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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Gymnotidae: [ 65 ] records


albus, Gymnotus Zuiew [B.] 1789:270, Pl. 8 [Nova Acta Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae v. 5 (for 1788); ref. 17716] Suriname. Holotype: ZIL (Dhalberg Collection, whereabouts unknown). An available name, not preoccupied by Gymnotus albus Pallas 1769. Gymnotidae.

albus, Gymnotus Pallas [P. S.] 1769:36 [Spicilegia Zoologica v. 1 (fasc. 7); ref. 20848] Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. Not available, name mentioned in passing from Surinam as Gymnotum album, nominative is Gymnotus albus. Subsequent validation not researched; perhaps by Zuiew 1789. •In the synonymy of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:55 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614] dated 1767, Albert & Crampton 2003:7 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2017:418 [ref. 35568]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae.

anguillaris, Gymnotus Hoedeman [J. J.] 1962:55, Figs. 1b, 2 [Bulletin of Aquatic Biology v. 3 (no. 26); ref. 13556] Coropina Creek, Suriname. Holotype: ZMA 100338a. Paratypes: ZMA 100338b (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:25 [ref. 19236], Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus anguillaris Hoedeman 1962 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:56 [ref. 21320], Planquette et al. 1996:410 [ref. 22818], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:423 [ref. 23853], Albert & Fernandes-Matioli 1999:416 [ref. 23798], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:243 [ref. 25031], Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Fernandes et al. 2005:8 [ref. 28147], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:104, 188 [ref. 35004], Melo et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34701] as gr. anguillaris, Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Craig et al. 2019:64 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Lamontianus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus anguillaris Hoedeman 1962. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin and related areas in northern South America: Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

arapaima, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2001:250, Figs. 3c, 6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 25031] 10 kilometers nw confluence Juruá and Solimões rivers, Mamirauá Reserve, 3°02'S, 64°51'W, Paraná Apara, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 13505. Paratypes: BMNH 1998.3.11.136-149 (14), BMNH (5 lots, 7); INPA 9963 (5), 13506 (3), 15833 (14); MCP uncat. [ex WGRC 20.180699, 15.250699] (1, 1); WGRC 16.110597 (1), 34.110597 (1), 35.110597 (1), 37.110597 (1), 38.110597 (1), 39.110597 (1), WGRC (22 lots, 22). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus arapaima Albert & Crampton 2001 -- (Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35679], Craig et al. 2019:24 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus arapaima Albert & Crampton 2001. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ardilai, Gymnotus Maldonado-Ocampo [J. A.] & Albert [J. S.] 2004:4, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 759; ref. 27978] Santander, Girón, Río de Oro, Rio Magdalena basin, rio Lebrija drainage, Colombia, 11°33'N, 72°36'W, elevation 910 meters. Holotype: IAVHP 3477. Paratypes: IAVHP 4001 (2). Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:402 [ref. 34787], Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus ardilai Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004 -- (Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Craig et al. 2019:28 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus ardilai Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Oro River, Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

australis, Gymnotus carapo Craig [J. M.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2017:427, Fig. 3A [Zootaxa 4318 (no. 3); ref. 35568] Arroyo Verde, Río Iguazú basin, Misiones province, Argentina, 25°40'15"S, 53°56'00.8"W. Holotype: MLP 11221. Paratypes: MCP, MLP. Plus additional non-type material. •Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758 -- (Koerber et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35632], Craig et al. 2018:52 [ref. 35800]). •Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies australis -- (Dickens 2019:168 [ref. 37135]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: South America: La Plata, Uruguay and Jacuí basins (Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil) (if treated as a valid subspecies). Habitat: freshwater.

bahianus, Gymnotus Campos-da-Paz [R.] & Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1996:938, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 1996 (no. 4); ref. 22566] Fazenda Almada, Ilhéus, about 14°49'S, 39°02'W, Rio Almada basin, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 12316. Paratypes: MCP 18311 (2); MNRJ 4346 (33, 2 c&s); MZUSP 48949 (2); USNM 338274 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus bahianus Campos-da-Paz & Costa 1996 -- (Albert & Fernandes-Matioli 1999:416 [ref. 23798], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:261 [ref. 25031], Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Cognato et al. 2008:381 [ref. 29363], Richer-de-Forges et al. 2009:543 [ref. 30384], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], Campos-da-Paz & de Santana 2019:149 [ref. 36608], Craig et al. 2019:30 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus bahianus Campos-da-Paz & Costa 1996. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages, Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brachiurus, Gymnotus Bloch [M. E.] 1786:61, Pl. 157 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 2; ref. 465] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. Name available from plate. Based in part on Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. On p. 52 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 5 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:55 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2003:7 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2017:419 [ref. 35568]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Habitat: freshwater.

brachyurus, Gymnothorax Poey [F.] 2000:799, Pl. 441 (fig. 4) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Gymnotidae.

caatingaensis, Gymnotus carapo Craig [J. M.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2017:427, Fig. 3B [Zootaxa 4318 (no. 3); ref. 35568] Río Gurgueia aff. Río Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil, 08°32'24"S, 44°25'48". Holotype: AUM 20624. Paratypes: AUM. Plus additional non-type material. •Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Caatinga ecoregion, Parnaíba basin, northeastern Brazil (if treated as a valid subspecies). Habitat: freshwater.

capanema, Gymnotus Milhomem [S. S. R.], Crampton [W. G. R.], Pierczeka [J. C.], Shetka [G. H.], Silva [D. S.] & Nagamachi [C. Y.] 2012:806, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 80 (no. 4); ref. 31815] Açaiteuazinho River, tributary of Amazon Estuary, municipality of Capanema, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MPEG 15170. Paratypes: MPEG 15171 (8). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus capanema Milhomem, Crampton, Pierczeka, Shetka, Silva & Nagamachi 2012 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:32 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus capanema Milhomem, Crampton, Pierczeka, Shetka, Silva & Nagamachi 2012. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Amazon River Estuary, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

capitimaculatus, Gymnotus Rangel-Pereira [F. S.] 2014:171, Figs. 1-4 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 64 (no. 2); ref. 33401] Bahia State: Itamaraju municipality, rio do Ouro, crossing road perpendicular to BR-101, about 7 km north of Itamaraju, 16°57’04"S, 39°33’21"W, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 9785. Paratypes: UFRJ 9625 (7), 9728 (2), 9964 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus capitimaculatus Rangel-Pereira 2014 -- (Giora & Malabarba 2016:589 [ref. 34157], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:71 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Pantherus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus capitimaculatus Rangel-Pereira 2014. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Ouro River, Jucuruçu River basin, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

carapo, Gymnotus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:246 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] "America" [South America]. Syntypes: NRM 64 (1), NRM 8224 (1), UUZM 56 (1), ?ZMUU Linn. coll. 57 (1). Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:23 [ref. 23530], Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:216-217 [ref. 20707], Wheeler 1991:162-163, Fig. 6 [ref. 20102], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. See Britski 2001:21 [ref. 26046] Not in Paraguay (Koerber et al. 2017:70 [ref. 35267]). •Mention -- (Malabarba 1989:158 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:55 [ref. 21320], Planquette et al. 1996:412 [ref. 22818], Gómez & Chebez 1996:56 [ref. 23791], Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Torelli et al. 1997:70 [ref. 24612], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:423 [ref. 23853], Sverlij et al. 1998:38 [ref. 27632], Albert & Fernandes-Matioli 1999:415 [ref. 23798], Fernandes-Matioli et al.2000:803 [ref. 30364], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:243 [ref. 25031], Lasso et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25928], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639] as Gimnotus, Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Miquelarena et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26517] as cf. carapo, Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:7 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:64 [ref. 27366] as cf. carapo, Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Casciotta et al. 2003:141 [ref. 28130], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Menni 2004:84 [ref. 28131], Fernandes et al. 2005:8 [ref. 28147], Fernandes et al. 2005:8 [ref. 28147], Milhomem et al. 2007:55 [ref. 28947] as cf. carapo, Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Rangel-Pereira 2012:364 [ref. 32319], Phillip et al. 2013:19 [ref. 32896], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:104, 188 [ref. 35004], Bertaco et al. 2016:422 [ref. 34561] as aff. carapo, Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2017:418 [ref. 35568], Koerber et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35632], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Craig et al. 2018:52 [ref. 35800], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506], Campos-da-Paz & de Santana 2019:150 [ref. 36608], Koerber et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36736], Craig et al. 2019:34 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: South America: Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

carapus, Sternopygus Günther [A.] 1870:7 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Unjustified emendation of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. The name Gymnotus carapus was used earlier by Gill 1864:151 [ref. 1698]. •Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cataniapo, Gymnotus Mago-Leccia [F.] 1994:90, Fig. 100 [Electric fishes of the continental waters of America; ref. 21320] San Carlos de Rio Negro, in lagoon northeast of airstrip, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela, 1°55'N, 67°02'W. Holotype: MBUCV-V-14736. Paratypes: AMNH 58650 (2), 58668 (2); MBUCV-V-12088 (5), V-14154 (3), V-14300 (1), V-14340 (1), V-14374 (2), V-14757 (1), V-14781 (15), V-14788-89 (1, 1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:10 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus cataniapo Mago-Leccia 1994 -- (Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:243 [ref. 25031], Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35773], Craig et al. 2019:66 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Lamontianus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus cataniapo Mago-Leccia 1994. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin and other areas in northern South America: Brazil, Colombia, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

chaviro, Gymnotus Maxime [E. L.] & Albert [J.] 2009:580, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 30673] Quebrada Dos y medio, a small terra firme stream about 2 kilometers northwest of the town of Breu, on the Alto Yuruá River, 9°31.155'S, 72°45.755'W, Dept. Ucayali, Peru, elevation 271 meters. Holotype: MUSM 33715. Paratypes: AMNH 248884 (10); CAS 227893 (10); FMNH 118274 (10); MCP 43880 (10); MCZ 168419 (10); MUSM 33714 (40, 4 c&s); MZUSP 103035 (10). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus chaviro Maxime & Albert 2009 -- (Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2018:118 [ref. 35904], Craig et al. 2019:37 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus chaviro Maxime & Albert 2009. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Ucayali River and Madre de Dios River basins, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

chimarrao, Gymnotus Cognato [D.], Richer-de-Forges [M. M.], Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2008:377, Figs. 2-5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 18 (no. 4) [for 2007]; ref. 29363] Arroio do Meio, Arroio Grande, Rio Taquari drainage, 29°21'09"S, 51°57'28"W, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, elevation 54 meters. Holotype: UFRGS 6774. Paratypes: UFRGS 6770 (1), 6771 (1), 6772 (1), 6773 (1), 6775 (1, c&s), 6776 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus chimarrao Cognato, Richer-de-Forges, Albert & Crampton 2008 -- (Richer-de-Forges et al. 2009:543 [ref. 30384], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Bertaco et al. 2016:422 [ref. 34561], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2018:60 [ref. 35800], Craig et al. 2019:39 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus chimarrao Cognato, Richer-de-Forges, Albert & Crampton 2008. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Taquari River drainage, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

choco, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Maldonado-Ocampo [J. A.] in Albert & Crampton 2003:26, Fig. 3 [Zootaxa No. 287; ref. 27077] Boca de Pepé, 5°03'N, 77°03'W, Río Baudó, Chocó Department, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN 6621. Paratypes: NRM 27734 (6). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:6 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Gymnotus choco Albert, Crampton & Maldonado-Ocampo 2003 -- (Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Craig et al. 2019:40 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus choco Albert, Crampton & Maldonado-Ocampo 2003. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Baudó and Atrato river basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cingulatus, Rhamphichthys Brind [W. L.] 1935:8, Fig. [Aquarium News v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 20794] Probably near or in the Rio Moju, Amazon Basin, Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236]. See Campos-Da-Paz for locality information. •Synonym of Gymnotus coatesi LaMonte 1935 -- (Campos-Da-Paz 2000:1114 [ref. 25025], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2004:525 [ref. 27915], Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus coatesi LaMonte 1935. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Habitat: freshwater.

coatesi, Gymnotus LaMonte [F. R.] 1935:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 781; ref. 13894] Rio Moju, south bank affluent of Rio Amazonas near Santarém, about 2°25'S, 54°10'W, Amazon Basin, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 12624. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236]. See Campos-da-Paz 2000:1114 [ref. 25025] for locality information. •Valid as Gymnotus coatesi LaMonte 1935 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:55 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:424 [ref. 23853], Campos-Da-Paz 2000:1114 [ref. 25025], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:243 [ref. 25031], Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Crampton & Albert 2004:525 [ref. 27915], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:104, 188 [ref. 35004], Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:87 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigrinus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus coatesi LaMonte 1935. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin and additional areas in northern South America: Brazil, Ecuador and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

coropinae, Gymnotus Hoedeman [J. J.] 1962:55, Fig. 1c [Bulletin of Aquatic Biology v. 3 (no. 26); ref. 13556] Coropina Creek, Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMA 100.185. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:25 [ref. 19236], Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236]. •Synonym of Gymnotus anguillaris Hoedeman 1962 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:56 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Gymnotus coropinae Hoedeman 1962 -- (Crampton & Albert 2003:7 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Rangel-Pereira 2014:170 [ref. 33401], Sarmiento et al. 2014:104, 188 [ref. 35004], Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Craig et al. 2018:119 [ref. 35904], Craig et al. 2019:89 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigrinus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus coropinae Hoedeman 1962. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco basins and the Guyana Shield, South America. Habitat: freshwater.

cuia, Gymnotus Craig [J. M.], Malabarba [L. R.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2018:55, Figs. 7, 9B-C [Zootaxa 4379 (no. 1); ref. 35800] Lagoa Verde, Itapuã State Park, Viamão, Lagoa, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 30°22'52"S, 51°01'25"W. Holotype: UFRGS 23700. Paratypes: UFRGS. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Gymnotus cuia Craig, Malabarba, Crampton & Albert 2018 -- (Koerber et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36736], Craig et al. 2019:41 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus cuia Craig, Malabarba, Crampton & Albert 2018. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Paraná River and Uruguay River basins: Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

curupira, Gymnotus Crampton [W. G. R.], Thorsen [D. H.] & Albert [J. S.] 2005:84, Figs. 3-4 [Copeia 2005 (no. 1); ref. 28092] Terra firme swamp, 0.5 west of Estrada Agrovila, Igarapé Curupira, Lago Tefé, Rio Tefé, Munic. Tefé, 3°26'01"S, 64°43'47"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 60607. Paratypes: IDSM 425 (1); INPA 18381-82 (1, 1), 60608-09 (3, 3); MZUSP 75143-48 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 75149-51 (1, 1, 1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus curupira Crampton, Thorsen & Albert 2005 -- (Maxime & Albert 2009:582 [ref. 30673], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Sarmiento et al. 2014:104, 188 [ref. 35004], Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[14] [ref. 35679], Craig et al. 2019:44 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus curupira Crampton, Thorsen & Albert 2005. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon basin: Brazil, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cylindricus, Gymnotus LaMonte [F. R.] 1935:2 [American Museum Novitates No. 781; ref. 13894] Brook, east of Los Amates, River Motagua basin, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 1358. Paratypes: AMNH 20923 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus cylindricus LaMonte 1935 -- (Villa 1982:108 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:98 [ref. 22927], Mago-Leccia 1994:55 [ref. 21320], Campos-da-Paz 1996:371 [ref. 22528], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:423 [ref. 23853], Bussing 1998:130 [ref. 24179], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:261 [ref. 25031], Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Matamoros et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31241], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Rangel-Pereira 2012:364 [ref. 32319], Angulo et al. 2013:994 [ref. 33194], Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:99 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tijax). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus cylindricus LaMonte 1935. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras. Habitat: freshwater.

darwini, Gymnotus Campos-da-Paz [R.] & de Santana [C. D.] 2019:146, Figs. 1-5 [Copeia v. 107 (no. 1); ref. 36608] Igarapé (stream) Jacoca (or Tabatinga), rio Botafogo basin, at Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin (RECD), Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil, approximately 07°48'37"S, 34°57'25"W. Holotype: MNRJ 51333. Paratypes: MNRJ, MZUSP. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Gymnotus darwini Campos-da-Paz & de Santana 2019. Current status: Valid as Gymnotus darwini Campos-da-Paz & de Santana 2019. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Coastal rivers, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

diamantinensis, Gymnotus Campos-da-Paz [R.] 2002:187, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 26073] Creek (riacho 1) tributary of rio Preto, upper rio Arinos at rio Tapajós syste, road to São Francisco, Diamantino municipality, about 14°20'S, 56°30'W, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 57505. Paratypes: MZUSP 45320 (1 c&s). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus diamantinensis Campos-da-Paz 2002 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:45 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus diamantinensis Campos-da-Paz 2002. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Tapajós River basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

electricus, Gymnotus Linnaeus [C.] 1766:427 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Suriname; South American rivers. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236]. Based on multiple sources, including the 'Gymnotus pinna ani ad extremum caudae latae truncatae ...' of Gronow 1763:41 [ref. 1910], and Seba 1759:108, pl. 34, fig. 6 [ref. 18716]. See Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061] for possible type. •Valid as Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:59 [ref. 21320], Planquette et al. 1996:414 [ref. 22818], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:424 [ref. 23853], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:483 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:103, 188 [ref. 35004], Reis et al. 2016:13, 15 [ref. 34496], Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35773], de Santana et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36958], Craig et al. 2019:19 [ref. 37060] in Electrophorinae). Current status: Valid as Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus 1766). Gymnotidae: Electrophorinae. Distribution: Guiana Shield: Guyana and Suriname. [other species in the Amazon and Orinoco River basins and other areas in northern Brazil: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, French Guiana, Peru, and Venezuela.] Habitat: freshwater.

esmeraldas, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2003:30, Fig. 5 [Zootaxa No. 287; ref. 27077] Hoja Blanca near San Miguel, Ríos Cayapas, Río Esmeraldas drainage, Ecuador, 1°05'N, 79°03'W. Holotype: MCZ 58729. Paratypes: MZC 162745 (4). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus esmeraldas Albert & Crampton 2003 -- (Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:286 [ref. 34894], Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:77 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigre). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus esmeraldas Albert & Crampton 2003. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Esmeraldas and Palenqué river basins, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

eyra, Gymnotus Craig [J. M.], Correa-Roldán [V.], Ortega [H.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2018:122, Fig. 6D [Zootaxa 4413 (no. 1); ref. 35904] Cuenca Río Los Amigos, Aguajal cicra Pozo Pedro, Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, 12°33.611'S, 70°06.593'W. Holotype: MUSM 60276. Paratypes: MUSM. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Gymnotus eyra Craig, Correa-Roldán, Ortega, Crampton & Albert 2018 -- (Craig et al. 2019:46 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus eyra Craig, Correa-Roldán, Ortega, Crampton & Albert 2018. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Upper Madeira River basin, Amazon basin, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Gymnotus Pallas [P. S.] 1769:35 [Spicilegia Zoologica v. 1 (fasc. 7); ref. 20848] Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. Not available, name mentioned in passing; from Brazil as Gymnotum fasciatum, nominative form is Gymnotus fasciatus. Subsequent validation not researched. •Mention -- (Malabarba 1989:158 [ref. 14217]). •In the synonymy of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:55 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Britski 2001:21 [ref. 26046], Albert & Crampton 2003:7 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2017:419 [ref. 35568] dated 1767). Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae.

henni, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Maldonado-Ocampo [J. A.] in Albert & Crampton 2003:32, Fig. 6 [Zootaxa No. 287; ref. 27077] Creek near mouth of Río Calima, Río San Juan drainage, north of Buenaventura, Valle de Cauca Department, Colombia, 3°53'N, 77°04'W. Holotype: CAS 47290. Paratypes: CAS 217162 (1), FMNH 56793 (2). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus henni Albert, Crampton & Maldonado-Ocampo 2003 -- (Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Alda et al. 2013:655 [ref. 32749], Ferraris et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Craig et al. 2019:79 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigre). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus henni Albert, Crampton & Maldonado-Ocampo 2003. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Pacific drainages of Panama and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

horrificus, Gymnothorax Poey [F.] 2000:793, Pl. 437 (fig. 4) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Gymnotidae.

inaequilabiatus, Carapus Valenciennes [A.] 1839:Pl. 14 [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Río de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4615. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:44 [ref. 19577], Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:11 [ref. 5010], genus misspelled as Carapeus. Pl. 14 was published in 1839. •Valid as Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:55 [ref. 21320], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:424 [ref. 23853], Albert & Fernandes-Matioli 1999:415 [ref. 23798], Fernandes-Matioli et al.2000:803 [ref. 30364], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:261 [ref. 25031], Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:485 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Fernandes et al. 2005:3 [ref. 28147], Cognato et al. 2008:381 [ref. 29363], Richer-de-Forges et al. 2009:543 [ref. 30384], Koerber 2011:6 [ref. 31122], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33621], Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Sarmiento et al. 2014:104, 188 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:48 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:422 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565] as inequilabiatus, Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236], Koerber et al. 2017:70 [ref. 35267], Craig et al. 2018:67 [ref. 35800] with date 1847, Craig et al. 2019:80 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigre). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (Valenciennes 1839). Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Parana-Paraguay River basin and some coastal drainages: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

interruptus, Gymnotus Rangel-Pereira [F. S.] 2012:365, Fig. 1-10 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 62 (no. 3); ref. 32319] Riacho Cambiriba, Rio Gongogi drainage, Rio de Contas basin, Guaíra balneary, Iguaí, 14°36′16.7′′S, 40°06′08.7′′W, Bahia, Brazil, elevation 347 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 8218. Paratypes: UFRJ 8219 (1), 8243 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus interruptus Rangel-Pereira 2012 -- (Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:48 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus interruptus Rangel-Pereira 2012. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Gongogi River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

javari, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Hagedorn [M.] in Albert & Crampton 2003:39, Fig. 9 [Zootaxa No. 287; ref. 27077] Quebrada Caraná near Buen Sucesso, Río Yavari (Rio Javarí), Loreto Department, Peru, 4°22'S, 70°31'W. Holotype: UMMZ 224599. Paratypes: UMMZ 224596 (10), 240971 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus javari Albert, Crampton & Hagedorn 2003 -- (Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Craig et al. 2019:92 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigrinus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus javari Albert, Crampton & Hagedorn 2003. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

jonasi, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2001:253, Figs. 3b, 8 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 25031] Cano do Lago Rato, Mamirauá Reserve, 3°02'48"S, 64°51'22"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 13507. Paratypes: BMNH 1998.3.11.93-127 (35), 1998.3.11.128-135 (8); INPA 13508 (6), 15830 (30); WGRC 17.070597 (1), 18.070597 (1), 19.070597 (1), 20.070597 (1), 21.070597 (1), WGRC (53 lots, 53). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus jonasi Albert & Crampton 2001 -- (Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:485 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:93 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigrinus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus jonasi Albert & Crampton 2001. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

maculosus, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.] & Miller [R. R.] 1995:666, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 108 (no. 4); ref. 21921] Diversion of channel from Rio María Linda, 14°04'N, 90°37'W, about 31 [not 20] kilometers southeast of Escuintla, Depto. Santa Rosa, Guatemala, elevation 20 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 230830. Paratypes: TU 24965 (36); UMMZ 190783 (3), 224128 (5), 230354 (20); USNM 134700 (49). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus maculosus Albert & Miller 1995 -- (Bussing 1998:132 [ref. 24179], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:261 [ref. 25031], Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:485 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Nelson et al. 2004:84 [ref. 27807], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Miller 2006:175 [ref. 28615], Matamoros et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31241], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Page et al. 2013:85 [ref. 32708], Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:100 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tijax). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus maculosus Albert & Miller 1995. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Atlantic and Pacific Slope drainages: Mexico to Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

madeirensis, Gymnotus carapo Craig [J. M.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2017:428, Fig. 3D [Zootaxa 4318 (no. 3); ref. 35568] Sandia, Río Candamo, Puno, Peru, 13°31'S, 69°41'W. Holotype: MUSM 12949. Paratypes: MUSM. Plus additional non-type material. •Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Craig et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35904]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Upper Madeira basin, Peru and Bolivia (if treated as a valid subspecies). Habitat: freshwater.

mamiraua, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2001:245, Figs. 3a, 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 25031] Cano do Lago Rato, Mamirauá Reserve, 3°02'36"S, 64°51'02"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 13503. Paratypes: BMNH 1998.3.11.69-88 (20), BMNH (5 lots, 5); INPA 4716 (4), 9962 (12), 13504 (6), 15832 (20); WGRC 16:030597 (1), 17:030597 (1), 01:090497 (1), 03-110497 (1), 04:110497 (1), 05:110497 (1), 06:110497 (1), 09-110497 (1), 04:180497 (1), 05:180497 (1), 11:300497 (1), 12:300497 (1), WGRC (26 lots, 26). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus mamiraua Albert & Crampton 2001 -- (Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2007:55 [ref. 28947], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2018:129 [ref. 35904], Craig et al. 2019:49 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus mamiraua Albert & Crampton 2001. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Mamirauá and Janauacá Lake systems, Amazon River basin, Tefé, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanopleura, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2001:258, Fig. 14 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 25031] Cano do Lago Rato, Mamirauá Reserve, 3°02'36"S, 64°51'02"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 9966. Plus additonal non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus melanopleura Albert & Crampton 2001 -- (Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:95 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigrinus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus melanopleura Albert & Crampton 2001. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Mamirauá Lake system, upper Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

multivalvulus, Electrophorus Nakashima [S.] 1941:462, Fig. [Boletín del Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado" v. 5 (no. 19); ref. 13212] Río Pachitea, Río Puinahua, and Río Pacaya, eastern Peru. Syntypes: not researched. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236]. Misspelled multitalvulus in table. •Questionably a synonym of Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:59 [ref. 21320]). •Synonym of Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236]). •Valid as Electrophorus multivalvulus Nakashima 1941 -- (Craig et al. 2019:19 [ref. 37060] as multivalvulatus in Electrophorinae). Current status: Valid as Electrophorus multivalvulus Nakashima 1941. Gymnotidae: Electrophorinae. Distribution: Western Amazon basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

obscurus, Gymnotus Crampton [W. G. R.], Thorsen [D. H.] & Albert [J. S.] 2005:91, Figs. 3, 7 [Copeia 2005 (no. 1); ref. 28092] Cano do Lago Mamirauá at Comunidade Boca do Mamirauá, 3°06'37"S, 64°47'49"W, Mamirauá Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 60604. Paratypes: BMNH1998.3.12.19-21 (1, 1, 1); IDSM 432 (1); INPA 18388 (2); MZUSP 60605-06 (1, 1) 75152-57 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1); UF 118836-37 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus obscurus Crampton, Thorsen & Albert 2005 -- (Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:51 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus obscurus Crampton, Thorsen & Albert 2005. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Mamirauá Reserve near Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

occidentalis, Gymnotus carapo Craig [J. M.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2017:429, Fig. 3E [Zootaxa 4318 (no. 3); ref. 35568] Río Pacaya, Cocha Zapote, Loreto, Peru, 05°20'02"S, 74°29'05"W. Holotype: UF 126181. Paratype: UF. Plus additional non-type material. •Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Western Amazon basin, Peru, Brazil and Guyana (if treated as a valid subspecies). Habitat: freshwater.

omarorum, Gymnotus Richer-de-Forges [M. M.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2009 [Copeia 2009 (no. 3); ref. 30384] Río Cisne basin, Laguna del Sauce, 34°50.328'S, 55°06.869'W, Maldonado Department, Uruguay. Holotype: ZVC-P 6480. Paratypes: AMNH 239656 (16, 3 c&s), MCP 41266 (3, 1 c&s), ZVC-P 6481 (33, 3 c&s). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:414 [ref. 35150], Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus omarorum Richer-de-Forges, Crampton & Albert 2009 -- (Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:48 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565], Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2018:61 [ref. 35800], Craig et al. 2019:53 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus omarorum Richer-de-Forges, Crampton & Albert 2009. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Coastal and interior drainages, Uruguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

onca, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2001:256, Fig. 12 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 25031] Cano do Lago Rato, Mamirauá Reserve, 3°02'36"S, 64°51'02"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): INPA 11512. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus onca Albert & Crampton 2001 -- (Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:485 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:95 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigrinus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus onca Albert & Crampton 2001. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Mamirauá Lake system, upper Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

orientalis, Gymnotus carapo Craig [J. M.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2017:430, Fig. 3F [Zootaxa 4318 (no. 3); ref. 35568] Rio Itacaiuna, Rio Tocantins, Serra Norte, Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brazil, 05°05'S, 50°22'W. Holotype: MZUSP 30025. Paratypes: MZUSP. Plus additional non-type material. •Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Eastern Amazon basin, Pará, Brazil (if treated as a valid subspecies). Habitat: freshwater.

panamensis, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2003:43, Fig. 11 [Zootaxa No. 287; ref. 27077] Small creek into the Río Cricamola, near Konkitu, Bocas del Toro Province, Panama, 8°59'N, 81°55'W. Holotype: CAS 72209. Paratypes: CAS 217109 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus panamensis Albert & Crampton 2003 -- (Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:102 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tijax). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus panamensis Albert & Crampton 2003. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Cricamola River drainage, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

pantanal, Gymnotus Fernandes [F. M. C.], Albert [J. S.], Daniel-Silva [M. de F. Z.], Lopes [C. E.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Almeida-Toledo [L. F.] 2005:4, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 933; ref. 28147] Near Miranda, 20°11'78"S, 56°30'13"W, Rio Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 67874. Paratypes: MZUSP 67875 (1), 67876 (1). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus pantanal Fernandes, Albert, Daniel-Silva, Lopes, Crampton & Almeida-Toledo 2005 -- (Cognato et al. 2008:381 [ref. 29363], Richer-de-Forges et al. 2009:543 [ref. 30384], Maxime & Albert 2009:582 [ref. 30673], Frana et al. 2011:343 [ref. 31393], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:104, 188 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:48 [ref. 35117], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236], Koerber et al. 2017:70 [ref. 35267], Craig et al. 2018:63 [ref. 35800], Craig et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35904], Craig et al. 2019:55 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus pantanal Fernandes, Albert, Daniel-Silva, Lopes, Crampton & Almeida-Toledo 2005. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Parana-Paraguay River system of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

pantherinus, Giton fasciatus var. Steindachner [F.] 1908:129 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 9) (for 11 Mar. 1908); ref. 18803] Santos, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 11275 (3), 76443-44 (2, 8). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus pantherinus (Steindachner 1908) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:55 [ref. 21320], Albert & Fernandes-Matioli 1999:416 [ref. 23798], Fernandes-Matioli et al.2000:803 [ref. 30364], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:261 [ref. 25031], Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:485 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Fernandes et al. 2005:3 [ref. 28147], Cognato et al. 2008:381 [ref. 29363], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Rangel-Pereira 2012:364 [ref. 32319], Rangel-Pereira 2014:170 [ref. 33401], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:73 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Pantherus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus pantherinus (Steindachner 1908). Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages in southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

paraguensis, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2003:34 [Zootaxa No. 287; ref. 27077] Itapua, Arroyo Tembey, 7.4 kilometers southwest of San Rafael, Río Parana drainage, Paraguay, 26°35'S, 55°34'W. Holotype: UMMZ 206155. Paratypes: UMMZ 240700 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus paraguensis Albert & Crampton 2003 -- (Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Cognato et al. 2008:382 [ref. 29363], Richer-de-Forges et al. 2009:543 [ref. 30384], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236], Koerber et al. 2017:70 [ref. 35267], Craig et al. 2018:69 [ref. 35800], Craig et al. 2019:82 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigre). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus paraguensis Albert & Crampton 2003. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

pedanopterus, Gymnotus Mago-Leccia [F.] 1994:92, Fig. 98 [Electric fishes of the continental waters of America; ref. 21320] Caño Tremblador, at crossing of San Carlos de Rio Negro to Solano road, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela, 1°48'N, 67°00'W. Holotype: MBUCV-V-14738. Paratypes: AMNH 58651 (1); MBUCV-V-4486 (1), V-4860 (1), V-7022 (2), V-7135 (2), V-7310 (3), V-14692 (1), V-14737 (2), V-14739 (4). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:10 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus pedanopterus Mago-Leccia 1994 -- (Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:243 [ref. 25031], Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:485 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], DoNascimiento 2016:535 [ref. 34727], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Craig et al. 2019:67 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Lamontianus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus pedanopterus Mago-Leccia 1994. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Southern Venezuela and tributaries of Negro River in Brazil: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

putaol, Gymnotus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:145, 176 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. •Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758 -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:55 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2003:7 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2017:419 [ref. 35568]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Habitat: freshwater.

refugio, Gymnotus Giora [J.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2016:583, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4066 (no. 5); ref. 34157] Rio Grande do Sul State, Amaral Ferrador, creek in the former Ferraria farm, laguna dos Patos drainage, Brazil, 30°50'54"S, 52°23'19"W. Holotype: UFRGS 8752. Paratypes: MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP, UFRGS. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus refugio Giora & Malabarba 2016 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:422 [ref. 34561], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:74 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Pantherus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus refugio Giora & Malabarba 2016. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Coastal rivers of Laguna dos Patos, southeast Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

regius, Gymnotus Chiaje [S. delle] 1847:273 [Nuovi Annali delle Scienze naturali Bologna (Ser. 2) v. 8; ref. 17992] South America. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236]. •Synonym of Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Mago-Leccia 1994:59 [ref. 21320], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Synonym of Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus 1766). Gymnotidae: Electrophorinae. Habitat: freshwater.

riberalta, Gymnotus Craig [J. M.], Correa-Roldán [V.], Ortega [H.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2018:125, Fig. 6E [Zootaxa 4413 (no. 1); ref. 35904] Arroyo near Lago de San Jose, Rio Beni, Rio Madeira drainage, Amazon basin, Riberalta, Beni, Bolivia, 10°54'47"S, 65°59'49"W. Holotype: CBF 10248. Paratypes: CBF, UMSS. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Gymnotus riberalta Craig, Correa-Roldán, Ortega, Crampton & Albert 2018 -- (Craig et al. 2019:56 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus riberalta Craig, Correa-Roldán, Ortega, Crampton & Albert 2018. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Upper Madeira River basin, Amazon basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

septentrionalis, Gymnotus carapo Craig [J. M.], Crampton [W. G. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2017:432, Fig. 3G [Zootaxa 4318 (no. 3); ref. 35568] Río Apure, E. dike in UNELLEZ module, Apure, Venezuela, 09°55'7.26"N, 68°17'56.82"W. Holotype: UF 80734. Paratypes: UF. Plus additional non-type material. •Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758 but a valid subspecies septentrionalis -- (Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:72 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Orinoco basin: Colombia, Venezuela and Trinidad (if treated as a valid subspecies). Habitat: freshwater.

stenoleucus, Gymnotus Mago-Leccia [F.] 1994:94, Figs. 99, 101 [Electric fishes of the continental waters of America; ref. 21320] Caño Caripo of Río Casiquiare, near Río Orinoco, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-6218. Paratypes: AMNH 59047 (2); ANSP 162127 (1); MBUCV-V-4644 (2), V-6240 (6), V-7550 (1), V-7866 (2), V-9417 (4), V-14028 (15), V-14157 (3), V-14711 (1), V-14715 (1), V-14724 (1), V-14747-48 (1, 7), V-14787 (12). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:10 [ref. 24196], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus stenoleucus Mago-Leccia 1994 -- (Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:243 [ref. 25031], Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:485 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Craig et al. 2019:96 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigrinus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus stenoleucus Mago-Leccia 1994. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

sylvius, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.] & Fernandes-Matioli [M. de C.] in Albert et al. 1999:412, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1999 (no. 2); ref. 23798] Rio Ribeira de Iguapé, near Miracatu, 24°32'50"S, 47°26'13"W, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype: LGP 0925.1. Paratypes: LGP 0925.2 (2), 0931 (1); UMMZ 234347 (2). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus sylvius Albert & Fernandes-Matioli 1999 -- (Fernandes-Matioli et al.2000:803 [ref. 30364], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614] as silvius, Albert & Crampton 2001:261 [ref. 25031], Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:3 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:485 [ref. 27061], Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Fernandes et al. 2005:3 [ref. 28147], Cognato et al. 2008:382 [ref. 29363], Richer-de-Forges et al. 2009:543 [ref. 30384], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:48 [ref. 35117], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2018:65 [ref. 35800] with authors as Albert, de Campos Fernandes-Matioli & de Almeida-Toledo, Craig et al. 2019:58 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus sylvius Albert & Fernandes-Matioli 1999. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River and Pardo River basins, Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

tigre, Gymnotus Albert [J. S.] & Crampton [W. G. R.] 2003:36, Fig. 8 [Zootaxa No. 287; ref. 27077] Along north shore of Río Amazonas near Leticia, Colombia, 4°09'S, 69°57'W (in floating macrophytes). Holotype: UF 25552. Paratypes: ICNMHN 6690 (1), UF 128412 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:6 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Gymnotus tigre Albert & Crampton 2003 -- (Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Craig et al. 2019:83 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Tigre). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus tigre Albert & Crampton 2003. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

tiquie, Gymnotus Maxime [E. L.], Lima [F. C. T.] & Albert [J. S.] 2011:78, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2011 (no. 1); ref. 31223] Comunidade de São José, Igarapé Espuma, tributary of Rio Tiquié, 00°13'00"N, 69°36'00"W, Amzonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 104507. Paratypes: MZUSP 64310 (1), 81335 (1), 85002 (2, 1 c&s), 93050 (3). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus tiquie Maxime, Lima & Albert 2011 -- (Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Rangel-Pereira 2014:170 [ref. 33401], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:68 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Lamontianus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus tiquie Maxime, Lima & Albert 2011. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Tributaries of Rio Tiquié, upper Rio Negro basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

tremulus, Gymnotus Houttuyn [M.] 1764:111 [Natuurlyke historie; ref. 2219] North Sea [locality erroneous, should be South America]. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236]. Based on Gymnotus pinna ani ad extremum caudae latae truncatae continuata of Gronovius 1763:41 [ref. 1910]. Forgotten name which was not used as valid after 1999, therefore reversal of priority in favor of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 is followed (Art. 23.9). Not treated by Mago-Leccia 1994 [ref. 21320]; see Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:483 [ref. 27061] for synonym as a nomen oblitum. •Synonym of Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:483 [ref. 27061], Ferraris et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35236]). Current status: Synonym of Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus 1766). Gymnotidae: Electrophorinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ucamara, Gymnotus Crampton [W. G. R.], Lovejoy [N. R.] & Albert [J. S.] 2003:5, Fig. 3 [Zootaxa No. 277; ref. 27064] Rio Ucayali, Rio Pacaya, Cocha Zapote, in Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, 5°20.03'S, 74°29.08'W, Loreto, Peru. Holotype: UF 126182. Paratypes: UF 126121 (1), 126183 (1), 126184 (2). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus ucamara Crampton, Lovejoy & Albert 2003 -- (Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:59 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus ucamara Crampton, Lovejoy & Albert 2003. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Ucayali River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

varii, Electrophorus de Santana [C. D.], Wosiacki [W. B.], Crampton [W. G. R.], Sabaj [M. H.], Dillman [C. B.], Mendes-Júnior [R. N.] & Castro e Castro [N.] in de Santana, Crampton, Dillman, Frederico, Sabaj et al. 2019:6, Figs. 2c, 3, 6 [Nature Communications v. 10: 4000; ref. 36958] Goiapi River, Marajó Island, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MPEG 25422. Paratypes: INPA, MHNG, MPEG. •Valid as Electrophorus varii de Santana, Wosiacki, Crampton, Sabaj, Dillman, Mendes-Júnior & Castro e Castro 2019 -- (Craig et al. 2019:19 [ref. 37060] in Electrophorinae). Current status: Valid as Electrophorus varii de Santana, Wosiacki, Crampton, Sabaj, Dillman, Mendes-Júnior & Castro 2019. Gymnotidae: Electrophorinae. Distribution: Amazon basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and Approuague River drainage, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

varzea, Gymnotus Crampton [W. G. R.], Thorsen [D. H.] & Albert [J. S.] 2005:94, Figs. 3, 8 [Copeia 2005 (no. 1); ref. 28092] Ressaca da Vila Alencar, 3°07'42"S, 64°48'02"W, Mamirauá Reserve, Munic. of Alvarães, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 60601. Paratypes: BMNH 1998.3.12.7 (1), 1998.3.12.11 (1), 1998.3.12.15-18 (4); INPA 18422-24 (1, 1, 1); MZUSP 60602-03 (8, 6), 75158-61 (1, 1, 1, 1), 75162-64 (1, 1, 1); UF 11834-35 (2, 2), 118838-39 (1, 1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2017:[21] [ref. 35236]. •Valid as Gymnotus varzea Crampton, Thorsen & Albert 2005 -- (Maxime & Albert 2009:582[ref. 30673], Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Ferraris et al. 2017:[21] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2019:61 [ref. 37060] in subgenus Gymnotus). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus varzea Crampton, Thorsen & Albert 2005. Gymnotidae: Gymnotinae. Distribution: Amazon basin, Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

voltai, Electrophorus de Santana [C. D.], Wosiacki [W. B.], Crampton [W. G. R.], Sabaj [M. H.], Dillman [C. B.], Castro e Castro [N.], Bastos [D. A.] & Vari [R. P.] in de Santana, Crampton, Dillman, Frederico, Sabaj et al. 2019:6, Figs. 2b, 3, 7 [Nature Communications v. 10: 4000; ref. 36958] Ipitinga River, Almerim, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MPEG 15529. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MPEG, MZUSP. •Valid as Electrophorus voltai de Santana, Wosiacki, Crampton, Sabaj, Dillman, Castro e Castro, Bastos & Vari 2019 -- (Craig et al. 2019:19 [ref. 37060] in Electrophorinae). Current status: Valid as Electrophorus voltai de Santana, Wosiacki, Crampton, Sabaj, Dillman, Castro, Bastos & Vari 2019. Gymnotidae: Electrophorinae. Distribution: Brazilian Shield: Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.