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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Hemiodontidae: [ 46 ] records


amazonum, Curimatus Humboldt [F. H. A. von] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:165, Pl. 45 (fig. 2) [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Rio Marañón, Cachoeira de Rentema, provincia de Saint-Jean de Bracamoros, Peru. No types known. The epithet amazonum [of the amazons, women warriors after which the Amazon River was named] is a noun in the genitive plural and should not be treated as amazonus or amazona. The adjectival form is amazonicus, -a, -um. There is no adjective amazonus, -a, -um. [On advice from Dan H. Nicolson, NMNH, Sept. 2004.] •Valid as Hemiodus amazona (Humboldt 1821) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Nico 2001:140 [ref. 25828]). •Valid as Hemiodus amazonum (Humboldt 1821) -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1267 [ref. 32535], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus amazonum (Humboldt 1821). Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Marañón and Ucayali River basins: Ecuador, Guyana, Bolivia, Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

argenteus, Hemiodus Pellegrin [J.] 1909:344 [3] [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 14 (no. 7)[1908]; ref. 3423] Río Orinoco, Venezuela. Lectotype: MNHN 1887-0770. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1887-0769 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:36-37 [ref. 19577]. On p. 3 of separate. Lectotype selected by Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061]. Apparently published in 1909, in volume for 1908. •Valid as Hemiodopsis argenteus (Pellegrin 1909) -- (Taphorn 1992:458 [ref. 23654]). •Valid as Hemiodus argenteus Pellegrin 1909 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1267 [ref. 32535], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35633], Nogueira et al. 2019:801 [ref. 36655]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus argenteus Pellegrin 1909. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Widespread in South America: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

atranalis, Pterohemiodus Fowler [H. W.] 1940:258, Fig. 57 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91 (for 1939); ref. 1432] Contamana, Ucayali River basin, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 68671. Paratypes: ANSP 68672 (1), 68673 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:112 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Pterohemiodus atranalis Fowler 1940 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708] as atrianalis). •Valid as Hemiodus atranalis (Fowler 1940) -- (Langeani 1999:721 [ref. 23914], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1262 [ref. 32535], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus atranalis (Fowler 1940). Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Widespread in South America: Brazil, Colombia, Guyana and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

bimaculata, Bivibranchia Vari [R. P.] 1985:517, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 98 (no. 2); ref. 5270] Rocky pool in the center of Corantijn River at "Camp Hydro", Nickerie District, Suriname, about 3°42'N, 57°58'W. Holotype: USNM 225974. Paratypes: AMNH 54807 (7), 55611 (1); ANSP 153656 (1); BMNH 1981.6.8.816 (1), 1984.10.23.1 (1); USNM 268203 (9, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:8 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Bivibranchia bimaculata Vari 1985 -- (Géry et al. 1991:22 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:94 [ref. 22818], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Bivibranchia bimaculata Vari 1985. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Corantijn, Suriname, and Maroni River basins: French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

bimaculatus, Hemiodus Nogueira [A. F.], Langeani [F.] & Netto‐Ferreira [A. L.] 2019:799, Fig. 1 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 94 (no. 5); ref. 36655] Rio Claro or Rio Água Verde, circa 12 km SE of São José do Rio Claro on road MT-010 towards Diamantino, São José do Rio Claro, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 13°30'12"S, 56° 37'08"W. Holotype: MCP 30410. Paratypes: DZSJRP, INPA, MCP, MZUSP. •Valid as Hemiodus bimaculatus Nogueira, Langeani & Netto‐Ferreira 2019. Current status: Valid as Hemiodus bimaculatus Nogueira, Langeani & Netto‐Ferreira 2019. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Upper Rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

crenidens, Hemiodus Müller [J. W. von] 1842:324 [Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie, und wissenschaftliche Medicin (J. Müller) v. 9 [1842]; ref. 19677] Suriname. No types known. Also appeared in Müller 1842:206 [ref. 3062] and in Müller 1843:316 [ref. 3063]. •Synonym of Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch 1794). Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Anodus Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:61, Pl. 40 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Brazil. No types known. •Valid as Anodus elongatus Agassiz 1829 -- (Roberts 1974:433 [ref. 6872], Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:96 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:78, 186 [ref. 35006], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Anodus elongatus Agassiz 1829. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

fowleri, Hemiodus Steindachner [F.] 1908:131 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 10) (for 19 Mar. 1908); ref. 18804] Amazon basin. Holotype (unique): NMW 68600. •Valid as Hemiodopsis fowleri (Steindachner 1908) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708]). •Valid as Bivibranchia fowleri (Steindachner 1908) -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Bivibranchia fowleri (Steindachner 1908). Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Widespread in South America: Brazil, Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

goeldii, Hemiodus Steindachner [F.] 1908:61 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 6) (for 13 Feb. 1908); ref. 13415] Likely Rio Xingú, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 68642. •Valid as Hemiodus goeldii Steindachner 1908 -- (Langeani 1999:721 [ref. 23914], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1265 [ref. 32535], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus goeldii Steindachner 1908. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Amapá River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Hemiodus Günther [A.] 1864:299 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio Cupai [= Rio Cupari], Rio Tapajós basin, Amazon River drainage, Pará State, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1853.3.19.54. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1853.3.19.55 (1). Lectotype selected by Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061]. •Valid as Hemiodopsis gracilis (Günther 1864) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:461 [ref. 23654]). •Valid as Hemiodus gracilis Günther 1864 -- (Langeani 1999:721 [ref. 23914], Lasso et al. 2001:97 [ref. 25928], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1265 [ref. 32535], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35006], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus gracilis Günther 1864. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Negro, Tapajós, Madeira, Solimões, Amazon, and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

humboldti, Prochilodus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:90 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] "Maragnon, vis-à-vis de la cataracte de Rentema, dans la province de Saint Jean de Braeamoros". Family placement uncertain, based on Fowler manuscript placement. •Synonym of Hemiodus amazonum (Humboldt 1821) -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiodus amazonum (Humboldt 1821). Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

huraulti, Hemiodopsis Géry [J.] 1964:69, Fig. 2 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 13 (no. 3, Nov.); ref. 2150] Upper Maroni River, near Litani Falls, French Guiana. Holotype: MHNG 2151.14 [ex Géry coll. 5792.3]. Paratypes: (2). Type catalog: Weber 1998:7 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Hemiodopsis huraulti Géry 1964 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:98 [ref. 22818]). •Valid as Hemiodus huraulti (Géry 1964) -- (Langeani 1999:721 [ref. 23914], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1261 [ref. 32535]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus huraulti (Géry 1964). Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Maroni and Mana River basins: French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

immaculatus, Hemiodus Kner [R.] 1858:78 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Manaus, Brazil. Holotype: NMW 68641. Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:157, Pl. 5 [ref. 2631]. •Valid as Hemiodopsis immaculatus (Kner 1858). •Valid as Hemiodus immaculatus Kner 1858 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], Langeani 2004:2 [ref. 27851], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1267 [ref. 32535], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35633], Nogueira et al. 2019:801 [ref. 36655]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus immaculatus Kner 1858. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

iratapuru, Hemiodus Langeani [F.] & Moreira [C. R.] 2013:1259, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 82; ref. 32535] Cachoeira de São Raimundo, Rio Iratapura, left bank tributary of Rio Jari, adjacent to Iratapura community, above Cachoeira de Santo Antônio, 0°33'59"S, 52°34'40"W, município de Laranjal. Amapá, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 101564. Paratypes: Many from DZSJRP, MZUSP. Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:437 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Hemiodus iratapuru Langeani & Moreira 2013. Current status: Valid as Hemiodus iratapuru Langeani & Moreira 2013. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jatuarana, Hemiodus Langeani [F.] 2004:2, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 546; ref. 27851] Oriximiná, rio Trombetas, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 54083. Paratypes: MZUSP 83358 (2). •Valid as Hemiodus jatuarana Langeani 2004 -- (Beltrão & Zuanon 2012:255 [ref. 32032], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1267 [ref. 32535]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus jatuarana Langeani 2004. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Trombetas River, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jordanii, Elopomorphus Gill [T. N.] 1878:168 [Field & Forest For March/April; ref. 5755] Río Mamoré, Amazon system, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): USNM 5926. Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:21 [ref. 19022]. Appeared slightly later in Gill 1878 [ref. 1716]. •Synonym of Anodus elongatus Agassiz 1829 -- (Roberts 1974:433 [ref. 6872], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:96 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Anodus elongatus Agassiz 1829. Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

kappleri, Hemiodus Günther [A.] 1868:479 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 1992] Suriname. Lectotype: BMNH 1866.9.10.29. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1866.9.10.30 (1). Also published in Günther (Sept.) 1868:244 [ref. 5756]. Lectotype apparently designated first by Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch 1794). Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

langeanii, Hemiodus Beltrão [H.] & Zuanon [J.] 2012:256, Figs. 1a, 2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 32032] Rio Amana, igarapé Porquinho, 5°06'33.0'S, 57°32'08.0"W, Floresta Nacional do Amana reserve (FLONA do Amana), Itaituba, Para State Brazil. Holotype: INPA 31564. Paratypes: INPA 31562 (8 + 1 c&s), 31563 (6); MPMZUSP 109438 (2); MPEG 20035 (2). •Valid as Hemiodus langeanii Beltrão & Zuanon 2012. Current status: Valid as Hemiodus langeanii Beltrão & Zuanon 2012. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Rio Amana, a tributary of rio Maués-Açú, rio Amazonas drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

longiceps, Hemiodus Kner [R.] 1858:77 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Icanno, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 68643 (1). Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:152, Pl. 3 [ref. 2631]. Argonectes longipinnis Steindachner [a misprint] as it appeared in Vari 1985:521 [ref. 5270] is this species according to Langeani 1998:180 [ref. 24404]. Lectotype selected by Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061]. •Valid as Argonectes longiceps (Kner 1858) -- (Planquette et al. 1996:92 [ref. 22818], Keith et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24547], Langeani 1999:178 [ref. 24404], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Argonectes longiceps (Kner 1858). Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Widespread in South America: Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

luelingi, Pterohemiodus Géry [J.] 1962:332, Pl. 1 [Bonner Zoologische Beiträge v. 12 (nos. 3/4); ref. 5904] Quisto Cocha, small lake bordering River Italya, tributary of Peruvian Amazon, about 15 kilometers west of Iquitos, Peru. Holotype: ZFMK 1226. Paratypes: MHNG 2150.6 [ex Géry coll. M.202.3] (1), ZFMK 1227 (1). Type catalog: Busse 1984:217 [ref. 28342] dated to 1961, Herder et al. 2010:114 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Pterohemiodus luelingi Géry 1962 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Hemiodus atranalis (Fowler 1940) -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiodus atranalis (Fowler 1940). Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

melanopogon, Anodus Cope [E. D.] 1878:682 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Nauta, Peru. Lectotype: ANSP 21227. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21228-31 (4), 21232 (1, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:66 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratypes. Lectotype established by Fowler 1906:308, Fig. 10 [ref. 1373]. •Valid as Eigenmannina melanopogon (Cope 1878) -- (Roberts 1974:433 [ref. 6872], Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708]). •Valid as Anodus melanopogon Cope 1878 -- (authors). •Synonym of Anodus elongatus Agassiz 1829 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:96 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Anodus elongatus Agassiz 1829. Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

microcephalus, Hemiodus Günther [A.] 1864:298 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio Capin [= Capim], Pará State, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1849.11.8.39. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1849.11.8.40 (1). Lectotype apparently first designated by Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch 1794). Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Hemiodus Kner [R.] 1858:77 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Guaporé in Mato Grosso or Manaus, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 79472 (dry). Paralectotypes: NMW 68571 (2). Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:155, Pl. 4 [ref. 2631]. Lectotype selected by Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061] •Valid as Hemiodopsis microlepis (Kner 1858) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Britski et al. 1999:71 [ref. 24147]). •Valid as Hemiodus microlepis Kner 1858 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1267 [ref. 32535], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745] and as cf. microlepis, Sarmiento et al. 2014:79, 186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35633], Nogueira et al. 2019:801 [ref. 36655]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus microlepis Kner 1858. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

notata, Bivibranchia Vari [R. P.] & Goulding [M.] 1985:1055, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 98 (no. 4); ref. 5200] Beach at Alter do Chão, Rio Tapajós, about 2°31'S, 54°57'W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 28657. Paratypes: MZUSP 23712 (3); USNM 268049 (1), 268562 (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:8 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:452 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Bivibranchia notata Vari & Goulding 1985 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Bivibranchia notata Vari & Goulding 1985. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Tapajós and Tocantins River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

notatus, Anodus Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:218, Pl. 15 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] South America. No types known. Provisionally placed in Anodus in original description. •Synonym of Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061] with author as Schomburgk). Current status: Synonym of Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch 1794). Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellata, Hemiodopsis Vari [R. P.] 1982:188, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 95 (no. 1); ref. 8408] Main stream of Dalbana Creek, Nickerie District, Suriname, about 4°47'N, 57°29'W. Holotype: USNM 221175. Paratypes: USNM 225592 (1), 225593 (2, 1 c&s), 225594 (4). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:25 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hemiodus ocellata (Vari 1982). •Synonym of Hemiodus argenteus Pellegrin 1909 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiodus argenteus Pellegrin 1909. Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

orinocensis, Elopomorphus Steindachner [F.] 1887:231 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 24 (no. 19) (for 21 July 1887); ref. 18911] Río Orinoco. Lectotype: NMW 72619-1. Paralectotypes: (several) NMW 72619 (1). Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1887:66 [p. 11 of separate] Pl. 2 (figs. 2-2a) [ref. 4235]. Lectotype selected by Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061] but not agreeing with 1999 code. •Probably a synonym of Anodus elongatus Agassiz 1829 -- (Roberts 1974:433 [ref. 6872]). •Valid as Anodus orinocensis (Steindachner 1887) -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Anodus orinocensis (Steindachner 1887). Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Orinoco, Amazon, and Tocantins River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

orthonops, Hemiodus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:511 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] Arroyo Trementina, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 61476 [ex IU 9955]. Paratypes: (5) CAS 61477 [ex IU 9958] (1), CAS 61478 [ex IU 9959] (2, 1 dissected), FMNH 52573 (1), ZMB 16959-61 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:45 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hemiodus orthonops Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:54 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:71 [ref. 24147], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:71 [ref. 28131], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:10 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35267], Nogueira et al. 2019:802 [ref. 36655]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus orthonops Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Paraguay and Paraná River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

parnaguae, Hemiodus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] 1916:87, Pl. 17 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1/2) (art. 7); ref. 12361] Lagoa de Parnagua, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 56886 [ex CM 5701]. Paratypes: CAS 61479 [ex IU 13541, CM 5702] (1), FMNH 56887 [ex CM 5762] (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:55 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:45 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hemiodus parnaguae Eigenmann & Henn 1916 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1267 [ref. 32535], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Melo et al. 2016:374 [ref. 35317], Nogueira et al. 2019:803 [ref. 36655]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus parnaguae Eigenmann & Henn 1916. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Parnaíba River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

protractila, Bivibranchia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:259, Pl. 33 (figs. 1-5) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Bartica sand bank, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53576 [ex CM 1873]. Paratypes: (29, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.484 (1); CAS 39433 [ex IU 12158] (4), 39434 [ex IU 12159] (7), 39435 [ex IU 12243] (2); FMNH 7431 (1), 53404-05 (3, 3), 53577 (1); MCZ 30115 (1); NMW 62866 (1); USNM 66126 [ex CM] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:54 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:22 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:16 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:8 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Bivibranchia protractila Eigenmann 1912 -- (Vari 1985:511 [ref. 5270]). •Synonym of Bivibranchia fowleri (Steindachner 1908) -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Bivibranchia fowleri (Steindachner 1908). Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

quadrimaculatus, Hemiodus Pellegrin [J.] 1909:343 [2] [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 14 (no. 7)[1908]; ref. 3423] Camopi River, French Guiana. Lectotype: MNHN 1901-0394. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1901-0395 to 0397 (1, 1, 1), FMNH (1, missing). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:37 [ref. 19577], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:45 [ref. 12367]. On p. 2 of separate. Lectotype selected by Géry 1964 [ref. 2150]. •Valid as Hemiodopsis quadrimaculatus (Pellegrin 1909) -- (Géry et al. 1991:20 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:100 [ref. 22818]). •Valid as Hemiodus quadrimaculatus Pellegrin 1909 -- (Langeani 1999:721 [ref. 23914], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1261 [ref. 32535], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701] dated 1908). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus quadrimaculatus Pellegrin 1909. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Northern South America: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

robertsi, Argonectes Langeani [F.] 1999:173, Figs. 1a [Naturalia (São Paulo) v. 23; ref. 24404] Lago Dumbá Grande, Barra do Garças, Rio Araguaia, GO, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 21528. Paratypes: BMNH 1849.11.8.54 (1); INPA 4022 (3), 4107 (1), 7735 (1), 7737-38 (2, 1); MZUSP 19269 (1), 21197 (1), 29656 (6, 1 c), 44011-12 (1, 2), 44133 (2). •Valid as Argonectes robertsi Langeani 1999 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Argonectes robertsi Langeani 1999. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Tapajós, Xingú, Tocantins and Capim River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

rodolphoi, Hemiodus Fowler [H. W.] 1941:174, Figs. 84-85 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Parnahyba, Therezina, Piauhy, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69483. Paratypes: ANSP 69484 (1), 69485-88 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:112 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Hemiodus parnaguae Eigenmann & Henn 1916 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiodus parnaguae Eigenmann & Henn 1916. Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

scapularis, Argonectes Böhlke [J. E.] & Myers [G. S.] 1956:2, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 286; ref. 608] Mouth of Caño Massaua [Masagua], Río Orinoco, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS-SU 46382. Paratypes: ANSP 73701 (1), 134786 (1, c&s); CAS 20692 (2); CAS-SU 46383 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:53 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Argonectes longiceps (Kner 1858) -- (Langeani 1999:180 [ref. 24404], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Argonectes longiceps (Kner 1858). Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

semitaeniatus, Hemiodus Kner [R.] 1858:77 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Rio Guaporé, Amazon system, Brazil. Lectotype: MNW 69489. Paralectotypes: NMW 69489 (1). Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:154, Pl. 4 [ref. 2631]. Lectotype selected by Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061]. •Valid as Hemiodopsis semitaeniatus (Kner 1858) -- (Britski et al. 1999:71 [ref. 24147]). •Valid as Hemiodus semitaeniatus Kner 1858 -- (Langeani 1999:721 [ref. 23914], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1266 [ref. 32535], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1267 [ref. 32535], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35004], Koerber et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35633], Nogueira et al. 2019:803 [ref. 36655]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus semitaeniatus Kner 1858. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Widespread in South America: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Guyana, Paraguay and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

simulata, Bivibranchia Géry [J.], Planquette [P.] & Le Bail [P.-Y.] 1991:23, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Cybium v. 15 (no. 1, suppl.); ref. 21021] Panacupelu, Moutouci Fall, Wilapaleya, French Guiana. Holotype: RMNH 28054. Paratypes (includes some non-types): (orig. 66) ?IRSNB 672-676 (46, 2, 2, 1, 1); MNHN 1981-0250 (1), 1981-0545 (3), 1981-0548 (1), 1981-0549 (1); MTD F 27516 [ex Géry coll.] (1); RMNH 28050-53 (2, 1, 2, 1), 28055-56 (10, 54). Non-types: (79). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:22 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Bivibranchia simulata Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1991 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:96 [ref. 22818], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Bivibranchia simulata Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1991. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Coppename, Nickerie, Suriname, and Oyapock River basins: Brazil and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

steatops, Anodus Cope [E. D.] 1878:683 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Pebas, Peru. Lectotype: ANSP 21498. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21499 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:66-67 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype established by Fowler 1906:306, Fig. 9 [ref. 1373]. •Synonym of Anodus elongatus Agassiz 1829 -- (Roberts 1974:433 [ref. 6872], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:96 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Anodus elongatus Agassiz 1829. Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sterni, Hemiodopsis Géry [J.] 1964:70, Fig. 3 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 13 (no. 3, Nov.); ref. 2150] Amazon system, shore of Upper Rio Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 194377. Paratypes: USNM 194330 (1), 194368 (1, missing). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:25 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Hemiodus sterni (Géry 1964) -- (Langeani 1999:721 [ref. 23914], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1261 [ref. 32535]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus sterni (Géry 1964). Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Upper Juruena River basin, in Tapajós River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sugillatus, Micromischodus Roberts [T. R.] 1971:5, Fig. 1 [Breviora No. 367; ref. 3773] Tarumãzinho, Igarapé, northwest of Manaus, left bank of Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 6773. Paratypes: MCZ 46718 (2), 46719 (7, now 5, 1 c&s), 46720 (1, c&s); MZUSP 6691 (4), 8870 (5 not 6); USNM 205527 [ex MCZ 46719] (2, 1 c&s), 205528 [ex MCZ 46718] (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:29-30 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:480 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Micromischodus sugillatus Roberts 1971 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061])… Current status: Valid as Micromischodus sugillatus Roberts 1971. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Amazon, Madeira, Negro, and Solimões River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

surinamensis, Bivibranchia simulata Géry [J.], Planquette [P.] & Le Bail [P.-Y.] 1991:27 [Cybium v. 15 (no. 1, suppl.); ref. 21021] Right tributary of Nickerie River, about 1/2 hr below Blanche-Marie Falls, Suriname. Holotype: RMNH. Paratypes: RMNH (12, 2, 2, 54); ZMA 106864-65 (1, 1). Plus additional material. •Presumed synonym of Bivibranchia simulata Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1991, but a valid subspecies as described. •Synonym of Bivibranchia simulata Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1991 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Bivibranchia simulata Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1991. Hemiodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ternetzi, Hemiodus Myers [G. S.] 1927:110 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 3096] Jausinho Brook, into the Tocantins, Goias, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 61480 [IU 17691]. Paratypes: CAS 61481 [ex IU 17692] (4), MCZ 31567 (1). •Valid as Hemiodus ternetzi Myers 1927 -- (Langeani 1999:721 [ref. 23914], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1261 [ref. 32535]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus ternetzi Myers 1927. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

thayeria, Hemiodus Böhlke [J. E.] 1955:8, Figs. 20-21 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 278; ref. 12365] Rio Negro, Brazil-Colombia border, about 1°12'N, 66°51'W. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 48146. •Valid as Hemiodus thayeria Böhlke 1955 -- (Langeani 1999:721 [ref. 23914], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1261 [ref. 32535], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35633], Nogueira et al. 2019:803 [ref. 36655]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus thayeria Böhlke 1955. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Solimões, Negro, and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

tocantinensis, Hemiodus Langeani [F.] 1999:719, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1999 (no. 3); ref. 23914] Tributary stream of ribeirao Lajeadinho, below "cuesta," rio Araguaia, Alto Araguaia, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 52628. Paratypes: MZUSP 21307 (2), 21315 (17), 21325 (2), 29648 (11), 29650-51 (5, 1), 41478 (1); USNM 268085 (6). •Valid as Hemiodus tocantinensis Langeani 1999 -- (Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061], Beltrão & Zuanon 2012:255 [ref. 32032], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1261 [ref. 32535]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus tocantinensis Langeani 1999. Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Araguaia and Tocantins River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

unimaculatus, Salmo Bloch [M. E.] 1794:105, Pl. 381 (fig. 3) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 8; ref. 463] Brazil; Suriname. Syntypes: ZMB 3535 (2) America. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:86, and errata on inside of back cover [ref. 24282]. On p. 85 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 11 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Planquette et al. 1996:102 [ref. 22818], Lasso et al. 2001:96 [ref. 25928], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633], Nogueira et al. 2019:803 [ref. 36655]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch 1794). Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Widespread in South America: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

velox, Atomaster Eigenmann [C. H.] & Myers [G. S.] 1927:565 [Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v. 13 (no. 8); ref. 1262] Riberao, Porto Nacional, Tocantins, Goiaz, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 39430 [ex IU 16181]. Paratypes: ANSP 128118 (1, c&s), 128494 (swim bladder from 128118); CAS 39428 [ex IU 16178] (1), 53059 [ex IU 16182] (1), 39429 [ex IU 16180] (1), 39431 [ex IU 16183] (1), 39432 [ex IU 16184] (1), 53058 [ex IU 16179] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:112 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Bivibranchia velox (Eigenmann & Myers 1927) -- (Vari 1985:511 [ref. 5270], Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Bivibranchia velox (Eigenmann & Myers 1927). Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Xingú and Tocantins River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

vorderwinkleri, Hemiodopsis Géry [J.] 1964:14, Fig. 1 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 13 (no. 3, Nov.); ref. 2150] Upper Amazon, Brazilian-Colombian boundaries surrounding Leticia. Holotype: MHNG 2151.20 [ex Géry coll. 0123.1]. Paratypes: BMNH 1972.10.17.1417 (1), OUM C.198a (1). Type catalog: Weber 1998:7 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Hemiodus vorderwinkleri (Géry 1964) -- (Langeani 1999:721 [ref. 23914] as vorderwinckleri, Langeani in Reis et al. 2003:99 [ref. 27061], Langeani & Moreira 2013:1261 [ref. 32535], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633], Nogueira et al. 2019:803 [ref. 36655]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodus vorderwinkleri (Géry 1964). Hemiodontidae. Distribution: Upper Amazon, Brazilian-Colombia border and Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.