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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Diodontidae: [ 94 ] records


affinis, Chilomycterus Günther [A.] 1870:314 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Unknown locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1978.4.4.2 (stuffed). •Valid as Chilomycterus affinis Günther 1870 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:299 [ref. 9277], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:366 [ref. 6441], Lea & Vojkovich 1985:46 [ref. 23202], Pequeño 1989:78 [ref. 14125], Long 1994:386 [ref. 22827], Lindberg et al. 1997:175 [ref. 23547], Choi et al. 2003:461, 702 [ref. 26218]). •Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leis 1986:903 [ref. 5686] as genus monotypic, Randall et al. 1990:478 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:302 [ref. 22193], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:656 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:145 [ref. 24555], Randall 2005:652 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:537 [ref. 28379], Leis 2006:80-81 [ref. 28932], Randall 2007:498 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

antennatus, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1816:185, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Unknown locality. Holotype (?): MNHN B-1320. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:477 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:87 [ref. 12539]. Also described as new in Cuvier 1818:131, Pl. 7 (=Diodons Pl. 2) [ref. 18059]. •Valid as Chilomycterus antennatus (Cuvier 1816) -- (Leis & Bauchot 1984:87 [ref. 12539], Robins & Ray 1986:309 [ref. 23100], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:171 [ref. 27754], Leis 2003:2011 [ref. 27121], Smith et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:932 [ref. 28815], Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:88 [ref. 33341], Leis in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3077 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Chilomycterus antennatus (Cuvier 1816). Diodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (possibly eastern Atlantic). Habitat: marine.

antillarum, Chilomycterus Jordan [D. S.] & Rutter [C. L.] 1897:131 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 49; ref. 10644] Kingston, Jamaica. Holotype: CAS-SU 5056. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8283 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:145 [ref. 12291]. Diodon geometricus Bloch & Schneider 1801 is a senior synonym, but Leis 2003:2011 [ref. 27121] suggests maintaining current usage as Chilomycterus antillarum. •Valid as Cyclichthys antillarum (Jordan & Rutter 1897) -- (Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27192]). •Valid as Chilomycterus antillarum Jordan & Rutter 1897 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:479 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:309 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:184 [ref. 23239], Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204], Cervigón 1996:82 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:54 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:356 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:171 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:146 [ref. 27639], Leis 2003:2011 [ref. 27121], Smith et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:933 [ref. 28815], Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:88 [ref. 33341], Marceniuk et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Chilomycterus antillarum Jordan & Rutter 1897. Diodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

areolatus, Holocanthus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:27 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. No types known. •Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

armillatus, Diodon Whitley [G. P.] 1933:107, Pls. 12 (fig. 1), 15 (figs. 2-3) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 4677] Northwest Islet, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.2585 [? = I.34179-001]. Paratypes: AMS IA.4776 (1) [or I.4776]. •Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1074 [ref. 19530], Bray et al. 2006:1933 [ref. 29091]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

atinga, Diodon Bloch [M. E.] 1785:67, Pl. 125 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 1; ref. 4866] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Lectotype: ZMB 6812. Paralectotypes: lost. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:76 [ref. 24282]. Based in part on Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758, but not D. atringa Linnaeus 1758:334 [ref. 2787]. On p. 75 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 4 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758 -- (Paepke 1999:76 [ref. 24282]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

atringa, Diodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:334 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India [in error]. No types known. Spelled atinga by some early authors. •Valid as Chilomycterus atringa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:648 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1346 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:309 [ref. 23100] as atinga, Santos et al. 1997:131 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:123 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:357 [ref. 25013] as atinga, Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192] as atinga and author as Bloch 1785, Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807]). •Unidentifiable, should not be treated as valid -- (Leis 2006:80-81 [ref. 28932] for discussion -- use reticulatus). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bernierii, Stenometope Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8341. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:471 [ref. 21440]. Appeared as Sténométope. Not available, name only. Possible subsequent availability not researched. Diodontidae.

bertolettii, Diodon de Lema [T.], Lucena [C. A. S. de], Saenger [S.] & de Oliveira [M. F. T.] 1979:35, Figs. 18-19 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRGS (Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul) No. 20; ref. 8836] Barra da lagoa da Conceiçao, Florianópolis, Ilha de Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 5061. Paratypes: MCP 5300 (1). •Synonym of Diodon eydouxii Brisout de Barneville 1846 -- (Leis 1986:905 [ref. 5686], Leis 2006:87 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon eydouxii Brisout de Barneville 1846. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

binummulatus, Sténométope Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Holotype: MNHN A-8359. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:471 [ref. 21440] with type as above. Name only, not available, as Sténométope. See Kottelat 2001:611 [ref. 25859]. Possible subsequent availability not researched. Diodontidae.

bleekeri, Diodon Günther [A.] 1910:475, Pl. 178 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 17); ref. 14460] East Indies; Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Society Islands. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Based on literature sources and specimens. •Synonym of Diodon liturosus Shaw 1804 -- (Randall 1995:408 [ref. 22896], Randall 2005:654 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon liturosus Shaw 1804. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Diodon Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:210 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Melbourne fish market, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN, AMS or NMV. Type catalog: Leis & Bauchot 1984:93 [ref. 12539]. •Synonym of Diodon nicthemerus Cuvier 1818 -- (Bray et al. 2006:1934 [ref. 29091]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon nicthemerus Cuvier 1818. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

bocagei, Atopomycterus Steindachner [F.] 1866:53 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 20460] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): NMW 63848. Appeared first in the abstract as above, then in Steindachner 1866:477, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [ref. 4210]; also on p. 54 of separate. •Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1073 [ref. 19530], Bray et al. 2006:1933 [ref. 29091]). •Valid as Diodon bocagei (Steindachner 1866) -- (Randall & Johnson 2019:47 [ref. 36831]). Current status: Valid as Diodon bocagei (Steindachner 1866). Diodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific Ocean: New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

brachiatus, Diodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:513 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Erizo' of Parra 1787:60, Pl. 29 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1074 [ref. 19530]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

briareos, Chilomycterus Metzelaar [J.] 1919:173, Fig. 55 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] St. Eustatius, Lesser Antilles. Holotype (unique): ZMA 102164. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:110 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Chilomycterus antennatus (Cuvier 1816) -- (J. Leis, pers. comm. 2/2/06). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus antennatus (Cuvier 1816). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

bufo, Tetrodon Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:378 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Corresponds to Tetrodon torsus Larrañaga 1923:390 [ref. 22561]. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:318, 323 [ref. 20322] as Tetrodon torosus vel bufo; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Chilomycterus spinosus Linnaeus 1758. Apparently not the same as Tetrodon bufo Mitchill 1814. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleus, Diodon Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:201, Pl. 65 (fig. 5) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] North of New Guinea, 142° E, at the Equator. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0872. Non-types: MNHN 0000-5734 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:477 [ref. 21440] as coeruleus, Leis & Bauchot 1984:88 [ref. 12539]. •Synonym of Chilomycterus orbicularis (Bloch 1785) -- (Leis & Bauchot 1984:88 [ref. 12539]). •Synonym of Cyclichthys orbicularis (Bloch 1785) -- (Leis 2006:82 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Cyclichthys orbicularis (Bloch 1785). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

californiensis, Chilomycterus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1891:1133 [American Naturalist v. 25 (no. 300); ref. 18744] San Pedro, southern California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 43860. See Leis 2006:81 [ref. 28932] for comments on the holotype. •Synonym of Chilomycterus affinis Günther 1870 -- (Lea & Vojkovich 1985:46 [ref. 23202] but with USNM 43860 as type [it is the basis of the 1893 redescription]). •Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leis 2006:80-81 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

calori, Diodon Bianconi [G. G.] 1854:69 [Rendiconto delle Sessioni dell'Accademia delle Scienze dell'Instituto dei Bologna 1853-1854 (for 11 May 1854); ref. 17949] Mozambique. No types known. See also Bianconi 1854:223 [ref. 295] with figure. Name also appeared in Bianconi 1855:145 [ref. 26452] with figure. •Valid as Lophodiodon calori (Bianconi 1854) -- (Leis 1986:906 [ref. 5686], Randall 1995:408 [ref. 22896], Leis in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Leis 2001:3965 [ref. 26318], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:457 [ref. 28072], Leis 2006:87 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1934 [ref. 29091] dated 1855, Allen & Erdmann 2012:1099 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:240 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2018:390 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Lophodiodon calori (Bianconi 1854). Diodontidae. Distribution: East Africa and Madagascar east to Indonesia, north to South China Sea, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

coeruleus, Cyanichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1855:231 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 21 (pt. 1); ref. 2571] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1983.7.26.4. Current status: Uncertain as Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

conicus, Diodon Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1450 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Red Sea. No types known. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

cornutus, Cyclichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1855 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 21 (pt. 1); ref. 2571] Unknown locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1849.1.15.36 (dry, varnished). •Synonym of Chilomycterus spinosus subspecies spinosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leis 2006:83 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus spinosus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

digitalis, Lyosphaera Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1927:81, Fig. 34 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 635] West Indies or western North Atlantic (no other data). Holotype (unique): YPM 337. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:10 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Chilomycterus antennatus (Cuvier 1816) -- (J. Leis, pers. comm. 2/2/06). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus antennatus (Cuvier 1816). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

diversispinis, Atopomycterus Bleeker [P.] (ex Verreaux) 1865:49 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 416] Australia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2159 (1), 0000-2165 (1), A-8383 (1), A-8408 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1963:476-477 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:86-87 [ref. 12539]. Apparently available, appearing with generic description as, "Spec. typ. Atopomycterus diversispinis Verr. in Mus. Paris." •Synonym of Dicotylichthys punctulatus Kaup 1855 -- (Leis & Bauchot 1984:86 [ref. 12539], Leis 2006:86 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1932 [ref. 29091]). Current status: Synonym of Dicotylichthys punctulatus Kaup 1855. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

dussumieri, Diodon Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:476 [ref. 21440] but with types and dated to Bibron in Brissout de Barneville, Leis & Bauchot 1984:95 [ref. 12539]. Name only, not available. Diodontidae.

echinatus, Diodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:335 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leis 2006:80-81 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Uncertain as Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

echinatus, Diodon orbicularis Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:512 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Diodon echinatus Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

echinus, Diodon Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:40, 58 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Status uncertain -- (Tortonese 1973:648 [ref. 7192]). •Questionable synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:109 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Uncertain as Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

erinaceus, Trichocyclus Günther [A.] 1870:316 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] No locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1977.2.23.1. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

eydouxii, Diodon Brisout de Barneville [C. N. F.] 1846:142 [Revue Zoologique par la Société Cuvierienne (Paris) 1846; ref. 296] Eastern Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2153 (2). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:475 [ref. 21440] with authors as Eydoux & Souleyet, Leis & Bauchot 1984:88 [ref. 12539]. •Valid as Diodon eydouxii Brisout de Barneville 1846 -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:366 [ref. 6441], Leis 1986:905 [ref. 5686], Duron & Quéro 1990:1073 [ref. 19530], Randall 1995:406 [ref. 22896], Lindberg et al. 1997:175 [ref. 23547], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:657 [ref. 24023], Leis in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1433 [ref. 25182] with author as Brissout & Barneville, Leis 2001:3963 [ref. 26318], Nakabo 2002:1433 [ref. 26193] with author as Brissout & Barneville, Leis 2003:2013 [ref. 27121], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:538 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:936 [ref. 28815], Leis 2006:87 [ref. 28932], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:239 [ref. 31256], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Matsuura 2014:24 [ref. 33576], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:193 [ref. 37485], Leis in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3078 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Fricke et al. 2018:390 [ref. 35805], Carneiro et al. 2019:223 [ref. 37250], Psomadakis et al. 2020:626 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Diodon eydouxii Brisout de Barneville 1846. Diodontidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas. Habitat: marine.

fuliginosus, Diodon DeKay [J. E.] 1842:324, Pl. 55 (fig. 181) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York harbor, New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

galapagosensis, Chilomycterus Klausewitz [W.] 1958:82, Fig. 7 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 39 (nos 1/2); ref. 12080] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Wreck-Bay, Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): SMF 4160. •Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leis 2006:80-81 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

geometricus, Diodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:513, Pl. 96 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] America [coast of Brazil]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4125 (lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:76 [ref. 24282]. See account of Chilomycterus antillarum Jordan & Rutter 1897. •Valid as Cheilomycterus geometricus; probably a senior synonym of Chilmomycterus antillarum Jordan & Rutter 1897 -- (Paepke 1999:76 [ref. 24282]). •Synonym of Chilomycterus antillarum Jordan & Rutter 1897 based on prevailing usage -- (Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus antillarum Jordan & Rutter 1897. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

globosa, Lyosphaera Evermann [B. W.] & Kendall [W. C.] 1898:131, Pl. 9 (figs. 11-12) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 17 (art. 5) (for 1897); ref. 1281] Rappahannock River near the mouth of Windmill Creek, Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 48794. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6311 (1), USNM 127010 [ex USBF 531] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:145 [ref. 12291]. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

globulas, Diodon Taylor [R.] 1849:13 [A Leaf from the Natural History of New Zealand; ref. 20904] Name only, not available; from New Zealand; as "Kopuawai, round fish covered with spines." Also name only in Taylor 1870 [ref. 20786]. Diodontidae.

grandoculis, Chilomycterus Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:19 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.1561 [ex AFAQ 41]. Paratypes: (3) AMS I.9493 (1), QM I.358-59 (1, 1). •Synonym of Tragulichthys jaculiferus (Cuvier 1818) -- (Leis 2006:85 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1935 [ref. 29091]). Current status: Synonym of Tragulichthys jaculiferus (Cuvier 1818). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

hardenbergi, Chilomycterus de Beaufort [L. F.] 1939:33 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 17 (pt 1); ref. 17230] Merauke, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMA 108475. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:110 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Cyclichthys hardenbergi (de Beaufort 1939) -- (Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Leis 2001:3962 [ref. 26318], Leis 2006:82 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1931 [ref. 29091], Larson et al. 2013:239 [ref. 32988] credited to De Beaufort). Current status: Valid as Cyclichthys hardenbergi (de Beaufort 1939). Diodontidae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

holocanthus, Diodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:335 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India. Holotype: ?BMNH 1962.12.17.12. •Valid as Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:300 [ref. 9277], Dor 1984:287 [ref. 29757] as holacanthus, Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Leis 1986:905 [ref. 5686], Robins & Ray 1986:308 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:671 [ref. 9166], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:570 [ref. 25518], Pequeño 1989:78 [ref. 14125], McAllister 1990:227 [ref. 14674], Duron & Quéro 1990:1073 [ref. 19530], Randall et al. 1990:479 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:425 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:302 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:75 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:407 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:628 [ref. 27969], Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204] dated 1757, Cervigón 1996:84 [ref. 24489], Lindberg et al. 1997:175 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977] as holacanthus, Chen et al. 1997:187 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:494 [ref. 26385] as holacanthus, De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:124 [ref. 24545] as holacanthus, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:658 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:422 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:479 [ref. 25919], Aguilera 1998:54 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:145 [ref. 24555] as holacanthus, Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Myers 1999:291 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:613 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:357 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:81 [ref. 25466], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Leis in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1432 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:471 [ref. 25191], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:127 [ref. 25206], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:290 [ref. 25480], Thomson et al. 2000:280 [ref. 25640], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:333 [ref. 27511], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:171 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1647 [ref. 25634], Sakai et al. 2001:124 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Leis 2001:3964 [ref. 26318], Nakabo 2002:1432 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:461, 702 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Collette et al. 2003:127 [ref. 26784], Leis 2003:2013 [ref. 27121], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27192], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:230 [ref. 27510], Smith et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27621], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:51 [ref. 27712], Parin 2003:S35 [ref. 28536], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:456 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:653 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:538 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:937 [ref. 28815], Leis 2006:87 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1933 [ref. 29091], Wirtz et al. 2007:43 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:498 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:123 [ref. 30213], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:239 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1098 [ref. 31980] as holacanthus, Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:240 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:234 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:200 [ref. 33932], Matsuura 2014:25 [ref. 33576], Parin et al. 2014:555 [ref. 33547], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:89 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Francis & Duffy 2015:483 [ref. 36161], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:194 [ref. 37485], Psomadakis et al. 2015:339 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:36 [ref. 34324], Motomura et al. 2015:31 [ref. 34709], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:151 [ref. 34871], Leis in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3079 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:19 [ref. 35354], Kells et al. 2016:342 [ref. 35888], Motomura et al. 2017:239 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:390 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:183 [ref. 36273], Brown et al. 2019:184 [ref. 36444], Burton & Lea 2019:98 [ref. 37205], Carneiro et al. 2019:223 [ref. 37250], González-Murcia et al. 2019:309 [ref. 36544], Randall et al. 2019:56 [ref. 36853], Zajonz et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:627 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:135 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Gulf of Mexico, Red Sea, Sea of Japan). Habitat: marine.

hystrix, Diodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:335 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India. Syntypes: ?ZMUU Linn. Coll. 57 (1, dry). Type catalog: Wheeler 1991:192-193 [ref. 20102]. Misspelled hixtris by Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:10 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:184 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758 -- (Tortonese 1973:648 [ref. 7192], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:300 [ref. 9277], Dor 1984:287 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:366 [ref. 6441], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1347 [ref. 13677], Leis 1986:906 [ref. 5686], Robins & Ray 1986:309 [ref. 23100], Pequeño 1989:78 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:246 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:70 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:479 [ref. 15987], Duron & Quéro 1990:1074 [ref. 19530], Boschung 1992:184 [ref. 23239], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:302 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:75 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:408 [ref. 22896], Cervigón 1996:85 [ref. 24489], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:629 [ref. 27969], Santos et al. 1997:116 [ref. 23531], Lindberg et al. 1997:175 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:125 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:659 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:123 [ref. 24952], Randall et al. 1997:479 [ref. 25919], Aguilera 1998:54 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:145 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:291 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:613 [ref. 24106], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:519 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:357 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:81 [ref. 25466], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Leis in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1433 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:471 [ref. 25191], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:127 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:280 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:171 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1647 [ref. 25634], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Leis 2001:3964 [ref. 26318], Rocha & Rosa 2001:992 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:146 [ref. 27639], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:179 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:1433 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Collette et al. 2003:128 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Leis 2003:2013 [ref. 27121], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27192], Parin 2003:S35 [ref. 28536], Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576], Smith et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27621], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:456 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:653 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:538 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:938 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Leis 2006:88 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1933 [ref. 29091], Wirtz et al. 2007:43 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:499 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:123 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:338 [ref. 31171], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:240 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1099 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:89 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Matsuura 2014:25 [ref. 33576], Parin et al. 2014:555 [ref. 33547], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167], Leis 2015:1744 [ref. 34323], Pinheiro et al. 2015:36 [ref. 34324], Psomadakis et al. 2015:340 [ref. 34104], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:151 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:342 [ref. 35888], Koeda et al. 2016:115 [ref. 35333], Leis in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3079 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Fricke et al. 2018:390 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:183 [ref. 36273], Ordines et al. 2018:404 [ref. 36402], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], Suresh et al. 2018:330 [ref. 36495], Arndt & Fricke 2019:15 [ref. 36883], Brown et al. 2019:184 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:224 [ref. 37250], Eagderi et al. 2019:135 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:335 [ref. 36673], González-Murcia et al. 2019:309 [ref. 36544], Zajonz et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:627 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:135 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, western Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Sea of Japan). Habitat: marine.

hystrix, Diodon Bloch [M. E.] 1785:69, Pl. 126 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 1; ref. 4866] Numerous Atlantic localities. Not Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758, but permanently preoccupied by it and objectively invalid. Based in part on Diodon atringa Linnaeus. On p. 78 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 4 [ref. 21381] as Diodon histrix. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

hystrix, Ostracion Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xviii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Name only, not available (from Malta); perhaps for Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae.

intermedius, Diodon Hermann [J.] 1804:300 [Observationes zoologicae; ref. 2146] No locality. Minimal description. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

jaculiferus, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:130, Pl. 7 (Diodons Pl. 2) [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN B-1310 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:474 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:88 [ref. 12539]. •Valid as Allomycterus jaculiferus (Cuvier 1818) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:246 [ref. 24556]). •Valid as Cyclichthys jaculiferus (Cuvier 1818) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977]). •Valid as Tragulichthys jaculiferus (Cuvier 1818) -- (Leis & Bauchot 1984:88 [ref. 12539], Randall et al. 1990:480 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:480 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Leis 2001:3965 [ref. 26318], Leis 2006:85 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1935 [ref. 29091], Larson et al. 2013:240 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Tragulichthys jaculiferus (Cuvier 1818). Diodontidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

kieneri, Stenometope Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Name only, not available; genus as Sténométope. See Kottelat 2001:611 [ref. 25859]. Diodontidae.

laevissimus, Sténométope Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Name only, not available. Diodontidae.

laterolaevis, Sténométope Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN B-1483 (1), B-1496 (1, poor condition), B-1512 (1) Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:471 [ref. 21440] with types as above. Name only, not available; genus not Latinized -- as Sténométope. Subsequent availability not researched. Diodontidae.

lineatus, Diodon geometricus var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:513 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Smith 1986:461 [ref. 22186] as schoepfi, Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

lissogenys, Chilomycterus Günther [A.] 1910:476, Pl. 179 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 17); ref. 14460] Hawaiian Islands. No types known. Based on Garrett drawing and notes; literature sources questionably included (therefore underlying specimensof literaure sources are not types). •Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leis 2006:80-81 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

liturosus, Diodon Shaw [G.] (ex Lacepède) 1804:436 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas. No types known. Based on the "Diodon tacheté" of Lacepède 1800. •Valid as Diodon liturosus Shaw 1804 -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:366 [ref. 6441], Leis 1986:906 [ref. 5686], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:480 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:425 [ref. 23929], Randall 1994:272 [ref. 21644], Randall 1995:408 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:629 [ref. 27969], Lindberg et al. 1997:175 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:422 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:480 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:291 [ref. 23965], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Leis in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1432 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:471 [ref. 25191], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:334 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Leis 2001:3964 [ref. 26318], Nakabo 2002:1432 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:230 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:457 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:654 [ref. 28239], Leis 2006:88 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1934 [ref. 29091], Fricke et al. 2009:123 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:338 [ref. 31171], Motomura et al. 2010:240 [ref. 31256], Bogorodsky et al. 2011:57 [ref. 31559], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1099 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:240 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:25 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:200 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:19 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:390 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:183 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:336 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:627 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:135 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Diodon liturosus Shaw 1804. Diodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Society Islands, north to central Japan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

maculatostriatus, Diodon Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:470, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Appeared as maculato striatus, apparently intended as a species with a compound name. •Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Smith 1986:461 [ref. 22186] as schoepfi). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Diodon Duméril [A. H. A.] 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] No types known. Type catalog: Leis & Bauchot 1984:93 [ref. 12539]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Diodon maculatus Hermann 1804. •Synonym of Diodon liturosus Shaw 1804 -- (Leis & Bauchot 1984:93 [ref. 12539], Randall 1995:408 [ref. 22896], Randall 2005:654 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon liturosus Shaw 1804. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Diodon Hermann [J.] 1804:300 [Observationes zoologicae; ref. 2146] No locality. No types known. Minimal description. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Diodon Günther [A.] 1870:307 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Unexplained new name for Diodon novemmaculatus and other species in synonymy. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Diodon maculatus Hermann 1804 and Diodon maculatus Duméril 1855. •Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:357 [ref. 25013], Mundy 2005:538 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

maculifer, Diodon Kaup [J. J.] 1855:229 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 21 (pt. 1); ref. 2571] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype: lost. •Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Leis 1986:905 [ref. 5686]). •Possible synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1073 [ref. 19530]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

mauretanicus, Atinga atinga Le Danois [Y.] 1954:2354 [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences v. 238 (no. 24); ref. 6451] Mauritania. Syntypes: MNHN 1956-0066 (3), 1966-0705 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:477-478 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:86 [ref. 12539]. •Synonym of Chilomycterus spinosus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies mauretanicus (Le Danois 1954) as described -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1075 [ref. 19530], Afonso et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25466] with question, Leis 2003:2012 [ref. 27121], Leis 2006:83 [ref. 28932], Wirtz et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32972], Leis in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3078 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:223 [ref. 37250]). •Valid as Chilomycterus mauretanicus (Le Danois 1954). Current status: Valid as Chilomycterus mauretanicus (Le Danois 1954). Diodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

melanopsis, Diodon Kaup [J. J.] 1855:228 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 21 (pt. 1); ref. 2571] No locality. Syntypes: BMNH 1852.3.2.7. •Synonym of Diodon eydouxii Brisout de Barneville 1846 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1073 [ref. 19530]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon eydouxii Brisout de Barneville 1846. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

meulenii, Diodon Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:602 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. •Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932]) Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

multimaculatus, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:137, Pl. 7 (Diodons Pl. 2) [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1308. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:475 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:88-89 [ref. 12539]. •Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1073 [ref. 19530]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

muricatum, Diodon Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1800:13 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Appeared as "Diodon muricatum, brunneum, spinis albis, ..."; regarded as non-binominal and not available; from New Cythere. See ICZN Opinion 89. Diodontidae.

myersi, Dicotylichthys Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:18 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.1572 [ex AFAQ]. Paratypes: (2). •Synonym of Dicotylichthys punctulatus Kaup 1855 -- (Leis 2006:86 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1932 [ref. 29091]). Current status: Synonym of Dicotylichthys punctulatus Kaup 1855. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

nicthemerus, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:135, Pl. 7 (Diodons Pl. 2) [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] Australian seas. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0051. Non-types: MNHN B-1313 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:475 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:89 [ref. 12539]. •Valid as Diodon nicthemerus Cuvier 1818 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:914 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1993:425 [ref. 23929] as nichthemerus, Lindberg et al. 1997:175 [ref. 23547], Kuiter 1997:420 [ref. 25488] as nichthemerus, Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Leis 2006:88 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1934 [ref. 29091], Gomon 2008:858 [ref. 30616], Matsuura 2014:25 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Diodon nicthemerus Cuvier 1818. Diodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Queensland to southern Australia and to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

nigrolineatus, Diodon Ayres [W. O.] 1842:68 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 1 (1841-1844); ref. 15926] Brookhaven, Long Island, New York, U.S.A. No types known. Originally as nigro-lineatus. •Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Smith 1986:461 [ref. 22186] as schoepfi, Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

nigropunctatus, Lophodiodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:222, Fig. 4 [South African Journal of Science v. 53 (no. 8); ref. 12171] Port Alfred, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 338. •Synonym of Lophodiodon calori (Bianconi 1854) -- (Leis 1986:907 [ref. 5686], Leis 2006:87 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Lophodiodon calori (Bianconi 1854). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

novemmaculatus, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:136, Pl. 6 (Diodons Pl. 1) [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9928. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:475 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:89 [ref. 12539]. Original as novem maculatus; as D. 9-maculatus on Pl. 6. •Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1073 [ref. 19530], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:357 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

nudifrons, Diodon Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:488, Fig. 35 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50854 (not found in 1975 or 1980). •Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1074 [ref. 19530], Mundy 2005:538 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

orbe, Diodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1798:Pl. 24 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Leis & Bauchot 1984:93 [ref. 12539]. Appeared as Le Diodon orbe. •Synonym of Chilomycterus spinosus subspecies spinosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leis 2006:83 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus spinosus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

orbicularis, Diodon Bloch [M. E.] 1785:73, Pl. 127 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 1; ref. 4866] Sea of Jamaica; Cape of Good Hope; Molucca Islands, Indonesia.; Europe. Syntypes: ZMB 22249 (1, dry skin). Non-types: ZMB 6813 (1, stuffed) Cape of Good Hope. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:76 [ref. 24282]. On p. 81 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 4 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Chilomycterus orbicularis (Bloch 1785) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:308 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:287 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:75 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:628 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:187 [ref. 26476] dated 1887). •Valid as Cyclichthys orbicularis (Bloch 1785) -- (Leis 1986:904 [ref. 5686], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:478 [ref. 15987], Matsuura & Sakai 1993:372 [ref. 21906], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:407 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:241 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:422 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:478 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:613 [ref. 24106], Leis in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1434 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Leis 2001:3962 [ref. 26318], Nakabo 2002:1434 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:51 [ref. 27712], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:455 [ref. 28072], Leis 2006:82 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1932 [ref. 29091], Fricke et al. 2009:123 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1098 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:239 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:233 [ref. 34464], Lee et al. 2014:493 [ref. 36304], Psomadakis et al. 2015:339 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:239 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:390 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:183 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:135 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:626 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:135 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Cyclichthys orbicularis (Bloch 1785). Diodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Philippines, north to southern Korea and central Japan, south to New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

orbitosus, Chilomycterus Poey [F.] 1875:69 [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 11 (nos 3-4) (art. 6); ref. 18564] Cuba. No types known. •Species of "Atlantic Chilomycterus" with description best fitting Chilomycterus antillarum Jordan & Rutter 1897 -- (Leis 2006:85 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus antillarum Jordan & Rutter 1897. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

paraholocanthus, Diodon Kotthaus [A.] 1979:39, Fig. 492 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 28; ref. 8818] Bab-el-Mandeb, Arabian Sea, 12°47.5'N, 43°17'E, Meteor station 63, depth 174 meters. Holotype: ZMH 5986. Paratypes: ZMH 5987-89 (8, 2, 6). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:421 [ref. 21161]. •Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Leis 1986:905 [ref. 5686], Leis 2006:87 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

parcomaculatus, Chilomycterus von Bonde [C.] 1923:38, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 386 and 473, depth 31-38 fathoms. Holotype (unique): inadvertently destroyed. •Synonym of Cyclichthys orbicularis (Bloch 1785) -- (Leis 1986:904 [ref. 5686], Leis 2006:82 [ref. 28932], Lee et al. 2014:493 [ref. 36304]). Current status: Synonym of Cyclichthys orbicularis (Bloch 1785). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

pentodon, Chilomycterus Atkinson [G. F.] in Bryant 1888:18 [Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 13034] Beaufort, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): not researched. Described in footnote; evidently G. F. Atkinson alone authored the description. •Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

pilatus, Allomycterus Whitley [G. P.] 1931:125 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 4673] Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.15159. Based on specimens of Allomycterus jaculiferus of McCulloch 1921:141; holotype of A pilatus is based on the illustration of A. jaculiferus, Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [ref. 2945]. •Valid as Allomycterus pilatus Whitley 1931 -- (Matsuura in Amaoka et al. 1990:335 [ref. 16024], Kuiter 1993:424 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:913 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Leis 2006:86 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1931 [ref. 29091], Gomon 2008:857 [ref. 30616], Leis 2015:1742 [ref. 34323], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Allomycterus pilatus Whitley 1931. Diodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Western Australia to Tasman Sea, Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

pilosus, Diodon Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:471, Pl. 6 (fig. 4) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1073 [ref. 19530]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

plumier, Diodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:1, 10, Pl. 30 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Tropical eastern America. No types known. Type catalog: Leis & Bauchot 1984:93 [ref. 12539]. Not available; appeared as Le Diodon Plumier; made available as Diodon plumieri Shaw 1804:435 [ref. 4015]. •Possible in the synonymy of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1074 [ref. 19530]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae.

punctatus, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:132 [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] No locality. Syntypes: MNHN A-8367 (1, dry), A-8369 (1, dry), A-8373 (1, dry). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:474-475 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:90 [ref. 12539]. •Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1074 [ref. 19530]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

punctulatus, Dicotylichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1855:230 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 21 (pt. 1); ref. 2571] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa [doubtful locality]; Mauritius [doubtful locality]. Syntypes: BMNH 1842.12.19.7 (1), 1843.7.1.- (1, stuffed), 1978.4.4.3 (1, dry). •Valid as Dicotylichthys punctulatus Kaup 1855 -- (Kuiter 1993:424 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:422 [ref. 25488], Fricke 1999:612 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Leis 2001:3963 [ref. 26318], Leis 2006:86 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1932 [ref. 29091], Gomon 2008:857 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Dicotylichthys punctulatus Kaup 1855. Diodontidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

quadradicatus, Euchilomycterus Waite [E. R.] 1900:208 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 4558] Lord Howe Island. Holotype (unique): AMS I.4338 (poor condition). •Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1075 [ref. 19530], Leis 2006:80-81 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

quadrimaculatus, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:137, Pl. 6 (Diodons Pl. 1) [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9929. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:475-476 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:90 [ref. 12539]. Original as Diodon 4-maculatus. •Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1073 [ref. 19530]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

raninus, Diodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:336 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India. No types known. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

rarior, Cyclopterus Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1474 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Indian and American Seas. Apparently an unneeded new name for Diodon raninus Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Diodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:334 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India. No types known. •Synonym of Chilomycterus atringa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:648 [ref. 7192], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:357 [ref. 25013]). •Valid as Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leis 1986:904 [ref. 5686], Edwards & Glass 1987:670 [ref. 9166], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:478 [ref. 15987], Duron & Quéro 1990:1075 [ref. 19530], Allen & Robertson 1994:302 [ref. 22193], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:123 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:655 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:478 [ref. 25919], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:145 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:291 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:612 [ref. 24106], Afonso et al. 1999:81 [ref. 25466], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Leis in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1433 [ref. 25182], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:127 [ref. 25206], Sielfeld K. & Vargas F. 2000:36 [ref. 37222], Thomson et al. 2000:280 [ref. 25640], Richards & Engle 2001:181 [ref. 25759], Leis 2001:3962 [ref. 26318], Medina M. et al. 2001:215 [ref. 26148], Nakabo 2002:1433 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830] dating to 1775, Leis 2003:2012 [ref. 27121], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:652 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:537 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:934 [ref. 28815], Leis 2006:80 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1931 [ref. 29091], Wirtz et al. 2007:43 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:498 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:123 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:239 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1097 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Leis 2015:1743 [ref. 34323], Pinheiro et al. 2015:36 [ref. 34324], Motomura et al. 2015:31 [ref. 34709], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:151 [ref. 34871], Leis in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3077 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:340 [ref. 35888], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248], Brown et al. 2019:184 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:222 [ref. 37250], Espino et al. 2019:5 [ref. 37134], Psomadakis et al. 2020:625 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:135 [ref. 37637], Walker et al. 2020:4 [ref. 37499]). Current status: Valid as Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in warm temperate seas (including Sea of Japan). Habitat: marine.

rivulatus, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:129, Pl. 6 (Diodons Pl. 1) [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] No locality [New York, U.S.A.]. Syntypes: MNHN A-8381 (1, dry). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:477 [ref. 21440] with a holotype, Leis & Bauchot 1984:90-91 [ref. 12539]. Based on a specimen and literature sources. •Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Leis & Bauchot 1984:90 [ref. 12539] as schoepfi, Smith 1986:461 [ref. 22186] as schoepfi, Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

schoepfii, Diodon Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:601 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated [New York, U.S.A.] . No types known. Based on 'Diodon ?atringa' (non Linnaeus 1758) in Schöpf 1788:192 [ref. 18700]. •Valid as Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) [sometimes as schoepfi] -- (Smith 1986:460 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:309 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:569 [ref. 25518] as schoepfi, McAllister 1990:227 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:184 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:266 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:519 [ref. 24550] as schoepfi, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:357 [ref. 25013], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:601 [ref. 26158] as schoepfi, Leis 2003:2012 [ref. 27121], Smith et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:935 [ref. 28815], Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265] as schoepfi, Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Carneiro et al. 2019:223 [ref. 37250], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Diodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

sexmaculatus, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:136, Pl. 7 (Diodons Pl. 2) [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1305. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:475 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:91 [ref. 12539]. Original as sex maculatus; as D. 6-maculatus on Pl. 7. •Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1073 [ref. 19530]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

spilostylus, Chilomycterus Leis [J. M.] & Randall [J. E.] 1982:364, Figs. 1-2 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 8453] Off Marine Laboratory, Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, ca. 29°30'05''N, 34°55'05''E, depth 12 meters. Holotype: BPBM 13896. Paratypes: AMS I 20145-001 (1); BMNH 1979.9.24.1 (1); BPBM 20456 (1), 22724 (1); HUJ 8343 (1); CAS-SU 68649 (1); USNM 191665 (1), 216146 (1). Type catalog: Golani 2006:35 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Chilomycterus spilostylus Leis & Randall 1982 -- (Dor 1984:287 [ref. 29757], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Goren & Dor 1994:75 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Golani 2005:65 [ref. 37112]). •Valid as Cyclichthys spilostylus (Leis & Randall 1982) -- (Leis 1986:905 [ref. 5686], Matsuura & Sakai 1993:372 [ref. 21906], Randall 1995:407 [ref. 22896], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:656 [ref. 24023], Leis in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1434 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Leis 2001:3963 [ref. 26318], Nakabo 2002:1434 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:455 [ref. 28072], Leis 2006:82 [ref. 28932], Bray et al. 2006:1932 [ref. 29091], Fricke et al. 2009:123 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1098 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:240 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:339 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:239 [ref. 35490], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:183 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36871], Bariche & Fricke 2020:147 [ref. 37515], Psomadakis et al. 2020:626 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:135 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Cyclichthys spilostylus (Leis & Randall 1982). Diodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Philippines, north to central Japan, south to Australia and New Caledonia; eastern Pacific (Galápagos Islands); Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

spinosissimus, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:134 [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN B-1294. Non-types: MNHN A-8403 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:475 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:91 [ref. 12539]. Lectotype selected by Leis 1978:549 [ref. 5529]. •Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1074 [ref. 19530]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

spinosus, Diodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:335 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India. No types known. •Valid as Cyclichthys spinosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27192]). •Valid as Chilomycterus spinosus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies spinosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leis 2003:2012 [ref. 27121], Leis 2006:83 [ref. 28932], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Leis in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3077 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:56 [ref. 35565], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717], Carneiro et al. 2019:223 [ref. 37250]). •Valid as Chilomycterus spinosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204], Camargo & Isaac 2001:146 [ref. 27639], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496] as Chilomycteruss pinosus, Costa et al. 2015:1061 [ref. 37495], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:192 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:36 [ref. 34324], Marceniuk et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Chilomycterus spinosus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southern Caribbean Sea south to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

subflavus, Sténométope Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Name only, not available. See Kottelat 2001:611 [ref. 25859]. Diodontidae.

tigrinus, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:127, Pl. 6 (Diodons Pl. 1) [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2164 (1, poor condition), ?A-8382 (1, dry, poor condition). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:474 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:92 [ref. 12539]. Based on a specimen and literature sources. •Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leis 1986:904 [ref. 5686], Leis 2006:80 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

torosus, Tetrodon Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:390 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Appeared as Tetrodon torosus vel bufo in Devincenzi 1925:323, 318 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Chilomycterus spinosus Linnaeus [= Diodon spinosus Linnaeus 1758]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Chilomycterus spinosus subspecies spinosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leis 2006:83 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus spinosus (Linnaeus 1758). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

totara, Diodon Curtiss [A.] 1938:133 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758 -- (Duron & Quéro 1990:1074 [ref. 19530]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

triedricum, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:133 [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] Syntypes: MNHN A-8375 (1, dry). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:475 [ref. 21440] with A.8375 as holotype, Leis & Bauchot 1984:92 [ref. 12539]. Based on dried specimens and Seba v. 3, Pl. 23 (fig. 4). •Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758 -- (Leis & Bauchot 1984:92 [ref. 12539]). Current status: Synonym of Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 1758. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

verrucosus, Diodon DeKay [J. E.] (ex Mitchill) 1842:325, Pl. 55 (fig. 1) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York, U.S.A. Holotype or syntypes: Cabinet of the Lyceum (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Leis 2006:84 [ref. 28932]). Current status: Synonym of Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.

whitleyi, Allomycterus Phillipps [W. J.] 1932:234, Fig. 5 [The New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 16393] New Zealand. Holotype (unique): NMNZ P.1007. Type catalog: Hardy 1990:15 [ref. 18942]. Spelled whiteleyi in main heading, whitleyi in figure caption and in text at dedication to Gilbert P. Whitley, so whiteleyi is regarded as an typesetting error. •Synonym of Allomycterus pilatus Whitley 1931 -- (Leis 2006:86 [ref. 28932], Gomon 2008:857 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Synonym of Allomycterus pilatus Whitley 1931. Diodontidae. Habitat: marine.