ref. 23876], Li & Wang 1995:344 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus melampetalus (Richardson 1846). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

melanopterus, Cynoglossus Shen [S.-C.] 1969:21, Figs. 5-8 [Report of the Institute of Fishery Biology of Ministry of Economic Affairs and National Taiwan Unversity, Taipei v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 7845] Tolo Harbor, Hong Kong. Syntypes: (8). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Cynoglossus by Plagusia melanopterus Bleeker 1851. •Synonym of Cynoglossus kopsii (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:42 [ref. 7071]). •Synonym of Cynoglossus nigropinnatus Ochiai 1863 -- (Li & Wang 1995:360 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus nigropinnatus Ochiai 1963. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

melanopterus, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1851:415 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta; Boleling; northern Bali, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6799. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1862.6.3.13 (1); RMNH 26212 [ex RMNH 6799] (some of 8). Replacement name for Plagusia monopus Bleeker 1849. Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:75 [ref. 7071] on Chabanaud. •Synonym of Cynoglossus monopus (Bleeker 1849) -- (Menon 1977:73 [ref. 7071], Li & Wang 1995:345 [ref. 16193]). •Valid as Cynoglossus melanopterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus melanopterus (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

melanurus, Symphurus Clark [H. W.] 1936:386 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 21 (no. 29); ref. 839] Off Acapulco, Mexico, 18°49'N, 99°05'W. Holotype: CAS 4401. Paratypes: CAS 4423 (1, partly dissected). Additional material (3): CAS 4424-25 (1, 1). •Valid as Symphurus melanurus Clark 1936 -- (Munroe 1990:229 [ref. 19192], Munroe & Nizinski 1990:994 [ref. 19193], Allen & Robertson 1994:291 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:146 [ref. 23101], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1052 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:216 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:502 [ref. 24550], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:392 [ref. 34894], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus melanurus Clark 1936. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melasmatotheca, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] & Nizinski [M. S.] 1990:986, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1990 (no. 4); ref. 19193] Nicaragua, 12°41.2'-43.0'N, 87°43.0-46.6'W, depth 56 meters. Holotype: SIO 73-278. Paratypes: CAS 24949 (1); SIO 60-90 (5), 65-158 (13), 73-232 (3), 73-278 (12), 73-283 (3); UF 234325-26 [ex UMML 34325-26] (1, 1); plus non-type material. •Valid as Symphurus melasmatotheca Munroe & Nizinski 1990 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:148 [ref. 23101], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1053 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus melasmatotheca Munroe & Nizinski 1990. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

meridionalis, Symphurus de Lema [T.] & de Oliveira [M. F. T.] 1977:8, Figs. 1-3 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) No. 50; ref. 7244] Praoa de Cassino (Rio Grande), R.S., Procedência, Brazil. Holotype: MCN 2401. Paratypes: MCN 2399 (1), 2400 (1). •Synonym of Symphurus jenynsi Evermann & Kendall 1906 -- (Munroe 1998:99 [ref. 23285]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus jenynsi Evermann & Kendall 1906. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1851:413 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6784. •Valid as Cynoglossus microlepis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:97 [ref. 7071], Kottelat et al. 1993:169 [ref. 23448], Li & Wang 1995:368 [ref. 16193], Rainboth 1996:224 [ref. 22772], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:64 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989], Wang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34517], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus microlepis (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Symphurus Garman [S.] 1899:230, Pl. 52 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] 7°32'36"N, 79°16'W, Gulf of Panama, Albatross station 3385, depth 286 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28535. •Valid as Symphurus microlepis Garman 1899 -- (Munroe & Nizinski 1990:994 [ref. 19193], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1054 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:619 [ref. 24023], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Munroe & McCosker 2001:188 [ref. 25948]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus microlepis Garman 1899. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microphthalmus, Areliscus von Bonde [C.] 1922:24, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 180, 29 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1922.3.27.17. •Synonym of Cynoglossus capensis (Kaup 1858) -- (Menon 1977:57 [ref. 7071], Heemstra 1986:866 [ref. 5660]). •Valid as Cynoglossus microphthalmus (von Bonde 1922) -- (Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160] with author as Bonde). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus microphthalmus (von Bonde 1922). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: South Africa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microps, Cynoglossus Steindachner [F.] 1897:655 [510] [List of the reptiles, amphibians and fish of eastern Asia; ref. 19821] Hong Kong. Lectotype: NMW 43798. Paralectotypes: (2) NMW 43799 (1). On p. 510 in German version. •Synonym of Cynoglossus gracilis Günther 1873 -- (Menon 1977:95 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:213 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:369 [ref. 16193], Wang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34517]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus gracilis Günther 1873. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

microrhynchus, Aphoristia Weber [M.] 1913:444, Fig. 85 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Java Sea, 6°16.5'S, 114°37'E, Siboga station 319, depth 82 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 108193. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:107 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Symphurus microrhynchus (Weber 1913) -- (Munroe & Marsh 1997:191 [ref. 22936], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Munroe 2006:233 [ref. 28683], Hoese & Bray 2006:1858 [ref. 29000], Lee et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30387], Larson et al. 2013:230 [ref. 32988], Lee et al. 2014:563 [ref. 33409], Lee et al. 2016:[11] [ref. 34740] and as cf. microrhynchus, Voronina et al. 2016:401 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus microrhynchus (Weber 1913). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

minimus, Pleuronectes Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:375 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Corresponds to Conexiales on p. 372 and to conex-iales on p. 383. Appeared as P. conexiales vel minimus in Devincenzi 1925:302, 321; Devincenzi treated as a synonym Symphurus plagusia (Bloch & Schneider 1801). •Synonym of Symphurus plagusia (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus plagusia (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

minor, Symphurus Ginsburg [I.] 1951:192, Pl. 1 (fig. A) [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 36 (pt. 3); ref. 12891] Off St. George Island, Florida, U.S.A., 28°46'N, 84°49'W, Albatross station 2406, depth 26 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 131643. Paratypes: USNM 92614 (3), 131293 [not 131593] (1), 131590-91 (1, 3), 134272 (1), 152734 (2), 155230-33 (1, 1, 1, 1). •Valid as Symphurus minor Ginsburg 1951 -- (de Lema & de Oliveira 1977:5 [ref. 7244], Robins & Ray 1986:297 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:560 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:224 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:177 [ref. 23239], Munroe 1998:78 [ref. 23285], Munroe 2003:1946 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:879 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus minor Ginsburg 1951. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

monodi, Cynoglossus Chabanaud [P.] 1949:65 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 21 (no. 1); ref. 12941] Cotonou, Benin [Dahomey]. Holotype: MNHN 1949-0018. Paratypes: (2) BMNH 1949.4.30.4 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:330 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Cynoglossus monodi Chabanaud 1949 -- (Menon 1977:30 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1990:1052 [ref. 18967], Wirtz et al. 2007:22, 41 [ref. 30263], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3038 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus monodi Chabanaud 1949. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Congo. Habitat: brackish, marine.

monopus, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1849:11 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [7]; ref. 321] Jakarta, Java; Boleling, northern Bali, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6799. Paralectotypes: RMNH 26212 [ex RMNH 6799] (some of 8). Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:75 [ref. 7071]. •Valid as Cynoglossus monopus (Bleeker 1849) -- (Menon 1977:73 [ref. 7071], Edwards & Glass 1987:667 [ref. 9166] from St. Helena but locality possibly in error, Li & Wang 1995:345 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160], Brown et al. 2019:184 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus monopus (Bleeker 1849). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

monostigmus, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] 2006:231, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2006 (no. 2); ref. 28683] Off Gypsy Hill, 27°45.2'S, 32°39.8'E, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 110 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 39811. Paratypes: USNM 383435 [ex. SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 39805] (1). •Valid as Symphurus monostigmus Munroe 2006 -- (Munroe et al. 2011:64 [ref. 31567]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus monostigmus Munroe 2006. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

multimaculatus, Symphurus Lee [M.-Y.], Munroe [T. A.] & Chen [H.-M.] 2009:51, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 2203; ref. 30387] Nan-fang-ao fish port, trawled off northeast coast of Taiwan. Holotype: ASIZP 67634. Paratypes: ASIZP 67647 (1), 67648 (1), 67654 (1), 67655 (1); USNM 394605 (1), 394606 (1). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:63 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Symphurus multimaculatus Lee, Munroe & Chen 2009 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:63 [ref. 31432], Munroe et al. 2011:64 [ref. 31567], Fricke 2015:7 [ref. 33807]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus multimaculatus Lee, Munroe & Chen 2009. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

nanhaiensis, Cynoglossus Wang [Z.-M.], Munroe [T. A.] & Kong [X.-Y.] 2016:132, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 129; ref. 34517] Sanya fishing port, China (18°15.0'N, 109°21.2'E). Holotype: SCSMBC 007425. Paratypes: SCSMBC, USNM. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Cynoglossus nanhaiensis Wang, Munroe & Kong 2016 -- (Voronina et al. 2016:404 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus nanhaiensis Wang, Munroe & Kong 2016. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: China and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Areliscus von Bonde [C.] 1922:23, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 194, 29 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1922.3.27.18 (1, primary specimen). •Synonym of Cynoglossus acaudatus Gilchrist 1906 -- (Menon 1977:52 [ref. 7071] as ecaudatus, Heemstra 1986:865 [ref. 5660], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus acaudatus Gilchrist 1906. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

nebulosa, Aphoristia Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1883:192 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 10 (no. 5); ref. 1838] North Atlantic, 32°07'N, 78°37'30"W, Blake station 316, depth 229 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 27966. •Valid as Symphurus nebulosus (Goode & Bean 1883) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:297 [ref. 23100], Munroe 1998:26 [ref. 23285], Moore et al. 2003:232 [ref. 27076], Munroe 2003:1947 [ref. 27118], Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003:815 [ref. 27261]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus nebulosus (Goode & Bean 1883). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nigrescens, Symphurus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:13, 52 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Bay of Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Neotype: MNHN 1989-1208 [ex USNM 48292]. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25922]. Neotype designated by Munroe 1990:503 [ref. 19191]. •Valid as Symphurus nigrescens Rafinesque 1810 -- (Torchio 1973:635 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1327 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1053 [ref. 18967], Munroe 1990:492 [ref. 19191], Santos et al. 1997:113 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:120 [ref. 24952], Porteiro et al. 1999:42 [ref. 24203], Munroe et al. 2000:499 [ref. 24450], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:156 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:75 [ref. 36649], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3043 [ref. 34618], Brown et al. 2019:171 [ref. 36444], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus nigrescens Rafinesque 1810. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Namibia, including Azores; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena. Habitat: marine.

nigrolabeculata, Plagusia Richardson [J.] 1846:280 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; coasts of China. No types known. Originally as nigro-labeculata. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 29b [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846) -- (Menon 1977:75 [ref. 7071], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nigropinnatus, Cynoglossus Ochiai [A.] 1963:85, Pl. 19; Fig. 46 [Biogeographical Society of Japan (Tokyo) 1963; ref. 7982] Owase, Mimase, Kochi Prefecture, Japan [Mimase fish market, Kochi, Japan]. Holotype: FAKU 18491. Paratypes: FAKU 2437-41 (5), 15995-96 (2), 15998 (1), 16000 (1), 18216-27 (12), 18308-37 (30), 18490 (1), 18492-501 (11), 21791-93 (3), 26587-97 (11), 26601-97 (97). •Synonym of Cynoglossus interruptus Günther 1880 -- (Menon 1977:45 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:218 [ref. 21500]). •Valid as Cynoglossus nigropinnatus Ochiai 1963 -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:356 [ref. 6441], Li & Wang 1995:359 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1391 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1391 [ref. 26193], Yokogawa et al. 2008:120 [ref. 29585], Shao et al. 2008:265 [ref. 29952], Ho et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:113 [ref. 32413], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160], Naito & Endo 2019:[9][ref. 36572]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus nigropinnatus Ochiai 1963. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

normani, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1950:625 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 3 (no. 31) (art. 51); ref. 12943] Cape Lopez, French Congo, Discovery station 279. Holotype: BMNH 1930.5.6.51. Paratypes: (17) BMNH 1930.5.6.46-50 (5), 1930.5.6.52-54 (3), 1935.5.11.230 (1); IRSNB 404-407 (1, 1, 1, 1); MRAC 140377 (1), 140279 (1), 140380-81 (2). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:48 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:351-352 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Symphurus normani Chabanaud 1950 -- (Desoutter 1990:1054 [ref. 18967], Munroe 1990:467 [ref. 19191], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:181 [ref. 25472], Munroe et al. 2000:499 [ref. 24450], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2003:966 [ref. 28221], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3045 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus normani Chabanaud 1950. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Namibia. Habitat: marine.

notata, Plagusia De Vis [C. W.] 1883:288 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 1088] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.107. •Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) -- (Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Hoese & Bray 2006:1856 [ref. 29000], Kottelat 2013:468 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

novemfasciatus, Symphurus Shen [S.-C.] & Lin [W.-W.] 1984:8, Fig. 3 [Taiwan Museum Special Publications Series No. 4; ref. 13822] Tungkong, southwestern Taiwan. Holotype: NTUM 04564. Paratypes: NTUM 04565 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:63 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Symphurus novemfasciatus Shen & Lin 1984 -- (Li & Wang 1995:383 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Ho & Shao 2011:63 [ref. 31432], Lee et al. 2016:[11] [ref. 34740]). •Synonym of Symphurus orientalis (Bleeker 1879) -- (Lee et al. 2013:3849 [ref. 32506], Kwun & Kim 2016:211 [ref. 34467]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus orientalis (Bleeker 1879). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Taiwan [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

obscura, Plagusia Jenkins [J. T.] 1910:134 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 5 (art. 12); ref. 14478] Karachi, Pakistan. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1845/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:161 [ref. 20743]. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

ocellaris, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] & Robertson [D. R.] 2005:577, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 118 (no. 3); ref. 28389] Several kilometers off mainland coast between coast and Islas Secas, about 8°05'N, 81°50'W, Pacific Panama, depth 20 meters. Holotype: USNM 378272. Paratypes: USNM 378273 (1). •Valid as Symphurus ocellaris Munroe & Robertson 2005 -- (van der Heiden et al. 2011:305 [ref. 37030]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus ocellaris Munroe & Robertson 2005. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Colima (Mexico) south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Symphurus von Bonde [C.] 1922:26, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle Stations 174 and 176, depth 260-350 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1922.3.27.10 (1), 1922.3.27.24 (1); SAM (none found in 1996). •Valid as Symphurus ocellatus von Bonde 1922 -- (Heemstra 1986:868 [ref. 5660], Quéro & Maugé 1989:393 [ref. 19513], Quéro 1997:328 [ref. 23236], Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003:815 [ref. 27261], Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683], Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213], Lee et al. 2009:347 [ref. 30207], Lee et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30387], Munroe et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31567], Fricke et al. 2018:374 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus ocellatus von Bonde 1922. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa and South Africa to Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes. Habitat: marine.

ochiaii, Cynoglossus Yokogawa [K.], Endo [H.] & Sakaji [H.] 2008:117, Figs. 2-4, 6A, 6C, 7 [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) Supplement No. 2; ref. 29585] Tosa Bay, 33°17.2'N, 133°36.6'E to 33°15.5'N, 133°36.9'E, Japan, depth 129-152 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 76853 [ex BSKU 74196]. Paratypes: BSKU 51502 (1), 51840 (1), 54387 (1), 75148-49 (2), 75580 (1), 75582 (1), 75979 (1), 78261 (1), 82848 (1), 82958 (1), 85665 (1), 85981 (1), 89766-67 (2), 89771-73 (3); KAUM-I 5870 (1), 6028 (1), 6031 (1), 60335-37 (3); NSMT-P 57366 (1), 76854-55 (2). •Valid as Cynoglossus ochiaii Yokogawa, Endo & Sakaji 2008 -- (Ohashi & Motomura 2011:113 [ref. 32413], Shinohara et al. 2014:278 [ref. 33330], Wang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34517], Motomura et al. 2017:228 [ref. 35490], Naito & Endo 2019:[9][ref. 36572]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus ochiaii Yokogawa, Endo & Sakaji 2008. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Coasts of southern Japan, southward to East China Sea and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

oculellus, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] 1991:276, Figs. 2, 4d, 5, 6 (b-c) [Fishery Bulletin v. 89 (no. 2); ref. 15142] Suriname, 6°24'N, 55°00'W, depth 27 meters. Holotype: USNM 159606. Paratypes: BMNH 1950.5.15.51 (1), 1961.9.4.117-118 (2); FMNH 86362 (1), 86365 (1), 86397 (1), 88846 (1), 90085 (5), 90552-53 (2, 1), 91368 (1), 100385-87 (1, 7, 2); GCRL 3836 (5); UF 211549 [ex UMML 11549] (1), 212249 [ex UMML 12249] (1), 212254 [ex UMML 12254] (1), 212262 [ex UMML 12262] (1), 234335 [ex UMML 34335] (1); USNM 159541 (1), 159559 (1), 313518 (2); ZMA 111212 (1), 111228 (1), 111234 (1); plus non-type material. •Valid as Symphurus oculellus Munroe 1991 -- (Munroe 1998:131 [ref. 23285], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1948 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus oculellus Munroe 1991. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Guyana to northeastern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

ogilbyi, Cynoglossus Norman [J. R.] 1926:304, Fig. 14 [Biological Results Endeavour v. 5 (pt 5); ref. 3216] Southern Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS E.2796. •Valid as Cynoglossus ogilbyi Norman 1926 -- (Menon 1977:49 [ref. 7071], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1855 [ref. 29000], Yokogawa et al. 2008:121 [ref. 29585]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus ogilbyi Norman 1926. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

oligolepis, Cynoglossus Steindachner [F.] 1867:587 [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 55 (pts 4-5); ref. 4213] Ningbo [Ningpo], Zhejiang Province, China. eastern China Sea. Syntypes: (several). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

oligolepis, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1855:445 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 16941] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6786. Bleeker specimens: AMS B.7912 (1), BMNH 1862.6.3.2 (1), RMNH 26310 [ex RMNH 6786] (1). •Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1977:60 [ref. 7071]). •Valid as Cynoglossus oligolepis (Bleeker 1855) -- (Li & Wang 1999:334 [ref. 16193], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus oligolepis (Bleeker 1855). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Pacific off Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

oligomerus, Symphurus Mahadeva [M. N.] & Munroe [T. A.] 1990:932, Figs. 1a-b, 2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 103 (no. 4); ref. 19177] La Paz Bay, Mexico, Gulf of California, 24°26.7'-24°24.8'N, 110°36.0'-110°37.5'W, depth 240 meters. Holotype: SIO 84-70. Paratypes: CAS 24201 (6), 57858 (1); LACM 21719 (1), 10407 (19), 20261 (3), 33827-10 (6); MCZ 28537 (1), 28540 (14); SIO 15-1237 (10) (ex UCLA W56-79), 68-94 (15 of 40), 73-280 (25 of 174), 73-281 (24); UCR 425-18 (1), 494-6 (was 1); UF 33932 (3), 226051 [ex UMML 26051] (12), 231935 [ex UMML 31935] (20), 231947 [ex UMML 31947] (7); USNM 57882 (2). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:384 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Symphurus oligomerus Mahadeva & Munroe 1990 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:148 [ref. 23101], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1055 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Munroe & McCosker 2001:195 [ref. 25948], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus oligomerus Mahadeva & Munroe 1990. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ommaspilus, Symphurus Böhlke [J. E.] 1961:2, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 344; ref. 7785] Long Bay Cays, Andros Island, Bahamas, 24°06'15"N, 77°32'15"W. Holotype: ANSP 93810. Paratypes: ANSP 93811 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:67 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Symphurus ommaspilus Böhlke 1961 -- (de Lema & de Oliveira 1977:5 [ref. 7244], Munroe 1998:87 [ref. 23285], Munroe 2003:1949 [ref. 27118], Smith et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27621], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:86 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus ommaspilus Böhlke 1961. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Aphoristia Bleeker [P.] 1879:31, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 18; ref. 460] Tosa Bay, off Kochi, Japan, 300-400 meters. Neotype: BSKU 44238. •Valid as Symphurus orientalis (Bleeker 1879) -- (Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:303, 408 [ref. 8256], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:356 [ref. 6441], Kim & Choi 1994:810 [ref. 22283], Li & Wang 1995:380 [ref. 16193], Munroe & Amaoka 1998:389 [ref. 23626], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1392 [ref. 25182], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Shinohara et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1392 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:441, 690 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:443 [ref. 28370], Lee et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30387], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:115 [ref. 32413], Lee et al. 2013:383 [ref. 32506], Shinohara et al. 2014:278 [ref. 33330], Lee et al. 2014:563 [ref. 33409], Parin et al. 2014:549 [ref. 33547], Kwun & Kim 2016:211 [ref. 34467], Lee et al. 2016:[11] [ref. 34740]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus orientalis (Bleeker 1879). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Korea, Japan, Taiwan and East and South China Sea (other localities are questionable). Habitat: marine.

ornatus, Achirus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:659, 663 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922]. •Questionably a synonym of Symphurus plagusia (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Munroe 1991:256 [ref. 15142], Munroe 1998:136 [ref. 23285]). •Nomen dubium -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Uncertain as Symphurus plagusia (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

os, Cynoglossus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:556, Pl. 28 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27816. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:67 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus lida (Bleeker 1851). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus lida (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

oxyrhynchos, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1851:416 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6973. Paralectotypes: (4) ?BMNH 1862.6.3.17 (1) (not this species [ref. 35160]), RMNH 26210 [ex RMNH 6973] (3 of 5). Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:69 (on Chabanaud) [ref. 7071]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1977:68 [ref. 7071], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

paitensis, Symphurus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:478, Fig. 90 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Paita Harbor, Peru, 5°04'30"S, 81°08'W, depth 5 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 128172. Paratypes: USNM 128173 (1). •Synonym of Symphurus williamsi Jordan & Culver 1895 -- (Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1059 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:217 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus williamsi Jordan & Culver 1895. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: marine.

parvus, Symphurus Ginsburg [I.] 1951:192, Pl. 1 (fig. B) [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 36 (pt. 3); ref. 12891] Off Boca Chica, Florida, U.S.A., 24°25'45"N, 81°46'00"W, Albatross station 2318, depth 45 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 84491. Paratypes: USNM 74330 (3), 152733 (1), 153088 (1), 153090 (1), 153097 (1). •Valid as Symphurus parvus Ginsburg 1951 -- (de Lema & de Oliveira 1977:5 [ref. 7244], Robins & Ray 1986:297 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:177 [ref. 23239], Munroe 1998:82 [ref. 23285], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Munroe 2003:1950 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:880 [ref. 28815]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus parvus Ginsburg 1951. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pelicanus, Symphurus Ginsburg [I.] 1951:193, Pl. 1 (fig. C) [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 36 (pt. 3); ref. 12891] Off Padre Island, Texas, U.S.A., 26°43'N, 96°51'W, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 155234. Paratypes: USNM 74331 (1), 155235 (1). •Valid as Symphurus pelicanus Ginsburg 1951 -- (de Lema & de Oliveira 1977:5 [ref. 7244], Robins & Ray 1986:297 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:178 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:306 [ref. 23827], Munroe 1998:54 [ref. 23285], Munroe 2003:1951 [ref. 27118], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2003:966 [ref. 28221], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:881 [ref. 28815]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus pelicanus Ginsburg 1951. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pellegrini, Cynoglossus Wu [H.-W.] 1932:159 [Contribution à l'étude morphologique, biologique et systématique des poissons hétérosomes (Pisces Heterosomata) de la Chine; ref. 16406] Hainan Island, China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:349 [ref. 25922] with no type at MNHN. •See Kottelat 2001:64 [ref. 25482]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus gracilis Günther 1873 -- (Menon 1977:95 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:215 [ref. 21500], Desoutter et al. 2001:349 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Cynoglossus purpureomaculatus Regan 1905 -- (Li & Wang 1995:376 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus purpureomaculatus Regan 1905. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

persicus, Cynoglossus Kousha [A.], Askarian [F.], Ghate [H. V.], Emadi [ H.] & Wosoughi [G.] 2008:81, Fig. 1 and 2 (upper) [World Journal of Zoology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 35905] Not available, no type specimen (ICZN Art. 16.4.1). •Nomen nudum. •In the synonymy of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846) -- (R. Fricke, pers. comm., 04/18). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Arabian sea coast of Iran (if valid).

picta, Plagusia Costa [A.] 1862:49, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Annuario dell'Museo Zoologico della R. Università di Napoli v. 1; ref. 18044] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Symphurus nigrescens Rafinesque 1810 -- (Torchio 1973:636 [ref. 6892], Munroe 1990:467 [ref. 19191], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3043 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus nigrescens Rafinesque 1810. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: marine.

pigra, Aphoristia Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1886:154 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 12 (no. 5); ref. 1844] Off St. Kitts, West Indies, depth 250 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 27965. Paratypes: (6) USNM 74330 (4). For notes on types see Munroe 1998:69 [ref. 23285]. •Valid as Symphurus piger (Goode & Bean 1886) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:297 [ref. 23100], Munroe 1998:66 [ref. 23285], Munroe 2003:1952 [ref. 27118], Saavedra-Diaz et al. 2003:966 [ref. 28221], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:882 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus piger (Goode & Bean 1886). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pinangensis, Cantoria Kaup [J. J.] 1858:106 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2579] Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:347-348 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1977:60 [ref. 7071] as pinangenensis, Desoutter et al. 2001:348 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

plagiusa, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:455 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Holotype (unique): Linn. Soc. Lond. 124 (left side, skin). Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:196 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:71-72 [ref. 20705]. Based on manuscript description and specimen sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Symphurus plagiusa (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:297 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:178 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:306 [ref. 23827], Murdy et al. 1997:270 [ref. 23144], Munroe 1998:104 [ref. 23285], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:499 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26808], Munroe 2003:1953 [ref. 27118], Smith et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:883 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Pinheiro et al. 2015:33 [ref. 34324], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565] with authors as (Bloch & Schneider 1801), Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus plagiusa (Linnaeus 1766). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

plagusia, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Browne) 1801:162 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Puerto Yabucoa, .5 miles east of Playa de Guayanes, Puerto Rico. Neotype: ANSP 132030. Based on Plagusia subcinerea of Brown 1756:445 [ref. 30188] and Browne 1789:445 from Jamaica; suppressed for nomenclatural purposes (Opinion 89, Direction 32) as non-binominal work. Neotype designated by Munroe 1991 [ref. 15142]. •Valid as Symphurus plagusia (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:463 [ref. 14275], Munroe 1991:256 [ref. 15142], Kurtz & Matsuura 1994:141 [ref. 22162], Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:252 [ref. 22947], Munroe 1998:136 [ref. 23285], Munroe 2003:1954 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus plagusia (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

polytaenia, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1854:529 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5965] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6790. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.6.3.14 (1). •Synonym of Cynoglossus lida (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:81 [ref. 7071]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus lida (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

potous, Pleuronectes Cuvier [G.] 1829:344 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Available from footnote as, "Pl. potous, N., ou Jerré potoo, D., Russel, 73." •Synonym of Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton 1822 -- (Menon 1977:65 [ref. 7071], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton 1822. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pottii, Cynoglossus Steindachner [F.] 1902:336 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 39 (no. 26) (for 11 Dec. 1902); ref. 4239] Harmil and El-Tor, Sinai coast, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Cynoglossus pottii Steindachner 1902 -- (Dor 1984:272 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Golani & Fricke 2018:176 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus pottii Steindachner 1902. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Suez. Habitat: marine.

praecisus, Cynoglossus Alcock [A. W.] 1890:442 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 36) (art. 52); ref. 86] Off Ganjam coast, 10 miles east-southeast of Kawita, Investigator station 79, depth 33 fathoms. Syntypes: (2) ZSI F12893 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:160 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:46 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 23 (fig. 6) [ref. 20534]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus kopsii (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:42 [ref. 7071]). •Valid as Cynoglossus praecisus Alcock 1890 -- (Wang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34517]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus praecisus Alcock 1890. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: India. Habitat: marine.

prolatinaris, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.], Nizinski [M. S.] & Mahadeva [M. N.] 1991:449, Figs. 1, 2a, 3-4 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 104 (no. 3); ref. 19173] Off Río Togoroma, Colombia, 4°20'-4°18'N, 77°28'-77°29'W, depth 9 meters. Holotype: USNM 308408. Paratypes: CAS 24945 [not 24925] (1), 24942 (6), 24944 (1); IMARPE 67-2337 (1); LACM 20406 (1); SIO 60-87 (2), 63-517 (1), 65-158 (2); UA 67-71-9 (2); UCR 1286-10 (1); USNM 308409 (5); plus additional at IMARPE, LACM, SIO (16 lots). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:384 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Symphurus prolatinaris Munroe, Nizinski & Mahadeva 1991 -- (Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1056 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:798 [ref. 25089], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus prolatinaris Munroe, Nizinski & Mahadeva 1991. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pterospilotus, Symphurus Ginsburg [I.] 1951:194, Pl. 2 (fig. E) [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 36 (pt. 3); ref. 12891] Isla de Flores, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): USNM 87770. •Valid as Symphurus pterospilotus Ginsburg 1951 -- (de Lema & de Oliveira 1977:5 [ref. 7244], Scott & Scott 1988:561 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:224 [ref. 14674], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565] with author as Guinsburg). •Synonym of Symphurus diomedeanus (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (Munroe 1998:91 [ref. 23285], Munroe 2003:1944 [ref. 27118]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus diomedeanus (Goode & Bean 1885). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Cynoglossus Shen [S.-C.] 1969:21, Figs. 9-12 [Report of the Institute of Fishery Biology of Ministry of Economic Affairs and National Taiwan Unversity, Taipei v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 7845] Tolo Harbor, Hong Kong. Syntypes: (7). •Synonym of Cynoglossus itinus (Snyder 1909) -- (Menon 1977:48 [ref. 7071], Li & Wang 1995:378 [ref. 16193] as puncticeps). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus itinus (Snyder 1909). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

puncticeps, Plagusia Richardson [J.] 1846:280 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] China, South China Sea. No types known. Original genus is spelled Plagiusa. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 29c [ref. 11606]). •Mention -- (Dor 1984:273 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Plagusia puncticeps Richardson 1846 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356] as Plagusia). •Valid as Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846) -- (Menon 1977:75 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1986:432 [ref. 6212], Lu & Wu in Kuang et al. 1986:336 [ref. 26639], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1043 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:169 [ref. 23448], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Li & Wang 1995:351 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:364 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:601 [ref. 27969], Rainboth 1996:224 [ref. 22772] as punticeps, Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:233 [ref. 23922], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:188 [ref. 25703], Munroe 2001:3900 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:11 [ref. 27710], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:47 [ref. 27712] as punticeps, Hoese & Bray 2006:1856 [ref. 29000], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1058 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:229 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:223 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:191 [ref. 33932], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:97 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:330 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:404 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Arabian seacoast, Pakistan and India east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to South China Sea, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

purpureomaculatus, Cynoglossus Regan [C. T.] 1905:26 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 85) (art. 2); ref. 3624] Inland Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.6.247. •Synonym of Cynoglossus abbreviatus (Gray 1834) -- (Menon 1977:94 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:211 [ref. 21500]). •Valid as Cynoglossus purpureomaculatus Regan 1905 -- (Li & Wang 1995:375 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:465 [ref. 26385], Kottelat 2001:64 [ref. 25482], Wang et al. 2001:323 [ref. 26566], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus purpureomaculatus Regan 1905. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam and China north to southern Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pusilla, Aphoristia Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:590 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 543); ref. 1842] Off eastern U.S.A., 40°01'00"N, 69°56'00"W, Fish Hawk station 941, depth 79 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 28778. Paralectotypes: USNM 28730 (1), 325958 [ex USNM 28778] (1). Lectotype selected by Munroe 1998:60 [ref. 23285]. •Valid as Symphurus pusillus (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:298 [ref. 23100], Munroe 1998:58 [ref. 23285], Moore et al. 2003:233 [ref. 27076], Munroe 2003:1955 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:884 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus pusillus (Goode & Bean 1885). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

quadrilineata, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1851:412 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; western Sumatra; Muntok, Bangka, Indonesia. Syntypes: (18) RMNH 6789 (some of 9). See Kottelat 2013:763 [ref. 32887] for remarks under bilineatus Bloch 1756. •Synonym of Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Menon 1977:36 [ref. 7071], Dor 1984:272 [ref. 29757], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:223 [ref. 21500], Randall 1995:363 [ref. 22896], Munroe 2001:3897 [ref. 26314]). •Valid as Cynoglossus quadrilineatus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Psomadakis et al. 2015:328 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:404 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus quadrilineatus (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quinquelineatus, Cynoglossus Day [F.] 1877:432, Pl. 98 (fig. 1) [The fishes of India Part 3; ref. 4886] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1265. Type catalog: Talwar & Chakrapany 1970:123 [ref. 35966], Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Menon 1977:37 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:223 [ref. 21500], Randall 1995:363 [ref. 22896]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède 1802). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

regani, Symphurus Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1929:210, Fig. 56 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 5; ref. 16063] 7°36'S, 117°30.8'E, station 314, depth 694 meters. Lectotype: ZMA 100246. Paralectotypes: ZMA 100247-50 (1, 1, 1, 1), plus 1 missing -- possibly BMNH 1930.9.2.140. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:109 [ref. 19236]. Replacement name for Aphoristia elongata Weber 1913, preoccupied by Aphoristia ornata elongata Günther 1862. Lectotype selected by Chabanaud 1955:44 [ref. 22240]. •Valid as Symphurus regani Weber & de Beaufort 1929 -- (Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683], Lee et al. 2009:346 [ref. 30207]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus regani Weber & de Beaufort 1929. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Pacific off Indonesia and the Philippines. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] 1990:488, Fig. 4b [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 47 (no. 2); ref. 19191] St. James Bay, St. Helena, central Atlantic, depth 5-10 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1984.7.16.246. Paratypes: ZMUC P86220 (1), P86222-23 (1, 1). Non-type listed: MMF 22999 (1). •Valid as Symphurus reticulatus Munroe 1990 -- (Munroe et al. 2000:499 [ref. 24450], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3046 [ref. 34618], Brown et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus reticulatus Munroe 1990. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena Island endemic. Habitat: marine.

rhomaleus, Areliscus Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1906:526, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1493); ref. 2531] Port Arthur, Manchuria, China. Holotype: USNM 55635. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9883 (5), USNM 56395 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:142 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus gracilis Günther 1873 -- (Li & Wang 1995:369 [ref. 16193]). •Synonym of Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther 1873 -- (Menon 1977:92 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:209 [ref. 21500], Kim & Choi 1994:807 [ref. 22283], Kim 1997:590 [ref. 24032], Youn 2002:689 [ref. 26218] dated 1905). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther 1873. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rhytisma, Symphurus Böhlke [J. E.] 1961:3, Fig. 2 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 344; ref. 7785] West of Wood Cay, off Grand Bahama Island, Little Bahama Bank, Bahamas, about 26°44'15"N, 79°02'37"W, depth about 50 feet. Holotype (unique): ANSP 93812. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:67 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Symphurus rhytisma Böhlke 1961 -- (de Lema & de Oliveira 1977:5 [ref. 7244], Munroe 1998:34 [ref. 23285], Munroe 2003:1956 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27621]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus rhytisma Böhlke 1961. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

robinsoni, Plagusia Regan [C. T.] 1919:203, Fig. 6 [Annals of the Durban Museum v. 2 (pt 4) (art. 18); ref. 15230] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1919.4.1.34. •Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) -- (Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Heemstra 1986:867 [ref. 5660], Kottelat 2013:468 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

robustus, Cynoglossus Günther [A.] 1873:243 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 12 (no. 69) (art. 31); ref. 2004] Shanghai, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.7.30.61. •Valid as Cynoglossus robustus Günther 1873 -- (Menon 1977:64 [ref. 7071], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:356 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:215 [ref. 21500], Kim & Choi 1994:806 [ref. 22283], Li & Wang 1995:336 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:461 [ref. 26385], Uyeda & Sasaki 2000:405 [ref. 25120], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1389 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:45 [ref. 25799], Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1389 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:441, 689 [ref. 26218], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:114 [ref. 32413], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus robustus Günther 1873. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Pacific off China and Japan. Habitat: marine.

roulei, Cynoglossus Wu [H.-W.] 1932:153 [Contribution à l'étude morphologique, biologique et systématique des poissons hétérosomes (Pisces Heterosomata) de la Chine; ref. 16406] Kwang-Tung, China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Non-types: BMNH 1860.7.28.48 (1), 1924.12.15.64 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:349 [ref. 25922] as not type at MNHN. •Synonym of Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther 1873 -- (Menon 1977:92 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:209 [ref. 21500], Desoutter et al. 2001:349 [ref. 25922]). •Valid as Cynoglossus roulei Wu 1932 -- (Li & Wang 1995:366 [ref. 16193], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus roulei Wu 1932. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: China, Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sayademalhensis, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1955:369 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 27 (no. 5); ref. 12185] Saya de Malha Bank. Holotype: BMNH 1908.3.25.158. Paratypes: BMNH 1908.3.23.157 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:352 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Symphurus sayademalhensis Chabanaud 1955 -- (Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003:815 [ref. 27261], Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683], Lee et al. 2009:347 [ref. 30207]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus sayademalhensis Chabanaud 1955. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

schneideri, Arelia Kaup [J. J.] 1858:107 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2579] Lectotype: ZMB 2431. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:329 [ref. 25922] but with wrong types; this is a replacement name and takes the types of Pleuronectes arel (probably proposed to replace Strickland tautonymy). Unneeded new name for Pleuronectes arel Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

schultzi, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1955:31 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 45 (no. 1); ref. 12266] Indo-Australian Archipelago, between 20°37'N, 115°43'E and 5°24'S, 122°18'15"E, Albatross station 5508, depth 270 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 138044. Paratypes: USNM 138025 (1), 138033 (1), 138046 (1), 138057 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:352 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Symphurus schultzi Chabanaud 1955 -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Munroe 2006:233 [ref. 28683], Munroe et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31567]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus schultzi Chabanaud 1955. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

sealarki, Cynoglossus Regan [C. T.] 1908:235, Pl. 26 (fig. 1) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Saya de Malha Bank, western Indian Ocean, depth over 123 fathoms. Lectotype: BMNH 1908.3.23.153. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1908.3.23.154-156 (3). Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:56 [ref. 7071]. •Valid as Cynoglossus sealarki Regan 1908 -- (Menon 1977:56 [ref. 7071], Dor 1984:273 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Yokogawa et al. 2008:121 [ref. 29585], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160], Munroe 2017:20, 30 [ref. 35375], Ali et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus sealarki Regan 1908. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank endemic. Habitat: marine.

sechurae, Symphurus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:475, Fig. 89 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Near Sechura, Sechura Bay, Peru, 5°34'S, 80°52'W. Holotype: USNM 128170. Paratypes: Gov't of Peru [ex USNM 128171] (1), USNM 128171 (now 2). Non-types: Non-Peruvian specimens not definitely referred. •Valid as Symphurus sechurae Hildebrand 1946 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:216 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Symphurus melanurus Clark 1936 -- (Munroe 1990:230 [ref. 19192]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus melanurus Clark 1936. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

semifasciatus, Cynoglossus Day [F.] 1877:436, Pl. 97 (fig. 5) [The fishes of India Part 3; ref. 4886] Seas at Madras, India. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: BMNH 1975.9.30.25 (1, dry), ZSI 2692 (1, figured specimen, caudal fin slightly damaged). Type catalog: Talwar & Chakrapany 1970:123 [ref. 35966], Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. Menon 1977:70 wrongly gives the holotype of semifasciatus as 1490 in error for brevirostris. •Valid as Cynoglossus semifasciatus Day 1877 -- (Menon 1977:70 [ref. 7071], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Seshappa 1999:133 [ref. 24252], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:48 [ref. 27712]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus semifasciatus Day 1877. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

semilaevis, Cynoglossus Günther [A.] 1873:379 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 18198] Chefoo, Shantung Province, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.9.23.16. •Valid as Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther 1873 -- (Menon 1977:92 [ref. 7071], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:356 [ref. 6441], Kim & Choi 1994:807 [ref. 22283], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:209 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:364 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:462 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:496 [ref. 24032], Nakabo 2000:1390 [ref. 25182], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Wang et al. 2001:320 [ref. 26566], Kim & Park 2002:415 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:1390 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:441, 689 [ref. 26218], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther 1873. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: China, Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

senegalensis, Arelia Kaup [J. J.] 1858:108 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2579] West Africa. Syntypes: MNHN B-2671 (1), 1999-0049 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:329 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Cynoglossus senegalensis (Kaup 1858) -- (Menon 1977:31 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1986:432 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1052 [ref. 18967], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:866 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Afonso et al. 1999:80 [ref. 25466], Desoutter et al. 2001:329 [ref. 25922], Vreven & Teugels 2007:585 [ref. 30091], Wirtz et al. 2007:41 [ref. 30263], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3039 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160], Skelton 2019:228 [ref. 36564]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus senegalensis (Kaup 1858). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola. Habitat: brackish, marine.

septemstriata, Aphoristia Alcock [A. W.] 1891:125 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 8 (no. 43/44); ref. 87] Andaman Sea, 11°31'40"N, 92°46'06"E, Investigator station 115, depth 188-220 fathoms. Syntypes: (2) ZSI F13109 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:45 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1892: Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [ref. 20531]. •Valid as Symphurus septemstriatus (Alcock 1891) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Lee et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30387], Lee et al. 2013:381 [ref. 32506] with question). Current status: Valid as Symphurus septemstriatus (Alcock 1891). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

seychellensis, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1955:368 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 27 (no. 5); ref. 12185] Off northern Peru, about 4°47'S [not Seychelles]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1936.10.6.11 [not 1935.10.6.11]. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:352 [ref. 25922]. Type locality in error (see Munroe 1990:229 [ref. 19192]). •Synonym of Symphurus melanurus Clark 1936 -- (Munroe 1990:229 [ref. 19192], Desoutter et al. 2001:352 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus melanurus Clark 1936. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sibogae, Cynoglossus Weber [M.] 1913:442, Fig. 83 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Molo Strait, Siboga station 51, depth 69-91 meters. Lectotype: ZMA 100177. Paralectotypes: ZMA 100176 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:108 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:44 [ref. 7071]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus kopsii (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:42 [ref. 7071]). •Valid as Cynoglossus sibogae Weber 1913 -- (Li & Wang 1995:347 [ref. 16193], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:602 [ref. 27969], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Wang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34517]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus sibogae Weber 1913. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

simulator, Cynoglossus senegalensis morpha Chabanaud [P.] 1949:205 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 21 (no. 2); ref. 12942] Market in Dakar, Senegal, western Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1949-0022. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:331 [ref. 25922]. Described as a "morpha nova" but in the sense of a subspecies; regarded as available. •Synonym of Cynoglossus senegalensis (Kaup 1858) -- (Menon 1977:31 [ref. 7071], Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1052 [ref. 18967], Desoutter et al. 2001:331 [ref. 25922], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus senegalensis (Kaup 1858). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sindensis, Cynoglossus Day [F.] 1877:434, Pl. 90 (fig. 6) [The fishes of India Part 3; ref. 4886] Sind, Pakistan and seas of India. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: MNW 43817 (1), ZSI F2715 (lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Menon 1977:37 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:223 [ref. 21500]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède 1802). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sinerama, Paraplagusia Chapleau [F.] & Renaud [C. B.] 1993:799, Figs. 1A, 2A [Copeia 1993 (no. 3); ref. 21017] Mouth of Buffalo Creek, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, 12°20'S, 130°55'E, depth 0-1 meters. Holotype: AMS I.24689-011. Paratypes: AMS I.24689-019 (2), I.21943-019 (3); CSIRO C 3588 (1), C 3376 (1), C 3294 (1); NMC 71-0103A (3), 77-0023A (1), 77-0025A (1); NTM S.0046 (1), S.10031-111 (3), S.10173-004, S.10521-001 (4, 1 c&s), S.0049 (1), S.0052 (1); WAM P.29719-004 (2). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Paraplagusia sinerama Chapleau & Renaud 1993 -- (Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1857 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:230 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Paraplagusia sinerama Chapleau & Renaud 1993. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

sinicus, Cynoglossus Wu [H.-W.] 1932:146 [Contribution à l'étude morphologique, biologique et systématique des poissons hétérosomes (Pisces Heterosomata) de la Chine; ref. 16406] Wen-chou, Chekiang, China. Syntypes: (3). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:349 [ref. 25922] with no types at MNHN. •Synonym of Cynoglossus borneensis (Bleeker 1856) -- (Menon 1977:34 [ref. 7071], Desoutter et al. 2001:349 [ref. 25922]). •Valid as Cynoglossus sinicus Wu 1932 -- (Feng in Pan et al. 1991:532 [ref. 23876], Li & Wang 1995:353 [ref. 16193]). •Synonym of Cynoglossis trulla (Canton 1849) -- (Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus trulla (Cantor 1849). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: China (if valid). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

sinusarabici, Dollfusichthys Chabanaud [P.] 1931:304 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 56; ref. 785] Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: (24) BMNH 1938.10.7.1 (1); FMNH 33731 (1); MNHN 1967-0601 (3), 1967-0602 (5), 1967-0603 (2), 1966-0747 (1) (not this species [ref. 35160]); NRM 10406 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:32 [ref. 12367], Desoutter et al. 2001:332-333 [ref. 25922]. Original as sinus-arabici, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:56 [ref. 7071], but that is invalid since the specimen selected was not a syntype (see Desoutter et al. 2001:332 [ref. 25992]). •Valid as Cynoglossus sinusarabici (Chabanaud 1931) -- (Torchio 1973:635 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1326 [ref. 13677], Menon 1977:55 [ref. 7071], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Desoutter et al. 2001:332 [ref. 25922], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:155 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29533], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:433 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:176 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus sinusarabici (Chabanaud 1931). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

solum, Cynoglossus (Arelia) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:95 [10] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 2; ref. 18663] Me Kong River, Cochinchine [? southern Vietnam]. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-9516. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-0399 (5), 0000-9640 (5). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:332 [ref. 25922]. On p. 10 of separate. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1984:818 [ref. 11440]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus microlepis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:97 [ref. 7071], Kottelat 1984:818 [ref. 11440], Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Desoutter et al. 2001:332 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus microlepis (Bleeker 1851). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: freshwater.

stigmosus, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] 1998:45, Fig. 22 [Fishery Bulletin v. 96 (no. 1); ref. 23285] Off Yucatan Peninsula, Caribbean Sea, 21°04'N, 86°19'W, depth 352 meters. Holotype: USNM 326635. Paratypes: MCZ 39205 (2); UMML 35290-91 (1, 1); USNM 326636 (1), 328062 (1). •Valid as Symphurus stigmosus Munroe 1998 -- (Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Munroe 2003:1957 [ref. 27118], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2003:966 [ref. 28221], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:885 [ref. 28815], Munroe et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31567], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus stigmosus Munroe 1998. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

strictus, Symphurus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:691, Fig. 272 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off southern coast of Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3920, depth 265-280 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51624. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8614 (2), USNM 51673 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:143 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Symphurus strictus Gilbert 1905 -- (Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:408 [ref. 8256], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:356 [ref. 6441], Heemstra 1986:868 [ref. 5660], Quéro & Maugé 1989:393 [ref. 19513], Li & Wang 1995:382 [ref. 16193], Adam et al. 1998:16 [ref. 23610], Munroe & Amaoka 1998:385 [ref. 23626], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1392 [ref. 25182], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Shinohara et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1392 [ref. 26193], Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003:815 [ref. 27261], Mundy 2005:522 [ref. 28379], Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683], Lee et al. 2009:346 [ref. 30207], Lee et al. 2013:395 [ref. 32506], Fricke et al. 2018:374 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus strictus Gilbert 1905. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Madagascar; southern Japan; Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

sumatrana, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1854:529 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5965] Benculen, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6787 (poor condition). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.6.3.9 (1). •Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1977:68 [ref. 7071], Munroe 2001:3898 [ref. 26314] as sumatranus dated 1851, Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sumptuosus, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1948:509 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 20 (no. 6); ref. 13001] São Francisco, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1923.7.30.345. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:352 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Symphurus diomedeanus (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (Munroe 1998:91 [ref. 23285], Desoutter et al. 2001:352 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Symphurus diomedeanus (Goode & Bean 1885). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Habitat: marine.

suyeni, Cynoglossus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:347, Fig. 101 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] China Sea, vicinity of southern Luzon Island, Philippines, 13°29'40"N, 121°00'45"E, Albatross station D.5291, depth 173 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93086. •Valid as Cynoglossus suyeni Fowler 1934 -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1856 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:14 [ref. 31461], Larson et al. 2013:229 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35160], Fricke 2019:39 [ref. 36893]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus suyeni Fowler 1934. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tenuis, Areliscus Oshima [M.] 1927:201 [Japanese Journal of Zoology v. 1 (no. 5) (art. 14); ref. 3315] Tainan fish market, southwestern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus joyneri Günther 1878 -- (Menon 1977:47 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:221 [ref. 21500], Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus joyneri Günther 1878. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

tessellata, Plagusia Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:240 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Rio de Janeiro Bay [= Guanabara Bay], Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:350 [ref. 25922] as no types at MNHN. Based on Russell no. 73. •Valid as Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Munroe 1991:269 [ref. 15142], Cervigón 1996:41 [ref. 24489], Munroe 1998:141 [ref. 23285], Desoutter et al. 2001:350 [ref. 25922], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1958 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192] as tesselatus, Smith et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27621], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thermophilus, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] & Hashimoto [J.] 2008:45, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 1839; ref. 29763] Kaikata Seamount, 26°42.30'N, 141°04.70"E, depth 440 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 70849. Paratypes: NMNZ P.38300 (1); NSMT-P 70850 (2), 70851 (1); USNM 383311 (1), 383312 (2). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Symphurus thermophilus Munroe & Hashimoto 2008 -- (Lee et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30387], Munroe et al. 2011:61 [ref. 31567], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus thermophilus Munroe & Hashimoto 2008. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: active hydrothermal vents, Japan and Ogasawara Islands to Kermadec Ridge. Habitat: marine.

trewavasae, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1948:508 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 20 (no. 6); ref. 13001] Cape Frio, Brazil, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1913.12.4.264-273 (1 of 15). Paratypes: BMNH 1913.12.4.264-273 (? now 13), MNHN [ex BMNH] 1989-1208 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:334 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Symphurus trewavasae Chabanaud 1948 -- (Kurtz & Matsuura 1994:141 [ref. 22162], Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204], Munroe 1998:71 [ref. 23285], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus trewavasae Chabanaud 1948. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

trifasciata, Aphoristia Alcock [A. W.] 1894:132 [18], Pl. 7 (fig. 4) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 63 (pt 2); ref. 90] Bay of Bengal, Investigator station 162, depth 145-250 fathoms, and Investigator station 164, depth 195-210 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 46758. Paralectotypes: (10) USNM [ex ZSI 13607] (1); ZSI F13611-12 (2), F13598-13602 (5), F13604-05 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:45-46 [ref. 22148]. On p. 18 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1895: Pl. 15 (fig. 5) [ref. 20532]. Lectotype selected by Munroe & Marsh 1997:199 [ref. 22936], locality needs confirmation. •Valid as Symphurus trifasciatus (Alcock 1894) -- (Munroe & Marsh 1997:197 [ref. 22936], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Munroe 2006:233 [ref. 28683], Lee et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30387], Lee et al. 2016:[12] [ref. 34740]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus trifasciatus (Alcock 1894). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

trigrammus, Cynoglossus Günther [A.] 1862:494 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] China. Lectotype: BMNH 1856.9.19.1215. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1851.12.27.169 (1). Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:95 [ref. 7071]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus abbreviatus (Gray 1834) -- (Menon 1977:93 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:211 [ref. 21500]). •Valid as Cynoglossus trigrammus Günther 1862 -- (Lu & Wu in Kuang et al. 1986:338 [ref. 26639], Zheng 1989:376 [ref. 21202], Feng in Pan et al. 1991:535 [ref. 23876], Li & Wang 1995:371 [ref. 16193], Zhu 1995:190 [ref. 25213], Chen et al. 1997:178 [ref. 26476], Kottelat 2001:64 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989], Wang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34517], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus trigrammus Günther 1862. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

trulla, Plagusia Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1213 [231] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Presumed syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.431 (2, stuffed). On p. 231 of separate. •Wrongly as a synonym of the younger Cynoglossus borneensis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Menon 1977:34 [ref. 7071]). •Valid as Cynoglossus trulla (Cantor 1849) -- (Rainboth 1996:224 [ref. 22772], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus trulla (Cantor 1849). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tshusanensis, Cynoglossus Chabanaud [P.] 1951:270 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 4 (no. 39) (art. 26); ref. 21930] Tshusan Archipelago, about 30°N, 122°E, China. Holotype: BMNH 1892.12.12.32. Paratypes: BMNH 1892.12.12.33 (1), 1892.12.12.34 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:349 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus joyneri Günther 1878 -- (Menon 1977:47 [ref. 7071], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:221 [ref. 21500], Desoutter et al. 2001:349 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoglossus joyneri Günther 1878. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

undatus, Symphurus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:690, Pl. 98 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off northwestern coast of Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4114, depth 154-195 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51619. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8630 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:143 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Symphurus undatus Gilbert 1905 -- (Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Mundy 2005:522 [ref. 28379], Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683], Lee et al. 2009:346 [ref. 30207]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus undatus Gilbert 1905. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Philippines, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

undecimplerus, Symphurus Munroe [T. A.] & Nizinski [M. S.] 1990:991, Figs. 2, 4 [Copeia 1990 (no. 4); ref. 19193] Ecuador, 3°01'N, 77°50'W, depth 37 meters. Holotype: CAS 67235. Paratypes: CAS 24943 (6), 24950 (2), 24952 (7); LACM 44299-1 (1); USNM 304450 (1). •Valid as Symphurus undecimplerus Munroe & Nizinski 1990 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:148 [ref. 23101], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1057 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus undecimplerus Munroe & Nizinski 1990. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Plagusia Macleay [W.] 1881:138 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 1); ref. 4931] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16284.001 [ex MAMU 1162] (orig 2, now 1). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Paraplagusia unicolor (Macleay 1881) -- (Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479]). •Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) -- (Desoutter 1986:433 [ref. 6212], Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Hoese & Bray 2006:1856 [ref. 29000], Kottelat 2013:468 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

urospilus, Symphurus Ginsburg [I.] 1951:193, Pl. 2 (fig. D) [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 36 (pt. 3); ref. 12891] Off Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 32°01'00"N, 80°11'30"W, depth 12 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 155225. Paratypes: USNM 73262 (1). •Valid as Symphurus urospilus Ginsburg 1951 -- (de Lema & de Oliveira 1977:5 [ref. 7244], Robins & Ray 1986:298 [ref. 23100], Munroe & Nizinski 1990:994 [ref. 19193], Boschung 1992:178 [ref. 23239], Munroe 1998:116 [ref. 23285], Munroe 2003:1959 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], Munroe & Robertson 2005:581 [ref. 28389], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:886 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus urospilus Ginsburg 1951. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Western central Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

vanmelleae, Symphurus Chabanaud [P.] 1952:3 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 28 (no. 69); ref. 12687] Northwest of Egito, 11°53'S, 13°20'E, South Atlantic, depth 500 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 439. Paratypes: (4) IRSNB 440 (1), MRAC 140383-84 (1, 1). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:48 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:352-353 [ref. 25922]. Misspelled vanmellae in literature. •Synonym of Symphurus ligulatus (Cocco 1844) -- (Torchio 1973:636 [ref. 6892] with question, Desoutter 1990:1053 [ref. 18967]). •Valid as Symphurus vanmelleae Chabanaud 1952 -- (Munroe 1990:467 [ref. 19191], Munroe 1996:47 [ref. 22303], Munroe et al. 2000:499 [ref. 24450], Munroe et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31567], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3047 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus vanmelleae Chabanaud 1952. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Aphoristia Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1903:211, Pl. 18 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 2; ref. 1645] Off coast of East London, Buffalo River, bearing north, 15 miles, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 310 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1904.11.4.2 or SAM 15399. •Valid as Symphurus variegatus (Gilchrist 1903) -- (Heemstra 1986:868 [ref. 5660], Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003:815 [ref. 27261], Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683], Lee et al. 2009:347 [ref. 30207]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus variegatus (Gilchrist 1903). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: off southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

varius, Symphurus Garman [S.] 1899:228 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Cocos Island and off Malpelo Island, 3°59'40"-5°31'30"N, 81°35'- 86°52'30"W, Albatross station 3367, 3378, 3379, depth 52-112 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28536 (1), 70979 (4); USNM 153592 [ex MCZ 28536] (1). •Valid as Symphurus varius Garman 1899 -- (Munroe & Nizinski 1990:994 [ref. 19193], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1058 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:619 [ref. 24023], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Munroe & McCosker 2001:194 [ref. 25948], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus varius Garman 1899. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

versicolor, Cynoglossus Alcock [A. W.] 1890:442 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 36) (art. 52); ref. 86] Ganjam coast off Chilka Lake, Orissa, India, Investigator station 70, depth 11 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F12895. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:160-161 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:46 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 23 (fig. 5) [ref. 20534]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus kopsii (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:42 [ref. 7071]). •Valid as Cynoglossus versicolor Alcock 1890 -- (Wang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34517]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus versicolor Alcock 1890. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: India. Habitat: marine.

vittatus, Symphurus Weber [M.] 1907:250, Pl. 13 (fig. 6) [Süsswasserfische von Neu-Guinea v. 5 (Zool.) pt 2; ref. 4599] Mouth of Merauke River, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMA 100172. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:109 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Paraplagusia guttata (Macleay 1878) -- (Li & Wang 1995:332 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Paraplagusia guttata (Macleay 1878). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

waandersii, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1854:98 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 16939] Confluence of Lamatang and Enim rivers, Palembang Province, eastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Cynoglossus waandersii (Bleeker 1854) -- (Roberts 1989:185 [ref. 6439] as waandersi, Kottelat et al. 1993:169 [ref. 23448], Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314] as waandersi, Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:169 [ref. 28284] as waandersi, Kottelat 2013:468 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus waandersii (Bleeker 1854). Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

westraliensis, Cynoglossus Fricke [R.] 2019:35, Fig. 1-2 [FishTaxa v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 36893] Off North West Cape, Western Australia, 21°28'01"S, 114°06'04"E, depth 250 meters. Holotype: WAM P.31802-008. Paratype: WAM P.31801-002 (1). •Valid as Cynoglossus westraliensis Fricke 2019. Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus westraliensis Fricke 2019. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: North West Cape, Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

williamsi, Symphurus Jordan [D. S.] & Culver [G. B.] in Jordan 1895:506, Pl. 55 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Near the estuary at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 2943. Paratypes: ?BMNH 1895.5.27.224 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:143 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Symphurus williamsi Jordan & Culver 1895 -- (Munroe & Nizinski 1990:994 [ref. 19193], Munroe et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:1059 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:116 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:217 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:501 [ref. 24550], Evseenko & Shtaut 2000:801 [ref. 25089], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:392 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus williamsi Jordan & Culver 1895. Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

woodmasoni, Aphoristia Alcock [A. W.] 1889:294, Pl. 17 (fig. 1) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 85] 7.5 miles east of North Cinque Island, Andaman Islands, Investigator station 10, depth 490 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11765. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:160 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:46 [ref. 22148]. Originally wood-masoni. Figured in Alcock 1895: Pl. 16 (fig. 4) [ref. 20532]. •Valid as Symphurus woodmasoni (Alcock 1889) -- (Munroe 2001:3895 [ref. 26314], Krabbenhoft & Munroe 2003:816 [ref. 27261], Munroe 2006:230 [ref. 28683], Lee et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30387]). Current status: Valid as Symphurus woodmasoni (Alcock 1889). Cynoglossidae: Symphurinae. Distribution: Bay of Bengal and Andaman sea, Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

xiphoideus, Cynoglossus Günther [A.] 1862:495 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Thailand. Lectotype: BMNH 1859.7.1.52. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1859.7.1.53 (1). Non-types: BMNH 1898.4.2.130-134 (5). Lectotype selected by Menon 1977:98 [ref. 7071]. •Synonym of Cynoglossus microlepis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Menon 1977:97 [ref. 7071], Li & Wang 1995:368 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2001:64 [ref. 25482] with question, Kottelat 2013:467 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Cynoglossus xiphoideus Günther 1862 -- (Wang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34517], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus xiphoideus Günther 1862. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

yokomaru, Cynoglossus Naito [T.] & Endo [H.] 2019:403, Figs. 2-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 3); ref. 36572] East China Sea, 27°30.30'N, 125°15.00'E - 27°31.00'N, 125°14.90'E, depth 107 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 130051 [ex SNFR 11279]. Paratypes: BSKU, FAKU, KAUM-I, NSMT. •Valid as Cynoglossus yokomaru Naito & Endo 2019. Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus yokomaru Naito & Endo 2019. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: East China Sea and Yellow Sea, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

zanzibarensis, Cynoglossus (Trulla) Norman [J. R.] 1939:105, Fig. 36 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Near Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean, station 106, depth 183-194 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1939.5.24.1813 [the largest, now 146.7 mm SL]. Paratypes: (3 + 2) BMNH 1939.5.24.1810-11 (2), 1939.5.24.1812 and 1814 (2). A lectotype was designated by Menon 1977:59 [ref. 7071], but a holotype was established in the original description. •Valid as Cynoglossus zanzibarensis Norman 1939 -- (Menon 1977:58 [ref. 7071], Heemstra 1986:867 [ref. 5660], Quéro & Maugé 1989:392 [ref. 19513], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:180 [ref. 25472] as zanzibariensis, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:435 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35160], Munroe 2017:31 [ref. 35375], Fricke et al. 2018:374 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Cynoglossus zanzibarensis Norman 1939. Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.