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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Engraulidae: [ 331 ] records


abbotti, Anchovia Fowler [H. W.] 1915:522, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 14998] Port of Spain, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 45079. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:100 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:390 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:791 [ref. 26995], Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622], Loeb 2015:16 [ref. 36196] as Anchoviella, Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Vera-Alcaraz & Vuletich 2016:2 [ref. 35084], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

adelae, Trichosoma Rutter [C. L.] 1897:65 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 49; ref. 12329] Swatow, Shantou, coast of southeastern China. Syntypes: CAS-SU 1565 (8). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:13 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Thryssa dussumieri (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Zhang 2001:144 [ref. 26586]). •Valid as Thryssa adelae (Rutter 1897) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:423 [ref. 5725], Youn & Kim 1996:41 [ref. 25727], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Youn 2002:149, 496 [ref. 26218]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa adelae (Rutter 1897). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

adriaticus, Engraulis encrasicholus race Aleksandrov [A. I.] 1927:78 [Reports of the Scientific Station of Fisheries in Kertch v. 1 (2-3); ref. 21154] Ionian Sea and Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Named for "race Méditerranéenne, group oriental" Fage 1920. Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

advenus, Stolephorus Wongratana [T.] 1987:106, Figs. 2-3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 100 (no. 1); ref. 8020] North of Saulte Point, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): NTM S10031-153. •Valid as Stolephorus advenus Wongratana 1987 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:403 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1726 [ref. 24719], Paxton et al. 2006:314 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:31 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus advenus Wongratana 1987. Engraulidae. Distribution: Northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

aequidentata, Coilia macrognathus Chabanaud [P.] 1924:59 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 30 (no. 1); ref. 15440] Mouth of Saigon River, southern Vietnam. Syntypes: (6) MNHN 1923-0202 (1), 1923-0202 to 0205 (1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:295 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:30 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Coilia lindmani Bleeker 1857 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:467 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1710 [ref. 24719], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia lindmani Bleeker 1857. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

aestuaria, Anchovia Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:4 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM [ex AFAQ 406] (apparently lost). Paratypes: AMS I.9497-98 (1, 1). Ogilby specimens: QM 1573 (1). •Valid as Thryssa aestuaria (Ogilby 1910) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:424 [ref. 5725], Paxton et al. 1989:162 [ref. 12442], Wongratana et al. 1999:1743 [ref. 24719], Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:315 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:32 [ref. 32988]). •Synonym of Thryssa nasuta (Castelnau 1878) -- (Gill et al. 2018:572 [ref. 36070]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa nasuta (Castelnau 1878). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

albidus, Engraulis Borsa [P.], Collet [A.] & Durand [J.-D.] 2005:1122, Fig. 3 (upper) [Comptes Rendus Biologies v. 327 (no. 12) (for 2004); ref. 28607] Cul-de-Beauduc in Camargue, southern France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN 2002-1716. Paratypes: MNHN 2002-1717 to 1774. •Valid as Engraulis albidus Borsa, Collet & Durand 2005. Current status: Valid as Engraulis albidus Borsa, Collet & Durand 2005. Engraulidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

albus, Elops (Engraulis) Swainson [W.] 1839:293 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on Russ. pl. 187 (Nattoo.) -- which is Russell 1802:Pl. 187 [ref. 13862]. •Objective synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:412 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

alleni, Amplova Myers [G. S.] 1940:441 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 23 (no. 29) (art. 78); ref. 12328] Lake Cashiboya, Ucayali and Morona rivers, Peruvian Amazon system. Holotype: CAS 6421. Paratypes: CAS 6418-19 (1, 1), 35612-14 (2, 7, 1); USNM 119003 [ex CAS 6421] (2), ?167718 (2), ?342168 (2). •Valid as Anchoviella alleni (Myers 1940) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Whitehead et al. 1988:324 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Loeb 2012:14 [ref. 31849], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745] as Anchoviellia, Loeb & Figueiredo 2014:38 [ref. 35456]). •Synonym of Anchoviella guianensis (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Loeb 2015:68 [ref. 36196]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella alleni (Myers 1940). Engraulidae. Distribution: South America: upper Amazon River basin, Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

amara, Engraulis Risso [A.] 1827:456 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:47 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725], Whitehead 1990:228 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

analis, Anchoviella Miller [R. R.] 1945:266, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 35 (no. 8); ref. 13148] Laguna Mexcaltitán, Nayarit, near Texpan, west coast of Mexico, near 23°N, 105°30'W. Holotype: USNM 131168. Paratypes: USNM 130857 (3). •Valid as Anchoa analis (Miller 1945) -- (Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1083 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Anchoviella analis Miller 1945 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:325 [ref. 5725], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:125 [ref. 24550], Loeb 2015:21 [ref. 36196], Loeb et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35873]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa analis (Miller 1945). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California and western Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

anchoita, Engraulis Hubbs [C. L.] & Marini [T. L.] in Marini 1935:418, Figs. 2, 4 (no. 2) [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 11; ref. 17600] Mar del Plata, Province Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype: UMMZ 156821 or MACN 3591. Paratypes: MACN 1070 (3); UMMZ 95471 (2, now 1), 156820 (2); USNM 116438 [ex UMMZ 95471] (1). Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:99 [ref. 23697]. •Valid as Engraulis anchoita Hubbs & Marini 1935 -- (Nelson 1984:424 [ref. 5190], Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:78 [ref. 14235], Whitehead et al. 1988:312 [ref. 5725], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:64 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Engraulis anchoita Hubbs & Marini 1935. Engraulidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

andhraensis, Stolephorus Babu Rao [M.] 1966:103, Pl. 3 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 9 (nos 97/99) (for Jan.-Mar. 1966); ref. 9056] Waltair, Kakinara, Andhra Pradesh, India. Syntypes: ZSI F4601/2 (primary specimen), other specimens without catalog numbers. See Das 2003:351 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Stolephorus andhraensis Babu Rao 1966 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:404 [ref. 5725], Paxton et al. 1989:160 [ref. 12442], Wongratana et al. 1999:1727 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:22 [ref. 27712], Paxton et al. 2006:314 [ref. 28995], Kimura in Kimura & Yoshino 2009:25 [ref. 30440], Larson et al. 2013:31 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus andhraensis Babu Rao 1966. Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: east coast of India to Singapore; western Pacific: Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea) and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

annandalei, Engraulis Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1916:419, Fig. 3 [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 15053] Off Nalbano Island, Chilka Lake, Orissa, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F8781/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:99 [ref. 20743]. •Synonym of Thrissina purava (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa purava (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:440 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:146 [ref. 20764]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa purava (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

antarcticus, Engraulis Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:186 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Melbourne markets, Victoria, Australia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3732 (8). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:298 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:31 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Engraulis australis (Shaw 1790) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:314 [ref. 5725], Paxton et al. 1989:160 [ref. 12442], Wongratana et al. 1999:1718 [ref. 24719], Paxton et al. 2006:312 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis australis (Shaw 1790). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

antipodum, Engraulis encrasicholus var. Günther [A.] 1868:386 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Tasmania, Australia; New Zealand. Syntypes: (3) BMNH a (1) Tasmania, BMNH b-c (2) New Zealand. •Synonym of Engraulis australis (Shaw 1790) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:314 [ref. 5725], Paxton et al. 1989:160 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:226 [ref. 22532], Wongratana et al. 1999:1718 [ref. 24719], Paxton et al. 2006:312 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis australis (Shaw 1790). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

apiensis, Anchovia Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:187, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51720. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8731 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Stolephorus apiensis (Jordan & Seale 1906) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:404 [ref. 5725], Myers 1999:62 [ref. 23965], Wongratana et al. 1999:1728 [ref. 24719], Randall 2005:58 [ref. 28239], Hata & Motomura 2018:282 [ref. 36364], Fricke et al. 2019:56 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus apiensis (Jordan & Seale 1906). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: New Ireland (Papua New Guinea); Fiji and Samoa. Habitat: marine.

aquitanicus, Engraulis encrasicolus Aleksandrov [A. I.] 1927:77 [Reports of the Scientific Station of Fisheries in Kertch v. 1 (2-3); ref. 21154] Bay of Biscay and probably near shores of Portugal. No types known. After "race Atlantique, groupe méridional" Fage 1920. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:111 [ref. 7169], Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

arenicola, Anchovia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:201, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Taboga Island, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 81744. Paratypes: FMNH 8211-14 (81, 38, 2, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Anchoa argentivittata (Regan 1904) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:341 [ref. 5725], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:132 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa argentivittata (Regan 1904). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

argenteus, Anchoa Schultz [L. P.] 1949:45, Figs. 5, 6b [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 99 (no. 3235); ref. 3967] Lake Maracaibo, 1 kilometer off Pueblo Viejo, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): USNM 121777. •Valid as Anchoa argenteus Schultz 1949 -- (Cervigón 1991:102 [ref. 24472], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221]). •Synonym of Anchoa spinifer (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:371 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:780 [ref. 26995]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa spinifer (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; eastern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argentivittatus, Engraulis (Stolephorus) Regan [C. T.] 1904:255 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 13 (no. 76) (art. 30); ref. 15198] Las Peñas, Jalisco [Puerto Vallarta], Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1892.9.5.107-109 (3). •Valid as Anchoa argentivittata (Regan 1904) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:341 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:52 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1083 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:128 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:194 [ref. 24023], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:132 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa argentivittata (Regan 1904). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

argyrophanus, Engraulis Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:49 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Equatorial Atlantic off western Africa. Lectotype: MNHN A-7614. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3103 [ex MNHN A-7614] (4), RMNH 3331 (2). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:31-32 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:125 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725], Whitehead 1990:228 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

astilbe, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Rutter [C. L.] 1897:95 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 49; ref. 10644] Kingston, Jamaica. Syntypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.182-184 (3), MCZ 31392 (now 8), NMW 9236-38 (3), CAS-SU 4854 (92), USNM 120409 [ex MCZ 31392] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Anchoa cubana (Poey 1868) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:347 [ref. 5725], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa cubana (Poey 1868). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

atherinoides, Clupea Linnaeus [C.] 1766:523 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Suriname. No types known. •Valid as Pterengraulis atherinoides (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:387 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:128 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:316 [ref. 23827], Planquette et al. 1996:68 [ref. 22818], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:792 [ref. 26995], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321] with authorship as Schultz 1949, Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pterengraulis atherinoides (Linnaeus 1766). Engraulidae. Distribution: Trinidad Island to northeastern Brazil: Brazil, Colombia, Guiana, French Guiana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

atlantica, Engraulis encrassicholus forma de Buen [F.] 1926:49 [Resultado de las Campañas Realizadas por Acuerdos Internacionales, Madrid No. 2; ref. 5054] Gulf of Cádiz and coasts of Larache, Spain. Based on literature sources. Species should have been encrasicolus. Apparently independent of Pusanov & Zeeb 1926; earliest not reserached. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

atlantica, Stolephorus choerostomus var. Borodin [N. A.] 1928:7 [Bulletin Vanderbilt Oceanographic Museum v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 526] Limon Bay, Panama (Atlantic). Syntypes: VMM 257 (parts of 4 decomposed spec.) (now at AMNH) Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater.

atlanticus, Engraulis encrasicholus Pusanov [I. I.] & Zeeb [Y.] 1926:93 [Trudy Krimskogo Naucno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Biologii i Biologiceskogo Fakul'teta v. 1; ref. 18576] Atlantic. After "race Atlantique" of Fage 1920. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:111 [ref. 7169], Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

auratus, Engraulis Day [F.] 1865:312 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865 (pt 1); ref. 5295] Cochin, India. Lectotype: BMNH 1889.2.1.1779. Day specimens: BMNH 1867.5.30.13 (1), 1889.2.1.1780 (1), 1889.2.1.4855 (1, dry), 1975.9.30.14 (1, dry), ZMB 10412 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762]. Also appeared in Day 1865:238, Pl. 19, fig. 2 [ref. 1074]. Lectotype desgnated by Talwar & Whitehead 1971:77. •Synonym of Thryssa dussumieri (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:429 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa dussumieri (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

auster, Encrasicholina Hata [H.] & Motomura [H.] 2017:2, Fig. 1 [New Zealand Journal of Zoology; ref. 35066] Fiji. Holotype: USNM 330904. Paratypes: KAUM, NMNZ, USNM. •Valid as Encrasicholina auster Hata & Motomura 2017. Current status: Valid as Encrasicholina auster Hata & Motomura 2017. Engraulidae. Distribution: Fiji. Habitat: marine.

australis, Atherina Shaw [G.] in White 1790:296, Pl. 64 (opp. p. 296) [Journal of a voyage to New South Wales; ref. 4654] Between Broken Bay and Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. No types known. Authorship according to Sherborn 1891:535 [ref. 32516]. •Valid as Engraulis australis (Shaw 1790) -- (Nelson 1984:424 [ref. 5190], Whitehead et al. 1988:314 [ref. 5725], Paxton et al. 1989:160 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:79 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:36 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:226 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:34 [ref. 25488], Wongratana et al. 1999:1718 [ref. 24719], Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:312 [ref. 28995], Gomon 2008:194 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2011:354 [ref. 31242], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Stewart & Struthers 2015:300 [ref. 34231]). Current status: Valid as Engraulis australis (Shaw 1790). Engraulidae. Distribution: Southwestern Paficic: southern Australia and New Zealand to Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

australis, Engraulis Steindachner [F.] 1879:31 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Hobson's Bay, 37°51'S, 144°56'E, Victoria, Australia. Syntypes: (original as 2) SMNS 2254 (3). Type catalog: Fricke 1995:13 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:37 [ref. 29864]. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:14 [ref. 4228]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Engraulis by Atherina australis Shaw 1790. •Synonym of Engraulis australis (Shaw 1790) -- (Fricke 1995:13 [ref. 28100], Paxton et al. 2006:312 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis australis (Shaw 1790). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

baelama, Clupea Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:72, xiii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (Red Sea). No types known. Originally Clupea baelama, encrasicolus ? on p, 72, Clupea encrasicolus on p. xiii. Also spelled boelama by authors. We assume encrasicolus refers to Linnaeus 1758 and that baelama is an available name. •Valid as Thrissina baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:44 [ref. 29757], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:123 [ref. 27511], Zhang 2001:147 [ref. 26586], Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:83 [ref. 34492]). •Valid as Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:425 [ref. 5725], Paxton et al. 1989:162 [ref. 12442], Kottelat et al. 1993:23 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:276 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:11 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:71 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:133 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:118 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:34 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:495 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:62 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:79 [ref. 24106], Wongratana et al. 1999:1744 [ref. 24719], Nakabo 2000:250 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Sakai et al. 2001:86 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:250 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:15 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:59 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:316 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2009:21 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:355 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:32 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:24 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:52 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:32 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:56 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775). Engraulidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Caroline Islands (Micronesia) and Mariana Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) at 16°30'S, and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

baganensis, Stolephorus Delsman [N. C.] 1931:249 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 18244] Indonesia and Sumatra. Syntypes: lost. Appeared first without distinguishing features in Hardenberg 1931:107 [ref. 16298]. Also in Hardenberg 1933:258 [ref. 16492]. Publication traced to Delsman 1931. •Valid as Stolephorus baganensis Hardenberg 1933 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:405 [ref. 5725], Kottelat et al. 1993:23 [ref. 23448], Mohsin & Ambak 1996: [ref. 27969] as bagenensis, Wongratana et al. 1999:1729 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Parenti & Lim 2005:179 [ref. 28285], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34319]). •Traced to Stolephorus baganensis Delsman 1931 -- (Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus baganensis Delsman 1931. Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

balboae, Amplova Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1926:411 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 67 (no. 11); ref. 2500] Balboa, Canal Zone, (Pacific) Panama. Type catalog: Loeb 2015:29 [ref. 36196]. •Valid as Anchoviella balboae (Jordan & Seale 1926) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:326 [ref. 5725], Allen & Robertson 1994:62 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:52 [ref. 23101] as balboa, Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1087 [ref. 22829], Loeb 2015:29 [ref. 36196], Loeb et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35873]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella balboae (Jordan & Seale 1926). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Honduras and Nicaragua south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

balinensis, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1849:11 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [7]; ref. 321] Boleling, northern Bali, Indonesia. Holotype (?): RMNH 23363 (1 of 29). •Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:412 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

barbouri, Lycengraulis Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:151, Fig. 69 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Rio Puty, Pianí State, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 35277. Paratypes: MCZ 18017 (1), USNM 118997 [ex MCZ 18017] (1). •Synonym of Lycengraulis batesii (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:389 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:790 [ref. 26995]). Current status: Synonym of Lycengraulis batesii (Günther 1868). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bataviensis, Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1933:261 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 16492] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. •Valid as Stolephorus bataviensis Hardenberg 1933 -- (Roberts 1978:28 [ref. 8886], Zhang 2001:127 [ref. 26586]). •Synonym of Stolephorus waitei Jordan & Seale 1926 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:419 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1742 [ref. 24719]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus waitei Jordan & Seale 1926. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

batesii, Engraulis Günther [A.] 1868:399 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Pará River, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1849.11.8.73-75 (3). •Valid as Lycengraulis batesii (Günther 1868) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Whitehead et al. 1988:389 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:123 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:316 [ref. 23827], Planquette et al. 1996:70 [ref. 22818], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:790 [ref. 26995], Loeb & Alcântara 2013:200 [ref. 32809], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Melo et al. 2016:374 [ref. 35317], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Lycengraulis batesii (Günther 1868). Engraulidae. Distribution: Amazon, Orinoco and Parnaiba river basins, and Guianas: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

baweanensis, Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1933:261 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 16492] Bawean Island, Java Sea, Indonesia and other localities in Indonesia,. lost. Also in Hardenberg 1934:348 [ref. 16426]. •Synonym of Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg 1933 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:413 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg 1933. Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

belizensis, Anchoviella Thomerson [J. E.] & Greenfield [D. W.] 1975:50, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1975 (no. 1); ref. 7478] Sibun River, Belize. Holotype: FMNH 78363. Paratypes: BFO [Belize Fisheries office] (2); BMNH 1974.3.7.1 (1), 1974.3.7.2-6 (5); CAS 29943-44 (5, 1); FMNH 78364-65 (4, 31); LACM 33899-1 (3), 33900-1 (1); UMMZ 197723-24 (5, 1); USNM 211608-09 (1, 5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Anchoa belizensis (Thomerson & Greenfield 1975) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:342 [ref. 5725], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:68 [ref. 22947], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:138 [ref. 24550], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa belizensis (Thomerson & Greenfield 1975). Engraulidae. Distribution: Pacific slope, Belize and Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

bengalensis, Anchoviella baganensis Dutt [S.] & Babu Rao [M.] 1959:160 [Current Science v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 11991] Kakinada and Waltair, Bay of Bengal, east coast of India. Syntypes: (32 + 53, whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Stolephorus baganensis Hardenberg 1933 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:405 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1729 [ref. 24719]). •Synonym of Stolephorus baganensis Delsman 1931 -- (Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus baganensis Delsman 1931. Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

blackburni, Anchoviella Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:129, Fig. 57 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Jacque Point, Gulf of Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 119793. Paratypes: USNM 119794 (9), 127606 (1). •Status uncertain, juveniles -- (Cervigón 1991:117 [ref. 24472]). •Valid as Anchoviella blackburni Hildebrand 1943 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:327 [ref. 5725], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:793 [ref. 26995]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella blackburni Hildebrand 1943. Engraulidae. Distribution: Caribbean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bonariensis, Anchoviella Marini [T. L.] 1935:446 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 11; ref. 17600] Not available, mentioned in passing with no distinguishing features; from Mar del Plata, Argentina. Engraulidae.

borneensis, Coilia Bleeker [P.] 1852:45 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: (4) BMNH 1867.11.28.78 (1); RMNH 7075 (1 or more of 7), 8040 (1). Bleeker specimens: AMS B.7475-79 (6), NMV 46047-48 (2). Original as Coïlia borneënsis. Appeared first as name only in list in Bleeker 1851:58, 60 [ref. 327], Bleeker 1851:197 [ref. 329], and Bleeker 1851:421 [ref. 16897]. Also in Bleeker 1852:437 [ref. 16827] with citation to 1852:45. •Valid as Coilia borneensis Bleeker 1852 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:462 [ref. 5725], Kottelat et al. 1993:21 [ref. 23448], Wongratana et al. 1999:1707 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Parenti & Lim 2005:179 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:52 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Coilia borneensis Bleeker 1852. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brachycephalus, Stolephorus Wongratana [T.] 1983:401, Fig. 19 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Eastern side of Daru Wharf, Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea. Holotype: BMNH 1979.3.21.447. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.3.21.448-452 (5), USNM 270294 (8). •Valid as Stolephorus brachycephalus Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:406 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1730 [ref. 24719], Paxton et al. 2006:314 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:31 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus brachycephalus Wongratana 1983. Engraulidae. Distribution: Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

brachygnathus, Coilia Kreyenberg [M.] & Pappenheim [P.] 1908:96 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1908 (no. 4) (for 14 Apr. 1908); ref. 14326] Tungting Lake; Hankau, east central China. Syntypes: NMW 4443 (5), 4601 (1). As Coilia brachygnathos in Kreyenberg 1910:10 [ref. 14792]. •Valid as Coilia brachygnathus Kreyenberg & Pappenheim 1908 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:463 [ref. 5725], Zhu 1995:7 [ref. 25213]). •Synonym of Coilia ectenes Jordan & Seale 1905 -- (Zhang 2001:154 [ref. 26586]). •Synonym of Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Current status: Synonym of Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Engraulidae. Distribution: Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

branchiomelas, Stolephorus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1918:682 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 56 (no. 7); ref. 12304] Mouth of River Dagua, Pacific coast of Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 58489 [ex CM 7491]. Paratypes: (3) CAS 78335 [ex IU 13875] (3, now 2); additional material: (10, orig. IU 13880) CAS 78336 [ex IU 13880] (5); FMNH 58490 (1), 58512 (5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:52 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367] but as paratypes. Not treated in Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Anchovia macrolepidota (Kner 1861) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:379 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchovia macrolepidota (Kner 1863). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brasiliensis, Anchoviella Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:138, Fig. 62 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Rio Ribeira de Iguapé, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: UMMZ 133663. Paratypes: USNM 11987 (1). •Synonym of Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:328 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:784 [ref. 26995], Loeb 2015:37 [ref. 36196]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther 1868). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevicauda, Thryssa Roberts [T. R.] 1978:29, Fig. 10c [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 281; ref. 8886] Lower Fly River, Papua New Guinea, 9°01.2'S, 143°21.6'E. Holotype: USNM 217043. Paratypes: (all orig. USNM 217044) AMS I.21483-002 (3), I.21483-004 (1); BMNH 1977.11.17.26-30 (5); USNM 217044 (5); KFRS F.4522.01 (5); RMNH 28208 (3); USNM 217044 (30, now 11); ZMA 114435 (3), ZMA (3). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:11 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Thryssa brevicauda Roberts 1978 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:426 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1745 [ref. 24719], Larson et al. 2013:32 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa brevicauda Roberts 1978. Engraulidae. Distribution: Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

breviceps, Engraulis Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1288 [306] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.448. On p. 306 of separate. •Valid as Setipinna breviceps (Cantor 1849) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:00 [ref. 19754], Whitehead et al. 1988:452 [ref. 5725], Kottelat et al. 1993:22 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:228 [ref. 23210], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:126 [ref. 27969], Wongratana et al. 1999:1722 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Zhang 2001:135 [ref. 26586], Parenti & Lim 2005:179 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989], Lavoué & Ho 2017:347 [ref. 35470]). Current status: Valid as Setipinna breviceps (Cantor 1849). Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevifilis, Engraulis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:54 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Bengal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3719. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:296 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:32 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Setipinna brevifilis (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:453 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:133 [ref. 20764]). Current status: Valid as Setipinna brevifilis (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

brevirostra, Anchovia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:198, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Balboa, Canal Zone, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 79578. Paratypes: FMNH 8215 (10); USNM 79576-77 (20, 1), 79579 (1), 79580 (orig. 19, now 9), 81731 (1), 82053 (now 11). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Anchoviella balboae (Jordan & Seale 1926) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:326 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoviella balboae (Jordan & Seale 1926). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Engraulis Günther [A.] 1868:392 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Caxoeira, Río Paraguaçú, Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: (2?) BMNH 1840.2.16.27. •Valid as Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther 1868) -- (Cervigón 1987:22 [ref. 11411], Whitehead et al. 1988:328 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:119 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:313 [ref. 23827], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:784 [ref. 26995], Loeb 2012:17 [ref. 31849], Loeb & Figueiredo 2014:35 [ref. 35456], Loeb 2015:37 [ref. 36196], Barbosa et al. 2017:167 [ref. 35722], Loeb et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35873]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther 1868). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela, French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevis, Engraulis Poey [F.] 1866:379 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 14057] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 24296. Poey specimens: ZMB 5962 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:172 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:382 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brownii, Atherina Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1397 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Atlantic and Pacifics. No types known. •Synonym of Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:355 [ref. 5725], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:129 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

buccaneeri, Stolephorus Strasburg [D. W.] 1960:396, Figs. 1b, 2 [Pacific Science v. 14 (no. 4); ref. 11953] 200 yards west of Lehua Island, Niihau, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 177742. Paratypes: USNM 177743-44 (19, 8). •Valid as Stolephorus buccaneeri Strasburg 1960 -- (Dor 1984:43 [ref. 29757], Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:20 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:129 [ref. 27969], Hata & Motomura 2016:86 [ref. 34443]). •Synonym of Encrasicholina punctifer Fowler 1938 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:399 [ref. 5725], Randall 1995:71 [ref. 22896], Wongratana et al. 1999:1717 [ref. 24719], Randall 2005:58 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:147 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:103 [ref. 30952], Hata & Motomura 2015:122 [ref. 33726]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus buccaneeri Strasburg 1960. Engraulidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands, Mariana Islands, Japan and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

cantoris, Coilia Bleeker [P.] 1853:148, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 8); ref. 341] Hooghly River, Calcutta, India. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.266. •Synonym of Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:473 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:130 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

capensis, Engraulis Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1913:62, Fig. [Marine biological report: for the year ended ... and for the half year ending ...; to be presented to the Provincial Council; Union of South Africa, Province of the Cape of Good Hope. No. 1 (art. 2); ref. 14154] South Africa. No types known. •Synonym of Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:205 [ref. 6284]). •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1990:228 [ref. 14039]). •Valid as Engraulis capensis Gilchrist 1913 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:315 [ref. 5725], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:138 [ref. 25472], Fricke et al. 2018:52 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Engraulis capensis Gilchrist 1913. Engraulidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa to Madagascar and Mascarenes. Habitat: marine.

carpentariae, Engraulis De Vis [C. W.] 1882:320 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 17382] Norman River, Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: AMS I.377. Paralectotypes: ?QM I.113 (1). Lectotype selected by Whitley 1940:403 [ref. 4699]. •Valid as Stolephorus carpentariae (De Vis 1882) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:406 [ref. 5725], Paxton et al. 1989:160 [ref. 12442], Wongratana et al. 1999:1731 [ref. 24719], Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:314 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:31 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus carpentariae (De Vis 1882). Engraulidae. Distribution: Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carrikeri, Anchoviella Fowler [H. W.] 1940:73, Fig. 28 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Mouth of Río Chapare, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Holotype: ANSP 68980. Paratypes: ANSP 68981-19 (39), 69020 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:100 [ref. 13621], Loeb 2015:45 [ref. 36196]. •Valid as Anchoviella carrikeri Fowler 1940 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Whitehead et al. 1988:329 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192] dated 1941, Loeb 2012:14 [ref. 31849] dated 1841, Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Loeb & Figueiredo 2014:38 [ref. 35456], Loeb 2015:45 [ref. 36196], Loeb et al. 2018:[10] [ref. 35873]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella carrikeri Fowler 1940. Engraulidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Venezuela and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cayennensis, Stolephorus Puyo [J.] 1946:101 [2], Fig. 1 [Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse v. 80 (no. 1-2) (for 1945); ref. 13089] Cayenne River at Macouria, about 4 kilometers from its mouth, French Guiana. Syntypes: (2) not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:49 [ref. 9739]. On p. 2 of separate. •Valid as Anchoviella cayennensis (Puyo 1946) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:330 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1992:314 [ref. 23827], Planquette et al. 1996:60 [ref. 22818], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192] as cayenensis dating to 1945, Nizinski & Munroe 2003:793 [ref. 26995], Loeb 2012:17 [ref. 31849], Loeb & Figueiredo 2014:35 [ref. 35456] as cf. cayenensis, Loeb 2015:53 [ref. 36196] as cayenensis, Barbosa et al. 2017:167 [ref. 35722] as cayenensis, Loeb et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35873] as cayenensis). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella cayennensis (Puyo 1946). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic, coastal river mouths: French Guiana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish.

cayorum, Anchovia choerostoma Fowler [H. W.] 1906:85, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 58; ref. 1371] Hailer's Rock, Florida Keys, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 30613. Paratypes: ANSP 30614-20 (7). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Anchoa cayorum (Fowler 1906) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:74 [ref. 23100], Whitehead et al. 1988:343 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:104 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:310 [ref. 23827], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:69 [ref. 22947], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:349 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:770 [ref. 26995], Smith et al. 2003:9 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:71 [ref. 31601], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:26 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa cayorum (Fowler 1906). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

celebicus, Stolephorus Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1933:262 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 16492] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Appeared first in, and probably dates to Hardenberg 1933:249 [ref. 18244] in table; full description as above. Also in Hardenberg 1934:327 [ref. 16426]. •Synonym of Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:318 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1719 [ref. 24719]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

chamensis, Anchoa Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:54, Fig. 19 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Chame Point, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 119787. •Valid as Anchoa chamensis Hildebrand 1943 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:344 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:50 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1083 [ref. 22829]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa chamensis Hildebrand 1943. Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

chefuensis, Engraulis Günther [A.] 1874:158 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 13 (no. 74) (art. 23); ref. 14189] Chefoo, Shantung Province, China. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1874.1.16.54 (?6). •Synonym of Thryssa kammalensis (Bleeker 1849) -- (Zhang 2001:138 [ref. 26586]). •Valid as Thryssa chefuensis (Günther 1874) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:427 [ref. 5725], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Kanou et al. 2002:404 [ref. 26503], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:42 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa chefuensis (Günther 1874). Engraulidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Vietnam and China to Korea. Habitat: marine.

chinensis, Engraulis Günther [A.] 1880:73 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Amoy (currently Xiamen), China. Lectotype: BMNH 1860.7.20.103. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1831.12.27.203 (1, possible syntype, poor condition), 1860.7.20.105-106 (2), 1964.11.6.8-11 (4, possible syntypes). Based on Chinese specimens of Engraulis japonica of Günther 1868:390 [ref. 1990]. Lectotype designated by Hata & Motomura 2018:[2] [ref. 35807]. •Valid as Stolephorus chinensis (Günther 1880) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:408 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1732 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Zhang 2001:130 [ref. 26586], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:15 [ref. 34319], Hata & Motomura 2018:[2] [ref. 35807]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus chinensis (Günther 1880). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: southern China to Singapore. Habitat: marine.

choerostomus, Engraulis Goode [G. B.] 1874:125 [American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 3) v. 8 (no. 43, art. 12); ref. 18138] Hamilton Harbor, Bermuda. Syntypes: USNM 21958 (34), plus Univ. Mus. in Middletown, Conn. (whereabouts unknown). •Valid as Anchoa choerostoma (Goode 1874) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:345 [ref. 5725], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:143 [ref. 25013], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:793 [ref. 26995], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:168 [ref. 32953]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa choerostoma (Goode 1874). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda. Habitat: marine.

chrysoptera, Clupea Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:425, 460 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:46 [ref. 9739]. Based on Commerson manuscript. Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysostigma, Leptonurus Bleeker [P.] 1849:14 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura Straits near Kammal and Surabaya, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 7033 (1), 24970 [ex 7073] (1 or more of 8). •Synonym of Coilia dussumieri Valenciennes 1848 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:465 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:52 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia dussumieri Valenciennes 1848. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

clarki, Engraulis Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:19, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Balboa, Canal Zone, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 119797. Paratypes: USNM 119798 (1). •Synonym of Anchoa starksi (Gilbert & Pierson 1898) -- (Nelson 1986:891 [ref. 5735], Whitehead et al. 1988:372 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa starksi (Gilbert & Pierson 1898). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

clupeoides, Engraulis Swainson [W.] 1839:388 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Pernambuco coast, Brazil. No types known. Original as clupeoïdes. Not treated in Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061] •Valid as Anchovia clupeoides (Swainson 1839) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:378 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:115 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:313 [ref. 23827], Planquette et al. 1996:64 [ref. 22818], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:124 [ref. 24550], Marín 2000:65 [ref. 26252], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:782 [ref. 26995], Smith et al. 2003:10 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Matamoros et al. 2009:8 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565], Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684], Spier et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Anchovia clupeoides (Swainson 1839). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

clupeoides, Mystus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:466, 467 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:49 [ref. 9739]. Unnecessary replacement for Mystus mystus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Coilia mystus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Okada 1961:292 [ref. 6363], Whitehead et al. 1988:469 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia mystus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

colonensis, Anchoa hepsetus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:60, Fig. 22 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Vicinity of Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 117664. Paratypes: (12) FMNH 2685 (?12), USNM 79555 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:7 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:128 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Anchoa colonensis Hildebrand 1943 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:345 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1992:310 [ref. 23827], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:69 [ref. 22947], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:771 [ref. 26995], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Matamoros et al. 2009:8 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa colonensis Hildebrand 1943. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

commersonnii, Stolephorus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:381, 382, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] No locality [Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean]. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:50 [ref. 9739]. Should be spelled commersonnii. Based on Commerson drawing and notes. Stolephorus commersonianus is an incorrect subsequent spelling (see entry in Official Index). •Valid as Anchoviella commersonii (Lacepède 1803) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:77 [ref. 26385]). •Valid as Stolephorus commersonnii Lacepède 1803 [sometimes as commersonii] -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:409 [ref. 5725], Paxton et al. 1989:161 [ref. 12442], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:139 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:23 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:214 [ref. 24016], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:275 [ref. 24014], Randall 1995:71 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:130 [ref. 27969] as commersonii, Chen et al. 1997:14 [ref. 26476] as commersonii, Kimura et al. 1999:45 [ref. 23926], Fricke 1999:78 [ref. 24106], Wongratana et al. 1999:1733 [ref. 24719], Mishra et al. 1999:83 [ref. 25315], Nakabo 2000:250 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703] as commersoni, Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:117 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:86 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Zhang 2001:128 [ref. 26586] as commersonii, Nakabo 2002:250 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Paxton et al. 2006:314 [ref. 28995] as commersoni, Fricke et al. 2009:21 [ref. 30213] as commersonii, Larson et al. 2013:31 [ref. 32988] as commersonii, Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2015:296 [ref. 34037], Psomadakis et al. 2015:157 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:52 [ref. 35805] as commersonii, Suresh et al. 2018:78 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus commersonnii Lacepède 1803. Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Gulf of Aden, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to New Guinea, north to South China Sea, south to Western Australia at 21°51'S and Queensland (Australia) at 23°51'S. Habitat: brackish, marine.

compressus, Engraulis Girard [C. F.] 1858:336 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ?RMNH 6262 [ex U.S. Fish. Comm.] (1), ?RMNH 11525 [ex USNM] (1), USNM 948 (5). •Valid as Anchoa compressa (Girard 1858) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:74 [ref. 9277], Whitehead et al. 1988:345 [ref. 5725], Swift et al. 1993:131 [ref. 22379], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1073 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Ruiz-Campos et al. 2000:68 [ref. 24940], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:147 [ref. 28379], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:90 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa compressa (Girard 1858). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California to southern Baja California. Habitat: brackish, marine.

continentalis, Anchoa lyolepis Cervigón [F.] 1969:238 [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 29; ref. 21778] •Synonym of Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh 1900) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:360 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh 1900). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

continentalis, Stolephorus Hata [H.] & Motomura [H.] 2018:[5], Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Research v. 65 (no. 3) (for July 2018); ref. 35807] Ha Long Bay, Ha Long City, Qunag Ninh, Vietnam. Holotype: KAUM-I 94540. Paratypes: BMNH, FRLM, KAUM-I. •Valid as Stolephorus continentalis Hata & Motomura 2018 -- (Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:41 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus continentalis Hata & Motomura 2018. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: northern Vietnam; Hong Kong (China). Habitat: marine.

coomansi, Coilia Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1934:294 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 14 (no. 3) (for 1932); ref. 16425] Lower course of Kapuas River, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: (13). •Valid as Coilia coomansi Hardenberg 1934 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:464 [ref. 5725], Kottelat et al. 1993:21 [ref. 23448], Wongratana et al. 1999:1708 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Parenti & Lim 2005:179 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:52 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Coilia coomansi Hardenberg 1934. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

crocodilus, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1850:15 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16884] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7015. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.48 (1), MNHN 0000-3726 (1), RMNH 24969 [ex RMNH 7015] (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:296-297 [ref. 293]. •Valid as Lycothrissa crocodilus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:448 [ref. 5725], Roberts 1989:26 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:22 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:64 [ref. 22772], Wongratana et al. 1999:1720 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Freyhof et al. 2000:94 [ref. 25184], Kottelat 2001:26 [ref. 25780], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:147 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:179 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). •Possibly in the genus Setipinna Swainson 1839 -- (Lavoué & Ho 2017:347 [ref. 35470]). Current status: Valid as Lycothrissa crocodilus (Bleeker 1850). Engraulidae. Distribution: Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cubanus, Engraulis Poey [F.] 1868:420 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 17958 (4). Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]. •Valid as Anchoa cubana (Poey 1868) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:74 [ref. 23100], Whitehead et al. 1988:347 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:105 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:43 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:310 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:350 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:133 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:144 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:772 [ref. 26995], Smith et al. 2003:9 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa cubana (Poey 1868). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cultratus, Stolephorus Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:544 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Santa Margarita Island, off Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Anchoa nasus (Kner & Steindachner 1867) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:366 [ref. 5725], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:134 [ref. 24550] as naso). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa nasus (Kner & Steindachner 1867). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

curtus, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:343 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Astillero at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: MCZ 31402 (1), USNM 29242 (14). •Valid as Anchoa curta (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:348 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:50 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1084 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:187 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:135 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Angulo et al. 2013:990 [ref. 33194], McMahan et al. 2013:443 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa curta (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cuvierii, Clupea (Thryssa) Swainson [W.] 1839:293 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on Russ. pl. 194 -- which is Russell 1802:Pl. 194 [ref. 13862]. •Synonym of Thryssa malabarica (Bloch 1795) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:435 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa malabarica (Bloch 1795). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dayi, Thryssa (Scutengraulis) Wongratana [T.] 1983:404, Fig. 24 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Mumbai, India. Holotype: BMNH 1889.2.1.1803. Paratypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.820 (1), 1889.2.1.1802 (1), 1965.7.12.249-250 (2), 1965.7.12.251-255 (5). Other specimens: BMNH 1889.2.1.1794 (1), BMNH 1969.8.19.9. (1). •Valid as Thryssa dayi Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:428 [ref. 5725], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:238 [ref. 24754], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:158 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa dayi Wongratana 1983. Engraulidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

delicatissimus, Engraulis Girard [C. F.] 1854:154 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ?RMNH 11564 [ex USNM] (7). •Valid as Anchoa delicatissima (Girard 1854) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:74 [ref. 9277], Whitehead et al. 1988:349 [ref. 5725], Swift et al. 1993:130 [ref. 22379], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1074 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:90 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa delicatissima (Girard 1854). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California to southern Baja California. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dentex, Engraulis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:28 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3720. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-1102 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:297-298 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:32 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:134 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:390 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Vera-Alcaraz & Vuletich 2016:2 [ref. 35084], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

devisi, Amentum Whitley [G. P.] 1940:404, Fig. 11 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 4); ref. 4699] Norman River mouth, Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.609 [ex AMS I.377]. Paratypes: AMS IB.610 (4). See Myers & Donaldson 2003:652 [ref. 27495]. •Valid as Stolephorus devisi (Whitley 1940) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:161 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Encrasicholina devisi (Whitley 1940) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:396 [ref. 5725], Randall 1995:70 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:116 [ref. 23922], Myers 1999:61 [ref. 23965], Wongratana et al. 1999:1714 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:58 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:311 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2011:354 [ref. 31242], Hata et al. 2012:126 [ref. 32407], Larson et al. 2013:30 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:52 [ref. 32989], Hata & Motomura 2015:122 [ref. 33726], Ali et al. 2018:308 [ref. 36183]). •Synonym of Encrasicholina heteroloba (Rüppell 1837) -- (Hata & Motomura 2016:[2] [ref. 34502], Motomura et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Synonym of Encrasicholina heteroloba (Rüppell 1837). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diaphana, Anchoa mitchilli Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:91, Fig. 38 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Grand Isle, Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 119790. Paratypes: FMNH 37633-42 (10); UMMZ 143062-63 (518, 417); USNM 127733 (77), 127735 (24), 127740 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Anchoa mitchilli (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Lee et al. 1980:73 [ref. 22416], Whitehead et al. 1988:363 [ref. 5725], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:136 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa mitchilli (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dubiosus, Stolephorus Wongratana [T.] 1983:400, Fig. 18 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Songkhla Lake, Thailand. Holotype: BMNH 1969.4.22.1826. Paratypes: ANSP 60565-77 (12), 61760-61 (2); BMNH 1889.2.1.1840 (1), 1969.4.22.1805-1809 (5), 1969.4.22.1823-1825 (3), 1977.11.30.63-70 (8). Additional material: BMNH (77). •Valid as Stolephorus dubiosus Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:411 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:140 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:23 [ref. 23448], Wongratana et al. 1999:1734 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Kimura in Kimura & Yoshino 2009:26 [ref. 30440], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:33 [ref. 34464], Suresh et al. 2018:79 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus dubiosus Wongratana 1983. Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: northern Bay of Bengal; Java (Indonesia) to Gulf of Thailand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

duodecim, Engraulis Cope [E. D.] 1867:405 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 13 (pt 3) (art. 13); ref. 18027] Indo-Pacific [not Beasley's Point, New Jersey, U.S.A.]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 1363. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621]. Type locality of New Jersey must be in error, see Nelson 1983:50 [ref. 5189]. •Synonym of Thrissina encrasicholoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa encrasicholoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:430 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa encrasicholoides (Bleeker 1852). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dussumieri, Coilia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:81, Pl. 610 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Mumbai, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3749. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3099 [ex MNHN 0000-3749] (3), ?0000-3718 (3). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:295 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:30 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:154 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Coilia dussumieri Valenciennes 1848 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:465 [ref. 5725], Ataur Rahman 1989:241 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:128 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:21 [ref. 23448], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:125 [ref. 27969], Wongratana et al. 1999:1709 [ref. 24719], Mishra et al. 1999:83 [ref. 25315], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Zhang 2001:149 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:265 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:52 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:157 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Coilia dussumieri Valenciennes 1848. Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dussumieri, Engraulis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:69 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat, India, Arabian Sea (originally no type locality). Neotype: BMNH 1966.11.30.1. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:48 [ref. 9739]. Putative neotype designated by Whitehead 1967:142 [ref. 6464], accepted by Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:48 [ref. 9739]; and in addition Kottelat (2013) designates the neotype. •Valid as Thrissina dussumieri (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Thryssa dussumieri (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Kuang & Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:23 [ref. 26639] in Thrissa with authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes and date as 1841, Whitehead et al. 1988:429 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:143 [ref. 20764], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:214 [ref. 24016], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:134 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:118 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:15 [ref. 26476] in Thrissa, Wongratana et al. 1999:1746 [ref. 24719], Mishra et al. 1999:83 [ref. 25315], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Zhang 2001:144 [ref. 26586] with authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Kanou et al. 2002:404 [ref. 26503], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:22 [ref. 27712], Psomadakis et al. 2015:158 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:308 [ref. 36183], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:43 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa dussumieri (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to western Indonesia and South China Sea, north to Taiwan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ectenes, Coilia Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1905:517, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 29 (no. 1433); ref. 10646] Shanghai, China. Holotype: USNM 52077. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9795 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. •Possibly a synonym of Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Yuan & Qin 1985:325 [ref. 26325]). •Valid as Coilia ectenes Jordan & Seale 1905 -- (Okada 1961:298 [ref. 6363], Zhu 1995:7 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:82 [ref. 26385], Wang et al. 2001:61 [ref. 26566], Zhang 2001:154 [ref. 26586], Zhang et al. 2016:47 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:470 [ref. 5725], Youn & Kim 1996:35 [ref. 25727], Kim 1997:504 [ref. 24032] as ectens, Youn 2002:495 [ref. 26218]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

edentulus, Engraulis Cuvier [G.] 1829:323 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [original locality Jamaica]. Neotype: MNHN 0000-0899. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:298 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:32 [ref. 9739]. Based on brief description and citation to "Sloane, Jam., II, pl. 250, f. 2." Putative neotype designated by Whitehead 1967:132 [ref. 6464], accepted by Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:32-33 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Engraulis (Cetengraulis) edentulus Cuvier 1829 -- (Nelson 1984:423 [ref. 5190]). •Valid as Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:382 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:122 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:315 [ref. 23827], Planquette et al. 1996:66 [ref. 22818], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:357 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:122 [ref. 24550], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:788 [ref. 26995], Smith et al. 2003:10 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

eigenmannia, Anchovia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:205, Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Taboga Island, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 79589. Paratypes: FMNH 8221 (7); USNM 81745 (1), 81752 (7). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Anchoa eigenmannia (Meek & Hildebrand 1923) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:350 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:50 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1084 [ref. 22829], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa eigenmannia (Meek & Hildebrand 1923). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southwestern Mexico south to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Anchovia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:198, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Mindi Cut, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype: USNM 81768. Paratypes: FMNH 8222-23 (2, 1); USNM 79585 (1), 91746 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367], Loeb 2015:61 [ref. 36196]. •Valid as Anchoviella elongata (Meek & Hildebrand 1923) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:331 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1992:314 [ref. 23827], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:72 [ref. 22947], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:785 [ref. 26995], Matamoros et al. 2009:8 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:990 [ref. 33194], Loeb 2015:61 [ref. 36196], Loeb et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35873]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella elongata (Meek & Hildebrand 1923). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic, Caribbean Sea: Guatemala south to Panama. Habitat: brackish, marine.

encrasicholoides, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1852:37 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Surabaja, Kammal, Indonesia. RMNH 3536. Syntypes and/or Bleeker speicmens: (13) AMS I.88 (1); BMNH 1867.11.28.50 (1); MNHN 0000-3721 (2); NMV 46120-21 (1, 1); RMNH 28791 (some of 29); SMNS 12815 [ex ZIH 134] (1 syntype). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:297 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:51 [ref. 9739], Fricke 1992:9 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:37 [ref. 29864]. Appeared as name only in Bleeker 1851:214 [ref. 330] and 1852:238 [ref. 16825]. Original as encrasicholoïdes. Lectotype selected by Whitehead et al. 1966:117. •Valid as Thrissina encrasicholoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:83 [ref. 34492]). •Valid as Thryssa encrasicholoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:430 [ref. 5725], Kottelat et al. 1993:24 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:276 [ref. 24014], Wongratana et al. 1999:1747 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Fricke et al. 2014:24 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa encrasicholoides (Bleeker 1852). Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India and Sri Lanka; Indonesia east to Philippines and New Guinea, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

encrasicolus, Clupea Linnaeus [C.] 1758:318 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] 18 nautical miles off Sète, Gulf of Lyon, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. MNHN 2002-1775. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:20 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Neotype designated by Borsa et al. 2004:1113 [ref. 28607]. Spelled encrasiolus in Brünnich 1768:83 [ref. 17290]. Sometimes spelled encrasicholus or encrassicolus.. •Valid as Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:111 [ref. 7169], Dor 1984:43 [ref. 29757], Nelson 1984:424 [ref. 5190], Whitehead in Whitehead et al. 1984:282 [ref. 13675], Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725], Whitehead 1990:228 [ref. 14039], Goren & Dor 1994:11 [ref. 25356], Coad 1995:9 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:84 [ref. 25304], Santos et al. 1997:121 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:30 [ref. 24952] as encrasicholus, Fricke 1999:20 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:39 [ref. 26753], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:30 [ref. 28183], Borsa et al. 2005:1121 [ref. 28607], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:25 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:44 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:20 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33547], Nizinski & Munroe 2016:1717 [ref. 34559], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:32 [ref. 36273], Martins & Carneiro 2018:29 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:553 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, Sea of Azov, eastern Atlantic: Norway south to South Africa, including Madeira and Canary Islands; Red Sea (Mediterranean Sea immigrant); southwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

engymen, Cetengraulis Gilbert [C. H.] & Pierson [C. J.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2815 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Panama Bay, (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: CAS-SU 5815 (116). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Cetengraulis mysticetus (Günther 1867) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:383 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Cetengraulis mysticetus (Günther 1867). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

epsetus, Esox Bonnaterre [J. P.] 1788:175 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] American seas. Not available; an incorrect subsequent spelling of Esox hepsetus Linnaeus 1758; Bonnaterre 1788:175 referred to "Linn. s. n. 517." •Synonym of Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:00 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae.

estauquae, Anchoviella Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:115, Fig. 48 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Sandy beach in Estauques Bay, Gulf of Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 119795. Paratypes: USNM 119796 (3). •Synonym of Engraulis eurystole (Swain & Meek 1884) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:317 [ref. 5725], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:789 [ref. 26995]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis eurystole (Swain & Meek 1884). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

eurystole, Stolephorus Swain [J.] & Meek [S. E.] 1884:35 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 36; ref. 18867] Woods Hole, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 19003 to 19017. Based on Stolephorus perfasciatus of Jordan & Gilbert 1882 and Swain 1882 (not perfascaitus Poey) on one specimen that was lost; but Swain & Meek list additional specimens [syntypes] as, "Specimens of this species, perhaps mixed with others, have been distributed by the U.S. National Museum under the following number, 19,003 to 19,017. •Valid as Engraulis eurystole (Swain & Meek 1884) -- (Nelson 1984:424 [ref. 5190], Robins & Ray 1986:75 [ref. 23100], Whitehead et al. 1988:317 [ref. 5725], Scott & Scott 1988:119 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:54 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:121 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:44 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:315 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:358 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:789 [ref. 26995], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Engraulis eurystole (Swain & Meek 1884). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

evermanni, Anchovia Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:188, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51719 (1 of 2). Paratypes: CAS-SU 8730 (3), USNM 51719 (1 of 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Thrissina baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:425 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

exiguus, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:342 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Astillero at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: MCZ 31393 (1), USNM 28120 (now 5). •Valid as Anchoa exigua (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:351 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:52 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1084 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:129 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:187 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:133 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa exigua (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

extensus, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1926:382 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 67 (no. 11); ref. 2500] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MCZ 6133. Paratypes: MCZ 31542 (3). •Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:412 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

figueiredoi, Lycengraulis Loeb [M. V.] & Alcântara [A. V.] 2013:200, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa 3693 (no. 2); ref. 32809] Amazonas, lago Beruri, rio Purus, 3°50'S 61°20'W, 7–8 April 1967, Expedição Permanente da Amazônia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 6032. Paratypes: ANSP 193934 (2); INPA 39522 (2); MNRJ 40719 (2); MZUSP 6363 (1), 9815-21 (5), 6749 (1), 7648 (1), 9822 (1). •Valid as Lycengraulis figueiredoi Loeb & Alcântara 2013. Current status: Valid as Lycengraulis figueiredoi Loeb & Alcântara 2013. Engraulidae. Distribution: Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

filifera, Anchovia Fowler [H. W.] 1915:524, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 14998] Port of Spain, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype: ANSP 45080. Paratypes: ANSP 45081-82 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Anchoa filifera (Fowler 1915) -- (Nelson 1986:895 [ref. 5735], Whitehead et al. 1988:352 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:107 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:310 [ref. 23827], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27192], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:773 [ref. 26995], Matamoros et al. 2009:8 [ref. 31241], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa filifera (Fowler 1915). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fraseri, Engraulis australis Blackburn [M.] 1950:60, 67 [Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 12938] Western Australia. Syntypes: none designated; many specimens are listed on p. 84, Appendix G. •Synonym of Engraulis australis (Shaw 1790) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:314 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1718 [ref. 24719]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis australis (Shaw 1790). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

garmani, Stolephorus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:352 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Puerto Real, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): USNM 49360. •Synonym of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:382 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gautamiensis, Thryssa Babu Rao [M.] 1971:479, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1971 (no. 3); ref. 7663] Near Bhairavapalem village, Gautami branch of Godavari Estuary, Andhra Pradesh, India. Holotype: ZSI F4600/2. Additional material: (many). See Das 2003:351 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Thrissina gautamiensis (Babu Rao 1971) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [rtef. 32989]). •Valid as Thryssa gautamiensis Babu Rao 1971 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:431 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:144 [ref. 20764]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa gautamiensis Babu Rao 1971. Engraulidae. Distribution: India; perhaps Myanmar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gilberti, Setipinna Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1905:194, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 28 (no. 1391); ref. 2530] Chemulpo, Korea. Holotype: USNM 37766. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8659 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Setipinna gilberti Jordan & Starks 1905 -- (Wang et al. 2001:58 [ref. 26566]). •Synonym of Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:458 [ref. 5725], Youn & Kim 1996:38 [ref. 25727] as gilbert, Wongratana et al. 1999:1725 [ref. 24719], Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989], Lavoué & Ho 2017:345 [ref. 35470]). Current status: Synonym of Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Distribution: East China Sea (if valid subspecies). Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Stolephorus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:352 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Palo Seco, near San Juan, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): USNM 49359. •Synonym of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:382 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ginsburgi, Anchoa Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:55, Fig. 20 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Eslaques Bay, Gulf of Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 119788. Paratypes: USNM 119789 (1), 127608-09 (7, 3), 127610 (4, juv.). •Synonym of Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:355 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gloria, Encrasicholina Hata [H.] & Motomura [H.] 2016:80, Fig. 2 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 64; ref. 34443] Suez Bay, Egypt, 29°54'00"N, 32°31'12"E. Holotype: MNHN 1966-0646. Paratypes: BMNH, HUJ, KAUM-I, MNHN. •Valid as Encrasicholina gloria Hata & Motomura 2016 -- (Hata & Motomura 2017:6 [ref. 35066], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:31 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Encrasicholina gloria Hata & Motomura 2016. Engraulidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf; eastern Mediterranean (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

godavari, Setipinna Babu Rao [M.] 1962:367, Fig. [Proceedings of the All-India Congress of Zoology (pt 2) (for 1959) (art. 50); ref. 3296] Godavari estuary, India. Description begins on p. 365, name given on p. 367. As godavariensis in Babu Rao 1967, an unjustified emendation (not investigated). •Synonym of Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Ankamma Rao & Sharma 1987:135 [ref. 19847], Whitehead et al. 1988:458 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:135 [ref. 20764], Wongratana et al. 1999:1725 [ref. 24719], Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grayi, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1851:492 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16898] Rio [Rhio or Riouw]; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7068 (1). Paralectotypes: (22) RMNH 24963 [ex 7068] (perhaps some of 19). Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:41 [ref. 16826]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 2013:56 [ref. 32988]0. •Synonym of Thrissina hamiltonii (Gray 1835) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa hamiltonii (Gray 1835) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:432 [ref. 5725], Youn & Kim 1996:42 [ref. 25727], Ataur Rahman 2003:269 [ref. 31338]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa hamiltonii (Gray 1835). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grayii, Coilia Richardson [J.] 1845:no p., Pl. 54 (figs. 1-2) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] China Seas. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.1157 or 1581. Type information: Whitehead 1970:209 [ref. 11606]. Available from plate; text in Richardson 1845:99 [ref. 20275]. •Valid as Coilia grayii Richardson 1845 -- (Kuang & Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:25 [ref. 26639] as grayi dated 1844, Whitehead et al. 1988:466 [ref. 5725], Zheng et al. 1989:25 [ref. 21202], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:43 [ref. 23876] as grayi, Chen et al. 1997:15 [ref. 26476] dated 1844, Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:14 [ref. 25482], Zhang 2001:150 [ref. 26586] dated 1844, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Coilia grayii Richardson 1845. Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grossidens, Engraulis Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:50, Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. No types known. As Engraulis janeiro on plate. •Valid as Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829 or Agassiz 1829) -- (Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:82 [ref. 14235], Whitehead et al. 1988:390 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:125 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:316 [ref. 23827], Planquette et al. 1996:70 [ref. 22818], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Sverlij et al. 1998:9 [ref. 27632], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:791 [ref. 26995], López et al. 2003:7 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:71 [ref. 28131], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Loeb & Alcântara 2013:200 [ref. 32809], Angulo et al. 2013:990 [ref. 33194], Fabiano et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33530], Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561] with author as Agassiz, Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Vera-Alcaraz & Vuletich 2016:2 [ref. 35084], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565] with author as Agassiz, Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35679], Spier et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae. Distribution: Widespread in South and Central America, mostly marine but ascending rivers. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

guianensis, Stolephorus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:447, Pl. 62 (fig. 5) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Bartica rocks, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53932 [ex CM 2448]. Paratypes: CAS 60398 [ex IU 12562] (1), FMNH 53933 [ex CM 2559] (1), ?53934 (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:51 [ref. 12305]. •Valid as Anchoviella guianensis (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Cervigón 1987:24 [ref. 11411], Whitehead et al. 1988:332 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:120 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:314 [ref. 23827], Planquette et al. 1996:60 [ref. 22818], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:786 [ref. 26995], Loeb 2012:14 [ref. 31849], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Loeb & Figueiredo 2014:38 [ref. 35456], Loeb 2015:68 [ref. 36196], Melo et al. 2016:374 [ref. 35317], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633], Barbosa et al. 2017:167 [ref. 35722], Loeb et al. 2018:[10] [ref. 35873]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella guianensis (Eigenmann 1912). Engraulidae. Distribution: South America: Orinoco River to Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

guineensis, Anchoviella Rossignol [M.] & Blache [J.] 1961:285, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 33 (no. 3); ref. 9375] Off Cape Lopez, Gabon, depth 20 meters. Syntypes: MNHN 1961-0310 (10). Additional material: ?MNHN [ex ORSTOM Dakar] uncat. (70). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:30 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nelson 1984:424 [ref. 5190], Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725], Whitehead 1990:229 [ref. 14039], Nizinski & Munroe 2016:1717 [ref. 34559]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

haizhouensis, Pseudosetipinna Peng [Y.-B.] & Zhao [Z.-R.] 1988:355 (English p. 358), Fig. [Journal of Fisheries of China v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 13758] Lusi, Jiangsu Province, China. Holotype: Yangzhou Fish. Inst. S 1528. Paratypes: Nanjing Agric. Univ. N 1192 (1); Yangzhou Fish. Inst. S 1398 (1), 1520-21 (1, 1). •Valid as Pseudosetipinna haizhouensis Peng & Zhao 1988 -- (Zhang 2001:136 [ref. 26586]). •Synonym of Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Lavoué & Ho 2017:347 [ref. 35470]). Current status: Synonym of Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hamiltoni, Coilia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:79 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Rivers of Bengal. Based on Gray 1830: Pl. 85 (fig. 3) [ref. 1878]; listed as new but perhaps not independent of Gray 1830. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater.

hamiltonii, Chaetomus McClelland [J.] 1843:406 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 2927] Unneeded replacement name for Mystus ramcarati Hamilton 1822. •Synonym of Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 2003:264 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hamiltonii, Engraulis (Coilia) Gray [J. E.] 1830:no page number, Pl. 85 (fig. 3) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] Rivers of Bengal, India. No types known. Published about 6 Jan. 1830; also in Gray 1831:9 [ref. 1879] as Coilia hamiltonii. Based on Hardwicke drawing. •Synonym of Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:473 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hamiltonii, Thrissa Gray [J. E.] 1835:no page number, Pl. 92 (fig. 3) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] India. No types known. Published about 20 Feb. 1935. Based on a Hardwicke drawing. •Valid as Thrissina hamiltonii (Gray 1835) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:15 [ref. 34319], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:43 [ref. 36460]). •Valid as Thryssa hamiltonii (Gray 1835) -- (Roberts 1978:29 [ref. 8886], Whitehead et al. 1988:432 [ref. 5725], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:162 [ref. 12442], Ataur Rahman 1989:245 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:144 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:25 [ref. 15702] as hamiltoni, Kottelat et al. 1993:24 [ref. 23448], Randall 1995:72 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:136 [ref. 27969], Youn & Kim 1996:42 [ref. 25727], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23922], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Wongratana et al. 1999:1748 [ref. 24719], Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:250 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Zhang 2001:140 [ref. 26586] dated 1836, Nakabo 2002:250 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:149, 496 [ref. 26218], Kanou et al. 2002:404 [ref. 26503], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:22 [ref. 27712], Ataur Rahman 2003:269 [ref. 31338], Paxton et al. 2006:316 [ref. 28995], Kimura in Kimura & Yoshino 2009:27 [ref. 30440] as hamiltoni, Coad 2010:76 [ref. 36620], Larson et al. 2013:32 [ref. 32988] as hamiltoni, Yoshida et al. 2013:34 [ref. 34464], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:860 [ref. 34062], Psomadakis et al. 2015:158 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:308 [ref. 36183], Suresh et al. 2018:81 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa hamiltonii (Gray 1835). Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to Taiwan and Ogasawara Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

helleri, Anchoviella Hubbs [C. L.] 1921:47 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 34; ref. 15316] San Felipe Bay, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3332. Paratypes: FMNH 9515 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Anchoa helleri (Hubbs 1921) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:354 [ref. 5725], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1085 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:131 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa helleri (Hubbs 1921). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

hepsetoides, Clupea Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:40 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Based on Brünnich, p. 101. •Synonym of Pterengraulis atherinoides (Linnaeus 1766) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Pterengraulis atherinoides (Linnaeus 1766). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hepsetus, Esox Linnaeus [C.] 1758:314 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. Incorrectly spelled epsetus by Bonnaterre 1788:175 [ref. 4940]. •Valid as Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1986:398 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:73 [ref. 23100], Whitehead et al. 1988:355 [ref. 5725], Scott & Scott 1988:119 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:53 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:112 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:43 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:311 [ref. 23827], Murdy et al. 1997:66 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:351 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:129 [ref. 24550], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639] as cf. hepsetus, Munroe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:106 [ref. 26158], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:774 [ref. 26995], Smith et al. 2003:10 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:435 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hernanni, Anchoviella Loeb [M. V.], Varella [H. R.] & Menezes [N. A.] 2018:[3], Figs. 1, 2a, 3 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 92 (no. 6); ref. 35873] Río Urubamba, Río Ucayali basin, Atalaya, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 59251. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MUSM, MZUSP. Plus additional non-type material. Fig. 1 states the holotype as MUSM 59521. •Valid as Anchoviella hernanni Loeb, Varella & Menezes 2018. Current status: Valid as Anchoviella hernanni Loeb, Varella & Menezes 2018. Engraulidae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

heteroloba, Engraulis Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:79, Pl. 21 (fig. 4) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 4305. •Valid as Stolephorus heterolobus (Rüppell 1837) -- (Dor 1984:43 [ref. 29757], Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:20 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:161 [ref. 12442], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:130 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:14 [ref. 26476] as heteroloba, Zhang 2001:124 [ref. 26586] dated 1835). •Valid as Encrasicholina heteroloba (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:397 [ref. 5725], Goren & Dor 1994:11 [ref. 25356], Carpenter et al. 1997:117 [ref. 23922], Myers 1999:61 [ref. 23965], Wongratana et al. 1999:1715 [ref. 24719], Nakabo 2000:249 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:249 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:14 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:21 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:58 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:311 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2011:354 [ref. 31242], Hata et al. 2012:125 [ref. 32407], Larson et al. 2013:30 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:31 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:412 [ref. 33460], Hata & Motomura 2015:122 [ref. 33726], Hata & Motomura 2016:[2] [ref. 34502], Hata & Motomura 2017:6 [ref. 35066], Motomura et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:51 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:31 [ref. 36273], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:40 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:56 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Encrasicholina heteroloba (Rüppell 1837). Engraulidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and northern Madagascar east to Caroline Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Port Hedland (Western Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

hildebrandi, Anchoviella Carvalho [J. de P.] 1950:78, Fig. 1 [Boletim do Instituto Paulista Oceanografia v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 12767] Río Paraguaçú at Caxoeira, Bahia. Holotype: IO (apparently lost). Paratypes: IO (15, apparently lost). Type catalog: Menezes 1974:216 [ref. 20795]. •Synonym of Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:328 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:784 [ref. 26995], Loeb 2015:37 [ref. 36196]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther 1868). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hiulcus, Engraulis Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1880:343 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 98); ref. 18135] Clearwater Harbor, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 23632 (poor condition). •The same as Anchoa lamprotaenia Hildebrand 1943 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:358 [ref. 5725] as a forgotten name). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa lamprotaenia Hildebrand 1943. Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

holodon, Engraulis Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:12, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Marine Investigations in South Africa No. 8; ref. 14723] Zwartkops River, Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1898.12.17.7-8 (2), SAM 12747 (1). •Valid as Stolephorus holodon (Boulenger 1900) -- (Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:205 [ref. 6284], Whitehead et al. 1988:411 [ref. 5725], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:111 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus holodon (Boulenger 1900). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hornelli, Engraulis Fowler [H. W.] 1924:41 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 30 (pt 1); ref. 15445] Calicut, India. Holotype: ANSP 51465. Paratypes: (3) ANSP 51466-67 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Thrissina mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:438 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

howelli, Anchoa Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:106, Fig. 46 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Market at Santos, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 100888. Paratypes: USNM 117669 [ex USNM 76328] (1). •Synonym of Anchoa filifera (Fowler 1915) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:352 [ref. 5725], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:773 [ref. 26995]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa filifera (Fowler 1915). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hubbsi, Anchoviella Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:128, Fig. 56 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Rio Ribeira de Iguapé, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: UMMZ 133664. Paratypes: (36) UMMZ 133665 (13), 143051-52 (9, 13); USNM 119806 (4). •Synonym of Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler 1911) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:334 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:787 [ref. 26995], Loeb 2015:98 [ref. 36196]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler 1911). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

iheringi, Anchoviella Fowler [H. W.] 1941:124, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Jaguaribe, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69345. Paratypes: ANSP 69346-67 (22), 69368 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler 1911) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:334 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:787 [ref. 26995], Loeb 2015:98 [ref. 36196]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler 1911). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

indicus, Engraulis van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:329 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar I Deel (no. 21); ref. 5105] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on Russel, 1803, II, p. 71, Pl. CLXXXVII (see Alfred 1961:83 [ref. 20553], Kottelat 1987:370 [ref. 5962]). Also in van Hasselt 1824:92 [ref. 5104]. •Valid as Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Roberts 1978:27 [ref. 8886], Dor 1984:43 [ref. 29757], Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:20 [ref. 6441], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:206 [ref. 6284], Whitehead et al. 1988:412 [ref. 5725], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:161 [ref. 12442], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:141 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:23 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:11 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:71 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:131 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:117 [ref. 23922], Anderson et al. 1998:21 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:62 [ref. 23965], Wongratana et al. 1999:1735 [ref. 24719], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:237 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:83 [ref. 25315], Nakabo 2000:250 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:118 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Sakai et al. 2001:86 [ref. 25693], Zhang 2001:131 [ref. 26586], Nakabo 2002:250 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:14 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:111 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:59 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:315 [ref. 28995], Yoshino in Kimura & Yoshino 2009:26 [ref. 30440], Fricke et al. 2011:354 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:32 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:33 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:412 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2015:294 [ref. 34037], Psomadakis et al. 2015:157 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:308 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:52 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:32 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:80 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823). Engraulidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Caroline, Mariana and Society islands, north to South China Sea, southward to Dampier Archipelago (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Mediterranean Sea immigrant. Habitat: marine.

inermis, Clupea Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:377 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Clupea; corresponds to Clupea 25-radiata on p. 389. Appeared as Clupea inermis vel 25-radiata in Devincenzi 1925:316, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Agassiz 1829) [ = Engraulis grossidens Cuvier 1829]. Also objectively invalid; preoccupied by Clupea inermis Basilewsky 1855. •In the synonymy of Lycengraulis batesii (Günther 1868) -- (Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Vera-Alcaraz & Vuletich 2016:2 [ref. 35084], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

insignus, Stolephorus Hata [H.] & Motomura [H.] 2018:284, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 2); ref. 36364] Off Oton, Panay Island, Philippines, 10°37'N, 122°14'E. Holotype: KAUM-I 80742. Paratypes: AZISP, USNM. •Valid as Stolephorus insignus Hata & Motomura 2018. Current status: Valid as Stolephorus insignus Hata & Motomura 2018. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: northern Taiwan, Philippines (Panay, Luzon) and Indonesia (Halmahera, Moluccas). Habitat: marine.

insularis, Stolephorus Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1933:249 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 18244] Java coasts and near islands of the Lingga archipelago, Bawean and Kangean archipelago, Indonesia. Also in Hardenberg 1933:260 [ref. 16492] with 4 subspecies. Perhaps preoccupied by Stolephorus insularum Jordan & Seale 1926. •Valid as Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg 1933 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:413 [ref. 5725], Carpenter et al. 1997:118 [ref. 23922], Myers 1999:62 [ref. 23965], Wongratana et al. 1999:1736 [ref. 24719], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:237 [ref. 24754], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:59 [ref. 28239], Kimura in Kimura & Yoshino 2009:26 [ref. 30440], Fricke et al. 2011:355 [ref. 31242], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2015:296 [ref. 34037], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:32 [ref. 36273], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:41 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg 1933. Engraulidae. Distribution: [Red Sea], Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf east to western Indonesia and South China Sea, north to Taiwan; eastern Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

insularum, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1926:381 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 67 (no. 11); ref. 2500] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype: MCZ 17936. Paratypes: MCZ 31540 [ex MCZ 17936] (2). •Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:412 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

intermedia, Encrasicholina Hata [H.] & Motomura [H.] 2016:79, Fig. 1 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 64; ref. 34443] Kalient, Kerala, India. Holotype: RMNH.PISC 26135. Paratypes: BMNH, RMNH.PISC, MNHN, USNM. •Valid as Encrasicholina intermedia Hata & Motomura 2016 -- (Hata & Motomura 2017:6 [ref. 35066]). Current status: Valid as Encrasicholina intermedia Hata & Motomura 2016. Engraulidae. Distribution: Southwest coast of Africa and India. Habitat: marine.

iquitensis, Engraulis Nakashima [S.] 1941:62, Fig. [Boletín del Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado" v. 5 (no. 16); ref. 13189] Peruvian Amazon. Syntypes: ? MHNJP [= MUSM]. •Questionably a synonym of Lycengraulis batesii (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:389 [ref. 5725]). •Synonym of Lycengraulis batesii (Günther 1868) -- (Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Lycengraulis batesii (Günther 1868). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ischanus, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:340 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] (Pacific) Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 29246 [not 28246] (28). •Valid as Anchoa ischana (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:356 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:52 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1075 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:130 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:193 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:186 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:131 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa ischana (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja and Gulf of California to northern Peru, including Cocos and the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

jamesi, Amplova Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1926:410 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 67 (no. 11); ref. 2500] Rio Jutahy, tributary of rio Solimões, Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 18014. Paratypes: MCZ 17783-84 (1, 1). Type catalog: Loeb 2015:78 [ref. 36196]. •Valid as Anchoviella jamesi (Jordan & Seale 1926) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Whitehead et al. 1988:333 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192], Loeb 2012:14 [ref. 31849], Loeb & Figueiredo 2014:35 [ref. 35456], Loeb 2015:78 [ref. 36196], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633], Loeb et al. 2018:[10] [ref. 35873]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella jamesi (Jordan & Seale 1926). Engraulidae. Distribution: South America: Orinoco River and Amazon River basins: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

janeiro, Engraulis Spix [J. B. von] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Name available from plate caption. •Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:390 [ref. 5725], Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Vera-Alcaraz & Vuletich 2016:2 [ref. 35084], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae.

januarius, Engraulis Steindachner [F.] 1879:176 [58] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Harbor of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 2790 (51.4 mm SL). Paralectotypes: NMW 2790 (1 of 2, 54 mm SL). Type information and lectotype designation: Whitehead 1970:24 [ref. 11605]. On p. 58 of separate. •Valid as Anchoa januaria (Steindachner 1879) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:357 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:109 [ref. 24472], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Marín 2000:66 [ref. 26252], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639] dated 1880, Nizinski & Munroe 2003:775 [ref. 26995], Menezes & Figuiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27192] with author as Hildebrand 1943, Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa januaria (Steindachner 1879). Engraulidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Venezuela and Brazil. Habitat: marine.

japonica, Argentina Forster [J. R.] 1795:16 [Zoologia Indica, sistens descriptiones animalium selectorum; ref. 18091] India. Name only. Based on Chaetodon Atherina japonica Houttuyn 1782. •Synonym of Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Current status: Synonym of Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

japonica, Atherina Houttuyn [M.] 1782:340 [Verhandelingen der Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, Haarlem v. 20 (pt 2); ref. 2220] Not available, name suppressed by ICZN (Opinion 749); see also Boeseman 1995:6 [ref. 21811]; from Japan. •In the synonymy of Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:318 [ref. 5725], Mizuno et al. 1999:5 [ref. 25311], Nakabo 2000:248 [ref. 25086]). •Treated as valid as Engraulis japonicus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Nakabo 2002:248 [ref. 26001], Matsunuma et al. 2010:82 [ref. 31558]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Engraulis Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:239, Pl. 108 (fig. 3) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. No types known. Based on figure and manuscript of Burger (Boeseman 1947:176 [ref. 12876]). •Valid as Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:20 [ref. 6441], Nelson 1984:424 [ref. 5190], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:205 [ref. 6284], Whitehead et al. 1988:318 [ref. 5725], Youn & Kim 1996:37 [ref. 25727], Cheng & Zhou 1997:75 [ref. 26385], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:8 [ref. 24670] with author as Houttuyn, Fricke 1999:77 [ref. 24106], Wongratana et al. 1999:1719 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:17 [ref. 25650], Shimizu 2001:21 [ref. 25799], Wang et al. 2001:55 [ref. 26566], Zhang 2001:120 [ref. 26586], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:139 [ref. 25968], Youn 2002:149, 495 [ref. 26218], Fedorov et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27579], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:110 [ref. 28072], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:31 [ref. 28183], Parin et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33547], Koeda et al. 2016:10 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35490] as japonica). Current status: Valid as Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan to Indonesia; western Indian Ocean may be a separate species. Habitat: marine.

jiulongjiangensis, Coilia mystus Liu [W.-B.] 1995:562 [English p. 565] [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 26 (no. 5); ref. 22581] Jiulongjiang, China. No types known. •Synonym of Coilia mystus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia mystus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

juruasanga, Anchoviella Loeb [M. V.] 2012:13 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 31849] Rio Trombetas, upstream from mouth of Lago do Jacaré at Reserva Biológica de Trombetas 1°20'S, 56°51'W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 109249. Paratypes: ANSP 192138 (20); INPA 7104 (30); MNRJ 39086 (20); MPEG 22814 (20); MZUSP 15831 (243), 31422 (1), 52015 (2), 85397 (5). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Loeb 2015:89 [ref. 36196]. •Valid as Anchoviella juruasanga Loeb 2012 -- (Loeb & Figueiredo 2014:35 [ref. 35456], Loeb 2015:89 [ref. 36196], Loeb et al. 2018:[9] [ref. 35873]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella juruasanga Loeb 2012. Engraulidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River and Orinoco River basins, Brazil, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

juruensis, Cetengraulis Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:427, Pl. 41 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 14 (pt 7, no. 2); ref. 543] Rio Juruá, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1897.12.1.196. •Valid as Engraulis juruensis (Boulenger 1898) -- (Nelson 1984:424 [ref. 5190]). •Valid as Cetengraulis juruensis Boulenger 1898 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708]). •Valid as Jurengraulis juruensis (Boulenger 1898) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:385 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Jurengraulis juruensis (Boulenger 1898). Engraulidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

kammalensis, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1849:13 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura Straits near Kammal and Surabaya, Java, Indonesia (specific locality not given by Kottelat). Lectotype: RMNH 7067. Syntypes and Bleeker specimens: AMS B.7650 (1) Orissa, MNHN 0000-1232 (1) Banka, NMV 46128-29 (1, 1); RMNH 24962 [ex 7067] (some of 16). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:297 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:52 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]. •Valid as Thrissina kammalensis (Bleeker 1849) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Thryssa kammalensis (Bleeker 1849) -- (Kuang & Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:21 [ref. 26639] in Thrissa, Whitehead et al. 1988:433 [ref. 5725], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:40 [ref. 23876] in Thrissa, Krishnan & Mishra 1993:214 [ref. 24016], Youn & Kim 1996:40 [ref. 25727], Cheng & Zhou 1997:79 [ref. 26385], Wongratana et al. 1999:1749 [ref. 24719], Mishra & Krishnan 1999:110 [ref. 24749], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Wang et al. 2001:56 [ref. 26566], Zhang 2001:138 [ref. 26586], Youn 2002:149, 496 [ref. 26218], Kanou et al. 2002:404 [ref. 26503]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa kammalensis (Bleeker 1849). Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kammalensoides, Thryssa (Scutengraulis) Wongratana [T.] 1983:401, Fig. 20 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Godavari estuary, eastern coast of India. Holotype: BMNH 1965.7.12.248. Paratypes: BMNH 1965.7.12.247 (1). •Valid as Thryssa kammalensoides Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:434 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:145 [ref. 20764], Mishra & Krishnan 1999:110 [ref. 24749]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa kammalensoides Wongratana 1983. Engraulidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish.

kempi, Engraulis Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1916:421, Fig. 4 [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 15053] Off Barkul, Lower Chilka Lake, Orissa, India. Holotype: ZSI F8782/1. Paratypes: ZSI F8785/1 to 8799/1 (15). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:99 [ref. 20743]. •Synonym of Thrissina purava (Hamilton 1922) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa purava (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:440 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:146 [ref. 20764]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa purava (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

koreanus, Engraulis Kishinouye [K.] 1908:101, Pls. 20 (fig. 2), 21 (fig. 6) [Journal of the Imperial Fisheries Bureau v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 14325] Kinshu Peninsula and southern end of Korea. Syntypes: apparently destroyed. •Questionably a synonym of Thryssa chefuensis (Günther 1874) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:427 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Uncertain as Thryssa chefuensis (Günther 1874). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

korua, Coilia Dutt [S.] & Seshagiri-Rao [B. V.] 1972:136 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 69 (pt 1); ref. 7610] Gollapalem, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Holotype: ?BNHM [ex. MDZAU]. Paratypes: (5) ?BMNH 1974.9.29.1-5 (5). Plus non-type material. •Synonym of Coilia reynaldi Valenciennes 1848 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:474 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:131 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia reynaldi Valenciennes 1848. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lamprotaenia, Anchoa Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:62, Fig. 23 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 117661. Paratypes: FMNH 1984 (16), 6959 (5), 8217 (22), 37354-40 (7), 37569-92 (23), 37621-25 (5), 37526 (1), 37528-33 (6); UMMZ 60691 (4), 87969 (3), 112900 (10), 143066 (17); USNM (197, 18 lots). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Anchoa lamprotaenia Hildebrand 1943 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:73 [ref. 23100], Whitehead et al. 1988:358 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:106 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:311 [ref. 23827], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:70 [ref. 22947], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:352 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:130 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:776 [ref. 26995], Smith et al. 2003:10 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:26 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa lamprotaenia Hildebrand 1943. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

landivarensis, Anchovia Greenfield [D. W.] & Greenfield [T.] 1975:104, Fig. 1 [Fieldiana Zoology V. 65 (no. 9); ref. 32269] Belize City. Belize, Central America. Holotype: FMNH 80407. Paratypes: BFO uncat. (1); BMNH 1975.10.1.1 (1), CAS 33643 (1); FMNH 80408 (1); GLRL 14095 (1); UMMZ 197412 (1); USNM 214696 (1). •Valid as Anchovia landivarensis Greenfield & Greenfield 1975. Current status: Valid as Anchovia landivarensis Greenfield & Greenfield 1975. Engraulidae. Distribution: Belize, Central America. Habitat: marine.

lemniscatus, Engraulis Cuvier [G.] 1829:323 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:48 [ref. 9739]. Available from footnote as, "Aj. Engr. lemniscatus, N., ou piquitinga, Margr., 159, Spix, xxiii." •Synonym of Anchoa tricolor (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:372 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa tricolor (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lepidentostole, Anchovia Fowler [H. W.] 1911:214, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 63; ref. 1382] Suriname. Holotype: ANSP 1346. Paratypes: ANSP 1347 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621], Loeb 2015:97 [ref. 36196]. Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061] •Valid as Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler 1911) -- (Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:97 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1987:20 [ref. 11411], Whitehead et al. 1988:334 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:117 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:314 [ref. 23827], Planquette et al. 1996:62 [ref. 22818], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639] as cf. lelidentostole, Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192] dated 1941, Nizinski & Munroe 2003:787 [ref. 26995], Loeb 2012:17 [ref. 31849], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Loeb & Figueiredo 2014:35 [ref. 35456], Loeb 2015:97 [ref. 36196], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Loeb et al. 2018:[10] [ref. 35873], Spier et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler 1911). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela, French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname south to Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lighti, Setipinna Wu [H.-W.] (ex Herre) 1929:26, Fig. 20 [Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China. (Zoological Series) v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 17843] Amoy, China. Holotype (unique): Mus. Zool. Univ. Amoy, China. •Synonym of Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:458 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1725 [ref. 24719]). •Synonym of Setipinna taty (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Zhang 2001:133 [ref. 26586], Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Setipinna taty (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

limnichthys, Lycengraulis Schultz [L. P.] 1949:51 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 99 (no. 3235); ref. 3967] Río Agua Caliente, 2-3 kilometers above Lago de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121751. Paratypes: Dahl coll. [ex USNM 121757] (5); MCZ 37246 [ex USNM 121757] (5); UMMZ 157669 [ex USNM 121753] (10); USNM 121752 (59, now 58), 121753 (orig. 40, now 29), 121754-56 (2, 1, 1), 121757 (orig. 84, now 73), 121758 (6). •Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:390 [ref. 5725], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:791 [ref. 26995]). •Valid as Lycengraulis limnichthys Schultz 1949 -- (Cervigón 1991:127 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:316 [ref. 23827], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:794 [ref. 26995], Loeb & Alcântara 2013:200 [ref. 32809]). Current status: Valid as Lycengraulis limnichthys Schultz 1949. Engraulidae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lindmani, Coilia Bleeker [P.] 1857:48 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 3 (art. 9); ref. 359] Mussi River, Palembang, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.76. Original as Coïlia Lindmani. •Valid as Coilia lindmani Bleeker 1857 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:466 [ref. 5725], Kottelat et al. 1993:21 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:63 [ref. 22772], Wongratana et al. 1999:1710 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Tan & Kottelat 2009:25 [ref. 30261], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:30 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Coilia lindmani Bleeker 1857. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

longipinna, Anchoviella Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1928:48, Fig. [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 15836] Bizoton, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 170574 [ex NYZS 7460]. Paratypes: USNM 170575 [ex NYZS 7461] (10). Type catalog: Mead 1958:131 [ref. 20648]. •Synonym of Anchoa filifera (Fowler 1915) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:352 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa filifera (Fowler 1915). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

louisiana, Engraulis Lesueur [C. A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:51 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:48 [ref. 9739]. Not available, name mentioned in passing, no description; from Lake Ponchartrain, New Orleans, U.S.A. •In the synonymy of Anchoa mitchilli (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:363 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa mitchilli (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae.

lucidus, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:341 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: MCZ 36010 [ex SU] (2); USNM 28121 (12), 30884 (21). •Valid as Anchoa lucida (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:359 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:50 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1076 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:187 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:134 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Angulo et al. 2013:990 [ref. 33194], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa lucida (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja and Gulf of California to Ecuador. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lyolepis, Stolephorus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:89, Fig. 13 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Holotype: USNM 49528. Paratypes: (36) ?FMNH (5, not found). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh 1900) -- (Nelson 1986:895 [ref. 5735], Robins & Ray 1986:74 [ref. 23100], Whitehead et al. 1988:360 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:110 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:43 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:311 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:353 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:138 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:144 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27192] dated 1902, Nizinski & Munroe 2003:777 [ref. 26995], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:26 [ref. 33341], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh 1900). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

macrocephala, Encrasicholina Hata [H.] & Motomura [H.] 2015:118, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa 3941 (no. 1); ref. 33726] Djibouti, Republic of Djibouti, 11°33'N, 43°10'E. Holotype: MNHN 2014-0152. Paratypes: ANSP, HUJ, KAUM, MNHN. •Valid as Encrasicholina macrocephala Hata & Motomura 2015 -- (Hata & Motomura 2017:6 [ref. 35066]). Current status: Valid as Encrasicholina macrocephala Hata & Motomura 2015. Engraulidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea Habitat: marine.

macrognathos, Coilia Bleeker [P.] 1852:436 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 16827] Pamangkat, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7074. Paralectotypes and/or Bleeker specimens (2) BMNH 1867.11.28.73 (1); NMV 46046 (1); RMNH 5564 (1), 24968 [ex 7074] (2). Original genus as Coïlia. Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:50 [ref. 16826]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead et al. 1966:141. •Valid as Coilia macrognathos Bleeker 1852 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:468 [ref. 5725], Kottelat et al. 1993:21 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:228 [ref. 23210], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:126 [ref. 27969], Rainboth 1996:64 [ref. 22772], Wongratana et al. 1999:1711 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Parenti & Lim 2005:179 [ref. 28285]). Current status: Valid as Coilia macrognathos Bleeker 1852. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrognathos, Thryssa Bleeker [P.] 1849:14 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura near Bangcallong, Kammal, Surabaya, Java, Indonesia. No types known. •Synonymy of Thrissina setirostris (Broussonet 1782) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa setirostris (Broussonet 1782) -- (Wongratana et al. 1999:1753 [ref. 24719]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa setirostris (Broussonet 1782). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrolepidotus, Engraulis Kner [R.] 1863:224, "Fig. 7" (unpublished) [Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu München 1863, v. 2; ref. 5002] Río Bayano, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type information and lectotype designation: Whitehead 1970:36 [ref. 11605] but contested by Neumann 2006:274 [ref. 28925]. Also appeared as new in Kner & Steindachner 1864:21, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [ref. 2649]. Not treated in Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061]. Whitehead's lectotype (NMW 2808) was collected after the original description. •Valid as Anchovia macrolepidota (Kner 1863) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:379 [ref. 5725], Allen & Robertson 1994:62 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:52 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1080 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:132 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:183 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:124 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:89 [ref. 28615], Angulo et al. 2013:990 [ref. 33194], McMahan et al. 2013:443 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:290 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Anchovia macrolepidota (Kner 1863). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California and Gulf of California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrops, Engraulis Kishinouye [K.] 1911:385, Pl. 30 (fig. 3) [Journal of the College of Agriculture, Imperial University Tokyo v. 2 (no. 7); ref. 18418] Habajima, Bonin Islands. No types known. Spelled macrops with main account and in plate legend on p. 386, as Micropus on Pl. 30 -- the latter spelling considered as in error. •Synonym of Thrissina baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:425 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrops, Stolephorus baganensis Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1933:260 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 16492] Indragiri River mouth, Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: lost. Appeared first in Hardenberg 1931:107 [ref. 16298] without clear distinguishing features presented. Then appeared briefly as above; then in Hardenberg 1934:339 [ref. 16426]. •Synonym of Stolephorus baganensis Hardenberg 1934 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:405 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1729 [ref. 24719]). •Synonym of Stolephorus baganensis Delsman 1931 -- (Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus baganensis Delsman 1931. Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maeoticus, Engraulis encrasicholus Pusanov [I. I.] & Zeeb [Y.] 1926:94 [Trudy Krimskogo Naucno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Biologii i Biologiceskogo Fakul'teta v. 1; ref. 18576] Sea of Azov, Russia/Ukraine. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:164 [ref. 31251]). •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:111 [ref. 7169], Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:30 [ref. 28183], Parin et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

magdalenae, Anchovia Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:23, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 119791. Paratypes: MCZ 37299 [ex USNM 119792] (1). Not treated in Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Anchovia macrolepidota (Kner 1863) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:379 [ref. 5725], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1080 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:133 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:125 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Anchovia macrolepidota (Kner 1863). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

malabaricus, Clupea Bloch [M. E.] 1795:115, Pl. 432 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Syntypes: ZMB 8804 (1, dry, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:65 [ref. 24282]. Spelled malabarica on plate. Spelled malabar in Lacepède 1803:459 [ref. 4930]. Whitehead 1969:274 suggested a putative neotype (BMNH 1868.10.25.27). On p. 116 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Thryssa malabarica (Bloch 1795) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:435 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:146 [ref. 20764], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:159 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:309 [ref. 36183], Suresh et al. 2018:82 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa malabarica (Bloch 1795). Engraulidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Pakistan to India. Habitat: brackish, marine.

manamensis, Anchoviella Cervigón [F.] 1982:220, Figs. 5-6 [Los recursos pesqueros del Rio Orinoco y su explotacion; ref. 20509] Caño Mánamo, near Tucupita, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela. Holotype: FCLR 638. Paratypes: BMNH 1983.2.22.1-2 (2); ICLR 639 to 640 (6, 5). Type catalog: Loeb 2015:97 [ref. 36196]. •Valid as Anchoviella manamensis Cervigón 1982 -- (Cervigón 1987:26 [ref. 11411], Whitehead et al. 1988:335 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Loeb & Figueiredo 2014:38 [ref. 35456], Loeb 2015:97 [ref. 36196], Loeb et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35873]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella manamensis Cervigón 1982. Engraulidae. Distribution: South America: Orinoco River Delta, Venezuela east to Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

marasriae, Thryssa Wongratana [T.] 1987:108, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 100 (no. 1); ref. 8020] King Creek, Shoal Bay, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype: NTM S10707-002. Paratypes: NTM S10094-001 (9), S10095-001 (2), S10102-002 (8), S10216-002 (5), S10259-005 (4), S10707-001 (8); USNM 278480 (1). •Valid as Thryssa marasriae Wongratana 1987 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:437 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1750 [ref. 24719], Paxton et al. 2006:316 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:33 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa marasriae Wongratana 1987. Engraulidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

margaritifera, Demicoilia Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1926:363 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 67 (no. 11); ref. 2500] Colombo, Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): MCZ 31533 [ex MCZ 17975]. •Synonym of Coilia dussumieri Valenciennes 1848 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:465 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:52 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia dussumieri Valenciennes 1848. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

marinii, Anchoa Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:99, Fig. 42 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Off Isla Flores, Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype: USNM 87786. Paratypes: UMMZ 133273 (2), 15617-18 (1, 1); USNM 87787 (1). •Valid as Anchoa marinii Hildebrand 1943 -- (Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:80 [ref. 14235] as marini, Whitehead et al. 1988:362 [ref. 5725], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:62 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa marinii Hildebrand 1943. Engraulidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: marine.

maryuba, Stolephorus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1908:[4] [Kosmos, Rio de Janeiro [Rev. Art. Sci. Litt.] v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1907); ref. 3715] Rio de Ribeiro, as far as Xirica, Brazil. Syntypes: MNRJ 1780 (3). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1953:398 [ref. 12732] as Stelephorus mayuba. •Questionably a synonym of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:382 [ref. 5725] but as manjuba). Current status: Uncertain as Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mauii, Anchoviella Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands [probably in error for eastern Pacific]. Holotype: USNM 82904. Paratypes: (1). Additional material: (9). •Synonym of Engraulis mordax Girard 1854 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:320 [ref. 5725]). •Synonym of Engraulis australis (White 1790) -- (Mundy 2005:147 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis mordax Girard 1854. Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

mediterranea, Engraulis engrassicholus forma de Buen [F.] 1926:49 [Resultado de las Campañas Realizadas por Acuerdos Internacionales, Madrid No. 2; ref. 5054] Catalan; Balearic Is; Levante region; Alboran, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Based on several literature sources. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater.

mediterraneus, Engraulis encrasicolus Pusanov [I. I.] & Zeeb [Y.] 1926:93 [Trudy Krimskogo Naucno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Biologii i Biologiceskogo Fakul'teta v. 1; ref. 18576] Mediterranean Sea. After "race Méditerranéenne" Fage 1920. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:111 [ref. 7169], Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:30 [ref. 28183]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

megalops, Stolephorus baganensis Delsman [N. C.] 1931:220, 234, Figs. 35-38 [v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 33166] Rodkan mouth at Bagen si Api Api, Sumatra, Indonesia Syntypes: lost. •Synonym of Stolephorus baganensis Delsman 1931 -- (Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus baganensis Delsman 1931. Engraulidae.

megalura, Elops (Setipinna) Swainson [W.] 1839:292 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Ham. p. 240 -- which is Hamilton 1822:241 [ref. 2031]. •Synonym of Setipinna phasa (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:456 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Setipinna phasa (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

megastoma, Clupea (Thryssa) Swainson [W.] 1839:293 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on Russ. ii. pl. 190 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 190 [ref. 13862]. •Synonym of Thrissina purava (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa purava (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:440 [ref. 5725], Ataur Rahman 2003:268 [ref. 31338]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa purava (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanochir, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1849:13 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura Straits near Surabaya and Kammal, Java, Indonesia. Bleeker specimens and/or syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.52 (1), MNHN 0000-3656 (1) Sumatra, NMV 46627-29 (3), RMNH 7079 (1), RMNH 24967 (possibly 1 specimen of 10). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:296 [ref. 293]. •Valid as Setipinna melanochir (Bleeker 1849) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:454 [ref. 5725], Roberts 1989:26 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:22 [ref. 23448], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:127 [ref. 27969], Rainboth 1996:64 [ref. 22772], Martin-Smith & Tan 1998:579 [ref. 23647], Wongratana et al. 1999:1723 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:26 [ref. 25780], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:147 [ref. 28284] as cf. melanochir, Tan & Kottelat 2009:25 [ref. 30261], Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:32 [ref. 34464], Lavoué & Ho 2017:347 [ref. 35470], Sulaiman et al. 2018:44 [ref. 35802]). Current status: Valid as Setipinna melanochir (Bleeker 1849). Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-west Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

meletta, Engraulis Cuvier [G.] 1829:323 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:49 [ref. 9739]. Based on brief description and citation to "Duham. sect. VI, pl. iii, f. 5" [Duhamel 1777:157-158, Pl. 3 (fig. 5)]. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725], Whitehead 1990:228 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

miarchus, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:344 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán harbor, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28119 (8, not found in 1980). •Status uncertain -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:324 [ref. 5725], Loeb 2015:143 [ref. 36196]). •Valid as Anchoviella miarcha (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella miarcha (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

micropinna, Papuengraulis Munro [I. S. R.] 1964:151, Fig. 2 [Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 3058] Off Port Romilly, 7°55'S, 114°48'E, Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea, depth 7 fathoms. Holotype: CSIRO C 3247. Paratypes: CSIRO A 3083-86 (1, 1, 1, 1), C 3517-18 (1, 1). •Valid as Papuengraulis micropinna Munro 1964 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:450 [ref. 5725], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Wongratana et al. 1999:1721 [ref. 24719], Paxton et al. 2006:313 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:30 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Papuengraulis micropinna Munro 1964. Engraulidae. Distribution: Papua New Guinea and northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mitchilli, Engraulis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:50 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] New York, U.S.A. Lectotype: MNHN A-7930. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3097 [ex MNHN A-7930] (1), 0000-3722 (6), 0000-3723 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:299 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:33 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:128 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Anchoa mitchilli (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Lee et al. 1980:73 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:397 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:74 [ref. 23100], Whitehead et al. 1988:363 [ref. 5725], Boschung 1992:44 [ref. 23239], Knight & Hastings 1994:149 [ref. 25560], Mettee et al. 1996:121 [ref. 25836], Murdy et al. 1997:65 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:354 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:136 [ref. 24550], Ross et al. 2001:113 [ref. 25978], Munroe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:107 [ref. 26158], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:778 [ref. 26995], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:133 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2005:9 [ref. 28940], Miller 2006:88 [ref. 28615], Page & Burr 2011:146 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:65 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa mitchilli (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

montevideo, Clupea Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:394 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Not available; from Uruguay. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:317, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Stolephorus olidus of Günther 1880 [= Engraulis olidus Günther 1874]. Engraulidae.

mordax, Engraulis Girard [C. F.] 1854:138 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1817] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Engraulis mordax Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:74 [ref. 9277], Nelson 1984:424 [ref. 5190], Whitehead et al. 1988:320 [ref. 5725], Hammann & Cisneros-Mata 1989:49 [ref. 23109], Matarese et al. 1989:48 [ref. 26885], Swift et al. 1993:130 [ref. 22379], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1082 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:135 [ref. 24545], Fuller et al. 1999:41 [ref. 25838], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:138 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:19 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:90 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Engraulis mordax Girard 1854. Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: eastern Gulf of Alaska (rare) to southern Baja California. Habitat: marine.

multibranchus, Stolephorus Wongratana [T.] 1987:3, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 2876; ref. 9143] Metalanim harbor, Caroline Islands, western Pacific, Townsend Cromwell station 102. Holotype: BMNH 1974.9.25.7. Paratypes: AMNH 57158 (1); BMNH 1974.9.25.1-6 (6); USNM 280364 (1). •Valid as Stolephorus multibranchus Wongratana 1987 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:415 [ref. 5725], Myers 1999:62 [ref. 23965], Wongratana et al. 1999:1737 [ref. 24719], Kimura et al. 2009:294 [ref. 30297], Hata & Motomura 2018:287 [ref. 36364]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus multibranchus Wongratana 1987. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

mundeoloides, Anchovia Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1928:9, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 2 (art. 2); ref. 636] San Felipe Bay, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype: YPM 1168. Paratypes: USNM 117798 [ex YPM 1169] (5), YPM 1169 (now 9). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:11 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Anchoa mundeoloides (Breder 1928) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:365 [ref. 5725], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1085 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:128 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:40 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa mundeoloides (Breder 1928). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Baja and Gulf of California to southern Mexico and possibly to Costa Rica. Habitat: marine.

mundeolus, Stolephorus Gilbert [C. H.] & Pierson [C. J.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2812 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Panama Bay, (Pacific) Panama. Lectotype: CAS-SU 5817 (larger specimen of 2). Paralectotypes: MCZ 60002 [ex CAS-SU 6480] (3); CAS-SU 6837 (10, not found), 6840 (10); USNM 119001 [ex CAS-SU] (1), 274513 [ex USNM 119001] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Nelson 1983:52 [ref. 5189]. •Valid as Anchoa mundeola (Gilbert & Pierson 1898) -- (Nelson & Sonoda 1987:521 [ref. 12331], Whitehead et al. 1988:364 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:50 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1085 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:137 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:443 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa mundeola (Gilbert & Pierson 1898). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Gulf of California to Colombia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mystacina, Clupea Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:428 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Not available, manuscript name mentioned under Clupea setirostris; from Tana I. [Tanna, Vanuatu, Southwestern Pacific Ocean]. Based on description and drawing in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •In the synonymy of Thrissina setirostris (Broussonet 1782) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •In the synonymy of Thryssa setirostris (Broussonet 1782) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:443 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa setirostris (Broussonet 1782). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mystacoides, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1852:42 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta Surabaja; Semarang; Pasuruan; Tjilatjap; Bangcallang, Kammal; Sumanap, Indonesia (lectotype locality no given by Kottelat). Lectotype: RMNH 7069. Paralectotypes: (27) BMNH 1867.11.28.-- (1); RMNH 24966 [ex 7069] (some or all of 12). Original as mystacoïdes. Based on specimens and literature sources; two available species names were cited in synonymy: Clupea mystax Bloch & Schneider 1801 and Thryssa porava Bleeker 1849. Lectotype selected by Whitehead et al. 1966:124. •Synonym of Thrissina mystax (Bloch & Schenider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:438 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mystax, Clupea Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:426, Pl. 83 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Malabar, India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3884. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:78 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Thrissina mystax (Bloch & Schenider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:83 [ref. 34492]). •Valid as Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kuang & Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:22 [ref. 26639] in Thrissa, Whitehead et al. 1988:438 [ref. 5725], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:41 [ref. 23876] in Thrissa, Kottelat et al. 1993:24 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:214 [ref. 24016], Randall 1995:73 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:136 [ref. 27969] with author as Schneider, Cheng & Zhou 1997: [ref. 26385] in Thrissa, dated 1931 [sic], Wongratana et al. 1999:1751 [ref. 24719], Wongratana et al. 1999:1751 [ref. 24719], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:238 [ref. 24754], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:124 [ref. 27511] with author as Schneider, Wang et al. 2001:57 [ref. 26566] in Thrissa, Zhang 2001:141 [ref. 26586], Kanou et al. 2002:404 [ref. 26503], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Coad 2010:77 [ref. 36620], Psomadakis et al. 2015:159 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:309 [ref. 36183], Suresh et al. 2018:83 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Engraulidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to western Indonesia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mysticetus, Engraulis Günther [A.] 1867:604 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Panama (Pacific). Syntypes: BMNH 1863.12.16.20-21 (2). •Valid as Engraulis mysticetus Günther 1867 -- (Nelson 1984:424 [ref. 5190]). •Valid as Cetengraulis mysticetus (Günther 1867) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:74 [ref. 9277], Nelson 1984:423 [ref. 5190], Whitehead et al. 1988:383 [ref. 5725], Allen & Robertson 1994:62 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:52 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1081 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:134 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:194 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:182 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:123 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:40 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:67 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:90 [ref. 35888], González-Murcia et al. 2019:290 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Cetengraulis mysticetus (Günther 1867). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mystus, Clupea Linnaeus [C.] 1758:319 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Indian Ocean (erroneous, should be China). Syntypes: NRM 74 (1), ZMUU Linn. coll. 108 (1). Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:32 [ref. 23530], Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:210 [ref. 20707], Wheeler 1991:159, Fig. 4 [ref. 20102]. Sometimes spelled mistus. Also appeared in Linnaeus 1759:252 [ref. 24770]. •Valid as Coilia mystus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Okada 1961:292 [ref. 6363], Whitehead et al. 1988:469 [ref. 5725], Zheng et al. 1989:26 [ref. 21202], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:44 [ref. 23876], Youn & Kim 1996:36 [ref. 25727], Chen et al. 1997:15 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:83 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:150 [ref. 24032], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:14 [ref. 25482], Wang et al. 2001:60 [ref. 26566], Zhang 2001:151 [ref. 26586], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:39 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Coilia mystus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Vietnam and China to Korea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nanus, Engraulis Girard [C. F.] 1858:335 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 946. •Synonym of Engraulis mordax Girard 1854 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:320 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis mordax Girard 1854. Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

nanus, Stolephorus indicus Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1933:263 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 16492] Indo-Australian seas. Appeared first briefly as above; then in Hardenberg 1934:355 [ref. 16426]. •Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:412 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

naso, Stolephorus Gilbert [C. H.] & Pierson [C. J.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2813 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Panama Bay, (Pacific) Panama. Lectotype: CAS-SU 5816 (44 mm). Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 5816 (9). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Nelson 1986:894 [ref. 5735]. •Synonym of Anchoa nasus (Kner & Steindachner 1867), but a valid subspecies -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:187 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Anchoa nasus (Kner & Steindachner 1867) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:366 [ref. 5725], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:134 [ref. 24550] as naso). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa nasus (Kner & Steindachner 1867). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nasus, Coilia Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:243, Pl. 109 (fig. 4) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3367 (1 of 2). Paralectotypes: RMNH 3367 (1 of 2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:178 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Coilia mystus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Okada 1961:292 [ref. 6363]). •Valid as Colia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Uyeno in Masuda et al. 1984:20 [ref. 6441], Whitehead et al. 1988:470 [ref. 5725], Youn & Kim 1996:34 [ref. 25727], Kim 1997:148 [ref. 24032], Nakabo 2000:248 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Kim & Park 2002:47 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:248 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:149, 495 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846, subspecies nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:44 [ref. 25598]). •Synonym of Collia ectenes Jorday & Seale 1905 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:47 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nasus, Engraulis Kner [R.] & Steindachner [F.] 1867:388 [33], Pl. 2 (fig. 17) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 54 (pt 3); ref. 2640] Chincha Islands, Peru. Holotype: NMW 2837. Type information: Whitehead 1970:34 [ref. 11605]. On p. 33 of separate. •Valid as Anchoa nasus (Kner & Steindachner 1867) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:366 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:52 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1077 [ref. 22829], Pequeño 1989:28 [ref. 14125], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:194 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:187 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:134 [ref. 24550] as naso, Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa nasus (Kner & Steindachner 1867). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California and Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nasuta, Anchoa Hildebrand [S. F.] & Carvalho [J. de P.] 1948:288, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1948 (no. 4); ref. 13058] São Sebastien, São Sebastien Island, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 143903. Paratypes: USNM 143904 (4 + 1 lost), 103905 (1). Type catalog: Menezes 1974:216 [ref. 20795]. •Valid as Anchoa nasuta Hildebrand & Carvalho 1948 -- (Nelson 1986:895 [ref. 5735]). •Synonym of Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh 1900) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:360 [ref. 5725], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:138 [ref. 24550], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:777 [ref. 26995]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh 1900). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

nasutus, Engraulis Castelnau [F. L.] 1878:51 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 762] Norman River, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: MAMU F.1194 (2). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:49 [ref. 9739], Gill et al. 2018:572 [ref. 36070]. •Status uncertain as Thrissina hamiltonii (Gray 1835) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]). •Questionably a synonym of Thryssa hamiltonii (Gray 1835) -- (Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:49 [ref. 9739], Whitehead et al. 1988:432 [ref. 5725]). •Status uncertain -- (Paxton et al. 1989:162 [ref. 12442]). •Incertae sedis -- (Paxton et al. 2006:317 [ref. 28995] as Engraulis nasuta). •Valid as Thryssa nasuta (Castelnau 1878) -- (Gill et al. 2018:571 [ref. 36070]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa nasuta (Castelnau 1878). Engraulidae. Distribution: Norman River, Queensland, Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nattereri, Engraulis Steindachner [F.] 1879:174 [56] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW (not found). Type information: Whitehead 1970:24 [ref. 11605]. On p. 56 of separate. •Valid as Anchoviella nattereri (Steindachner 1879) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:336 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192]). •Nomen nudum -- (Loeb 2012:14 [ref. 31849] dated 1880). •Nomen dubium as Engraulis nattereri Steindachner 1879 -- (Loeb & Menezes 2015:299 [ref. 33727] dated 1880). Current status: Uncertain as Engraulis nattereri Steindachner 1879. Engraulidae. Distribution: Amazon River mouth, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

neglecta, Coilia Whitehead [P. J. P.] 1968:33, Fig. 4 [Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India v. 9 (no. 1) [1967]; ref. 7931] Arabian Sea, 21°23'N, 69°46'E, Anton Bruun cruise 4B, station 211A, depth 10 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 213489. Paratypes: BMNH 1967.11.20.560-569 (10). Additional material: BMNH 1967.11.20.407-424 (18), 1967.11.20.425-428 (4), 1967.11.20.429-436 (8), 1967.11.20.437-461 (25), 1967.11.20.462-559 (97). •Valid as Coilia neglecta Whitehead 1968 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:472 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:129 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:22 [ref. 23448], Wongratana et al. 1999:1712 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Parenti & Lim 2005:179 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:157 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Coilia neglecta Whitehead 1968. Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nelsoni, Stolephorus Wongratana [T.] 1987:4, Fig. 2 [American Museum Novitates No. 2876; ref. 9143] Eighty Mile Beach, 3 miles north of Wallal Homestead, Western Australia. Holotype: AMNH 57157. Paratypes: ROM 39271 (2); USNM 280176 [ex AMNH 31433] (1). •Valid as Stolephorus nelsoni Wongratana 1987 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:415 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1738 [ref. 24719], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:315 [ref. 28995], Hata & Motomura 2018:381 [ref. 36406]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus nelsoni Wongratana 1987. Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: northern Western Australia, Northern Territory and northern Queensland (Australia) north to West Papua (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

nesogallicus, Engraulis Bennett [E. T.] 1832:168 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 4944] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Original as Neso-gallicus. •Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:425 [ref. 5725], Fricke 1999:79 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Thrissina baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigra, Anchovia Schultz [L. P.] 1949:39, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 99 (no. 3235); ref. 3967] Lake Maracaibo at Yacht Club, Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121761. Paratypes: MCZ 37215 [ex USNM 121765] (100); UMMZ 157670 [ex USNM 121765] (200), 178849 (100); USNM 121762-64 (1, 4, 3), 121765 (orig. 7000, now 6900), 121766 (2). Not treated in Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Anchovia clupeoides (Swainson 1839) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:378 [ref. 5725], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:782 [ref. 26995]). Current status: Synonym of Anchovia clupeoides (Swainson 1839). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nitida, Anchoviella Hildebrand [S. F.] & Carvalho [J. de P.] 1948:294, Fig. 4 [Copeia 1948 (no. 4); ref. 13058] Victoria, Espirito Santo State, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 143906. Paratypes: MCZ 37254 (1), USNM 143907 (1). •Synonym of Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler 1911) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:334 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:787 [ref. 26995], Loeb 2015:98 [ref. 36196]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler 1911). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

occidentalis, Engraulis encrasicholus ponticus natio Majorowa [A. A.] 1934:18 [Traudy Biologiceskogo Sektora / Akademija Nauk SSSR, Zakavkazskij Filial, Gruzinskoe Otdelenie = Biologiuro Sek'toris sromebi / SSRK Mec'nierebat'a Akademia, Amier-Kavkasiis P'iliali, Sak'art'velos Ganqop'ileba = Travaux biologiques / Académie des + v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 21155] Not available, infrasubspecific. •In the synonymy of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:111 [ref. 7169], Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae.

oceanicus, Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1933:261 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 16492] Southern coast of Java, Indonesia. lost. Appeared first briefly as above; then in Hardenberg 1934:350 [ref. 16426]. •Synonym of Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg 1933 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:413 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1736 [ref. 24719], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Stolephorus oceanicus Hardenberg 1933 -- (Hata & Motomura 2018:[7] [ref. 35807]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus oceanicus Hardenberg 1933. Engraulidae. Distribution: Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

olidus, Engraulis Günther [A.] 1874:455 [7] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 14 (no. 84) (art. 55); ref. 5753] Rio Paraná, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1872.6.8.12. •Valid as Engraulis olidus Günther 1874 -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:46 [ref. 23791]). •Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:390 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:791 [ref. 26995], López et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27366], Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Vera-Alcaraz & Vuletich 2016:2 [ref. 35084], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

oligobranchus, Stolephorus Wongratana [T.] 1983:397, Fig. 15 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Rosario, Cavite, Manila Bay, Philippines. Holotype: BMNH 1979.12.5.3. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.12.5.4-5 (2). •Valid as Encrasicholina oligobranchus (Wongratana 1983) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:398 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1716 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Hata & Motomura 2015:122 [ref. 33726], Hata & Motomura 2017:6 [ref. 35066]). Current status: Valid as Encrasicholina oligobranchus (Wongratana 1983). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

oliveri, Engraulis russoi var. Scuderi [I.] 1957:242 [Bollettino di Pesca, Piscicoltura e Idrobiologia, Roma (n. s.) v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 18715] Lago Verdi, brackish marine pond along the Tyrrhenian coast of Sicily near Oliveri, Italy. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:111 [ref. 7169], Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

opercularis, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:275 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 227); ref. 10613] Punta San Felipe, Gulf of California, Mexico (stomach content). Holotype (unique): USNM 29366. •Synonym of Cetengraulis mysticetus (Günther 1867) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:383 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Cetengraulis mysticetus (Günther 1867). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

orientalis, Engraulis encrasicholus ponticus natio Majorowa [A. A.] 1934:19 [Traudy Biologiceskogo Sektora / Akademija Nauk SSSR, Zakavkazskij Filial, Gruzinskoe Otdelenie = Biologiuro Sek'toris sromebi / SSRK Mec'nierebat'a Akademia, Amier-Kavkasiis P'iliali, Sak'art'velos Ganqop'ileba = Travaux biologiques / Académie des + v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 21155] Apparently not available, infrasubspecific; from "Toto spatio partis orientalis Ponti." •In the synonymy of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:111 [ref. 7169], Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae.

pacificus, Stolephorus Baldwin [W. J.] 1984:152, Fig. 1 [Micronesica v. 19 (nos 1-2) (for 20 Dec.); ref. 8252] Acfayan Bay, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 28190. Paratypes: BMNH 1983.2.3.1-4 (4); BPBM 25405 (1), 28191 (10), 28782 (1); UGM 6385 (10), 6387 (7); USNM 263476 (10). •Valid as Stolephorus pacificus Baldwin 1984 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:416 [ref. 5725], Myers 1999:62 [ref. 23965], Wongratana et al. 1999:1739 [ref. 24719], Kimura et al. 2009:294 [ref. 30297]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus pacificus Baldwin 1984. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pallida, Anchovia Starks [E. C.] 1913:9, Pl. 1 [Leland Stanford Jr. University Publications, University Series; ref. 4197] Market at Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 22216. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Anchovia surinamensis (Bleeker 1865) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:380 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:783 [ref. 26995]). Current status: Synonym of Anchovia surinamensis (Bleeker 1865). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

panamensis, Engraulis Steindachner [F.] 1876:589 [39] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] (Pacific) Panama. Lectotype: NMW 1970 (113.2 mm SL). Paralectotypes: NMW 1969 (2), 1970 (2 of 3), 1971-72 (2, 2). Type information and lectotype designation: Whitehead 1970:36 [ref. 11605]. •Valid as Anchoa panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Nelson & Sonoda 1987:521 [ref. 12331], Whitehead et al. 1988:367 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:50 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1086 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:186 [ref. 24555], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa panamensis (Steindachner 1876). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador south to northern Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

papuensis, Setipinna Munro [I. S. R.] 1964:150, Fig. 1 [Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 3058] Off Port Romilly, Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea, 7°55'S, 144°48'E. Holotype: CSIRO C 3246. Paratypes: (26) CSIRO A 3079-80 (1, 1), A 3082 (1), B 315-B 317 (7, 6, 10). •Valid as Setipinna papuensis Munroe 1964 -- (Roberts 1978:27 [ref. 8886]). •Synonym of Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:458 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1725 [ref. 24719], Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

parri, Anchoviella Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:131, Fig. 58 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] San Filepe Bay, Gulf of California, Mexico, depth 3 fathoms. Holotype: YPM 3852. Paratypes: (over 100) USNM 118998 (5). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:11 [ref. 16741]. •Possibly a synonym of Anchoa ischana (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Loeb 2015:143 [ref. 36196]). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater.

parva, Anchovia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:202, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Porto Bello, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 81767. Paratypes: FMNH 8235-37 (20, 1, 3); USNM 79554 (7), 117664 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Anchoa parva (Meek & Hildebrand 1923) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:368 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:108 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:311 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:355 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:132 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:144 [ref. 25013], Marín 2000:65 [ref. 26252], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:779 [ref. 26995], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:89 [ref. 28615], Matamoros et al. 2009:8 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa parva (Meek & Hildebrand 1923). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

paxtoni, Setipinna Wongratana [T.] 1987:109, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 100 (no. 1); ref. 8020] Medusa Bank, Cambridge Gulf, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.16267-001 (not 16267-100). Paratypes: WAM P.16268-001 (1), P.16269-001 (1), P.16270-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:7 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:6 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Setipinna paxtoni Wongratana 1987 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:455 [ref. 5725], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:313 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:31 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Setipinna paxtoni Wongratana 1987. Engraulidae. Distribution: Australia: Northern Territory and Western Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pectoralis, Anchoa Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:52, Fig. 18 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Vigia, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 35276. Paratypes: MCZ 18004 (orig. 64 or 63), USNM 119009 [ex MCZ 18004] (5). •Valid as Anchoa pectoralis Hildebrand 1943 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:369 [ref. 5725], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa pectoralis Hildebrand 1943. Engraulidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

perezi, Anchoviella Cervigón [F.] 1987:27, Fig. 2 et seq. [Contribuciones Cientificas, Escuela de Ciencias Aplicadas del Mar, Universidad de Oriente, Nucleo de Nueva Esparta, Porlamar (Venezuela) No. 14; ref. 11411] Laguna La Ceiba, Los Castillos de Guayana, Venezuela. Holotype: FCLR 650. Paratypes: FCLR 651 (12), AMNH 58619 (labeled paratypes but not published as such). •Valid as Anchoviella perezi Cervigón 1987 - (Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Anchoviella jamesi (Jordan & Seale 1926) - (Loeb 2015:78 [ref. 36196]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella perezi Cervigón 1987. Engraulidae. Distribution: South America: Orinoco River delta, Venezuela. Habitat: brackish.

perfasciatus, Engraulis Poey [F.] 1860:312 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 17965. Paratypes and/or Poey specimens: ?MCZ 17955 (9), 17966 (2), 31549 (9). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:172 [ref. 22926], Loeb 2015:115 [ref. 36196], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]. •Valid as Anchoviella perfasciata (Poey 1860) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:75 [ref. 23100], Whitehead et al. 1988:337 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1992:315 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:356 [ref. 23897], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:794 [ref. 26995], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Loeb 2015:115 [ref. 36196], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195], Barbosa et al. 2017:167 [ref. 35722] as perfaciata, Loeb et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35873], Robins et al. 2018:435 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella perfasciata (Poey 1860). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (U.S.A.), Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Martinica. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

perthecatus, Stolephorus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:434 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 30483. •Synonym of Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:355 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

peruanus, Engraulis Steindachner [F.] 1879:178 [60] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Callao, Peru. Lectotype: NMW 1965 (1 of 4, 100 mm SL). Paralectotypes: NMW 1963-64 (2, 5), 1965 (3 of 4), 1966-67 (1, 2). Type information and lectotype designation: Whitehead 1970:36 [ref. 11605]. On p. 60 of separate. •Synonym of Anchoa nasus (Kner & Steindachner 1867) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:366 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa nasus (Kner & Steindachner 1867). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pfeifferi, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1852:433 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 16827] Kapuas River, Pontianak, western Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7077. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.55 (1), 24965 [ex RMNH 7077] (2). Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989] says Whitehead et al. (1966) made an incorrect spelling; he says Bleeker's spelling must be emended to Pfeifferae. •Synonym of Setipinna breviceps (Cantor 1849) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:452 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1722 [ref. 24719], Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Setipinna breviceps (Cantor 1849). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

phasa, Clupea Hamilton [F.] 1822:240, 382 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Brackish rivers of Bengal. No types known. •Valid as Setipinna phasa (Hamilton 1822) -- (Shrestha 1978:34 [ref. 15970], Whitehead et al. 1988:456 [ref. 5725], Ataur Rahman 1989:242 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:136 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:498 [ref. 23778] as phasae, Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:266 [ref. 31338], Shrestha 2008:49 [ref. 29923], Lavoué & Ho 2017:347 [ref. 35470]). Current status: Valid as Setipinna phasa (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Distribution: Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka [? China, Korea, Malay and Thailand]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

piquitinga, Engraulis Spix [J. B. von] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:51, Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Published in the synonymy of Engraulis tricolor. Name available from the plate caption. •In the synonymy of Anchoa tricolor (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:373 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa tricolor (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae.

platana, Anchovia Marini [T. L.] 1935:446 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 11; ref. 17600] Not available, mentioned in passing with no distinguishing features; from Argentina. •In the synonymy of Anchoa marinii Hildebrand 1943 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:362 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa marinii Hildebrand 1943. Engraulidae.

platyargyrea, Anchovia Fowler [H. W.] 1911:216, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 63; ref. 1382] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype: ANSP 1416 (missing). Paratypes: ANSP 1434-1503 (70) (originally ANSP 1417-1503). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh 1900) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:360 [ref. 5725], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:144 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh 1900). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

platygaster, Encrasicholus Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1803:460 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Appeared as "Encrasicholus platygaster, caudâ flavescente" in the account of Clupea chrysoptera. Regarded as non-binominal and not available. See ICZN Opinion 89. Engraulidae.

playfairii, Choetomus McClelland [J.] 1843:405, Pl. 24 (fig. 3) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 2927] China. BMNH uncat. Original genus should have been Chaetomus. •Synonym of Coilia mystus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:469 [ref. 5725], Zhang 2001:152 [ref. 26586] as Chaetomus, Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia mystus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

poeyi, Engraulis Kner [R.] 1863:224, "Fig. 8" (unpublished) [Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu München 1863, v. 2; ref. 5002] Río Bayano, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type information: Whitehead 1970:36 [ref. 11605]. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:275 [ref. 28925]. Also appeared as new in Kner & Steindachner 1864:23, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [ref. 2649]. •Valid as Lycengraulis poeyi (Kner 1863) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:392 [ref. 5725], Allen & Robertson 1994:62 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:52 [ref. 23101], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:182 [ref. 24555], Loeb & Alcântara 2013:200 [ref. 32809], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Lycengraulis poeyi (Kner 1863). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador south to northern Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

polybranchialis, Thryssa (Scutengraulis) Wongratana [T.] 1983:402, Fig. 21 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Mumbai, India. Holotype: BMNH 1889.2.1.1757. Paratypes: BMNH 1889.2.1.1758 (1), 1889.2.1.1760 (2), 1967.3.4.57 (1), 1979.8.15.25 (1). Other specimens: BMNH (4). •Valid as Thryssa polybranchialis Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:439 [ref. 5725], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:215 [ref. 24016], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:238 [ref. 24754], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Suresh et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa polybranchialis Wongratana 1983. Engraulidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: western and eastern coasts of India. Habitat: marine.

polyfilis, Coilia Volz [W.] 1903:559 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 26 (no. 703); ref. 4531] Banju asin, Palembang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): NMBE 1020304. Species is described in more detail in Volz 1903:408 [ref. 21451]. •Questionably a synonym of Coilia borneensis Bleeker 1852 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:462 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:52 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Coilia borneensis Bleeker 1852 -- (Wongratana et al. 1999:1707 [ref. 24719]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia borneensis Bleeker 1852. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

polymera, Lycengraulis Marini [T. L.] 1935:446 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 11; ref. 17600] Not available, mentioned in passing with no distinguishing features; from Rio de la Plata. •In the synonymy of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:390 [ref. 5725], Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622] with author as Agassiz, Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae.

polynemoides, Engraulis Günther [A.] 1868:394 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Madagascar. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1979.7.5.26. •Synonym of Thrissina baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:425 [ref. 5725], Fricke et al. 2018:52 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pontica, Engraulis encrasicolus mediterraneus natio Pusanov [I. I.] & Zeeb [Y.] 1926:93 [Trudy Krimskogo Naucno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Biologii i Biologiceskogo Fakul'teta v. 1; ref. 18576] Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine, Black Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:111 [ref. 7169], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:30 [ref. 28183]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ponticus, Engraulis encrasicholus Aleksandrov [A. I.] 1927:78 [Reports of the Scientific Station of Fisheries in Kertch v. 1 (2-3); ref. 21154] Western part of Black Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:31 [ref. 28183], Parin et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33547]). •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:164 [ref. 31251]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Distribution: The subspecies occurs in the Black Sea basin. Habitat: brackish, marine.

poorawa, Thryssa Jerdon [T. C.] 1853:145 [Madras Journal of Literature and Science v. 17 (no. 39) (art. 6) (for 1851); ref. 22591] Based on Poorawah of Russell 1803:72, Pl. 189. Original as "Thrypa spinosa, Sw. Sem poorawa, T. Russ. 189." Perhaps not Latinized. •Questionably a synonym of Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider/ 1801) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:438 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

poorawah, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1872:148 [132], [Pl. 259 (Fig. 4)] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 431] Seas of China; India (and many localities listed). Bleeker specimens: (35) NMV 46127 (1). Appeared as "Engraulis poorawah Blkr = Thryssa mystax Rich." This would refer to Richardson's treatment of Clupea mystax (not of Bloch & Schneider). •Synonym of Thrissina poorawah (Bleeker 1872) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa poorawah (Bleeker 1872). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa poorawah (Bleeker 1872). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater.

porava, Thryssa Bleeker [P.] 1849:14 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura Straits near Bangcallang, Kammal and Surabaya, Indonesia. Syntypes: ? part of RMNH 7069 (1),24996 (12); BMNH 1867-11.28.54 (1). Apparently not a misspelling of Clupea purava Hamilton 1822. •In the synonymy of Thrissina mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa mystax Bleeker 1849. Current status: Synonym of Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Engraulidae.

potiana, Anchoviella Schultz [L. P.] & Simões de Menezes [R.] 1951:235, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 41 (no. 7); ref. 12913] Poti and Parnaiba rivers, Teresina, Piaui State, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 112081. Paratypes: USNM 112082 (7); Servico de Piscicultura, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (8). •Synonym of Anchovia surinamensis (Bleeker 1865) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:380 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Anchovia surinamensis (Bleeker 1865). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

prionostoma, Osteoglossum Basilewsky [S.] 1855:244 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Gulf of Tschiliensis, China. No types at ZIN. •Synonym of Coilia mystus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:469 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]), Current status: Synonym of Coilia mystus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

productus, Engraulis Poey [F.] 1866:380 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 14057] Matanzas, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 17961 (2), ?ZMB 5969 (3). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:172 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Anchovia clupeoides (Swainson 1839) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:378 [ref. 5725], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:782 [ref. 26995]). Current status: Synonym of Anchovia clupeoides (Swainson 1839). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pseudoheterolobus, Stolephorus Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1933:249 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 18244] Singapore. Original locality: Riouw; Lingga Archipelago; Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Neotype: BMNH 1967.11.13.310. Also in Hardenberg 1933:261 [ref. 16492] and Hardenberg 1934:325 [ref. 16426]. •Valid as Stolephorus pseudoheterolobus Hardenberg 1933 -- (Zhang 2001:125 [ref. 26586]). •Synonym of Encrasicholina heteroloba (Rüppell 1837) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:397 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1715 [ref. 24719], Hata & Motomura 2015:122 [ref. 33726]). •Valid as Encrasicholina pseudoheteroloba (Hardenberg 1933) -- (Hata & Motomura 2016:[7] [ref. 34502], Hata & Motomura 2017:6 [ref. 35066], Motomura et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Encrasicholina pseudoheteroloba (Hardenberg 1933). Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Madagascar to Japan and Samoa. Habitat: marine.

pulchellus, Engraulis Girard [C. F.] 1855:199 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1819] Caldera Bay, Chile. No types known. •Synonym of Engraulis ringens Jenyns 1842 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:322 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis ringens Jenyns 1842. Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

punctifer, Encrasicholina Fowler [H. W.] 1938:157, Pl. 7 (fig. 13) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Fare Bay, Huaheine Island, Society Islands [French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Holotype: ANSP 68308. Paratypes: ANSP 68309-20 (12), 68321-24 (4, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Stolephorus punctifer (Fowler 1938) -- (Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:206 [ref. 6284], Paxton et al. 1989:161 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Encrasicholina punctifer Fowler 1938 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:399 [ref. 5725], Goren & Dor 1994:11 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:70 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:117 [ref. 23922], Myers 1999:61 [ref. 23965], Wongratana et al. 1999:1717 [ref. 24719], Nakabo 2000:249 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:249 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:111 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:58 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:147 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:312 [ref. 28995], Randall 2007:102 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:354 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:30 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:31 [ref. 34464], Hata & Motomura 2015:122 [ref. 33726], Hata & Motomura 2016:86 [ref. 34443], Hata & Motomura 2017:6 [ref. 35066], Motomura et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:308 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Encrasicholina punctifer Fowler 1938. Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and Persian Gulf east to Hawaiian Islands and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to Port Hedland (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Former Red Sea records are now assigned to E. gloria Hata & Motomura 2016. Habitat: marine.

purava, Clupea Hamilton [F.] 1822:238, 382 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges estuaries. No types known. •Valid as Thrissina purava (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Thryssa purava (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:440 [ref. 5725], Ataur Rahman 1989:244 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:146 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:25 [ref. 15702], Kanou et al. 2002:404 [ref. 26503], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:268 [ref. 31338], Ali et al. 2018:309 [ref. 36183], Suresh et al. 2018:85 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa purava (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to Myanmar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

purpureus, Stolephorus Fowler [H. W.] 1900:497, Pl. 19 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 52; ref. 14727] Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: ANSP 23329-30 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Encrasicholina purpurea (Fowler 1900) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:400 [ref. 5725], Mundy 2005:147 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:103 [ref. 30952], Hata & Motomura 2015:122 [ref. 33726], Hata & Motomura 2017:6 [ref. 35066]). Current status: Valid as Encrasicholina purpurea (Fowler 1900). Engraulidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quadragesimalis, Coilia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:83 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Ganges River Delta, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3734. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:295 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:31 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:473 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:130 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quadrifilis, Coilia Günther [A.] 1868:403 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Not stated [Malaysia and Singapore]. Syntypes: BMNH 1979.7.5.30.31 (2 skins in alcohol). •Synonym of Coilia dussumieri Valenciennes 1848 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:465 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:52 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia dussumieri Valenciennes 1848. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rambhae, Engraulis Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1916:423, Fig. 5 [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 15053] Rambha Bay, Chilka Lake, Orissa, India. Holotype: ZSI F8783/1. Paratypes: ZSI F8800/1 (1), F8801/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:99 [ref. 20743]. •Synonym of Thrissina purava (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa purava (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:440 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:146 [ref. 20764]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa purava (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ramcarati, Mystus Hamilton [F.] 1822:233, 382 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River estuaries, India. Possible holotype: BMNH 1858.8.15.104 (1). Spelled ramacarate on p. 382; spelled ramarata by Gray 1831:9 [ref. 1879]; also as Ramarata coilia in Gray 1831:9 [ref. 1879]. Renamed Engraulis (Coilia) hamiltonii in Gray 1830:Pl. 85 (fig. 3) [ref. 1878]. •Valid as Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:473 [ref. 5725], Ataur Rahman 1989:241 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:130 [ref. 20764], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:264 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Distribution: India; Myanmar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rastralis, Stolephorus Gilbert [C. H.] & Pierson [C. J.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2811 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Panama Bay, (Pacific) Panama. Lectotype: CAS-SU 5812. Paralectotypes: (many) BMNH 1903.5.15.422-431 (10); CAS-SU 5813 (116), 6904 (179, now 177); USNM 50366 (24). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established in caption to Pl. 8 (fig. 14) in Gilbert & Starks 1904 [ref. 1639]. Not treated in Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Anchovia macrolepidota (Kner 1863) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:379 [ref. 5725], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:183 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:125 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Anchovia macrolepidota (Kner 1863). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rastrosa, Thryssa Roberts [T. R.] 1978:29, Fig. 10b [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 281; ref. 8886] Upper Fly River, Papua New Guinea, 6°03.3'S, 141°24.3'E. Holotype: USNM 217038. Paratypes: AMS I.21479-001 [ex USNM] (5), I.27084-001 [ex USNM 217038] (1); BMNH 1977.11.17.33-36 [ex USNM] (4); CAS 45744 [ex USNM] (5); KFRS 499.01 [ex USNM 217042] (10, discarded); RMNH 28207 [ex USNM] (5); USNM 217039-41 (1, 14, 1), 217042 (orig. 80, now 46); ZMA 114434 [ex USNM] (5). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:11 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Thryssa rastrosa Roberts 1978 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:441 [ref. 5725], Allen 1991:47 [ref. 21090], Allen et al. 2008:40 [ref. 30265]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa rastrosa Roberts 1978. Engraulidae. Distribution: Fly-Strickland river system, Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater.

rebentischii, Coilia Bleeker [P.] 1858:5 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 7); ref. 364] Singkawang, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.74. •Valid as Coilia rebentischii Bleeker 1858 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:474 [ref. 5725], Kottelat et al. 1993:22 [ref. 23448], Wongratana et al. 1999:1713 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Parenti & Lim 2005:179 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Coilia rebentischii Bleeker 1858. Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rendahli, Coilia Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1926:362 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 67 (no. 11); ref. 2500] Shanghai, China. Holotype: MCZ 18052. Paratypes: MCZ 31530 [ex MCZ 18052] (5). •Synonym of Coilia ectenes Jordan & Seale 1905 -- (Zhang 2001:154 [ref. 26586]). •Synonym of Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rex, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1926:380 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 67 (no. 11); ref. 2500] Cannanore, Malabar coast, Kerala State, India. Holotype (unique): MCZ 4318. •Synonym of Stolephorus commersonnii Lacepède 1803 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:409 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1733 [ref. 24719], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus commersonnii Lacepède 1803. Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

reynaldi, Coilia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:81 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Irrawaddy River at Rangoon, Myanmar. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3733. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1867.11.28.77 (1), MNHN B-3100 [ex MNHN 0000-3733] (2 or 3). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:295 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:31 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:150 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Coilia reynaldi Valenciennes 1848 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:474 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:131 [ref. 20764], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:213 [ref. 24016], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Coilia reynaldi Valenciennes 1848. Engraulidae. Distribution: India; Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rhinorhynchos, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1852:40 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Java; Surabaja; Kammal, Indonesia. Syntypes and Bleeker specimens: (9) BMNH 1867.11.28.56 (1), MNHN 0000-1232 (1) Banka, RMNH 24962 (some of 16). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:52 [ref. 9739]. Engraulis kammalensis Bleeker 1849 was included in synonymy. Engraulis rhinorrhynchus is a misspelling. Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:434 [ref. 16827] with citation to 1852:40. •Synonym of Thryssa kammalensis (Bleeker 1849) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:433 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1749 [ref. 24719]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa kammalensis (Bleeker 1849). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ringens, Engraulis Jenyns [L.] 1842:136 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Iquique, northern Chile. Syntypes: BMNH 1843.2.8.48 (1), 1917.7.14.1 (1). •Valid as Engraulis ringens Jenyns 1842 -- (Nelson 1984:424 [ref. 5190], Whitehead et al. 1988:322 [ref. 5725], Pequeño 1989:28 [ref. 14125], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:195 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:183 [ref. 24555], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Engraulis ringens Jenyns 1842. Engraulidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Ecuador to Chile, including the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

robertsi, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Rutter [C. L.] 1897:95 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 49; ref. 10644] Kingston, Jamaica. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 4853. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:12 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:382 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ronquilloi, Stolephorus Wongratana [T.] 1983:399, Fig. 17 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Manila Bay, Philippines. Holotype: BMNH 1969.5.30.88. Paratypes: BMNH 1960.4.7.103-115 (13), 1966.1.17.126-133 (8), 1969.4.22.1620-1624 (5), 1969.5.30.79-87 (9). •Valid as Stolephorus ronquilloi Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:417 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1740 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus ronquilloi Wongratana 1983. Engraulidae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

russellii, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1852:38 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Semarang; Boleling, northern Bali, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7076. Paralectotypes and and/or Bleeker specimens: (30) BMNH 1867.11.28.57 (1); MNHN 0000-3727-0028 (1, 1) Jakarta, RMNH 7076 (1), 23363 [ex RMNH 7076] (some of 32); SMNS 12816 [ex ZIH 133] (1 syntype). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:297 [ref. 293], Fricke 1992:9 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:37 [ref. 29864]. Appeared as name only in Bleeker 1851:472 [ref. 16898]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead et al. 1866:114. •Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:412 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

russoi, Engraulis Dulzetto [F.] 1947:183, Figs. 1-6 [Memorie di matematica e di scienze fisiche e naturali della Società Italiana delle Scienze. v. 26; ref. 17424] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Neotype: MSNG 39522. Neotype designated by Tortonese 1967 [ref. 10366]. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:111 [ref. 7169], Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725], Whitehead 1990:229 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rutherfurdi, Coilia Fowler [H. W.] 1939:1, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 8; ref. 17190] Saigon, southern Vietnam. Holotype: ANSP 68460. Paratypes: ANSP 68461 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Coilia rebentischii Bleeker 1858 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:474 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1713 [ref. 24719], Kottelat 2013:53 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia rebentischii Bleeker 1858. Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

salvatoris, Anchoviella Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): USNM 83165. •Synonym of Anchoa tricolor (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:373 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa tricolor (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

samam, Engraulis Montrouzier [X.] 1857:487 [209] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 209 of reprint. Kotttelat (2013) spells the genus as saman, with author as Montrouzier & Thiollière. •Synonym of Thrissina baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:425 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

samaminan, Engraulis Thiollière [V. J. de l'I.] in Montrouzier 1857:486 [208] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 205 of reprint. Originally as samam inan as a species. Kottelat (2013) dates to Montrouzier & Thiollière 1757. •Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:412 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

sanfranciscana, Anchoviella Barbosa [J. M.], Gomes da Silva [A. G.], da Rocha Araújo [A. R.] & Carvalho [M. F.] 2017:164, Figs. 2-3, 5 [Acta of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 35722] São Francisco River estuary between the cities of Brejo Grande, State of Sergipe, and Piaçabuçu, State of Algoas, northeastern Brazil, 10,412240S, 36.457890W. Holotype: INPA-ICT 053278. Paratypes: INPA. •Valid as Anchoviella sanfranciscana Barbosa, Gomes da Silva, da Rocha Araújo & Carvalho 2017. Current status: Valid as Anchoviella sanfranciscana Barbosa, Gomes da Silva, da Rocha Araújo & Carvalho 2017. Engraulidae. Distribution: São Francisco River estuary, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

schroederi, Lycengraulis Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:153, Fig. 70 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Rio Doce, between Linhares and Aimors, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 35275. •Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:390 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:791 [ref. 26995], Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Vera-Alcaraz & Vuletich 2016:2 [ref. 35084], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

schultzi, Anchoa Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:41, Fig. 12 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Extreme northern end of the Gulf of California, near the mouth of the Colorado River. Holotype: USNM 119799. Paratypes: MCZ 31404 (3), USNM 15102 (4). •Synonym of Anchoa mundeoloides (Breder 1928) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:365 [ref. 5725], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:128 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa mundeoloides (Breder 1928). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

scintilla, Amazonsprattus Roberts [T. R.] 1984:318, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 43 (no. 20); ref. 5829] Rio Jufari between Castanheiro Grande and Santa Fe, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 52175. Paratypes: CAS 52176 (orig. 18, now 11, incl. 5 c&s), CAS-SU 68891 (1). •Valid as Amazonsprattus scintilla Roberts 1984 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:394 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27192], Loeb 2012:14 [ref. 31849], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Amazonsprattus scintilla Roberts 1984. Engraulidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin in lower Negro River, Brazi and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

scitula, Anchovia Fowler [H. W.] 1911:211, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 63; ref. 1382] San Diego, California, U.S.A. [in error]. Indo-Pacific. Holotype (unique): ANSP 1576. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621] as locality erroneous, an Indo-Pacific species, see Nelson 1983:49 [ref. 5189]. •Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:324, 412 [ref. 5725], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

scofieldi, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Culver [G. B.] in Jordan 1895:410 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Astillero at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.286-288 (3), USNM 47495 (1), CAS-SU 2941 (10), ZMB 14052 [ex USNM] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:13 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Anchoa scofieldi (Jordan & Culver 1895) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:370 [ref. 5725], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1086 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:129 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa scofieldi (Jordan & Culver 1895). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central Mexico to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

scratchleyi, Engraulis Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:18 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 14464] Strickland River, New Guinea. Holotype: AMS B.9951. Paratypes: NMV A51631 (1). •Valid as Thryssa scratchleyi (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886) -- (Roberts 1978:28 [ref. 8886], Whitehead et al. 1988:442 [ref. 5725], Paxton et al. 1989:162 [ref. 12442], Larson & Martin 1990:2 [ref. 16606], Allen 1991:48 [ref. 21090], Wongratana et al. 1999:1752 [ref. 24719], Allen et al. 2000:37 [ref. 27467], Allen et al. 2002:68 [ref. 25930], Paxton et al. 2006:317 [ref. 28995], Allen et al. 2008:41 [ref. 30265], Larson et al. 2013:33 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa scratchleyi (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886). Engraulidae. Distribution: New Guinea and northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

setiger, Hildebrandichthys Schultz [L. P.] 1949:49, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 99 (no. 3235); ref. 3967] Near mouth of Caño de Sagua, about 25 kilometers north of Sinamaica, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): USNM 121779. •Synonym of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Nelson 1984:422 [ref. 5190], Whitehead et al. 1988:382 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

setirostris, Clupea Broussonet [P. M. A.] (ex Forster) 1782:[47], Pl. [11] [Ichthyologia, sistens piscium descriptiones et icones. Decas I.; ref. 17287] Near Tanna Island, Vanuatu, southwestern Pacific. Mus. Britannic [now BMNH] (apparently lost). On unnumbered p. 47 and unnumbered Pl. 11. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:78 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Thrissina setirostris (Broussonet 1782) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Thryssa setirostris (Broussonet 1782) -- (Dor 1984:44 [ref. 29757], Kuang & Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:24 [ref. 26639] in Thrissa, Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:206 [ref. 6284], Whitehead et al. 1988:443 [ref. 5725], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:162 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:13 [ref. 13251], Coad 1991:25 [ref. 15702], Kottelat et al. 1993:24 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:215 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:11 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:72 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:137 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Fricke 1999:78 [ref. 24106], Wongratana et al. 1999:1753 [ref. 24719], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:238 [ref. 24754], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:125 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Zhang 2001:145 [ref. 26586], Kanou et al. 2002:402 [ref. 26503], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Paxton et al. 2006:317 [ref. 28995], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264], Larson et al. 2013:33 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:35 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:24 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:159 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:309 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:53 [ref. 35805], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:86 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa setirostris (Broussonet 1782). Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and Vanuatu, north to Taiwan, south to North-West Cape (Western Australia) and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

shantungensis, Anchoviella Li [G.-L.] 1978:193, Fig. 1 [Acta Zoologica Sinica v. 24 (no. 2); ref. 8917] Wanwangou of Huimin, Shandong Province, China. Holotype: TNZ 65911. Paratypes: TNZ 14401-05 (5), 65912-17 (6). •Valid as Anchoviella shantungensis Li 1978 -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:78 [ref. 26385]). •Valid as Stolephorus shantungensis Li 1978 -- (Zhang 2001:123 [ref. 26586]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus shantungensis (Li 1978). Engraulidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

simulator, Lycengraulis Fuster de Plaza [M. L.] 1962:2, Fig. 1 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 23 (no. 64); ref. 5903] Río Paraná, zona de Bella Vista, Corrientes Province, Argentina. Holotype: MACN 4571. Paratypes: MACN 4572 (15). Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:106 [ref. 23697]. •Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:390 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:41 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27366], Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Vera-Alcaraz & Vuletich 2016:2 [ref. 35084], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

spinidens, Xenengraulis Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1925:29 [Copeia No. 141; ref. 2499] Thailand. Holotype: MCZ 4413. Paratypes: MCZ 18054, 18067 [not 178067], 31541 (2). •Valid as Thryssa spinidens (Jordan & Seale 1925) -- (Roberts 1978:29 [ref. 8886], Whitehead et al. 1988:444 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa spinidens (Jordan & Seale 1925). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

spinifer, Engraulis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:39 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Cayenne, French Guiana. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3754. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3098 [ex MNHN 0000-3754] (5). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:298-299 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:33 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:129 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Anchoa spinifer (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:96 [ref. 14275], Whitehead et al. 1988:371 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:100 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:312 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:62 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:50 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1078 [ref. 22829], Planquette et al. 1996:64 [ref. 22818], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:183 [ref. 24555], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192] as spinifera, Nizinski & Munroe 2003:780 [ref. 26995], McMahan et al. 2013:443 [ref. 32422], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa spinifer (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Distribution: South and Central America: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Suriname and Venezuela and eastern Pacific from Guatemala south to Ecuador and possibly Peru. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

starksi, Stolephorus Gilbert [C. H.] & Pierson [C. J.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2813 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Panama. Lectotype: CAS-SU 5814 (44 mm). Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 5814 (109). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:13 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Nelson 1986:893 [ref. 5735]. •Valid as Anchoa starksi (Gilbert & Pierson 1898) -- (Nelson 1986:891 [ref. 5735], Whitehead et al. 1988:372 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:52 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1086 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:186 [ref. 24555], McMahan et al. 2013:443 [ref. 32422], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:290 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa starksi (Gilbert & Pierson 1898). Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Ecuador and possibly Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

stenosoma, Thryssa (Scutengraulis) Wongratana [T.] 1983:404, Fig. 23 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Godavari estuary, eastern coast of India. Holotype: BMNH 1965.7.12.231. Paratypes: BMNH 1965.7.12.226-230 (5), 1967.3.4.56 (1), 1978.8.18[or 16].162-163 (2). •Valid as Thryssa stenosoma Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:444 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:147 [ref. 20764]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa stenosoma Wongratana 1983. Engraulidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

subspinosa, Clupea (Thryssa) Swainson [W.] 1839:293 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on Russ. pl. 189 -- which is Russell 1802:Pl. 189 [ref. 13862]. •Quesonably a synonymy of Thrissian mystax (Boch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Questionably a synonym of Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:438 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Uncertain as Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

surinamensis, Stolephorus Bleeker [P.] 1865:178 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 16823] Suriname. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7072. •Valid as Anchovia surinamensis (Bleeker 1865) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:380 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:116 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:313 [ref. 23827], Planquette et al. 1996:66 [ref. 22818], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:783 [ref. 26995], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701] as aff. surinamensis, Melo et al. 2016:374 [ref. 35317], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Anchovia surinamensis (Bleeker 1865). Engraulidae. Distribution: Estuaries and lower parts of rivers; Trinidad to Amazon River, northeastern South America: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyan, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobado and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

symaetensis, Engraulis encrasicholus Dulzetto [F.] 1938:397, Pls. 1 (fig. 2), 2 (fig. 4) [Memorie della Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, Reale Accademia d'Italia Roma v. 11 (no. 8); ref. 17423] Catania, eastern Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Neotype: MSNG 39522. Neotype designated by Tortonese 1967. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Svetovidov 1973:111 [ref. 7169], Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taihuensis, Coilia ectenes Yuan [C.-M.], Lin [J.-B.], Liu [J.-H.] & Qin [A.-L.] 1977:135 [On a new subspecies of Coilia from China -- Coilia ectenes taihuensis ssp. nov. Pp. 133-136 in: Yangtse River region Coilia resources investigational report.; ref. 21779] Taihu, Kiangsu Province, China. Original not seen. •Synonym of Coilia ectenes Jordan & Seale 1905 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:47 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:470 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tapirulus, Engraulis Cope [E. D.] 1877:45 [29] [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17; ref. 18033] Probably Bay of Pacasmayo, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 21385-86 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621] as holotype (21385) and paratype. On p. 29 of separate. •Synonym of Engraulis ringens Jenyns 1842 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:322 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis ringens Jenyns 1842. Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

taty, Engraulis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:60 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3730. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3101 [ex MNHN 0000-3730] (1), 0000-3729 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:296 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:33 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:147 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Setipinna taty (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:30 [ref. 19754], Ankamma Rao & Sharma 1987:134 [ref. 19847], Whitehead et al. 1988:457 [ref. 5725], Ataur Rahman 1989:243 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:134 [ref. 20764], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:45 [ref. 23876], Kottelat et al. 1993:22 [ref. 23448], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:127 [ref. 27969], Cheng & Zhou 1997:81 [ref. 26385] with authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Wongratana et al. 1999:1724 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Zhang 2001:133 [ref. 26586] with authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:267 [ref. 31338], Parenti & Lim 2005:179 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:32 [ref. 34464], Lavoué & Ho 2017:347 [ref. 35470]). Current status: Valid as Setipinna taty (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

teguhi, Stolephorus Kimura [S.], Hori [K.] & Shibukawa [K.] 2009:292, Figs.1a.b, 3 [Ichthyological Research v. 56 (no. 3); ref. 30297] Pintu Kota, Lembeh Island, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, depth 1-1.3 meters. Holotype: MZB 17282. Paratypes: AMS I.44677-001 (1), 44677-001 (1); BPBM 40921 (1); BMNH 2008.9.22.2 (1), FRLM 24609 (1), 24777 (1), 25583 (1), 25802 (1), 25803 (1); MNHN 2008-1931 (1); NSMT-P 91708-10 (3); RMNH 84067 (1). •Valid as Stolephorus teguhi Kimura, Hori & Shibukawa 2009. Current status: Valid as Stolephorus teguhi Kimura, Hori & Shibukawa 2009. Engraulidae. Distribution: Sulawesi, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

telara, Clupea Hamilton [F.] 1822:241, 382, Pl. 2 (fig. 72) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River, India. No types known. •Synonym of Setipinna phasa (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:456 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:136 [ref. 20764], Ataur Rahman 2003:266 [ref. 31338]). Current status: Synonym of Setipinna phasa (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

telaroides, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1849:13 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7080. Paralectotypes: RMNH 24964 (some of 11), SMNS 10596 (5). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:14 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:37 [ref. 29864]. Lectotype designation established by Fricke 1991:14. •Synonym of Setipinna taty (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:457 [ref. 5725], Ataur Rahman 2003:267 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Setipinna taty (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tenuifilis, Engraulis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1848:62 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 21; ref. 1013] Irwaddy River at Rangoon, Myanmar. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3731. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3102 [ex MNHN 0000-3731] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:296 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:34 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:34 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:458 [ref. 5725], Paxton et al. 1989:160 [ref. 12442], Ankamma Rao & Sharma 1987:134 [ref. 19847], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:135 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:23 [ref. 23448], Youn & Kim 1996:38 [ref. 25727], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Wongratana et al. 1999:1725 [ref. 24719], Nakabo 2000:248 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Sakai et al. 2001:86 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:248 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:149, 496 [ref. 26218], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Parenti & Lim 2005:179 [ref. 28285], Paxton et al. 2006:313 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:31 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989], Lavoué & Ho 2017:347 [ref. 35470], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:40 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Bay of Bengal to East China Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thrissoides, Engraulis Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:639 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Cuyuni River, Guyana. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3836. •Synonym of Anchoa spinifer (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:371 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa spinifer (Valenciennes 1848). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tri, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1852:40 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Sampit; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 2222. Syntypes: (16) BMNH 1867.11.28.60 (1); ?NMV A2063 (1); RMNH 24961 [ex RMNH 2222] (some of 11). Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:435 [ref. 16827] with reference to 1852:40. Name only in Bleeker 1852:446 [ref. 16828]. Lectotype designaton by Whiteheat et al. 1966:113. •Valid as Stolephorus tri (Bleeker 1852) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:418 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1741 [ref. 24719], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Zhang 2001:129 [ref. 26586], Kottelat 2013:55 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus tri (Bleeker 1852). Engraulidae. Distribution: Gulf of Thailand and Java Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tricolor, Engraulis Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:51, Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Bahia and Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: MHNN 1142 (6). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:146 [ref. 21784], Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. As Engraulis piquitinga on plate. •Valid as Anchoa tricolor (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:373 [ref. 5725], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192] with author as Agassiz, Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565] with author as Agassiz, Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa tricolor (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

trinitatis, Anchovia Fowler [H. W.] 1915:527, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 14998] Port of Spain, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 45083. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:101 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Anchoa trinitatis (Fowler 1915) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:374 [ref. 5725], Cervigón 1991:103 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:312 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Marín 2000:65 [ref. 26252], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:781 [ref. 26995]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa trinitatis (Fowler 1915). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tropica, Anchoa Hildebrand [S. F.] 1943:80, Fig. 33 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 13209] Cupica Island, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 119013 [ex 101630]. Paratypes: USNM 79587-88 (5, 27), 101630 (42), 119014 (2). •Synonym of Anchoa exigua (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:351 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa exigua (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Engraulidae. Habitat: marine.

truncata, Elops (Setipinna) Swainson [W.] 1839:292 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Ham. p. 241 -- which is Hamilton 1822:241 [ref. 2031]. Unneeded new name for Clupea telara Hamilton 1822. •Synonym of Setipinna phasa (Hamilton 1822) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:456 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Setipinna phasa (Hamilton 1822). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

tuberculosa, Clupea Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:425, 460 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:46-47 [ref. 9739]. Based on Commerson manuscript. •Synonym of Thrissina baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:56 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Stolophorus commersonnii Lacepède 1803 -- (Fricke 1999:78 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:425 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa baelama (Forsskål 1775). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tysoni, Stolephorus Wongratana [T.] 1983:398, Fig. 16 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] East side of Daru Wharf, Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea. Holotype: BMNH 1979.3.21.453. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.3.21.494-501 (8), 1979.3.21.502-505 (4); USNM 270292 [ex BMNH 1982.8.17.100-108] (1), 270293 [ex BMNH 1982.8.17.99] (9). •Synonym of Stolephorus carpentariae (De Vis 1882) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:407 [ref. 5725], Wongratana et al. 1999:1731 [ref. 24719]). Current status: Synonym of Stolephorus carpentariae (De Vis 1882). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ubatubae, Anchoa Hildebrand [S. F.] & Carvalho [J. de P.] 1948:290, Fig. 2 [Copeia 1948 (no. 4); ref. 13058] Ubatuba, northern part of São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 143908. Paratypes: MCZ 37258 [ex USNM] (1), USNM 104909 (1). Type catalog: Menezes 1974:216 [ref. 20795]. •Synonym of Anchoa pectoralis Hidebrand 1943 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:369 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa pectoralis Hildebrand 1943. Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vaillanti, Engraulis Steindachner [F.] 1908:193 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 13) (for 14 May 1908); ref. 18807] Rio São Francisco at Joazeiro and Ciudade da Barra; Rio Preto and Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 1931 (1 of 22, 62.4 mm SL). Paralectotypes: NMW 1928-30 (16, 6, 3), 1931 (21 of 22), 1932 (4), 1936 (4), 1938 (2). Type information and lectotype designation: Whitehead 1970:30 [ref. 11605]. Type catalog: Loeb 2015:122 [ref. 36196]. •Valid as Anchoviella vaillanti (Steindachner 1908) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:338 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27192], Loeb & Figueiredo 2014:36 [ref. 35456], Loeb 2015:122 [ref. 36196], Loeb et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35873]). Current status: Valid as Anchoviella vaillanti (Steindachner 1908). Engraulidae. Distribution: South America: Middle São Francisco River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

valenciennesi, Stolephorus (Thryssa) Bleeker [P.] 1866:306 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 14051] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Benkulen, Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia; Singapore; Sinkawang, Borneo (lectotype locality not given in Kottelat). Lectotype: RMNH 7071. Paralectotypes: (18) ?NMV 46125-26 (1, 1); BMNH 1867.11.28.53 (1); RMNH 24413 [ex 7071] (8). •Synonym of Thrissina mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1802) -- (Kottelat 2013:57 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:438 [ref. 5725]). Current status: Synonym of Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

venezuelae, Anchoviella Fowler [H. W.] 1931:406, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 83; ref. 1410] Caño Guanoco, Venezuela. Holotype: ANSP 53322. Paratypes: ANSP 53323 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:102 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Anchovia surinamensis (Bleeker 1865) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:380 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27061], Nizinski & Munroe 2003:783 [ref. 26995]). Current status: Synonym of Anchovia surinamensis (Bleeker 1865). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

victoriae, Anchoviella Hildebrand [S. F.] & Carvalho [J. de P.] 1948:292, Fig. 3 [Copeia 1948 (no. 4); ref. 13058] Victoria, Espirito Santo State, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 143901. Paratypes: USNM 143902 (3). Type catalog: Menezes 1974:216 [ref. 20795]. •Synonym of Anchoviella cayennensis (Puyo 1946) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:330 [ref. 5725], Kullander & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoviella cayennensis (Puyo 1946). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish.

vigintiquiniradiata, Clupea Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:389 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Corresponds to Clupea inermis on p. 377. Appeared as Clupea inermis vel 25-radiata in Devincenzi 1925:316, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Agassiz 1829) [ = Engraulis grossidens Cuvier 1829]. •Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:9 [ref. 35117], Vera-Alcaraz & Vuletich 2016:2 [ref. 35084], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Lycengraulis grossidens (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater.

vitrirostris, Engraulis Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:201 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] Inner harbor, Durban, and KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: SAM 9931 (1), 9932 (1, headless), 9746 (1, headless). •Valid as Thryssa vitrirostris (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:206 [ref. 6284], Whitehead et al. 1988:445 [ref. 5725], Randall 1995:72 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23922] as vetrirostris, Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Zhang 2001:143 [ref. 26586] as vitirostris, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:160 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:309 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:53 [ref. 35805], Suresh et al. 2018:87 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa vitrirostris (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908). Engraulidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa to Persian Gulf and Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vittargentea, Clupea Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:424, 458 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:47 [ref. 9739]. Based on Commerson manuscript. Status uncertain, Stolephorus or Engraulis (Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:46 [ref. 9739]). •Questionably the same as Engraulis capensis Gilchrist 1913 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:315 [ref. 5725]). •Mention as incertae sedis -- (Fricke 1999:78 [ref. 24106]). Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater.

vittata, Clupea Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:456 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758) or Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Smith 1986:395, 398 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Anchoa. Engraulidae. Habitat: freshwater.

vulgaris, Engraulis Nilsson [S.] 1832:25 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Scandinavia. No types known. •Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:316 [ref. 5725], Whitehead 1990:228 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758). Engraulidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

waitei, Stolephorus Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1926:379 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 67 (no. 11); ref. 2500] Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): MCZ 18254. •Valid as Stolephorus waitei Jordan & Seale 1926 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:419 [ref. 5725], Paxton et al. 1989:161 [ref. 12442], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:275 [ref. 24014], Wongratana et al. 1999:1742 [ref. 24719], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:238 [ref. 24754], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:119 [ref. 27511], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S97 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:15 [ref. 27510], Paxton et al. 2006:315 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2011:355 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:32 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:34 [ref. 34464], Motomura et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35490], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:42 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus waitei Jordan & Seale 1926. Engraulidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India east to Vietnam and Philippines, south to northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

walkeri, Anchoa Baldwin [W. J.] & Chang [N. H. C.] 1970:140, Figs. 1, 2A [Pacific Science v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 7716] San Blas, Nayarit, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 204046. Paratypes: SIO 15-662 (285) (ex UCLA W58-16, orig. 305); USNM 204047 (20). Other paratypes at UCLA, some may now be at LACM. •Valid as Anchoa walkeri Baldwin & Chang 1970 -- (Nelson & Sonoda 1987:521 [ref. 12331], Whitehead et al. 1988:376 [ref. 5725], Bussing & López S. 1994:50 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1079 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:131 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:137 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:89 [ref. 28615], McMahan et al. 2013:443 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Anchoa walkeri Baldwin & Chang 1970. Engraulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Ecuador. Habitat: brackish, marine.

wheeleri, Setipinna Wongratana [T.] 1983:405, Fig. 25 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Sittang River, Myanmar. Holotype: BMNH 1891.11.30.390. Paratypes: BMNH 1889.2.1.1788-1789 (2). •Valid as Setipinna wheeleri Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:459 [ref. 5725], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:137 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:54 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Setipinna wheeleri Wongratana 1983. Engraulidae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

whiteheadi, Coilia Babu Rao [M.] & Jayaswal [K. S.] Listed as in press in the synonymy of Coilia reynaldi by Talwar & Kacker 1984: 179 (Commercial Sea Fishes of India) and by Talwar & Jhingran 1991:131 [ref. 20764]; apparently not published. Never appeared in the Journal of the Bengal natural History Society. Engraulidae.

whiteheadi, Thryssa (Scutengraulis) Wongratana [T.] 1983:403, Fig. 22 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Basra, Iraq, Persian Gulf. Holotype: BMNH 1920.3.3.192. Paratypes: BMNH 1920.3.3.183-191 (19); ZMUC CN.3-4 (2). •Valid as Thryssa whiteheadi Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:446 [ref. 5725], Randall 1995:73 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23922], Coad 2010:77 [ref. 36620], Ali et al. 2018:310 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Thryssa whiteheadi Wongratana 1983. Engraulidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

zollingeri, Engraulis Bleeker [P.] 1849:73 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 316] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bleeker specimen: BMNH 1867.11.28.61 (1). •Synonym of Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:318 [ref. 5725]). •Valid as Stolephorus zollingeri (Bleeker 1849) -- (Zhang 2001:125 [ref. 26586]). Current status: Valid as Stolephorus zollingeri (Bleeker 1849). Engraulidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.