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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Gasterosteidae: [ 106 ] records


acanthias, Gasterosteus Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1328 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] In Daniae maribus. No types known. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: marine.

aculeatus, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:295 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Europe. Syntypes: Zool. Soc. Lond. 29 (left half-skin), 30-31 (2, right half-skins). •Valid as Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:433 [ref. 25598], Pietsch et al. 2001:144 [ref. 25688], Moyle 2002:340 [ref. 26449], Scharpf 2007:34 [ref. 30398]). •Valid as Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:972 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:280 [ref. 7193], Lee et al. 1980:563 [ref. 22416], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:128 [ref. 9277], Ida in Masuda et al. 1984:83 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:276 [ref. 22186], Banister in Whitehead et al. 1986:640 [ref. 13676], Arnoult 1986:280 [ref. 6213], Robins & Ray 1986:122 [ref. 23100], Lelek 1987:267 [ref. 22962], McAllister 1990:217 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:243 [ref. 18983], Haglund et al. 1992 [ref. 19890], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:62 [ref. 22290], Swift et al. 1993:123 [ref. 22379], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:623 [ref. 21581], Poll & Gosse 1995:109 [ref. 24781], Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Zhu 1995:165 [ref. 25213], Mrakovcic et al. 1995:185 [ref. 23079], Chereshnev 1996:605 [ref. 24659], Coad 1996:85 [ref. 25304], Bianco et al. 1996:56 [ref. 26724], Cheng & Zhou 1997:233 [ref. 26385], Kottelat 1997:164 [ref. 22952], Murdy et al. 1997:135 [ref. 23144], Kim 1997:386 [ref. 24032], Nikiforov et al. 1997:330 [ref. 24694], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747 [ref. 24702], Bianco 1997:620 [ref. 26725], Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111 [ref. 23593], Caldecutt & Adams 1998:827 [ref. 23613], Ahnelt et al. 1998:395 [ref. 23708], Scott & Crossman 1998:665 [ref. 24570], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:226 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:334 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:51 [ref. 26594], Nakabo 2000:513 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25 [ref. 25650], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46 [ref. 26178], Caldecutt et al. 2001:936 [ref. 25815], Chereshnev et al. 2001:112 [ref. 26736], Zemnukhov et al. 2001:420 [ref. 25412], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26753], Kim & Park 2002:308 [ref. 25913], Krueger in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:314 [ref. 26158], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:333 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:513 [ref. 26001], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856], Roe et al. 2002:903 [ref. 26504], Choi et al. 2003:231, 552 [ref. 26218], Pichugin et al. 2003:169 [ref. 26890], Hagiwara 2003:37 [ref. 27188], Fedorov et al. 2003:57 [ref. 27579], Jang et al. 2003:120 [ref. 27681], Wydoski & Whitney 2003:167 [ref. 27816], Hanel 2003:61 [ref. 27894], Alekseyev et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27625], Bailey et al. 2004:168 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:180 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:175 [ref. 28369], Miller 2006:320 [ref. 28615], Hanel & Lusk 2005:334 [ref. 28804], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:73 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:492 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:70 [ref. 30517], McPhail 2007:432 [ref. 31199], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:322 [ref. 30404], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:36 [ref. 36649], Møller et al. 2010:50 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:121 [ref. 31212], Page & Burr 2011:464 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708], Bianco 2013:9 [ref. 32897], Parin et al. 2014:203 [ref. 33547], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895 [ref. 34062], Pietsch & Orr 2015:29 [ref. 34694], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Denys et al. 2015:41 [ref. 35420], Afonso et al. 2016:39, 155 [ref. 36199], Kells et al. 2016:122 [ref. 35888], Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:56 [ref. 35138], Esmaeili et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:77 [ref. 36089], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Burton & Lea 2019:56 [ref. 37205], Ćaleta et al. 2019:190 [ref. 37026], Carneiro et al. 2019:297 [ref. 37250], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108], Özuluğ & Saç 2019:27 [ref. 36599], Çiçek et al. 2020:259 [ref. 37644], Dyldin et al. 2020:85 [ref. 37569], Kovačić et al. 2020:37 [ref. 37519], Kuljanishvili et al. 2020:[5] [ref. 37535]). Current status: Valid as Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Distribution: North Pacific; Atlantic; Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea and adjacent watersheds: widespread in northern Europe and North America. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

algeriensis, Gasterosteus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1874:17 [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10; ref. 3904] Algeria. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5123 (4). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:38 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193], Arnoult 1986:280 [ref. 6213]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

apeltes, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:505 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] No locality. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4062 (2) Philadelphia, Lesueur coll. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:40 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Apeltes quadracus (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Apeltes quadracus (Mitchill 1815). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

aralensis, Gasterosteus platygaster var. Kessler [K. F.] 1877:4 [The Aralo-Caspian Expedition; ref. 2597] Aral Sea and mouth of Amu Darya River, Uzbekistan. Syntypes: ZIN 3712 (3). •Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859) -- (Monod 1973:286 [ref. 7193], Keivany & Nelson 2000:117 [ref. 24720], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:267 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859), but a valid subspecies aralensis Kessler 1877 -- (Berg 1949:970 [ref. 20662], Mitrofanov & Dukravec 1989:114 [ref. 37748], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747 [ref. 24702], Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111 [ref. 23593]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

argentatissimus, Gasterosteus Blanchard [C. E.] 1866:232, Figs. 35-36 [Les poissons des eaux douces de la France; ref. 310] Brooks near Avignon, France. Syntypes: BMNH 1883.7.4.5-10 [ex MNHN] (6?); MNHN 0000-6675 (6), 6678 (8 + 10); USNM 21140 [ex MNHN] (5). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:38 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argyropomus, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:498 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Florence, Italy. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0677 (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:35 [ref. 19576]. Appeared first as name only in Cuvier 1829:170 [ref. 995]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

atherinus, Gasterosteus Bosc [L. A. G.] in Lacepède 1802:430 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Appeared as "Gasterosteus atherinus, pinnis dorsalibus indivisis..." in the account of Pimelepterus bosquii. Regarded as non-binominal and not available. Gasterosteidae.

atkinsii, Gasterosteus Bean [T. H.] 1879:67 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 71); ref. 16037] Schoodic Lakes, Maine, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 22492 (6, now 5). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:283 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bailloni, Gasterosteus Blanchard [C. E.] 1866:231, Fig. 34 [Les poissons des eaux douces de la France; ref. 310] Abbeville, France. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7151 (7), 0000-7153 (12). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:37 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

biaculeatus, Gasterosteus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:430, Pl. 1 (fig. 10) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Apparently not an original description but an identification of Gasterosteus biaculeatus Shaw. •In the synonymy of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Smith 1986:277 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae.

biaculeatus, Gasterosteus Shaw [G.] 1803:608 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] New York, U.S.A. •Perhaps an unneeded new name for Gasterosteus bispinosus Walbaum 1792. Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

biarmatus, Gasterosteus Krynicki [J.] in Nordmann 1840:381 [Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée; ref. 3209] Lagoons near Tarkanckut, Crimea. No types known. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:973 [ref. 20662], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856], Parin et al. 2014:203 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bispinosus, Gasterosteus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:450 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] New York, U.S.A. Apparently an unneeded new name for Gasterosterus bispinosus Walbaum 1792. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:280 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

blanchardi, Gasterosteus (Gasterostea) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1874:32, Pl. 1 (fig. 16-16a) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10; ref. 3904] New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7111 (2) New York, 0000-9383 to 9385 (20); USNM 21139 [ex MNHN] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:40 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies occidentalis (Cuvier 1829) [unavailable] -- (Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

brachycentrus, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:499, Pl. 98 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Florence, Italy. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0694 (3), 0000-7097 (2); SMF 1181 [ex MNHN] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:35 [ref. 19576]. Appeared first as name only in Cuvier 1829:170 [ref. 995]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brachypoda, Gasterosteus pungitius Bean [T. H.] 1879:129 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum v. 15; ref. 16032] Oosooadlin Mountain, Cumberland Gulf, Greenland, elevation 1500 feet. Syntypes: NMC 58-13 [ex USNM 21773 and Victoria Mem. Mus. 154] (1); USNM 21738 (1), 21766 (1), 21768 (1), 21771 (1), 21773 (1), 21773a (1), 21773c (1), 21773d (1). Type catalog: McAllister 1965:10 [ref. 22019]. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies pungitius -- (Okada 1961:616 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:966 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies occidentalis (Cuvier 1829) [unavailable] -- (Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

breviceps, Gasterosteus Blanchard [C. E.] 1866:245, Fig. 43 [Les poissons des eaux douces de la France; ref. 310] Caen, Normandy, France. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7100. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:39 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies laevis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Monod 1973:285 [ref. 7193], Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952], Denys et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35585]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brevispinosus, Pungitius Otaki [K.] 1908:87 [Transactions of the Sapporo Natural History Society v. 2 (pts 1-2); ref. 18503] Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies pungitius -- (Okada 1961:615 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). •Synonym of Pungitius sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Dyldin & Orlov 2017:58 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius sinensis (Guichenot 1869). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

burgundianus, Gasterosteus Blanchard [C. E.] 1866:240, Fig. 40 [Les poissons des eaux douces de la France; ref. 310] Dijon, Côte d'Or, France. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7103 [or 7109] (5). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:39 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277 [ref. 25856], Denys et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35585]). •Synonym of Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies laevis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bussei, Gasterosteus Warpachowski [N. A.] in Warpachowski & Herzenstein 1888:13, Pl. (fig. 1) [Trudy St.-Peterburgskogo Obscestva Estestvoispytatelej = Travaux de la Société des Naturalistes de St. Pétersbourg. v. 19 (no. 8) (for 1887); ref. 2152] Ilistaya [Lefu] River, tributary to Khanka Lake, Russia. Syntypes: USNM 57470 (1), ZIN 7100 (4, now 3). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Berg 1949:967 [ref. 20662], Okada 1961:621 [ref. 6363], Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). •Synonym of Pungitius sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:57 [ref. 22798], Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:112 [ref. 23593]). •Valid as Pungitius bussei (Warpachowski 1888) -- (Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:181 [ref. 28183] dated 1887, Takahashi et al. 2016:49 [ref. 34337], Dyldin et al. 2020:114 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Pungitius bussei (Warpachowski 1888). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: East Asia: Amur River basin (Russia). Habitat: freshwater.

carinata, Pygosteus pungitius forma Bertin [L.] 1925:122 [Annales de l'Institut Océanographique Monaco v. 2 (fasc. 1); ref. 23054] Not available, infrasubspecific; as a forme. •In the synonymy of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277 [ref. 25856]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae.

cataphractus, Gasteracanthus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:229 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Kamchatka, Russia. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:972 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111 [ref. 23593], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:333 [ref. 25968], Parin et al. 2014:203 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:56 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

caucasicus, Gasterosteus platygaster var. Kessler [K. F.] 1877:3 [The Aralo-Caspian Expedition; ref. 2597] Transcaucasia. Syntypes: ZIN 2401 (12+). •Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859) -- (Berg 1949:969 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:285 [ref. 7193], Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952], Keivany & Nelson 2000:116 [ref. 24720], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:267 [ref. 25856], Parin et al. 2014:205 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cayuga, Eucalia inconstans var. Jordan [D. S.] 1876:259 [Manual of the vertebrates of the northern United States; ref. 2371] Cayuga Lake, near Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. •Synonym of Culaea inconstans (Kirtland 1840). Current status: Synonym of Culaea inconstans (Kirtland 1840). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater.

concinnus, Gasterosteus Richardson [J.] 1836:57 [Fauna Boreali-Americana Part 3; ref. 3731] Saskatchewan (53°N) to Great Bear Lake (65°N), Canada. Syntypes: (many) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193], Scott & Crossman 1998:674 [ref. 24570]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies occidentalis (Cuvier 1829) [unavailable] -- (Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

crenobionta, Gasterosteus aculeatus forma Băcescu [M. C.] & Mayer [R.] 1956:24, Figs. 2b, 3c, e, 4b, d [Buletinul Institutului de Cercetari şi Proiectari Piscicole. v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 21859] Lake Techirghiol, Romania. Syntypes: MGAB 49912a-b (2). Type catalog: Mihai-Bardan 1984:460 [ref. 21542] with a holotype. Apparently acceptable as a forma = subspecies before 1961 (see Art. 45.6.4 of the Code). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). •Valid as Gasterosteus crenobiontus Băcescu & Mayer 1956 but extinct -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:493 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Valid as Gasterosteus crenobiontus Băcescu & Mayer 1956. Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Freshwater springs, Lake Techirghiol, Romania [extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

cuvieri, Gasterosteus Girard [C. F.] in Storer 1850:254, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 6 (no. 2) (art. 15); ref. 18109] Bras d'Or and Red Bay, Labrador, Canada. Non-types: MCZ 32812 (100), USNM 120288 [ex MCZ 32812] (6). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193], Smith 1986:277 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

danubica, Gasterosteus platygaster var. Steindachner [F.] 1899:542 [4] [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 108 (pt. 1) (no. 7) (for July 1899); ref. 10017] Danube swamps near Negotin, Srebia; Save [Sava] River at Belgrad, Serbia. Syntypes: NMW 6823 (6). On p. 4 of separate. •Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859) -- (Berg 1949:969 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:285 [ref. 7193], Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952], Keivany & Nelson 2000:117 [ref. 24720], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:267 [ref. 25856]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dekayi, Gasterosteus Agassiz [L.] 1850:311 [Lake Superior; ref. 66] New York and Massachusetts, U.S.A. No types known. Based on literature sources. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies occidentalis (Cuvier 1829) [unavailable] -- (Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

dekayi, Gasterosteus Ayres [W. O.] 1855:48 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 159] Based on Gasterosteus biaculeatus of DeKay. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dimidiatus, Gasterosteus Reinhardt [J. C. H.] 1837:114, 137, 193 [Det Kongelige Danske videnskabernes selskabs naturvidenskabelige og mathematiske afhandlinger v. 7; ref. 3691] Greenland. Syntypes: ZMUC. On pp. 32, 55 & 111 of separate. Reinhardt refers to Fauna Groenlandica Nr. 122 (Fabricius 1780:169-170 [ref. 17464]), which is Gasterosteus aculeatus in that work. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

elegans, Gasterosteus Blanchard [C. E.] 1866:234, Fig. 37 [Les poissons des eaux douces de la France; ref. 310] Between Cadillac and Langon, Gironde, southwestern France. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6673 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:38 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

glaber, Gasterosteus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:450 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. Gasterosteidae.

gladiunculus, Gasterosteus Kendall [W. C.] 1896:623 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 18 (no. 1089); ref. 11808] 4 miles southeast of Seguin Island, Maine, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 47589. Paratypes: CAS-SU 4373 (3); USNM 47590-91 (1, 1), 125443-44 [ex USBF] (2, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:59 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus wheatlandi Putnam 1867 -- (Scott & Crossman 1998:671 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus wheatlandi Putnam 1867. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

globiceps, Gasterosteus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1874:35, Pl. 1 (fig. 17) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10; ref. 3904] Stated as North America but apparently erroneous. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4081 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:40 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277 [ref. 25856] with question). •Tentatively a synonym of Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies occidentalis (Cuvier 1829) [unavailable] -- (Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

gymnetes, Gasterosteus Dawson [J. W.] 1859:321, Fig. 1 [The Canadian Naturalist and Geologist v. 4 (no. 5); ref. 17363] Near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. No types known. •Synonym of Culaea inconstans (Kirtland 1840) -- (Scott & Crossman 1998:664 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Culaea inconstans (Kirtland 1840). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnurus, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] (ex Willughby) 1829:170 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] England and northward; France. No types known. Based on Pisciculus aculeatus of Willughby 1686:341 [ref/ 30164]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Valid as Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:494 [ref. 29996], Bianco & Delmastro 2011:6 [ref. 31648], Bianco 2013:9 [ref. 32897], Barbieri et al. 2015:96 [ref. 35029], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:972 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856], Denys et al. 2015:41 [ref. 35420]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hellenicus, Pungitius Stephanidis [A.] 1971:228, Figs. 7-8 [Biologia Gallo-Hellenica v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 7539] Sperchios River Valley, Greece. Syntypes: (40) MNHN 1975-0867 (8). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Lelek 1987:267 [ref. 22962]). •Valid as Pungitius hellenicus Stephanidis 1971 -- (Economidis 1995:206 [ref. 23025], Keivany et al. 1997:558 [ref. 22904], Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952], Keivany & Nelson 1998:458 [ref. 24681], Keivany & Nelson 2000:116 [ref. 24720], McLennan & Mattern 2001:11 [ref. 25222], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:261 [ref. 25856], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:496 [ref. 29996], Barbieri et al. 2015:97 [ref. 35029]). Current status: Valid as Pungitius hellenicus Stephanidis 1971. Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Greece. Habitat: freshwater.

hologymna, Pygosteus pungitius forma Bertin [L.] 1925:122 [Annales de l'Institut Océanographique Monaco v. 2 (fasc. 1); ref. 23054] Not available, infrasubspecific; as a forma. •In the synonymy of Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952]). •In the synonymy of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277 [ref. 25856]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae.

hologymnus, Gastrosteus Regan [C. T.] 1909:436 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 4 (no. 23) (art. 50); ref. 14419] Rome, Italy. Syntypes: BMNH 1852.8.17.19-22 (4). Original genus should have been Gasterosteus. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:283 [ref. 7193], Lelek 1987:267 [ref. 22962], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

inconstans, Gasterosteus Kirtland [J. P.] 1840:273, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 3 (nos 1-2) (art. 3); ref. 18403] Trumbull County, Ohio, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Culaea inconstans (Kirtland 1840) -- (Lee et al. 1980:562 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:274 [ref. 22186], McAllister 1990:215 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:153 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:242 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:93 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:381 [ref. 22809], Gach 1996:563 [ref. 22295], Chereshnev 1996:605 [ref. 24659], Scott & Crossman 1998:661 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:333 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:42 [ref. 26594], Moyle 2002:343 [ref. 26449], Scholz et al. 2003:110 [ref. 26811], Wydoski & Whitney 2003:169 [ref. 27816], Bailey et al. 2004:167 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:491 [ref. 29996], Scharpf 2007:34 [ref. 30398], McPhail 2007:427 [ref. 31199], Page & Burr 2011:463 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Culaea inconstans (Kirtland 1840). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: North America; introduced in Europe. Habitat: freshwater.

inopinatus, Gasterosteus Girard [C. F.] 1854:147 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] A fresh water lagoon about 1 mile back of Presidio, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 6701 (1), MNHN 0000-0300 [ex USNM] (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:37 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

insculptus, Gasterosteus Richardson [J.] 1855:356, Pl. 25 [The last of the Arctic voyages in search of Sir J. Franklin; ref. 18631] Northumberland Sound, western Greenland. Holotype (unique): ? BMNH. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

intermedius, Gasterosteus Girard [C. F.] 1856:135 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 8; ref. 1809] Cape Flattery, Washington, U.S.A. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

islandicus, Gasterosteus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1874:20, Pl. 1 (figs. 8-8c) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10; ref. 3904] Iceland. Holotype: MNHN 0000-5594 (1 of 3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:38 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:283 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). •Valid as Gasterosteus islandicus Sauvage 1874 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:496 [ref. 29996]). •Possible synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Denys et al. 2015:41 [ref. 35420]). Current status: Valid as Gasterosteus islandicus Sauvage 1874. Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Iceland. Habitat: freshwater.

japonicus, Gasterosteus Steindachner [F.] 1881:264 [27], Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 82 (1. Abth., no. 2); ref. 4230] Gulf of Strielok near Vladivostok, Sea of Japan. Syntypes: (several) MSNG 14075 (1, not found in 1995). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:312 [ref. 10351]. On p. 27 of separate. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Gasterosteus japonicus Houttuyn 1782, replaced by Gasterosteus steindachneri Jordan & Snyder 1900. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Berg 1949:967 [ref. 20662], Okada 1961:621 [ref. 6363], Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). •Synonym of Pungitis sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Bogutskaya et al. 2008:350 [ref. 30085], Parin et al. 2014:206 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:58 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius sinensis (Guichenot 1869). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

japonicus, Gasterosteus williamsoni Franz [V.] 1910:19, Pl. 3 (fig. 10) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Misaki, Japan. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (2) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:275 [ref. 28925]. •Permanently invalid, preoccupied by Gasterosteus japonicus Houttuyn 1782. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies microcephalus Girard 1854 -- (Okada 1961:612 [ref. 6363]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

johanseni, Gasterosteus bispinosus Cox [P.] 1923:147 [Canadian Field-Naturalist v. 37 (no. 8); ref. 15400] Surface in Westbay, Port au Port Bay, Newfoundland. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: marine.

kaibarae, Pygosteus Tanaka [S.] 1915:565 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 27 (no. 325); ref. 4324] Kichisho-in, southwest of Kyoto, Japan. Syntypes: ZUMT 59848-54 (7). Lectotype possibly established by Tanaka 1917 (not researched). •Synonym of Pungitius sinensis (Guichenot 1869), but a valid subspecies -- (Ida in Masuda et al. 1984:84 [ref. 6441]). •See Kim 1997:392 [ref. 24032]. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Okada 1961:622 [ref. 6363], Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). •Valid as Pungitius kaibarae (Tanaka 1915) -- (Nakabo 2000:514 [ref. 25086], Kim & Park 2002:314 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:514 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:231, 553 [ref. 26218], Jang et al. 2003:120 [ref. 27681], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:349 [ref. 30085], Parin et al. 2014:204 [ref. 33547], Takahashi et al. 2016:49 [ref. 34337]). Current status: Valid as Pungitius kaibarae (Tanaka 1915). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Sea of Japan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

kessleri, Gasterosteus pungitius var. Yakovlev [V. E.] 1870:110 [10] [On the new and little-known species of fish found in the mouths of the Volga; ref. 19610] Lakes near Astrakhan, Volga River Delta, Russia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. On p. 10 of separate. •Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859) -- (Berg 1949:969 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:285 [ref. 7193], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111 [ref. 23593], Keivany & Nelson 2000:116 [ref. 24720], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:267 [ref. 25856], Parin et al. 2014:205 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

laevis, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] 1829:170 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Seine basin at Bobigny near Paris, France. Lectotype: MNHN 2016-0604 [ex 0000-7103]. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7102 (5), 0000-7103 (2). Lectotype selected by Denys et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35585]. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747 [ref. 24702], Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). •Valid as Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Berg 1949:969 [ref. 20662], Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:497 [ref. 29996], Denys et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35585]). Current status: Valid as Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Coastal Atlantic basins (Seine, Scheldt, Loire) of France. Habitat: freshwater.

leiurus, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:481, 487, Pl. 98 (fig. 4) [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] France; Germany. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7088 (3), 0000-7151 (7). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies -- (Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:438 [ref. 25598], Nakabo 2002:513 [ref. 26001]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:972 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747 [ref. 24702] as a form, Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111 [ref. 23593], Scott & Crossman 1998:665 [ref. 24570], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

linnei, Spinachia Malm [A. W.] 1877:373 [ ref. 2881] Sweden. Original as Linnéi. •Tentatively regarded as an unneeded replacement name for Gasterosteus spinachia Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid "Strickland tautonomy"). Current status: Synonym of Spinachia spinachia (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

loricatus, Gasterosteus Reinhardt [J. C. H.] 1837:114, 193 [32, 111] [Det Kongelige Danske videnskabernes selskabs naturvidenskabelige og mathematiske afhandlinger v. 7; ref. 3691] Greenland. No types known. On pp. 32 & 111 of separate. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lotharingus, Gasterosteus Blanchard [C. E.] 1866:244, Fig. 42 [Les poissons des eaux douces de la France; ref. 310] Meuse River and adjacent brooks, near Saint-Mihiel, France. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7090 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:39 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies laevis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193], Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Berg 1949:969 [ref. 20662], Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952], Denys et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35585]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mainensis, Gasterosteus Storer [D. H.] 1837:465 [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 1 (no. 4) (art. 23); ref. 18821] Kennebeck County, Maine, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies occidentalis (Cuvier 1829) [unavailable] -- (Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

marinus, Gasterosteus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:168 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Northern seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.48 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:242 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Spinachia spinachia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:242 [ref. 13434], Monod 1973:286 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Spinachia spinachia (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

messinicus, Gasterosteus aculeatus var. Stephanidis [A.] 1971:202, Fig. 10 [Biologia Gallo-Hellenica v. 3 (no. 2) (for 1970); ref. 7540] Not available, infrasubspecific; from Pamissos R. near Messini, Greece. •In the synonymy of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). •In the synonymy of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae.

microcephalus, Gasterosteus Girard [C. F.] 1854:133 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1817] Tule Lake, San Joaquin Valley, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 14275-87 (13), 14288-89 (2, missing); MNHN 0000-0302 [ex USNM] (1); UMMZ 146720 (4). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:36 [ref. 19576], Böhlke 1984:103 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Gasterosteus microcephalus Girard 1854 -- (Okada 1961:612 [ref. 6363], Nakabo 2000:513 [ref. 25086], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:333 [ref. 25968]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:973 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193]). •Synonym of Gaserosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies -- (Ida in Masuda et al. 1984:83 [ref. 6441], Swift et al. 1993:123 [ref. 22379], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:226 [ref. 24550], Ruiz-Campos et al. 2000:71 [ref. 24940], Moyle 2002:340 [ref. 26449], Miller 2006:320 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:35 [ref. 30398]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

micropus, Gasterosteus Cope [E. D.] 1865:81 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 17; ref. 907] Platte River near Fort Riley, Kansas, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 14184-85 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:103 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Culaea inconstans (Kirtland 1840). Current status: Synonym of Culaea inconstans (Kirtland 1840). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater.

millepunctatus, Gasterosteus Ayres [W. O.] 1843:294, Pl. 12 (fig. 3) [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 4 (no. 3) (art. 24); ref. 15929] New York and Connecticut, U.S.A. No types known. Appeared first as name only in Ayres 1842:58 [ref. 15927] and without distinguishing features in Ayres 1842:259 [ref. 15930]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus quadracus Mitchill 1815 -- (Smith 1986:274 [ref. 22186] as millipunctatus). •Synonym of Apeltes quadracus (Mitchill 1815) -- (Scott & Crossman 1998:660 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Apeltes quadracus (Mitchill 1815). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nebulosus, Gasterosteus Agassiz [L.] 1850:310, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [not fig. 4] [Lake Superior; ref. 66] Mouth of Pic River, Lake Superior. Syntypes: MCZ 6696 (10, now 8), ?MCZ 58765 (2), USNM 120414 [ex MCZ 6696] (2). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies occidentalis (Cuvier 1829) [unavailable] -- (Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

nemausensis, Gasterosteus Crespon [J.] 1844:283 [Faune méridionale, ou description de tous les animaux vertébrés vivans et fosses v. 2; ref. 18056] Nîmes, France. No types known. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

neoboracensis, Gasterosteus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:66, Pl. 6 (fig. 17) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Appeared first as name only in Dekay 1840:11 [ref. 17392]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Smith 1986:277 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

neustrianus, Gasterosteus Blanchard [C. E.] 1866:220, Fig. 28 [Les poissons des eaux douces de la France; ref. 310] Brooks in Harfleur and Gournay, France. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7114 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:37 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

niger, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] 1829:170 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Terre Neuve, eastern Canada. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3057 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:36 [ref. 19576]. Available from footnote as, "G. niger ou biaculeatus, Mitchill. Trans. de New-Y., I, I, 10." Also appeared in Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:503 [ref. 998]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

niger, Gasterosteus pungitius var. Yakovlev [V. E.] 1870:110 [10] [On the new and little-known species of fish found in the mouths of the Volga; ref. 19610] Lakes near Astrakhan, Volga River Delta, Russia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. On p. 10 of separate. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Gasterosteus niger Cuvier 1829. •Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859) -- (Berg 1949:969 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:285 [ref. 7193], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111 [ref. 23593], Keivany & Nelson 2000:116 [ref. 24720], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:267 [ref. 25856], Parin et al. 2014:205 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nipponicus, Gasterosteus Higuchi [M.], Sakai [H.] & Goto [A.] 2014:346, Figs. 1, 2a, 4 [Ichthyological Research v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 33316] Usujiri, Minami-kayabe, Hokkaido, Sea of Japan. Holotype: HUMZ 97486. Paratypes: Many at HUMZ, LBM, NSMT-P. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Gasterosteus nipponicus Higuchi, Sakai & Goto 2014 -- (Tohkairin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 35331], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:57 [ref. 35138], Dyldin et al. 2020:85, 110 [ref. 37569], Sonoyama et al. 2020:35 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Gasterosteus nipponicus Higuchi, Sakai & Goto 2014. Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, south to Korea and Sakhalin Island (Russia). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

noveboracensis, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:502, Pl. 98 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7074. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:35 [ref. 19576]. Appeared first as name only in Cuvier 1829:170 [ref. 995]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nuda, Pygosteus platygaster Berg [L. S.] (ex Nikolskii) 1905:218 [Izviestii Turkestanskago otdiela Russkago geograficheskago obschchestva v. 4; ref. 15338] Lake Charkal, Ural River basin, Russia. Syntypes: ZIN 10613. •Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859) -- (Berg 1949:969 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:285 [ref. 7193], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Keivany & Nelson 2000:117 [ref. 24720], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:267 [ref. 25856], Parin et al. 2014:205 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

obolarius, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:500 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Kamchatka, Russia. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

occidentalis, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:295 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. •Not the same as Gasterosteus occidentalis Cuvier 1829. •Perhaps unidentifiable. •Jordan & Everman 1896:645 [ref. 2443] suggest that this might be a carangid. Gasterosteidae.

occidentalis, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:509 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Newfoundland. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7112. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:39 [ref. 19576]. See Mecklenburg et al. 2002:334 [ref. 25968]. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193], Smith 1986:278 [ref. 22186]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720], Krueger in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:319 [ref. 26158], Scharpf 2007:35 [ref. 30398]). •This name is preoccupied by Gasterosteus occidentalis Linnaeus 1758 and should not be used. Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

platygaster, Gasterosteus Kessler [K. F.] 1859:202 [Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou v. 32 (no. 3); ref. 18391] Odessa and side arm of Dnieper River in Aleschki, Ukraine. Syntypes: BMNH 1897.7.5.2 [ex ZIN] (2), ZIN 2350-51 (6, 6+). Additional material: (14) ZIN 2350-51 (6, 6+) Dnieper River near Aleschki, Ukraine. Also appeared in Kessler 1860:17, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [ref. 18393]. •May be a subspecies of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859), subspecies platygaster Kessler 1859 -- (Mitrofanov & Dukravec 1989:112 [ref. 37748]). •Valid as Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859) -- (Berg 1949:969 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:285 [ref. 7193], Coad 1981:16 [ref. 22348], Banister in Whitehead et al. 1986:642 [ref. 13676], Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Economidis 1995:208 [ref. 23025], Keivany et al. 1997:558 [ref. 22904], Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747 [ref. 24702], Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111 [ref. 23593], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Keivany & Nelson 1998:458 [ref. 24681], Keivany & Nelson 2000:116 [ref. 24720], McLennan & Mattern 2001:11 [ref. 25222], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46 [ref. 26178], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26753], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:267 [ref. 25856], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:181 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:175 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:73 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:498 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:71 [ref. 30517], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Parin et al. 2014:205 [ref. 33547] as subspecies platycephalus, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895 [ref. 34062], Barbieri et al. 2015:97 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Takahashi et al. 2016:49 [ref. 34337], Esmaeili et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:77 [ref. 36089], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Kuljanishvili et al. 2020:[5] [ref. 37535]). Current status: Valid as Pungitius platygaster (Kessler 1859). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Eurasia: Black, Caspian and Aral Sea basins. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

plebeius, Gasterosteus Girard [C. F.] 1854:147 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] Salt marshes about Presidio, California, U.S.A. Syntypes and/or Girard specimens: FMNH 6038 (4) Petaluma, MCZ 6706 (6) Petaluma, California, MNHN 0298 [ex USNM] (8) Petaluma; ?UMMZ 146720 or 146721 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:36-37 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

polyakovi, Pungitius Shedko [S. V.], Shedko [M. B.] & Pietsch [T. W.] 2005:223, Figs. 1-2 [Flora and Fauna of Sakhalin Island; ref. 29561] 46°47.035'N, 143°47.337'E, southeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia. Holotype: ZIN 53441. Paratypes: ZIN 53442 (25). •Possibly the same as Pungitius tymensis (Nikolskii 1889) -- (Dyldin & Orlov 2017:57 [ref. 35138]). •Valid as Pungitius polyakovi Shedko, Shedko & Pietsch 2005 -- (Takahashi et al. 2016:49 [ref. 34337], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:57 [ref. 35138], Dyldin et al. 2020:108, 114 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Pungitius polyakovi Shedko, Shedko & Pietsch 2005. Gasterosteidae. Distribution: East Asia: southeastern part of Sakhalin Island (Russia). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ponticus, Gasterosteus Nordmann [A. von] 1840:380, 613, Pl. 3 (fig. 11) [Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée; ref. 3209] Tauria, Black Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7098 (3), NMW 77244 (4). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:36 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:972 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Kottelat 1997:164 [ref. 22952], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856], Parin et al. 2014:203 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pugetti, Gasterosteus Girard [C. F.] 1856:135 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 8; ref. 1809] Fort Steilacoom, Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pungitius, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:296 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Europe. Syntypes: LS 34-35 (2, left half-skins). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:44 [ref. 20705]. This taxon may involve a number of valid species and subspecies. •Valid as Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies pungitius -- (Okada 1961:615 [ref. 6363], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:445 [ref. 25598], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25 [ref. 25650], Pietsch et al. 2001:144 [ref. 25688], Dolgov 2013:917 [ref. 33112]). •Valid as Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:965 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:284 [ref. 7193], Lee et al. 1980:566 [ref. 22416], Ida in Masuda et al. 1984:83 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:277 [ref. 22186], Banister in Whitehead et al. 1986:642 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:122 [ref. 23100], Lelek 1987:271 [ref. 22962], Scott & Scott 1988:343 [ref. 25518], Mitrofanov & Dukravec 1989:111 [ref. 37748], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:242 [ref. 18983], Haglund et al. 1992 [ref. 20881], Chereshnev 1996:605 [ref. 24659], Keivany et al. 1997:558 [ref. 22904], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Kim 1997:391 [ref. 24032], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747 [ref. 24702], Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:112 [ref. 23593], Scott & Crossman 1998:671 [ref. 24570], Keivany & Nelson 1998:458 [ref. 24681] with subspecies, Fuller et al. 1999:336 [ref. 25838], Keivany & Nelson 2000:117 [ref. 24720], Lyons et al. 2000:42 [ref. 26594], Nakabo 2000:514 [ref. 25086], Matsuura et al. 2000:197 [ref. 26000], Zemnukhov et al. 2001:420 [ref. 25412], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46 [ref. 26178], Chereshnev et al. 2001:113 [ref. 26736], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:334 [ref. 25968], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277 [ref. 25856], Kim & Park 2002:313 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:514 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:231, 554 [ref. 26218], Kolpakov 2002:708 [ref. 26469], Kolpakov 2003:847 [ref. 27537], Fedorov et al. 2003:57 [ref. 27579], Pichugin et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27623], Alekseyev et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27625], Bailey et al. 2004:169 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:181 [ref. 28183], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:498 [ref. 29996], Scharpf 2007:34 [ref. 30398], McPhail 2007:440 [ref. 31199], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:350 [ref. 30085], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:121 [ref. 31212], Page & Burr 2011:462 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:205 [ref. 33547], Afonso et al. 2016:39, 259 [ref. 36199], Kells et al. 2016:122 [ref. 35888], Takahashi et al. 2016:49 [ref. 34337], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:57 [ref. 35138], Denys et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35585], Romanov et al. 2017:825 [ref. 35687], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Dyldin et al. 2020:85 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Nearly circumboreal in Northern Hemisphere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pygmaeus, Gasterosteus Agassiz [L.] 1850:314, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Lake Superior; ref. 66] Michipicotin, on northeastern shore of Lake Superior, North America. No types known. Syntypes: (3, whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Culaea inconstans (Kirtland 1840) -- (R. M. Bailey, 3 Mar 2006). Current status: Synonym of Culaea inconstans (Kirtland 1840). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater.

quadracus, Gasterosteus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:430, Pl. 1 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Misspelled quadratus by Linsley 1844:61 [ref. 17545]. •Valid as Apeltes quadracus (Mitchill 1815) -- (Lee et al. 1980:561 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:273 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:121 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:335.4 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:215 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:242 [ref. 18983], Murdy et al. 1997:136 [ref. 23144], Scott & Crossman 1998:658 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:332 [ref. 25838], Krueger in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:312 [ref. 26158], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:34 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:463 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:113 [32708]). Current status: Valid as Apeltes quadracus (Mitchill 1815). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic: eastern Canada and U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

quadrispinosa, Gasterosteus Crespon [J.] 1844:283 [Faune méridionale, ou description de tous les animaux vertébrés vivans et fosses v. 2; ref. 18056] Vistre River and ditches around Nîmes, France. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

santaeannae, Gasterosteus Regan [C. T.] 1909:437 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 4 (no. 23) (art. 50); ref. 14419] Colton, Santa Ana River, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1894.2.2.15-17 (3). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies as described. Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

semiarmata, Pygosteus pungitius forma Bertin [L.] 1925:122 [Annales de l'Institut Océanographique Monaco v. 2 (fasc. 1); ref. 23054] Not available, infrasubspecific; as a forme. •In the synonymy of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277 [ref. 25856]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae.

semiarmatus, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:493 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Le Havre and Braie River near Abbeville, France. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2347 (1), 0000-2348 (1), 0000-7078 (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:34-35 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Lelek 1987:267 [ref. 22962], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747 [ref. 24702] as a form, Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111 [ref. 23593], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

semiloricatus, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:494 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Somme River, environs de Paris, Oise, Rochelle, Normandie, Caen, Hable d'Ault, Treport, Berlin. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2347 (1). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

serratus, Gasterosteus Ayres [W. O.] 1855:[2] col. 6 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 4 (nos 7-22); ref. 13428] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. Non-types: MNHN 0299 [ex USNM] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:37 [ref. 19576]. Appeared first as above on 4 May; then in Ayres 1855:47 [ref. 159]. Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193] lists a syntype at MNHN. •Apparently preoccupied by Gasterosteus serratus Forster 1794. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sinensis, Gasterosteus Guichenot [A.] 1869:204, Pl. 12 (fig. 4) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 5 (fasc. 3); ref. 1952] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River] (?), China. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5228 (6). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:39 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1949:967 [ref. 20662], Okada 1961:621 [ref. 6363], Monod 1973:285 [ref. 7193], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:444 [ref. 25598], Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720], Matsuura et al. 2000:198 [ref. 26000], Pietsch et al. 2001:144 [ref. 25688]). •Valid as Pungitius sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Ida in Masuda et al. 1984:84 [ref. 6441], Wang 1984:88 [ref. 22951], Zhu 1995:165 [ref. 25213], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:56 [ref. 22798], Chereshnev 1996:605 [ref. 24659], Cheng & Zhou 1997:234 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:388 [ref. 24032], Nikiforov et al. 1997:330 [ref. 24694], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747 [ref. 24702], Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:112 [ref. 23593], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:514 [ref. 25086], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46 [ref. 26178], Chereshnev et al. 2001:115 [ref. 26736], Wang et al. 2001:196 [ref. 26566], Zemnukhov et al. 2001:420 [ref. 25412], Kim & Park 2002:310 [ref. 25913], Chereshnev 2002:133 [ref. 25962], Choi et al. 2003:231, 553 [ref. 26218], Fedorov et al. 2003:58 [ref. 27579], Pichugin et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27623], Alekseyev et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27625], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:182 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:350 [ref. 30085], Parin et al. 2014:206 [ref. 33547], Takahashi et al. 2016:49 [ref. 34337], Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:58 [ref. 35138], Dyldin et al. 2020:85 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Pungitius sinensis (Guichenot 1869). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Kamchatka (Russia) south to Amur River and Tumannaya River (Tumen, China), including Kuril Islands. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

spinachia, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:296 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Southern Europe. Syntypes: NRM 46 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:231-232 [ref. 20707]. Species name misspelled spinochia by Cuvier 1831:125 [ref. 30376]. •Valid as Spinachia spinachia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:286 [ref. 7193], Banister in Whitehead et al. 1986:643 [ref. 13676], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Kuiter 2009:322 [ref. 30404], Parin et al. 2014:206 [ref. 33547], Carneiro et al. 2019:297 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Spinachia spinachia (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Baltic Sea; North Sea; northeastern Atlantic: Norway south to Portugal. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spinulosus, Gasterosteus Yarrell [W.] (ex Jenyns) 1835:350 [A manual of British vertebrate animals; ref. 18335] Edinburgh, Scotland. No types known. Also appeared in Yarrell 1836:83, fig. [ref. 4812], earliest not researched. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856] as spinosus). •Tentatively a synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:164 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

steindachneri, Pygosteus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:747 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1235); ref. 2504] Replacement name for Gasterosteus japonicus Steindachner 1881, preoccupied by Gasterosteus japonicus Houttuyn 1782. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Okada 1961:621 [ref. 6363], Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). •Synonym of Pungitius sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Bogutskaya et al. 2008:350 [ref. 30085]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius sinensis (Guichenot 1869). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

stenurus, Gasterosteus Kessler [K. F.] 1876:6, Pl. 3 (fig. 6) [v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 2595] Hu-lun [Dalai-Nor] Lake, southeastern Mongolia, China, elevation 4200 feet. Syntypes: (8) BMNH 1897.7.5.3 [ex ZIN] (1), ZIN 2471 (6). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Berg 1949:967 [ref. 20662], Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). •May be a distinct species -- (Bogutskaya et al. 2008:351 [ref. 30085]) Current status: Valid as Pungitius stenurus (Kessler 1876). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

suppositus, Gasterosteus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1874:11 [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10; ref. 3904] New York, U.S.A. Based on Gasterosteus noveboracensis of Dekay 1842:66 [ref. 1098]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:283 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

teraculeatus, Gasterosteus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:295, 296 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Unneeded new name for Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Kottelat 1997:163 [ref. 22952], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tetracanthus, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:499 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Florence, Italy. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1821. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:35 [ref. 19576]. Appeared first as name only in Cuvier 1829:170 [ref. 995]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus gymnurus Cuvier 1829 -- (Kottelat 1997:165 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

texanus, Gasterosteus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1874:15, Pl. 1 (fig. 5-5a) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10; ref. 3904] Texas, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7076. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:38 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

trachura, Pygosteus pungitius forma Bertin [L.] 1925:122 [Annales de l'Institut Océanographique Monaco v. 2 (fasc. 1); ref. 23054] Not available, infrasubspecific; as a forme. •In the synonymy of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae.

trachurus, Gasterosteus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:481, 487, Pl. 98 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] France; Germany. Syntypes: ?NMW 6918 (1). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:972 [ref. 20662], Monod 1973:281 [ref. 7193], Lelek 1987:267 [ref. 22962], Kottelat 1997:164 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747 [ref. 24702] as a form, Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111 [ref. 23593], Scott & Crossman 1998:665 [ref. 24570], Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 [ref. 25856]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tymensis, Gasterosteus Nikolskii [A. M.] 1889:293 [Sakhalin Island and its fauna of vertebarate animals; ref. 14493] Tym River, Sakhalin Island, Russia. Syntypes: (many) BMNH 1892.4.28.1 [ex ZIN]; ZIN 6593-95 (6+, 6+, 6+). Authorship sometimes as Nikolsky. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Okada 1961:619 [ref. 6363], Monod 1973:285 [ref. 7193], Ida in Masuda et al. 1984:83 [ref. 6441], Nikiforov et al. 1997:330 [ref. 24694], Keivany & Nelson 2000:119 [ref. 24720], Chereshnev 2002:704 [ref. 26468], Kolpakov 2003:847 [ref. 27537], Pichugin et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27623]). •Valid as Pungitius tymensis (Nikolskii 1889) -- (Berg 1949:968 [ref. 20662], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:442 [ref. 25598], Kim 1997:390 [ref. 24032], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:748 [ref. 24702], Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:112 [ref. 23593], Nakabo 2000:514 [ref. 25086], Matsuura et al. 2000:199 [ref. 26000], McLennan & Mattern 2001:11 [ref. 25222], Pietsch et al. 2001:144 [ref. 25688], Kim & Park 2002:312 [ref. 25913], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46 [ref. 26178], Nakabo 2002:514 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:231, 554 [ref. 26218], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:182 [ref. 28183], Takahashi et al. 2016:49 [ref. 34337], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:58 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Valid as Pungitius tymensis (Nikolskii 1889). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Russia and Japan. Habitat: freshwater.

undecimalis, Pygosteus Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1902:62, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 26 (no. 1308); ref. 2525] Chitose, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 7119. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7153 (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:59 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies tymensis (Nikolskii 1889) -- (Okada 1961:619 [ref. 6363], Monod 1973:285 [ref. 7193], Keivany & Nelson 2000:119 [ref. 24720]). •Synonym of Pungitius tymensis (Nikolskii 1889) -- (Berg 1949:968 [ref. 20662], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:58 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius tymensis (Nikolskii 1889). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater.

vulgaris, Gasterosteus Mauduyt [F.] 1849:19 [Bulletin Société Académique d'Agriculture, Belles-Lettres, Sciences et Arts de Poitiers 1848, v. 3, fasc. 9-12; ref. 17615] Belle at Puy-Rabier, France. Neotype: UCBLZ 2012.9.1010. Neotype designated by Denys et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35585]. •Synonym of Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 1997:166 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies laevis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277 [ref. 25856]). •Valid as Pungitius vulgaris (Mauduyt 1848) -- (Denys et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35585]). Current status: Valid as Pungitius vulgaris (Mauduyt 1848). Gasterosteidae. Distribution: South-western France: Loire, Gironde and Dordogne basins. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

vulgaris, Spinachia Fleming [J.] 1828:219 [A history of British animals; ref. 1339] England seas. •Synonym of Spinachia spinachia (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Spinachia spinachia (Linnaeus 1758). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

wheatlandi, Gasterosteus Putnam [F. W.] 1867:4 [Proceedings of the Essex Institute v. 5 (1866-67); ref. 18577] Nahant, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Gasterosteus wheatlandi Putnam 1867 -- (Lee et al. 1980:565 [ref. 22416], Robins & Ray 1986:122 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:343 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:217 [ref. 14674], Scott & Crossman 1998:669 [ref. 24570], Krueger in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:316 [ref. 26158], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Gasterosteus wheatlandi Putnam 1867. Gasterosteidae. Distribution: Eastern North America. Habitat: brackish, marine.

williamsoni, Gasterosteus Girard [C. F.] 1854:133 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1817] Upper part of Santa Clara River, Soledad Canyon, Los Angeles County, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0303 [ex USNM] (1), USNM 340 (now 1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:36 [ref. 19576]. For information on type locality see Miller 1960 [ref. 21987]. •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies aculeatus -- (Okada 1961:605 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Monod 1973:282 [ref. 7193]). •Synonym of Gaserosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies -- (Swift et al. 1993:125 [ref. 22379], Moyle 2002:340 [ref. 26449], Scharpf 2007:35 [ref. 30398]). Current status: Synonym of Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758. Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

wosnesenjenskyi, Gasterosteus Kessler [K. F.] 1876:9 [v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 2595] West coast of Kamchatka, Russia. Syntypes: ZIN 2377-78 (6, 6+) Spellings in literature differ some. •Synonym of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Berg 1949:967 [ref. 20662] as wosnessenskyi, Okada 1961:622 [ref. 6363] as wossnessenskyi, Keivany & Nelson 2000:118 [ref. 24720]). •Questionably a synonym of Pungitius pungitius subspecies pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25 [ref. 25650] as wosnessenskyi). •Synonym of Pungitius sinensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Bogutskaya et al. 2008:350 [ref. 30085], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:58 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Pungitius sinensis (Guichenot 1869). Gasterosteidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.