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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Etmopteridae: [ 64 ] records


abernethyi, Etmopterus Garrick [J. A. F.] 1957:181, Figs. 3-4 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 116 (no. 3); ref. 12138] 7 miles south of Kaikoura, New Zealand, depth 200 fathoms. Holotype: NMNZ P.1951. Paratypes: MCZ 39714 (1); slides of upper and lower teeth of paratype are in NMNZ P.10650. Type catalog: Hardy 1990:6 [ref. 18942]. •Synonym of Etmopterus lucifer Jordan & Snyder 1902 -- (Compagno 1984:79 [ref. 6474] but as abernathyi, Last & Stevens 1994:82 [ref. 23873], Dyldin 2015:55 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Etmopterus lucifer Jordan & Snyder 1902. Etmopteridae. Habitat: marine.

aculeatus, Etmopterus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:14, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:46 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Tortonese 1973:42 [ref. 7165], Compagno 1984:85 [ref. 6474], Dyldin 2015:55 [ref. 34524], Parenti 2019:102 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758). Etmopteridae. Habitat: marine.

alphus, Etmopterus Ebert [D. A.], Straube [N.], Leslie [R. W.] & Weigmann [S.] 2016:2, Figs. 1-6 [African Journal of Marine Science v. 38 (no 3); ref. 34753] Mozambique, 18°14'S, 37°31'E, depth 472 meters. Holotype: iSAM MB-F37564. Paratypes: BMNH, CAS, CSIRO, iSAM MB, SAIAB, USNM, ZMH, ZSM. •Valid as Etmopterus alphus Ebert, Straube, Leslie & Weigmann 2016 -- (Ebert et al. 2017:380 [ref. 35167], White et al. 2017:352 [ref. 35206], Fricke et al. 2018:19 [ref. 35805], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus alphus Ebert, Straube, Leslie & Weigmann 2016. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Madagascar to Madagascar Ridge, southwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

baxteri, Etmopterus Garrick [J. A. F.] 1957:172, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 116 (no. 3); ref. 12138] 7 miles south of Kaikoura, New Zealand, depth 500 fathoms. Holotype (unique): NMNZ P.1950. Additional material: 2 partially developed embryos. Type catalog: Hardy 1990:6 [ref. 18942]. •Status uncertain -- (Compagno & Niem 1998:1221 [ref. 23787]). •Valid as Etmopterus baxteri Garrick 1957 -- (Compagno 1984:71 [ref. 6474], Paxton et al. 1989:35 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:16 [ref. 24556], Yano in Amaoka et al. 1990:71 [ref. 16024], Gomon et al. 1994:102 [ref. 22532], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:v [ref. 21953], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], White 2008:90 [ref. 30617], Straube et al. 2011:138 [ref. 31563] with remarks, Compagno 2016:118 [ref. 34544]). •Synonym of Etmopterus granulosus (Günther 1880) -- (Tachikawa et al. 1989:236 [ref. 20184], Last & Stevens 1994:80 [ref. 23873], Yano 1997:61 [ref. 22728], Pakhorukov 1999:656 [ref. 24883], Hoese & Gates 2006:145 [ref. 28997], Straube et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31679], Weigmann 2016:59 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1185 [ref. 34544], Dolganov & Balanov 2018:429 [ref. 36479]). Current status: Synonym of Etmopterus granulosus (Günther 1880). Etmopteridae. Habitat: marine.

benchleyi, Etmopterus Vásquez [V. E.], Ebert [D. A.] & Long [D. J.] 2015:45, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 17; ref. 34111] Costa Rica, 8°13'42"N, 83°09'47"W, depth 1157-1260 meters. Holotype: USNM 423195. Paratypes: USNM. •Valid as Etmopterus benchleyi Vásquez, Ebert & Long 2015. Current status: Valid as Etmopterus benchleyi Vásquez, Ebert & Long 2015. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Habitat: marine.

bigelowi, Etmopterus Shirai [S.] & Tachikawa [H.] 1993:487, Figs. 1b-d, 2b, 5b [Copeia 1993 (no. 2); ref. 20599] Off Angola, 11°37'S, 5°13'W, southeastern Atlantic, depth 526 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 100176. Paratypes: AMS 22809-034 (2); CAS 48786 (1), 56056 (1); FAKU 46064 (1); FSFL-EM 427 (1), 564-66 (3), 873 (1); FUMT-P 10094 (1), 10503-08 (6); GCRL 15729 (1), HUMZ 68734 (1), 74378 (1), 100025 (1), 100028 (1), 100042 (1), 100175 (1), 100177-78 (2), 100180 (1); MCZ 39572 (1), 39743-44 (1, 1), 39757-58 (2), 40677 (1); NSMT-P 40022 (1); SIO 85-171 (1); USNM 157835 (1), 220331-32 (8, 2). •Valid as Etmopterus bigelowi Shirai & Tachikawa 1993 -- (Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:v [ref. 21953], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:114 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:7 [ref. 26631], Soto 2001:66, 91 [ref. 26637], Last et al. 2002:222 [ref. 26556], Compagno 2003:398 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:50 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:100 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:143 [ref. 28997], Knuckey et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31280], Castro 2011:98 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:53 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1186 [ref. 34544], Nión et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35565], Brown et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus bigelowi Shirai & Tachikawa 1993. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Cosmopolitan in warm seas, including Emperor Seamounts to Hancock Seamounts (Hawaiian Islands). Habitat: marine.

brachyurus, Etmopterus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Smith 1912:679, Pl. 52; Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 41 (no. 1877); ref. 4042] 6°02'00"N, 120°44'40"E, off Jolo Island, Philippines, Albatross station 5550, depth 263 [258] fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 70257. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:4 [ref. 21812]. First author is H. M. Smith. •Valid as Etmopterus brachyurus Smith & Radcliffe 1912 -- (Compagno 1984:72 [ref. 6474], Yamakawa et al. 1986:197 [ref. 5729], Bass et al. 1986:55 [ref. 5636], Paxton et al. 1989:35 [ref. 12442], Fricke & Koch 1990:8 [ref. 15494], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:81 [ref. 25472], Last & Stevens 1994:79 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Niem 1998:1226 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:146 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:288 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:146 [ref. 26001], Last et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26556], Shinohara et al. 2005:394 [ref. 28370], Schaaf-Da Silva & Ebert 2006:62 [ref. 28880], Compagno et al. 2005:54 [ref. 29145], Hoese & Gates 2006:144 [ref. 28997], Shao et al. 2008:237 [ref. 29952], Ebert et al. 2011:382 [ref. 31551], Straube et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31679], Yamashita et al. 2012:126 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:292 [ref. 33045], Motomura et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34709], Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1186 [ref. 34544] as cf. brachyurus, close to bullisi, Ebert et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34753], Ebert et al. 2017:380 [ref. 35167], White et al. 2017:352 [ref. 35206], White et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35860], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus brachyurus Smith & Radcliffe 1912. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan to Philippines, not Southern Hemisphere [= sculpterus]. Habitat: marine.

bullisi, Etmopterus Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1957:50, Figs. 5A-D; Pl. 2 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 117 (no. 1); ref. 12131] Off northeastern coast of Florida, 30°02'N, 80°05'W, Pelecan station 42, depth 205 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 158186. Paratypes: MCZ 39725 (1), 2 apparently lost or not saved. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:4-5 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Etmopterus bullisi Bigelow & Schroeder 1957 -- (Compagno 1984:74 [ref. 6474], Springer & Burgess 1985:584 [ref. 6785], Yamakawa et al. 1986:197 [ref. 5729], Castro-Aguirre & Garcia-Dominguez 1988:102 [ref. 19199], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:115 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Compagno 2003:398 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:4 [ref. 28226], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27705], Castro 2011:101 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2016:10 [ref. 34753], Ebert et al. 2017:380 [ref. 35167], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus bullisi Bigelow & Schroeder 1957. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

burgessi, Etmopterus Schaaf-Da Silva [J. A.] & Ebert [D. A.] 2006:54, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 1373; ref. 28880] Ta-Chi [Tashi, Daxi], northeastern Taiwan, 24°53'N, 122°01'E, deeper than 300 meters. Holotype: CAS 223476. Paratypes: CAS 223477 (1), 223478 (1), 223479 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:19 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Etmopterus burgessi Schaaf-Da Silva & Ebert 2006 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:19 [ref. 31432], Ebert et al. 2013:293 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2016:10 [ref. 34753], Ebert et al. 2017:379 [ref. 35167], White et al. 2017:352 [ref. 35206], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus burgessi Schaaf-Da Silva & Ebert 2006. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

carteri, Etmopterus Springer [S.] & Burgess [G. H.] 1985:585, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1985 (no. 3); ref. 6785] Caribbean coast of Colombia, 11°09'N, 74°26'W, Oregon station 4860, depth 155-160 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 206090. Paratypes: UF 40691 [ex USNM 206092] (5); USNM 206091-92 (1, 3). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:5-6 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Etmopterus carteri Springer & Burgess 1985 -- (Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2002:222 [ref. 26556], Compagno 2003:399 [ref. 26984], Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus carteri Springer & Burgess 1985. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Colombia (Atlantic). Habitat: marine.

caudistigmus, Etmopterus Last [P. R.], Burgess [G. H.] & Séret [B.] 2002:204, Figs. 1a, 3a, 5a, 7a [Cybium v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 26556] Northwest of Lifou, Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, 20°38'S, 166°52'E. Holotype: MNHN 1997-3514. Paratypes: MNHN 1997-3515 (1), 1997-3516 (1). •Valid as Etmopterus caudistigmus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus caudistigmus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

compagnoi, Etmopterus Fricke [R.] & Koch [I.] 1990:2, Figs. 1-2 [Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie A (Biologie). No. 450; ref. 15494] Off Cape Town, South Africa, 34°41'S, 18°37'E, southeastern Atlantic. Holotype: SMNS 8999. Paratypes: SMNS 9000 (3). Type catalog: Fricke 1995:19 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:38 [ref. 29864]. •Valid as Etmopterus compagnoi Fricke & Koch 1990 -- (Compagno et al. 1991:61 [ref. 21083], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:v [ref. 21953], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Straube et al. 2011:146 [ref. 31563], Vásquez et al. 2015:53 [ref. 34111], Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus compagnoi Fricke & Koch 1990. Etmopteridae. Distribution: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

decacuspidatus, Etmopterus Chan [W. L.] 1966:220, Pl. 1a [Journal of Zoology (London) v. 148; ref. 806] South China Sea, about 120 miles south of Cape Bastion, Hainan Island, 16°40.5'N, 109°49.9'E, depth 280-378 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1965.8.11.7. •Valid as Etmopterus decacuspidatus Chan 1966 -- (Compagno 1984:75 [ref. 6474], Compagno & Niem 1998:1221 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Schaaf-Da Silva & Ebert 2006:62 [ref. 28880], Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2016:10 [ref. 34753], Ebert et al. 2017:380 [ref. 35167], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus decacuspidatus Chan 1966. Etmopteridae. Distribution: South China Sea, western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

dianthus, Etmopterus Last [P. R.], Burgess [G. H.] & Séret [B.] 2002:209, Figs. 2a, 4a, 6a, 8a [Cybium v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 26556] West of Lihou Reefs, Queensland Plateau, 16°55'S, 151°31'E, depth 880 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 1414-02. Paratypes: AMS I.41108-001 (1); CSIRO H 609-06 (1), H 716-02 (4), H 1414-01 (1), H 1414-03 to 08 (1 ea.), H 1415-01 to 02 (1 ea.); MNHN 1997-3517 to 3523 (1 ea.); UF 119621 (1). •Valid as Etmopterus dianthus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002 -- (Hoese & Gates 2006:144 [ref. 28997], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Straube et al. 2011:147 [ref. 31563], Straube et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31679], Vásquez et al. 2015:53 [ref. 34111], Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus dianthus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: off the central Queensland Plateau and off New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

dislineatus, Etmopterus Last [P. R.], Burgess [G. H.] & Séret [B.] 2002:211, Figs. 2b, 4b, 6b, 8b [Cybium v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 26556] Queensland Plateau, 17°00'S, 151°02'E, depth 696 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 1416-01. Paratypes: CSIRO H 947-01 to 04 (1 ea.), H 947-06 to 08 (1 ea), H 947-11 (1), H 947-15 (1), H 1412-01 to 04 (1 ea.), H 1415-10 (1), H 1416-02 (1); MNHN 2002-0084 [ex CSIRO H 947-05] (1); UF 119622 (1). •Valid as Etmopterus dislineatus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002 -- (Hoese & Gates 2006:144 [ref. 28997], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34753], Ebert et al. 2017:380 [ref. 35167], White et al. 2017:352 [ref. 35206], White et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35860], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus dislineatus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Coral Sea off the Saumarez and Queensland plateaus. Habitat: marine.

evansi, Etmopterus Last [P. R.], Burgess [G. H.] & Séret [B.] 2002:214, Figs. 2c, 4c, 6c, 8c [Cybium v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 26556] Off Rowley Shoals, northwestern Australia, 17°52'S, 118°16'E, depth 545 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 3141-16. Paratypes: CSIRO H 1207-04 (1), H 1209-01 (1), H 3143-02 (1), H 3147-01 (1), H 3149-02 (1), H 3158-17 (1); MNHN 2001-2814 to 2816 (1 ea.), 2002-0085 [ex CSIRO H 3158-16] (1), 2002-0086 (1). •Valid as Etmopterus evansi Last, Burgess & Séret 2002 -- (Hoese & Gates 2006:144 [ref. 28997], Weigmann 2016:59 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2016:10 [ref. 34753], Ebert et al. 2017:379 [ref. 35167], White et al. 2017:352 [ref. 35206], White et al. 2018:52 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:14 [ref. 35922], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus evansi Last, Burgess & Séret 2002. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Arafura Sea, Timor Sea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea) and off western Australia. Habitat: marine.

excelsum, Centroscyllium Shirai [S.] & Nakaya [K.] 1990:392, Figs. 1-4a [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 36 (no. 4); ref. 17335] Emperor Seamount Chain (38°37'-49°59'N, 171°06'-171°00'E), depth 800-1000 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 59470. Paratypes: CAS 64434 (1); HUMZ 68733 (1), 69262 (1), 69264-65 (1, 1), 69275 (1, dissected), 69276 (1), 69278 (1), 69280 (1); NSMT-P 30094 (1); USNM 300576 (1). Additional material: HUMZ 69267-68 (2, dissected), 69269-74 (6), 69277 (1), 113277 (1, embryo from HUMZ 6873), 113271-76 (6, embryos from HUMZ 6873), 113278 (1, embryo from HUMZ 6873); NSMT-P 30095-96 (2, embryos from HUMZ 6873). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:7 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Centroscyllium excelsum Shirai & Nakaya 1990 -- (Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:144 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:144 [ref. 26001], Weigmann 2016:57 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Centroscyllium excelsum Shirai & Nakaya 1990. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Emperor Seamount Chain. Habitat: marine.

fabricii, Spinax Reinhardt [J. C. H.] 1825:3 [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1824-25; ref. 18615] Julianehåb, Greenland, western North Atlantic. Syntypes: ZMUC P 07106 [ex 185] (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:9 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Centroscyllium fabricii (Reinhardt 1825) -- (Krefft & Tortonese 1973:40 [ref. 7165], McEachran & Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:133 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:47 [ref. 6474], Bass et al. 1986:52 [ref. 5636], Robins & Ray 1986:31 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:26 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:33 [ref. 14674], Springer 1990:7 [ref. 19315], Shirai & Nakaya 1990:397 [ref. 17335], Compagno et al. 1991:56 [ref. 21083], Menni et al. 1993:829 [ref. 21429], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:79 [ref. 25472], Yano in Okamura et al. 1995:47 [ref. 22531], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Burgess in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:49 [ref. 26158], Compagno 2003:398 [ref. 26984], Moore et al. 2003:168 [ref. 27076], Kiraly et al. 2003:3 [ref. 28226], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:94 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:50 [ref. 27807], George 2009:55 [ref. 30539], Møller et al. 2010:15 [ref. 31169], Castro 2011:93 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:53 [ref. 32708], Page et al. 2013:53 [ref. 32708], Afonso et al. 2016:11, 119 [ref. 36199], Compagno 2016:1185 [ref. 34544], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:57 [ref. 34211], Carneiro et al. 2019:30 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Centroscyllium fabricii (Reinhardt 1825). Etmopteridae. Distribution: Greenland, both sides of the North Atlantic, southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

frontimaculatus, Etmopterus Pietschmann [V.] 1907:395 [2] [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 44 (no. 20); ref. 18554] Sagami Sea, Japan. Syntypes: NMW 61473 and 78526 (8, now 5). On p. 2 of separate. Genus misspelled as Etmopterns in the description heading; correctly spelled as Etmopterus elsewhere in text. Later illustrated and described in more detail in Pietschmann 1908:654, Figs. 1-2, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [ref. 14332]. •Synonym of Etmopterus bigelowi Shirai & Tachikawa 1993 -- (Castro 2011:98 [ref. 31457]). •Synonym of Etmopterus pusillus (Lowe 1839) -- (Krefft & Tortonese 1973:43 [ref. 7165], Compagno 1984:82 [ref. 6474], Dolganov 1986:152 [ref. 8094], Shirai & Tachikawa 1993:485 [ref. 20599], Knuckey et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31280]). Current status: Synonym of Etmopterus pusillus (Lowe 1839). Etmopteridae. Habitat: marine.

fusus, Etmopterus Last [P. R.], Burgess [G. H.] & Séret [B.] 2002:217, Figs. 1b, 3b, 5b, 7b [Cybium v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 26556] North of Dampier Archipelago, northwestern Australia, depth 500 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 3149-06. Paratypes: CSIRO H 1621-01 (1), H 1621-02 (1), H 3149-05 (1), H 3149-07 (1), H 3158-15 (1); MNHN 2002-0086 [ex CSIRO H 3158-14] (1). •Valid as Etmopterus fusus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002 -- (Hoese & Gates 2006:144 [ref. 28997], Weigmann 2016:59 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2018:54 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:14 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus fusus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Off western Australia and Papua New Guinea; possibly also Java. Habitat: marine.

gracilispinis, Etmopterus Krefft [G.] 1968:3, Fig. 2 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 7902] Off continental shelf of Uruguay, 34°01'S, 51°20'W, depth 600 meters. Holotype: ZMH 24989 [ex ISH 1051-1966]. Paratypes: ZMH 24989 [ex ISH 1051-1966], 24990 [ex ISH 1061-1966] (1), 24991 [ex ISH 1573-1966a-e] (5), ?24992 [ex ISH 935-1966] (1), Type catalog: Krefft 1978:5 [ref. 9884], Thiel et al. 2009:14-15 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Etmopterus gracilispinis Krefft 1968 -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:64 [ref. 14275], Shirai in Amaoka et al. 1983:49, 165 [ref. 8379], Compagno 1984:76 [ref. 6474], Springer & Burgess 1985:585 [ref. 6785], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:82 [ref. 25472] as "gracilispinis", Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:v [ref. 21953], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:116 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:7 [ref. 26631], Soto 2001:66, 91 [ref. 26637], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Compagno 2003:399 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:169 [ref. 27076], Kiraly et al. 2003:4 [ref. 28226], Nelson et al. 2004:50 [ref. 27807], Castro 2011:103 [ref. 31457], Straube et al. 2011:138 [ref. 31563], Page et al. 2013:53 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:59 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1187 [ref. 34544], Nión et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35565], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus gracilispinis Krefft 1968. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea); southwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

granulatum, Centroscyllium Günther [A.] 1887:7 [Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger v. 22 (pt 57); ref. 2013] Port Stanley, Falkland Islands, Challenger station 311, depth 245 fathoms. ? Queen Adelaide Archipelago. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.12.7.2 (poor condition). •Valid as Centroscyllium granulatum Günther 1887 -- (Compagno 1984:49 [ref. 6474], Pequeño 1989:12 [ref. 14125], Shirai & Nakaya 1990:397 [ref. 17335], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:25 [ref. 22530], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:57 [ref. 34211] see remarks). Current status: Valid as Centroscyllium granulatum Günther 1887. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Falkland Islands, western South Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

granulosus, Spinax Günther [A.] 1880:19, Pl. 2 (fig. C) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Southwestern coast of South America, Challenger station 305, depth 120 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.460. •Valid as Etmopterus granulosus (Günther 1880) -- (Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1982:53, 314 [ref. 8256], Compagno 1984:77 [ref. 6474], Bass et al. 1986:55 [ref. 5636], Yamakawa et al. 1986:197 [ref. 5729], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:225 [ref. 36138], Paulin et al. 1989:33 [ref. 24556], Pequeño 1989:12 [ref. 14125], Shcherbachev et al. 1989:164, 165 [ref. 36134], Springer 1990:7 [ref. 19315], Fricke & Koch 1990:8 [ref. 15494], Compagno et al. 1991:63 [ref. 21083], Last & Stevens 1994:80 [ref. 23873], Yano 1997:62 [ref. 22728], Compagno & Niem 1998:1221 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Soto 2001:7 [ref. 26631], Soto 2001:66, 92 [ref. 26637], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Duhamel et al. 2005:62 [ref. 32059] as cf. Granulosius, Hoese & Gates 2006:144 [ref. 28997], Straube et al. 2011:138 [ref. 31563] with comments, Vásquez et al. 2015:53 [ref. 34111], Last & Stewart 2015:142 [ref. 34224], Weigmann 2016:59 [ref. 34211], Dolganov & Balanov 2018:429 [ref. 36479]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus granulosus (Günther 1880). Etmopteridae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific, southwestern Atlantic, New Zealand area; Indian Ocean doubtful. Habitat: marine.

gunneri, Spinax Reinhardt [J. C. H.] 1825:3, pl. [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1824-25; ref. 18615] Denmark, Skagerrak, Northeastern Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea. Unnecessary replacement name for Squalus spinax Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Tortonese 1973:42 [ref. 7165], Compagno 1984:85 [ref. 6474], Dyldin 2015:55 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758). Etmopteridae. Habitat: marine.

hillianus, Spinax Poey [F.] 1861:340, Pl. 19 (figs. 13-14) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 1025-S. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:170 [ref. 22926], Gutiérrez de los Reyes et al. 2015:43 [ref. 36079]. •Valid as Etmopterus hillianus (Poey 1861) -- (Shirai in Amaoka et al. 1983:49, 165 [ref. 8379], Compagno 1984:78 [ref. 6474], Springer & Burgess 1985:585 [ref. 6785], Robins & Ray 1986:32 [ref. 23100], Castro-Aguirre & Garcia-Dominguez 1988:102 [ref. 19199], Schofield & Burgess 1997:1069 [ref. 22984], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:117 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:66, 92 [ref. 26637], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Compagno 2003:399 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27192], Kiraly et al. 2003:5 [ref. 28226], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:930 [ref. 27795], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27705], Castro 2011:105 [ref. 31457], Straube et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31679], Vásquez et al. 2015:53 [ref. 34111], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:59 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus hillianus (Poey 1861). Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

joungi, Etmopterus Knuckey [J. D. S.], Ebert [D. A.] & Burgess [G. H.] 2011:63, Figs. 1-4 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 31280] Ta-Chi, Taiwan, ca. 24°53'N, 122°01'E, from fish market. Holotype: CAS 227957. Paratypes: UF 159309 (1), 159380 (1), 159703 (1). •Possibly a junior synonym of Etmopterus pusillus (Lowe 1839) -- (Weigmann 2016:59 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Etmopterus joungi Knuckey, Ebert & Burgess 2011 -- (Ebert et al. 2013:293 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:59 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus joungi Knuckey, Ebert & Burgess 2011. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

kabeyai, Trigonognathus Mochizuki [K.] & Ohe [F.] 1990:385, Figs. 1-5 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 36 (no. 4); ref. 19850] Off Shionomisaki, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 33°23.40'N, 135°45.33'E, depth 330 meters. Holotype: FUMT-P 21151. Paratypes: FUMT-P 21151 (1). •Valid as Trigonognathus kabeyai Mochizuki & Ohe 1990 -- (Shirai & Okamura 1992 [ref. 19849], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Wetherbee & Kajiura 2000:389 [ref. 24953], Nakabo 2000:144 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:289 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:144 [ref. 26001], Yano et al. 2003:251 [ref. 27219], Mundy 2005:102 [ref. 28379], Ebert et al. 2013:295 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:62 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Trigonognathus kabeyai Mochizuki & Ohe 1990. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western and Central Pacific: Japan, Taiwan, Hancock Seamount (Hawaiian Ridge). Habitat: marine.

kamoharai, Centroscyllium Abe [T.] 1966:190, Figs. 1-8 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 13 (nos 4/6); ref. 7937] Suruga Bay, off Yaizu, Honshu, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 52310. Paratypes: ZUMT 52311-12 (1, 1). •Valid as Centroscyllium kamoharai Abe 1966 -- (Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1982:49, 312 [ref. 8256], Compagno 1984:49 [ref. 6474], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:55, 302 [ref. 8057], Nakaya & Shirai in Masuda et al. 1984:9 [ref. 6441], Okamura & Machida 1986:20 [ref. 22278], Paxton et al. 1989:32 [ref. 12442], Shirai & Nakaya 1990:397 [ref. 17335], Last & Stevens 1994:61 [ref. 23873], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:144 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:288 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:144 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:394 [ref. 28370], Compagno et al. 2005:54 [ref. 29145] as cf. kamoharai, Hoese & Gates 2006:141 [ref. 28997], Ebert et al. 2013:292 [ref. 33045], Last & Stewart 2015:141 [ref. 34224], Weigmann 2016:57 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Centroscyllium kamoharai Abe 1966. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Pacific; antitropical. Habitat: marine.

lailae, Etmopterus Ebert [D. A.], Papastamatiou [Y. P.], Kajiura [S. M.] & Wetherbee [B. M.] 2017:372, Figs. 1-2, 3a, 4 [Zootaxa 4237 (no. 2); ref. 35167] Koko Seamount, 35°16.48'N, 171°17.13'E to 35°16.55'N, 171°17.20'E, depth 314-358 meters. Holotype: BPBM 40183. Paratypes: BPBM. •Valid as Etmopterus lailae Ebert, Papastamatiou, Kajiura & Wetherbee 2017 -- (Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus lailae Ebert, Papastamatiou, Kajiura & Wetherbee 2017. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Koko and Kanmu seamounts, Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain, central north Pacific Ocean. Habitat: marine.

linnei, Spinax Malm [A. W.] 1877:123, 626 [ ref. 2881] Sweden, Skagerrak, Northeastern Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea. Original as Linnéi. Unnecessary replacement name for Squalus spinax Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Tortonese 1973:42 [ref. 7165], Compagno 1984:85 [ref. 6474], Dyldin 2015:55 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758). Etmopteridae. Habitat: marine.

litvinovi, Etmopterus Parin [N. V.] & Kotlyar [A. N.] in Kotlyar 1990:141, Fig. 7 [Trudy Instituta Okeanologii Imeni P.P. Shirshova v. 125; ref. 20221] 25°53'S, 84°34'W, southeastern Pacific, depth 1030-1050 meters. Holotype: ZIN 49228. Paratypes: ZMH 24993 [ex ISH 5-1989] (1), 24994 [ex ISH 6-1989] (1); ZIN 49229-32 (1, 1, 2, 2); ZMMU P-17989-91 (2, 4, 15), P-18222 (2). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25714], Thiel et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Etmopterus litvinovi Parin & Kotlyar 1990 -- (Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556] with author as Kotlyar, Straube et al. 2011:141 [ref. 31563], Straube et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31679], Vásquez et al. 2015:53 [ref. 34111], Weigmann 2016:60 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus litvinovi Parin & Kotlyar 1990. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

lucifer, Etmopterus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1902:79, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1279); ref. 2515] Misaki, Japan. Syntypes: CAS-SU 6863 (now 1), 7832 (4); USNM 50728 (1). Non-types: USNM 50254 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:10 [ref. 12291] with a holotype, Howe & Springer 1993:9 [ref. 21812] but with a lectotype. Types: Shinohara & Williams 2006:547 [ref. 31656].Compagno et al. 2005:54 [ref. 29145] incorrectly with lectotype. •Valid as Etmopterus lucifer Jordan & Snyder 1902 -- (Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1982:49, 312 [ref. 8256], Shirai in Amaoka et al. 1983:46, 164 [ref. 8379], Compagno 1984:79 [ref. 6474], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:53, 301 [ref. 8057], Nakaya & Shirai in Masuda et al. 1984:9 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa et al. 1986:197 [ref. 5729], Bass et al. 1986:56 [ref. 5636], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:225 [ref. 36138], Paulin et al. 1989:16 [ref. 24556], Paxton et al. 1989:35 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:12 [ref. 14125], Shcherbachev et al. 1989:164 [ref. 36134], Compagno 1990:83 [ref. 21678], Fricke & Koch 1990:8 [ref. 15494], Kotlyar 1990:132 [ref. 20221], Springer 1990:8 [ref. 19315], Yano in Amaoka et al. 1990:72 [ref. 16024], Miller 1993:470 [ref. 21297], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:82 [ref. 25472], Gomon et al. 1994:103 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:81 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Niem 1998:1226 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:146 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Pakhorukov 2001:376 [ref. 25409], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:288 [ref. 25995], Soto 2001:7 [ref. 26631], Soto 2001:66, 92 [ref. 26637], Nakabo 2002:146 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:60, 478 [ref. 26218], Last et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26556], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27192], Shinohara et al. 2005:394 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:100 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:54 [ref. 29145], Schaaf-Da Silva & Ebert 2006:63 [ref. 28880], Hoese & Gates 2006:145 [ref. 28997], White 2008:90 [ref. 30617], Ebert et al. 2011:382 [ref. 31551], Straube et al. 2011:138 [ref. 31563], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:105 [ref. 36167], Dyldin 2015:55 [ref. 34524], Last & Stewart 2015:143 [ref. 34224], Ebert et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34753], Nión et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35565], Weigmann 2016:60 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2017:380 [ref. 35167], White et al. 2017:352 [ref. 35206], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus lucifer Jordan & Snyder 1902. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western North Pacific, Japan to Philippines, and southern Hemisphere [ref. 34224]. Habitat: marine.

marshae, Etmopterus Ebert [D. A.] & Van Hees [K. E.] 2018:198, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4508 (no. 2); ref. 36261] Between Luzon Island and Mindoro Island, Philippines, 13°46'12.6" to 13°48'53.4"N, 120°50'54.6" to 120°50'40.2"E, depth 322-337 meters. Holotype: PNM 15353. Paratypes: CAS. •Valid as Etmopterus marshae Ebert & Van Hees 2018. Current status: Valid as Etmopterus marshae Ebert & Van Hees 2018. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

molleri, Acanthidium (Acanthidium) Whitley [G. P.] 1939:266, Fig. 1 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 20 (no. 4); ref. 4698] About 30 miles east of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, depth 130 fathoms. Holotype: AMS IA.5816. Paratypes: AMS IA.5817 (1). •Synonym of Etmopterus lucifer Jordan & Snyder 1902 -- (Compagno 1984:79 [ref. 6474]). •Valid as Etmopterus molleri (Whitley 1939) -- (Yamakawa et al. 1986:197 [ref. 5729], Paxton et al. 1989:35 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:16 [ref. 24556], Yano in Amaoka et al. 1990:73 [ref. 16024], Joung & Chen 1992:22 [ref. 20429], Last & Stevens 1994:83 [ref. 23873], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:v [ref. 21953], Compagno & Niem 1998:1226 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:146 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:288 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:146 [ref. 26001], Last et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26556], Shinohara et al. 2005:395 [ref. 28370], Schaaf-Da Silva & Ebert 2006:62 [ref. 28880], Hoese & Gates 2006:145 [ref. 28997], Yamashita et al. 2012:126 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:284 [ref. 33045], Ebert et al. 2013:294 [ref. 33045] as cf. molleri, Last & Stewart 2015:144 [ref. 34224], Motomura et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34709], Weigmann 2016:60 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34753], Ebert et al. 2017:380 [ref. 35167], White et al. 2017:352 [ref. 35206], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus molleri (Whitley 1939). Etmopteridae. Distribution: Eastern Australia to New Zealand area; Uji Islands, Japan, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

niger, Spinax Cloquet [H.] 1816:93 (v. 1, Suppl.) [Dictionnaire des sciences Naturelles; ref. 852] Apparently not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Tortonese 1973:42 [ref. 7165], McEachran & Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:141 [ref. 13675], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:16 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:10 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758). Etmopteridae.

niger, Squalus Broussonet [P. M. A.] 1788:127, Pls. 7-8 [Observations sur la Physique, sur l'Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts, Paris v. 26; ref. 32023] Trondheim, Norway. No types known. Not available, appeared in the synonymy of Squalus spinax Linnaeus 1758. Based on the "Sorthaaen" of Gunnerus 1763:235 [216] [ref. 31530]. •In the synonymy of Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:85 [ref. 6474], Dyldin 2015:55 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758). Etmopteridae.

nigra, Aculeola de Buen [F.] 1959:180 [Boletim do Museu Nacional de Chile v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 697] 12 miles off Concón, Chile, 32°55'S, 71°32'W, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MNHNC P.5907 [ex EMBC 10191]. Type catalog: Meléndez C. et al. 1993:17 [ref. 24124]. Holotype figured in de Buen 1960: Fig. 6 [ref. 11965]. •Valid as Aculeola nigra de Buen 1959 -- (Compagno 1984:34 [ref. 6474], Burgess & Springer 1986:189 [ref. 6149], Pequeño 1989:12 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:58 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:57 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Aculeola nigra de Buen 1959. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Centrina Lowe [R. T.] 1834:144 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1833 (pt 1) (for 24 Dec.); ref. 2826] Off Madeira. Syntypes: BMNH 1855.11.19.27 (4). Secondarily preoccupied in Etmopterus by Spinax niger Cloquet 1816. •Synonym of Etmopterus pusillus (Lowe 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:82 [ref. 6474], Shirai & Tachikawa 1993:483 [ref. 20599]). Current status: Synonym of Etmopterus pusillus (Lowe 1839). Etmopteridae. Habitat: marine.

nigrum, Centroscyllium Garman [S.] 1899:28, Pls. 1 (fig. 2), 4-5, 69 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Eastern Pacific, 7°09'30"N, 81°08'30"W, Albatross station 3356, depth 546 fathoms; 6°30'N, 81°44'W, station 3358, depth 555 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 1006-S (1), 1007-S (1). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xli [ref. 23119]. •Valid as Centroscyllium nigrum Garman 1899 -- (Compagno 1984:50 [ref. 6474], Castro-Aguirre & Garcia-Dominguez 1988:101 [ref. 19199], Pequeño 1989:12 [ref. 14125], Shirai & Nakaya 1990:397 [ref. 17335], Long 1994:478 [ref. 21752], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:725 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:103 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:58 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:93 [ref. 27705], Mundy 2005:99 [ref. 28379], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Castro 2011:96 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:60 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:57 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Centroscyllium nigrum Garman 1899. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Central and eastern Pacific: Hawaiian Islands; Galápagos Archipelago; southern California (U.S.A.) south to Chile. Habitat: marine.

ornatum, Paracentroscyllium Alcock [A. W.] 1889:379 [5] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 81] Swatch off No-ground, Bay of Bengal, 21°06'30"N, 89°10'E, Investigator station 1, depth 405-285 fathoms. Syntypes: ZSI F11664 (1), F11666 (1); BMNH 1890.7.31.16 [ex ZSI 11665] (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:96 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:32 [ref. 22148]. On p. 5 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1894: Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [ref. 17304] and figured in Alcock 1900: Pl. 35 (figs. 1, 1a-b) [ref. 20536] as Centroscyllium ornatum. •Valid as Centroscyllium ornatum (Alcock 1889) -- (Compagno 1984:51 [ref. 6474], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:225 [ref. 36138] as Centroccyllium ornatum, Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Weigmann 2016:57 [ref. 34211], Psomadakis et al. 2020:162 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Centroscyllium ornatum (Alcock 1889). Etmopteridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

parini, Etmopterus Dolganov [V. N.] & Balanov [A. A.] 2018:427, Figs. 1-4 [Biologiya Morya (Vladivostok) v. 44 (no. 6); ref. 36479] Open waters of the northwestern Pacific, 38°49'N, 161°00'E, depth 50-140 meters. Holotype: ZIN 56308. Paratype: ZIN. •Valid as Etmopterus parini Dolganov & Balanov 2018. Current status: Valid as Etmopterus parini Dolganov & Balanov 2018. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Epipelagic zone of the northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

perryi, Etmopterus Springer [S.] & Burgess [G. H.] 1985:588, Figs. 3-4 [Copeia 1985 (no. 3); ref. 6785] Caribbean coast of Colombia, off Barranquilla, 11°09'N, 74°26'W, Oregon station 4860, depth 283-292 meters. Holotype: USNM 206093. Paratypes: UF 27973 (1), 40692-94 (1, 6, 29); USNM 206094-95 (1, now 7), 206221 (2). Additional material: USNM 206220 (59). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:10-11 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Etmopterus perryi Springer & Burgess 1985 -- (Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Compagno 2003:400 [ref. 26984], Weigmann 2016:60 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus perryi Springer & Burgess 1985. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Colombia and Venezuela (southern Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

polli, Etmopterus Bigelow [H. B.], Schroeder [W. C.] & Springer [S.] 1953:241, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 109 (no. 3); ref. 12682] West African coast, 6°08'S, 11°24'E, depth 350-380 meters. Holotype: MCZ 38001. Paratypes: MCZ 38000.a (now 3), 38001.b (now 4); to Garrick [ex MCZ 38001] (1); USNM 163364 [ex MCZ 38000] (1), 163370 [ex MCZ 38001] (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:11 [ref. 21812]. After correspondence with K. Hartel and V. G. Springer on 9/16/2008, the single specimen now in MCZ 38001, and labelled holotype, is regarded as the 197-mm specimen (now 195 mm) listed by Bigelow et al. as the type specimen. •Valid as Etmopterus polli Bigelow, Schroeder & Springer 1953 -- (Compagno 1984:80 [ref. 6474], Springer 1990:8 [ref. 19315], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Weigmann 2016:60 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1187 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus polli Bigelow, Schroeder & Springer 1953. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

princeps, Etmopterus Collett [R.] 1904:3 [Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-selskabet i Christiania (for 1904) No. 9; ref. 9338] Faroe Channel, northwest of the Hebrides, Northeastern Atlantic, depth 750-1200 meters. Syntypes: ZMUB 3496 (1); ZMUO J64 (2), J65 (1). Type catalog: Pethon 1969:2 [ref. 19268], Frøiland 1979:144 [ref. 21547]. Also appeared in Collette 1905:29, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 19269]. •Valid as Etmopterus princeps Collett 1904 -- (Krefft & Tortonese 1973:43 [ref. 7165], Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1982:51, 313 [ref. 8256], McEachran & Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:139 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:81 [ref. 6474], Nakaya & Shirai in Masuda et al. 1984:9 [ref. 6441], Scott & Scott 1988:33 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:33 [ref. 14674], Springer 1990:8 [ref. 19315], Yano in Okamura et al. 1995:50 [ref. 22531], Santos et al. 1997:12 [ref. 23531], Saldanha & Biscoito 1997:193 [ref. 24962], Compagno & Niem 1998:1222 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:145 [ref. 25086], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:25 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:145 [ref. 26001], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Moore et al. 2003:169 [ref. 27076], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Kiraly et al. 2003:5 [ref. 28226], George 2009:55 [ref. 30539], Møller et al. 2010:15 [ref. 31169], Castro 2011:107 [ref. 31457], Straube et al. 2011:138 [ref. 31563], Straube et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31679], Vásquez et al. 2015:53 [ref. 34111], Weigmann 2016:60 [ref. 34211], Bañón et al. 2016:298 [ref. 34397], Compagno 2016:1188 [ref. 34544], Dolganov & Balanov 2018:429 [ref. 36479], Carneiro et al. 2019:31 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus princeps Collett 1904. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Greenland and both sides of the North Atlantic; Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pseudosqualiolus, Etmopterus Last [P. R.], Burgess [G. H.] & Séret [B.] 2002:220, Figs. 1c, 3c, 5c, 7c [Cybium v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 26556] Norfolk Ridge, 24°52'S, 167°31'E, depth 1043-1102 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1997-3510. Paratypes: CISRO H 5695-01 [ex MNHN 1997-3509] (1); MNHN 1997-3507 (1), 1997-3508 (1), 1997-3511 (1). •Valid as Etmopterus pseudosqualiolus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:347 [ref. 31242], Weigmann 2016:60 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus pseudosqualiolus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Norfolk Ridge. Habitat: marine.

pusillum, Acanthidium Lowe [R. T.] 1839:91 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1839 (pt 7); ref. 2829] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: BMNH 1855.11.29.27 (2). •Valid as Etmopterus pusillus (Lowe 1839) -- (Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1982:51, 313 [ref. 8256], Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:63 [ref. 14275], McEachran & Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:140 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:82 [ref. 6474], Nakaya & Shirai in Masuda et al. 1984:9 [ref. 6441], Springer & Burgess 1985:584 [ref. 6785], Bass et al. 1986:56 [ref. 5636], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:225 [ref. 36138], Paulin et al. 1989:13 [ref. 24556], Paxton et al. 1989:35 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:12 [ref. 14125], Shcherbachev et al. 1989:164 [ref. 36134], Springer 1990:9 [ref. 19315], Fricke & Koch 1990:8 [ref. 15494], Kotlyar 1990:130 [ref. 20221], Compagno et al. 1991:64 [ref. 21083], Shirai & Tachikawa, 1993:483 [ref. 20599], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:82 [ref. 25472], Last & Stevens 1994:84 [ref. 23873], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:v [ref. 21953], Santos et al. 1997:12 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:21 [ref. 24952], Saldanha & Biscoito 1997:193 [ref. 24962], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:145 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Pakhorukov 2001:376 [ref. 25409], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:289 [ref. 25995], Soto 2001:66, 92 [ref. 26637], Nakabo 2002:145 [ref. 26001], Last et al. 2002:222 [ref. 26556], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Shinohara et al. 2005:395 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:100 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:145 [ref. 28997], Akhilesh et al. 2010:30 [ref. 30978], Knuckey et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31280], Straube et al. 2011:138 [ref. 31563], Last & Stewart 2015:145 [ref. 34224], Weigmann 2016:61 [ref. 34211], Bañón et al. 2016:298 [ref. 34397], Compagno 2016:1188 [ref. 34544], Vieira et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34869], Carneiro et al. 2019:31 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus pusillus (Lowe 1839). Etmopteridae. Distribution: Circumglobal, mostly in temperate seas. Habitat: marine.

pycnolepis, Etmopterus Kotlyar [A. N.] 1990:135, Figs. 6-7 [Trudy Instituta Okeanologii Imeni P.P. Shirshova v. 125; ref. 20221] 25°40'S, 85°27'W, southeastern Pacific, depth 350 meters. Holotype: ZIN 49226. Paratypes: ZMH 24995 [ex ISH 4-1989] (1); ZIN 49227 (2); ZMMU P-17992 (1), P-17993 (1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25714], Thiel et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Etmopterus pycnolepis Kotlyar 1990 -- (Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Weigmann 2016:61 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2016:10 [ref. 34753], Ebert et al. 2017:380 [ref. 35167], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus pycnolepis Kotlyar 1990. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Nazca and Sala y Gomez submarine ridges. Habitat: marine.

ritteri, Centroscyllium Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1903:635, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 26 (no. 1324); ref. 2460] Misaki, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 7185. Paratypes: USNM 51388 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:10 [ref. 12291], Howe & Springer 1993:12 [ref. 21812]. Types: Shinohara & Williams 2006:547 [ref. 31656]. Genus misspelled Centrocyllium two of 6 times. •Valid as Centroscyllium ritteri Jordan & Fowler 1903 -- (Shirai in Amaoka et al. 1983:49, 165 [ref. 8379], Compagno 1984:52 [ref. 6474], Nakaya & Shirai in Masuda et al. 1984:9 [ref. 6441], Shirai & Nakaya 1990:397 [ref. 17335], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:144 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:14 [ref. 25650], Nakabo 2002:144 [ref. 26001], Parin et al. 2014:26 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:55 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Centroscyllium ritteri Jordan & Fowler 1903. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Kuril Islands. Habitat: marine.

robinsi, Etmopterus Schofield [P. J.] & Burgess [G. H.] 1997:1060, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22984] Northwest Providence Channel, Bahamas, 25°57'N, 78°07'W, depth 330-410 fathoms. Holotype: UF 213167. Paratypes: MCZ 40357 (1), 40412 (5); UF 27960 (1), 101904-05 (3, 2), 103144-45 (1, 3), 231349 (1), 234673 (2); USNM 220257 (2), 220280 (1), 220287 (1), 220288 (1), 220291 (1), 220293 (1), 220300 (2), 220304 (1), 220317 (1), 220323 (1), 220463 (2), 342072-73 (4, 4). •Valid as Etmopterus robinsi Schofield & Burgess 1997 -- (Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Compagno 2003:400 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:5 [ref. 28226], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:94 [ref. 27795], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:15 [ref. 28815], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:61 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus robinsi Schofield & Burgess 1997. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

ruscosum, Centroscyllium Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:580, Fig. 230 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Near Kauai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3997, depth 418-429 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51585. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8642 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:10 [ref. 12291], Howe & Springer 1993:12 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Centroscyllium nigrum Garman 1899 -- (Compagno 1984:50 [ref. 6474], Mundy 2005:99 [ref. 28379], Castro 2011:96 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Centroscyllium nigrum Garman 1899. Etmopteridae. Habitat: marine.

samadiae, Etmopterus White [W. T.], Ebert [D. A.], Mana [R. R.] & Corrigan [S.] 2017:340, Figs. 1-6, 7D, 8 [Zootaxa 4244 (no. 3); ref. 35206] East of Malmal Passage, Madang, Papua New Guinea, 05°07'S, 145°50'E, depth 527-539 meters. Holotype: NTUM 10078. Paratypes: ASIZ, NTUM. •Valid as Etmopterus samadiae White, Ebert, Mana & Corrigan 2017 -- (White et al. 2018:56 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:15 [ref. 35922], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus samadiae White, Ebert, Mana & Corrigan 2017. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

schmidti, Etmopterus Dolganov [V. N.] 1986:149, Fig. 1A [Zoologicheskii Zhurnal v. 65 (no. 1) (for 24 Dec. 1985); ref. 8094] Sagami Sea, Pacific sea-coast of Japan. Holotype: ZIN 22362. Paratypes: ZIN 753 (1). •Questionably valid as Etmopterus schmidti Dolganov 1986 -- (Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589]). •Synonym of Etmopterus brachyurus Smith & Radcliffe 1912 or Etmopterus molleri (Whitley 1939) -- (Weigmann 2016:58 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Uncertain as Etmopterus brachyurus Smith & Radcliffe 1912. Etmopteridae. Habitat: marine.

schultzi, Etmopterus Bigelow [H. B.], Schroeder [W. C.] & Springer [S.] 1953:252, Fig. 9 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 109 (no. 3); ref. 12682] Northern Gulf of Mexico, 29°11'N, 86°53'W, Oregon station 279, depth 305 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 113381. Paratypes and/or additional material: (38) BMNH 1955.5.11.3 [ex MCZ 38162] (1); MCZ 38080 [ex USNM 160857] (2), 38083 (2), 38161-62 (2, now 2); USNM 160849-51 (1, 3, 6), 160855-58 (7, 5, 5, 5). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:13 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Etmopterus schultzi Bigelow, Schroeder & Springer 1953 -- (Shirai in Amaoka et al. 1983:49, 165 [ref. 8379], Compagno 1984:83 [ref. 6474], Springer & Burgess 1985:585 [ref. 6785], Castro-Aguirre & Garcia-Dominguez 1988:102 [ref. 19199], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:118 [ref. 23897], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:127 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:98 [ref. 26637], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Compagno 2003:400 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:5 [ref. 28226], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27705], Castro 2011:110 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:61 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus schultzi Bigelow, Schroeder & Springer 1953. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

sculptus, Etmopterus Ebert [D. A.], Compagno [L. J. V.] & De Vries [M. J.] 2011:279, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2011 (no. 3); ref. 31551] 33°22.9'S, 17°29.1'E, southern Africa, depth 552 meters. Holotype: SAM 37569. Paratypes: SAM 33011 (1), 37569 (1), 37570 (2), 37571 (2). •Valid as Etmopterus sculptus Ebert, Compagno & De Vries 2011 -- (Weigmann 2016:61 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34753], Ebert et al. 2017:380 [ref. 35167], White et al. 2017:352 [ref. 35206], Ebert & Van Hees 2018:207 [ref. 36261]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus sculptus Ebert, Compagno & De Vries 2011. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Off Namibia to southern Mozambique, southeast Atlantic and southwest Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

sentosus, Etmopterus Bass [A. J.], D'Aubrey [J. D.] & Kistnasamy [N.] 1976:22, Figs. 15, 18A [Investigational Report. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban No. 45; ref. 7356] Near Bazaruto Island, southern Mozambique. Holotype: SAIAB 6201 [ex ORI 2369]. Paratypes: SAIAB 6200 [ex ORI 1391] (1). •Valid as Etmopterus sentosus Bass, D'Aubrey & Kistnasamy 1976 -- (Compagno 1984:84 [ref. 6474], Bass et al. 1986:57 [ref. 5636], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:225 [ref. 36138], Fricke & Koch 1990:8 [ref. 15494], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Weigmann 2016:61 [ref. 34211], Fricke et al. 2018:20 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus sentosus Bass, D'Aubrey & Kistnasamy 1976. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

sheikoi, Centroscyllium Dolganov [V. N.] 1986:151, Fig. 1E [Zoologicheskii Zhurnal v. 65 (no. 1) (for 24 Dec. 1985); ref. 8094] Kyushu-Palau Ridge, 26°47'N, 135°21'E, depth 360 meters. Holotype: ZIN 46199. •Valid as Miroscyllium sheikoi (Dolganov 1986) -- (Shirai & Nakaya 1990:355 [ref. 19785], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:145 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:145 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Etmopterus sheikoi (Dolganov 1986) -- (Ebert et al. 2013:294 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:61 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus sheikoi (Dolganov 1986). Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

spinax, Squalus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:233 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Genoa, Italy, Mediterranean Sea [original: "In Europa"]. No types known. Originally based on 4 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:67 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:95 [ref. 30349] as Squalus pinna ani carens, naribus in extremo rostro; Willughby 1686:57 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:21 [ref. 30231] as Galeus acanthias s. spinax fuscus. •Valid as Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Tortonese 1973:42 [ref. 7165], McEachran & Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:141 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:85 [ref. 6474], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:225 [ref. 36138], Fricke & Koch 1990:7 [ref. 15494], Santos et al. 1997:13 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:21 [ref. 24952], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:15 [ref. 26753], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Golani 2005:11 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:16 [ref. 29533], Fricke 2008:10 [ref. 30182], George 2009:55 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:10 [ref. 36649], Straube et al. 2011:138 [ref. 31563], Straube et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31679], Parin et al. 2014:27 [ref. 33547], Goren & Galil 2015:511 [ref. 33910], Vásquez et al. 2015:53 [ref. 34111], Dyldin 2015:55 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:62 [ref. 34211], Bañón et al. 2016:298 [ref. 34397], Compagno 2016:1184 [ref. 34544], Carneiro et al. 2019:31 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758). Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, northern North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Norway south to Senegal. Habitat: marine.

splendidus, Etmopterus Yano [K.] 1988:422, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 34 (no. 4); ref. 6695] Off Shimo-Koshiki Island, 31°46.0'N, 129°43.8'E, Japan, depth 210 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 50273. Paratypes: BMNH 1986.11.27.86-88 (3), FUMT-P 10245 (1). •Valid as Etmopterus splendidus Yano 1988 -- (Joung & Chen 1992:21 [ref. 20429], Compagno & Niem 1998:1227 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:146 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:146 [ref. 26001], Last et al. 2002:222 [ref. 26556], Shinohara et al. 2005:395 [ref. 28370], Schaaf-Da Silva & Ebert 2006:62 [ref. 28880], Ebert et al. 2013:295 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:62 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus splendidus Yano 1988. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tasmaniensis, Etmopterus Myagkov [N. A.] & Pavlov [N. A.] in Goubanov, Kondyurin & Myagkov 1986:204 [Sharks of the World Ocean: Identification Handbook; ref. 21086] Tasmania, depth 920-1010 meters. Perhaps appeared in an earlier publication, "n. sp." not present in above reference. •Valid as Etmopterus tasmaniensis Myagkov & Pavlov 1986. •Probably a synonym of Etmopterus granulosus (Günther 1880) or invalid -- (Weigmann 2016:59 [ref. 34211] see remarks). Current status: Synonym of Etmopterus granulosus (Günther 1880). Etmopteridae. Distribution: Tasmania (if valid). Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Spinax Engelhardt [R.] 1912:645 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 39 (nos 21/22); ref. 17459] Sagami Bay, Honshu, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:275 [ref. 28925]. •Valid as Etmopterus unicolor (Engelhardt 1912) -- (Shirai in Amaoka et al. 1983:49, 165 [ref. 8379], Compagno 1984:86 [ref. 6474], Nakaya & Shirai in Masuda et al. 1984:9 [ref. 6441], Yano 1997:62 [ref. 22728], Compagno & Niem 1998:1222 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:145 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:145 [ref. 26001], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Schaaf-Da Silva & Ebert 2006:62 [ref. 28880], White 2008:89 [ref. 30617], Straube et al. 2011:138 [ref. 31563], Straube et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31679], Naylor et al. 2012:64 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Vásquez et al. 2015:53 [ref. 34111], Last & Stewart 2015:146 [ref. 34224], Weigmann 2016:62 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus unicolor (Engelhardt 1912). Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Pacific [not southeastern Indian Ocean off Australia]. Southern Africa, Japan, southern Australia and New Zealand region [ref. 34224]. Habitat: marine.

viator, Etmopterus Straube [N.] in Straube, Duhamel, Gasco, Kriwet & Schliewen 2011:143, Figs. 2A,B, 3, 5 [The Kerguelen Plateau; ref. 31563] Kerguelen Plateau, 49°39'29"S, 72°45'00"E, Indian Ocean, depth 1111-1023 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2008-1899. Paratypes: MNHN-2007-1666 (1), -1667 (1), -1668 (1), 2008-1896 (1), -1900 (1); NMNZ P.42738-42 (5); ZSM 38530 [ex MNHN 2008-1898] (1). Plus non-type specimens mentioned in the text. Type catalog: Neumann 2011:258 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Etmopterus viator Straube 2011 -- (Vásquez et al. 2015:53 [ref. 34111], Last & Stewart 2015:147 [ref. 34224], Weigmann 2016:62 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus viator Straube 2011. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Off South Africa, Kerguelen Plateau (southern Indian Ocean) and Chatham Rise, New Zealand area and southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

villosus, Etmopterus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:580, Pl. 66 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off southern coast of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3824, depth 222-498 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 51583. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:14 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Etmopterus villosus Gilbert 1905 -- (Compagno 1984:87 [ref. 6474], Springer & Burgess 1985:584 [ref. 6785], Yamakawa et al. 1986:197 [ref. 5729], Pequeño 1989:12 [ref. 14125], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Mundy 2005:101 [ref. 2837], Weigmann 2016:62 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2017:381 [ref. 35167], Dolganov & Balanov 2018:429 [ref. 36479]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus villosus Gilbert 1905. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands: Hancock Seamounts to Hawai'i Island. Habitat: marine.

virens, Etmopterus Bigelow [H. B.], Schroeder [W. C.] & Springer [S.] 1953:257, Figs. 6D, 10 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 109 (no. 3); ref. 12682] Northern Gulf of Mexico, 29°52'N, 91°33'W [or 27°51'30"N, 91°32'30"W], Oregon station 501, depth 220 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 160859. Paratypes: (42) BMNH 1955.5.11.4 (1); MCZ 38081 (1), 38160 (6), 38163 (1); USNM 113380 (1), 160852 (7, now 0, exchanged to MCZ). 53-54 (3, 8), 160861-64 (6, 3, 2, 3), 165560 (2). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:14 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Etmopterus virens Bigelow, Schroeder & Springer 1953 -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:65 [ref. 14275], Compagno 1984:88 [ref. 6474], Castro-Aguirre & Garcia-Dominguez 1988:102 [ref. 19199], Espinosa Pérez & Huidobro Campos 1995:117 [ref. 22757], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:119 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:98 [ref. 26637], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Compagno 2003:401 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:6 [ref. 28226], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27705], Castro 2011:112 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:62 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194], Dolganov & Balanov 2018:429 [ref. 36479], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus virens Bigelow, Schroeder & Springer 1953. Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico and Caribbbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

vitulinus, Spinax De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:527 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] No types known. Minimal description. France. •Questionably a synonym of Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:85 [ref. 6474], Dyldin 2015:55 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Uncertain as Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758). Etmopteridae. Habitat: marine.