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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Haemulidae: [ 387 ] records


abumgaterin, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:51, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMUC P48216 (1, dry skin), P48217 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:65 [ref. 9588]. Originally as abu-mgaterin. Has been listed as mgaterin by authors. •Synonym of Plectorhynchus [sic] gaterinus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:149 [ref. 29757], Smith & McKay 1986:566 [ref. 5716]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus gaterinus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

acarapinima, Pristipoma Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:8 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Brazil. No types known. Original as acara pinima on p. 8 and acara-pinima on p. 107; apparently validates to Castelnau 1855 the pre-Linnaean name of Margrave 1648:152 [ref. 19651]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

acutum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:180 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. Published July 1860. •Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:90 [ref. 21095] as parrai). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

aeneum, Diagramma Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:454 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 7935] Prince Island, West Africa. Syntypes: (2) ZMB 6784 (1). •Synonym of Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825) -- (Roux 1973:393 [ref. 7200]). Current status: Synonym of Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

affine, Diagramma Günther [A.] 1859:319 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Indo-west Pacific. Syntypes: (orig. 8) BMNH 1846.11.22.217 (1), 1848.3.16.147 (1), 1848.3.18.166 (1), 1855.9.19.442 (1), 1855.9.19.1448 (1), 1858.4.21.455 (1) Ambon I, 1858.4.21.463 (1), one "deformed" missing. Also listed was Plate XIX, fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

affine, Pristipoma Fischer [J. G.] 1885:66 [Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten v. 2; ref. 18083] Eloby, Cameroon. Lectotype: ZMH H198 [ex ZMH 3898]. Paralectotypes: ZMH H197 [ex ZMH 3897] (1). Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:163 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:406 [ref. 21161] as syntypes. Lectotype selected by Ladiges et al. 1958:163 [ref. 19181]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

agassizii, Xenichthys Steindachner [F.] 1876:34 [6] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1890.2.25.8 (1); MCZ uncat. (3), 10430 (2); ?USNM 153612 [ex MCZ 17352] (1); NMW 75896 (2), 78065 (2). On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Xenichthys agassizii Steindachner 1876 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:154 [ref. 22193] as agassizi, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:409 [ref. 24023] as agassizi, McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957] as agassizi, Tavera et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Xenichthys agassizii Steindachner 1876. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

aheneus, Pomadasys McKay [R. J.] & Randall [J. E.] 1995:251, Figs. 1A-B. [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 38 (pt 1); ref. 22153] Raysut Rock, Salalah, off Salalah Harbor, 16°56'01"N, 54°00'08"E, Oman, Arabian Sea, depth 6 meters. Holotype: BPBM 35931. Paratypes: BPBM 36055 (3), 36161 (1), 36166 (1), QM 29206 (1). •Valid as Pomadasys aheneus McKay & Randall 1995 -- (Randall 1995:211 [ref. 22896], Iwatsuki et al. 1999:84 [ref. 23960], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Matsunuma et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30884], Psomadakis et al. 2015:256 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys aheneus McKay & Randall 1995. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

albidum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:181 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. Published July 1860. •Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:90 [ref. 21095] as parrai). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

albovittatum, Diagramma Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:125, Pl. 31 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 1228. Additional material: SMF 3105 (1, dry). See Fricke 1999:285 [ref. 24106]. •Synonym of Plectorhynchus diagramma (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:148 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus albovittatus (Rüppell 1838) -- (Senou 1991:2 [ref. 24601], Randall et al. 1997:194 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:150 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:845 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:262 [ref. 25191], Randall & Johnson 2000:479 [ref. 25807], McKay 2001:2970 [ref. 26103], Arayama 2002:2 [ref. 26180], Nakabo 2002:845 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:627 [ref. 27495] dated 1835, Peristiwady et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:96 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:266 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1220 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:472 [ref. 31980], Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:495 [ref. 33883], Fricke et al. 2018:206 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:96 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus albovittatus (Rüppell 1838). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to India; Bali and eastern Kalimantan (Indonesia) east to Marshall Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

album, Haemulon Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:241 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] St. Thomas Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7840 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:35 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Haemulon album Cuvier 1830 -- (Courtenay 1961:101 [ref. 21095], Cervigón 1982:12 [ref. 23220], Robins & Ray 1986:178 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:140 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:331 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:189 [ref. 24474], Rocha & Rosa 1999:448 [ref. 23802], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:261 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:161 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:110 [ref. 26784], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1533 [ref. 27094], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:367 [ref. 28815], Rocha et al. 2008:922 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:54 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon album Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

alta, Diagramma Day [F.] 1870:514 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 3) (art. 7) (for 11 Nov. 1869); ref. 18819] No locality; additional material from Akyab [Sittwe]. Syntypes: ZSI A.57 (2). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762]. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

altus, Eucinostomus Poey [F.] 1955:309 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] Eucinostomus no. 274 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 2000:205 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

amabile, Diagramma Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae.

amicium, Diagramma Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae.

anas, Pristipoma Valenciennes [A.] 1862:[8] [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences v. 54; ref. 4506] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2584. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:38 [ref. 21546]. On p. 8 of separate. •Synonym of Pomadasys furcatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:290 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys furcatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

andamanensis, Pomadasys McKay [R. J.] & Satapoomin [U.] 1994:1, Fig. 1 [Phuket Marine Biological Center Research Bulletin No. 59; ref. 21591] Kata Bay, Phuket, Thailand. Holotype (unique): PMBC 10068. •Valid as Pomadasys andamanensis McKay & Satapoomin 1994 -- (Iwatsuki et al. 1999:80 [ref. 23960], Satapoomin & Randall 2000:15 [ref. 25341], McKay 2001:2962 [ref. 26103], Satapoomin in Motomura et al. 2009:154 [ref. 31130]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys andamanensis McKay & Satapoomin 1994. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Andaman Sea, Thailand. Habitat: marine.

andrei, Pristipoma Sauvage [H.-E.] 1879:204 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 13259] Río Guayas, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-878. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:39 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Pomadasys macracanthus (Günther 1864). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys macracanthus (Günther 1864). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

angustifrons, Genyatremus Troschel [F. H.] 1866:203 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 32 (pt. 1); ref. 4465] Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825) -- (Roux 1973:393 [ref. 7200]). Current status: Synonym of Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

angustum, Bathystoma aurolineatum Ginsburg [I.] 1948:155 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 33 (pt 3, no. 11); ref. 13053] Bermuda. Holotype: USNM 20178. Paratypes: USNM 12708 (1), 21375 (22), 144166 (6). •Synonym of Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier 1830 -- (Courtenay 1961:118 [ref. 21095], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:262 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

antillanus, Conodon Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:156 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Jamaica. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:46 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

aporognathus, Diagramma Regan [C. T.] 1905:364 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 16 (no. 93) (art. 42); ref. 15382] Inland Sea, Japan. Syntypes: BMNH 1905.6.4.18-19 (2). •Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793) -- (Kimura 1985:345 [ref. 6262], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:393 [ref. 25116]). Current status: Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

approximans, Pomadasys Bean [T. H.] & Dresel [H. G.] 1884:160 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 418); ref. 12727] Jamaica. Syntypes: USNM 30062 (1), 30084 (1, returned to museum in Jamaica). Genus Pomadasys used in text, Pristipoma approximans in title. •Synonym of Pomadasys crocro (Cuvier 1830). •Synonym of Rhonciscus crocro (Cuvier 1830) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Rhonciscus crocro (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

arara, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:177 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes or Poey specimens: MCZ 349 (2, missing), 10545 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:199 [ref. 22926] with 10545 as holotype. •Synonym of Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Courtenay 1961:111 [ref. 21095] as plumieri). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

arcuatum, Haemulon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:481 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7759. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:35 [ref. 21546]. See Goode & Bean 1885:207 [ref. 1841]. •Synonym of Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Courtenay 1961:111 [ref. 21095] as plumieri). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

argentea, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xii, 51 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMUC P48218 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:65 [ref. 9588] with ZMUC P48218 as holotype. As Sciaena argentea, nageb on p. 51; here two names for the same taxon. The name is binominal as Sciaena argentea in the index on p. xii, but in the text on p. 51, two alternative names are proposed, argentea or nageb. Both index and text are linked together by the species code ‘60’; the name Sciaena argentea is available by indication (ICZN, Art. 12.2.2) (see Fricke 2008:37 [ref. 30182]). Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pls. 19-20 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:150 [ref. //29757], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:844 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:116 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:2120 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:356 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:101 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:360 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:178 [ref. 23922], Johnson 1999:736 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:842 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:344 [ref. 25191], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:238 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], McKay 2001:2983 [ref. 26103], Nakabo 2002:842 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Peristiwady et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:98 [ref. 27510], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Randall 2005:265 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1223 [ref. 29090], Fricke 2008:37 [ref. 30182], Hata et al. 2012:27 [ref. 32412]. Tavera et al.2012:6 [ref. 32469], Larson et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 33298], Yoshida et al. 2013:142 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:425 [ref. 33460], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2015:55 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:257 [ref. 34104], Miesen et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34492], Motomura et al. 2017:144 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:209 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:97 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines and Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteus, Holocentrus Bennett [J. W.] 1828:unnum. p., Pl. 6 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. Also in London Mag. Nat. Hist. I (June), Reviews no. II, 1829. Secondarily preoccupied in Pomadasys by Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). •Synonym of Pomadasys furcatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43 [ref. 21456] as furcatum). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys furcatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

argyreum, Pristipoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:485 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Coromandel coast, India; Sumatra, Indonesia; Mauritius (Mascarenes); Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7698 (1) Coromandel coast, 0000-7703 (1) Jakarta, 0000-7704 (1) Sumatra. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:39 [ref. 21546] with holotype (7698) and paratypes. •Valid as Pomadasys argyreus (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:844 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:283 [ref. 24014], Fricke 1999:285 [ref. 24106], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], McKay 2001:2984 [ref. 26103], Psomadakis et al. 2015:257 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:144 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys argyreus (Valenciennes 1833). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Emmelichthyops Schultz [L. P.] 1945:133 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 35 (no. 4); ref. 3963] Cat Island, Bahamas, Pawnee station 34, nightlight at surface. Holotype: YPM 2515. Paratypes: USNM 123165 (1). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:14 [ref. 16741]. Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817] referred Inermia vittata to the genus Haemulon, and suggested that Emmelichthyops is unrelated and tentatively belongs in the Emmelichthyidae. •Should provisionally be placed in the Emmelichthyidae -- (Rocha et al. 2008:924 [ref. 29817]). •Almost certainly belongs in the family Haemulidae -- (W. Smith-Vaniz pers. comm. 7/30/2010.) •In family Haemulidae -- (Sanciangco et al. 2011:37 [ref. 31422]). •Valid as Emmelichthyops atlanticus Schultz 1945 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:181 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:342 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:218 [ref. 24474], Orrell 2003:1553 [ref. 27095], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:383 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:54 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Emmelichthyops atlanticus Schultz 1945. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

aurantius, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:193, 239 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Japan. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:34 [ref. 21549]. New name for and objective synonym of Anthias orientalis Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus vittatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus vittatus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

auratum, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:272 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7730. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:39 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Haemulon serrula (Cuvier 1830). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon serrula (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

auritum, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:263 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Thailand. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN or BMNH. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:48 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Pomadasys auritus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], McKay 2001:2985 [ref. 26103], Allen et al. 2006:1224 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys auritus (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

auritus, Larimus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:501 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Gorée, West Africa. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6237 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:38 [ref. 21546], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:32 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Brachydeuterus auritus (Valenciennes 1832) -- (Roux 1973:392 [ref. 7200], Ben-Tuvia & McKay in Whitehead et al. 1986:859 [ref. 13676], Roux 1986:327 [ref. 6209], Roux 1990:783 [ref. 18781], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:699 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:121 [ref. 24781], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:425 [ref. 30079], Wirtz et al. 2007:12, 34 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32972] needs checking, Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2555 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Brachydeuterus auritus (Valenciennes 1832). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Angola. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aurolineatum, Haemulon Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:237 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] San Domingo; Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7758 (3), 0000-7769 (2); SMF 2007 [ex MNHN in 1830] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:36 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier 1830 -- (Courtenay 1961:116 [ref. 21095], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:357 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:178 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:140 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:331 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:190 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Rocha & Rosa 1999:447 [ref. 23802], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:336 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:262 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:161 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1534 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:368 [ref. 28815], Rocha et al. 2008:922 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:54 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Spier et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

axillare, Pristipoma Steindachner [F.] 1869:125 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 16) (for 17 June 1869); ref. 20469] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: (several) ?NMW 58771 (1). Species originally described as above but later as Pristopoma (Haemulopsis) axillare when illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1869:126 [p. 7 of separate], Pl. 4, [ref. 4216]. •Valid as Pomadasys axillaris (Steindachner 1869) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:152 [ref. 22193], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:376 [ref. 24555]). •Valid as Haemulopsis axillaris (Steindachner 1869) -- (De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:186 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:344 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Haemulopsis axillaris (Steindachner 1869). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

baileyi, Gaterin Smith [J. L. B.] 1953:158, Pl. 7 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 6 (no. 62) (art. 13); ref. 12717] Malindi, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 10. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 524 (1). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus paulayi Steindachner 1895 -- (E. Heemstra pers. comm. on Smith 1962). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus paulayi Steindachner 1895. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

balteatum, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7814 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:33 [ref. 21546]. The genus Diagramma is neuter, however Gramma and other fish genera ending in -gramma are feminine (based on the Greek word for line). •Synonym of Diagramma pictum, subspecies pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (Johnson et al. 2001:663 [ref. 25576]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

batata, Gaterin Smith [J. L. B.] 1952:713 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 5 (no. 55) (art. 75); ref. 4085] East Africa. Syntypes: (several) SAIAB [formerly RUSI]. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus playfairi (Pellegrin 1914) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:567 [ref. 5716]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus playfairi (Pellegrin 1914). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

bayanus, Pomadasis Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1898:1331 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] Río Bayano, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 30957. Paratypes: USNM 30963 (1). Type catalog: Smith 2018:74 [ref. 36061]. Original genus should have been Pomadasys. Replacement name for Pristipoma humile Kner 1863, preoccupied by Pristipoma humilis Bowdich 1825. No parentheses are needed around the author and date in the combination Pomadasys bayanus (Art. 51.3.1 of the Code). •Valid as Pomadasys bayanus Jordan & Evermann 1898 -- (Bussing 1987:180 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1993:245 [ref. 19564], Allen & Robertson 1994:152 [ref. 22193], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1167 [ref. 22829], Bussing 1998:289 [ref. 24179], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:375 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:339 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:349 [ref. 28615], Angulo et al. 2013:1002 [ref. 33194], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:316, 394 [ref. 34894]). •Valid as Rhonciscus bayanus (Jordan & Evermann 1898) -- (Tavera et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Rhonciscus bayanus (Jordan & Evermann 1898). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bennettii, Pristipoma Lowe [R. T.] 1838:176 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Off Madeira. Holotype: BMNH 1860.7.14.7. •Valid as Pomadasys bennettii (Lowe 1838) -- (Roux 1973:391 [ref. 7200]). •Synonym of Pomadasys incisus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Roux 1990:786 [ref. 18781], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:89 [ref. 26753], Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2561 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys incisus (Bowdich 1825). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Pristipoma Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:8, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7727. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:39 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Anisotremus moricandi (Ranzani 1842) -- (Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1528 [ref. 27094]). Current status: Synonym of Anisotremus moricandi (Ranzani 1842). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

bilineatum, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:271, Pl. 122 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7737. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:39 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791). Current status: Synonym of Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

bilineatus, Chaetodon Scopoli [J. A.] (ex Seba) 1788:45, Pl. XXII (fig. II) [Deliciae florae et faunae Insubricae; ref. 18712] No types known. Original genus misspelled Chaetedon. The genus Diagramma is neuter, however Gramma and other fish genera ending in -gramma are feminine (based on the Greek word for line). •Unused senior synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm. 7/02). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

bipunctatus, Pomadasys Kner [R.] in Steindachner 1898:286 [Zoologische Jahrbücher. Jena, Supplementband v. 4; ref. 4238] Iquique, northern Chile. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Pomadasys bipunctatus Kner 1898 -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys bipunctatus Kner 1898. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Chile. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:312 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2934. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:33, 51 [ref. 21546]. Based on Anthias diagramma Bloch 1792; if regarded as a replacement name then MNHN 2934 is not a type. •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792), subspecies cinerascens Cuvier 1830 -- (Johnson et al. 2001:667 [ref. 25576]). •In the synonymy of Diagramma centurio Cuvier 1830. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus centurio (Cuvier 1830) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus centurio (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

bonariense, Haemulon Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:234 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7773. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:36 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Haemulon bonariense Cuvier 1830 -- (Courtenay 1961:104 [ref. 21095], Robins & Ray 1986:180 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:332 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:192 [ref. 24474], Rocha & Rosa 1999:448 [ref. 23802], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:335 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:262 [ref. 25013], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1535 [ref. 27094], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:369 [ref. 28815], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Nión et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35565] with author as (Cuvier 1830)). Current status: Valid as Haemulon bonariense Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

boschmae, Pristipoma Metzelaar [J.] 1919:83, Fig. 27 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] West Indies, possibly Curaçao. Holotype (unique): ZMA 112928. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:89 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Haemulon boschmae (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Courtenay 1965 [ref. 21096], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:358 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:332 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:194 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Rocha & Rosa 1999:447 [ref. 23802], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:161 [ref. 27754], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1536 [ref. 27094], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:370 [ref. 28815], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon boschmae (Metzelaar 1919). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

boucardi, Pristipoma Steindachner [F.] 1869:125 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 16) (for 17 June 1869); ref. 20469] Gulf of Mexico. Holotype (unique): NMW. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1869:120 [p. 1 of separate], Pl. 1 [ref. 4216]. •Synonym of Pomadasys crocro (Cuvier 1830) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:340 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Pomadasys ramosus (Poey 1860) -- (Miller 2006:350 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys ramosus (Poey 1860). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

boulengeri, Parakuhlia Pellegrin [J.] 1913:157 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 38; ref. 17933] Bay of Libreville, Gabon. Syntypes: MNHN 1913-0176 (1), 1913-0177 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:38 [ref. 21546]. Also appeared in Pellegrin 1913:1488 [ref. 3401] -- earliest not researched. •Synonym of Parakuhlia macrophthalmus (Osório 1893) -- (Maugé & Desoutter 1990:711 [ref. 18229]). Current status: Synonym of Parakuhlia macrophthalmus (Osório 1893). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

brachychirus, Eucinostomus Poey [F.] 1955:309 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] No types known. Eucinostomus no. 545 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 2000:204 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

branickii, Pristipoma Steindachner [F.] 1879:33 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Tumbez, Peru. Syntypes: (several) NMW 55044 (1), Warschau Mus. (1). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:28, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [ref. 4228]. •Valid as Pomadasys branickii (Steindachner 1879) -- (Bussing 1993:245 [ref. 19564] as branicki, Allen & Robertson 1994:152 [ref. 22193] as branicki, McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1168 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:376 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:342 [ref. 24550] as branicki, Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Angulo et al. 2013:1002 [ref. 33194], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:394 [ref. 34894], Robertson et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys branickii (Steindachner 1879). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brasiliense, Pristipoma Steindachner [F.] 1863:1013, Pl. 17 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 13; ref. 18756] Bahia, Brazil, southwestern Atlantic. Syntypes: (several) Possibly preoccupied by Pristipomus brasiliensis Lichtenstein 1823. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Lutianus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:329, Pl. 64 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazil [locality not certain]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5225 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:85 [ref. 24282]. •Family Haemulidae -- (Paepke 1999:85 [ref. 24282]). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Pristipomus Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1823:116 [Verzeichniss der Doubletten des zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung...; ref. 17525] Brazil. Try ZMB for type(s). Apparently an available overlooked name, family guessed. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

breve, Pristipoma Poey [F.] 1955:265 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] whereabouts unknown. Pristipoma sp. no. 739 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 2000:164 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

brevipinne, Pristipoma Steindachner [F.] 1869:125 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 16) (for 17 June 1869); ref. 20469] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): ?NMW 37160. Species originally described as above, but later as Pristopoma (Haemulopsis) brevipinne when illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1869:129 [p. 10 of separate], Pl. 5, [ref. 4216]. •Valid as Microlepidotus brevipinnis (Steindachner 1869) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:150 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:118 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1162 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:380 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Microlepidotus brevipinnis (Steindachner 1869). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

brevirostrum, Haemulon Günther [A.] 1868:418, Fig. [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 6 (pt 7, no. 14); ref. 1994] Panama; Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.4.6-8 (3). •Synonym of Haemulon scudderii Gill 1862 -- (Hong 1977:496 [ref. 21409]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon scudderii Gill 1862. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

burro, Pomadasis Starks [E. C.] 1906:791, Pl. 65 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1468); ref. 10101] Guayaquil, Ecuador. Holotype: USNM 53468. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9591 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:77 [ref. 12291]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleonothus, Plectorhinchus Johnson [J. W.] & Worthington Wilmer [J.] 2015:498, Figs. 2-5 [Zootaxa 3985 (no. 4); ref. 33883] Boyd Bay, SW of Weipa, Queensland, Australia, 12°54.9'S, 141°38.6'E, depth 0.5-3 meters. Holotype: QM I.39243. Paratypes: AMS, BPBM, CSIRO, QM, NTM, WAM. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015. Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Queensland & Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

caesius, Pomadasys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:383 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 242); ref. 10608] Mazatlán Harbor, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28158 (1), 28333 (1, lost), 29632 (1). •Valid as Anisotremus caesius (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:145 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:118 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1145 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:175 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:380 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:130 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], Tavera et al. 2011:321 [ 31319], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:395 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Anisotremus caesius (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

calcarifer, Apostata Heckel [J. J.] in Canestrini 1860:309 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 10; ref. 712] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. No separate species description; regarded as available. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

californiensis, Xenichthys Steindachner [F.] 1876:31 [3] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 10427-28 (1, 12); NMW 78063 (2), 78677 (2); SMNS 2858 (1); USNM 120297 [ex MCZ 10428] (3). On p. 3 of separate. •Valid as Xenistius californiensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:217 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:155 [ref. 22193], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1173 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:187 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:371 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:123 [ref. 25640], Moore & Herbinson 2002:179 [ref. 26939], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469]). •Valid as Haemulon californiensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Sanciangco et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31422], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:246 [ref. 35888]). •Valid as Brachygenys californiensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Tavera et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Brachygenys californiensis (Steindachner 1876). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

canna, Haemulon Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:233 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7755 (1), 0000-7765 (1), 0000-7767 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:36 [ref. 21546]. Regarded as preoccupied in Haemulon by Courtenay 1961:104 [ref. 21095], but that would be by Agassiz in Spix and Agassiz 1831 (not 1830). Subjectively invalid. We regard Courtenay 1961:104 [ref. 21095] as acting as first reviser, selecting bonariense Cuvier 1830 over canna Cuvier 1830. •In the synonymy of Haemulon bonariense Cuvier 1830 -- (Courtenay 1961:104 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon bonariense Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

canna, Haemulon Agassiz [L.] 1831:130, Pl. 69 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Brazil. Attributed to Cuvier, based on unpublished information. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Haemulon canna Cuvier 1830. •Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:89 [ref. 21095] as parrai). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

cantharinum, Pristipoma Jenyns [L.] 1840:49, Pl. 10 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island] and Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1917.7.14.42-43 (2). •Valid as Orthopristis cantharinus (Jenyns 1840) -- (McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1164 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:406 [ref. 24023], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:461 [ref. 34668] doubtful from Revillagigedo Archipelago (Mexico), Tavera et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Orthopristis cantharinus (Jenyns 1840). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

capeuna, Serranus Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1822:288 [Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1820-1821; ref. 17529] Originally as capéuna. Based on Capeuna Marcgrave and Grammistes trivittata Bloch & Schneider. •Synonym of Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Courtenay 1961:124 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

carbonarium, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:176 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10502 (3), USNM 76977 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:198 [ref. 22926]. •Valid as Haemulon carbonarium Poey 1860 -- (Courtenay 1961:97 [ref. 21095], Robins & Ray 1986:178 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:332 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:195 [ref. 24474], Rocha & Rosa 1999:448 [ref. 23802], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:263 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:161 [ref. 27754], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1537 [ref. 27094], Smith et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:371 [ref. 28815], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:54 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon carbonarium Poey 1860. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

caripa, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] 1829:176 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] East Indies and India. Syntypes: Among 8702 (1, lost), 8703 (1), 8712 (1, lost). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:39 [ref. 21546] based on 1830 description. On Russell 1803, pl. 124 and Bloch, pl. 326 (fig. 2). See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:261 [ref. 999]. •Synonym of Pomadasys maculatus (Bloch 1793) -- (Dor 1984:151 [ref. 29757], Roux 1986:329 [ref. 6209], Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys maculatus (Bloch 1793). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

catharinae, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:269 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Santa Catharina Island, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7731 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:40 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Boridia grossidens Cuvier 1830. Current status: Synonym of Boridia grossidens Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

caudimacula, Haemulon Cuvier [G.] 1829:176 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7774 (Parra's specimen). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:36 [ref. 21546] dating to 1830 reference with holotype as MNHN 7763 from Brazil, but if dated to 1829 then that specimen is not a type. Available from footnote as, "Haem caudimacula, N., ou uribaco, Margr. 177; et Diabase de Parra, Desm." Also in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:236 [ref. 999]. •Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:89 [ref. 21095] as parrai). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

cavifrons, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:290, Pl. 123 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-4904 (1, dry), A-7833 (1, dry), 3077 (1); SMF 3069 (1) Rio de Janeiro. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:33 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Genyatremus cavifrons (Cuvier 1830) -- (Tavera et al. 2011:7 [ref. 31319], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469]). Current status: Valid as Genyatremus cavifrons (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

celebicus, Plectorhynchus Bleeker [P.] 1873:285 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 17084] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 834 (1), 5656 (1). Original genus should have been Plectorhinchus. •Valid as Plectorhynchus celebicus Bleeker 1873 -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:172 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus celebicus Bleeker 1873 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:82 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:191 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1997:180 [ref. 25488]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus chrysotaenia (Bleeker 1855) -- (McKay 2001:2972 [ref. 26103], Allen et al. 2006:1220 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus chrysotaenia (Bleeker 1855). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

centurio, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:308 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-8526. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:33 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792), but a valid subspecies -- (Johnson et al. 2001:669 [ref. 25576]). •Valid as Diagramma centurio Cuvier 1830 -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:189 [ref. 28072], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:424 [ref. 33460], Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:496 [ref. 33883]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus centurio (Cuvier 1830) -- (Tavera et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus centurio (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East and South Africa east to Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

ceylonensis, Gaterin Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:99, Pl. 1 (fig. B) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 9 (no. 98) (Art. 14); ref. 12226] Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 440 (found in 2012). •Valid as Plectorhinchus ceylonensis (Smith 1956) -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:472 [ref. 31980], Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:517 [ref. 33883]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus ceylonensis (Smith 1956). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Sri Lanka and Andaman Islands. Habitat: marine.

chaetodonoides, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:195, 240, 243 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Unknown locality. MNHN 0000-7805. By mistake; introduced a second time by Lacepede (see Kottelat (2013:247)). Junior secondary homonym and junior objective synonym of Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède 1801. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède 1801 -- (Kottelat 2013:347 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède 1801. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae.

chaetodonoides, Plectorhinchus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:134, 135 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality stated [probably Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7805. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:38 [ref. 21546]. Description based exclusively on holotype which was donated to MNHN from the Netherlands. Name originally spelled chaetodonoïdes. Illustrated on Pl. 13 (fig. 2) of v. 2, 1800 [ref. 2709], but with vernacular name. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:151, 152 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473] with spelling chaetonoïdes on p. 151, chaetodonoïdes on p. 152. The spelling chaetodontoides Bleeker 1875:17 [ref. 4862] is an unjustified emendation. •Valid as Plectorhynchus chaetodontoides [sic] Lacepède 1801 -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:172 [ref. 6441], Allen 1997:128 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:103 [ref. 26476] as chaetodonoides dated 1800). •Valid as Plectorinchus chaetodontoides [sic] Lacepède 1801 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:82 [ref. 25477]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède 1801 -- (Randall et al. 1990:192 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1997:180 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:192 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:150 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:286 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:843 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:263 [ref. 25191], Satapoomin & Randall 2000:15 [ref. 25341], Allen 2000:103 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:101 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:34 [ref. 25847], McKay 2001:2971 [ref. 26103], Nakabo 2002:843 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Peristiwady et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:96 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:267 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1220 [ref. 29090], Motomura in Motomura et al. 2009:153 [ref. 31130], Motomura et al. 2010:122 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:473 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:347 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:91 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:143 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède 1801. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Comores, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Maldives east to Philippines, Fiji, Tonga and Rapa, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, southern Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

chalceum, Pristipoma Günther [A.] 1864:146 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Pacific coast of Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH. •Valid as Orthopristis chalceus (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:150 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:118 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1165 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:407 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:380 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:446 [ref. 34668], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Orthopristis chalceus (Günther 1864). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

chloronotum, Pristipoma Richardson [J.] 1846:228 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China Sea. No types known. Originally as Pristipoma? chloronotum. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:215, Pl. 6b [ref. 11606]). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

chromis, Haemulon Cuvier [G.] (ex Broussonet) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:242 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Jamaica. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7756. Type catalog: Bauchot 1969:133 [ref. 20807], Bauchot et al. 1983:36 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:89 [ref. 21095] as parrai). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

chromis, Perca Broussonet [P. M. A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:242 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in account of Haemulon chromis Cuvier; from Jamaica. Haemulidae: Haemulinae.

chrysargyreum, Haemulon Günther [A.] 1859:314 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] West Indies; Trinidad Island. Syntypes: BMNH 1842.12.13.13 (right half skin), 1859.3.13.21 (1) Trinidad I. Also listed was Plate XVI. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Valid as Haemulon chrysargyreum Günther 1859 -- (Courtenay 1961:121 [ref. 21095], Robins & Ray 1986:179 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:333 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:197 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Rocha & Rosa 1999:448 [ref. 23802], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:161 [ref. 27754], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1538 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192] dated 1858, Smith et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:372 [ref. 28815], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:54 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). •Valid as Brachygenys chrysargyreum (Günther 1859) -- (Tavera et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Brachygenys chrysargyreum (Günther 1859). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

chrysobalion, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:248 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] No locality [= Java, Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): not at RMNH or MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:48 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Pomadasys hasta (Bloch 1790) -- (Roux 1986:329 [ref. 6209]). •Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

chrysoptera, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1766:485 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina (South Carolina, U.S.A.); Bahamas. Syntypes: LS 98 and 99 (2 half-skins) South Carolina. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:202 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:58 [ref. 20705]. Based on manuscript description and 2 specimens sent by A. Garden [South Carolina], and on 'Perca marina gibbosa cinerea' of Catesby 1743:2, Pl. 2, fig. 1 (v. 2) [ref. 774] [Bahamas]. •Valid as Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Lee et al. 1980:753 [ref. 22416], Robins & Ray 1986:177 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:140 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:238 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:333 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:265 [ref. 25013], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1547 [ref. 27094], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:380 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chrysopterus, Cheilodipterus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:538, 546, Pl. 33 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Tropical America [Jamaica]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:115 [ref. 12478]. Based on a Plumier drawing. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

chrysotaenia, Diagramma Bleeker [P.] 1855:303 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 16847] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5655. Original as chrijsotaenia, the Dutch ij equivalent to y in Latin. •Valid as Plectorhinchus chrysotaenia (Bleeker 1855) -- (Allen 1997:128 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:191 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:150 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:844 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], McKay 2001:2972 [ref. 26103], Nakabo 2002:844 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Allen et al. 2006:1220 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:122 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:473 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2017:143 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus chrysotaenia (Bleeker 1855). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia and western Indonesia to Solomon Islands, Great Barrier Reef (Australia) to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

chubbi, Diagramma Regan [C. T.] 1919:199, Fig. 2 [Annals of the Durban Museum v. 2 (pt 4) (art. 18); ref. 15230] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1919.4.1.14. •Valid as Plectorhinchus chubbi (Regan 1919) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:565 [ref. 5716], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:190 [ref. 28072], Allen et al. 2006:1221 [ref. 29090], Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:495 [ref. 33883], Fricke et al. 2018:206 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus chubbi (Regan 1919). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: South and East Africa and Madagascar east to western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

cinctum, Diagramma Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:61, Pl. 26 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D311 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: ?BMNH (1); RMNH D309-310 (2, stuffed), D313 (1, stuffed), 822 (1); ZMB 8120 [ex RMNH] (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:330 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:67 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Plectorhinchus cinctus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:172 [ref. 6441], Kimura 1985:345 [ref. 6262], Randall 1995:210 [ref. 22896], Chen et al. 1997:104 [ref. 26476] as Plectorhynchus, Cheng & Zhou 1997:307 [ref. 26385], Nakabo 2000:843 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Satapoomin & Randall 2000:15 [ref. 25341], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:130 [ref. 25480], Shimizu 2001:30 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:843 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:340 [ref. 26218] as Plectorhynchus, Matsunuma et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30884], Motomura et al. 2010:122 [ref. 31256], Hata et al. 2012:23 [ref. 32412]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus cinctus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cinerascens, Diagramma Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:127 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Evidently appeared first in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:307 [ref. 999]. Diagramma is feminine, based on line as in lateral line or lines on the body. The species pictum should be changed to picta (WNE 8/2007). •Preoccupied by Diagramma cinerascens Cuvier 1830. •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (Dor 1984:148 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792), subspecies punctatum Cuvier 1830 -- (Johnson et al. 2001:669 [ref. 25576]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

cinerascens, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:307 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7803. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:33 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (Dor 1984:148 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792), but a valid subspecies cinerascens Cuvier 1830 -- (Johnson et al. 2001:667 [ref. 25576], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

citrinellum, Diagramma Günther [A.] 1864:374 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 14 (no. 83); ref. 18183] Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.6.6.27. •Synonym of Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825) -- (Roux 1973:393 [ref. 7200], Roux 1990:783 [ref. 18781]). Current status: Synonym of Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

citronellus, Gaterin Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:101, Pl. I (fig. C) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 9 (no. 98) (Art. 14); ref. 12226] Delagoa Bay, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 9. Paratypes: not researched. New name for Diagramma reticulatum Günther 1859. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:566 [ref. 5716]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

commersonnii, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:431, 477, Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Grand golfe de l'Inde [rivers of Madagascar]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:97 [ref. 19171], Bauchot et al. 1983:47 [ref. 21546]. Based on a drawing in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Type locality according to Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:253 [ref. 999]. •Synonym of Pomadasys hasta (Bloch 1790) -- (Roux 1986:328 [ref. 6209]). •Valid as Pomadasys commersonnii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:568 [ref. 5716], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:845 [ref. 20764], Randall 1995:212 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:357 [ref. 27969] as commersonni, Carpenter et al. 1997:178 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:190 [ref. 28072], Jawad et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33531], Psomadakis et al. 2015:257 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:209 [ref. 35805], Jawad et al. 2018:110 [ref. 36262]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys commersonnii (Lacepède 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East and South Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles and Persian Gulf east to Arabian Sea coast of India. Habitat: brackish, marine.

conceptionis, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:268 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Concepción, Chile. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:48 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Isacia conceptionis (Cuvier 1830) -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:379 [ref. 24555], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469]). Current status: Valid as Isacia conceptionis (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

continuum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1875:120 [46] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 4 (for 13 Jan. 1875); ref. 3509] Cuba. Holotype: USNM. On p. 46 of separate. •Synonym of Haemulon bonariense Cuvier 1830 -- (Courtenay 1961:104 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon bonariense Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

coro, Sciaena Bloch [M. E.] 1792:70, Pl. 307 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Brazil. whereabouts unknown. On p. 61 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 9 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

corvinaeforme, Haemulon Steindachner [F.] 1868:980 [16], Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 57; ref. 14081] Santos, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW. Species listed as name only in earlier abstract [ref. 20463]. On p. 16 of separate. •Valid as Pomadasys corvinaeformis (Steindachner 1868) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:359 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:336 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:215 [ref. 24474], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1549 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192]). •Valid as Haemulopsis corvinaeformis (Steindachner 1868) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:344 [ref. 24550], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Angulo et al. 2013:1002 [ref. 33194], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Haemulopsis corvinaeformis (Steindachner 1868). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

crassilabre, Diagramma Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:271, Pl. 5 (fig. 5) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Hall Sound, Central Province, Papua New Guinea. Syntypes (2): AMS I.16334-001 [ex MAMU F546] (1). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. Possibly an unused synonym of Diagramma labiosum Macleay 1883; in that case treated as a nomen oblitum. •Uncertain in genus Diagramma. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

crassispinum, Diagramma Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:125, Pl. 30 (fig. 4) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 978 (1), 3033 (1, dry). •Synonym of Plectorhynchus [sic] nigrus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Dor 1984:150 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus nigrus (Cuvier 1830). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:97 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

crocro, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:264 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Martinique Island, West Indies; Suriname. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7735 (1) Suriname, 0000-7738 (2) Martinique, 0000-8740 (1) Martinique. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:40 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Pomadasys crocro (Cuvier 1830) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:177 [ref. 23100], Bussing 1987:181 [ref. 22927], Cervigón 1992:337 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:217 [ref. 24474], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:175 [ref. 22947], Garzon-Ferreira & Wedler 1997:6 [ref. 25270], Bussing 1998:291 [ref. 24179], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:340 [ref. 24550], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1550 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:349 [ref. 28615], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:381 [ref. 28815], Matamoros et al. 2009:18 [ref. 31241], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1002 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:55 [ref. 33341], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886]). •Valid as Rhonciscus crocro (Cuvier 1830) -- (Tavera et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Rhonciscus crocro (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

crysopterum, Haemulon Mowbray [L. L.] 1915:1298, Fig. [Bulletin of the New York Zoological Society v. 18 (no. 6); ref. 15001] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: AMNH 4782. Spelled crysopterum two times, not chrysopterum. Not the same as Haemulon chrysopterum (Cuvier 1829). •Synonym of Haemulon macrostoma Günther 1859 -- (Courtenay 1961:109 [ref. 21095] as macrostomum). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon macrostoma Günther 1859. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

cultriferum, Pristipoma Poey [F.] 1860:185 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 10592 (1), 10594 (1), USNM 4699 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:201 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Pomadasys crocro (Cuvier 1830). •Synonym of Rhonciscus crocro (Cuvier 1830) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Rhonciscus crocro (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cuvier, Bodian Bennett [J. W.] 1829:unnum. p., Pl. 13 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. The original genus should have been Bodianus. Bodian cuvieri in Bennett 1841 [ref. 21457] is an incorrect subsequent spelling (Eschmeyer & Pethiyagoda 1996:143 [ref. 22472]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus orientalis (Bloch 1793) [sometimes as Plectorhynchus] (Senou & Shimada 1991:5 [ref. 24307], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43 [ref. 21456]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus vittatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall & Johnson 2000:479 [ref. 25807]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus vittatus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

davidsonii, Pristipoma Steindachner [F.] 1876:34 [6] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Anisotremus davidsonii (Steindachner 1876) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:217 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:145 [ref. 22193] as davidsoni, McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1146 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:175 [ref. 24545], Fuller et al. 1999 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], Minckley & Marsh 2009:301 [ref. 31114] as davidsoni, Tavera et al. 2011:322 [ref. 31319], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:244 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Anisotremus davidsonii (Steindachner 1876). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

diagramma, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] 1792:117, Pl. 320 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Japanese seas. Syntypes: ZMB 365 (1). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

diagramma, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:293 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Locality unknown. No types known. •Valid as Plectorhynchus diagramma (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:148 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus diagrammus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:172 [ref. 6441] , Randall et al. 1990:192 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1997:104 [ref. 26476] as Plectorhynchus, Johnson 1999:736 [ref. 25471], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus diagrammus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Andaman Islands (India) east to Philippines, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

doanei, Plectorhynchus Seale [A.] 1910:511 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Sitanki Island, Jolo Archipelago, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 4760 (apparently destroyed). Paratypes: BSMP 1695 (1, apparently destroyed). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

dorsale, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:179 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 326 (1), 10590 (1); ZMB 5964 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:198-199 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Haemulon melanura (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Courtenay 1961:82 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon melanura (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

dovii, Pristipoma Günther [A.] 1864:23, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 4) (for 26 Jan. 1864); ref. 5752] Pacific coast of Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1865.7.20.12. Also appeared in Günther 1864:227 [ref. 1976]. •Valid as Anisotremus dovii (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:145 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:118 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1147 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:175 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:383 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:330 [ref. 24550] as dovi, Thomson et al. 2000:130 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:395 [ref. 34894]). •Valid as Genyatremus dovii (Günther 1864) -- (Tavera et al. 2011:321 [ref. 31319], Tavera et al. 2012:3 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362]). Current status: Valid as Genyatremus dovii (Günther 1864). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

duplex, Orthopristis Girard [C. F.] 1858:167 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] Indianola and Brazos Santiago, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: (6) MCZ 390 [ex USNM 725] (2); USNM 724 (2), 725 (orig. 4, now 3). See also Girard 1859:15, Pl. 9 (figs. 1-4) [ref. 13405]. •Synonym of Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

durbanense, Diagramma Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:155 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 10383 (missing in 1996). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:567 [ref. 5716]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dussumieri, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:259 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Malabar, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7693. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:40 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Pomadasys guoraca (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys guoraca (Cuvier 1829). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

eckmani, Haemulon Lönnberg [E.] 1895:658 [Öfversigt af Kongl[iga] Vetenskaps-akademiens Forhandlingar v. 52 (no. 9) (for 13 Nov. 1895); ref. 14585] Cape Haitien, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMUU 568. Type catalog: Wallin 1996:61 [ref. 32133]. •Synonym of Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:94 [ref. 21095] as ekmani). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Haemulon Cuvier [G.] 1829:175 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Non-types: MNHN 0000-7749 (1), A-7839 (1, dry), 0000-4437 (2), plus one missing (regarded by Bauchot et al. as holotype); SMF 1088 [ex MNHN] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:36 [ref. 21546] but dating to 1830 and with wrong types. Technically this is a replacement name for Anthias formosus Bloch. Available from footnote as, "Haem. elegans, N., ou Anthias formosus, Bl., 323." Also see Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:227 [ref. 999]. •Synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803) -- (Courtenay 1961:77 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Pristipoma leuciscus var. Steindachner [F.] 1879:52, Pl. 9 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 41; ref. 4228] Tumbez, Peru. No types known. Species illustrated and named as above in figure caption page only; described as Pristopoma leuciscus in text without "var." designation; not included in earlier abstract [ref. 20480]. •Valid as Pomadasys elongatus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:152 [ref. 22193]). •Valid as Haemulopsis elongatus (Steindachner 1879) -- (De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:184 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:346 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:450 [ref. 32422], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Haemulopsis elongatus (Steindachner 1879). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

empherus, Pomadasys Bussing [W. A.] 1993:246, Figs. 1-2 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 41 (no. 2); ref. 19564] Estero Negro, vicinity of Damas Estuary north of Quepos, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Holotype: LACM 45569-1. Paratypes: LACM 45569-2 (1); UCR 1268-027 (1), 1690-12 (1). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:382 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Pomadasys empherus Bussing 1993 -- (McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1169 [ref. 22829], Angulo et al. 2013:1002 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys empherus Bussing 1993. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

erythrostoma, Diagramma Bliss [R.] 1883:47 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MCZ 5989 (7); USNM 120405 [ex MCZ 5989] (1), 153627 [ex MCZ 5989] (1). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus sordidus (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Fricke 1999:289 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus sordidus (Klunzinger 1870). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

excurrens, Pristipoma Poey [F.] 1955:266 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] No types known. Pristipoma sp. no. 740 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 2000:165 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

facis, Isaciops Miles [C.] 1953:274, Fig. [The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology v. 42 (no. 285); ref. 2999] Between Cabo de la Vela and Río Hacha, Goajira Peninsula, Caribbean Colombia, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 153917. Paratypes: BMNH 1952.5.6.1 (1). •Synonym of Haemulon boschmae (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Courtenay 1965:42 [ref. 21096]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon boschmae (Metzelaar 1919). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

faetela, Sciaena gaterina var. Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:51, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Red Sea. No types known. •Status uncertain -- (Dor 1984:150 [ref. 29757]). •See Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356]. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Red Sea. Habitat: marine.

fangi, Plectorhinchus Whitley [G. P.] 1951:66 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1949-50; ref. 4711] Foochow, Fukien, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1941-0151. Replacement name for Plectorhinchus cinctus punctatus Fang 1942, secondarily preoccupied in Plectorhinchus by Diagramma punctatus Cuvier 1830. •Valid as Plectorhinchus fangi Whitley 1951 -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:353 [ref. 27969]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese 1936) -- (McKay 2001:2978 [ref. 26103]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese 1936). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatum, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:285 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7728 (2), 0000-7739 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:40 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

fatela, Diagramma Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:126 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Name only, not available. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae.

flaviguttatus, Haemulon Gill [T. N.] 1862:254 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 3681 (with no data). •Valid as Haemulon flaviguttatus Gill 1862 -- (Hong 1977:499 [ref. 21409]). •Valid as Haemulon flaviguttatum Gill 1862 -- (Lea & Rosenblatt 1992 [ref. 21793], Allen & Robertson 1994:147 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:120 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1153 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:179 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:335 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:126 [ref. 25640], Moore & Herbinson 2002:179 [ref. 26939], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:246 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon flaviguttatum Gill 1862. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

flavolineatus, Diabasis Desmarest [A. G.] 1823:195 [35], Pl. 1 (fig. 3) of separate [Mémoires de la Société linnéenne de Paris v. 2; ref. 1120] Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4440 (1), 0000-7766 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:32 [ref. 21546]. On p. 35 of separate, Fig. 1, unnumbered Pl. after p. 38. •Valid as Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:92 [ref. 21095], Robins & Ray 1986:179 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:333 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:199 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Rocha & Rosa 1999:447 [ref. 23802], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:336 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:263 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:161 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Collette et al. 2003:110 [ref. 26784], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1539 [ref. 27094], Smith et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:373 [ref. 28815], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:54 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

flavomaculatum, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:304 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 1003 (1) Red Sea. •Valid as Plectorhynchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:172 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:149 [ref. 29757], Chen et al. 1997:104 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:566 [ref. 5716], Allen & Swainston 1988:82 [ref. 25477], Allen & Swainston 1988:158 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:193 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:189 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:209 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:250 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:193 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:286 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:736 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:844 [ref. 25086] with author as Ehrenberg, Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:263 [ref. 25191], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:235 [ref. 27511] with author as Ehrenberg, Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:34 [ref. 25847], McKay 2001:2973 [ref. 26103], Nakabo 2002:844 [ref. 26001] with author as Ehrenberg, Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:201 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:268 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1221 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:122 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:474 [ref. 31980], Hata et al. 2012:24 [ref. 32412], Larson et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:91 [ref. 33932], Jawad et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33531], Psomadakis et al. 2015:254 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:206 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:97 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:109 [ref. 36262]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Transkei (South Africa), Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Persian Gulf north to southern Japan, east to Philippines and Vanuatu, south to Western Australia and New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

forbesi, Orthopristis Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Gilbert 1897:443 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] Albermarle [Isabela] Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: USNM 47574. Paratypes: CAS-SU 3086 (1). •Valid as Orthopristis forbesi Jordan & Starks 1897 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:151 [ref. 22193], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:408 [ref. 24023], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Tavera et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Orthopristis forbesi Jordan & Starks 1897. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

formosus, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] 1792:122 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] St. Croix Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB 939. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:84 [ref. 24282]. Still researching. •Synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:337 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

fremebundum, Haemulon Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1880:340 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 98); ref. 18135] Clearwater Harbor, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 23628 (2). •Synonym of Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:94 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

fuerthii, Pristipoma Steindachner [F.] 1876:52 [4], Pl. 1 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW 77764 (1), 79158 (2). On p. 4 of separate. Species originally spelled as fürthii. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

fulromaculatum, Diagramma Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] (ex Ehrenberg) 1830:127 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] El-Tor, Sinai coast, South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, ca. 28°14'N, 33°36'E. No types known. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

fulvomaculatus, Labrus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:406 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Originally as fulvo-maculatus, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:265 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fur, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1955:290 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] No types known. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 2000:188 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

furcatus, Grammistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:187, Pl. 43 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] In India orientali [Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 960. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:85 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Pomadasys furcatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:151 [ref. 29757], Smith & McKay 1986:569 [ref. 5716] as furcatum, Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:213 [ref. 22896], Iwatsuki et al. 1999:84 [ref. 23960], Fricke 1999:290 [ref. 24106], McKay 2001:2986 [ref. 26103] as furcatum, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377] as furcatum, Fricke et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30213] as furcatum, Psomadakis et al. 2015:258 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:209 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys furcatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa and South Africa, Madagascar, Comoros, Réunion to Mauritius. Habitat: marine.

gaterina, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:50, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P48212 (dry skin). Paralectotypes: ZMUC P48213 (dry skin, head missing). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:65 [ref. 9588]. Types figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 18 [ref. 20847]. Lectotype selected by Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:20 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Plectorhynchus gaterinus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:149 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus gaterinus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:566 [ref. 5716], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:209 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:177 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:287 [ref. 24106], Satapoomin & Randall 2000:15 [ref. 25341], Randall & Johnson 2000:479 [ref. 25807], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:64 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706], Jawad et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33531], Psomadakis et al. 2015:254 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:206 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:97 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus gaterinus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Gulf of Oman south to 30°S, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar, Réunion and Mauritius (western Mascarenes, now extinct in Réunion). Habitat: brackish, marine.

gaterinoides, Gaterin Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:496, Pl. 72 (fig. E-E') [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 25; ref. 6442] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7812 [not 7813]. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:35 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Senou & Shimada 1991:3 [ref. 24307], Randall & Johnson 2000:477 [ref. 25807]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gibbosus, Diagramma Hombron [J. B.] & Jacquinot [H.] in Jacquinot & Guichenot 1853:46, Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Oceanie v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 18307] Samoa. Perhaps not the same as Holocentrus gibbosus Lacepède 1801 which had an Atlantic type locality (Suriname) that is regarded as in error. At present, gibbosus Hombron & Jacquinot 1853 is a secondary homonym of guttatus Lacepède 1802; we suggest continuing with authorship as Lacepède. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Peristiwady et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:96 [ref. 27510], Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gibbosus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:344, 389 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated [Suriname, but regarded as incorrect, is probably Indonesia]. Surviving syntype: MNHN A-7825 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:37 [ref. 21546] as holotype. Lacepède mentions several specimens from RMNH collection. Most current authors treat the Indo-Pacific species as Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802), with an Indo-Pacific unknown locality. See also Diagramma gibbosus Hombron & Jacquinot. •Valid as Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:566 [ref. 5716], Allen & Swainston 1988:82 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:193 [ref. 15987], Kottelat et al. 1993:115 [ref. 23448], Kuiter 1993:188 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:209 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:354 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:128 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:360 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:178 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:193 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:150 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:287 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:736 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:844 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:263 [ref. 25191], Satapoomin & Randall 2000:15 [ref. 25341], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:130 [ref. 25480], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:236 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:34 [ref. 25847], McKay 2001:2974 [ref. 26103], Nakabo 2002:844 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:268 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1221 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30213], Matsunuma et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30884], Motomura in Motomura et al. 2009:153 [ref. 31130], Motomura et al. 2010:123 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:474 [ref. 31980], Hata et al. 2012:24 [ref. 32412], Larson et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:347 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:142 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:91 [ref. 33932], Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:495 [ref. 33883], Psomadakis et al. 2015:254 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:44 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:143 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:207 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:97 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:110 [ref. 36262], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:164 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Caroline Islands (Micronesia) and Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Norfolk Island. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

giganteum, Diagramma Günther [A.] 1879:136 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 4 (no. 20); ref. 18237] Ponape, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus albovittatus (Rüppell 1838) -- (McKay 2001:2970 [ref. 26103], Randall 2005:266 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus albovittatus (Rüppell 1838). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

goeldii, Diagramma Boulenger [G. A.] 1897:294 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 20 (no. 117) (art. 28); ref. 14626] Magoarisinho, Cape Magoary [Maguarinho], Marajo Island, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1897.7.17.1. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

goeldii, Mylacrodon Regan [C. T.] 1903:63, Pl. 7 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1903, v. 2 (pt 1) (art. 4) (for 12 May 1903); ref. 3615] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1903.6.9.26 (1). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

goldmanni, Diagramma Bleeker [P.] 1853:602 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 337] Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1880.4.21.36. •Valid as Plectorhynchus goldmanni (Bleeker 1853) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:172 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:105 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus goldmanni (Bleeker 1853) -- (Randall et al. 1990:193 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:354 [ref. 27969]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus lineata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Senou & Shimada 1991:3 [ref. 24307], Randall & Johnson 2000:478 [ref. 25807], McKay 2001:2976 [ref. 26103], Randall 2005:269 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:335 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

graficum, Pristipoma Poey [F.] 1955:265 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] whereabouts unknown. Pristipoma sp. no. 677 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 2000:164 [ref. 26366] as graphicum with figures in atlas. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

grandis, Pomadasis Meek [S. E.] 1907:116 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 2959] Lake Nicaragua at Granada, Nicaragua. Holotype (unique): FMNH 5939. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:68 [ref. 12367]. Correct spelling of genus is Pomadasys. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

grayi, Spinipercina Fowler [H. W.] 1944:246, Figs. 184-185 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Santelmo Bay, Rey Island, Perlas Islands, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69996. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra 1974:21 [ref. 7125] with nobilis in the w. Atlantic and e. Pacific). •Synonym of Conodon serrifer Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (B. Victor, pers. comm. 1 Oct. 2012). Current status: Synonym of Conodon serrifer Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

griseum, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Malabar, western India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7807(2), 0000-7808 (1), B-2952 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:34 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål 1775) -- (Roux 1986:328 [ref. 6209]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:491 [ref. 33883], Fricke et al. 2018:207 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa, Seychelles and Madagascar east to India. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grossidens, Boridia Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:154, Pl. 114 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5689 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:32 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Boridia grossidens Cuvier 1830 -- (López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192], Nión et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Boridia grossidens Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Brazil to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

grunniens, Anthias Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:308 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tana Island [Tanna Island], Vanuatu. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

gudgutia, Coius Hamilton [F.] 1822:94, 370 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River mouth, India. No types known. •In Pomadasis -- (Kottelat 2000:91 [ref. 25865]). •Synonym of Pomadasys hasta (Bloch 1790) -- (Roux 1986:329 [ref. 6209] as gudjutia). •Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

guntheri, Pseudohelotes Guimarães [A. R. P.] (ex Capello) 1882:222 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 8 (no. 31) (1881); ref. 1953] Setubal, Portugal. Holotype (unique): Apparently destroyed. Originally as Pseudo-helotes guntheri. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus mediterraneus (Guichenot 1850) -- (Roux 1973:395 [ref. 7200], Roux 1990:785 [ref. 18781]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus mediterraneus (Guichenot 1850). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

guoraca, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] 1829:176 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India; Red Sea. Non-types: MNHN 0000-7692 (2) Malabar near Mahé. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:40 [ref. 21546] dated to 1830. Available from footnote 1: "Pr. guoraca, N., Russel., 132, ou Perca grunniens, Forsk., ou Anthias grunniens, Bl., Schn., 188." See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:256 [ref. 999]. Probably originally based on multiple species; neotype designation needed to restrict the species to current usage. •Valid as Pomadasys guoraca (Cuvier 1829) -- (Roux 1986:328 [ref. 6209], Randall 1995:211 [ref. 22896], Iwatsuki et al. 1999:84 [ref. 23960], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2018:210 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys guoraca (Cuvier 1829). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar east to Philippines. Habitat: brackish, marine.

haematochir, Diagramma Bleeker [P.] 1854:175 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 16925] Radja bao, Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Senou & Shimada 1991:3 [ref. 24307], Randall & Johnson 2000:478 [ref. 25807]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

harrawayi, Gaterin (Leitectus) Smith [J. L. B.] 1952:712, Pl. 26 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 5 (no. 55) (art. 75); ref. 4085] Ibo Island, East Africa, western Indian Ocean, depth about 4 fathoms. No types know (based on a photo). •Valid as Plectorhynchus harrawayi (Smith 1952) -- (Dor 1984:149 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus obscurum (Günther 1871) -- (Randall et al. 1990:194 [ref. 15987]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus harrawayi (Smith 1952) -- (Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus albovittatus (Rüppell 1838) -- (McKay 2001:2970 [ref. 26103], Randall 2005:266 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:334 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus albovittatus (Rüppell 1838). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

hasta, Lutjanus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:109, Pl. 246 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Japan. Lectotype: ZMB 8713 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB 969 (1, lost), 8721 (1, right skin) Type catalog: Paepke 1999:85 [ref. 24282]. On p. 86 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:85 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Pomadasys hasta (Bloch 1790) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:100 [ref. 19754], Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:173 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:151 [ref. 29757], Roux 1986:328 [ref. 6209], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:408 [ref. 23876], Chen et al. 1997:102 [ref. 26476], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315], Youn 2002:340, 614 [ref. 26218]). •Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:356 [ref. 27969], McKay 2001:2983 [ref. 26103], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:335 [ref. 28867], Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:209 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

helenae, Haemulon Boulenger [G. A.] 1899:3 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 14 (no. 335); ref. 14697] St. Helene Bay, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): MZUT 1566. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:143 [ref. 21559]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

hepatus, Grammistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:187 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Antilles [Martinique Island, West Indies]. No types known. Based on the "Hepatus argenteus" in manuscript by Plumier. Unnecessary replacement name for Lutjanus luteus Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Genyatremus luteus (Bloch 1790). Current status: Synonym of Genyatremus luteus (Bloch 1790). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

heterodon, Haemulon Cuvier [G.] 1829:176 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4440 (1), 0000-7766 (1). Non-type: MNHN 0000-7842 (1, dry) Martinique. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:36-37 [ref. 21546] but dated to 1830 reference. Available from footnote as, "Haem. heterodon ou duabase rayée, Desmar., Dict. class. d'hist. nat." Also see Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:235, Pl. 121 [ref. 999]. •Synonym of Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:92 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

hians, Haemulon Haly [A.] 1875:268 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 15 (no. 88) (art. 35); ref. 18241] Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1862.1.30.37-38 (2). •Questionably a synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803) -- (Courtenay 1961:79 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Uncertain as Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

humile, Pristipoma Kner [R.] 1863:221, "Fig. 1" (unpublished) [Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu München 1863, v. 2; ref. 5002] Río Bayano, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): ZSM 133 [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:276 [ref. 28925]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pristipoma humilis [humile] Bowdich 1825, replaced by Pomadasis bayanus Jordan & Evermann 1898. •Synonym of Pomadasys bayanus Jordan & Evermann 1898. •Synonym of Rhonciscus bayanus (Jordan & Evermann 1898) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Rhonciscus bayanus (Jordan & Evermann 1898). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

humilis, Pristipoma Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:236, Fig. 40 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] St. Jago and Bona Vista, Madeira. No types known. Original as humilis should be corrected to humile. •Valid as Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825) -- (Roux 1973:393 [ref. 7200], Ben-Tuvia & McKay in Whitehead et al. 1986:860 [ref. 13676], Roux 1990:783 [ref. 18781], Psomadakis et al. 2012:17 [ref. 33457], Wirtz et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32972], Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2557 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

incisus, Anomalodon Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:237, Fig. 51 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Gambia. •Valid as Pomadasys incisus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Ben-Tuvia & McKay in Whitehead et al. 1986:862 [ref. 13676], Roux 1990:786 [ref. 18781], Serena & Silvestri 1996:409 [ref. 22784], Afonso et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:89 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:86 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:34 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32972], Bañón et al. 2014:323 [ref. 33674], Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2561 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys incisus (Bowdich 1825). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Northwestern Spain to Angola; offshore islands including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

inornatus, Microlepidotus Gill [T. N.] 1862:256 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 3684 (2); possible type: MCZ 1055 [ex USNM 3684] (1). •Valid as Microlepidotus inornatus Gill 1862 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:217 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:150 [ref. 22193], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1163 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:124 [ref. 25640], Moore & Herbinson 2002:179 [ref. 26939], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:246 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Microlepidotus inornatus Gill 1862. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

interruptus, Genytremus Gill [T. N.] 1862:256 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: MCZ 1056 [ex USNM 3], USNM 30927 (8). •Valid as Anisotremus interruptus (Gill 1862) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:146 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:118 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1148 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:176 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:401 [ref. 24023], Cota-Gómez et al. 1998:103 [ref. 24503], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:383 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:129 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Tavera et al. 2011:322 [ref. 31319], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:446 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923], Cambra et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36349], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248], Tavera et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Anisotremus interruptus (Gill 1862). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

jaguanum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1955:286 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] No types known. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 2000:184 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicum, Diagramma Bleeker [P.] 1853:31, Pl. (fig. 1) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 7); ref. 340] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793). Current status: Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicum, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:288 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8199 (stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:48 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793) -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2000:394 [ref. 25116]). Current status: Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

jeniguano, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:183 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: ?MCZ 1080. Poey specimens: MCZ 330 (1), 1079 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:200 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier 1830 -- (Courtenay 1961:116 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

jessiae, Xenocys Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:160 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Lectotype: USNM 41166. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 388 (2), ?USNM 41346 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:77 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in Jordan 1896:244 [ref. 2395] if specimen is identifiable; also in caption to Pl. 202, p. 3276 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446]. •Valid as Xenocys jessiae Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:155 [ref. 22193], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:410 [ref. 24023], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957]). •Valid as Brachygenys jessiae (Jordan & Bollman 1890) -- (Tavera et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Brachygenys jessiae (Jordan & Bollman 1890). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

jub, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:43, 137 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

juba, Perca Bloch [M. E.] 1792:77, Pl. 308 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Brazil. On p. 66 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 9 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

jubelini, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:250 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Senegal; Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN ?6222 (1), 6224 (1), 9439 (1) Gorée. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:40 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier 1830) -- (Penrith 1982:91 [ref. 30513], Smith & McKay 1986:569 [ref. 5716], Roux 1986:329 [ref. 6209], Roux 1990:787 [ref. 18781], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:697 [ref. 21590], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:160 [ref. 25472], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:429 [ref. 30079], Kramer et al. 2016:unnumbered p. [ref. 34331], Félix et al. 2016:D [4] [ref. 34346], Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2562 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: west African coast from Senegal to Namibia and São Tomé Island. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

kaakan, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:244 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Arian River, Coupang [Kupang], Timor; Puducherry and Mahé, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0074 (2) Malabar, 7685 (1) Puducherry, 7687 (1) Puducherry, 7688 (1) Mahé, A-7815 (1) Puducherry, B-2982 [ex MNHN 0000-7688] (1) Mahé; ZMB 8721 (1, right skin). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:40-41 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Pomadasys hasta (Bloch 1790) -- (Dor 1984:151 [ref. 29757], Roux 1986:329 [ref. 6209]). •Valid as Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier 1830) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:569 [ref. 5716], Allen & Swainston 1988:82 [ref. 25477], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:212 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:358 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:128 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:360 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:178 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:178 [ref. 25488], Myers 1999:150 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:736 [ref. 25471], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:131 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], McKay 2001:2987 [ref. 26103], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:191 [ref. 28072], Allen et al. 2006:1224 [ref. 29090], Motomura in Motomura et al. 2009:155 [ref. 31130], Larson et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:425 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:91 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:258 [ref. 34104], Hata et al. 2015:115 [ref. 34419], Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:210 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:97 [ref. 36273], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:165 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia) and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

kendalli, Orthopristis Fowler [H. W.] 1917:127, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 35 (no. 4); ref. 15237] Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A. [erroneous]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 12335. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:148 [ref. 13621]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

kneri, Pristipoma Steindachner [F.] 1869:125 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 16) (for 17 June 1869); ref. 20469] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): NMW. Spelling of species originally as above, but name changed to knerii when later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1869:122 [p. 3 of separate], Pl. 2, [ref. 4216]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

korker, Perca Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:397, 418 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Red Sea. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:116 [ref. 12478]. Spelled korker on p. 397; korkor on p. 418. New name for Sciaena stridens Forsskål 1775. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

kumut, Diagramma Montrouzier [X.] 1857:436 [158] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 158 of reprint. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

labiosum, Diagramma Macleay [W.] 1883:202 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 14342] Wide Bay, Queensland, Australia [Coral Sea, southwestern Pacific]. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. The genus Diagramma is neuter, however Gramma and other fish genera ending in -gramma are feminine (based on the Greek word for line). •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792), but a valid subspecies labiosum -- (Johnson 1999:736 [ref. 25471], Johnson et al. 2001:664 [ref. 25576], Randall 2005:265 [ref. 28239], Johnson & Wilmer 2015:496 [ref. 33883]). •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1219 [ref. 29090]). •Synonym of Diagramma picta (Thunberg 1792) -- (Fricke et al. 2009:64 [ref. 30213]). •Valid as Diagramma labiosum Macleay 1883 -- (Kuiter 1993:189 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:128 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:182 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:34 [ref. 25847], McKay 2001:2966 [ref. 26103], Larson et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Diagramma labiosum Macleay 1883. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Northern Australia and southern New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

labraciforme, Pristipoma Boulenger [G. A.] 1899:3 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 14 (no. 335); ref. 14697] St. Helene Bay, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): MZUT 1564. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:143 [ref. 21559]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

labridum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1861:419 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791). Current status: Synonym of Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

lateralis, Diabasis Vaillant [L. L.] in Vaillant & Bocourt 1883:180 [Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale Part 4; ref. 4498] Jamaica. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4817. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:32 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Haemulon macrostoma Günther 1859. Current status: Synonym of Haemulon macrostoma Günther 1859. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

latifrons, Genyatremus Troschel [F. H.] 1866:202 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 32 (pt. 1); ref. 4465] Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825) -- (Roux 1973:393 [ref. 7200], Ben-Tuvia & McKay in Whitehead et al. 1986:860 [ref. 13676]). Current status: Synonym of Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

laurentino, Rhonciscus Smith [J. L. B.] 1953:12, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Memorias do Museu Dr. Alvaro de Castro No. 2; ref. 4087] Off Lourenço Marques, southern Mozambique Channel, western Indian Ocean, depth about 60 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 14. •Valid as Pomadasys laurentino (Smith 1953) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:570 [ref. 5716], Iwatsuki et al. 1999:84 [ref. 23960]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys laurentino (Smith 1953). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

lemniscatus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:36, 115 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:143 [ref. 21559], Bauchot & Daget 1972:88 [ref. 20898]. New name for Sparus vittatus Bloch. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

lessonii, Amphiprion (Plectorynchus) Swainson [W.] 1839:218 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Lesson, Atlas, Pl. 24 -- which is Lesson 1831:Pl. 24 [ref. 2776]. Haemulidae. Habitat: marine.

lessonii, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:313 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Waigeo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:46 [ref. 21546]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). •Valid as Plectorhinchus lessonii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Senou & Shimada 1991:2 [ref. 24307], Allen 1997:126 [ref. 23977] as lessoni, Kuiter 1997:180 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:192 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:150 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:736 [ref. 25471] as lessoni, Nakabo 2000:846 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:264 [ref. 25191], Randall & Johnson 2000:479 [ref. 25807], Allen 2000:103 [ref. 25868], McKay 2001:2975 [ref. 26103], Nakabo 2002:845 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830] as lessoni, Myers & Donaldson 2003:627 [ref. 27495] as lessoni, Peristiwady et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:97 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:269 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1221 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:123 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:475 [ref. 31980], Hata et al. 2012:25 [ref. 32412], Koeda et al. 2016:44 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35354]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus lessonii (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: East Indies to New Caledonia, Great Barrier Reef (Australia) north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands. Habitat: marine.

lethopristis, Orthopristis Jordan [D. S.] & Fesler [B.] 1889:36 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 41; ref. 18826] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MCZ 26947. •Valid as Orthopristis lethopristis Jordan & Fesler 1889 -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:408 [ref. 24023], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Tavera et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Orthopristis lethopristis Jordan & Fesler 1889. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

leuciscus, Pristipoma Günther [A.] 1864:147 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] San José, Guatemala; Chiapam, Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.322 (1) San José, BMNH 1864.1.26.270-272 (3) Chiapam; ZMB 6318 (1). •Valid as Pomadasys leuciscus (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:153 [ref. 22193], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:376 [ref. 24555], Miller 2006:350 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Haemulopsis leuciscus (Günther 1864) -- (McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1160 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:185 [ref. 24545], Rosales-Casián & Ruiz-Campos 1999:135 [ref. 24460], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:344 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Angulo et al. 2013:1002 [ref. 33194], McMahan et al. 2013:450 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:394 [ref. 34894], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Haemulopsis leuciscus (Günther 1864). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California to Peru. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

leucurum, Pristipoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:488 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Seychelles. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7695. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:41 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kottelat 2013:347 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:207 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lineata, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:293 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): NRM LP 8. Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:245-246 [ref. 20707]. •Valid as Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) [sometimes as Plectorhynchus] -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:172 [ref. 6441], Senou & Shimada 1991:3 [ref. 24307], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:355 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:126 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:105 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:182 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:193 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:151 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:845 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:265 [ref. 25191], Randall & Johnson 2000:477 [ref. 25807], Allen 2000:103 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:34 [ref. 25847], McKay 2001:2976 [ref. 26103], Nakabo 2002:845 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:627 [ref. 27495], Peristiwady et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:97 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:269 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1222 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:475 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:91 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:44 [ref. 35333], Koeda & Ho 2018:248 [ref. 36176]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to New Caledonia and Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

lineatum, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] 1829:177 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Plectorhinchus by Perca lineata Linnaeus 1758. Available from footnote 1: "Diagr. lineatum Nob., ou perca diagramma, Lin., Seb., III, xxvii, 18. ou Anthias diagramma, Bl., 320." See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:309 [ref. 999]. Predated by Diagramma lineatum Cuvier in Guérin-Méneville 1827-31, Pl. 27 [ref. 29508]. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus diagrammus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus diagrammus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

lineatum, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Guérin-Méneville 1828:no page number, Livraison 13 [Planches de Seba v. 3; ref. 29508] No types known. Text applies to Pl. 27 (no. 18) published in 1827. Predates Diagramma lineatum Cuvier 1829. See Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:398, 399 [ref. 29507]. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus diagrammus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:398, 399 [ref. 29507]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus diagrammus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

lineatum, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:287 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7740 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:41 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier 1830). Current status: Synonym of Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lineatus, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] 1793:7, Pl. 326 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] East Indies. Syntypes: ZMB 8714 (1, right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:84 [ref. 24282]. On p. 5 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

luteum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:174 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 357 (1), 151391 [ex MCZ 1078a] (1); USNM 4701 (not found in 1980). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:199 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803) -- (Courtenay 1961:78 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

luteus, Lutjanus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:111, Pl. 247 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Antilles [Martinique Island, West Indies]. No types known. On p. 89 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Genyatremus luteus (Bloch 1790) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:354 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:330 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:183 [ref. 24474], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639] dated 1795, Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1532 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192] dated 1795, Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Genyatremus luteus (Bloch 1790). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macracanthum, Pristipoma Günther [A.] 1864:146 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Chiapam, Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.268-269 (2). •Valid as Rhencus macracanthus (Günther 1864) -- (Tavera et al. 2018:214 [ref. 35783]). •Valid as Pomadasys macracanthus (Günther 1864) -- (Bussing 1993:245 [ref. 19564], Allen & Robertson 1994:153 [ref. 22193], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1170 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:341 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Tavera 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Angulo et al. 2013:1002 [ref. 33194], McMahan et al. 2013:450 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:394 [ref. 34894], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys macracanthus (Günther 1864). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

macrolepidotum, Diagramma Peters [W. (C. H.)] in Martens 1876:386 [Die preussische Expedition nach Ost-Asien. v. 2; ref. 17605] Tokyo, Japan. Original not seen; reference may be incorrect. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

macrolepis, Diagramma Boulenger [G. A.] 1899:50, Pl. 26 [Annales du Musee du Congo (Ser. Zoology) v. 1 (fasc. 3); ref. 548] Manyanga, lower Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype (unique): MRAC 89. •Valid as Plectorhinchus macrolepis (Boulenger 1899) -- (Roux 1986:327 [ref. 6209], Roux 1990:785 [ref. 18781], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:695 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:121 [ref. 24781], Afonso et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25466], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:427 [ref. 30079], Wirtz et al. 2007:34 [ref. 30263], Félix et al. 2016:D [4] [ref. 34346], Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2559 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus macrolepis (Boulenger 1899). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

macrophthalmum, Haemulon Osório [B.] 1893:174 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa (Ser. 2) v. 3 (no. 11); ref. 20571] São Tomé Island; Rolas Island. Syntypes: MB (apparently lost in fire in 1978). •Valid as Parakuhlia macrophthalmus (Osório 1893) -- (Maugé & Desoutter 1990:711 [ref. 18229], Afonso et al. 1999:76 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:34 [ref. 30263], Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2556 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Parakuhlia macrophthalmus (Osório 1893). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Pristipoma Bleeker [P.] 1863:52, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Ashantee, [? Ashanti, Ghana or Ashantee, Guinea]. Syntypes: (2). Specific name treated as a noun. •Synonym of Brachydeuterus auritus (Valenciennes 1832) -- (Roux 1973:392 [ref. 7200], Roux 1986:327 [ref. 6209]). Current status: Synonym of Brachydeuterus auritus (Valenciennes 1832). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrops, Conodon Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:244, Fig. 53 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Capon, vicinity of Tumbes, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 77632. •Valid as Conodon macrops Hildebrand 1946 -- (McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1151 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:178 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:372 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Valid as Conodon macrops Hildebrand 1946. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Diagrammella (Diagrammella) Pellegrin [J.] 1912:295 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 37; ref. 3426] Mossamédès, Angola. Syntypes: MNHN 1912-0283 and 0284 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:33 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825) -- (Roux 1973:393 [ref. 7200], Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2557 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Parapristipoma macrops (Pellegrin 1912) -- (Roux 1990:784 [ref. 18781], Wirtz et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32972] needs confirmation). Current status: Valid as Parapristipoma macrops (Pellegrin 1912). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Angola. Habitat: marine.

macrospilus, Plectorhinchus Satapoomin [U.] & Randall [J. E.] 2000:11, Figs. 1-5 [Phuket Marine Biological Center Research Bulletin No. 63; ref. 25341] Miang Island, 8°34'N, 97°38'E, western side of bay, Similan Islands, southwestern Thailand, Andaman Sea. Holotype: BPBM 22847. Paratypes: PMBC 17226 (1). •Valid as Plectorhinchus macrospilus Satapoomin & Randall 2000 -- (Satapoomin in Motomura et al. 2009:154 [ref. 31130], Allen & Erdmann 2012:476 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus macrospilus Satapoomin & Randall 2000. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Andaman Sea, Myanmar and Thailand. Habitat: marine.

macrostoma, Haemulon Günther [A.] 1859:308 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Jamaica. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1848.1.12.981 (1 left hald skin), 1848.1.12.984-985 (2 left half skins). Also listed was Plate XVIII, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." The specific name macrostoma is an indeclinable noun. •Valid as Haemulon macrostoma Günther 1859 (often seen as macrostomum) -- (Courtenay 1961:108 [ref. 21095], Robins & Ray 1986:179 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:333 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:210 [ref. 24474], Rocha & Rosa 1999:448 [ref. 23802], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:263 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:161 [ref. 27754], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1540 [ref. 27094], Smith et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:374 [ref. 28815], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:173 [ref. 32953]. Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:54 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961] as macrostomum). Current status: Valid as Haemulon macrostoma Günther 1859. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] 1793:9, Pl. 326 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] East Indies. Lectotype: ZMB 8703 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB 8702 (1, dry, lost), 8712 (1, dry, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:84 [ref. 24282]. On p. 7 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:84 [ref. 24282]. Original spelling is maculatus, checked 7/02. Both Anthias and Pomadasys are masculine. •Valid as Pomadasys maculatum (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:570 [ref. 5716], Allen & Swainston 1988:82 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:128 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:179 [ref. 23922], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:248 [ref. 24754], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:842 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:132 [ref. 25480], Larson et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32988], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:424 [ref. 33460], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2015:55 [ref. 34319]). •Valid as Pomadasys maculatus (Bloch 1793) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:101 [ref. 19754], Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:173 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:151 [ref. 29757], Roux 1986:329 [ref. 6209], Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:244 [ref. 26639] dated 1797, Ye in Pan et al. 1991:406 [ref. 23876], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:227 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:213 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:358 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:102 [ref. 26476] dated 1797, Iwatsuki et al. 1998:199 [ref. 23384], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:239 [ref. 27511] dating to 1797, Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], McKay 2001:2988 [ref. 26103], Nakabo 2002:842 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:36 [ref. 27712], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:192 [ref. 28072], Allen et al. 2006:1224 [ref. 29090], Motomura in Motomura et al. 2009:155 [ref. 31130], Yoshida et al. 2013:142 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:424 [ref. 33460], Psomadakis et al. 2015:2548 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:144 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:210 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:98 [ref. 36273], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:165 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys maculatus (Bloch 1793). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to Shark Bay (Western Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculatus, Chaetodon Scopoli [J. A.] (ex Seba) 1788:44, Pl. XXII (fig. 1) [Deliciae florae et faunae Insubricae; ref. 18712] No types known. Not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of precedence in favor of Chaetodon maculatus Bloch 1795 is followed (Art. 23.9). •Unused senior synonym of Plectorhinchus picus (Cuvier 1828) -- (P. Parenti, pers comm. 7/02.) Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus picus (Cuvier 1828). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Diagramma Fourmanoir [P.] 1957:97, Fig. 72 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 1; ref. 11992] Hellville [Nosy Bé], Madagascar. Holotype (unique): IRSMNB (lost). Species probably should have been maculatum. The genus Diagramma is neuter, however Gramma and other fish genera ending in -gramma are feminine (based on the Greek word for line). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Plectorhinchus by Chaetodon maculatus Scopoli 1788 and Hapalogenys maculatus Richardson 1846. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:206 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Hapalogenys Richardson [J.] 1846:235 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China, China Sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH (lost). Type information: Whitehead 1970:215 [ref. 11606]. •Placement uncertain, description highy suggestive of Plectorhinchus cinctus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Iwatsuki & Russell 2006:43 [ref. 28928]). Current status: Uncertain as Plectorhinchus cinctus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

maculicauda, Orthostoechus Gill [T. N.] 1862:255 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: ?MCZ 35967 [ex USNM 6557] (2), USNM 6557 (13), 212151 (4). •Valid as Haemulon maculicauda (Gill 1862) -- (Hong 1977:499 [ref. 21409], Allen & Robertson 1994:148 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:120 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1154 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:180 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:372 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:126 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon maculicauda (Gill 1862). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

maculosum, Haemulon Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1869:705 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1869; ref. 14098] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7066. •Synonym of Haemulon sexfasciatum Gill 1862 -- (Hong 1977:497 [ref. 21409]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon sexfasciatum Gill 1862. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

magnificus, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:185, 222 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] North America. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:37 [ref. 21549]. Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Perca nobilis Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

manadense, Pristipoma Günther [A.] 1872:657 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.9.1.8. •Synonym of Pomadasys hasta (Bloch 1790) -- (Roux 1986:329 [ref. 6209]). •Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

margaritiferum, Haemulon Günther [A.] 1864:147 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Pacific coast of Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.351. •Synonym of Haemulon flaviguttatum Gill 1862 -- (Hong 1977:499 [ref. 21409]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon flaviguttatum Gill 1862. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

mauritii, Grammistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:185 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazilian seas. •Synonym of Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

maxima, Sciaena Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:318 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Red Sea. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

mazatlanum, Haemulon Steindachner [F.] 1869:126 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 16) (for 17 June 1869); ref. 20469] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: NMW 35531-32 (2). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1869:130 [p. 12 of separate], Pl. 6, [ref. 4216]. •Synonym of Haemulon maculicauda (Gill 1862) -- (Hong 1977:499 [ref. 21409]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon maculicauda (Gill 1862). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

mediterraneum, Diagramma Guichenot [A.] 1850:45, Pl. 3 [Histoire naturelle des reptiles et poissons; ref. 1940] Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7806. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:34 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Plectorhinchus mediterraneus (Guichenot 1850) -- (Roux 1973:394 [ref. 7200], Ben-Tuvia & McKay in Whitehead et al. 1986:861 [ref. 13676], Roux 1990:785 [ref. 18781], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:177 [ref. 26753], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:425 [ref. 30079] with author as Quichenot, Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2560 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus mediterraneus (Guichenot 1850). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Southwestern Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Namibia. Habitat: marine.

melanacrum, Diagramma Johnson [J. W.] & Randall [J. E.] in Johnson, Randall & Chenoweth 2001:659, Figs. 1 (A-F) [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 46 (pt 2); ref. 25576] South of Lombok, 8°24'S, 116°01'E, Indonesia. Holotype: QM I.20291. Paratypes: BPBM 26719 (2); QM I.20285 (1), I.30725 (1). •Valid as Diagramma melanacrum Johnson & Randall 2001 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1219 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:470 [ref. 31980] as melanacra). Current status: Valid as Diagramma melanacrum Johnson & Randall 2001. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Malaysia and Indonesia, (?) Philippines. Habitat: marine.

melanopterum, Haemulon Ranzani [C.] 1842:343, Pl. 30 (fig. 1) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 9017] Brazilian seas. Holotype (unique): MZUB 983. •Not treated by Rocha et al. 2008 [ref. 29817]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

melanopterum, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:273 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0020 (1), A-7820 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:41 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791). Current status: Synonym of Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

melanospilum, Diagramma Kner [R.] 1867:712 [4] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 56; ref. 2645] West coast of South America. Syntypes: BMNH 1869.11.12.12 (1) original No. MGH 3756, ?NMW 20578 (1). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

melanura, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:292 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Bahamas. No types known. Based on Catesby 1743:7, Pl. 7 (fig. 2). The specific name melanura [black tail] is an undeclinable noun. •Valid as Haemulon melanura (Linnaeus 1758) (often seen as melanurum) -- (Courtenay 1961:82 [ref. 21095], Robins & Ray 1986:179 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:334 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:202 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Rocha & Rosa 1999:447 [ref. 23802], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:264 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:161 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1541 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:375 [ref. 28815], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:55 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon melanura (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

meyenii, Hapalogenys Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1866:96 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1866; ref. 25130] Manila, Philippines. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1050. •Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793) -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2000:393 [ref. 25116]). Current status: Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

microlepidotum, Diagramma Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1866:95 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1866; ref. 25130] China. Syntypes: ZMB 1016 (2), 1021 (1, stuffed), 7761 (1). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

microphthalmum, Haemulon Günther [A.] 1859:306 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] America. Holotype (unique): BMNH (stuffed). Also listed was Plate XVII, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Synonym of Haemulon album Cuvier 1830 -- (Courtenay 1961:102 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon album Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

microstomus, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:181, 216 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Grand océan équinoxial [rivers of Madagascar]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:37 [ref. 21549], Bauchot et al. 1983:47 [ref. 21546]. Unneeded replacement name for Labrus commersonnii Lacepède (ex Commerson) 1801. Based on a drawing in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Type locality according to Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:253 [ref. 999]. Illustrated in Lacepède 1801:Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [ref. 2710] as Labrus commersonnii. •Synonym of Pomadasys hasta (Bloch 1790) -- (Roux 1986:329 [ref. 6209]). •Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Pomadasys commersonnii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:209 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys commersonnii (Lacepède 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

moaiab, Diagramma Montrouzier [X.] 1857:435 [157] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 157 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Diagramma punctatum; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae.

modestum, Haemulon Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:11 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Coast of Peru. Holotype: ZMB 957. Syntypes: (several) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:50 [ref. 25858]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

montrouzieri, Diagramma Thiollière [V. J. de l'I.] in Montrouzier 1857:434 [156] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 156 of reprint. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

moricandi, Haemulon Ranzani [C.] 1842:345, Pl. 31 (fig. 1) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 9017] Brazilian seas. MZUB (not found). •Valid as Anisotremus moricandi (Ranzani 1842) -- (Cervigón 1992:330 [ref. 23827], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1528 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192], Tavera et al. 2011:321 [ref. 31319], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469]). •Valid as Paranisotremus moricandi (Ranzani 1842) -- (Tavera et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Paranisotremus moricandi (Ranzani 1842). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Costa Rico to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

mowbrayi, Anisotremus Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1936:29, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 2 (art. 3); ref. 634] No locality stated (eastern Pacific). Holotype (unique): YPM 565 (missing). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:14 [ref. 16741] with genus as Anisotremis. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

mowbrayi, Haemulon Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1927:505 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 15); ref. 2453] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Replacement name for Haemulon chrysopterum Mowbray 1915 [ref. 15001], preoccupied by Haemulon chrysopterum (Cuvier 1829). •Synonym of Haemulon macrostoma Günther 1859 -- (Courtenay 1961:109 [ref. 21095] as macrostomum). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon macrostoma Günther 1859. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

multilineatum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:178 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Described syntype: MCZ 10478 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:199 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803) -- (Courtenay 1961:79 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

multimaculatum, Pristipoma Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:23, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Bagamoia [Bagamoyo, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean]; Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.3.9.153 (1, skin, labelled holotype) Zanzibar. •Valid as Pomadasys multimaculatum (Playfair 1867) -- (Roux 1986:329 [ref. 6209], Smith & McKay 1986:570 [ref. 5716], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:207 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Pomadasys multimaculatus (Playfair 1867) -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:191 [ref. 28072], Psomadakis et al. 2015:259 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:210 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys multimaculatus (Playfair 1867). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa and Madagascar east to India and northern Western Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

multivittatum, Diagramma Macleay [W.] 1878:349, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 17573] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16333-001 [ex MAMU F545] (2). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Plectorhinchus multivittatum (Macleay 1878) -- (Allen 1997:128 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:360 [ref. 23967], Hutchins 2001:34 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus multivittatus (Macleay 1878) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:82 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1997:517 [ref. 25919], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], McKay 2001:2977 [ref. 26103], Allen et al. 2006:1222 [ref. 29090], Larson et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus multivittatus (Macleay 1878). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific (antitropical). Habitat: marine.

mylostomus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:41, 131 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Praslin, Seychelles. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:89 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus gaterinus (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus gaterinus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

nageb, Pristipoma Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:124, Pl. 30 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMUC P48218 (1, dry skin). Lectotype erroneously established by Dor 1984:151 [ref. 29757] as SMF 1756, with paralectotypes SMF 7523-24 (2), 7527 (1, skeleton); these specimens cannot be considered as type material. Not an independent species description, but based on Sciaena nageb Forsskål 1775 and Sciaena nageb Bonnaterre 1788, with different genus allocation; description also based on new material (see Fricke 2008:37 [ref. 30182]). Kottelat (2013:348) differs in his interpretation. •Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:150 [ref. 29757], Fricke 2008:37 [ref. 30182], Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nageb, Sciaena Bonnaterre [J. P.] 1788:121 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMUC P48218 (dry skin) Based on Sciaena argentea, nageb of Forsskål 1775:51 [ref. 1351]. •Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:37 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nageb, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:51 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] See account of Sciaena argentea Forsskål 1775. •In the synonymy of Pomadasys argentea (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

neilli, Pristipoma Day [F.] 1868:936 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3) (art. 7); ref. 21114] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.6.28. Day Specimens: ZSI 3026 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

nigrorubrum, Pristipoma Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. Haemulidae: Haemulinae.

nigrum, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] (ex Mertens) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:258 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Manila, Philippines. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:48 [ref. 21546]. Based on a drawing. •Valid as Plectorhynchus [sic] nigrus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:172 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:150 [ref. 29757], Chen et al. 1997:105 [ref. 26476] as niger). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802) [sometimes as Plectorhynchus] -- (Bauchot et al. 1983:48 [ref. 21546], Randall 1995:209 [ref. 22896], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:131 [ref. 25480], McKay 2001:2974 [ref. 26103], Randall 2005:268 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1221 [ref. 29090]. Kottelat 2013:347 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:207 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nitidum, Diagramma Günther [A.] 1859:335 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.7.21.52. Also listed was Plate XIX. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Incertae sedis in Haemulidae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1224 [ref. 29090]). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

nitidum, Pristipoma Steindachner [F.] 1869:125 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 16) (for 17 June 1869); ref. 20469] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): NMW 76437. Species originally described as above, but later as Pristopoma (Haemulopsis) nitidum when illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1869:124 [p. 5 of separate], Pl. 3, [ref. 4216]. •Valid as Pomadasys nitidus (Steindachner 1869) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:153 [ref. 22193], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:376 [ref. 24555]). •Valid as Haemulopsis nitidus (Steindachner 1869) -- (McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1161 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:186 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:345 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Haemulopsis nitidus (Steindachner 1869). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nitidus, Polotus Blyth [E.] 1858:283 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 476] Calcutta fish market, India, Bay of Bengal. No types known. •Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nobilis, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:291 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] North America. Holotype: NRM 9176. •Valid as Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra 1974:21 [ref. 7125], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:350 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:177 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:140 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:330 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:181 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:586 [ref. 16204], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:331 [ref. 24550], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1531 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:366 [ref. 28815], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1002 [ref. 33194], Nión et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

notatum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:179 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes or Poey specimens: MCZ 376 (3). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:198 [ref. 22926] with 1 in MCZ 376 as a cotype. •Synonym of Haemulon bonariense Cuvier 1830 -- (Courtenay 1961:104 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon bonariense Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

notatum, Pristipoma Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1869:706 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1869; ref. 14098] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7061. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

obliquatus, Diabasis Bennett [E. T.] 1830:90 [Zoological Journal, London v. 5 (for July 1829); ref. 20813] Jamaica. •Synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803) -- (Courtenay 1961:77 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

obscurum, Diagramma Günther [A.] 1872:657, Pl. 58 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.9.13.120. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus albovittatus (Rüppell 1838) -- (McKay 2001:2970 [ref. 26103], Allen et al. 2006:1220 [ref. 29090]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus obscurum (Günther 1872) [probably should be obscurus] -- (Randall et al. 1990:194 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:126 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:178 [ref. 25488] as obscurus, Randall 2005:266 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706]). •See Fricke 1999:285 [ref. 24106]. Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus obscurus (Günther 1872). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

obscurus, Diagramma Fourmanoir [P.] 1957:97, Fig. 73 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 1; ref. 11992] Hellville [Nosy Bé], Madagascar. Holotype (unique): IRSMNB (lost). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Diagramma obscurum Günther 1872. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

obscurus, Pseudopristipoma Fourmanoir [P.] 1957:100 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 1; ref. 11992] Nosy Bé, off northwestern Masdagascar, and Vohémar, eastern Madagascar. Syntypes: IRSMNB (2) (lost). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Plectorhinchus by Diagramma obscurum Günther 1872. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:207 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède 1802). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

obtusum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:182 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes or Poey specimens: MCZ 426 (1), 34159 (mounted skeleton). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:200 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791). Current status: Synonym of Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

octolineatum, Pristipoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:487 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7717 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:41 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Parapristipoma octolineatum (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Roux 1973:393 [ref. 7200], Ben-Tuvia & McKay in Whitehead et al. 1986:860 [ref. 13676], Roux 1990:784 [ref. 18781], Wirtz et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32972], Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2558 [ref. 34618], Casamajor 2016:263 [ref. 34823]). Current status: Valid as Parapristipoma octolineatum (Valenciennes 1833). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Southwestern Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Angola including Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

ocyurus, Plectorhynchus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1902:348, Fig. 19 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1289); ref. 2447] Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT [orig. no. 372] (apparently lost). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:46 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793) -- (see Iwatsuki et al. 2000:394 [ref. 25116], Ho & Shao 2011:46 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

olivaceum, Pristipoma Day [F.] 1875:73, Pl. 19 (fig. 1) [The fishes of India Part 1; ref. 1080] Coasts of Baluchistan, Pakistan and Sind, Pakistan, Arabian Sea. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.8335 (1, syntype) Sind, BMNH 1889.2.1.2935-39 (5); MNHN 0000-9380 (1) Sind; NMW 37382 (1); ZSI 1992 (1, figured specimen). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762], Bauchot et al. 1983:41 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Pomadasys olivaceus (Day 1875) -- (Dor 1984:151 [ref. 29757], Roux 1986:330 [ref. 6209], Smith & McKay 1986:570 [ref. 5716] as olivaceum, Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:213 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:192 [ref. 28072], Jawad et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33531], Psomadakis et al. 2015:259 [ref. 34104], Narasimhaiah et al. 2016:69 [ref. 34975] as olivaceum, Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:210 [ref. 35805], Jawad et al. 2018:110 [ref. 36262]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys olivaceus (Day 1875). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: Namibia; Indian Ocean: East Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Andaman Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

opalescens, Lythrulon Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:459, Pl. 40 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 2963. Paratypes: (2) BMNH 1895.5.27.54 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:77 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Haemulon flaviguttatum Gill 1862 -- (Hong 1977:499 [ref. 21409], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:335 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon flaviguttatum Gill 1862. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

operculare, Pristipoma Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:24, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Aden; Durban, KawZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1862.11.9.15 (1) Port Natal, 1863.12.19.5 (1) Port Natal, 1867.3.9.154 (1, skin) Aden. •Valid as Pomadasys opercularis (Playfair 1867) -- (Dor 1984:151 [ref. 29757], Roux 1986:330 [ref. 6209], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Pomadasys commersonnii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall 1995:212 [ref. 22896], Fricke et al. 2018:209 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys commersonnii (Lacepède 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ordinalis, Plectorhynchus Scott [T. D.] 1959:79, Fig. 3 [Transactions Royal Society of South Australia v. 82; ref. 12026] Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): SAMA F3006. Type catalog: Glover 1976:172 [ref. 19449]. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus multivittatus (Macleay 1878) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1222 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus multivittatus (Macleay 1878). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] 1793:10, Pl. 326 (fig. 3) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 8718 (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:85 [ref. 24282]. On p. 8 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Plectorhinchus orientalis (Bloch 1793) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:38 [ref. 13251], Senou & Shimada 1991:5 [ref. 24307], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:282 [ref. 24014], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:355 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:126 [ref. 23977], Nakabo 2000:846 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Nakabo 2002:846 [ref. 26001], Peristiwady et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:97 [ref. 27510]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus vittatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Satapoomin & Randall 2000:15 [ref. 25341], Randall & Johnson 2000:478 [ref. 25807], Allen 2000:103 [ref. 25868], McKay 2001:2982 [ref. 26103], Randall 2005:271 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:335 [ref. 28867], Allen et al. 2006:1223 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:123 [ref. 31256]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus vittatus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:192, 235 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] East Indies. /. Syntypes: ZMB 8714 (1, right skin). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:37 [ref. 21549]. Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Anthias lineatus Bloch 1793:Pl. 236 (fig. 1). •Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ornatum, Diagramma Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:387, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Red Sea. Syntypes: (2) SMF 14332 (1) El Tûr, ZMB 9845 (1). Also appeared in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:10, Pisces Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 14246]. •Synonym of Plectorhynchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Dor 1984:149 [ref. 29757], Golani & Fricke 2018:97 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

orthopristis, Paraconodon Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1936:27, Fig. 10 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 2 (art. 3); ref. 634] No locality stated (eastern Pacific). Holotype (unique): YPM 564 (missing). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:13-14 [ref. 16741]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

ouan, Diagramma Montrouzier [X.] 1857:435 [157] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 157 of reprint. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

pacifici, Conodon Günther [A.] 1864:147 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Chiapam, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2016.5.30.1. •Valid as Anisotremus pacifici (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:146 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:118 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1149 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:175 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:383 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:130 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:395 [ref. 34894]). •Valid as Genyatremus pacifici (Günther 1864) -- (Tavera et al. 2011:311 [ref. 31319], Tavera et al. 2012:3 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Genyatremus pacifici (Günther 1864). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

paikeeli, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:259 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Vizagapatam, India. Holotype (unique): **. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:48 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Pomadasys furcatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys furcatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

panamense, Pristipoma Steindachner [F.] 1876:36 [8], Pl. 1 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] Bay of Panama, (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: MCZ 404 (1), 4855 (2), 10608 (1); NMW 76408 (1). On p. 8 of separate. •Valid as Pomadasys panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Bussing 1993:245 [ref. 19564], Allen & Robertson 1994:154 [ref. 22193], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1171 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:379 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:342 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Tavera 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:394 [ref. 34894], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871]). •Valid as Rhencus panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Tavera et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Rhencus panamensis (Steindachner 1876). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

papuense, Diagramma Macleay [W.] 1882:237 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 2); ref. 17584] New Guinea. Syntypes: AMS I.16332-001 [ex MAMU F535] (4). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:300 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH D314 (dry). Additional material: RMNH 66 (skeleton). Type catalog: Bauchot, et al. 1983:46 [ref. 21546]. Kottelat (2013:347) treats the skeleton as a syntype. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède 1801 -- (Kottelat 2013:347 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède 1801. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

parra, Diabasis Desmarest [A. G.] 1823:190 [30], Pl. 2 (fig. 4) of separate [Mémoires de la Société linnéenne de Paris v. 2; ref. 1120] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7774. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:32 [ref. 21546]. On p. 30 of separate, Fig. 2, unnumbered Pl. after p. 38. Specific name is acceptable as parra. •Valid as Haemulon parrai [sic] (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:89 [ref. 21095], Robins & Ray 1986:179 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:334 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:204 [ref. 24474], Rocha & Rosa 1999:448 [ref. 23802]). •Valid as Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:265 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:161 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909] as parrai, Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1542 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:376 [ref. 28815], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:55 [ref. 33341], Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

paulayi, Plectorhynchus Steindachner [F.] 1895:180 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 32 (no. 18) (for 11 July 1895); ref. 14587] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): NMW 34565. Original genus should have been Plectorhinchus. •Valid as Plectorhinchus paulayi Steindachner 1895 -- (Fricke 1999:288 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2018:207 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus paulayi Steindachner 1895. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Aldabra, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

pentagramma, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:176, 205 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] America. Holotype: NRM 8. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:38 [ref. 21549]. Unneeded new name for Peca lineata Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

peocilopterum, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:314 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Puducherry, India; Trincomalee, Sri Lanka; Molucca Islands. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

perotaei, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:254 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6235. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:41 [ref. 21546] with original as perotoei. Collected by Pérotet, but not misspelled as perotaei; peroteti (e.g. Günther 1854) or perotetii regarded as unjustified emendations. •Valid as Pomadasys peroteti [sic] (Cuvier 1830) -- (Roux 1986:330 [ref. 6209], Roux 1990:787 [ref. 18781], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:698 [ref. 21590], Afonso et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25466]). •Valid as Pomadasys perotaei (Cuvier 1830) -- (Snoeks & Vreven 2007:425 [ref. 30079], Wirtz et al. 2007:34 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32972], Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2563 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys perotaei (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Angola, Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pertusa, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1793:198, Pl. 7 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 14 (for 1793); ref. 26701] Japan. No types known. •Synonym of Diagramma pictum, subspecies pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (Johnson et al. 2001:663 [ref. 25576]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

peruanus, Xenistius Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:235, Fig. 51 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Tierra Island, Peru. Holotype: AMNH 16202. Paratypes: (9) AMNH 16214 (4), USNM 120478 (4). •Valid as Xenistius peruanus Hildebrand 1946 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:371 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Valid as Xenistius peruanus Hildebrand 1946. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Coast of Peru. Habitat: marine.

pica, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:297 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Indian Ocean; Tahiti, Society Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6465 (1) Indian Ocean. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:34 [ref. 21546] with a holotype. Reference in table of contents to Pl. 124 is apparently in error. Pl. 124 identified as Diagramma orientale. Based on literature and specimen. Predated by Diagramma pica Cuvier in Guérin-Méneville 1828, Pl. 26 (no. 31) [ref. 29508]. •Valid as Plectorhynchus [sic] picus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:172 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:106 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus picus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Kuiter 1993:190 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:356 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:126 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:178 [ref. 25488], Myers 1999:151 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:288 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:736 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:845 [ref. 25086] with author as Valenciennes, Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:264 [ref. 25191], McKay 2001:2979 [ref. 26103], Nakabo 2002:845 [ref. 26001] with author as Valenciennes, Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:627 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:270 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1222 [ref. 29090], Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397 [ref. 29507]). •Synonym of and predated by Plectorhinchus picus (Cuvier 1828) -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:401 [ref. 29507]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus picus (Cuvier 1828). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

pica, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Guérin-Méneville 1828:no page number, Livraison 13 [Planches de Seba v. 3; ref. 29508] No locality stated [Indian Ocean; Tahiti, Society Islands]. No types known. Syntypes: ?MNHN 0000-6465 (1) Indian Ocean. Text applies to Pl. 26 (no. 32) published in 1827. Predates Diagramma pica Cuvier 1830. See Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:399, 400 [ref. 29507]. •Synonym of [but predates] Plectorhinchus picus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:399 [ref. 29507]). •A valid species as Plectrohinchus picus or a senior synonym of a well established species (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:399 [ref. 29507]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus picus (Cuvier 1828) -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:401 [ref. 29507], Fricke et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30213], Hata et al. 2012:26 [ref. 32412], Fricke et al. 2014:91 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:24 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:45 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:207 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus picus (Cuvier 1828). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Society Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

picoides, Diagramma Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:94 [Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossambique; ref. 3440] East Indies. Holotype: ZMB 1020 (dry). Original not seen. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

picta, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1792:143, Pl. 5 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 13 (for 1792); ref. 17914] Japan [Nagasaki]. No types known. The genus Diagramma is neuter, however Gramma and other fish genera ending in -gramma are feminine (based on the Greek word for line). •Valid as Plectorhynchus pictus (Thunberg 1792) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:134 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:103 [ref. 19754], Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:172 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (Dor 1984:148 [ref. 29757], Smith & McKay 1986:565 [ref. 5716], Allen & Swainston 1988:82 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:191 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:208 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:353 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:126 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:176 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:191 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:150 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:286 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:843 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:262 [ref. 25191], Satapoomin & Randall 2000:15 [ref. 25341], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:128 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:101 [ref. 26368], Shimizu 2001:30 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], McKay 2001:2967 [ref. 26103], Nakabo 2002:843 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:339, 613 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Peristiwady et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:95 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:36 [ref. 27712], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Shibukawa in Motomura et al. 2009:152 [ref. 31130], Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183], Jawad et al. 2018:108 [ref. 36262]). •Valid as Diagramma pictum, subspecies pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (Johnson et al. 2001:663 [ref. 25576], Randall 2005:265 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1219 [ref. 29090], Hata et al. 2012:19 [ref. 32412]). •Valid as Diagramma picta (Thunberg 1792), subspecies picta -- (Motomura et al. 2010:122 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:471 [ref. 31980] as picta, Yoshida et al. 2013:141 [ref. 34464], Motomura et al. 2017:142 [ref. 35490], Shibukawa in Kimura et al. 2018:163 [ref. 36460]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus pictus (Thunberg 1792) -- (Tavera et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35783] as pictum). •Valid as Diagramma picta (Thunberg 1792) -- (Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:90 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:253 [ref. 34104], Shibukawa in Kimura et al. 2015:54 [ref. 34319], Motomura et al. 2015:24 [ref. 34709], Fricke et al. 2018:205 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Diagramma picta (Thunberg 1792). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf and Mozambique Channel east to Philippines and Fiji, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to southern Indonesia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

pictus, Hapalogenys Tortonese [E.] 1936:1, Pl. 1 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino. (Ser. 3) v. 45 (1935-36) (no. 67); ref. 10280] Bender Abbas, Hormuz Strait, Iran. Holotype (unique): MZUT 2722. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:143 [ref. 21559]. Secondarily preoccupied in Plectorhinchus by Perca picta Thunberg 1792. Replaced by Plectorhinchus fangi Whitley 1951 when Perca picta Thunberg 1792 is classified in genus Plectorhinchus. •Valid as Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese 1936) -- (Randall 1995:210 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:177 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:106 [ref. 26476] as Plectorhynchus, Randall et al. 1997:194 [ref. 25919], Satapoomin & Randall 2000:15 [ref. 25341], McKay 2001:2978 [ref. 26103], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3320 [ref. 27945], Motomura et al. 2010:123 [ref. 31256] with author as Cuvier 1828, Allen & Erdmann 2012:476 [ref. 31980] with author as Cuvier, Jawad et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33531], Psomadakis et al. 2015:255 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183], Jawad et al. 2018:110 [ref. 36262]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese 1936). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius, Seychelles and Persian Gulf east to Micronesia and Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

pihloo, Pristipoma Richardson [J.] 1846:227 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH (lost). Type information: Whitehead 1970:215 [ref. 11606]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

plagiodesmus, Plectorhinchus Fowler [H. W.] 1935:387, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 1421] St. Lucie estuary, North Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: ANSP 25868. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:148 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Plectorhinchus plagiodesmus Fowler 1935 -- (Smith & McKay 1986:567 [ref. 5716], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:495 [ref. 33883], Fricke et al. 2018:208 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus plagiodesmus Fowler 1935. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

playfairi, Diagramma griseum var. Pellegrin [J.] 1914:233 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 39; ref. 14168] Mahambo, Madagascar. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1914-0012. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:34 [ref. 21546], Fricke et al. 2018:208 [ref. 35805]. New name for Diagramma griseum b. of Playfair & Günther 1867:26, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [ref. 3490]. •Valid as Plectorhinchus playfairi (Pellegrin 1914) [sometimes as Plectorhynchus] -- (Dor 1984:150 [ref. 29757], Smith & McKay 1986:567 [ref. 5716], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:210 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:288 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:189 [ref. 28072], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:73 [ref. 35264], Jawad et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33531], Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:495 [ref. 33883], Psomadakis et al. 2015:255 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:208 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus playfairi (Pellegrin 1914). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, southern Oman and East Africa to Seychelles, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

plectorhinchus, Chaetodon Shaw [G.] 1803:356, Pl. 49 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7805. Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède 1801. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède 1801 -- (Kottelat 2013:347 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède 1801. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

plumierii, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:432, 480, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:99 [ref. 19171], Bauchot et al. 1983:46 [ref. 21546]. Based on a Plumier figure. Date is 1801, not 1802. •Valid as Haemulon plumieri [sic] (Lacepède 1801) -- (Courtenay 1961:111 [ref. 21095], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:355 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:179 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:140 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:334 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:206 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Rocha & Rosa 1999:448 [ref. 23802], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:337 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:264 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1541 [ref. 27094] as plumierii, Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192] dated 1802, Smith et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807] as plumierii, McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:377 [ref. 28815] as plumierii, Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817] as plumieri, Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708]. Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:55 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

poecilopterum, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] 1829:177 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Non-types: MNHN 0000-7810 (1) Trincomalee, 0000-7811 (1) Puducherry. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:34 [ref. 21546] but dating to 1830. Available from footnote as, "Diag. poecilopterus, N., Seb., III, xxvii, 17." Also appeared as Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:297 [ref. 999]. Predated by Diagramma poecilopterus Cuvier in Guérin-Méneville 1827-31, Pl. 27 [ref. 29508]. The genus Diagramma is neuter, however Gramma and other fish genera ending in -gramma are feminine (based on the Greek word for line). •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792), subspecies cinerascens Cuvier 1830 -- (Johnson et al. 2001:667 [ref. 25576]). •Diagramma poecilopterum appeared first in Cuvier 1829, and cinerascens Cuvier 1830 should be treated as a synonym of poeciloptera. •Synonym of Diagramma centurio Cuvier 1830. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus centurio (Cuvier 1830) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus centurio (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

poecilopterum, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Guérin-Méneville 1828:no page number, Livraison 13 [Planches de Seba v. 3; ref. 29508] No types known. Text applies to Pl. 27 (no. 17) published in 1827. Predates Diagrama poecilopterum Cuvier 1831. See Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:398, 399 [ref. 29507]. •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:398, 399 [ref. 29507]). •Synonym of Diagramma centurio Cuvier 1830. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus centurio (Cuvier 1830) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus centurio (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

poeyi, Orthopristis Poey [F.] (ex Scudder) 1955:274 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] Cuba. whereabouts unknown. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 2000:172 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. Appeared first as Scutter in Poey 1868, but not treated as valid and therefore not available. •Synonym of Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766) -- based on placement of Orthopristis poeyi Scutter in Poey 1868; not available. Current status: Synonym of Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

poeyi, Orthopristis Scudder [S. H.] in Poey 1868:312 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: ?MCZ 1080 (dry). Apparently not available, not treated as valid but in the synonymy of Orthopristis dubia; see Orthopristis poeyi Poey 1955. •Synonym of Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:333 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:265 [ref. 25013], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1548 [ref. 27094]). Current status: Synonym of Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus 1766). Haemulidae: Haemulinae.

polytaenia, Diagramma Bleeker [P.] 1853:755 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 335] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1880.4.21.47-48 (2). Original as polijtaenia. •Valid as Plectorhinchus polytaenia (Bleeker 1853) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:356 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:128 [ref. 23977], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:34 [ref. 25847], Peristiwady et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:98 [ref. 27510], Larson et al.2013:138 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Plectorinchus polytaenia (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:82 [ref. 25477], Kuiter 1997:180 [ref. 25488], Randall & Johnson 2000:480 [ref. 25807], Allen 2000:103 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:101 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], McKay 2001:2980 [ref. 26103], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Allen et al. 2006:1222 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:477 [ref. 31980], Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:518 [ref. 33883], Koeda & Ho 2018:245 [ref. 36176]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus polytaenia (Bleeker 1853). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Malaysia and Indonesia east to Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, north to Taiwan, south to northern Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

polytaenioides, Diagramma Bleeker [P.] 1854:377 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 13963] Lawajong, Solor Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Original as polytaenioïdes. Haemulidae. Habitat: marine.

productum, Pristipoma Poey [F.] 1860:186 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 21889 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:201 [ref. 22926]. Haemulidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatissimum, Diagramma Playfair [R. L.] 1868:851, Pl. 40 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3) (art. 6) (for 14 Nov. 1867); ref. 14049] Seychelles. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.8.16.42. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus picus (Cuvier 1828) -- (McKay 2001:2979 [ref. 26103]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus picus (Cuvier 1828). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

punctatum, Diagramma Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:126, Pl. 32 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Northern Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 2215 (2). Evidently appeared first in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:302 [ref. 999], making Diagramma punctatum Rüppell 1830 a primary homonym; apparently the same species. •In the synonymy of Diagramma punctatum (Cuvier 1830). Current status: Synonym of Diagramma punctatum Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

punctatum, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:302 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB uncat. (1) Ehrenberg coll.; MNHN 0000-7801 (1) Jakarta, 0000-7802 (2) Vanicolo, 0000-7832 (1, dry), 0000-7836 (1) Indian Archipelago; RMNH D2171 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:34-35, 51 [ref. 21546]. Type information: Johnson et al. 2001:669 [ref. 25576] but the ZMB specimen if available is not "implicitly" the holotype, but a surviving syntype. If regarded as a replacement name then the holotype is MNHN 0000-7832 -- the type of H. radjaban. Lectotype designion for Red Sea specimen needed. •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792) [sometimes with authorship as Rüppell] -- (Dor 1984:148 [ref. 29757], McKay 2001:2967 [ref. 26103]). •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792), but a valid subspecies -- (Johnson et al. 2001:669 [ref. 25576], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:411 [ref. 33460] as punctata). •Valid as Diagramma punctatum Cuvier 1830 -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:189 [ref. 28072], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:96 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Diagramma punctatum Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Plectorhinchus cinctus Fang [P.-W.] 1942:81 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 67; ref. 13123] Foochow, Fukien, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1941-0151. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:38 [ref. 21546]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Plectorhinchus by Diagramma punctatum Cuvier 1830, replaced by Plectorhinchus fangi Whitley 1951. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese 1936) -- (McKay 2001:2978 [ref. 26103] as Plectorhinchus fangi). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese 1936). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

punctulatum, Pristipoma Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:124, Pl. 30 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 2238. •Synonym of Pomadasys furcatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:151 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Pomadasys punctulatus (Rüppell 1838) -- (Randall 1995:210 [ref. 22896], Iwatsuki et al. 1999:84 [ref. 23960], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:425 [ref. 33460], Jawad et al. 2014:23 [ref. 33531], Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:98 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys punctulatus (Rüppell 1838). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: Oman and Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

quadrilineatum, Haemulon Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:238, Pl. 120 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7760 (2) San Dominique. •Synonym of Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Courtenay 1961:124 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

quadrilineatus, Pomadasys Shen [S.-C.] & Lin [W.-W.] 1984:6, Fig. 2 [Taiwan Museum Special Publications Series No. 4; ref. 13822] Tachi (Daxi), Taiwan. Holotype: NTUM 05686. Paratypes: NTUM 01175 (5), 05687-89 (1, 1, 3). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:46 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Pomadasys quadrilineatus Shen & Lin 1984 -- (Iwatsuki et al. 1995:455 [ref. 21595], Iwatsuki et al. 1999:84 [ref. 23960], Nakabo 2000:842 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:132 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:842 [ref. 26001], Matsunuma et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30884], Motomura et al. 2010:123 [ref. 31256], Ho & Shao 2011:46 [ref. 31432], Hata et al. 2012:27 [ref. 32412]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys quadrilineatus Shen & Lin 1984. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

quinquelineatum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1861:419 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: USNM 4702 or 10542. •Synonym of Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

radja, Diagramma Bleeker [P.] 1853:336 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5117] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1880.4.21.44 (1), NMV 45960 (1). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Senou & Shimada 1991:3 [ref. 24307], Randall & Johnson 2000:478 [ref. 25807]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

radjabau, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:335, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality [East Indies, is Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7832 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:37 [ref. 21546]. Spelled radjaban on p. 353; an incorrect original spelling according to Kottelat 2013. •Synonym of Diagramma pictum, subspecies pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (Johnson et al. 2001:663 [ref. 25576]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

ramosum, Pristipoma Poey [F.] 1860:186 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. P. ramosus differs from what is called P. crocro in Brazil (pers. comm. A. Carvalho, 10/10/2003). •Synonym of Pomadasys crocro (Cuvier 1830) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:340 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Pomadasys ramosus (Poey 1860) -- (Bussing 1998:292 [ref. 24179], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Miller 2006:350 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys ramosus (Poey 1860). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Coast of tropical America to Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rangii, Pristipoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:484 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6234 (2), 0000-7710 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:42 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Pomadasys perotaei (Cuvier 1830) -- (Roux 1986:330 [ref. 6209] as peroteti). •Synonym of Pomadasys suillus (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Roux 1990:788 [ref. 18781]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys suillus (Valenciennes 1833). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

rayi, Gaterin Menon [A. G. K.] & Talwar [P. K.] 1972:659, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 69 (pt 3, art. 13) (for 1972); ref. 7630] Aberdeen Bay, Port Blair, Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): ZSI F6279/2. See Das 2003:372 [ref. 27706] with date as 1973. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

reddingi, Orthopristis Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] in Jordan 1895:509, Pl. 41 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] La Paz harbor, Baja California, Mexico, Gulf of California. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 3458. The second author is R. E. Richardson. •Valid as Orthopristis reddingi Jordan & Richardson 1895 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:151 [ref. 22193], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1166 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:124 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Orthopristis reddingi Jordan & Richardson 1895. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

reticulatum, Diagramma Günther [A.] 1859:334 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] China. Syntypes: (stuffed) BMNH 1851.12.27.371 (1), 2004.11.24.1 (1) •Synonym of Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830) -- (McKay 2001:2973 [ref. 26103], Fricke et al. 2018:206 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

retrocurrens, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1867:236 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14078] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Haemulon bonariense Cuvier 1830 -- (Courtenay 1961:104 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon bonariense Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

rhabdotus, Orthopristis Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:14 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Peru (?). Holotype (unique): USNM 83484. Haemulidae. Habitat: marine.

rimator, Haemulon Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] in Bean & Dresel 1884:158 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 418); ref. 12727] Charleston, South Carolina; Key West and Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: (4 +) BMNH 1884.7.7.112-115 (4) Key West; USNM 30076 (1), 30137 (1); 30070 (1) and 30120 (1) are missing. Available as above based on literature citations (plus listed specimens but no description). Also appeared as new in Jordan & Swain 1884:308 [ref. 2536] with different specimens. Syntypes can also come from the literature citations. •Synonym of Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier 1830 -- (Courtenay 1961:116 [ref. 21095], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:262 [ref. 25013]). •Valid as Haemulon rimator Jordan & Swain 1884 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:336 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier 1830. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

rodo, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:274 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Martinique Island, West Indies; Brazil; Puerto Rico; San Domingo. Syntypes based on Cuvier 1830: MNHN 0000-6375 (1), 0000-7714 (1), 0000-7715 (1), A-7813 (1), A-7814 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:42, 51 [ref. 21546] but if regarded as a substitute name, then MNHN specimens are not types. •Synonym of Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

rogerii, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:254 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6221. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:42 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Pomadasys rogerii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Roux 1986:330 [ref. 6209], Roux 1990:788 [ref. 18781], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:699 [ref. 21590], Afonso et al. 1999:74 [ref. 25466], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:425 [ref. 30079], Wirtz et al. 2007:34 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32972], Carpenter & Johnson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2564 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys rogerii (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Angola, Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ronchus, Pristipoma Valenciennes [A.] 1838:[25], Pl. 7 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-7822 (1, not found), A-7823 (1), A-7824 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:42 [ref. 21546]. Dates to Pl. 7 in May 1838, p. 25 published in 1843. •Synonym of Pomadasys bennettii (Lowe 1838) -- (Roux 1973:391 [ref. 7200]). •Synonym of Pomadasys incisus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Roux 1990:786 [ref. 18781]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys incisus (Bowdich 1825). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

rostratum, Pristipoma Steindachner [F.] (ex Rapp) 1879:119 [1] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): SMNS 110. On p. 1 of separate. Haemulidae. Habitat: marine.

roughleyi, Plectorhinchus Whitley [G. P.] 1930:118 [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 4669] Northern New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.13731. Based on specimens of Plectorhinchus reticulatus described and illustrated in McCulloch 1916:185, Pl. 53 [ref. 4953]. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1221 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

rubrum, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:283 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4084 (2), 7734 (2), A-0457 (1), A-7821 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:42 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier 1830) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:351 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:336 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:213 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:586 [ref. 16204], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:265 [ref. 25013], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1548 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rupestris, Xenichthys Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:233, Fig. 50 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Afuera Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 127998. Paratypes: Gov't of Peru [ex USNM 127999] (1), USNM 127999 (now 8). Non-types: USNM 77560 (2) referred with question. •Valid as Xenichthys rupestris Hildebrand 1946 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:371 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Valid as Xenichthys rupestris Hildebrand 1946. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Coast of Peru. Habitat: marine.

saidae, Plectorhynchus Steindachner [F.] 1895:181 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 32 (no. 18) (for 11 July 1895); ref. 14587] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): NMW. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

sarugo, Anisotremus Nichols [J. T.] & Murphy [R. C.] 1914:264, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 33 (art. 20); ref. 14163] Trindade Island, 20°30'S, 29°22'W, off Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 5070. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

scapulare, Pristipoma Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:12 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Huacho, Peru. Holotype (unique): ZMB (whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:52 [ref. 25858]. •Valid as Anisotremus scapularis (Tschudi 1846) -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:146 [ref. 22193], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:399 [ref. 24023] as scapularus, McCosker et al. 1997:24 [ref. 22816], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:380 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:130 [ref. 25640], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Tavera et al. 2011:322 [ref. 31319], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:394 [ref. 34894], Tavera et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35783]). Current status: Valid as Anisotremus scapularis (Tschudi 1846). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

scapularis, Orthopristis Fowler [H. W.] 1915:536, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 14998] Port of Spain, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 45084. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:148 [ref. 13621]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

schotaf, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:51, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P48214 (dry skin). Paralectotype: ZMUC P48215 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:65 [ref. 9588] with ZMUC P48214 as holotype. Lectotype selected in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:20 [ref. 20847], figured in Pl. 19. Species name misspelled shotaf by Cuvier 1831:130 [ref. 30376]. •Valid as Plectorhynchus schotaf (Forsskål 1775) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:172 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:150 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål 1775) -- (Roux 1986:328 [ref. 6209], Smith & McKay 1986:567 [ref. 5716], Allen & Swainston 1988:82 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:195 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:210 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:128 [ref. 23977], Johnson 1999:736 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:844 [ref. 25086], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:237 [ref. 27511] dated 1778, McKay 2001:2981 [ref. 26103], Nakabo 2002:844 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Allen et al. 2006:1223 [ref. 29090], Larson et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32988], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:424 [ref. 33460], Jawad et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33531], Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:509 [ref. 33883], Psomadakis et al. 2015:255 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:97 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa east to western India. Habitat: brackish, marine.

schrankii, Haemulon Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:131, Pl. 69a [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. No types known. •Valid as Haemulon schrankii Agassiz 1831 -- (Courtenay 1961:127 [ref. 21095]). •Not treated by Rocha et al. 2008 [ref. 29817]. Current status: Valid as Haemulon schrankii Agassiz 1831. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

schyrii, Pomadasys Steindachner [F.] 1900:207 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 37 (no. 18) (for 12 July 1900); ref. 14771] Guayaquil, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:276 [ref. 28925]. Species originally spelled as above, but changed to schryi when species was illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1902:115, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [ref. 10435]. •Valid as Pomadasys schyrii Steindachner 1900 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:379 [ref. 24555], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:394 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys schyrii Steindachner 1900. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Coast of Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

sciurus, Sparus Shaw [G.] 1803:439, Pl. 64 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Antilles. No types known. •Valid as Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803) -- (Courtenay 1961:77 [ref. 21095], Robins & Ray 1986:180 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:335 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:208 [ref. 24474], Rocha & Rosa 1999:448 [ref. 23802], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:337 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:264 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1544 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:378 [ref. 28815], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:55 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

scudderii, Haemulon Gill [T. N.] 1862:253 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 3683. Paralectotypes: ?MCZ 1053 [ex USNM 3] (1), USNM 212148-49 (1, 1). Lectotype selected by Hong 1977:496 [ref. 21409]. •Valid as Haemulon scudderii Gill 1862 -- (Hong 1977:495 [ref. 21409], Allen & Robertson 1994:149 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:120 [ref. 23101] and McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1155 [ref. 22829] as scudderi, De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:181 [ref. 24545] as scudderi, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:404 [ref. 24023], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:338 [ref. 24550] as scudderi, Thomson et al. 2000:127 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon scudderii Gill 1862. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sebae, Diagramma Bleeker [P.] 1849:24 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 5); ref. 16906] Jakarta, Java; Banda Neira, Banda Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: SMNS 24573 [ex 760 pv] (1, not found, probably lost). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:15 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:42 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus orientalis (Bloch 1793) -- (Senou & Shimada 1991:5 [ref. 24307]). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus vittatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall & Johnson 2000:479 [ref. 25807]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus vittatus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

septemfasciata, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:353 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Based on Seba 1759, Pl. 27 (fig. 14). Predates Perca septemfasciatum Thunberg 1793, but septemfasciatum is maintained on the basis of prevailing usage. •Synonym of Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2003:500 [ref. 27322]). Current status: Synonym of Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

serratum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:181 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:90 [ref. 21095] as parrai). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon parra (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

serratus, Anisotremus Poey [F.] 1955:271 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] whereabouts unknown. Anisotremus no. 352 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 2000:170 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

serrifer, Conodon Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:351 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 289); ref. 18361] Boca Soledad, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 17546 (3). •Valid as Conodon serrifer Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:147 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:120 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1152 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:178 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:372 [ref. 24555], González-Acosta & De la Cruz-Agüero 1999:41 [ref. 24505], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:332 [ref. 24550], Moore & Herbinson 2002:178 [ref. 26939], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:246 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Conodon serrifer Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

serrula, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:272 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7723 (2, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:43 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Haemulon serrula (Cuvier 1830). •Not treated by Rocha et al. 2008 [ref. 29817]. Current status: Valid as Haemulon serrula (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: West Indes. Habitat: marine.

sexfasciatus, Haemulon Gill [T. N.] 1862:254 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 3000. Paralectotypes: ?MCZ 1054 [ex USNM 3682] (1); USNM 212150 [ex USNM 3000] (1). Lectotype selected by Hong 1977:497 [ref. 21409]. •Valid as Haemulon sexfasciatum Gill 1862 [sometimes as sexfasciatus] -- (Hong 1977:497 [ref. 21409], Allen & Robertson 1994:149 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:120 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1156 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:182 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:405 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:125 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon sexfasciatum Gill 1862. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sibbaldi, Diagramma Bennett [E. T.] 1833:182 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1832 (pt 2); ref. 16789] Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.12.26.517. Haemulidae. Habitat: marine.

similis, Hoemulon Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:11 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:46 [ref. 21546]. Original genus should have been Haemulon. •Questionably a synonym of Haemulon sciurus (Shaw 1803) -- (Courtenay 1961:78 [ref. 21095]). •Incertae sedis in Lethrinidae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1240 [ref. 29090]). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

simmene, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:260 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7705 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:43 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Pomadasys stridens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:152 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys stridens (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

sinensis, Plectorhynchus Zhu [Y.-D.], Wu [H.-L.] & Jin [X.-P.] 1977:313 (English p. 316), Fig. 1 [Acta Zoologica Sinica v. 23 (no. 3); ref. 7298] Quanzhou, Fujian, China. Holotype: Amoy Fish. Coll. AO 14046. Paratypes: Amoy Fish. Coll. AO 12419 (1), 57-2020 (1), 57-2402 (1), uncat. (1). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese 1936) -- (McKay 2001:2978 [ref. 26103]). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese 1936). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

sinuosus, Pomadasys Eigenmann [C. H.] 1918:683 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 56 (no. 7); ref. 12304] Patia, between Magui and Telembi, northern coast of Colombia. Holotype (unique): CAS 52662 [ex IU 13892]. No parentheses are needed around the author and date in the combination Pomadasys bayanus (Art. 51.3.1 of the Code). •Synonym of Pomadasys bayanus Jordan & Evermann 1898 -- (McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1167 [ref. 22829]). •Synonym of Rhonciscus bayanus (Jordan & Evermann 1898) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Rhonciscus bayanus (Jordan & Evermann 1898). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sivalingami, Gaterin Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:97, Pl. 1 (fig. A) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 9 (no. 98) (Art. 14); ref. 12226] Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 436. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

sordidum, Diagramma Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:735 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: BMNH 1871.7.15.26 (1), SMNS 2059 (1), ZIN 2510 (1), 2518 (1), ZMB 7980 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:11 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:42 [ref. 29864]. •Valid as Plectorhynchus sordidus (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Dor 1984:150 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus sordidus (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:568 [ref. 5716], Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:211 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:177 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:289 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30213], Jawad et al. 2014:20 [ref. 33531], Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:520 [ref. 33883], Psomadakis et al. 2015:256 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:208 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:97 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:110 [ref. 36262]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus sordidus (Klunzinger 1870). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf, East and South Africa to Seychelles, Madagascar, Réunion and Mauritius (Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

spleniatum, Pristipoma Poey [F.] 1860:187 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 21778 (1, but specimen switch may be involved). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:200 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:331 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791) -- (Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1529 [ref. 27094]). Current status: Synonym of Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

squamipinna, Haemulon Rocha [L. A.] & Rosa [I. L.] 1999:448, Figs. 1A-B [Copeia 1999 (no. 2); ref. 23802] Wreck of "Erie J.N.Y.", 07°05'106"S [sic], 35°44'802"W [sic], João Pessoa, Paraíba, Atlantic off Brazil, depth 16 meters. Holotype: UFPB 3512. Paratypes: MZUSP 51115 (5); UFPB 3364 (3), 3370 (3), 3510-11 (22, 3); USNM 342004 (5). •Valid as Haemulon squamipinna Rocha & Rosa 1999 -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon squamipinna Rocha & Rosa 1999. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Off coast of Brazil. Habitat: marine.

starri, Pomadasys Meek [S. E.] 1904:200, Pl. 13 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] Pérez, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 4963. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:68 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Pomadasys crocro (Cuvier 1830) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:340 [ref. 24550], Miller 2006:350 [ref. 28615]). •Synonym of Rhonciscus crocro (Cuvier 1830) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Rhonciscus crocro (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

steindachneri, Diabasis Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:322 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Panama; Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.55-57 (3) Mazatlán; USNM 28172 (1), 29226 (1), 29305 (1, not found in 1980), 29387 (?), 29634 (1, lost), 29759 (1), 29778 (1), 29795 (0). •Valid as Haemulon steindachneri (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Courtenay 1961:86 [ref. 21095], Hong 1977:496 [ref. 21409], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:356 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:335 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:209 [ref. 24474], Allen & Robertson 1994:149 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:120 [ref. 23101], Robins & Ray 1986:180 [ref. 23100], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1157 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:183 [ref. 24545], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:375 [ref. 24555], Rocha & Rosa 1999:448 [ref. 23802], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:338 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:127 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1545 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon steindachneri (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific and western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

striata, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:293 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. •Valid as Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Courtenay 1961:124 [ref. 21095], Robins & Ray 1986:180 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:335 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:211 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Rocha & Rosa 1999:447 [ref. 23802], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:265 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1546 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:379 [ref. 28815], Rocha et al. 2008:921 [ref. 29817], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:55 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

striatum, Pristipoma Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:153 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 9950. •Valid as Pomadasys striatus (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Dor 1984:152 [ref. 29757], Smith & McKay 1986:571 [ref. 5716], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356], Iwatsuki et al. 1995:457 [ref. 21595], Iwatsuki et al. 1999:84 [ref. 23960], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:193 [ref. 28072], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:73 [ref. 35264], Tavera 2012:6 [ref. 32469]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys striatus (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Mozambique and South Africa. Habitat: marine.

stridens, Perca Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:7 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Perca stridens Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Graells 1887:181 [ref. 30438]. •In the synonymy of Pomadasys incisus (Bowdich 1825). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys incisus (Bowdich 1825). Haemulidae: Haemulinae.

stridens, Perca Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Graells 1887:181 [Revista de los Progresos de las Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 30438] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Based on Perca stridens Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817, possibly an unpublished work. •In the synonymy of Pomadasys incisus (Bowdich 1825). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys incisus (Bowdich 1825). Haemulidae: Haemulinae.

stridens, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:50, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Neotype: HUJ 6708. Type catalog: Golani 2006:27 [ref. 28840]. Neotype designated by Iwatsuki et al. 1995:459 [ref. 21595]. •Valid as Pomadasys stridens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Roux 1973:392 [ref. 7200], Dor 1984:152 [ref. 29757], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:173 [ref. 6441], Ben-Tuvia & McKay in Whitehead et al. 1986:863 [ref. 13676], Smith & McKay 1986:571 [ref. 5716], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356], Iwatsuki et al. 1995:457 [ref. 21595], Randall 1995:214 [ref. 22896], Serena & Silvestri 1996:409 [ref. 22784], Carpenter et al. 1997:179 [ref. 23922], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Iwatsuki et al. 1999:84 [ref. 23960], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:177 [ref. 26753], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:180, 193 [ref. 28072], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:425 [ref. 33460], Psomadakis et al. 2015:259 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:210 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:98 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:111 [ref. 36262]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys stridens (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to western India; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

subarcuatum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1861:419 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Sagua de Grande, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Courtenay 1961:111 [ref. 21095] as plumieri). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

suillum, Pristipoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:482 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6238. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:43 [ref. 21546]. •Valid as Pomadasys suillus (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Roux 1986:330 [ref. 6209], Roux 1990:788 [ref. 18781], Afonso et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:34 [ref. 30263]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys suillus (Valenciennes 1833). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola and offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

supplimin, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:306, Pl. 60 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. No types known. Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

surinamensis, Lutjanus Bloch [M. E.] 1791:3, Pl. 253 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 5; ref. 4867] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB 31503 (left skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:85 [ref. 24282]. On p. 1 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 8 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:353 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:178 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:329 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:177 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:330 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:161 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1645 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1529 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:364 [ref. 28815], Tavera et al. 2011:322 [ref. 31319], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:53 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34324], Nión et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch 1791). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

taeniatum, Haemulon Poey [F.] 1860:182 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Possible types or Poey specimens: MCZ 380 [ex USNM] (1), 10482 (3), USNM 4703 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:199-200 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 10482 as types. •Synonym of Haemulon chrysargyreum Günther 1859 -- (Courtenay 1961:121 [ref. 21095]). •Synonym of Brachygenys chrysargyreum (Günther 1859) -- (on ref. 35783). •Synonym of Brachygenys chrysargyreum (Poey 1860) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Brachygenys chrysargyreum (Günther 1859). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

taeniatus, Anisotremus Gill [T. N.] 1861:107 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 13; ref. 17544] Panama (Pacific). Holotype (unique): ANSP 11547. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:148 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Anisotremus taeniatus Gill 1861 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:147 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:118 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1150 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:177 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:383 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:129 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], Tavera et al. 2011:322 [ref. 31319], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:446 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Anisotremus taeniatus Gill 1861. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

taeniatus, Pomadasys McKay [R. J.] & Randall [J. E.] 1995:253, Fig. [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 38 (pt 1); ref. 22153] Oman, 16°58'00"N, 54°42'50"E, depth 3 meters. Holotype: BPBM 35841. Paratypes: NMW 38942 (2). •Valid as Pomadasys taeniatus McKay & Randall 1995 -- (Randall 1995:210 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:179 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys taeniatus McKay & Randall 1995. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

taeniophorus, Pomadasys Regan [C. T.] 1908:251, Pl. 39 [Annals of the Natal Museum v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 14355] Kosi Bay, Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1906.11.19.65-66 (2). •Synonym of Pomadasys furcatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith & McKay 1986:569 [ref. 5716] as furcatum). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys furcatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

templei, Pomadasys Meek [S. E.] 1904:201, Pl. 14 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] Valles, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 4504. Paratypes: FMNH 10567 (?). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Pomadasys crocro (Cuvier 1830) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:340 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Pomadasys ramosus (Poey 1860) -- (Miller 2006:350 [ref. 28615]). •Synonym of Rhonciscus crocro (Cuvier 1830) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Rhonciscus crocro (Cuvier 1830). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

terribile, Pristipoma Günther [A.] 1859:294 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Probably East Indies or Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH. Also listed was Plate XIV, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

therapon, Pristipoma Bleeker [P.] 1849:22 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 5); ref. 16906] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Also appeared in Bleeker 1849:100 [ref. 16883]. •Synonym of Pomadasys maculatus (Bloch 1793) -- (Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys maculatus (Bloch 1793). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

thunbergii, Diagramma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:308 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Unknown locality. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9796 (1, dry) Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:35, 51 [ref. 21546]. If regarded as a replacement name then there is no type specimen; if regarded as based on Thunberg and on a specimen, then the specimen is technically a syntype. •Synonym of Diagramma pictum (Thunberg 1792). •Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792) -- (on ref. 35783). Current status: Synonym of Plectorhinchus pictum (Thunberg 1792). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

thunbergii, Grammistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:190 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Japan. No types known. New name for (and objective synonym of) Perca trilineata Thunberg 1793. •Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793). Current status: Synonym of Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

trifasciatus, Pomadasys Fowler [H. W.] 1937:235, Fig. 234 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 89; ref. 1425] Paknam, Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 68244. Paratypes: ANSP 68245-46 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:148 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Pomadasys trifasciatus Fowler 1937 -- (Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], McKay 2001:2989 [ref. 26103], Allen et al. 2006:1224 [ref. 29090], Larson et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32988], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:56 [ref. 34319], Motomura et al. 2017:145 [ref. 35490], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:166 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys trifasciatus Fowler 1937. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Bay of Bengal (India) east to Philippines, north to northern Vietnam, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

trilineata, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1793:55, Pl. 1 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 14 (for 1793); ref. 17917] Japan. No types known. •Valid as Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:171 [ref. 6441], Kimura 1985:345 [ref. 6262], Chen et al. 1997:103 [ref. 26476], Nakabo 2000:842 [ref. 25086], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:393 [ref. 25116], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:129 [ref. 25480], Shinohara et al. 2000:179 [ref. 25987], Shimizu 2001:30 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:842 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:340 [ref. 26218], Motomura et al. 2010:122 [ref. 31256], Ho & Shao 2011: 46 [ref. 31432] as Parapristipom [sic] trilineatum, Hata et al. 2012:22 [ref. 32412], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:164 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg 1793). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam and China to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

trilineatum, Pristipoma Poey [F.] 1861:343 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. Haemulidae. Habitat: marine.

trilineatus, Sparus Shaw [G.] 1803:472 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian Seas. ZMB 8714. Unneeded new name for Anthias lineatus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:348 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål 1775). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

trivittata, Grammistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:188 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazil. Based on Capeuna brasiliensibus Marcgrave 1648:155. •Synonym of Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Courtenay 1961:124 [ref. 21095]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

umbrinum, Diagramma Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:736 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 975 (1), ZIN 2639 (1), ZMB 7894 (1). •Valid as Plectorhynchus [sic] umbrinus (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Dor 1984:150 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus umbrinus (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Goren & Dor 1994:41 [ref. 25356]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus umbrinus (Klunzinger 1870). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

undecimale, Haemulon Steindachner [F.] 1876:39 [11] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] Panama. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 4877 (4); NMW 74300 (1), 35556-57 (2), 35558 (1); USNM 153616 [ex MCZ 4877] (1). On p. 11 of separate. •Synonym of Haemulon scudderii Gill 1862 -- (Hong 1977:496 [ref. 21409]). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon scudderii Gill 1862. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Diagramma Macleay [W.] 1883:261 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 17587] China Straits, New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.13415. •Synonym of Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål 1775) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1223 [ref. 29090]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay 1883) -- (Randall et al. 1997:195 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:736 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:627 [ref. 27495], Allen et al. 2006:1223 [ref. 29090], Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2015:509 [ref. 33883]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay 1883). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Australia to New Guinea, Indonesia and Japan. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Pristipoma Bleeker [P.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1875:15 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 8; ref. 4862] Not available, Kuhl and van Hasselt name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Plectorhynchus crassispina (Rüppell 1838). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae.

unicolor, Pristipoma Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:257 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Not available, name mentioned in passing under Pristipoma guoraca Cuvier; from Jakarta [Batavia], Java, Indonesia. Haemulidae: Haemulinae.

unimaculatus, Pomadasys Tian [M.-C.] 1982:324 (English p. 327), Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 8414] Beibu Gulf-Sanya fishing ground, off Hainan Island, China. Holotype: ASIO 56-8852. Paratypes: ASIO 56-8932 (31). •Valid as Pomadasys unimaculatus Tian 1982 -- (Iwatsuki et al. 1998:195 [ref. 23384], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Motomura in Motomura et al. 2009:155 [ref. 31130], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2015:56 [ref. 34319]). Current status: Valid as Pomadasys unimaculatus Tian 1982. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea and Malaysia east to South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

variegatum, Pristipoma Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. Haemulidae.

variolosum, Pristipoma Haly [A.] 1875:269 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 15 (no. 88) (art. 35); ref. 18241] Cameroon. Syntypes: BMNH 1866.6.26.4-5 (2). Haemulidae. Habitat: marine.

vavad, Diagramma Thiollière [V. J. de l'I.] & Montrouzier [X.] in Montrouzier 1857:436 [158] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 158 of reprint. Haemulidae. Habitat: marine.

venusta, Isacia Starks [E. C.] 1906:789, Fig. 10 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1468); ref. 10101] Callao, Peru. Holotype: USNM 53467. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6217 (2), 9588 (2); USNM 53474 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:77 [ref. 12291]. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

violaceus, Pomadasys Steindachner [F.] 1903:131 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 71; ref. 15046] Not available, no descriptive characters; from Gischin, s. Arabia. Haemulidae: Haemulinae.

virginicus, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:281 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] South America. No types known. See Goode & Bean 1885:199-200 [ref. 1841]. Spelled virginius by Bloch & Schneider 1801:274 [ref. 471], corrected in Corrigenda, p. 576. •Valid as Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:352 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:178 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:140 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:329 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:180 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:331 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:129 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:161 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Lindeman & Toxey 2003:1530 [ref. 27094], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:84 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:144 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:365 [ref. 28815], Tavera et al. 2011:322 [ref. 31319], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:53 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

viridense, Pristipoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:287 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] San Iago, Cape Verde Islands. Holotype: MNHN A-7818 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:43 [ref. 21546]. Spelled viridescens by later authors, such as de Buen 1919:285 [ref. 19984] as Parapristipoma viridescens. •Synonym of Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825) -- (Roux 1973:393 [ref. 7200], Roux 1990:783 [ref. 18781]). Current status: Synonym of Parapristipoma humile (Bowdich 1825). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Habitat: marine.

vittata, Inermia Poey [F.] 1860:193, Pl. 14 (fig. 3) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Inermia vittata Poey 1860 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:181 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:342 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:220 [ref. 24474], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:266 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Orrell 2003:1553 [ref. 27095], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:384 [ref. 28815], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469]). •Valid as Haemulon vittatum (Poey 1860) -- (Rocha et al. 2008:923 [ref. 29817], Tavera et al.2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:173 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:55 [ref. 33341], Heemstra in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2702 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Haemulon vittatum (Poey 1860). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and Guinea-Bissau (eastern Atlantic). Habitat: marine.

vittata, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:291 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): NRM LP 11. •A species of Plectorhinchus -- (Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:246 [ref. 20707]). •Valid as Plectorhinchus vittatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Myers 1999:151 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:289 [ref. 24106], Johnson in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Randall & Johnson 2000:479 [ref. 25807], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], McKay 2001:2982 [ref. 26103], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:627 [ref. 27495], Heemstra et al. 2004:3320 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:271 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1223 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura et al. 2009:154 [ref. 31130], Motomura et al. 2010:123 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:478 [ref. 31980], Hata et al. 2012:26 [ref. 32412], Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:91 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:256 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:45 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:8 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:208 [ref. 35805], Koeda & Ho 2018:248 [ref. 36176]). Current status: Valid as Plectorhinchus vittatus (Linnaeus 1758). Haemulidae: Plectorhinchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles and Mascarenes east to Guam and Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

vittatus, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] 1791:33, Pl. 263 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 5; ref. 4867] Brazil. Based on Acara pinima Prinz Moritz manuscript and several literature sources. Plate 275 also with the name Sparus vittatus, but refered to under account of Labrus trivittatus (p. 106). On p. 28 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 8 [ref. 21381]. Haemulidae. Habitat: marine.

williamsi, Anisotrema Meek [S. E.] 1905:241 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 18; ref. 15158] Santos, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 3350. Paratypes: FMNH 3352 (1), 3367 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:9 [ref. 12367]. Original genus should have been Anisotremus. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

xanthopteron, Haemulon Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:234 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7841 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:37 [ref. 21546]. •Synonym of Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest 1823) -- (Courtenay 1961:93 [ref. 21095], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:263 [ref. 25013] as xanthopterum). Current status: Synonym of Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest 1823). Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.

xanti, Xenichthys Gill [T. N.] 1863:83 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: ?MCZ 36016 [ex USNM] (2), USNM 5086 (12). •Valid as Xenichthys xanti Gill 1863 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:154 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:120 [ref. 23101], McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1172 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:410 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:371 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:123 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Tavera et al. 2012:6 [ref. 32469], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:393 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Xenichthys xanti Gill 1863. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

xenops, Xenichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:325 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Panama Bay, eastern pacific. Syntypes: USNM 29173 (18, now 8), 29513 (numerous, not found in 1980). •Synonym of Xenichthys xanti Gill 1863 -- (McKay & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1172 [ref. 22829]). Current status: Synonym of Xenichthys xanti Gill 1863. Haemulidae: Haemulinae. Habitat: marine.