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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Dasyatidae: [ 197 ] records


acanthobothrium, Urogymnus Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Kyne [P. M.] 2016:163, Figs. 1-7 [Zootaxa 4147 (no. 2); ref. 34634] West Arm of Cambridge Gulf, Western Australia, Australia, 15°33′S, 127°59′E, depth 2.2 m. Holotype: WAM P. 34488-001. •Valid as Urogymnus acanthobothrium Last, White & Kyne 2016 -- (Last et al. 2016:613 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:264 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:63 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Urogymnus acanthobothrium Last, White & Kyne 2016. Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Papua New Guinea and northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acanthura, Pastinaca Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:12 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea and American seas. No types known. •Synonym of Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill 1815) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:71 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:59 [ref. 19317]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acuta, Trygon Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1852:72 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Not available, name mentioned in the synonymy of Trygon uarnacoides Bleeker 1852. Dasyatidae.

acutirostra, Dasyatis Nishida [K.] & Nakaya [K.] 1988:115, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 35 (no. 2); ref. 12618] East China Sea, 30°09'-31°30'N, 124°13'-127°53'E, depth 53-142 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 97435. Paratypes: FAKU 101210 (1), HUMZ 107583-99 (17), MTUF-P 25267 (1), USNM 51358 (1). •Valid as Dasyatis acutirostra Nishida & Nakaya 1988 -- (Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:338 [ref. 20166], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:179 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:179 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:70, 484 [ref. 26218], Santos et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27848], Weigmann 2016:128 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Telatrygon acutirostra (Nishida & Nakaya 1988) -- (Last et al. 2016:357 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:401 [ref. 34638], Last et al. 2016:609 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Telatrygon acutirostra (Nishida & Nakaya 1988). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: China and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

africana, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:367 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Guinea, West Africa (?). Holotype (unique): ZMB 7837 (dry skin, partial specimen). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:177 [ref. 21041], Paepke 1999:75 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Urogymnus africanus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Compagno & Roberts 1984:285 [ref. 8237], Dor 1984:19 [ref. 29757], Paxton et al. 1989:43 [ref. 12442], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:74 [ref. 21589], Randall et al. 1990:30 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:6 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:47 [ref. 22896] with asperrimus a synonym, Randall et al. 1997:30 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:39 [ref. 23965], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495]). •Possible synonym of Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Compagno 1986:141 [ref. 5648]). •Synonym of Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1990:63 [ref. 19317], Last & Stevens 1994:415 [ref. 23873], Last & Compagno 1999:1497 [ref. 24639], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:52 [ref. 27735], Randall 2005:20 [ref. 28239], Compagno et al. 2005:76 [ref. 29145], Paxton et al. 2006:196 [ref. 28995], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264] as africanus with author as Fowler 1956, Weigmann 2016:141 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1418 [ref. 34545]). Current status: Synonym of Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

agulhensis, Dasybatis Barnard [K. H.] 1925:78 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 21 (pt 1); ref. 192] Agulhas Bank, South Africa, southeastern Atlantic. Holotype: SAM (apparently lost). •Synonym of Dasyatis thetidis Ogilby 1899 -- (Compagno 1986:137 [ref. 5648], Gomon et al. 1994:184 [ref. 22532]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880) -- (Last et al. 2016:354 [ref. 34581]). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

akajei, Trygon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] (ex Bürger) 1841:165, [Pl. 54 (left)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Southwestern coast of Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 4255a. Paralectotypes: (5) RMNH D2449-2452 (4, stuffed), D2456 (1, stuffed), 4255b (1). Based on Pastinaca akajei in manuscript by Heinrich Bürger, and 6 specimens. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:227 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Dasyatis akajei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:16 [ref. 6441], Zheng et al. 1989:16 [ref. 21202], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:333 [ref. 20166], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:23 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:4 [ref. 25213], Senou & Masuda 1998:7 [ref. 24388], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Last & Compagno 1999:1498 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:182 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shimizu 2001:19 [ref. 25799], Wang et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:182 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:70, 485 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:398 [ref. 28370], Compagno et al. 2005:70 [ref. 29145] as cf. akajei, Last & White 2008:281 [ref. 29693], Motomura et al. 2010:69 [ref. 31256], Weigmann 2011:254 [ref. 32424], Jamashita et al. 2012:133 [ref. 32408], Last & White 2013:10 [ref. 32949], Ebert et al. 2013:360 [ref. 33045] as cf akajei, Shinohara et al. 2014:235 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:38 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:73 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:128 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hemitrygon akajei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:551 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Hemitrygon akajei (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China and Japan to Malasia. Habitat: marine.

alcockii, Trygon Annandale [N.] 1909:27, Fig. 3 [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 126] Puri, Orissa coast, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F2474/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:97 [ref. 20743]. •Valid as Himantura alcockii (Annandale 1909) -- (Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589]). •Synonym of Himantura gerrardi (Gray 1851) -- (Weigmann 2016:135 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Maculabatis gerrardi (Gray 1851). Current status: Synonym of Maculabatis gerrardi (Gray 1851). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: marine.

aldrovandi, Trygon Risso [A.] 1827:160 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:32 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ambigua, Maculabatis Last [P. R.], Bogorodsky [S. V.] & Alpermann [T. J.] 2016:67, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa 4154 (no. 1); ref. 34669] Red Sea off Jizan, Saudi Arabia, 16°51'N, 42°25'E, depth 20-22 meters. Holotype: SMF 35803. Paratypes: CSIRO, KAUMM, SMF. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Maculabatis ambigua Last, Bogorodsky & Alpermann 2016 -- (Last et al. 2016:573 [ref. 35010], Golani & Fricke 2018:15 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Maculabatis ambigua Last, Bogorodsky & Alpermann 2016. Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: Zanzibar. Habitat: marine.

americana, Dasyatis Hildebrand [S. F.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1928:64, Fig. 35 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 43 (1927, pt 1); ref. 2163] Crisfield, Maryland, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 88378. Paratypes: Chesapeake Bay coll. (1). Additional material: 3 newly born specimens. •Questionably a synonym of Dasyatis hastata (DeKay 1842) -- (Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:69 [ref. 21589]). •Valid as Dasyatis americana Hildebrand & Schroeder 1928 -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:82 [ref. 14275], Compagno & Roberts 1984:285 [ref. 8237], Robins & Ray 1986:41 [ref. 23100], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Boschung 1992:26 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:198 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:44 [ref. 22793], Murdy et al. 1997:45 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:174 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:178 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:74 [ref. 24550], Gomes et al. 2000:514 [ref. 24451], Menni & Stehmann 2000:89 [ref. 24909], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:147 [ref. 27754], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Collette et al. 2003:98 [ref. 26784], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:566 [ref. 26985], Smith et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Santos et al. 2004:1 [ref. 27848], Santos & Carvalho 2004:14 [ref. 28040], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:21 [ref. 33341], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:127 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:128 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hypanus americanus (Hildebrand & Schroeder 1928) -- (Last et al. 2016:356 [ref. 34581], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961] as americana, Last et al. 2016:565 [ref. 35010], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Hypanus americanus (Hildebrand & Schroeder 1928). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

annotatus, Dasyatis Last [P. R.] 1987:57, Fig. 1 [Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 17690] Northwest Shelf, Western Australia. Holotype: CSIRO T 449. Paratypes: CSIRO CA 1248 (1), CA 2404 (1), T 691 (1), T 694-697 (1, 1, 1, 1). •Valid as Dasyatis annotatus Last 1987 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:26 [ref. 25477], Last & Stevens 1994:386 [ref. 23873], Allen 1997:46 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Dasyatis annotata Last 1987 -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1498 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Paxton et al. 2006:191 [ref. 28995]). •Valid as Neotrygon annotata (Last 1987) -- (Last & White 2008:315 [ref. 29697], Last et al. 2010:38 [ref. 30793], Larson et al. 2013:19 [ref. 32988], Last et al. 2016:558 [ref. 34245], Weigmann 2016:139 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:584 [ref. 35010], Borsa 2017:3 [ref. 35149], White et al. 2017:238 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:57 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon annotata (Last 1987). Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Australia, southern New Guinea and eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

aquila, Pastinaca Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:12 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

arabica, Maculabatis Manjaji-Matsumoto [B. M.] & Last [P. R.] 2016:337, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa 4144 (no. 3); ref. 34624] 3-4 km west of Turshian Creek, Sind, Pakistan, Arabian Sea, 2405'N, 6736'E, depth 15-29 meters. Holotype: LACM 38133-74. Paratypes: BPBM, CSIRO, LACM, USNM. Plus non-type specimen. •Valid as Maculabatis arabica Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2016 -- (Last et al. 2016:574 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Maculabatis arabica Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2016. Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Pakistan and India. Habitat: marine.

arabica, Raja Billberg [G. J.] 1833:51 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and Luhaiya, Yemen, Red Sea. No types known. Unnecessary replacement name for Raja sephen Forsskål 1775; see Kullander 2016:112 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kullander 2016:107 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775). Dasyatidae: Hypolophinae. Habitat: marine.

aspera, Pastinaca Cuvier [G.] 1816:136 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:32 [ref. 9312]. Name with citation to Belon, but not treated as valid; not available. •In the synonymy of Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill 1815) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:71 [ref. 7167], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:198 [ref. 13675], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:59 [ref. 19317]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

asperrima, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:367 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Mumbai, India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7836 (dry skin, partial specimen). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:177 [ref. 21041], Paepke 1999:75 [ref. 24282]. Urogymnus africanus and U. asperrimus are considered synonyms; both appeared in the same work; first reviser not researched. •Synonym of Urogymnus africanus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:20 [ref. 29757], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:68 [ref. 21589], Randall 1995:47 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Compagno 1986:141 [ref. 5648], Paxton et al. 1989:44 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:5 [ref. 13251], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:63 [ref. 19317], Last & Stevens 1994:414 [ref. 23873], Morón et al. 1999:151 [ref. 24253], Last & Compagno 1999:1497 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:52 [ref. 27735], Ishihara et al. 2004:2 [ref. 27852], Randall 2005:20 [ref. 28239], Compagno et al. 2005:76 [ref. 29145], Paxton et al. 2006:196 [ref. 28995], Kimura 2009:14 [ref. 30426], Last el al. 2010:236 [ref. 32461], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:348 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:66 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:73 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013: 21 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:364 [ref. 33045], Psomadakis et al. 2015:105 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:141 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1418 [ref. 34545], Last et al. 2016:363 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:173 [ref. 34634], Last et al. 2016:614 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:266 [ref. 35860], Fricke et al. 2018:27 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:16 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:63 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles and Madagascar east to Mariana Islands and Fiji, south to Western Australia, Chesterfield Islands and New Caledonia; possibly eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

astra, Himantura Last [P. R.], Manjaji-Matsumoto [B. M.] & Pogonoski [J. J.] 2008:304, Figs. 1-5 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022; ref. 29696] Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland, Australia, 13°02'S, 138°51'E, depth 55 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 3377-01. Paratypes: 37 specimens at CSIRO. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Himantura astra Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto & Pogonoski 2008 -- (Naylor et al. 2012:68 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013:18 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:134 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Maculabatis astra (Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto & Pogonoski 2008) -- (Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34669], Last et al. 2016:575 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:232 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:55 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Maculabatis astra (Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto & Pogonoski 2008). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Northern Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

atra, Taeniura Macleay [W.] 1883:598 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 4); ref. 17586] Port Moresby District, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.9762. •Synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:410 [ref. 23873] as Pastinachus sephen ater, Last et al. 2005:1 [ref. 28346], Paxton et al. 2006:194 [ref. 28995]). •Tentatively valid -- (Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2010:115 [ref. 30854]). •Valid as Pastinachus atrus (Macleay 1883) -- (Last et al. 2010:121 [ref. 30855], Last el al. 2010:222 [ref. 32461], Larson et al. 2013:20 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:140 [ref. 34211] see remarks, and misspelled atrus). •Valid as Pastinachus ater (Macleay 1883) -- (Kottelat 2013:27 [ref. 32989], Last et al. 2016:364 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:594 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:248 [ref. 35860], Fricke et al. 2018:26 [ref. 35805], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:59 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Pastinachus ater (Macleay 1883). Dasyatidae: Hypolophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Solomon Islands and New Caledonia, south to northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

atratus, Dasyatis Ishiyama [R.] & Okada [K.] 1955:211, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of the Shimonoseki College of Fisheries v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12277] North of Mariana Islands. Holotype: SUF. Paratypes: FAKU 24671 (1, not seen in 1997). •Synonym of Dasyatis violacea (Bonaparte 1832) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:71 [ref. 7167], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:332 [ref. 20166]). •Valid as Dasyatis atratus Ishiyama & Okada 1955 -- (Chen et al. 1997:8 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte 1832) -- (Weigmann 2016:140 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte 1832). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

atrocissimus, Trygon Blyth [E.] 1860:38 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 16970] Probably Indian Ocean near India. Holotype (unique): (portion of tail only). Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

australiae, Neotrygon Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Serét [B.] 2016:542, Figs. 5b, 6b, 7b, 9 [Zootaxa 4083 (no. 4); ref. 34245] Southwest of Weipa, Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland, Australia, 12°53.96'S, 141°12.71'E, depth 36-38 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 7016-01. Paratypes: CSIRO. Plus other non-type material. •Valid as Neotrygon australiae Last, White & Serét 2016 -- (Last et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:585 [ref. 35010], Borsa 2017:3 [ref. 35149], Borsa et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35563], White et al. 2017:240 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:57 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon australiae Last, White & Serét 2016. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Australia, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

australis, Himantura Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Naylor [G.] 2016:378, Figs. 1-5 [Zootaxa 4147 (no. 4); ref. 34638] West of Oriomo River, Daru, Western Province, Papua New Guinea, 9°04.43'S, 143°08.53'E. Holotype: CSIRO H 7798-04. Paratypes: CSIRO, KFRS, NTM. Plus additional material. •Valid as Himantura australis Last, White & Naylor 2016 -- (Last et al. 2016:561 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:228 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:54 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Himantura australis Last, White & Naylor 2016. Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Papua New Guinea, northern Australia, Western Australia and Queensland. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bennettii, Trygon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:160, [Pl. 53] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] China; Trinidad Island, West Indies. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1953.8.10.13 (1) China, uncat. (1, not found) Trinidad, MNHN (1) not found. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:33 [ref. 9312] with specimen at Paris not found. Spelled Bennetti on p. xxii and on p. 160 and Bennettii on p. xix and on the Plate. First revisor seems to be Richardson 1846:197 [ref. 3742] who selected bennettii as the correct original spelling. •Valid as Dasyatis bennettii (Müller & Henle 1841) [usually as bennetti] -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:15 [ref. 6441], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:334 [ref. 20166], Chen et al. 1997:8 [ref. 26476], Last & Compagno 1999:1499 [ref. 24639], Vossoughi & Vosoughi 1999:304 [ref. 25467], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:180 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:180 [ref. 26001], Santos et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27848], Compagno et al. 2005:70 [ref. 29145], Fricke et al. 2011:347 [ref. 31242], Last et al. 2012:30 [ref. 31993], Yamashita et al. 2012:133 [ref. 32408] as bennetti, Last & White 2013:10 [ref. 32949], Weigmann 2016:128 [ref. 34211], Zhang et al. 2016:44 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Hemitrygon bennettii (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581] as bennetti, Last et al. 2016:552 [ref. 35010], Manjaji-Matsumoto in Kimura et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Hemitrygon bennettii (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Java (Indonesia) and Vietnam to China and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

biasa, Telatrygon Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Naylor [G.] 2016:394, Figs. 15-19 [Zootaxa 4147 (no. 4); ref. 34638] Muara Kintap, Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia, 03°54.25'S, 115°15.53'E. Holotype: MZB field no. KA-93. Paratypes: CSIRO. •Valid as Telatrygon biasa Last, White & Naylor 2016 -- (Last et al. 2016:610 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Telatrygon biasa Last, White & Naylor 2016. Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Indonesia and Malaysian Borneo. Habitat: marine.

bineeshi, Maculabatis Manjaji-Matsumoto [B. M.] & Last [P. R.] 2016:344, Figs. 7-13 [Zootaxa 4144 (no. 3); ref. 34624] 6-8 km south of Hajambro Creek, Sind, Pakistan, Arabian Sea. Holotype: LACM 38131-43. Paratypes: CSIRO, LACM. •Valid as Maculabatis bineeshi Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2016 -- (Last et al. 2016:576 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Maculabatis bineeshi Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2016. Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: India and Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Trygon Blyth [E.] 1860:41 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 16970] Calcutta fish market, India. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1892.6.17.15 (1). •Valid as Himantura bleekeri (Blyth 1860) -- (Compagno & Roberts 1982:325 [ref. 8489], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:43 [ref. 20764], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Compagno et al. 2005:72 [ref. 29145], Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:102 [ref. 34104]). •Synonym of Hymantura uarnacoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last et al. 2012:31 [ref. 31993], Weigmann 2016:137 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Pateobatis bleekeri (Blyth 1860) -- (Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:599 [ref. 35010], Ali et al. 2018:304 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Pateobatis bleekeri (Blyth 1860). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to Myanmar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bobwardi, Neotrygon Borsa [P.], Arlyza [I. S.], Hoareau [T. B.] & Shen [K.-N.] 2017:[6], Fig. 2a [Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology; ref. 35563] Local fishermen at Meulaboh, Aceh fish landing place, northeastern Sumatra, 04°07'N, 96°08'E. Holotype: MZB 20843. Paratypes: MZB. Questionably valid: based exclusively on DNA. •Valid as Neotrygon bobwardi Borsa, Arlyza, Hoareau & Shen 2017. Current status: Valid as Neotrygon bobwardi Borsa, Arlyza, Hoareau & Shen 2017. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Sumatra. Habitat: marine.

brevicauda, Pastinaca Swainson [W.] 1839:319, Pl. 5 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Russ. i. pl. 5 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 5 [ref. 13862]. Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

brevicaudata, Trygon Hutton [F. W.] 1875:317 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 95) (art. 41); ref. 18317] Dunedin Harbor, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): OM A.75.02 (stuffed). Non-types: BMNH 1879.4.5.7 (1). Type catalog: Russell 1996:221 [ref. 22562]. Also in Hutton 1876:216 [ref. 14210]. •Valid as Dasyatis brevicaudatus (Hutton 1875) -- (Garrick 1954:190 [ref. 23066], Paulin et al. 1989:29 [ref. 24556]). •Valid as Dasyatis brevicaudata (Hutton 1875) -- (Compagno 1986:136 [ref. 5648], Paxton et al. 1989:42 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:22 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:182 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:388 [ref. 23873], Fricke 1999:30 [ref. 24106], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Gomes et al. 2000:514 [ref. 24451], Last & Compagno 1999:1499 [ref. 24639], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Santos & Carvalho 2004:17 [ref. 28040], Paxton et al. 2006:191 [ref. 28995], Gomon 2008:139 [ref. 30616], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Last & Stewart 2015:198 [ref. 34224], Weigmann 2016:128 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Hutton 1875) -- (Last et al. 2016:354 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:530 [ref. 35010], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:172 [ref. 35920]). Current status: Valid as Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Hutton 1875). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa eastward, north to Japan and Peter the Great Bay (Russia), south to New Zealand and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevis, Trygon Garman [S.] 1880:171 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 6 (no. 11); ref. 17881] Payta, Peru and other localities. Syntypes (?): MCZ 371-S, 422-S (1). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlv [ref. 23119]. The species dipterura has priority over brevis if considered synonyms. •Valid as Dasyatis brevis (Garman 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:54 [ref. 9277], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:336 [ref. 20166] [but see Dasybatis dipterurus], Allen & Robertson 1994:33 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:26 [ref. 23101], Chave & Mundy 1994:380 [ref. 22375], McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:754 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:45 [ref. 22793], Pequeño 1997:79 [ref. 23536], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:35 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:116 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:65 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:75 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Gomes et al. 2000:514 [ref. 24451], Thomson et al. 2000:282 [ref. 25640], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447]). •Synonym of Dasyatis dipterura (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Mundy 2005:105 [ref. 28379], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:127 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:129 [ref. 34211] with author as Garman 1880). •Synonym of Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Current status: Synonym of Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

brocki, Taeniura Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:18, Pl. 4 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Off Eman Island in lagoon, Bikini Atoll, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): USNM 140978. Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

brucco, Trygon Bonaparte [C. L.] 1834:fasc. 6, punt. 34, Pl. 157 [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 517] Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 378-379 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:98 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill 1815) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:71 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:59 [ref. 19317]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caeruleopunctata, Neotrygon Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Serét [B.] 2016:546, Figs. 5c, 6c, 7c, 10 [Zootaxa 4083 (no. 4); ref. 34245] Kedonganan fish market, Bali, Indonesia, 8°45'S, 115°10'E. Holotype: MZB (ex CSIRO H 7852-03). Paratypes: CSIRO. •Valid as Neotrygon caeruleopunctata Last, White & Serét 2016 -- (Last et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:586 [ref. 35010], Borsa 2017:3 [ref. 35149], Borsa et al. 2017:[11] [ref. 35563], Fricke et al. 2018:26 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:16 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon caeruleopunctata Last, White & Serét 2016. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa and Madagascar east to western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

carnea, Trygon Richardson [J.] 1846:197 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Macao, China Sea. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:208, Pl. 1a [ref. 11606]). Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

centroura, Raja Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:479 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] Long Island coast, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill 1815) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:71 [ref. 7167], Capapé 1977:84 [ref. 20631], Compagno & Roberts 1984:286 [ref. 8237], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:198 [ref. 13675], Robins & Ray 1986:41 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:57 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:38 [ref. 14674], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:68 [ref. 21589], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:59 [ref. 19317], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Boschung 1992:27 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:198 [ref. 23827], Murdy et al. 1997:46 [ref. 23144], Santos et al. 1997:120 [ref. 23531], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:175 [ref. 23897], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:189 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Gomes et al. 2000:514 [ref. 24451], Menni & Stehmann 2000:90 [ref. 24909], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:25 [ref. 26753], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:76 [ref. 26158], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:569 [ref. 26985], Dulĉić et al. 2003:871 [ref. 27138], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Santos et al. 2004:1 [ref. 27848], Santos & Carvalho 2004:14 [ref. 28040], Fricke et al. 2007:19 [ref. 29533], Carvalho et al. 2007:155 [ref. 30012], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:168 [ref. 32953], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Pinheiro et al. 2015:4 [ref. 34324], Weigmann 2016:129 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1409 [ref. 34545], Saadaoui et al. 2016:101 [ref. 34799], Nión et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35565]). •Valid as Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815) -- (Last et al. 2016:354 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:531 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chaophraya, Himantura Monkolprasit [S. P.] & Roberts [T. R.] 1990:204, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 20065] Chao Phraya at Ayutthaya, about 100 kilometers up-river from mouth of Chao Phraya into Gulf of Thailand, Thailand. Holotype: KUMF 2998. Paratypes: KUMF 2999 (1), 3000 (1). See also Roberts 1998:267 [ref. 23552]. •Valid, but possibly a synonym of Himantura polylepis (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:399 [ref. 23873], Kottelat 1998:20 [ref. 23436]). •Valid as Himantura chaophraya Monkolprasit & Roberts 1990 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:2 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:53 [ref. 22772], Last & Compagno 1999:1485 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Kottelat 2001:25 [ref. 25780], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2002:331 [ref. 25930], Morgan et al. 2004:151 [ref. 27718], Vidthayanon & Roberts 2006:124 [ref. 28695], Last et al. 2006:31 [ref. 28719], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2006:295 [ref. 28776], Paxton et al. 2006:193 [ref. 28995], Last & Manjaji-Matsumo 2008:283 [ref. 29694]). •Synonym of Himantura polylepis (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last & Manjaji-Matsumo 2008:289 [ref. 29694], Allen et al. 2008:28 [ref. 30265], Last el al. 2010:209 [ref. 32461], Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Urogymnus polylepis (Bleeker 1852). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cheni, Dasyatis Teng [H.-T.] 1962:237, Fig. 65 [Classification and distribution of the Chondrichthyes of Taiwan; ref. 12623] Keelung, northern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): TFRI 2776. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:20 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Dasyatis zugei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1988:118 [ref. 12618], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:335 [ref. 20166], Ho & Shao 2011:20 [ref. 31432], Ebert et al. 2013:360 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:134 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Telatrygon zugei (Müller & Henle 1841). Current status: Synonym of Telatrygon zugei (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chindrakee, Trygon Cuvier [G.] in Bleeker 1853:82 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 8); ref. 341] Appeared as "966 Trygon chindrakee Cuv. (sp. dub.)" and as "... = Pastinaca dorsalis Swain." Based on Tenkee shindraki Russell, F. of Coromandel, l, 1803, 3 pl. 5, Vizagapatam, India. Name in synonymy and not available. Dasyatidae.

chindwinensis, Makararaja Roberts [T. R.] 2007:286, Figs. 3-8 [Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society v. 54 (no. 2) (for 2006); ref. 29413] Chindwin River, about 20 kilometers sownstream from Khanti, tributary of the Irrawaddy River, northern Myanmar. Holotype (unique): ZRC 50566. •Valid as Pastinachus chindwinensis (Roberts 2007) -- (Kottelat 2013:27 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Makararaja chindwinensis Roberts 2007 -- (Weigmann 2016:139 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:364 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:582 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Makararaja chindwinensis Roberts 2007. Dasyatidae: Hypolophinae. Distribution: Chindwin River, tributary of the Irrawaddy River, northern Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

chrysonota, Trygon Smith [A.] 1828:2 [South African Commercial Advertiser v. 3 (no. 145); ref. 12603] Off Gamtoos River surf, Eastern Cape, South Africa, depth 53 meters. Neotype: SAM 31697. Neotype designated by Cowley & Compagno 1993:145 [ref. 21968]. •Valid as Dasyatis chrysonota (Smith 1828) -- (Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], Cowley & Compagno 1993:144 [ref. 21968] with subspecies, Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Santos & Carvalho 2004:17 [ref. 28040], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:82 [ref. 28072], Weigmann 2016:129 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:537 [ref. 35010], Fricke et al. 2018:25 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Dasyatis chrysonota (Smith 1828). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean: Namibia and South Africa to southern Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

colarensis, Dasyatis Santos [H. R. S.], Gomes [U. L.] & Charvet-Almeida [P.] 2004:4, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa No. 492; ref. 27848] Marajó Bay, close to Colares Island, district of Colares, Pará State, Brazil, 00°54'39"S, 48°17'21"W, depth about 6 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 25179. Paratypes: MCP 34811 (1), UFRJ 2006 (1). •Valid as Dasyatis colarensis Santos, Gomes & Charvet-Almeida 2004 -- (Weigmann 2016:129 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Fontitrygon colarensis (Santos, Gomes & Charvet-Almeida 2004) -- (Last et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:545 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Fontitrygon colarensis (Santos, Gomes & Charvet-Almeida 2004). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: northern Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

commersonii, Raia (Trygonobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Dasyatidae.

crozieri, Trygon Blyth [E.] 1860:45 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 16970] Arakan coast, India. Holotype (unique): MCMC [Medical College Museum of Calcutta]. •Synonym of Dasyatis zugei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1988:118 [ref. 12618], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:335 [ref. 20166]). •Valid as Telatrygon crozieri (Blyth 1860) -- (Last et al. 2016:357 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:401 [ref. 34638], Last et al. 2016:611 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Telatrygon crozieri (Blyth 1860). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: India to Myanmar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dadong, Trygon Bleeker [P.] 1856:355 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 10; ref. 16852] Rio, Bintan Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7446. Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

dalyensis, Himantura Last [P. R.] & Manjaji-Matsumoto [B. M.] 2008:284, Figs. 1, 2A, 3-4 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022; ref. 29694] Pentecost River (Bindola Creek junction), Western Australia, 15°42'S, 127°51'E. Holotype: CSIRO H 2503-01. Paratypes: CSIRO H 2524-01 (1), H 6657-01 (1); FUMT-P10863 (1); NTM S 14745-001 (1), S 15183-001 (1), 15184-001 (1) S. 16248-001 (1); WAM P 32955-001 (1). •Valid as Himantura dalyensis Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2008 -- (Morgan et al. 2011:21 [ref. 31262], Larson et al. 2013:18 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:134 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Urogymnus dalyensis (Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2008) -- (Last et al. 2016:363 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:174 [ref. 34634], Last et al. 2016:615 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:268 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:63 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Urogymnus dalyensis (Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2008). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

dipterurus, Dasybatis Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:31 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 106); ref. 2466] San Diego Bay, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (4) ?NMW 77758 (1); USNM 24880 (orig. 4), 110967 [ex 26782] (2 jaws), 26782 (1); ?ZMB 11573 [ex USNM 26782] (1); ?ZMUB [ex USNM 26782] (1). Type catalog: Frøiland 1979:144 [ref. 21547], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:176-177 [ref. 21041]. Nishida & Nakaya 1990:336 [ref. 20166] treat Dasyatis dipterurus as a synonym of D. brevis, but dipterurus (published ca. 18 May 1880) has priority over brevis (Oct. 1880). •Wrongly as a synonym of Dasyatis brevis (Garman 1880) -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1990:336 [ref. 20166], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:45 [ref. 22793], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:65 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:75 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:105 [ref. 28379]). •Valid as Dasyatis dipterura (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Mundy 2005:105 [ref. 28379], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:127 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:129 [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:84 [ref. 35888]). •Valid as Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Last et al. 2016:356 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:566 [ref. 35010], Ebert et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands; eastern Pacific: California (U.S.A.) south to northern Chile, including Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

dorsalis, Pastinaca Swainson [W.] 1839:319 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Russ. 1. pl. 4 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 4 [ref. 13862]. Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

dorsatus, Raia (Trygonobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Dasyatidae.

draco, Himantura Compagno [L. J. V.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1984:6, Figs. 1-8 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 33; ref. 8238] Vicinity of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, probably less than 50 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 996. •Valid as Himantura draco Compagno & Heemstra 1984 -- (Compagno 1986:138 [ref. 5648], see Last & Stevens 1994:404 [ref. 23873], Morón et al. 1999:153 [ref. 24253]). •Questionably a synonym of Himantura jenkinsii (Annandale 1909) -- (Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589]). •Synonym of Himantura jenkinsii (Annandale 1909) -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1489 [ref. 24639], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:83 [ref. 28072], Last el al. 2010:197 [ref. 32461], Weigmann 2016:135 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Pateobatis jenkinsii (Annandale 1909). Current status: Synonym of Pateobatis jenkinsii (Annandale 1909). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: marine.

ellioti, Trygon Blyth [E.] 1860:41 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 16970] Calcutta fish market, India. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kottelat 2013:27 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: marine.

fai, Himantura Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:184, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype (unique): USNM 51712. •Valid as Himantura fai Jordan & Seale 1906 -- (Last & Stevens 1994:400 [ref. 23873], Yoshigou & Yoshino 1999:39 [ref. 23925], Myers 1999:38 [ref. 23965], Last & Compagno 1999:1486 [ref. 24639], Johnson 1999:718 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:178 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:178 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:48 [ref. 27735], Randall 2005:18 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:117 [ref. 28745], Compagno et al. 2005:72 [ref. 29145], Paxton et al. 2006:193 [ref. 28995], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2008:293 [ref. 29695], Last el al. 2010:190 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:347 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:19 [ref. 32988], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:411 [ref. 33460], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Weigmann 2016:134 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Pateobatis fai (Jordan & Seale 1906) -- (Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:600 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:250 [ref. 35860], Golani & Fricke 2018:16 [ref. 36273], White & Ko'ou 2018:59 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Pateobatis fai (Jordan & Seale 1906). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South Africa east to Marquesas,south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

favus, Trygon Annandale [N.] 1909:25, Pls. 1 (fig. 3), 3 (fig. 10) [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 126] Bay of Bengal, off Orissa coast, India. Holotype: BMNH 1909.7.12.22 (mouth), ZSI F2411/1 (skin). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:97 [ref. 20743]. •Synonym of Himantura undulata (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1492 [ref. 24639], Weigmann 2016:138 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Himantura fava (Annandale 1909) -- (Compagno & Roberts 1982:325 [ref. 8489], Compagno et al. 2005:74 [ref. 29145], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2008:300 [ref. 29695]). Current status: Valid as Himantura fava (Annandale 1909). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: India, Indonesia and Gulf of Thailand. Habitat: marine.

fluviatilis, Raia Hamilton [F.] 1822:1 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River, India. No types known. Marginally available, even Hamilton did not feel he could describe it adequately; see Roberts 1998:271-275 [ref. 23552] and Roberts 2007:286 [ref. 29413]. •Valid as Himantura fluviatilis (Hamilton 1822) -- (Compagno & Roberts 1982:325 [ref. 8489], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:44 [ref. 20764]). •Possibly based on same species tentatively identified as Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Roberts 1998:268 [ref. 23552]). •Synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Last et al. 2005:1 [ref. 28346], Kottelat 2013:28 [ref. 32989]). •A junior synonym of P. sephen or a valid species of Pastinachus -- (Roberts 2007:286 [ref. 29413]). •Mention -- (Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2010:115 [ref. 30854]). Current status: Synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775). Dasyatidae: Hypolophinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fluviorum, Dasyatis Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:6 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3286] Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): ?QM I.235. Ogilby specimens: I.1530 (1, too small to be type). •Valid as Dasyatis fluviorum Ogilby 1908 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:42 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:390 [ref. 23873], Larson & Williams 1997:346 [ref. 23967], Last & Compagno 1999:1500 [ref. 24639], Johnson 1999:716 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Paxton et al. 2006:191 [ref. 28995], Last & White 2008:280 [ref. 29693], Last & Manjaji-Matsumo 2008:283 [ref. 29694], Allen et al. 2008:27 [ref. 30265], Fricke et al. 2011:347 [ref. 31242], Last & White 2013:10 [ref. 32949], Weigmann 2016:129 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hemitrygon fluviorum (Ogilby 1908) -- (Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:553 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Hemitrygon fluviorum (Ogilby 1908). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

forskalii, Trigon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:53, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 2538. Paralectotypes: SMF 2537 (1). Type catalog: Klausewitz 1960:294 [ref. 21330]. Lectotype designation: Klausewitz 1960:294 [ref. 21330]. Original genus should have been Trygon. •Synonym of Dasyatis sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:18 [ref. 29757], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:330 [ref. 20166]). •Synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Last et al. 2005:1 [ref. 28346], Kottelat 2013:28 [ref. 32989]). •Mention -- (Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2010:115 [ref. 30854]). Current status: Synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775). Dasyatidae: Hypolophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

forskohlii, Raja Billberg [G. J.] 1833:51 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Red Sea. No types known. Unnecessary replacement name for Raja uarnak Forsskål 1775; see Kullander 2016:112 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kullander 2016:107 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: marine.

garouaensis, Potamotrygon Stauch [A.] & Blanc [M.] 1962:166, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 34 (no. 2); ref. 6517] Bénoué River à Malape, Garoua, northern Cameroon. Holotype: MNHN 1962-0303. Additional material: (7) MNHN 1962-0304 and 0305 (2). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:18-19 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Dasyatis garouaensis (Stauch & Blanc 1962) -- (Compagno & Roberts 1984:4 [ref. 6167], Compagno & Roberts 1984:292 [ref. 8237], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:71 [ref. 21589], Taniuchi 1991:96 [ref. 21657], Poll & Gosse 1995:24 [ref. 24781], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Santos & Carvalho 2004:16 [ref. 28040], Carvalho et al. 2007:157 [ref. 30012], Weigmann 2016:129 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1419 [ref. 34545]). •Valid as Fontitrygon garouaensis (Stauch & Blanc 1962) -- (Last et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:546 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Fontitrygon garouaensis (Stauch & Blanc 1962). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: West Africa: Nigeria and Cameroon. Habitat: freshwater.

geijskesi, Dasyatis Boeseman [M.] 1948:38, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 30 (no. 2); ref. 12999] Coppenam Point, Suriname. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Dasyatis geijskesi Boeseman 1948 -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:84 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:199 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221] as geijkesi, Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:182 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Gomes et al. 2000:514 [ref. 24451] as geiskesi, Menni & Stehmann 2000:90 [ref. 24909], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:569 [ref. 26985], Santos et al. 2004:1 [ref. 27848], Santos & Carvalho 2004:16 [ref. 28040], Weigmann 2016:129 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Fontitrygon geijskesi (Boeseman 1948) -- (Last et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:547 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Fontitrygon geijskesi (Boeseman 1948). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Western central Atlantic: Suriname to northern Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gerrardi, Trygon Gray [J. E.] 1851:116 [List of the specimens of fish in the collection of the British Museum.; ref. 4939] India. Syntypes: BMNH 1843.5.19.1 (1, dry), 1846.11.18.49 (1, dry); RMNH 7442 (3). •Valid as Dasyatis gerrardi (Gray 1851) -- (Dor 1984:17 [ref. 29757], Chen et al. 1997:9 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Himantura gerrardi (Gray 1851) -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:16 [ref. 6441], Compagno 1986:139 [ref. 5648], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:45 [ref. 22896], Yoshigou & Yoshino 1999:39 [ref. 23925], Morón et al. 1999:151 [ref. 24253], Last & Compagno 1999:1487 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:178 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:178 [ref. 26001], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:48 [ref. 27735], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:83 [ref. 28072], Shinohara et al. 2005:398 [ref. 28370], Compagno et al. 2005:72 [ref. 29145], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2008:293 [ref. 29695], Last et al. 2008:303 [ref. 29696], Kimura 2009:12 [ref. 30426], Last el al. 2010:192 [ref. 32461], Weigmann 2011:262 [ref. 32424], Last et al. 2012:20 [ref. 31993], Yamashita et al. 2012:134 [ref. 32408], Naylor et al. 2012:68 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Ebert et al. 2013:360 [ref. 33045], Yoshida et al. 2013:15 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:411 [ref. 33460], Manjaji-Matsumoto in Kimura et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:101 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:135 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Maculabatis gerrardi (Gray 1851) -- (Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 34581], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2016:351 [ref. 34624], Last et al. 2016:76 [ref. 34669], Last et al. 2016:577 [ref. 35010], Ali et al. 2018:304 [ref. 36183], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178]). Current status: Valid as Maculabatis gerrardi (Gray 1851). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Oman east to western Indonesia, north to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

gesneri, Raia Cuvier [G.] 1829:400 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. No types known. •Synonym of Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill 1815) -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1990:59 [ref. 19317]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

giganteus, Urolophoides Lindberg [G. U.] in Soldatov & Lindberg 1930:26, Fig. 4 [Izvestiia Tikhookeanskogo nauchnogo instituta rybnogo khoziaistva [Bulletins of the Pacific Science Institute] v. 5; ref. 4164] Peter the Great Bay, Russia. Holotype (unique): stuffed (not found at ZIN). •Valid as Dasyatis giganteus (Lindberg 1930) -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1990:340 [ref. 20166]). •Valid as Dasyatis gigantea (Lindberg 1930) -- (Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Parin et al. 2014:38 [ref. 33547], Weigmann 2016:129 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Dasyatis akajei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Dyldin 2015:73 [ref. 34524]). •Synonym of Hemitrygon akajei (Müller & Henle 1841). Current status: Synonym of Hemitrygon akajei (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific (if valid). Habitat: marine.

glauconotus, Trygon Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1852:74 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Not available, name mentioned in the synonymy of Trygon kuhlii Müller & Henle 1841. Dasyatidae.

grabatus, Trygon Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 25 (figs. 1-2) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:33 [ref. 9312]. Specific name is a noun. •Valid as Taeniura grabatus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) (often seen as grabata) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:73 [ref. 7167], Compagno & Roberts 1984:285 [ref. 8237], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:202 [ref. 13675], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:62 [ref. 19317], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356] with author as Fowler 1956, Santos et al. 1997:16 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:24 [ref. 24952], Basusta et al. 1998:65 [ref. 23545], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:26 [ref. 26753], Wirtz et al. 2007:4, 24 [ref. 30263], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:57 [ref. 35264] as grabata, Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Séret 2016:1417 [ref. 34545]). •Valid as Taeniurops grabatus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Lim et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34441] as grabata, Weigmann 2016:141 [ref. 34211] as grabata with author as Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Last et al. 2016:357 [ref. 34581] as grabata, Last et al. 2016:607 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Taeniurops grabatus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Madeira and Canary Islands south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

gracilicaudus, Pastinachus Last [P. R.] & Manjaji-Matsumoto [B. M.] 2010:116, Figs. 1-3, 5a, 6a, 7a, 8 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 032; ref. 30854] Kota Kinabalu fish market, Sabah, Malaysia. Holotype: SMEC 35. Paratypes (25): at BMNH, CSIRO, IPMB, MZB, SFRI, ZRC. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Pastinachus gracilicaudus Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2010 -- (Last et al. 2010:121 [ref. 30855], Last el al. 2010:224 [ref. 32461], Allen & Erdmann 2012:65 [ref. 31980], Weigmann 2016:140 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:364 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:595 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Pastinachus gracilicaudus Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2010. Dasyatidae: Hypolophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India, Java and Borneo. Habitat: marine.

granulata, Trygon Macleay [W.] 1883:598 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 4); ref. 17586] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.9763. •Valid as Himantura granulata (Macleay 1883) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:42 [ref. 12442], Compagno & Roberts 1982:325 [ref. 8489], Ishihara et al. 1993:23 [ref. 22461], Larson & Williams 1997:346 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:22 [ref. 25488], Anderson et al. 1998:21 [ref. 23611], Last & Stevens 1994:402 [ref. 23873], Myers 1999:39 [ref. 23965], Last & Compagno 1999:1488 [ref. 24639], Johnson 1999:718 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:19 [ref. 28239], Compagno et al. 2005:72 [ref. 29145], Last et al. 2006:31 [ref. 28719], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2006:295 [ref. 28776], Last el al. 2010:194 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:347 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:63 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:19 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989], Bineesh et al. 2014:1268 [ref. 33218], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:145 [ref. 33423], Weigmann 2016:135 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay 1883) -- (Last et al. 2016:363 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:174 [ref. 34634], Last et al. 2016:616 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:270 [ref. 35860], Golani & Fricke 2018:16 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:63 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay 1883). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Solomon Islands, north to Philippines, south to Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

gruveli, Dasybatus (Pastinachus) Chabanaud [P.] 1923:45 [Bulletin, Sea (sér. 1) v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 17980] Gulf of Thailand. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1922-0076. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:86 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:18 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Hypolophus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Séret & McEachran 1987:18 [ref. 9312]). •Valid as Pastinachus gruveli (Chabanaud 1923) -- (Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122]). •Synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1494 [ref. 24639], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:50 [ref. 27735], Last et al. 2005:1 [ref. 28346], Kottelat 2013:28 [ref. 32989]). •Mention -- (Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2010:115 [ref. 30854]). Current status: Synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775). Dasyatidae: Hypolophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guileri, Dasyatis Last [P. R.] 1979:172, Fig. 1 [Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania v. 113; ref. 8813] Nutgrove Beach, Derwent River Estuary, Tasmania, Australia, 42°55'S, 147°21'E. Holotype (unique): QVM 1978:5:0108 [ex QVM type 360]. •Valid as Dasyatis guileri Last 1979 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:42 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:29 [ref. 24556], Gomon et al. 1994:183 [ref. 22532]). •Synonym of Dasyatis violacea (Bonaparte 1832) -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1990:332 [ref. 20166], Last & Stevens 1994:397 [ref. 23873], Paxton et al. 2006:192 [ref. 28995]). •Synonym of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte 1832) -- (Dyldin 2015:75 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte 1832). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:361 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] America australibus [Brazil]. No types known. Based on the 'Iabebirete' of Marcgravus 1648:175, fig. [ref. 30352]. •Valid as Dasyatis guttata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:83 [ref. 14275], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Cervigón 1992:199 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:44 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:176 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:184 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Gomes et al. 2000:514 [ref. 24451], Menni & Stehmann 2000:90 [ref. 24909], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:567 [ref. 26985], Smith et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Santos et al. 2004:1 [ref. 27848], Santos & Carvalho 2004:14 [ref. 28040], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:4 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:128 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:130 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Last et al. 2016:356 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:567 [ref. 35010], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Spier et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico south to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

gymnura, Trygon Müller [J.] in Ermann 1835:25, Pl. 13 [Reise um die Erde durch Nord-Asien und die beiden Oceane; ref. 20262] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:178 [ref. 21041]. •Synonym of Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

halgani, Trygon Lesson [R. P.] 1829:(100), Poissons Pl. 3 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Offack Bay, Waigeo Island; Port Praslin, New Ireland, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Syntypes: MNHN A-7994 (2) Port Praslin. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:87 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:19 [ref. 9312]. Dates to plate which appeared on 30 May 1829; descrition dated to 13 Oct. 1831 (Cretella 2010 [ref. 34236]). •Synonym of Taeniura lymma (Forsskål 1775) -- (Last et al. 2016:394 [ref. 34638]). Current status: Synonym of Taeniura lymma (Forsskål 1775). Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Habitat: marine.

hastata, Pastinaca DeKay [J. E.] 1842:373, Pl. 65 (fig. 214) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Rhode Island, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill 1815) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:71 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:59 [ref. 19317]). •Valid as Dasyatis hastata (DeKay 1842) -- (Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:69 [ref. 21589], Wirtz et al. 2007:4 [ref. 30263] as aff. hastata, Weigmann 2016:130 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1414 [ref. 34545] as cf. hastata). Current status: Valid as Dasyatis hastata (DeKay 1842). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hawaiensis, Dasyatis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:420, Pl. 1 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 64127 [orig. 547]. •Synonym of Dasyatis brevis (Garman 1880) -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1990:336 [ref. 20166], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:00 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Dasyatis hawaiensis Jenkins 1903 -- (Randall 2007:42 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Dasyatis dipterura (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Mundy 2005:105 [ref. 28379], Weigmann 2016:129 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Current status: Synonym of Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

heterurus, Trygon Bleeker [P.] 1852:67 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.158 (1). •Synonym of Himantura walga (Müller and Henle 1841) -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1493 [ref. 24639], Last el al. 2010:219 [ref. 32461]). •Valid as Brevitrygon heterura (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last et al. 2016:533 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Brevitrygon heterura (Bleeker 1852). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

hortlei, Himantura Last [P. R.], Manjaji-Matsumoto [B. M.] & Kailola [P. J.] 2006:22, Figs. 1-7 [Zootaxa No. 1239; ref. 28719] Minajerwi River estuary, Irian Jaya, 4°56'S, 137°03'E, depth 7 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 5155-01. Paratypes: CSIRO H 4915-01 (1), H 4916-01 (1), H 4917-01 (1), H 4549-02 (1), H 5285-01 (1), H 5977-01 (1), H 5977-02 (1), H 5980-05 (1), H 5980-06 (1), H 5981-04 (1). •Valid as Himantura hortlei Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto & Kailola 2006 -- (Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2006:295 [ref. 28776], Weigmann 2016:135 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Pateobatis hortlei (Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto & Kailola 2006) -- (Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:601 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:252 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:60 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Pateobatis hortlei (Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto & Kailola 2006). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Southern Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea and northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hypostigma, Dasyatis Santos [H. R. S.] & Carvalho [M. R. de] 2004:3, Figs. 1-11 [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Série. Zoologia No. 516; ref. 28040] Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil, depth 70-80 meters. Holotype: MCP 35005. Paratypes: LIRP 5076 (1); MCP 4606 (1); MZUSP 9915 (1); NUPEC 1831 (1), 1832 (1), 1833 (1); UERJ 1898 (1), 2007 (1), 2008 (1); UFRGS 1549 (1). Spelled hipostigma in abstract. •Valid as Dasyatis hypostigma Santos & Carvalho 2004 -- (Weigmann 2016:130 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:538 [ref. 35010], Spier et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Dasyatis hypostigma Santos & Carvalho 2004. Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

imbricata, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:366, 553 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7585 (dry). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:177 [ref. 21041], Paepke 1999:75 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Amphotistius imbricatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Rainboth 1996:52 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Dasyatis imbricata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:17 [ref. 29757], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:75 [ref. 27969] as imbricatus with author as Schneider, Fricke 1999:30 [ref. 24106] as imbricatus). •Valid as Himantura imbricata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Compagno & Roberts 1982:325 [ref. 8489], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:45 [ref. 20764], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:45 [ref. 22896], Morón et al. 1999:151 [ref. 24253], Last & Compagno 1999:1502 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:17 [ref. 27712] with author as Schneider, Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:49 [ref. 27735], Compagno et al. 2005:73 [ref. 29145], Last & White 2013:18 [ref. 32949], Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:101 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:135 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Brevitrygon imbricata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Last et al. 2016:360 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:534 [ref. 35010], Ali et al. 2018:303 [ref. 36183], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], Suresh et al. 2018:47 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Brevitrygon imbricata (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: east coast of India east to Myanmar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

immunis, Trygon Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:694 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

indica, Neotrygon Pavan-Kumar [A.], Kumar [R.], Pitale [P.], Shen [K.-N.] & Borsa [P.] 2018:128, Figs. 1A, B, 2 [Comptes Rendus Biologies v. 341 (no. 2); ref. 35564] Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India, 9.12°N, 79.46°E. Holotype: ZSI/MBRC/F.1495. Paratype: ZIFEFGB/NKGM1. •Valid as Neotrygon indica Pavan-Kumar, Kumar, Pitale, Shen & Borsa 2018 -- (Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178]). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon indica Pavan-Kumar, Kumar, Pitale, Shen & Borsa 2018. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: India. Habitat: marine.

izuensis, Dasyatis Nishida [K.] & Nakaya [K.] 1988:227, Figs. 1-4 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 35 (no. 3); ref. 12554] Shimoda Bay, Shizuoka Prefecture, Pacific coast of Japan, 34°40'N, 138°57'E, depth 10 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 109730. Paratypes: HUMZ 105476 (1), 105907 (1), 107444 (1), 109716 (1), 109731 (1), 109732-33 (2). •Valid as Dasyatis izuensis NIshida & Nakaya 1988 -- (Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:338 [ref. 20166], Senou & Masuda 1998:6 [ref. 24388], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Gomes et al. 2000:514 [ref. 24451], Nakabo 2000:181 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:181 [ref. 26001], Ogihara et al. 2009:63 [ref. 31112], Yamashita et al. 2012:133 [ref. 32408], Weigmann 2016:130 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hemitrygon izuensis (Nishida & Nakaya 1988) -- (Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:554 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Hemitrygon izuensis (Nishida & Nakaya 1988). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

jabebara, Trygon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:160 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Brazil. No types known. Appeared as doubtful species, "(Dubia) Trygon Jabebara." Unneeded replacement name for Raja guttata Bloch & Schneider 1801; based on the same 'Iabebirete' of Marcgravus 1648:175, fig. [ref. 30352]. •Synonym of Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

javaensis, Himantura Last [P. R.] & White [W. T.] 2013:11, Figs. 8-11 [Zootaxa 3722 (no. 1); ref. 32949] Cilacep landing site, Central Java, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 21461. Paratypes: AMS, CSIRO, NMV, MZB. •Valid as Himantura javaensis Last & White 2013 -- (Weigmann 2016:135 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Brevitrygon javaensis (Last & White 2013) -- (Last et al. 2016:360 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:535 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Brevitrygon javaensis (Last & White 2013). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Java, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

jenkinsii, Trygon Annandale [N.] 1909:28, Figs 4, 4a [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 126] Off Ganjam coast, Orissa State, India, depth 23-27 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F2473/1 (dry skin and jaws). •Valid as Himantura jenkinsii (Annandale 1909) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:403 [ref. 23873], Randall 1995:45 [ref. 22896], Kuiter 1997:22 [ref. 25488], Morón et al. 1999:152 [ref. 24253], Last & Compagno 1999:1489 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:83 [ref. 28072], Paxton et al. 2006:193 [ref. 28995], Compagno et al. 2005:73 [ref. 29145], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2008:293 [ref. 29695], Last et al. 2008:303 [ref. 29696], Kimura 2009:13 [ref. 30426], Last el al. 2010:196 [ref. 32461], Last et al. 2012:31[ref. 31993], Larson et al. 2013:19 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:135 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Pateobatis jenkinsii (Annandale 1909) -- (Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:602 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:254 [ref. 35860], Fricke et al. 2018:26 [ref. 35805], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:60 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Pateobatis jenkinsii (Annandale 1909). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to Papua New Guinea, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

kittipongi, Himantura Vidthayanon [C.] & Roberts [T. R.] 2006:124, Figs. 2-6 [Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society v. 53 (no. 1); ref. 28695] Menam Maekhlong near Kanchanaburi, Kittipongs Jarutanin, Thailand. Holotype: ZRC 50381. Paratypes: NIFI 3188 (1), 3198 (1), 3200 (1), 3201 (1). •Valid as Himantura kittipongi Vidthayanon & Roberts 2006 -- (Last el al. 2010:198 [ref. 32461], Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989], Weigmann 2016:136 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Fluvitrygon kittipongi (Vidthayanon & Roberts 2006) -- (Last et al. 2016:360 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:542 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Fluvitrygon kittipongi (Vidthayanon & Roberts 2006). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: West Pacific: Thailand, Peninsula Malaysia and Borneo. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

krempfi, Dasybatus (Himanturus) Chabanaud [P.] 1923:47, Fig. 2 [Bulletin, Sea (sér. 1) v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 17980] Pnompenh, Cambodia. Syntypes: MNHN 1922-0077 to 0079 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:86 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:18 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Himantura krempfi (Chabanaud 1923) -- (Compagno & Roberts 1982:325 [ref. 8489], Monkolprasit & Roberts 1990:204 [ref. 20065], Rainboth 1996:54 [ref. 22772], Compagno et al. 1999:1408 [ref. 24636], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589]). •Possibly a juvenile of Himantura oxyrhyncha (Sauvage 1878) -- (Deynat & Fermon 2001:163 [ref. 25563]). •Synonym of Himantura oxyrhyncha (Sauvage 1878) -- (Vidthayanon & Roberts 2006:124 [ref. 28695], Last el al. 2010:205 [ref. 32461], Weigmann 2016:136 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Himantura oxyrhynchus (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Fluvitrygon oxyrhynchus (Sauvage 1878) -- (Iqbal et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35489]). Current status: Synonym of Fluvitrygon oxyrhynchus (Sauvage 1878). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

krusadiensis, Urogymnus asperrimus var. Chacko [P. I.] 1944:81 [Current Science v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 20941] Krusadai Island, Gulf of Manaar, India. Syntypes: ZSI (1). Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

kuhlii, Trygon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:164, [Pl. 51 (right)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Vanicoro [Solomon Islands]. Lectotype: MNHN 2440. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-2440 (1 "tail missing") Vanicoro, A-7931 (1) New Guinea; RMNH (1, dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:87 [ref. 20739], Boeseman 1947:225 [ref. 12876], Séret & McEachran 1987:19 [ref. 9312]. Lectotype selected by Last et al. 2016:535 [ref. 34245]. See Borsa & Béarez 2016:258 [ref. 34820] for comments. •Valid as Amphotistius kuhlii (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:41 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Dasyatis kuhlii (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:25 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:17 [ref. 29757], Compagno & Heemstra 1984:13 [ref. 8238], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:15 [ref. 6441], Compagno 1986:137 [ref. 5648], Allen & Swainston 1988:26 [ref. 25477], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:333 [ref. 20166], Randall et al. 1990:29 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:23 [ref. 23929], Last & Stevens 1994:391 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:76 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:46 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:9 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:346 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:22 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:29 [ref. 25919], Senou & Masuda 1998:6 [ref. 24388], Myers 1999:38 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:31 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:151 [ref. 24253], Last & Compagno 1999:1484 [ref. 24639], Vossoughi & Vosoughi 1999:304 [ref. 25467], Johnson 1999:716 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Gomes et al. 2000:514 [ref. 24451], Nakabo 2000:181 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:100 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:96 [ref. 26368], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:181 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:70, 485 [ref. 26218], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:17 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27624], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:50 [ref. 27735], Santos & Carvalho 2004:17 [ref. 28040], Paxton et al. 2006:192 [ref. 28995], Motomura et al. 2010:69 [ref. 31256], Parin et al. 2014:38 [ref. 33547]). •Valid as Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Last & White 2008:315 [ref. 29697], Kimura 2009:14 [ref. 30426], Last et al. 2010:47 [ref. 30793], Last el al. 2010:220 [ref. 32461], Weigmann 2011:272 [ref. 32424], Fricke et al. 2011:347 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:64 [ref. 31980], Yamashita et al. 2012:134 [ref. 32408], Naylor et al. 2012:76 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Fricke et al. 2013:250 [ref. 32706], Borsa et al. 2013:222 [ref. 32770], Larson et al. 2013:20 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:362 [ref. 33045], Manjaji-Matsumoto in Kimura et al. 2015:9 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:103 [ref. 34104], Dyldin 2015:74 [ref. 34524], Last et al. 2016:533 [ref. 34245], Weigmann 2016:139 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34581], Borsa & Béarez 2016:255 [ref. 34820], Last et al. 2016:587 [ref. 35010], Borsa 2017:3 [ref. 35149], Koeda et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35333], Borsa et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35563], White et al. 2017:241 [ref. 35860], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178]). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Southwest Pacific: Solomon Islands endemic [ref. 35010]. Formerly Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Philippines and Mariana Islands, north to Hokkaido (Japan), south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

kunsua, Pastinaca Cuvier [G.] 1829:400 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No types known. Available from footnote as, "P. kunsua, N., Tenkee kunsu, Russel, I, 6." Also appeared in Cuvier 1831:294 [ref. 30376]. •Synonym of Gymnura poecilura (Shaw 1804) -- (Muktha et al. 2016:[2] [ref. 34680] as kunsa). Current status: Synonym of Gymnura poecilura (Shaw 1804). Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

laevigatus, Dasyatis Chu [Y.-T.] 1960:170, Figs. 160-162 [Cartilaginous fishes of China; ref. 21272] Shanghai fish market, Dongfushan, and Huaniao, China. Not given. Syntypes: 154,103-8 (2-4. 6-8) (5). Specific name laevigatus is an adjective. •Valid as Dasyatis laevigatus Chu 1960 -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1990:338 [ref. 20166], Cheng & Zhou 1997:51 [ref. 26385], Nakabo 2000:182 [ref. 25086]). •Valid as Dasyatis laevigata Chu 1960 -- (Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:182 [ref. 26001], Weigmann 2016:130 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hemitrygon laevigata (Chu 1960) -- (Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:555 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Hemitrygon laevigata (Chu 1960). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan to Taiwan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

laevior, Urogymnus Annandale [N.] 1909:37 [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 126] Near shore of Malpe, southern Canara on Malabar coast, Karnataka State, India. Syntypes: FCRM uncat. (ex MAD) (stuffed skin) (1). Other syntypes not preserved. •Synonym of Urogymnus polylepis (Bleeker 1852). Current status: Synonym of Urogymnus polylepis (Bleeker 1852). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

laevis, Pastinaca Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:11 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Atlantic coasts of Europe. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.200 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:205 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:70 [ref. 7167], Wheeler 1958:205 [ref. 13434], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:61 [ref. 19317]). Current status: Synonym of Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

laosensis, Dasyatis Roberts [T. R.] & Karnasuta [J.] 1987:162, Fig. 1 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 20 (no. 3); ref. 9122] Mekong River, Chiang Kham District, Chieng Rai Province, Thailand. Holotype: BMNH 1985.9.26.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1985.9.26.2 (1); NIFI 0132 (1), 01671-72 (1, 1); NRM 36612 (1). •Valid as Amphotistius laosensis (Roberts & Karnasuta 1987) -- (Rainboth 1996:53 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Dasyatis laoensis Roberts & Karnasuta 1987 -- (Kottelat 1998:20 [ref. 23436], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Kottelat 2001:25 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:26 [ef. 32989], Weigmann 2016:130 [ref. 34211], Zhang et al. 2016:44 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Hemitrygon laosensis (Roberts & Karnasuta 1987) -- (Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:556 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Hemitrygon laosensis (Roberts & Karnasuta 1987). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

lata, Trygon Garman [S.] 1880:170 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 6 (no. 11); ref. 17881] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MCZ 129-S. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlv [ref. 23119]. •Valid as Dasyatis latus (Garman 1880) -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1990:337 [ref. 20166]). •Valid as Dasyatis lata (Garman 1880) -- (Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], Mundy 2005:105 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:43 [ref. 30952], Weigmann 2016:130 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880) -- (Last et al. 2016:354 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:532 [ref. 35010], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178]). Current status: Valid as Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific including Hawaii Islands, eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

latiflima, Raja Rafinesque [C. S.] 1817:453 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 1; ref. 18585] Not available, name only; from Long I., New York, U.S.A. Dasyatidae.

leoparda, Himantura Manjaji-Matsumoto [B. M.] & Last [P. R.] 2008:294, Figs. 1-4, 5A [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022; ref. 29695] Northwest of Weipa, Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland, Australia, 12°08'S, 139°58'E, depth 46 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 2903-01. Paratypes: CAS 213820 (1); CSIRO H 635-02 (1), H 3863-01(2), H 3903-02 (claspers), H 4131-01 (1), H 5284-05 (parts saved), H 5478-01 (1), H 5585-02 (right clasper); IPMB 38.01.04 (1); NTM S 10765-002 (1). Plus literature records. •Valid as Himantura leoparda Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2008 -- (Last et al. 2008:303 [ref. 29696], Last el al. 2010:200 [ref. 32461], Borsa et al. 2013:87 [ref. 32736], Larson et al. 2013:19 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:362 [ref. 33045], Psomadakis et al. 2015:101 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:136 [ref. 34211], Miesen et al. 2016:80 [ref. 34492], Last et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:386 [ref. 34638], Last et al. 2016:562 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:230 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:55 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Himantura leoparda Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2008. Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa, Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

lessoni, Taeniura Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Naylor [G.] 2016:387, Figs. 8-12 [Zootaxa 4147 (no. 4); ref. 34638] Landoro Passage off Uepi Island, Marovo Lagoon, Solomon Islands, approximately 8°25.6'S, 157°55.7'E, depth 2-3 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 7724-01. Paratypes: CSIRO, QM, USNM. •Valid as Taeniura lessoni Last, White & Naylor 2016 -- (Last et al. 2016:605 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:258 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:61 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Taeniura lessoni Last, White & Naylor 2016. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

leylandi, Dasyatis Last [P. R.] 1987:59, Fig. 2 [Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 17690] North of Forestier Island, Western Australia, 19°28'S, 118°24'E, depth 54 meters. Holotype: CSIRO CA 2806. Paratypes: CSIRO CA 1249 (1), CA 3232 (1), CA 3246 (1), CA 4282 (1), T 674-676 (1, 1, 1), T 681 (1), T 683 (1); NMV A1869 (1, not on shelves in 1997). •Valid as Dasyatis leylandi Last 1987 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:26 [ref. 25477], Last & Stevens 1994:393 [ref. 23873], Allen 1997:46 [ref. 23977], Last & Compagno 1999:1500 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Santos & Carvalho 2004:17 [ref. 28040], Paxton et al. 2006:192 [ref. 28995]). •Valid as Neotrygon leylandi (Last 1987) -- (Last & White 2008:315 [ref. 29697], Last et al. 2010:47 [ref. 30793], Borsa et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32770], Larson et al. 2013:20 [ref. 32988], Last et al. 2016:558 [ref. 34245], Weigmann 2016:139 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:588 [ref. 35010], Borsa 2017:3 [ref. 35149]). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon leylandi (Last 1987). Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Western Australia, Australia. Habitat: marine.

liocephalus, Trygon Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:678 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype: ZMB 8083. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:178 [ref. 21041]. •Synonym of Dasyatis gerrardi (Gray 1851) -- (Dor 1984:17 [ref. 29757]). •Senior synonym of Pateobatis fai (Jordan & Seale 1906) but junior name widely in use -- (Last et al. 2016:77 [ref. 34669]). Current status: Synonym of Pateobatis fai (Jordan & Seale 1906). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: marine.

lobistoma, Himantura Manjaji-Matsumoto [B. M.] & Last [P. R.] 2006:291, Figs. 1-5 [Ichthyological Research v. 53 (no. 3); ref. 28776] Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia, 3°10'N, 113°01'E. Holotype: SMEC 369. Paratypes: CSIRO H 5472-01 (1), H 5485-01 (1), H 6214-03 (1); IPMB 38.32.02 (1); SMEC 370 (1), 371 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Himantura lobistoma Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2006 -- (Last el al. 2010:202 [ref. 32461], Weigmann 2016:136 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Urogymnus lobistoma (Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2006) -- (Last et al. 2016:363 [ref. 34581] as lobistomus, Last et al. 2016:174 [ref. 34634] as lobistomus, Last et al. 2016:617 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Urogymnus lobistoma (Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2006). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Indo-Malay Archipelago: Borneo and eastern Sumatra. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longa, Trygon Garman [S.] 1880:170 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 6 (no. 11); ref. 17881] Acapulco, Mexico; Panama. Syntypes: MCZ 126-S (1) Acapulco, 554-S (1) Panama. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlv [ref. 23119]. •Valid as Dasyatis longus (Garman 1880) -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1990:337 [ref. 20166], Allen & Robertson 1994:34 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:26 [ref. 23101], Acero P. & Franke 1995:15 [ref. 22546], McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:754 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:45 [ref. 22793], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:35 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:118 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:65 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:75 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447]). •Valid as Dasyatis longa (Garman 1880) -- (Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Last & White 2008:280 [ref. 29693], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:128 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:130 [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). •Valid as Hypanus longus (Garman 1880) -- (Last et al. 2016:356 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:568 [ref. 35010], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Hypanus longus (Garman 1880). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific, including Galapagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

longicauda, Dasyatis Last [P. R.] & White [W. T.] 2013:3, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa 3722 (no. 1); ref. 32949] Beach at Merauke, West Papua, Indonesia, 8°31'S, 140°22'E, depth less than 0.5 meter. Holotype: MZB 21462. Paratypes: CSIRO and MZB. •Valid as Dasyatis longicauda Last & White 2013 -- (Weigmann 2016:130 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hemitrygon longicauda (Last & White 2013) -- (Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:557 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:226 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:53 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Hemitrygon longicauda (Last & White 2013). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: West Papua and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

longicaudatus, Raia (Trygonobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Dasyatidae.

lubricus, Dasyatis Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:429, Pl. 15 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 10 (no. 114); ref. 12174] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 431. Paratypes: (1) not researched. •Synonym of Dasyatis thetidis Ogilby 1899 -- (Compagno 1986:137 [ref. 5648], Gomon et al. 1994:184 [ref. 22532]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880) -- (Last et al. 2016:354 [ref. 34581]). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lymma, Raja Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:17, viii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. No types known. Spelled lymnia by Bonnaterre 1788:5 [ref. 4940]. Sometimes misspelled lymna. •Valid as Taeniura lymma (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:19 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1986:141 [ref. 5648], Allen & Swainston 1988:28 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:43 [ref. 12442], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783] as lymna, Randall et al. 1990:29 [ref. 15987], Last & Stevens 1994:411 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:47 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:79 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:48 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:346 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:22 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:29 [ref. 25919], Last & Compagno 1999:1495 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:105 [ref. 27511] as lymna, Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:51 [ref. 27735], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:84 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:19 [ref. 28239], Compagno et al. 2005:75 [ref. 29145], Paxton et al. 2006:195 [ref. 28995], Last el al. 2010:232 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:347 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:65 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:77 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013:21 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:363 [ref. 33045], Yoshida et al. 2013:16 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:411 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:15 [ref. 33932], Manjaji-Matsumoto in Kimura et al. 2015:9 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:104 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:141 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:359 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:393 [ref. 34638], Last et al. 2016:606 [ref. 35010], Motomura et al. 2017:26 [ref. 35490], White et al. 2017:260 [ref. 35860], Fricke et al. 2018:26 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:16 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:61 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Taeniura lymma (Forsskål 1775). Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, north to Philippines, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalma, Dasyatis Gomes [U. L.], Rosa [R. S.] & Gadig [O. B. F.] 2000:510 [Copeia 2000 (no. 2); ref. 24451] Appeared by mistake in title in a paper describing Dasyatis marianae. Rosa et al. 2000:889 [ref. 24588] pointed out that this was a typesetting error; however they acted as first revisers selecting marianae over macrophthalma, an action that was probably not needed since the species was spelled marianae throughout, except for the obvious lapsus in the title. •In the synonymy of Hypanus marianae (Gomes, Rosa & Gadig 2000). Current status: Synonym of Hypanus marianae (Gomes, Rosa & Gadig 2000). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

macrurus, Trygon Bleeker [P.] 1852:74 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta and Semarang, Java, Indonesia; Padang, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: (6) BMNH 1867.11.28.160 (1); RMNH 7442 (1 or more of 3), 8008 (2 syntypes), 8009 (1 or more of 5); NMV A949 (1); SMNS 10594 (1 syntype). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:14 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:34 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Himantura gerrardi (Gray 1851) -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1487 [ref. 24639], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:48 [ref. 27735], Last el al. 2010:193 [ref. 32461], Weigmann 2016:135 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Maculabatis macrura (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34669], Last et al. 2016:578 [ref. 35010], Manjaji-Matsumoto in Kimura et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Maculabatis macrura (Bleeker 1852). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia and Vietnam to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Trygon Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1852:70 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in the synonymy of Trygon uarnak (Forsskal 1775). •In the synonymy of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kottelat 2013:27 [ref. 32989] with author as Bleeker). Current status: Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae.

maculatus, Dasyatis Miyosi [Y.] 1939:94, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan v. 9 (no. 5); ref. 17204] Off Hyuga Nada, east coast of Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, depth 40-60 meters. Holotype (unique): MGHSJ (whereabouts unknown). Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

malaccensis, Neotrygon Borsa [P.], Arlyza [I. S.], Hoareau [T. B.] & Shen [K.-N.] 2017:[8], Fig. 2b [Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology; ref. 35563] Fish landing site at Kuala Lama, northeastern Sumatra Island, 03°26'N, 99°16'E. Holotype: MZB 20847. Paratypes: MZB. Questionably valid: based exclusively on DNA. •Valid as Neotrygon malaccensis Borsa, Arlyza, Hoareau & Shen 2017. Current status: Valid as Neotrygon malaccensis Borsa, Arlyza, Hoareau & Shen 2017. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Malacca Strait and eastern Andaman Sea (Thailand). Habitat: marine.

margarita, Trygon Günther [A.] 1870:479 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] West Africa. Lectotype: BMNH 1865.7.4.1. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1852.8.30.23 (1). Lectotype selected by Compagno & Roberts 1984:287 [ref. 8237]. •Valid as Dasyatis margarita (Günther 1870) -- (Compagno & Roberts 1984:4 [ref. 6167], Compagno & Roberts 1984:287 [ref. 8237], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:60 [ref. 19317], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:73 [ref. 21589], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Santos & Carvalho 2004:16 [ref. 28040], Carvalho et al. 2007:162 [ref. 30012], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Weigmann 2016:130 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1410 [ref. 34545]). •Valid as Fontitrygon margarita (Günther 1870) -- (Last et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:548 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Fontitrygon margarita (Günther 1870). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

margaritella, Dasyatis Compagno [L. J. V.] & Roberts [T. R.] 1984:290, Figs. 2b, 3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 43 (no. 18); ref. 8237] Mbode, Cameroon Republic. Holotype: CAS-SU 68915. Paratypes: CAS-SU 68916 (2). Additional material: AMNH 41515 (1); BMNH 1852.8.30.23 (1), 1914.11.2.75 (1), 1920.8.12.1 (1), 1937.4.19.4 (1); ISH 141 to 142-1962 (6), 183-1963 (2), 295-1959 (1); USNM 222590-91 (6, 2), 222593 (4). •Valid as Dasyatis margaritella Compagno & Roberts 1974 -- (Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:72 [ref. 21589], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], Santos & Carvalho 2004:16 [ref. 28040], Carvalho et al. 2007:163 [ref. 30012], Weigmann 2016:130 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1411 [ref. 34545]). •Valid as Fontitrygon margaritella (Compagno & Roberts 1984) -- (Last et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:549 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Fontitrygon margaritella (Compagno & Roberts 1984). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginatus, Trygon Blyth [E.] 1860:38 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 16970] Calcutta fish market, India. No types known. •Valid as Himantura marginata (Blyth 1860) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:46 [ref. 20764], Last & Compagno 1999:1502 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Khan 2003:6 [ref. 27710], Weigmann 2016:136 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Himantura marginata (Blyth 1860). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Indian Ocean, possibly western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginipinnis, Discobatis Miklouho-Maclay [N. de] & Macleay [W.] 1886:676, Pl. 46 (figs. 7-15) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 10 (pt 4); ref. 2996] Sorry Island or Wild Island, Nares Harbor, northwest coast of Admiralty Islands. Holotype (unique): specimen not preserved. Based on descriptions and drawings of a specimen seen by Maclay, specimen not preserved and no parts taken. •Synonym of Taeniura lymma (Forsskål 1775) -- (Last et al. 2016:394 [ref. 34638]). Current status: Synonym of Taeniura lymma (Forsskål 1775). Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Habitat: marine.

marianae, Dasyatis Gomes [U. L.], Rosa [R. S.] & Gadig [O. B. F.] 2000:510, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2000 (no. 2); ref. 24451] Western South Atlantic, off Recife, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 7967. Paratypes: AMNH 3882 (1); MNRJ 7418 (1), 13454 (1); MZUSP 55475-76 (1, 2); UFRJ 1700 (1); UEFS 106 (1), 472 (1); UFPB 663 (1), 2661 (1), 2790 (1), 3283 (1), 4238 (1); ZUEC 3149 (1). Listed by mistake as Dasyatis macrophthalma in title (see Rosa et al. 2000:889 [ref. 24588]) -- clearly a typesetting error and first reviser action by Rosa et al. 2000:889 [ref. 24588] probably was not needed. •Valid as Dasyatis marianae Gomes, Rosa & Gadig 2000 -- (Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27192], Santos et al. 2004:2 [ref. 27848], Santos & Carvalho 2004:14 [ref. 28040], Weigmann 2016:131 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hypanus marianae (Gomes, Rosa & Gadig 2000) -- (Last et al. 2016:356 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:569 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Hypanus marianae (Gomes, Rosa & Gadig 2000). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marinus, Dasybatus Garman [S.] 1913:382, Pls. 33 (1-2), 44 (7), 53 (5) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MCZ 990S (1, missing). Not intended as new, but validates a pre-Linnaean name. •Synonym of Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill 1815) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:71 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:60 [ref. 19317]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marmorata, Trygon pastinaca var. Steindachner [F.] 1892:381 [25], Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 59 (1. Abth.); ref. 14517] Bay of Gorée, Senegal, western Africa. Holotype (unique): NMW 89680. On p. 25 of separate. •Synonym of Dasyatis chrysonota (Smith 1828), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Cowley & Compagno 1993:146 [ref. 21968]). •Valid as Dasyatis marmorata (Steindachner 1892) -- (Compagno & Roberts 1984:285 [ref. 8237], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:61 [ref. 19317], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:96 [ref. 25472], Capapé et al. 1999:53 [ref. 25276], Santos & Carvalho 2004:17 [ref. 28040], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:82 [ref. 28072], Psomadakis et al. 2012:15 [ref. 33457], Weigmann 2016:131 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Séret 2016:1412 [ref. 34545], Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Saadaoui et al. 2016:101 [ref. 34799], Last et al. 2016:539 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Dasyatis marmorata (Steindachner 1892). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

matsubarai, Dasyatis Miyosi [Y.] 1939:96, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan v. 9 (no. 5); ref. 17204] Off Hyuga Nada, east coast of Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, depth 40-60 meters. Holotype (unique): MGHSJ (whereabouts unknown). •Valid as Dasyatis matsubarai Miyosi 1939 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:15 [ref. 6441], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:338 [ref. 20166], Senou & Masuda 1998:6 [ref. 24388], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:181 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:181 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:70, 485 [ref. 26218], Santos & Carvalho 2004:14 [ref. 28040], Mundy 2005:106 [ref. 28379], Parin et al. 2014:39 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:73 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:131 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Synonym of Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Hutton 1875) -- (Last et al. 2016:354 [ref. 34581], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:173 [ref. 35920]). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Hutton 1875). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

mattana, Raja pastinaca var. Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 109 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Trygon brucco Bonaparte [as Trigon bracco]; also not available in Ninni 1872:28 [ref. 17995]. Dasyatidae.

melanospilos, Taeniura Bleeker [P.] 1853:513 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7453. •Valid as Taeniura melanospilos Bleeker 1853 -- (Dor 1984:19 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:16 [ref. 6441] as melanospila, Compagno 1986:141 [ref. 5648], Allen & Swainston 1988:28 [ref. 25477] as melanospila, Paxton et al. 1989:43 [ref. 12442] as melanospila, Randall et al. 1990:30 [ref. 15987] as melanospila, Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:80 [ref. 27969] as melanospila, Chen et al. 1997:8 [ref. 26476] dated 1866, Fricke 1999:30 [ref. 24106] as melanospilos, Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122]). •Synonym of Taeniura meyeni Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Last & Stevens 1994:413 [ref. 23873], Randall 1995:47 [ref. 22896], Last & Compagno 1999:1496 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:51 [ref. 27735], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:84 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:20 [ref. 28239], Compagno et al. 2005:75 [ref. 29145], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:316 [ref. 28867], Paxton et al. 2006:195 [ref. 28995], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264]). •Synonym of Taeniurops meyeni (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Last el al. 2010:235 [ref. 32461], Ali et al. 2018:304 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:16 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Taeniurops meyeni (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

meyeni, Taeniura Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:172, [Pl. 55] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes (2): MNHN 0000-2428 (1) Mauritius, ZMB 4660 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:87 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:19 [ref. 9312], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:178 [ref. 21041]. •Valid as Taeniura meyeni Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Last & Stevens 1994:412 [ref. 23873], Randall 1995:47 [ref. 22896], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], Allen 1997:48 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:119 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:22 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:30 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:39 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:32 [ref. 24106], Last & Compagno 1999:1496 [ref. 24639], Johnson 1999:718 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:177 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:101 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:27 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:177 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:51 [ref. 27735], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:84 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:20 [ref. 28239], Compagno et al. 2005:75 [ref. 29145], Paxton et al. 2006:195 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2009:12 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:14 [ref. 304326], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:347 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:65 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:21 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Taeniurops meyeni (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Last el al. 2010:234 [ref. 32461], Ebert et al. 2013:364 [ref. 33045], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:104 [ref. 34104], Lim et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34441], Weigmann 2016:141 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:357 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:608 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:262 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:304 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:27 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:16 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:62 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Taeniurops meyeni (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marquesas Islands, north to Korea, southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland (Australia), Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island and New Caledonia; also Galápagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

microphthalmus, Dasyatis Chen [J. T. F.] 1948:8, Fig. 6 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 13046] Keelung market, northern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:20 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Himantura microphthalma (Chen 1948) -- (Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Ho & Shao 2011:20 [ref. 31432] as microphthalmus). •Probably not in Himantura ; possibly close to Dasyatis acutirostra Nishida & Nakaya 1988 -- (Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2006:295 [ref. 28776]). •Valid as Dasyatis microphthalma Chen 1948 -- (Ebert et al. 2013:360 [ref. 33045] with question, Weigmann 2016:132 [ref. 34211]). •Possibly valid as Telatrygon microphthalma (Chen 1948). Current status: Uncertain as Telatrygon microphthalma (Chen 1948). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan or East China Sea area. Habitat: marine.

microps, Trygon Annandale [N.] 1908:393, Pl. 27 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 2 (pt 4) (art. 38); ref. 14301] Bay of Bengal, off Chittagong coast, depth 17 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F2410/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:97 [ref. 20743]. •Valid as Dasyatis microps (Annandale 1908) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:76 [ref. 27969], Adam et al. 1998:7 [ref. 23610], Last & Compagno 1999:1501 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Paxton et al. 2006:192 [ref. 28995], Last el al. 2010:182 [ref. 32461], Larson et al. 2013:18 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989], Bineesh et al. 2014:1267 [ref. 33218], Weigmann 2016:132 [ref. 34211]). •Probably not in Dasyatis -- (Lim et al. 2015:10 [ref. 34441]). •Valid as Megatrygon microps (Annandale 1908) -- (Last et al. 2016:356 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:583 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:236 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:56 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Megatrygon microps (Annandale 1908). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Persian Gulf east to Indonesia and New Guinea, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

moluccensis, Neotrygon Borsa [P.], Arlyza [I. S.], Hoareau [T. B.] & Shen [K.-N.] 2017:[9], Fig. 2c [Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology; ref. 35563] LIPI laboratories in Tual, Kei Islands, 05°38'S, 132°44'E. Holotype: MZB 20866. Paratypes: MZB. Questionably valid: based exclusively on DNA. •Valid as Neotrygon moluccensis Borsa, Arlyza, Hoareau & Shen 2017. Current status: Valid as Neotrygon moluccensis Borsa, Arlyza, Hoareau & Shen 2017. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Moluccas, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

moro, Raja pastinaca var. Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 109 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy. Also not available from Ninni 1872:28 [ref. 17995] where Chiereghini manuscript is quoted but name not treated as valid. Dasyatidae.

mortoni, Taeniura Macleay [W.] 1883:212 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 14342] Lower Burdekin River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS (lost). •Synonym of Hypolophus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:43 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Taeniura meyeni Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Last & Stevens 1994:413 [ref. 23873], Paxton et al. 2006:195 [ref. 28995]). •Synonym of Taeniurops meyeni (Müller & Henle 1841). Current status: Synonym of Taeniurops meyeni (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

multispinosus, Urolophoides Tokarev [A. K.] in Lindbergh & Legheza 1959:142 [135], Figs. 89-90 [Opredeliteli Faune SSSR No. 68; ref. 12034] 140 miles south of Cape Gamov, Sea of Japan, depth over 3000 meters. Holotype (unique): not at ZIN. On p. 135 of English translation [ref. 18939]. •Synonym of Dasyatis matsubarai Myosi 1939 -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1990:340 [ref. 20166], Dyldin 2015:74 [ref. 34524]). •Valid as Dasyatis multispinosa (Tokarev 1959) -- (Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Parin et al. 2014:39 [ref. 33547], Weigmann 2016:132 [ref. 34211]). • Synonym of Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Hutton 1875) -- (Dyldin & Orlov 2018:173 [ref. 35920]). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Hutton 1875). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Sea of Japan (if valid). Habitat: marine.

navarrae, Trygon Steindachner [F.] 1892:381 [25] [132], Pl. 5 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 59 (1. Abth.); ref. 14517] Shanghai, China. Holotype (unique): NMW 76571. On p. 25 of separate; on p. 132 of abstract. •Valid as Dasyatis navarrae (Steindachner 1892) -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1990:338 [ref. 20166], Cheng & Zhou 1997:52 [ref. 26385], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Santos et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27848], Weigmann 2016:132 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hemitrygon navarrae (Steindachner 1892) -- (Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:558 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Hemitrygon navarrae (Steindachner 1892). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ningalooensis, Neotrygon Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Puckridge [M.] 2010:39, Figs. 1, 2A, 3-6, 7A [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 16 (no. 2); ref. 30793] Five Fingers Reef, Coral Bay, Western Australia, 23°10'S, 113°45'E, Australia, depth 3 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 6827-01. Paratypes: CSIRO H 6826-01 (1). Plus non-type specimens and observation. •Valid as Neotrygon ningalooensis Last, White & Puckridge 2010 -- (Naylor et al. 2012:77 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Borsa et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32770], Last et al. 2016:558 [ref. 34245], Weigmann 2016:139 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:589 [ref. 35010], Borsa 2017:3 [ref. 35149]). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon ningalooensis Last, White & Puckridge 2010. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Western Australia and northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

nuda, Trygon Günther [A.] 1870:476 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Indian seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1845.3.7.19-20 (2) Singapore, 1851.10.4.101 (1, dry), 1953.8.10.16 (1, dry). Based on literature sources and specimens. •Synonym of Himantura walga (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Weigmann 2016:138 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Brevitrygon walga (Müller & Henle 1841). Current status: Synonym of Brevitrygon walga (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: marine.

obtusa, Raja Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Klunzinger 1871:680 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Red Sea. Not available, name mentioned in synonymy. •In the synonymy of Dasyatis imbricata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:17 [ref. 29757]). •In the synonymy of Himantura imbricata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Brevitrygon imbricata (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Brevitrygon imbricata (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae.

olivacea, Pastinaca Swainson [W.] 1839:319 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Yarrell, ii. 442 and Bloch, pl. 82. •Synonym of Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1990:61 [ref. 19317]). Current status: Synonym of Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ommescherit, Raja Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:ix [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Red Sea. No types known. Originally as omm es scherit. •Questionably a synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: marine.

orientale, Neotrygon Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Serét [B.] 2016:553, Figs. 5d, 6d, 7d, 12 [Zootaxa 4083 (no. 4); ref. 34245] Muara Kintap, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, 3°54.26'S, 115°15.53'E. Holotype: MZB (ex CSIRO H 7858-01). Paratypes: CSIRO. Plus other non-type material. The specific name is an adjective and, in combination with the feminine gender of Neotrygon, it should be orientalis. •Valid as Neotrygon orientalis Last, White & Serét 2016 -- (Last et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:590 [ref. 35010], Borsa 2017:3 [ref. 35149] as orientale, Motomura et al. 2017:26 [ref. 35490], Borsa et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35563] as orientale). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon orientalis Last, White & Serét 2016. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Indonesia, Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

ornatus, Trygon Gray [J. E.] 1830:no page number, Pl. 99 [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] Possibly Singapore. No types known. Published about 30 Mar. 1830. Printed on plate is: "Published 1829 by Parbury Allen & Co., Leadenhall Street". Type locality believed to be Singapore, as printed on the plate. As Trygon ornatum on list of plates (see account of Anaora tenataculata), but list apparently published in 1832. •Synonym of Taeniura lymma (Forsskål 1775) -- (Compagno et al. 2005:75 [ref. 29145] dated 1832, Paxton et al. 2006:195 [ref. 28995], Last el al. 2010:233 [ref. 32461]). Current status: Synonym of Taeniura lymma (Forsskål 1775). Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Habitat: marine.

osteosticta, Trygon Müller [J.] in Ermann 1835:25, Pl. 14 (figs. 1-2) [Reise um die Erde durch Nord-Asien und die beiden Oceane; ref. 20262] Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2620 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:86 [ref. 20739], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:178 [ref. 21041]. •Probable synonym of Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Uncertain as Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

oxydontus, Raia (Trygonobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Dasyatidae.

oxyrhynchus, Trygon (Himantura) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:91 [6] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 2; ref. 19968] Saigon, southern Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9639. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:86 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:19 [ref. 9312]. Specific name is a noun. •Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 1984:794 [ref. 11440]). •Valid as Himantura oxyrhyncha (Sauvage 1878) -- (Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Deynat & Fermon 2001:163 [ref. 25563], Vidthayanon & Roberts 2006:124 [ref. 28695], Last el al. 2010:204 [ref. 32461], Naylor et al. 2012:71 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Weigmann 2016:136 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Himantura oxyrhynchus (Sauvage 1878) -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1503 [ref. 24639], Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Fluvitrygon oxyrhynchus (Sauvage 1878) -- (Last et al. 2016:360 [ref. 34581] as oxyrhyncha, Last et al. 2016:543 [ref. 35010], Iqbal et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35489]). Current status: Valid as Fluvitrygon oxyrhynchus (Sauvage 1878). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Cambodia, Thailand, Sumatra and Borneo. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pareh, Trygon Bleeker [P.] 1852:71 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.155. •Valid as Himantura pareh (Bleeker 1852) -- (Morón et al. 1999:153 [ref. 24253] as pareh A and B, Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Last el al. 2010:207 [ref. 32461]). •Synonym of Himantura pastinacoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Weigmann 2016:136 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Maculabatis pastinacoides (Bleeker, 1852). Current status: Synonym of Maculabatis pastinacoides (Bleeker 1852). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: marine.

parvonigra, Dasyatis Last [P. R.] & White [W. T.] 2008:276, Figs. 1-4 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022; ref. 29693] North of Cape Lambert, Western Australia, 19°06'S, 117°09'E, depth 178-183 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 1036-15. Paratypes: CSIRO CA 4125 (1), H 1512-03 (1); WAM P 29790-001 (1). Plus one non-type specimen. •Valid as Dasyatis parvonigra Last & White 2008 -- (Last el al. 2010:184 [ref. 32461], Weigmann 2016:132 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hemitrygon parvonigra (Last & White 2008) -- (Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:559 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Hemitrygon parvonigra (Last & White 2008). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: East Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pastinaca, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:232 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic [original: "in Europa"]; localities include Belgium, North Sea, Northeastern Atlantic; Provence and Marseille, France; Liguria, Rome and Sicily, Italy; Lesbos, Greece; Syria, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: NRM 9098 (1). Lectotype or neotype fixation needed. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:18 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Originally based on multiple species and at least 25 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:71 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:100 [ref. 30349] as Raja corpore glabro, aculeo longo anterius serrato in cauda apterygia; Rondeletius 1554:331 [ref. 30354] and Salviani 1558:144 [ref. 30229] as Pastinaca, Willughby 1686:67 [ref. 30164] as Pastinaca marina prima, Ray 1713:24 [ref. 30231] as Pastinaca marina lævis. See also Cowley & Compagno 1993:135 [ref. 21968]. A neotype (unnamed) for D. pastinaca is proposed by Saadaoui et al. 2016:110 [ref. 34799] but it is unneeded as there is a syntype if identified correctly. •Valid as Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:70 [ref. 7167], Capapé 1977:76 [ref. 20631], Compagno & Roberts 1984:285 [ref. 8237], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:199 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1986:137 [ref. 5648], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:61 [ref. 19317], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:67 [ref. 21589], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Santos et al. 1997:15 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:23 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:31 [ref. 24106], Capapé et al. 1999:47 [ref. 25276], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Fricke 1999:18 [ref. 24101], Menni & Stehmann 2000:91 [ref. 24909], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:25 [ref. 26753], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808], Santos & Carvalho 2004:17 [ref. 28040], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:82 [ref. 28072], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:20 [ref. 29533], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:163 [ref. 31251], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:57 [ref. 35264], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:39 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:74 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:133 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1413 [ref. 34545], Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Saadaoui et al. 2016:101 [ref. 34799], Last et al. 2016:540 [ref. 35010], Nión et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic including Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pastinacoides, Trygon Bleeker [P.] 1852:75 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.161. Original as pastinacoïdes. •Valid as Himantura pastinacoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Last et al. 2006:31 [ref. 28719], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2006:295 [ref. 28776], Last el al. 2010:206 [ref. 32461], Last et al. 2012:30 [ref. 31993], Naylor et al. 2012:69 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Weigmann 2016:136 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Maculabatis pastinacoides (Bleeker, 1852) -- (Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 34581], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2016:351 [ref. 34624], Last et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34669], Last et al. 2016:579 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Maculabatis pastinacoides (Bleeker 1852). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Borneo, Sumatra and Java. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pennanti, Dasybatis Bonaparte [C. L.] 1846:13 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano 7a Adunanza, Napoli, Part 2; ref. 519] Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

picta, Neotrygon Last [P. R.] & White [W. T.] 2008:316, Figs. 1-4 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022; ref. 29697] East of Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, 23°15'S, 151°15'E, depth 27 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 5771-01. Paratypes: 12 specimens at CSIRO and NTM. Plus extensive non-type material. •Valid as Neotrygon picta Last & White 2008 -- (Last et al. 2010:47 [ref. 30793], Borsa et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32770], Larson et al. 2013:20 [ref. 32988], Last et al. 2016:558 [ref. 34245], Weigmann 2016:139 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:591 [ref. 35010], Borsa 2017:3 [ref. 35149], White et al. 2017:242 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:58 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon picta Last & White 2008. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Papua New Guinea and Australia, including Timor and Arafura seas. Habitat: marine.

pinnatus, Raia (Trygonobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Dasyatidae.

polylepis, Trygon Bleeker [P.] 1852:73 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7452. •Synonym of Dasyatis imbricata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:17 [ref. 29757]). •A senior synonym of Himantura chaophraya Monkolprasit & Roberts 1991 -- (Last & Manjaji-Matsumo 2008:289 [ref. 29694] = valid as Himantura polylepis (Bleeker 1852)), Last el al. 2010:208 [ref. 32461]. •Valid as Himantura polylepis (Bleeker 1852) -- (Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989], Weigmann 2016:136 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Urogymnus polylepis (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last et al. 2016:363 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:174 [ref. 34634], Iqbal & Yustian 2016:333 [ref. 34942], Last et al. 2016:618 [ref. 35010], Iqbal et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35489]). Current status: Valid as Urogymnus polylepis (Bleeker 1852). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: India, Thailand, Java, Borneo and Sumatra. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ponapensis, Trygon Günther [A.] 1910:493, Pl. 180 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 17); ref. 14460] Kabary, Ponape [Pohnpei], Caroline Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.22.105. •Synonym of Himantura granulata (Macleay 1883) -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1488 [ref. 24639], Compagno et al. 2005:72 [ref. 29145], Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay 1883). Current status: Synonym of Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay 1883). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctata, Trygon Günther [A.] 1870:474 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] ? East Indian Archipelago. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1953.8.10.15. •Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789) [author also seen as Forster 1775] -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1491 [ref. 24639], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:49 [ref. 27735], Kottelat 2013:27 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

purpurea, Trygon Smith [A.] in Müller & Henle 1841:160, [Pl. 52] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] No locality [South Africa]. No types known. Based on a drawing by A. Smith (BMNH). •Synonym of Dasyatis violacea (Bonaparte 1832) -- (Compagno 1986:137 [ref. 5648], Scott & Scott 1988:58 [ref. 25518]). •Valid as Dasyatis purpurea (Smith 1841) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:5 [ref. 13251]). •Synonym of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte 1832) -- (Weigmann 2016:140 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte 1832). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Himantura Last [P. R.], Manjaji-Matsumoto [B. M.] & Moore [A. B. M.] 2012:21, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa No. 3327; ref. 31993] Sharq fish market, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 29°23'N, 47°58'E, Persion Gulf. Holotype: CSIRO H 7254-01. Paratypes: BPBM 29480 (1), 33201 (2); CSIRO H 7296-01 (1) MTUF 20642 (1). •Valid as Himantura randalli Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto & Moore 2012 -- (Psomadakis et al. 2015:102 [ref. 34104] as cf. randalli, Weigmann 2016:136 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Maculabatis randalli (Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto & Moore 2012) -- (Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 34581], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2016:351 [ref. 34624], Last et al. 2016:75 [ref. 34669], Last et al. 2016:580 [ref. 35010], Ali et al. 2018:304 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Maculabatis randalli (Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto & Moore 2012). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: marine.

rhinoceros, Brachioptera Gratzianov [V. I.] 1906:401, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 30 (no. 13/14); ref. 1869] Singapore. Holotype (unique): ZMMU P-1415 (not present). Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

rhombeus, Urogymnus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:683 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: (2) SMNS 1630 (1, not found, probably lost), ZMB 10864 (1, dry). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:9 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:35 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Urogymnus africanus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:20 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:52 [ref. 27735]). Current status: Synonym of Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rudis, Trygon Günther [A.] 1870:479 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Old Calabar River, Nigeria. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1982.4.20.52 (dry). •Valid as Dasyatis rudis (Günther 1870) -- (Springer & Collette 1971:338 [ref. 21157], Compagno & Roberts 1984:285 [ref. 8237], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:62 [ref. 19317], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:66 [ref. 21589], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Santos et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27848], Santos & Carvalho 2004:17 [ref. 28040], Carvalho et al. 2007:155 [ref. 30012], Weigmann 2016:133 [ref. 34211] possibly invalid, Séret 2016:1419 [ref. 34545]). •Valid as Hypanus rudis (Günther 1870) -- (Last et al. 2016:356 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:570 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Hypanus rudis (Günther 1870). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

russellianus, Raia (Trygonobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Dasyatidae.

russellii, Trygon Gray [J. E.] 1834:no page number, Pl. 100 [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] India. Published about 1 Oct. 1834. Printed on plate [but not investigated by us] is: Published 1829 by Parbury Allen & Co., Leadenhall Str., London. •Questionably the same as (juvenile of) Himantura leoparda Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2008 -- (Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2008:300 [ref. 29695]) Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: marine.

sabina, Trygon Lesueur [C. A.] 1824:109 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 17520] Florida, U.S.A. Lesueur specimens: ?MNHN 0000-2437 (1) New Orleans. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:86 [ref. 20739]. •Valid as Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur 1824) -- (Lee et al. 1980:37 [ref. 22416], Snelson et al. 1988 [ref. 13790], Robins & Ray 1986:41 [ref. 23100], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Boschung 1992:27 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:43 [ref. 22793], Murdy et al. 1997:47 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:177 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Gomes et al. 2000:514 [ref. 24451], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:73 [ref. 24550], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:570 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:99 [ref. 27995], Santos & Carvalho 2004:14 [ref. 28040], Scharpf 2007:2 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:133 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:128 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:133 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hypanus sabinus (Lesueur 1824) -- (Last et al. 2016:356 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:571 [ref. 35010], Robins et al. 2018:39 [ref. 35886], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Hypanus sabinus (Lesueur 1824). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Delaware south to Florida (U.S.A.), and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sancur, Raia Hamilton [F.] 1822:2, 361 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River estuaries, India. No types known. Raia sancur and R. fluviatilis were simultaneously described, and should they be conspecific, Roberts 1998:275 [ref. 23552] selected sancur as the senior synonym; but see Roberts 2007:286 [ref. 29791]. •Synonym of Hypolophus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:48 [ref. 20764]). •Tentatively a synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Roberts 1998:268 [ref. 23552]). •Synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Last et al. 2005:1 [ref. 28346], Kottelat 2013:28 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Pastinachus esphen or P. fluviatilis (Hamilton 1822) -- (Roberts 2007:286 [ref. 29413] but apparently misspelled sankur). •Mention -- (Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2010:115 [ref. 30854]). Current status: Synonym of Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775). Dasyatidae: Hypolophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

say, Raja Lesueur [C. A.] 1817:42 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 1, no. 3) (1 July); ref. 17511] Egg Harbor, New Jersey, U.S.A. No types known. The spelling say is the correct original spelling. Species name spelled sayi by Müller & Henle 1841:166 [ref. 3069]. ICZN Case 3410 needs investigation. •Valid as Dasyatis sayi or say (Lesueur 1817), the latter correct -- (Robins & Ray 1986:41 [ref. 23100], Snelson et al. 1989 [ref. 13789], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Boschung 1992:27 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:199 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:43 [ref. 22793], Murdy et al. 1997:48 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1790 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Gomes et al. 2000:514 [ref. 24451], Menni & Stehmann 2000:91 [ref. 24909], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639] as sayi, Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27192] as sayi, McEachran & Carvalho 2003:570 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Santos et al. 2004:2 [ref. 27848], Santos & Carvalho 2004:14 [ref. 28040], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:133 [ref. 34211], Nión et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35565] as sayi). •Valid as Hypanus say (Lesueur 1817) -- (Last et al. 2016:356 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:572 [ref. 35010], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Hypanus say (Lesueur 1817). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scabrata, Dasyatis Fowler [H. W.] 1942:66 [The Fish Culturist v. 21 (nos 9-10); ref. 20994] Matanzas, Cuba. Available, but apparently an unintentional new name, believed to have been taken from a museum label (see Fowler 1969:183 [ref. 6832]). •Treated as available in Bigelow & Schroeder 1953:352 [ref. 6568]. Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

scherit, Raia Bonnaterre [J. P.] 1788:6 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Red Sea. Based on R. uarnak Forsskål 1775; uarnak regarded as available from Forsskål by authors. Not used as valid after 1899, therefore reversal of priority in favor of Raja uarnak Gmelin 1789 is followed (Art. 23.9). •In the synonymy of Dasyatis uarnak (Gmelin 1789) -- (Fricke 2008:12 [ref. 30182]). •Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kottelat 2013:27 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

schoukie, Raja Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:ix [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Suaken, Sudan, 19°07'N 37°20'E. No types known. Name considered available, with author as Fabricius, by Fricke 2008:11 [ref. 30182]. Spelled schoukia in Bonnaterre 1788:6 [ref. 4940]. •Unidentifiable in Dasyatidae – (Fricke 2008:11 [ref. 30182]). •Questionably a synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989]). Dasyatidae. Habitat: marine.

schreineri, Trygon Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1913:33, Fig. [Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 17875] Off the rocks at St. James in False Bay, South Africa. Holotype (unique): SAM 16053. •Synonym of Dasyatis brevicaudata (Hutton 1875) -- (Compagno 1986:136 [ref. 5648], Gomon et al. 1994:182 [ref. 22532]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Hutton 1875, Dyldin & Orlov 2018:172 [ref. 35920]). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Hutton 1875). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sciera, Dasyatis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:421, Pl. 1 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 64128 [orig. 387]. Additional original material: CAS-SU 13009 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:10 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Dasyatis latus (Garman 1880) -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1990:337 [ref. 20166]). •Synonym of Dasyatis lata (Garman 1880) -- (Randall 2007:43 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

semirugosa, Trygon Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1852:71 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Not available, name mentioned in the synonymy of Trygon pareh Bleeker 1852. Dasyatidae.

sephen, Raja Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:17, viii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and Luhaiya, Yemen, Red Sea. No types known. •Valid as Dasyatis sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:17 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:15 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:28 [ref. 25477], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:330 [ref. 20166], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:77 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:346 [ref. 23967], Nakabo 2000:180 [ref. 25086]). •Valid as Hypolophus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Compagno 1986:140 [ref. 5648], Paxton et al. 1989:43 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:5 [ref. 13251], Monkolprasit & Roberts 1990:203 [ref. 20065], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:48 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:2 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Vossoughi & Vosoughi 1999:302 [ref. 25467], Nakabo 2002:180 [ref. 26001], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899]). •Valid as Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:409 [ref. 23873], Randall 1995:46 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:48 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:24 [ref. 25488], Anderson et al. 1998:21 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:39 [ref. 23965], Morón et al. 1999:150 [ref. 24253], Last & Compagno 1999:1494 [ref. 24639], Johnson 1999:718 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:101 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:50 [ref. 27735], Randall et al. 2005:118 [ref. 28745], Compagno et al. 2005:74 [ref. 29145] as cf. stephen, Paxton et al. 2006:194 [ref. 28995], Roberts 2007:286 [ref. 29413], Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2010:115 [ref. 30854], Last et al. 2010:121 [ref. 30855], Fricke et al. 2011:347 [ref. 31242], Naylor et al. 2012:75 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013:21 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:27 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:103 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:140 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:364 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:596 [ref. 35010], Ali et al. 2018:304 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:16 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], Suresh et al. 2018:50 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775). Dasyatidae: Hypolophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf east to India. Habitat: marine.

signifer, Himantura Compagno [L. J. V.] & Roberts [T. R.] 1982:333, Figs. 1A, 4, 7A, 8, 9A-C, 10 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 8489] Mouth of Sugnai Ketunggau near mainstream of Kapuas River, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 3004. Paratypes: BMNH 1981.11.16.1 (1), CAS 48777 (1, dissected), MNHN 1981-1342 (1), MZB 3005 (1), RMNH 28800 (1), USNM 229492 (1). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:18 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Himantura signifer Compagno & Roberts 1982 -- (Roberts 1989:23 [ref. 6439], Monkolprasit & Roberts 1990:204 [ref. 20065], Kottelat et al. 1993:2 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:54 [ref. 22772], Tan & Lim 1998:428 [ref. 23648], Last & Compagno 1999:1503 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:144 [ref. 28284], Vidthayanon & Roberts 2006:124 [ref. 28695], Last el al. 2010:210 [ref. 32461], Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989], Weigmann 2016:137 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Fluvitrygon signifer (Compagno & Roberts 1982) -- (Last et al. 2016:360 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:544 [ref. 35010], Iqbal et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35489], Iqbal et al. 2018:171 [ref. 35761]). Current status: Valid as Fluvitrygon signifer (Compagno & Roberts 1982). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

sindrachus, Raia (Trygonobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Dasyatidae.

sinensis, Trygon Steindachner [F.] 1892:382 [26] [133], Pl. 6 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 59 (1. Abth.); ref. 14517] Shanghai, China. Holotype (unique): NMW 78600. On p. 26 of separate; on p. 133 of abstract. •Valid as Dasyatis sinensis (Steindachner 1892) -- (Nishida & Nakaya 1990:338 [ref. 20166], Cheng & Zhou 1997:53 [ref. 26385], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Youn 2002:70, 485 [ref. 26218], Weigmann 2016:133 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Hemitrygon sinensis (Steindachner 1892) -- (Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:560 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Hemitrygon sinensis (Steindachner 1892). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: China to South Korea. Habitat: marine.

solanderi, Urogymnus asperrimus Whitley [G. P.] 1939:255, Fig. 17 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4695] Erub [= Darnley] Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique) parts: QM I.1112 (buccal flaps), I.1113 (jaws), I.1114 (dry tail). •Synonym of Urogymnus africanus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:44 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:415 [ref. 23873], Paxton et al. 2006:196 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

solocirostris, Pastinachus Last [P. R.], Manjaji [B. M.] & Yearsley [G. K.] 2005:3, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa No. 1040; ref. 28346] Mukah Fish Market, Mukay, Sarawak (Malaysia), Borneo, South China Sea. Holotype: IPMB 38.32.03. Paratypes: CSIRO H 4426-27 (1), 5472-02 (1), 5485-03 (1), 5485-04 (1), 5485-05 (1), 5864-01 (1), 5864-02 (1), 6123-02 (1), 6123-03 (1), 6133-03 (1), 6219-01 (1); IPMB 38.18.01 (1), 38.18.02 (1), 38.30.01 (1). •Valid as Pastinachus solocirostris Last, Manjaji & Yearsley 2005 -- (Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto 2010:115 [ref. 30854], Last et al. 2010:121 [ref. 30855], Last el al. 2010:226 [ref. 32461], Weigmann 2016:140 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:364 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:597 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Pastinachus solocirostris Last, Manjaji & Yearsley 2005. Dasyatidae: Hypolophinae. Distribution: Indo-Malay Archipelago: Indonesia and Malaysia (Borneo and Sumatra). Habitat: brackish, marine.

spinosissima, Trygon Duméril [A. H. A.] 1865:598 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 1; ref. 1150] Unknown locality. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:33 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill 1815) -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1990:60 [ref. 19317]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

stellurostris, Pastinachus Last [P. R.], Fahmi [no initials] & Naylor [G. J. P.] 2010:131, Figs. 1-6, 7a, 8-9 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 032; ref. 30855] Sungai Pinyuh fish market, caught near Pemangkat, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, ca. 1°10'N, 108°58'E. Holotype: MZB 18226 [ex NCIP 6339]. Paratypes: CSIRO H 7110-01 (1), NCIP 6338 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Pastinachus stellurostris Last, Fahmi & Naylor 2010 -- (Last el al. 2010:228 [ref. 32461], Kottelat 2013:28 [ref. 32989], Weigmann 2016:140 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:364 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:598 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Pastinachus stellurostris Last, Fahmi & Naylor 2010. Dasyatidae: Hypolophinae. Distribution: Off Kalimantan, Indonesia. Habitat: brackish.

thalassia, Trygon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] (ex Columna) 1841:161, 197 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Syntypes (5): MNHN (1), NMW (1), RCSL (1), ZSM (2). Based on Trygon thalassia F. Columna, Phytobas 105, pl. 28 [needs research], and on several specimens. •Synonym of Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill 1815) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:71 [ref. 7167], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:198 [ref. 13675], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:59 [ref. 19317]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill 1815). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thetidis, Dasyatis Ogilby [J. D.] in Waite 1899:46 [Memoirs of the Australian Museum, Sydney v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 4557] Newcastle Bight and off Wattamolla, New South Wales, Australia, depth 16-40 fathoms. Syntypes: AMS I.3832 (1), plus 3 not preserved. •Valid as Dasyatis thetidis Ogilby 1899 -- (Compagno 1986:137 [ref. 5648], Allen & Swainston 1988:28 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:42 [ref. 12442], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:119 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:23 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:183 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:394 [ref. 23873], Allen 1997:48 [ref. 23977], Paulin et al. 1989:29 [ref. 24556], Fricke 1999:31 [ref. 24106], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Santos & Carvalho 2004:17 [ref. 28040], Paxton et al. 2006:192 [ref. 28995], Last & White 2008:280 [ref. 29693], Gomon 2008:140 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2009:12 [ref. 30213], Last & Stewart 2015:199 [ref. 34224], Weigmann 2016:133 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880) -- (Last et al. 2016:354 [ref. 34581]). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tortonesei, Dasyatis Capapé [C.] 1975:116, Fig. 4 [Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Tunis v. 52 (nos 1-2) (for Mar.-June 1975); ref. 8951] Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1977-0107. MNHN 1977-0107 is misidentified, it is holotype of D. pastinaca (Saadaoui et al. 2016:110 [ref. 34799]). A neotype is needed (Saadaoui et al. 2016:112 [ref. 34799]). •Synonym of Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Santos & Carvalho 2004:17 [ref. 28040]). •Valid as Dasyatis tortonesei Capepé 1975 -- (Capapé 1977:95 [ref. 20631], Capapé 1978:98 [ref. 9545], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:200 [ref. 13675], Golani 1996:22 [ref. 22271], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589] with question, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:25 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:20 [ref. 29533], Psomadakis et al. 2012:15 [ref. 33457], Weigmann 2016:133 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34581] dated 1977, Saadaoui et al. 2016:101 [ref. 34799] as cf. tortonesei, Last et al. 2016:541 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Dasyatis tortonesei Capapé 1975. Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

toshi, Himantura Whitley [G. P.] 1939:258 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4695] Clarence River Estuary, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.39. •Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:42 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Himantura toshi Whitley 1939 -- (Last & Stevens 1994:405 [ref. 23873], Allen 1997:48 [ref. 23977], Last & Compagno 1999:1503 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:194 [ref. 28995], Last et al. 2008:303 [ref. 29696], llen & Erdmann 2012:63 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:19 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:137 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Maculabatis toshi (Whitley 1939) -- (Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34669], Last et al. 2016:581 [ref. 35010], White et al. 2017:234 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:56 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Maculabatis toshi (Whitley 1939). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: southern New Guinea and northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

trigonoides, Raya Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:121 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] New Caledonia. Holotype (unique): NMV 51864 [=A5255]. See also Borsa 2016:1[ref. 35022] and Weigmann 2016:4 [ref. 35023]. •Synonym of Dasyatis kuhlii (Müller & Henle 1841). •Synonym of Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Dyldin 2015:74 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:139 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Neotrygon trigonoides (Castelnau 1873) -- (Borsa et al. 2013:222 [ref. 32770], Last et al. 2016:558 [ref. 34245], Last et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:592 [ref. 35010], Borsa 2017:3 [ref. 35149], White et al. 2017:244 [ref. 35860] as cf. trigonoides, White & Ko'ou 2018:58 [ref. 35922] as cf. trigonoides). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon trigonoides (Castelnau 1873). Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Australia, New Caledonia and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

tuberculata, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:104, 106, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Cayenne, French Guiana. Also appeared in Sonnini 1802:73, 279 [ref. 30461]. •Synonym of Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: marine.

tutul, Himantura Borsa [P.], Durand [J.-D.], Shen [K.-N.], Alyza [I. A.], Solihin [D. D.] & Berrebi [P.] 2013:89, Fig. 5 [Comptes Rendus Biologies v. 336; ref. 32736] Mkoani fish landing, Pemba Island, Tanzania. Holotype: MNHN ICTI-5184 (2 sections of tail). Paratypes: CSIRO H 5284.05 (2). Plus non-type specimens. See also Borsa 2016:[1] 1170 [ref. 35022] and Weigmann 2016:4 [ref. 35023]. This species has been confused with Himantura leoparda Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2008 (Borsa 2016:[2]1171 [ref. 35022]). •Valid as Himantura tutul Borsa, Durand, Shen, Alyza, Solihin & Berrebi 2013 -- (Borsa 2016:[4] 1173 [ref. 35022], Miesen et al. 2016:80 [ref. 34492]). •Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789) -- (Last et al. 2016:563 [ref. 35010], Weigmann 2016:[4] 1179 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Weigmann 2016:1177 [ref. 35023]). Current status: Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: East Africa to Malay Archipelago (if valid). Habitat: brackish, marine.

uarnacoides, Trygon Bleeker [P.] 1852:72 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta and Semarang, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (4) BMNH 1867.11.28.210 (1) Jakarta, RMNH 7441 (largest of 2). Bleeker specimens: NMV A915 (1). Original as uarnacoïdes. Appeared first as name only in list and spelled uarnakoides in Bleeker 1849:13 [ref. 16883]. •Valid as Himantura uarnacoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1490 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Last et al. 2006:31 [ref. 28719], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2006:295 [ref. 28776], Last el al. 2010:212 [ref. 32461], Last et al. 2012:31 [ref. 31993], Naylor et al. 2012:69 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Weigmann 2016:137 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Pateobatis uarnacoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:603 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Pateobatis uarnacoides (Bleeker 1852). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Java to Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

uarnak, Raja Gmelin [J. F.] (ex Forsskål) 1789:1509 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] [No locality stated] Red Sea. No types known. Types given by Klausewitz 1960:294 [ref. 21330] are specimens used by Rüppell 1837 and are not types of uarnak Forsskål. Based on Raja sephen var. b of Forsskål 1775:18, viii [ref. 1351]. Sometimes misspelled uarnack. •Valid as Dasyatis uarnak (Gmelin 1789) [author usually given as Forsskål 1775] -- (Dor 1984:18 [ref. 29757], Compagno & Roberts 1984:4 [ref. 6167], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:77 [ref. 2969]). •Valid as Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789) [author usually given as Forsskål 1775] -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:72 [ref. 7167], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:16 [ref. 6441], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:201 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1986:139 [ref. 5648], Allen & Swainston 1988:28 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:42 [ref. 12442], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:46 [ref. 20764], Last & Stevens 1994:406 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:46 [ref. 22896], Chen et al. 1997:9 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:346 [ref. 23967], Basusta et al. 1998:65 [ref. 23545], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Yoshigou & Yoshino 1999:39 [ref. 23925], Myers 1999:39 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:32 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:151 [ref. 24253], Last & Compagno 1999:1491 [ref. 24639], Vossoughi & Vosoughi 1999:302 [ref. 25467], Johnson 1999:718 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:178 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:96 [ref. 26368], Deynat & Fermon 2001:161 [ref. 25563], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:26 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:178 [ref. 26001], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:49 [ref. 27735], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:83 [ref. 28072], Compagno et al. 2005:73 [ref. 29145], Paxton et al. 2006:194 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2007:20 [ref. 29533], Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2008:293 [ref. 29695], Last et al. 2008:303 [ref. 29696], Fricke 2008:12 [ref. 30182], Last et al. 2010:214 [ref. 32461] with author as Forsskål, Allen & Erdmann 2012:64 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:70 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Borsa et al. 2013:87 [ref. 32736], Larson et al. 2013:19 [ref. 32988] with author as Forsskål, Kottelat 2013:27 [ref. 32989], Ebert et al. 2013:362 [ref. 33045], Psomadakis et al. 2015:102 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:138 [ref. 34211], Miesen et al. 2016:80 [ref. 34492], Last et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:387 [ref. 34638], Last et al. 2016:563 [ref. 35010], Motomura et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:304 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:26 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:15 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], Suresh et al. 2018:49 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Eastern Cape Province (South Africa), Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Philippines; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

uarnak, Raja sephen var. Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:18, viii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Red Sea. No types known. As a variety on p. viii, local name only on p. 18. Types given by Klausewitz 1960:294 [ref. 21330] are specimens used by Rüppell 1837 and are not types of uarnak Forsskål. Not available, published as vernacular Arabic name only. Name made available by Gmelin 1789:1509 [ref. 18139]; see Fricke 2008:12 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Dasyatis uarnak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:18 [ref. 29757], Compagno & Roberts 1984:4 [ref. 6167], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:77 [ref. 27969]). •Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Current status: Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific, including Red Sea; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant); Japan south to northern Australia (with author as Forsskål 1775). Habitat: brackish, marine.

uarnata, Raja Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:713 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Not available; name in index, referring apparently to Raja uarnak Forsskål on p. 534. •In the synonymy of Dasyatis uarnak (Gmelin 1789) -- (Fricke 2008:12 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae.

ujo, Dasyatis Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:16 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:49 [ref. 3595] as Uroxis ujus. •Synonym of Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1990:61 [ref. 19317]). Current status: Synonym of Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ukpam, Hemitrygon Smith [J. A.] 1863:69 [Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh. v. 2 (1859); ref. 18724] Old Calabar River, West Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1874.5.23.1 (1), Royal Scot. Mus. Edinb. (1). •Valid as Dasyatis ukpam (Smith 1863) -- (Compagno & Roberts 1984:5 [ref. 6167], Compagno & Roberts 1984:295 [ref. 8237], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:62 [ref. 19317], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:70 [ref. 21589], Taniuchi 1991:97 [ref. 21657], Santos & Carvalho 2004:16 [ref. 28040], Carvalho et al. 2007:159 [ref. 30012], Séret 2016:1415 [ref. 34545]). •Valid as Urogymnus ukpan (Smith 1863) -- (Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:141 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Fontitrygon ukpam (Smith 1863) -- (Last et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:550 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Fontitrygon ukpam (Smith 1863). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Gabon, Nigeria and Congo. Habitat: freshwater.

undulata, Trygon Bleeker [P.] 1852:70 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta and Samaran, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1867.11.28.156 (1) Jakarta, RMNH 7440 (1 of 2). Appeared first as name only in list in Bleeker 1849:13 [ref. 16883]. •Valid as Himantura undulata (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:408 [ref. 23873], Allen 1997:48 [ref. 23977], Morón et al. 1999:151 [ref. 24253], Last & Compagno 1999:1492 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:104 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:194 [ref. 28995], Compagno et al. 2005:74 [ref. 29145] as cf. undulata, Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last 2008:293 [ref. 29695] but on p. 300 is considered by Manjaji to be a senior synonym of Himantura fava (Annandale 1909), Last et al. 2008:303 [ref. 29696], Last el al. 2010:226 [ref. 32461], Allen & Erdmann 2012:64 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:70 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Borsa et al. 2013:87 [ref. 32736], Weigmann 2016:138 [ref. 34211], Miesen et al. 2016:80 [ref. 34492], Last et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:387 [ref. 34638], Last et al. 2016:564 [ref. 35010], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178]). Current status: Valid as Himantura undulata (Bleeker 1852). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India to Java and Borneo. Habitat: marine.

ushiei, Dasybatis Jordan [D. S.] & Hubbs [C. L.] 1925:114 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 2486] Mikawa Bay, branch of Gulf of Ise, Japan. Holotype (unique): FMNH 59380 [ex CM 7778]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:51 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:31 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Dasyatis ushiei (Jordan & Hubbs 1925) -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:15 [ref. 6441], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:339 [ref. 20166], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:182 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:182 [ref. 26001], Last & White 2008:281 [ref. 29693], Last el al. 2010:186 [ref. 32461], Yamashita et al. 2012:133 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:360 [ref. 33045], Psomadakis et al. 2015:100 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:134 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880) -- (Last et al. 2016:354 [ref. 34581]). Current status: Synonym of Bathytoshia lata (Garman 1880). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific and Eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

uylenburgi, Dasybatis Giltay [L.] 1933:13, Figs. 3-6 [Mémoires du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique v. 5 (pt 3); ref. 16489] Poeloe Endoe, East Indies. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 38. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:6 [ref. 20755]. •Synonym of Himantura walga (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Weigmann 2016:138 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Brevitrygon walga (Müller & Henle 1841). Current status: Synonym of Brevitrygon walga (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: marine.

vali, Neotrygon Borsa [P.] 2017:4, Fig. 1 [bioRxiv; ref. 35149] Honiara, Guadalcanal Island, Solomon Islands. Holotype (unique): CSIRO H.7723-01. Description in bioRxiv does not fulfil ICZN Art. 8.1.1; available from version published in Species 18(60):146-153 in August 2017. •Uncertain in Neotrygon Castelnau 1873. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Solomon Islands (if valid). Habitat: marine.

varidens, Dasybatus Garman [S.] 1885:40 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 482); ref. 14445] Hong Kong. Holotype (unique): USNM 6529. •Valid as Neotrygon varidens (Garman 1885) -- (Last et al. 2016:558 [ref. 34245], Last et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:593 [ref. 35010], Borsa 2017:3 [ref. 35149], Borsa et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35563]). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon varidens (Garman 1885). Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: Northwest Pacific Ocean, South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Trygon McClelland [J.] 1841:60, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 1; ref. 17619] Salt lake near Calcutta, India. No types known. •Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kottelat 2013:27 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Himantura uarnak (Gmelin 1789). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Habitat: marine.

vespertilio, Raja Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 109 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy. Also not available from Ninni 1872:29 [ref. 17995] where Chiereghini manuscript is quoted but name not treated as valid by Ninni. Dasyatidae.

violacea, Trygon Bonaparte [C. L.] 1832:fasc. 1, punt. 6, Pl. 155 [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 515] Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 385-386 (2), ?NMW 91239 (1, dry). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:98 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Dasyatis violacea (Bonaparte 1832) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:71 [ref. 7167], Capapé 1977:91 [ref. 20631], Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1982:55, 315 [ref. 8256], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:55 [ref. 9277], Compagno & Roberts 1984:285 [ref. 8237], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:200 [ref. 13675], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:15 [ref. 6441], Compagno 1986:137 [ref. 5648], Robins & Ray 1986:41 [ref. 23100], Peden & Jamieson 1988:491 [ref. 12864], Scott & Scott 1988:58 [ref. 25518], Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], McAllister 1990:38 [ref. 14674], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:332 [ref. 20166], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:96 [ref. 25472], Last & Stevens 1994:396 [ref. 23873], McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:755 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:43 [ref. 22793], Santos et al. 1997:16 [ref. 23531], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:35 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:121 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:24 [ref. 24952], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:65 [ref. 24555], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:186 [ref. 24490], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:123 [ref. 25013], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:179 [ref. 25086], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:77 [ref. 26158], Mollet 2002:525 [ref. 25994], Nakabo 2002:179 [ref. 26001], Paxton et al. 2006:192 [ref. 28995]). •Valid as Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte 1832) -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:181 [ref. 23897], Last & Compagno 1999:1505 [ref. 24639], Menni & Stehmann 2000:91 [ref. 24909], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:26 [ref. 26753], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:571 [ref. 26985], Santos et al. 2004:2 [ref. 27848], Mundy 2005:106 [ref. 28379], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Fricke et al. 2007:20 [ref. 29533], Fricke et al. 2009:12 [ref. 30213], Gomon 2008:141 [ref. 30616], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Bañon et al. 2010:6 [ref. 31029], Last el al. 2010:230 [ref. 32461], Yamashita et al. 2012:136 [ref. 32408], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Hsu et al. 2013:254 [ref. 33043], Parin et al. 2014:39 [ref. 33547], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Dyldin 2015:75 [ref. 34524], Last & Stewart 2015:200 [ref. 34224], Pinheiro et al. 2015:4 [ref. 34324], Psomadakis et al. 2015:104 [ref. 34104], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:140 [ref. 34211], Bañón et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34397], Séret 2016:1416 [ref. 34545], Last et al. 2016:356 [ref. 34581], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Last et al. 2016:604 [ref. 35010], Nión et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:84 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35618], White et al. 2017:256 [ref. 35860], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:61 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte 1832). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Cosmopolitan in tropical and warm temperate seas. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Trygon Risso [A.] 1827:160 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Var River estuary, France. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:33 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:70 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:61 [ref. 19317]). Current status: Synonym of Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

walga, Trygon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:159, [Pl. 51 (left)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Red Sea; Ganges Delta. Syntypes: (10) BMNH (1); MNHN (4), MNHN 0000-2337 (1) Red Sea, 2431 (1) Ganges; RMNH (3). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:85-86 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:20 [ref. 9312]. Apparently based on multiple species; lectotype designation needed to restrict species to current usage. •Synonym of Dasyatis imbricata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:17 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Dasyatis walga (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1993:211 [ref. 24016], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:78 [ref. 27969]). •Synonym of Himantura imbricata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Séret & McEachran 1986:20 [ref. 9312], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:45 [ref. 20764], Randall 1995:45 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Himantura walga (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1492 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Vossoughi & Vosoughi 1999:304 [ref. 25467], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Compagno et al. 2005:74 [ref. 29145], Kimura 2009:13 [ref. 30426], Weigmann 2011:265 [ref. 32424], Last & White 2013:18 [ref. 32949], Kottelat 2013:26 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:15 [ref. 34464], Manjaji-Matsumoto in Kimura et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34319], Weigmann 2016:138 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Brevitrygon walga (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Last et al. 2016:360 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:536 [ref. 35010], Ali et al. 2018:304 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:15 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:96 [ref. 36262] as B. walga s.l., Suresh et al. 2018:48 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Brevitrygon walga (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Red Sea, northern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf east to India. Habitat: marine.

westpapuensis, Neotrygon Borsa [P.], Arlyza [I. S.], Hoareau [T. B.] & Shen [K.-N.] 2017:[10], Fig. 2d [Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology; ref. 35563] Biak, West Papua. Holotype (unique): MZB 20867. Questionably valid: based exclusively on DNA. •Valid as Neotrygon westpapuensis Borsa, Arlyza, Hoareau & Shen 2017 -- (White et al. 2017:246 [ref. 35860] as cf. westpapuensis, White & Ko'ou 2018:59 [ref. 35922] as cf. westpapuensis). Current status: Valid as Neotrygon westpapuensis Borsa, Arlyza, Hoareau & Shen 2017. Dasyatidae: Neotrygoninae. Distribution: West Papua. Habitat: marine.

wolgatenkee, Trygon Cuvier [G.] 1829:399 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] In footnote as "Aj. Wolga-Tenkée, Russ. I, 3" but based on style elsewhere in work, this treatment is in the vernacular and not available; applies to other names in footnotes on same p. 399. Dasyatidae.

zugei, Trygon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] (ex Bürger) 1841:165, [Pl. 54 (right)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Macao. Lectotype: MNHN 2447. Paralectotypes: (6) MNHN 1987-152 (1), MNHN A-7934 (now 2); RMNH D2447-D2448 (2, dry); ZMB (1). Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:227 [ref. 12876], Séret & McEachran 1987:20 [ref. 9312], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:178 [ref. 21041]. Lectotype selected by Nishida & Nakaya 1988:118 [ref. 12618]. Error corrected by Last et al. 2016:401 [ref. 34638]. •Valid as Dasyatis zugei (Bürger 1841) -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:15 [ref. 6441], Nishida & Nakaya 1988:118 [ref. 12618], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Nishida & Nakaya 1990:335 [ref. 20166], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:40 [ref. 20764], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:78 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:10 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:54 [ref. 26385], Last & Compagno 1999:1501 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:180 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Rosenberger 2001:615 [ref. 25447], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:180 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:70, 485 [ref. 26218], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:6 [ref. 27710] with second author as Hinle, Mishra & Krishnan 2003:18 [ref. 27712], Santos et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27848], Santos & Carvalho 2004:16 [ref. 28040], Compagno et al. 2005:71 [ref. 29145] with author as Bürger, Last el al. 2010:188 [ref. 32461]. Ho & Shao 2011: 20 [ref. 31432], Weigmann 2011:254 [ref. 32424], Naylor et al. 2012:73 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Ebert et al. 2013:361 [ref. 33045], Yoshida et al. 2013:14 [ref. 34464], Manjaji-Matsumoto in Kimura et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:100 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:134 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Telatrygon zugei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Last et al. 2016:357 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:401 [ref. 34638], Last et al. 2016:612 [ref. 35010], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], Manjaji-Matsumoto in Kimura et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Telatrygon zugei (Müller & Henle 1841). Dasyatidae: Dasyatinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Vietnam to Japan, possibly Philippines and Thailand. Habitat: brackish, marine.