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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Holocentridae: [ 237 ] records


abusamf, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:49, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. Originally as abu samf. •Uncertain in Holocentridae -- (Fricke 2008:23 [ref. 30182]). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

acanthops, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:334, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No types known. Family placement is uncertain. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

acanthorhinus, Ostichthys Randall [J. E.], Shimizu [T.] & Yamakawa [T.] 1982:(9) 10, Figs. 6-7 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 3602] Gulf of Oman, northwestern Indian Ocean, 25°05'N, 56°52'E, depth 272-291 meters. Holotype: FMNH 70251. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.11.14.2 (1); BPBM 22766 (1); CAS 44993 (1); FMNH 70252-53 (1, 1), 83910 (1); FMRI 117/1 (1); NSMT-P 18632 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 10700 [not RUSI 10693] (1); USNM 220899 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:63 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Ostichthys acanthorhinus Randall, Shimizu & Yamakawa 1982 -- (Baranes & Golani 1993:305 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:17 [ref. 25356], Kotlyar 1996:89 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:209 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2234 [ref. 24790], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Allen et al. 2006:780 [ref. 29066], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:181 [ref. 34104], Greenfield et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35170], Fricke 2017:67 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[5] [ref. 35637], Golani & Fricke 2018:45 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[28] [ref. 35840], Psomadakis et al. 2020:351 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys acanthorhinus Randall, Shimizu & Yamakawa 1982. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman east to Indonesia, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

achromopterus, Flammeo Fowler [H. W.] 1904:236, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 56; ref. 1365] Samoa. Holotype (unique): ANSP 14141. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Neoniphon argenteus (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon argenteus (Valenciennes 1831). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

acutus, Holocentrus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:83 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Author is C. J. Ehrenberg. Not available, name only; Red Sea. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae.

adscensionis, Perca Osbeck [P.] 1765:388 [Reise nach Ostindien und China; ref. 3311] Ascension Island, South Atlantic. No types known. The spelling adscensionis should be used; this spelling was used for several different species by Osbeck, so it is not a misspelling. Spelled ascensionis in Osbeck 1771:388 [ref. 18499] and Gmelin 1789:1318 [ref. 18139]. •Valid as Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) [sometimes as ascensionis and dated 1771] -- (Woods 1955:100 [ref. 12538], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:273 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:114 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:632 [ref. 9166], Ben-Tuvia 1990:627 [ref. 17305], Anato et al. 1991:297 [ref. 20017], Cervigón 1991:244 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:91 [ref. 23239], Tyler et al. 1993:1132 [ref. 21502], Cervigón 1992:339 [ref. 23827], Murdy et al. 1997:133 [ref. 23144], Kotlyar 1996:82 [ref. 23292], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1014 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Afonso et al. 1999:70 [ref. 25466], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:183 [ref. 25013], Castro-Hernández & Martín-Gutiérrez 2000:115 [ref. 24477], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639] as ascensionis, Collette et al. 2003:103 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943] as ascensionis, Greenfield 2003:1197 [ref. 27041], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27192] as ascensionis, Smith et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155] as ascensionis, Wirtz et al. 2007:28 [ref. 30263], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:34 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:4 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:10 [ref. 34324], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:165 [ref. 36561], Greenfield 2016:2199 [ref. 34606], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Spier et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36103], Almeida & Alves 2019:270 [ref. 37097], Brown et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Atlantic, widespread. Habitat: marine.

adustus, Myripristis Bleeker [P.] 1853:108 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 16900] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 24908 [ex 5416]. •Valid as Myripristis adusta Bleeker 1853 [usually as adusta which apparently is correct] -- (Greenfield 1974:27 [ref. 7142], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1986:423 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:376 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:16 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:61 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1990:252 [ref. 16678], Kotlyar 1996:86 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:187 [ref. 27969], Randall & Greenfield 1996:14 [ref. 22543], Kotlyar 1997:846 [ref. 23713], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:62 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:61 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:206 [ref. 24674] as adustus, Myers 1999:80 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:126 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2236 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:496 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:496 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:29 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:87 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:777 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:33 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:372 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:168 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:40 [ref. 33932], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:58 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:15 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:111 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36673], Randall et al. 2019:32 [ref. 36852], Psomadakis et al. 2020:349 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis adusta Bleeker 1853. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian, Line and Tuamotu islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia, Tonga and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

alamai, Ostichthys Matsunuma [M.], Fukui [Y.] & Motomura [H.] 2018:[24], Figs. 1b, 2b, 4, 5g-i, 8f, 9b, 13a-d, 17 [Ichthyological Research v. 65 (no. 3); ref. 35840] Off Iloilo, Panay Island, Philippines, purchased at Central Fish Market, Iloilo City, 10°41'N, 122°35'E. Holotype: KAUM-I 51657. Paratypes: AMS, BPBM, KAUM, NSMT-P, UPVMI, USNM. •Valid as Ostichthys alamai Matsunuma, Fukui & Motomura 2018. Current status: Valid as Ostichthys alamai Matsunuma, Fukui & Motomura 2018. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Philippines and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

alboruber, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:333, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] China. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:35 [ref. 20740]. Originally albo-ruber. Based on a figure and manuscript. •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:65 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

amaenus, Neomyripristis Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:99 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Noble Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia [locality in doubt]. Syntypes: MNHN A-2586 (4). Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:24 [ref. 20740]. •Valid as Myripristis amaenus (Castelnau 1873) -- (Greenfield 1974:7 [ref. 7142], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:113 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:376 [ref. 12442] with comment that locality may be unreliable, Kotlyar 1996:87 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:206 [ref. 24674]). •Valid as Myripristis amaena (Castelnau 1873) -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:15 [ref. 22543], Myers 1999:80 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2237 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:496 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:496 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2003:410 [ref. 26954], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall 2005:87 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:306 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:147 [ref. 30952], Kotlyar 2017:35 [ref. 35137], Motomura et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis amaena (Castelnau 1873). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Western and Central Pacific: Ryukyu Islands, Ogasawara Islands, Caroline Islands, Marshall Islands, Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian Islands, Society Islands, Tuamotu Archipelago, Pitcairn Island. Habitat: marine.

andamanense, Holocentrum Day [F.] 1871:686 [10] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870 (pt 3); ref. 1078] Port Blair, Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1003. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:158 [ref. 23762]. On p. 10 of separate. Original genus should have been spelled Holocentrus. •Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:7 [ref. 5144], Randall 1995:95 [ref. 22896], Randall 1998:14 [ref. 23300], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2249 [ref. 24790], Randall 2005:93 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

angulosus, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:430, 477, Pl. 22 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Indian seas. Syntypes: MNHN A-5419 (1, dry, poor condition), B-2164 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:97 [ref. 19171], Bauchot 1970:19 [ref. 20740]. Based on Commerson drawing with underlying specimens at MNHN. •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:4 [ref. 5144]). •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

angustifrons, Holocentrus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:32 [Annals of the Queensland Museum No. 9 (pt 1); ref. 3285] New Britain Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): QM I.1115. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

anjouanae, Holocentrus Fourmanoir [P.] in Fourmanoir & Guézé 1962:7 [Publications de l'Institut de Recherche Scientifique de Madagascar.; ref. 22868] Anjouan, Comoro Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Neoniphon aurolineatus (Liénard 1839) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:3 [ref. 5144], Randall 2007:151 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon aurolineatus (Liénard 1839). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

archiepiscopus, Myripristis Valenciennes [A.] 1862:1169 [5] [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences v. 54; ref. 4506] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2589 (1), A-8095 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:20 [ref. 20740] as holotype (A.8095) and paratype. On p. 5 of separate. •Valid as Ostichthys archiepiscopus (Valenciennes 1862) -- (Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1982:209, 368 [ref. 8256], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1986:425 [ref. 5707], Randall & Wrobel 1988:243 [ref. 12743], Kotlyar 1996:89 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:209 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:133 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2246 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:494 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:494 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Mundy 2005:309 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:149 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:34 [ref. 30213], Kotlyar 2017:38 [ref. 35137], Greenfield et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35170], Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[6] [ref. 35637], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[28] [ref. 35840]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys archiepiscopus (Valenciennes 1862). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Réunion and Mauritius (Mascarenes), Ryukyu Islands, Ogasawara Islands, Hawaiian Islands and Society Islands, probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

argenteum, Holocentrum Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:502 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] New Guinea. Lectotype: MNHN A-2638. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-2531 (1), A-2639 (2). Type catalog: Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:124-125, Fig. 3 on p. 123 [ref. 20909], Bauchot 1970:13-14 [ref. 20740]. Lectotype selected by Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:124 [ref. 20909]. Original genus should have been spelled Holocentrus. •Valid as Flammeo argenteus (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Neoniphon argenteus (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:3 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:416 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:378 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Kotlyar 1996:82 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:83 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:131 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:492 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:492 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:30 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:92 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:780 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:172 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33932], Copus et al. 2015:2 [ref. 33666], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:82 [ref. 34690], Fricke et al. 2019:83 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Neoniphon argenteus (Valenciennes 1831). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marquesas Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia, Tonga, and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

argyromus, Myripristis Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:172 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Hilo, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50631. Paratypes: AMNH 2284 (1), BPBM 1690 [now CAS-SU 7453] (1), FMNH 3949 (1), CAS 79590 [ex IU 9803] (1), MCZ 28892 (1), CAS-SU 7453 (now 1), USNM 125645 [ex USFC 2703] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:58 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Myripristis amaenus (Castelnau 1873) -- (Greenfield 1974:8 [ref. 7142]). •Synonym of Myripristis amaena (Castelnau 1873) -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:15 [ref. 22543], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2237 [ref. 24790], Mundy 2005:306 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:147 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis amaena (Castelnau 1873). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

armatus, Neoniphon Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:5 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:36 [ref. 20740]. •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:379 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1985:4 [ref. 5144], Allen et al. 2006:780 [ref. 29066]). •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

astakhovi, Myripristis Kotlyar [A. N.] 1997:844, Fig. 1 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 37 (no. 6); ref. 23713] South China Sea, Nyachang Gulf, Vietnam, 12°10.45'N, 109°17.57'E, depth 9-14 meters. Holotype: ZMMU P-20258. Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:78 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Myripristis astakhovi Kotlyar 1997 -- (Kotlyar 1998:206 [ref. 24674], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Randall et al. 2003:410 [ref. 26954]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis astakhovi Kotlyar 1997. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: South China Sea, Nyachang Gulf, Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

ataja, Holacanthus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:526, 530 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Off Customs dock, Port Sudan harbor, Sudan, Red Sea, 3–4 m Neotype: BPBM 28183. Unneeded replacement name for Sciaena rubra Forsskål 1775. Neotype (same as for Sciaena rubra Forsskål 1775) selected by Randall & Heemstra 1985:17 [ref. 5144]. •Synonym of Sargocentrum rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae. Habitat: marine.

atractus, Beloholocentrus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:101, Figs. 141-142 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Courtown Key [Cayos del Es Sudeste], off Nicaragua, Caribbean Sea. Holotype: ANSP 70079. Paratypes: ANSP 70080-85 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Tyler et al. 1993:1129 [ref. 21502]). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

atraria, Holocentrus Meuschen [F. C.] 1778:25 [Museum Gronovianum; ref. 17682] Original not seen. Not available, published in a rejected work (Opinion 260). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae.

atrocissimus, Holocentrus Commerson [P.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Original not seen. Name mentioned in text, not available. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae.

aulacodes, Myripristis Randall [J. E.] & Greenfield [D. W.] 1996:19, Pl. 1C [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 25; ref. 22543] Ampenan Utara, Lombok, Indonesia (from fisherman). Holotype (unique): BPBM 29930. Original genus misspelled Mypristes in main heading. •Valid as Myripristis aulacodes Randall & Greenfield 1996 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1999:2234 [ref. 24790], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:168 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis aulacodes Randall & Greenfield 1996. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Lombok, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

aureoruber, Holocenthrus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:504, Pl. 10 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27472. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. Genus should have been spelled Holocentrus. •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:16 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:65 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

aureus, Ostichthys Langsdorff [G. H. von] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:174 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Not available, manuscript name mentioned under account of Myripristis japonicus Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae.

aurolineatum, Holocentrum Liénard [F.] 1839:32 [Rapport Annuel sur les travaux de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de l'Ile Maurice No. 10; ref. 17536] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): NHMI (not found). Original as auro-lineatum. For comments on authorship see Monod 1976:21, 22 [ref. 30339]. •Valid as Neoniphon aurolineatus (Liénard 1839) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:3 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:416 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:378 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:64 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:83 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:64 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:83 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:131 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:492 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:492 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:92 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:308 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:131 [ref. 28745], Allen et al. 2006:780 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:151 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:34 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:172 [ref. 31980], Copus et al. 2015:2 [ref. 33666], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:83 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35333], Kotlyar 2017:34 [ref. 35137], Fricke et al. 2018:114 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Neoniphon aurolineatus (Liénard 1839). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Comores, Aldabra and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, Philippines, south to northern Great Barrier Reef (Australia). Habitat: marine.

australis, Myripristes Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:4 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:36 [ref. 20740]. •Synonym of Myripristis hexagonus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Greenfield 1974:25 [ref. 7142], Paxton et al. 1989:377 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Myripristis violacea Bleeker 1851 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:51 [ref. 22543]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis violacea Bleeker 1851. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

axillaris, Myripristis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:491 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0070. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:20 [ref. 20740]. •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Greenfield 1974:20 [ref. 7142], Randall & Heemstra 1986:424 [ref. 5707], Chen et al. 1990:254 [ref. 16678], Randall & Greenfield 1996:39 [ref. 22543], Fricke 1999:129 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2242 [ref. 24790], Randall 2005:89 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:148 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

berndti, Myripristis Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:170 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50627. Paratypes: AMNH 2282 (1); ANSP 24212 (1); BPBM [not 16818] (1); CAS 1489 (1, wrong fish), 17724 [ex IU 10357] (1); IU 9801 (1, not found at CAS); FMNH 3947 (1); MCZ 28890 (1); CAS-SU 7451 (1); USNM 125645 [USFC 2701] (1), 50628 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:48 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Myripristis berndti Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1986:423 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:377 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:16 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:61 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1990:252 [ref. 16678], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 20996], Allen & Robertson 1994:94 [ref. 22193], Schneider & Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:1184 [ref. 22829], Randall & Yamakawa 1996:217 [ref. 22430], Kotlyar 1996:87 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:188 [ref. 27969], Randall & Greenfield 1996:22 [ref. 22543], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:212 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:277 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:61 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:206 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:80 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:127 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2238 [ref. 24790], Johnson 1999:725 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:498 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:140 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:59 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:498 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2003:405 [ref. 26954], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:29 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:135 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:87 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:306 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:777 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:147 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:146 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:33 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:83 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:372 [ref. 31242], Hubert et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31846], Allen & Erdmann 2012:168 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:72 [ref. 32988] dated 1905, Fricke et al. 2014:40 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:111 [ref. 36167], Motomura et al. 2015:17 [ref. 34709], Roberts 2015:1023 [ref. 34256], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:59 [ref. 34690], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:15 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:112 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis berndti Jordan & Evermann 1903. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Clipperton and Revillagigedo Islands and Costa Rica, north to Ryukyu Islands, Ogasawara Islands and Midway Atoll, south to Western Australia at 22°S, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Kermadec Islands, and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

bimaculatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:319 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] East Indies. No types known. Family placement may be incorrect. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

binotatum, Holocentrum Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1834:679, Pl. 14 (fig. 4) [Voyage de découvertes de "l'Astrolabe" Zoologie, v. 3 (Pt 2); ref. 3573] New Guinea; Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN A-2636 (1) Guam. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:14 [ref. 20740]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:19 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:74 [ref. 23300], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Holocentrum Weber [M.] 1913:181 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Karkaralong Island, Siboga station 129; Banda Island, Siboga station 240 [Indonesia]. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Based on Holocentrum argenteum of Bleeker (not of Valenciennes); based on literature and on specimens. •Synonym of Sargocentron microstoma (Günther 1859) -- (Randall 1998:54 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron microstoma (Günther 1859). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Myripristis Günther [A.] (ex Bleeker) 1859:20 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Banda Neira, Banda Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1880.4.21.20 (1) [Bleeker coll.]; RMNH 5410 (1), 24913 [ex 5410] (largest of 2). Based on Myripristis pralinius of Bleeker 1851:234 [ref. 331], not of Cuvier. •Synonym of Myripristis pralinia Cuvier 1829 -- (Greenfield 1974:22 [ref. 7142] as pralinius, Chen et al. 1990:255 [ref. 16678], Randall & Greenfield 1996:40 [ref. 22543], Randall 2005:90 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis pralinia Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

borbonicus, Myripristis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:489 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7589. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:20 [ref. 20740]. •Synonym of Myripristis kuntee Cuvier 1831 -- (Greenfield 1974:28 [ref. 7142], Randall & Heemstra 1986:424 [ref. 5707], Randall & Greenfield 1996:36 [ref. 22543], Fricke 1999:129 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2241 [ref. 24790], Randall 2007:148 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis kuntee Valenciennes 1831. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

borodinoensis, Sargocentron Kotlyar [A. N.] 2017:33, Figs. 1, 2a [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 57 (no. 1); ref. 35137] Philippine Sea, Borodino submarine elevation, depth 100-190 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN 56055. •Valid as Sargocentron borodinoensis Kotlyar 2017. Current status: Valid as Sargocentron borodinoensis Kotlyar 2017. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Philippine Sea. Habitat: marine.

botche, Myripristis Cuvier [G.] 1829:151 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:180 [ref. 4879]. Based on Russel 1803, pl. 105. •Valid as Myripristis botche Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:25 [ref. 22543], Anderson et al. 1998:22 [ref. 23611], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2239 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:497 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:497 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2003:410 [ref. 26954], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:88 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:778 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:33 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:83 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:169 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:72 [ref. 32988], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988] as cf. botche, Psomadakis et al. 2015:181 [ref. 34104], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:66 [ref. 34690], Fricke et al. 2018:112 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:350 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis botche Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia, Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

bowditchae, Myripristis Woods [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:202, Pl. 18b [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon reef halfway between Bikini Island and Amen Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. Holotype: USNM 140839. Paratypes: FMNH 62595-97 (2, 1, 1); USNM 123719 (1), 139819 (1), 139821 (11), 139823 (4), 139829 (2), 140840-43 (5, 1, 1, 1), 140845-47 (19, 1, 1), 140849-51 (2, 1, 3), 140853-54 (17, 7), 143703-06 (6, 2, 8, 4). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:58 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Myripristis parvidens Cuvier 1829 -- (Greenfield 1974:11 [ref. 7142]). •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:39 [ref. 22543], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:323 [ref. 28867], Fricke et al. 2018:113 [ref. 35805]). •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

bowiei, Holocentrus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1905:353, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 29 (no. 1422); ref. 10653] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 53044. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:75 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

brachygnathus, Ostichthys Randall [J. E.] & Myers [R. F.] 1993:78, Fig. 1 [Micronesica v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 21001] Off Orote Peninsula, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific, depth about 230 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 35052. •Valid as Ostichthys brachygnathus Randall & Myers 1993 -- (Kotlyar 1996:89 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:209 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2234 [ref. 24790], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Greenfield et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35170], Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[6] [ref. 35637], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[28] [ref. 35840]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys brachygnathus Randall & Myers 1993. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Pacific near Guam and Saipan. Habitat: marine.

brachypterus, Holocentrus Poey [F.] 1865:184 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 13954] Cuba. Possible types: NMW 78712 (1). •Synonym of Holocentrus vexillarium (Poey 1860) -- (Woods 1955:109 [ref. 12538], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:186 [ref. 25013]). •Synonym of Neoniphon vexillarium (Poey 1860). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon vexillarium (Poey 1860). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

brachyrhynchos, Rhynchichthys Bleeker [P.] 1853:107 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 16900] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1880.4.21.22. Holotype found, J. Maclaine 30 Nov. 2015. •Incertae sedis, family Holocentridae -- (Fricke 1999:126 [ref. 24106] as brachyrhynchus). •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775) -- (R. Fricke, personal communication, 8 Dec. 2015). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

bullisi, Holocentrus Woods [L. P.] 1955:113, Fig. 18 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 37 (no. 4); ref. 12538] Campeche Banks, Oregon station 222, 22°32'N, 88°47'W, Yucatán, Mexico, depth 29 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 164980 [ex FMNH 46912]. Paratypes: FMNH 46193 (1), 47921 (9), 48730 (1), 59868-71 (1, 3, 9, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:47 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Holocentrus bullisi Woods 1955 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:114 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:247 [ref. 24472], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1015 [ref. 23897]). •Valid as Adioryx bullisi (Woods 1955) -- (Boschung 1992:91 [ref. 23239], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27192]). •Valid as Sargocentron bullisi (Woods 1955) -- (Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:272 [ref. 14275], Andreata & Séret 1996:584 [ref. 16204], Kotlyar 1996:83 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:200 [ref. 24674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:185 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Greenfield 2003:1201 [ref. 27041], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:10 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron bullisi (Woods 1955). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

carneus, Myripristis Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:474 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 18603] Admiralty Islands. Holotype (unique): AMS I.214. •Synonym of Plectrypops lima (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Plectrypops lima (Valenciennes 1831). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

caudimaculatus, Holocentrus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:97, 103 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 1335. Paralectotypes: NMW 78546 (1); SMF 2932 (1, dry), 3077 (1, dry), 7901 (1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:19 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Adioryx caudimaculatus (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dor 1984:70 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:111 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:5 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:418 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:65 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356] as caudimaculatus, Randall 1995:95 [ref. 22896], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:30 [ref. 26476] as caudimaculatus dated 1835, Kuiter 1997:62 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:65 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:14 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:200 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:135 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2249 [ref. 24790], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:488 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:145 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:488 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:31 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:135 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:93 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:310 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:782 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:34 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:53 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:83 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:174 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:86 [ref. 34690], Fricke et al. 2018:115 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:85 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:353 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Minami Tori Shima, south to Western Australia at 17°30'S, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

christianum, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:219 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Possible types: ZMB 494 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:35 [ref. 20740]. Also appeared as Rüppell 1829:83, 85 [ref. 3843]. •Synonym of Flammeo sammara (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:71 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:4 [ref. 5144], Golani & Fricke 2018:45 [ref. 36273]). •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

chryseres, Myripristis Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:171 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Hilo, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50629. Paratypes: AMNH 2283 (1); ANSP 24213 [not 24273] (1); BPBM 1689 (1); CAS [not 1490] (1, lost); FMNH 3948 (1); CAS [ex IU 9802] (1, not found in 1997); MCZ 28891 (1); CAS-SU 7452 (1 or 5); USFC 2702 (1); USNM 50630 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:58 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Myripristis chryseres Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Greenfield 1974:14 [ref. 7142], Kyushin et al. 1977:48 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:40 [ref. 19754], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:113 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1986:423 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:377 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:61 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1990:253 [ref. 16678], Kotlyar 1996:87 [ref. 23292], Randall & Greenfield 1996:27 [ref. 22543], Khalaf et al. 1996:403 [ref. 23175], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:61 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:206 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:80 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:127 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2240 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:495 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:495 [ref. 26001], Randall et al. 2002:156 [ref. 26192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:88 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:307 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:118 [ref. 28745], Allen et al. 2006:778 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:148 [ref. 30952], Khalaf & Zajonz 2007:424 [ref. 31739], Fricke et al. 2009:33 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:169 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:67 [ref. 34690], Motomura et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35490], Golani & Fricke 2018:45 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis chryseres Jordan & Evermann 1903. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Comoros and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Society Islands, north to southern Japan, Ogasawara Islands and Midway Atoll, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

chryseus, Rhinoberyx Cope [E. D.] 1871:464, Fig. 2 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Croix Island, West Indies. Syntypes: ANSP 14186-87 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Myripristis jacobus Cuvier 1829 -- (Greenfield 1974:31 [ref. 7142]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis jacobus Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

clarionensis, Myripristis Gilbert [C. H.] 1897:441, Pl. 69 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico (captured by bird). Holotype (unique): USNM 47746. •Valid as Myripristis clarionensis Gilbert 1897 -- (Greenfield 1965:234 [ref. 21267], Allen & Robertson 1994:95 [ref. 22193], Schneider & Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:1184 [ref. 22829], Kotlyar 1996:87 [ref. 23292], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:212 [ref. 24545], Kotlyar 1998:206 [ref. 24674], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis clarionensis Gilbert 1897. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Revillagigedo and Clipperton islands. Habitat: marine.

convexus, Ostichthys Greenfield [D. W.], Randall [J. E.] & Psomadakis [P. N.] 2017:12, Figs. 12-13 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 26; ref. 35170] Myanmar, off Tanintharyi coast, 13°3.21'N, 96°41.62'E, depth 121-129 meters. Holotype: BPBM 41327. Paratypes: BPBM. Species name misspelled convexa in key, but spelled convexus otherwise in original description. •Valid as Ostichthys convexus Greenfield, Randall & Psomadakis 2017 -- (Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[6] [ref. 35637], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[28] [ref. 35840], Psomadakis et al. 2020:352 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys convexus Greenfield, Randall & Psomadakis 2017. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar endemic. Habitat: marine.

cornigerum, Holocentrum Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:481 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Atlantic. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:45 [ref. 20740]. Based on Corniger spinosus Agassiz 1831. •Synonym of Corniger spinosus Agassiz 1831 -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Corniger spinosus Agassiz 1831. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

cornutum, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1854:240 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 16901] Ceram or Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1880.4.21.21. Paralectotypes: (3) RMNH 5433 (none in size range). Lectotype selected by Randall 1998:17 [ref. 23300]. •Valid as Sargocentron cornutum (Bleeker 1854) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:65 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:190 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:65 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:17 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:32 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:96 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:782 [ref. 29066], Satapoomin 2009:53 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:174 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:301 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:85 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron cornutum (Bleeker 1854). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: Andaman Sea and Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

coruscum, Holocentrum Poey [F.] 1860:158 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]. •Valid as Holocentrus coruscus Poey 1860 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:114 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:245 [ref. 24472], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1016 [ref. 23897]). •Valid as Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860) -- (Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:200 [ref. 24674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:185 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:104 [ref. 26784], Greenfield 2003:1201 [ref. 27041], Smith et al. 2003:17 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:34 [ref. 33341], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic along the coast from Florida to Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

daniela, Ostichthys Greenfield [D. W.], Randall [J. E.] & Psomadakis [P. N.] 2017:15, Fig. 14 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 26; ref. 35170] Myanmar, off Tanintharyi coast, 13°3.21'N, 96°41.62"E, depth 121-129 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 41329. Treated as a noun in apposition. •Valid as Ostichthys daniela Greenfield, Randall & Psomadakis 2017 -- (Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[6] [ref. 35637], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[28] [ref. 35840], Psomadakis et al. 2020:352 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys daniela Greenfield, Randall & Psomadakis 2017. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar endemic. Habitat: marine.

delta, Ostichthys Randall [J. E.], Shimizu [T.] & Yamakawa [T.] 1982:(10) 18, Fig. 11 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 3602] Saint-Paul Bay, Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 150 meters. Holotype: BPBM 20050. Paratypes: MNHN 1980-1499 (1), 1980-1500 (1), 1980-1534 (2); NSMT-P 19159 (1); USNM 223716 (1). •Valid as Ostichthys delta Randall, Shimizu & Yamakawa 1982 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:425 [ref. 5707], Randall & Myers 1993:81 [ref. 21001], Kotlyar 1996:89 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:209 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:134 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2234 [ref. 24790], Fricke et al. 2009:34 [ref. 30213], Greenfield et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35170], Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[6] [ref. 35637], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[28] [ref. 35840]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys delta Randall, Shimizu & Yamakawa 1982. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Réunion (western Mascarenes), Comoros, Samoa, probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

diadema, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:335, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality [probably South Seas]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:35 [ref. 20740]. Based on Commerson manuscript and drawing. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:137 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Figured on Pl. 32 (fig. 3) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name. •Valid as Adioryx diadema (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:54 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:70 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Sargocentron diadema (Lacepède 1802) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:7 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:418 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:65 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:75 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:30 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:65 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:21 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Johnson 1999:725 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:490 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:145 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:490 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:32 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:136 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:94 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:310 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:782 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:152 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:83 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Hubert et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31846], Allen & Erdmann 2012:174 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:87 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:115 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:18 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:85 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:353 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron diadema (Lacepède 1802). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara islands, south to Western Australia, Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs, New Caledonia and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

dimidicauda, Holocentrum Marshall [T. C.] 1953:49, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Ichthyological Notes, Department of Harbours and Marine, Queensland No. 2; ref. 12701] Caloundra, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): DHMB 174 [? now at QM]. •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Randall 1998:65 [ref. 23300], Allen et al. 2006:784 [ref. 29066]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

diploxiphus, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1872:660, Pl. 60 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Savai'i Island, Samoa. Syntypes: BMNH 1871.9.13.123 (1), 1871.9.13.214 (1). •Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:61 [ref. 23300], Mundy 2005:312 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

dorsomaculatus, Adioryx Shimizu [T.] & Yamakawa [T.] 1979:119, Figs. 3C, 4A, 5A, 9 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 26 (no. 2); ref. 8788] Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: HUMZ 41396. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.5.24.1 (1); BSKU 50001-02 (1, 1); HUMZ 40256 (1), 62846 (1); USNM 219673 (1); ZUMT 54050 (1). •Valid as Sargocentron dorsomaculatum (Shimizu & Yamakawa 1979) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:111 [ref. 6441], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:24 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:488 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:488 [ref. 26001], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:88 [ref. 34690]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron dorsomaculatum (Shimizu & Yamakawa 1979). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands, Palau Islands and Caroline Islands. Habitat: marine.

earlei, Myripristis Randall [J. E.], Allen [G. R.] & Robertson [D. R.] 2003:406, Figs. 1-4 [Zoological Studies v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 26954] Hana Hevane Bay, Tahuata, Marquesas Islands. Holotype: BPBM 10373. Paratypes: AMS I.4000-001 (1); ASIZP 60491 (1); BPBM 10350 (6), 11474 (2); CAS 211840 (1); FMNH 17952 (3); MCZ 16151 (1), 161949-50 (1, 1); MNHN 2000-584 (2); NSMT-P 59359 (1); WAM P.32101-001 (5); USNM 360583 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:16 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Myripristis earlei Randall, Allen & Robertson 2003 -- (Randall 2005:88 [ref. 28239], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis earlei Randall, Allen & Robertson 2003. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Marquesas and Phoenix islands. Habitat: marine.

elongatum, Holocentrum Bliss [R.] (ex Steindachner) 1883:52 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MCZ 5673 (1), 5925 (2); USNM 153565 [ex MCZ 5925] (1). •Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:20 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300], Fricke 1999:141 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

ensifer, Holocentrus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:176 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50637. Paratypes: AMNH 2287 (1), ANSP 24216 (1); BPBM 1693 (1); FMNH 3952 (1); CAS [ex IU 9806] (1, missing); MCZ 28895 (1); CAS-SU 7458 (1); USNM 126155 [ex USFC 2708] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:47 [ref. 12367]. The name ensifer can be a gerund (noun in apposition) or an adjective (C. R. Robins, pers. Comm.), so we suggest using ensifer since Jordan & Evermann use ensifer while in the masculine genus Holocentrus. •Valid as Sargocentron ensiferum (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Randall 1998:26 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:487 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:487 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35333]). •Valid as Sargocentron ensifer (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], andall 2005:94 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:311 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:152 [ref. 30952], Shao et al. 2008:245[ref. 29952], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:89 [ref. 34690]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron ensifer (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific, antiequatorial: South China Sea, Ryukyu Islands and southern Japan, Hawaiian Islands; New Caledonia, Pitcairn Group. Habitat: marine.

erythraeum, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1859:32 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] San Cristobal Island, Solomon Islands. Syntypes: BMNH 1852.9.13.120 (1), 1855.11.7.45 (1, stuffed). Also listed was Plate V, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300], Mundy 2005:313 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

exasperatus, Holocentrus Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1927:26, Fig. 13 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 635] West Indies. Holotype: YPM 505. Paratypes: YPM 506 (2), 507 (3). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:14 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Plectrypops retrospinis (Guichenot 1853) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Plectrypops retrospinis (Guichenot 1853). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

farer, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:44 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P.4042. Unneeded alternative name for Sciaena sammara Fabricius 1775. Fricke 2008:23 [ref. 30182] acted as first reviser and gave preference to S. sammara. •In the synonymy of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:23 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Valid as Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

formosa, Myripristis Randall [J. E.] & Greenfield [D. W.] 1996:28, Pl. 3A [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 25; ref. 22543] Tashi [Daxi], 24°41'N, 121°45'E, northeastern coast of Taiwan (from fisherman). Holotype: ASIZP 056565. Paratypes: BPBM 37103 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:39 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Myripristis formosa Randall & Greenfield 1996 -- (Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Ho & Shao 2011:39 [ref. 31432], Nair & Dineshkumar 2016:2 [ref. 35100]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis formosa Randall & Greenfield 1996. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Taiwan and India. Habitat: marine.

fulgens, Myriopristis Poey [F.] 1860:160 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 21910 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:182 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Ostichthys trachypoma (Günther 1859) -- (Greenfield et al. 2017:30 [ref. 35170]). Current status: Synonym of Ostichthys trachypoma (Günther 1859). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

furcatum, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1859:29 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] South Sea [probably Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1854.8.25.10 (stuffed). Also listed was Plate IV, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Valid as Sargocentron furcatum (Günther 1859) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:111 [ref. 6441], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:145 [ref. 25191]). •Synonym of the Atlantic Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Randall 1998:28 [ref. 23300], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:94 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

fuscostriatus, Holocentrus Seale [A.] 1901:69 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 73. Paratypes: (24) ANSP 83956 (14), BPBM 74 (13), USNM 109373 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

gildi, Myripristis Greenfield [D. W.] 1965:241, Fig. 5 [California Fish and Game v. 51 (no. 4); ref. 21267] Clipperton Island, just northwest of wreck on northeastern side, eastern Pacific. Holotype: USNM 231717 [ex 158201-F]. Paratypes: BMNH 1964.11.27.1 (1); SIO 59-4 (4) (ex UCLA W56-237); USNM 202536 [ex UW 18498] (1). •Valid as Myripristis gildi Greenfield 1965 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:95, 303 [ref. 22193], Schneider & Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:1184 [ref. 22829], Kotlyar 1996:87 [ref. 23292], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:212 [ref. 24545], Kotlyar 1998:206 [ref. 24674]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis gildi Greenfield 1965. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Clipperton Island endemic. Habitat: marine.

gladispinis, Holocenthrus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:225, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 56; ref. 1365] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 14140. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:61 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

goldiei, Holocentrum Macleay [W.] 1882:352 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 17585] New Guinea. Syntypes: AMS I.16285-001 [ex MAMU F241] (3) Port Moresby. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

gracilispinis, Holocenthrus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:228, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 56; ref. 1365] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: ANSP 27271. Paratypes: ANSP 17124 (1) and 17126 (1) [dry skins, both missing]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:61 [ref. 23300], Mundy 2005:312 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

greenfieldi, Myripristis Randall [J. E.] & Yamakawa [T.] 1996:217, Figs. 1 (bottom), 3 [Ichthyological Research v. 43 (no. 3); ref. 22430] Kashiwa-jima, Shikoku, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 47399. Paratypes: AMS I.36492-001 (1); BPBM 36855 (2); BSKU 82130-34 [ex KSHS 13579, 17037, 17436-37, 21603] (1, 1, 1, 1, 1); CAS 83135 (1); MNHN 1995-1085 (1); NSMT-P 47340 (1), ?47398 [ex KSHS 20474] (1). •Valid as Myripristis greenfieldi Randall & Yamakawa 1996 -- (Kotlyar 1998:206 [ref. 24674], Nakabo 2000:497 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:497 [ref. 26001], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:68 [ref. 34690], Nair & Dineshkumar 2016:3 [ref. 35100]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis greenfieldi Randall & Yamakawa 1996. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and Indian Ocean; Japanese waters, Kochi Prefecture, Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands and India. Habitat: marine.

guezei, Myripristis (Holotrachys) Postel [E.] 1962:158, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 34 (no. 2); ref. 6366] Near Pt. Galets, Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 300 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1962-0319. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:20 [ref. 20740]. •Synonym of Ostichthys kaianus (Günther 1880) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:426 [ref. 5707], Fricke 1999:134 [ref. 24106], Greenfield et al. 2017:22 [ref. 35170]). Current status: Synonym of Ostichthys kaianus (Günther 1880). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

hasta, Neoniphon De Vis [C. W.] 1884:537 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): not at QM. •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:379 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:780 [ref. 29066]). •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

hastatum, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:208, Pl. 59 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] West Africa. Lectotype: MNHN A-2672. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-2667 to 2668 (1, 1). Appeared first as name only in Cuvier 1829:150 [ref. 995]. Lectotype figured in Duhamel, Pêches, II, p. 208, Pl. 5 (fig. 2) according to Bauchot 1970:14 [ref. 20740] (not researched). •Valid as Holocentrus hastatus Cuvier 1829 -- (Nielsen 1973:342 [ref. 6885]). •Valid as Adioryx hastatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:627 [ref. 17305]). •Valid as Sargocentron hastatum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:754 [ref. 13676] as hastatus, Anato et al. 1991:292 [ref. 20017], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:200 [ref. 24674], Afonso et al. 1999:70 [ref. 25466], Wilk et al. 2005:86 [ref. 28205], Wirtz et al. 2007:28 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Greenfield 2016:2200 [ref. 34606], Carneiro et al. 2019:156 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron hastatum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hexagonus, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:180, 213 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated [Sumatra, Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5423 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:23 [ref. 20740]. •Valid as Myripristis hexagona (Lacepède 1802) [sometimes as hexagonus] -- (Greenfield 1974:24 [ref. 7142], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1986:423 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477] as hexagonatus, Paxton et al. 1989:377 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:62 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:87 [ref. 23292], Randall & Greenfield 1996:32 [ref. 22543], Kotlyar 1997:846 [ref. 23713], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977] as hexagonatus, Randall et al. 1997:62 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:206 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:128 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2254 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:497 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:141 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Nakabo 2002:497 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:89 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:778 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:33 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:51 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:169 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:72 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:65 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33932], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:69 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:16 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:112 [ref. 35805], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:72 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:350 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis hexagona (Lacepède 1802). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Samoa and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

holocentrus, Perca Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:191 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] Otahaitee [= Tahiti, Society Islands]. No types known. Preoccupied by Perca holocentrus Euphrasen 1795. Forster in Lichtentsein described four different varieties and mentioned more, which represent different species; one variety was attributed by Lichtenstein (editor, p. 191, footnote) "Holocentrum tiere Cuv. Val.? II. p. 151". •Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

holocentrus, Perca Euphrasen [B. A.] 1795:74 [Beskrifning öfver svenska westindiska; ref. 30156] Japan [in error]. No types known. Unneeded replacement name for Holocentrus sogo Bloch 1790. Euphrasen's specimen described from St. Barthelemy. •Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

hormion, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.] 1998:29, Pl. 2c; Fig. 10 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 27; ref. 23300] Off West Harbor, Pitcairn Island, depth 12-15 meters. Holotype: BPBM 16664. Paratypes: AMS I.38144-001 (1); ANSP 83964 [ex BPBM 1972] (1); AMNH 72751-52 (1, 1); BMNH 1997.8.28.15 (1); BPBM 1972 (1), 12861 (1), 16635 (2), 16785 (2), 17250 (1); CAS 96182 (1); MNHN 1997-3320 (1); NSMT P53955 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 55264 (1); USNM 345846 (1). •Valid as Sargocentron hormion Randall 1998 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Randall 2005:94 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron hormion Randall 1998. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

humilis, Myripristis Kner [R.] & Steindachner [F.] 1867:357 [2], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 54 (pt 3); ref. 2640] Samoa. Holotype (unique): NMW 42225. On p. 2 of separate. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

hypsipterygion, Ostichthys Randall [J. E.], Shimizu [T.] & Yamakawa [T.] 1982:(10) 14, Pl. 2 (fig. A); Fig. 9 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 3602] Naha fish market, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: HUMZ 62836. Paratypes: BPBM 26362 (1), NSMT-P 18641 (1). •Valid as Ostichthys hypsipterygion Randall, Shimizu & Yamakawa 1982 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Kotlyar 1996:89 [ref. 23292] as hypsepterygion, Kotlyar 1998:209 [ref. 24674], Nakabo 2000:494 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:494 [ref. 26001], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:78 [ref. 34690], Greenfield et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35170], Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[6] [ref. 35637], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[7] [ref. 35840]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys hypsipterygion Randall, Shimizu & Yamakawa 1982. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Okinawa and Japan, Vietnam and Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

iihi, Holocentrus Curtiss [A.] 1938:80 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

inaequalis, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1985:8, Pl. 1 (fig. G); Figs. 6, 7d [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 49; ref. 5144] North of Isle Diabole, Solomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago [Indian Ocean]. Holotype: ROM 40371. Paratypes: BPBM 29392 (2); CAS 35031 (1), 35471 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 19250-51 (1, 1). •Valid as Sargocentron inaequalis Randall & Heemstra 1985 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:419 [ref. 5707], Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:34 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:137 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron inaequalis Randall & Heemstra 1985. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Comores, Seychelles, Réunion (western Mascarenes), Chagos Archipelago, west coast of India, Line Islands (Kiribati); probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Myripristis Bleeker [P.] 1872:183 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 17081] Sulawesi, Indonesia. Based on Myripristis pralinius of Günther 1859:20 [ref. 1961], not of Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

intermedia, Myripristis murdjan var. Günther [A.] 1874:92 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] No locality. whereabouts unknown. Types and type locality not clear from description. •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:39 [ref. 22543]). •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

iota, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.] 1998:36, Pl. 3 (fig. B); Fig. 13 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 27; ref. 23300] Off Kahe Point Beach Park, Oahu, Hawaiian Island, depth 11 meters. Holotype: BPBM 11988. Paratypes: AMS I.24149-001 (1); BMNH 1983.12.24.1 (1); BPBM 9569 (1), 31121 (1), 33615 (1); CAS 95801 (3); NSMT-P 53813 (2); ROM 65622 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 55265 (1); USNM 257193 (1), 258854 (2), 288236 (1). •Valid as Sargocentron iota Randall 1998 -- (Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:95 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:311 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:152 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:175 [ref. 31980], Hagiwara & Motomura 2019:2 [ref. 36848]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron iota Randall 1998. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific: Christmas Island and Indonesia east to Hawaiian Islands, north to Amami Islands (Japan), south to New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

ittodai, Holocentrus Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1902:16, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 26 (no. 1306); ref. 12309] Naha, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 7746. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Adioryx ittodai (Jordan & Fowler 1902) -- (Allen & Cross 1983:7 [ref. 8381]). •Valid as Sargocentron ittodai (Jordan & Fowler 1902) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:10 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:419 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:66 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:76 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356] as ittadai, Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:66 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:40 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:137 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:490 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:490 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830] with authors as Jordan and Evermann, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:136 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:95 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:84 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:175 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:90 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35354], Kotlyar 2017:34 [ref. 35137], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron ittodai (Jordan & Fowler 1902). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Seychelles, Comores, Christmas Island, and western Mascarenes east to Marquesas Islands, north to Japan and south to New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

jacobus, Myripristis Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:162 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Martinique Island, West Indies; Brazil; Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0923 (1) Martinique, 0000-4605 (1) Martinique, A-2583 (1) Havana, A.2584 (1) Martinique; SMF 1102 [ex MNHN in 1830] (1) Martinique. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:21 [ref. 20740]. •Valid as Myripristis jacobus Cuvier 1829 -- (Greenfield 1974:30 [ref. 7142], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:274 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:115 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:632 [ref. 9166], Ben-Tuvia 1990:628 [ref. 17305], Cervigón 1991:250 [ref. 24472], Anato et al. 1991:293 [ref. 20017], Boschung 1992:92 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:340 [ref. 23827], Kotlyar 1996:87 [ref. 23292], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1021 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Kotlyar 1998:205 [ref. 24674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:184 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:71 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Collette et al. 2003:103 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Greenfield 2003:1199 [ref. 27041], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:17 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Wirtz et al. 2007:28 [ref. 30263], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:34 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:4 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:10 [ref. 34324], Greenfield 2016:2202 [ref. 34606], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Almeida & Alves 2019:270 [ref. 37097], Brown et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis jacobus Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Myripristis Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:173, Pl. 58 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Japan. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:36 [ref. 20740]. Appeared as name only in Cuvier 1829:151 [ref. 995]. •Valid as Ostichthys japonicus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:46 [ref. 19756], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1982:211, 368 [ref. 8256], Kyushin et al. 1982:38 [ref. 19754], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:429, 650 [ref. 8056], Paxton et al. 1989:379 [ref. 12442], Chen et al. 1990:258 [ref. 16678], Kotlyar 1996:89 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:190 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:29 [ref. 26476], Kotlyar 1998:210 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2247 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:494 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:494 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:226, 551 [ref. 26218] with author as Valenciennes, Shinohara et al. 2005:422 [ref. 28370], Allen et al. 2006:781 [ref. 29066], Satapoomin 2009:52 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:83 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:67 [ref. 34464], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:79 [ref. 34690], Greenfield et al. 2017:21 [ref. 35170] and as cf. japonicus, Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Motomura et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35490], Fricke 2017:[5] [ref. 35637], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35840], Psomadakis et al. 2020:352 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys japonicus (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar and Andaman Sea east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to Shark Bay (Western Australia), New South Wales (Australia) New Caledonia, Fiji, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

kaianus, Myripristis Günther [A.] 1880:39 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Kai Islands, Indonesia, Banda Sea [western Pacific Ocean], Challenger station 192, depth 129 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.150. •Valid as Ostichthys kaianus (Günther 1880) -- (Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1982:211, 368 [ref. 8256], Kyushin et al. 1982:39 [ref. 19754], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:429, 650 [ref. 8056], Randall & Heemstra 1986:426 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:379 [ref. 12442], Chen et al. 1990:258 [ref. 16678], Kotlyar 1996:89 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:29 [ref. 26476], Kotlyar 1998:210 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:134 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2248 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:494 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:494 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Shinohara et al. 2005:422 [ref. 28370], Allen et al. 2006:781 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:34 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:80 [ref. 34690], Kotlyar 2017:38 [ref. 35137], Greenfield et al. 2017:22 [ref. 35170], Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[6] [ref. 35637], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[28] [ref. 35840]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys kaianus (Günther 1880). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Réunion (western Mascarenes), Comoros; Indonesia east to Mariana Islands and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Shark Bay (Western Australia), Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

kinchi, Ostichthys Fricke [R.] 2017:64, Figs. 1-3 [FishTaxa v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 35313] Western Pacific Ocean, Papua New Guinea, New Ireland Province, Kavieng District, 7 km northwest of Kavieng, 02°32.31'S, 150°44.206'E - 02°30.31'S, 150°44.04'E, depth 191-290 meters. Holotype (unique): NTUM 11370. •Valid as Ostichthys kinchi Fricke 2017 -- (Fricke 2017:[5] [ref. 35637], Fricke et al. 2019:84 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys kinchi Fricke 2017. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: New Ireland (Papua New Guinea endemic). Habitat: marine.

kochiensis, Myripristis Randall [J. E.] & Yamakawa [T.] 1996:212, Figs. 1 (top-middle), 2 [Ichthyological Research v. 43 (no. 3); ref. 22430] Kashiwa-jima, Shikoku, Kochi Prefecture, Japan (from fisherman). Holotype: NSMT-P 47397. Paratypes: AMS I.36491-001 (1), BPBM 36856-57 (1, 1), BSKU 82128-29 (1, 1), CAS 83134 (1), MNHN 1995-1084 (1), NSMT-P 47398 (1), USNM 338763 (1). •Valid as Myripristis kochiensis Randall & Yamakawa 1996 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:36 [ref. 22543], Kotlyar 1998:207 [ref. 24674], Nakabo 2000:499 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:499 [ref. 26001], Motomura et al. 2015:17 [ref. 34709], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:70 [ref. 34690]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis kochiensis Randall & Yamakawa 1996. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Japan. Habitat: marine.

kuim, Myripristes Montrouzier [X.] 1857:426 [148] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. On p. 148 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy from Woodlark I., South Pacific. Holocentridae: Myripristinae.

kuntee, Myripristis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:487 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7585. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:21 [ref. 20740]. Based on the 'Sullanaroo-kuntee' of Russell 1803:Pl. 104 (vol. 2) [ref. 13862], and a specimen from Mauritius. •Valid as Myripristis kuntee Valenciennes 1831 -- (Greenfield 1974:28 [ref. 7142], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:113 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1986:424 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:377 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:16 [ref. 13251], Chen et al. 1990:253 [ref. 16678], Randall et al. 1990:62 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Kotlyar 1996:87 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:188 [ref. 27969] with author as Cuvier, Randall & Greenfield 1996:36 [ref. 22543], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:144 [ref. 24620], Kuiter 1997:62 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:62 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:207 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:80 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:128 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2241 [ref. 24790], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:495 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:141 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:495 [ref. 26001] with author as Cuvier, Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830] with author as Cuvier, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377] with author as Cuvier, Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576] with author as Cuvier, Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:135 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:89 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:307 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:778 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:148 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:33 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:83 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:170 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:72 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:72 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:16 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:112 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis kuntee Valenciennes 1831. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Comores, Seychelles and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island, and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

lacteoguttatum, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:214 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Indian seas. Lectotype: MNHN A-2634. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2530 [ex MNHN A-2634] (1). Type catalog: Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:121-122, Fig. 1 [ref. 20909], Bauchot 1970:15 [ref. 20740]. Originally as lacteo-guttatum. Lectotype established in Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:122, fig. 1 on p. 123 [ref. 20909]. •Valid as Adioryx lacteoguttatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor 1984:70 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Sargocentron lacteoguttatum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:15 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Randall et al. 1990:67 [ref. 15987], Randall 1998:60 [ref. 23300], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Mundy 2005:312 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:153 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

laeve, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1859:47 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Louisiade Archipelago, western Pacific; Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, western Pacific; Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1850.7.21.79 (1, stuffed), 1855.11.7.46 (1, stuffed), 1858.4.21.? (1) Ambon. Also listed was Plate VI. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Synonym of Neoniphon argenteus (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:3 [ref. 5144], Fricke et al. 2019:83 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon argenteus (Valenciennes 1831). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

laticeps, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:211 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] No Locality. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:35 [ref. 20740]. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

leiognathus, Myripristis Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype: ?MNHN A-2687 (dry). Non-types: ?MNHN 0000-5496 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:21-22 [ref. 20740] as holotype and paratype, but there can only be a holotype (figured specimen). Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:316 [ref. 4504]. Spelled leignathos in text in 1855, leiognathus on Pl. 4 in 1846. •Valid as Myripristis leiognathus [correct] Valenciennes 1846 [sometimes as leiognathos] -- (Greenfield 1965:234 [ref. 21267], Allen & Robertson 1994:95 [ref. 22193], Schneider & Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:1185 [ref. 22829], Kotlyar 1996:87 [ref. 23292], McCosker et al. 1997:24 [ref. 22816], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:212 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:275 [ref. 24023], Kotlyar 1998:207 [ref. 24674], Thomson et al. 2000:59 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:307 [ref. 28379], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis leiognathus Valenciennes 1846. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific near the American coast from the Gulf of California and Baja California peninsula to Ecuador and Revillagigedo, Cocos, Gorgona, and the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

lentiginosus, Holocentrus Vahl [M.] 1793:118 [Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet Kiøbenhavn v. 3 (pt 1) (art. 8); ref. 17846] Indian seas. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

leo, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] 1829:150 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Bora Bora, Society Islands. Neotype: MNHN 0000-9523. Non-types: MNHN 0000-9526 (1) Seychelles. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:15 [ref. 20740]. Available from footnote 2 for account of Holocentrum as "Hol. leo, Nob., Ren., I, xxvii, 148, très mauv. fig.", in reference to Renard plate. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:204 [ref. 4879]. Lectotype designation [incorrect]: Bauchot 1970:15 [ref. 20740], based on description in ref. 4879. Neotype designated by Randall 1998:76 [ref. 23300]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:141 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:74 [ref. 23300], Fricke 1999:140 [ref. 24106], Mundy 2005:313 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:784 [ref. 29066]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

leonoides, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1849:71 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 316] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. No types known. •Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838) -- (Randall 1998:14 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

lepros, Adioryx Allen [G. R.] & Cross [N. J.] 1983:5, Fig. 1 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 8381] Off Smith Point, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, depth 30-35 meters. Holotype: WAM P.26089-001. Paratypes: BMNH 1982.7.2.1 (1); MNHN 1982-1013 (1); USNM 233061 (1); WAM P.26106-010 (1), P.27663-004 (1) [from addenda, p. 8]. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:15 and errata sheet [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:16 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Sargocentron lepros (Allen & Cross 1983) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Randall 1998:42 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:202 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Randall 2005:95 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:175 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron lepros (Allen & Cross 1983). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Island east to Samoa and Pitcairn Group, south to Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

leucopus, Rhamphoberyx Gill [T. N.] 1863:88 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: (2) USNM 6304 (1, apparently lost). •Synonym of Myripristis leiognathus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Greenfield 1965:234 [ref. 21267]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis leiognathus Valenciennes 1846. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

lima, Myripristis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:493 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7586 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:22 [ref. 20740]. •Valid as Plectrypops lima (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1986:426 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:379 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:53 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Chen et al. 1990:259 [ref. 16678], Randall et al. 1990:64 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:95 [ref. 22193], Kotlyar 1996:90 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:274 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:64 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:210 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:81 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:134 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2234 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:493 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:493 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:92 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:310 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:781 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:150 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:173 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:81 [ref. 34690], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Fricke et al. 2018:115 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Plectrypops lima (Valenciennes 1831). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: South Africa and East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Chagos Archipelago east to Cocos Island, Clipperton and Revillagigedo islands (eastern Pacific), north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island, Tonga, and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Holocentrus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:83 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only; from Red Sea. Family placement may be incorrect. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae.

longipinne, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] 1829:150 (footnote 2) [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] San Domingo. Lectotype: MNHN A-2590. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-2587 (1), A-2591 (1), A-2593 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:15-16 [ref. 20740]. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:185 [ref. 4879]. Based on literature and specimens. Lectotype selected by Bauchot 1970:15 [ref. 20740]. •Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Woods 1955:100 [ref. 12538], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:183 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

loricata, Sciaena Thunberg [C. P.] in Lacepède 1802:367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Japan. Appeared as "Sciaena loricata, argentea, immaculata, etc." in the account of Holocentrus thunberg. Regarded as non-binominal and not available. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae.

lychnus, Myriopristis Poey [F.] 1860:159 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10982 (7), USNM 120425 [ex MCZ 10482] (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:182 [ref. 22926] with a holotype as MCZ 206 mm specimen; Greenfield 1974:31 [ref. 7142] regarded USNM 120425 as holotype. •Synonym of Myripristis jacobus Cuvier 1829 -- (Greenfield 1974:31 [ref. 7142]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis jacobus Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

macrolepis, Myripristis Bleeker [P.] 1872:195 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 17081] One of following: Jakarta, Java; Nias; Makassar, Sulawesi; Kajeli, Buro; Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 24910 [ex RMNH 5421]. Paralectotypes: (25) BMNH 1880.4.21.15 (1); ?NMV 46486-87 (2); RMNH 5421 (some of 11), ?5157 (1). Based on literature sources and specimens. Lectotype selected by Randall & Greenfield 1996:34 [ref. 22543]. •Synonym of Myripristis hexagonus [hexagona is correct] (Lacepède 1802) -- (Greenfield 1974:25 [ref. 7142], Randall & Greenfield 1996:32 [ref. 22543], Randall 2005:89 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis hexagona (Lacepède 1802). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

macropus, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1859:31 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Mauritius [probably St. Helena]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1845.7.3.42 (stuffed). Also listed was Plate I. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Synonym of the Atlantic Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Randall 1998:28 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

macrosquamis, Sargocentron Golani [D.] 1984:40, Figs. 1-2 [Cybium v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 8224] Eastern end of D'Arros Island, Amirante Islands, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: FMNH 86961. Paratypes: TAU [= SMNHTAU] 7830 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:77 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Sargocentron macrosquamis Golani 1984 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:11 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:419 [ref. 5707], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:45 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:202 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:137 [ref. 24106], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron macrosquamis Golani 1984. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and eastern Mascarenes east to Maldives and Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Myripristis Steindachner [F.] 1861:73 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 11; ref. 18746] Locality not given. Holotype (unique): not found at NMW. •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:39 [ref. 22543]). •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

major, Holotrachys Whitley [G. P.] 1950:33, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1948-49; ref. 12979] Off New South Wales, between Wattamolla and Port Kambla, Australia, 34°50'S, 151°00'E, depth 106 fathoms. Holotype: AMS IB.2166. •Synonym of Ostichthys japonicus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:379 [ref. 12442], Chen et al. 1990:258 [ref. 16678], Allen et al. 2006:781 [ref. 29066], Greenfield et al. 2017:21 [ref. 35170], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35840]). Current status: Synonym of Ostichthys japonicus (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

marginatum, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:216 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Indian seas. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4047. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:16 [ref. 20740], Bauchot & Daget 1996:241 [ref. 22899]. •Synonym of Holocentrus ruber (Forsskål 1775) -- (authors). •Synonym of Sargocentron praslin (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:14 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:58 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron praslin (Lacepède 1802). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

marianum, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:219 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2599. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:16-17 [ref. 20740]. •Valid as Holocentrus marianus Cuvier 1829 -- (Woods 1955:99 [ref. 12538], Robins & Ray 1986:113 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:249 [ref. 24472], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1017 [ref. 23897]). •Valid as Neoniphon marianus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kotlyar 1996:83 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:104 [ref. 26784], Greenfield 2003:1200 [ref. 27041], Smith et al. 2003:17 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:92 [ref. 28239], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Copus et al. 2015:2 [ref. 33666]). •Valid as Flammeo marianus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:33 [ref. 33341] as marinus). Current status: Valid as Neoniphon marianus (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic from the coast of North Carolina to Trinidad Island, Antilles; thoughout the Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

marisrubri, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.], Golani [D.] & Diamant [A.] 1989:189, Figs. 1A, 2-4 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 35; ref. 14254] Fringing reef, about 1 mile north of Port Sudan Harbor, Sudan, Red Sea, depth 49 meters. Holotype: BPBM 19761. Paratypes: BMNH 1987.6.1.19 (1); BPBM 31051 (1); CAS 60392 (1); HUJ 11637 (1), 11732 (2); USNM 287467 (1). Type catalog: Golani 2006:24 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Sargocentron marisrubri Randall, Golani & Diamant 1989 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Randall 1998:46 [ref. 23300], Khalaf & Zajonz 2007:424 [ref. 31739], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:63 [ref. 35264], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron marisrubri Randall, Golani & Diamant 1989. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

matejuelo, Amphiprion Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:206 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. No types known. •Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm. 6/2003). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

matejuelo, Holocentrum Poey [F.] 1860:155, Pl. 13 (figs. 13-14) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 21915-18 (4). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:182 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm, 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

meeki, Holocentrus Bean [T. H.] 1906:31 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 19; ref. 15640] Hayward's Bay, St. David's Island, Bermuda. Lectotype: FMNH 5079. Paralectotypes: FMNH 96015 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:47 [ref. 12367]. Lectotype selected by Grey 1947:157 [ref. 12302]. •Synonym of Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Woods 1955:104 [ref. 12538], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:184 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

megalops, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.] 1998:48, Fig. 19 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 27; ref. 23300] 3/4 miles south of northwestern corner of Henderson Island, Pitcairn Group. Holotype (unique): BPBM 17111. •Valid as Sargocentron megalops Randall 1998 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Randall 2005:96 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron megalops Randall 1998. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Pitcairn Islands. Habitat: marine.

melanophrys, Holocentrum (Myripristis) Swainson [W.] 1839:207 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Rüppell 1829:Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [ref. 33843]. •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:39 [ref. 22543]). •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

melanopterus, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1855:302 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 16847] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 29396. Paralectotypes: (1). Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1985:19 [ref. 5144]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:19 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:74 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

melanospilos, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1858:2 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 3 (art. 14); ref. 13958] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5437. Later spelled melanospilus by Bleeker. •Valid as Sargocentron melanospilos (Bleeker 1858) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:12 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Randall et al. 1989 [ref. 14254], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:66 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:66 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:51 [ref. 23300], Anderson et al. 1998:22 [ref. 23611], Kotlyar 1998:202 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:138 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:488 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:147 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:488 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:53 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:84 [ref. 31256], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:63 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:176 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:94 [ref. 34690], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:86 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:353 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron melanospilos (Bleeker 1858). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comores, Madagascar and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Wake Atoll, Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

melanostictus, Myripristis Bleeker [P.] 1863:237 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 398] Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5157. •Synonym of Myripristis hexagonus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Greenfield 1974:25 [ref. 7142]). •Valid as Myripristis melanostictus Bleeker 1863 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1986:424 [ref. 5707] as melanosticta, Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:377 [ref. 12442], Chen et al. 1990:254 [ref. 16678] as melanosticta, Mohsin & Ambak 1996:189 [ref. 27969], Kotlyar 1996:88 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1997:846 [ref. 23713], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Kotlyar 1998:207 [ref. 24674], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:141 [ref. 25191] as melanosticta, Mishra & Krishnan 2003:24 [ref. 27712] as melanosticta). •Synonym of Myripristis botche Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:25 [ref. 22543], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2239 [ref. 24790], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Randall et al. 2003:410 [ref. 26954], Randall 2005:88 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis botche Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

melanostigma, Myripristis Bleeker [P.] 1875-78:no p., Pl. 355 (fig. 3) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 6835] Available from Plate, text not published; perhaps in error for another species; perhaps Myripristis melanostictus Bleeker 1863. •Synonym of Myripristis botche Cuvier 1829 -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis botche Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

microphthalmus, Myripristis Bleeker [P.] 1852:261 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Ambon Island, Molucca Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5417 (1 of 2). •Synonym of Myripristis violaceus Bleeker 1851 -- (Greenfield 1974:12 [ref. 7142]). •Synonym of Myripristis violacea Bleeker 1851 -- (Chen et al. 1990:256 [ref. 16678], Randall & Greenfield 1996:51 [ref. 22543], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2243 [ref. 24790], Randall 2005:91 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis violacea Bleeker 1851. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

microstoma, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1859:34 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1858.4.21.235. Paralectotypes: BMNH 2012.11.10.1 (1). Also listed was Plate VI. fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1985:13 [ref. 5144]. •Valid as Sargocentron microstoma (Günther 1859) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441] as microstomum, Randall & Heemstra 1985:13 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:66 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:66 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:54 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:202 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268] as microstomus, Nakabo 2000:491 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:491 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:96 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:312 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:176 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:86 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron microstoma (Günther 1859). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles, Madagascar, Chagos Archipelago and Maldives east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Gambier Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and Bonin-Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia, Tonga and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

mooreanus, Myripristis Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:394 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 18 (no. 12); ref. 2109] Moorea Island, Society Islands. Holotype: FMNH 17225. Paratypes: FMNH 17226-27 (2), CAS-SU 24425 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:58 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Myripristis pralinia Cuvier 1829 -- (Greenfield 1974:22 [ref. 7142] as pralinius). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis pralinia Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

multiradiatus, Myripristes Günther [A.] 1874:93 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Vava'u, Tonga Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.4.3.120. •Synonym of Myripristis kuntee Valenciennes 1831 -- (Greenfield 1974:28 [ref. 7142], Randall & Greenfield 1996:36 [ref. 22543], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2241 [ref. 24790], Randall 2005:89 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:307 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:148 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis kuntee Valenciennes 1831. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

murdjan, Sciaena Fabricius [J. C.] (ex Forsskål) in Niebuhr 1775:48, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P4041 (partial dry skin, head missing). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:58 [ref. 9588]. Spelled murdian in Bloch & Schneider 1801:86 [ref. 471]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 14 [ref. 20847]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:23 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Myripristis murdjan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Greenfield 1965:234 [ref. 21267], Greenfield 1974:19 [ref. 7142], Dor 1984:72 [ref. 29757], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1986:424 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:377 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:16 [ref. 13251], Chen et al. 1990:254 [ref. 16678], Randall et al. 1990:62 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:76 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:17 [ref. 25356], Randall1995:94 [ref. 22896], Kotlyar 1996:88 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:189 [ref. 27969], Randall & Yamakawa 1996:217 [ref. 22430], Randall & Greenfield 1996:39 [ref. 22543], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:29 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:62 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:62 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:207 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:81 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:129 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2242 [ref. 24790], Johnson 1999:725 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:499 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:142 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:51 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Randall & Stender 2002:139 [ref. 26088], Nakabo 2002:499 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:226, 550 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:134 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:89 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:308 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:778 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:148 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:33 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:52 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:83 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:170 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:72 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33932], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:73 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:16 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:113 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:45 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:350 [ref. 37272]). •Valid as Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:23 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll, northern Hawaiian Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia and New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

nasutus, Holocentrus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:640 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Suriname. •Questionably a synonym of Neoniphon marianus (Cuvier 1829) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Uncertain as Neoniphon marianus (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

niger, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:330, 359 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated. Family may be incorrect. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

novaebritanniae, Rhynchichthys De Vis [C. W.] 1884:447 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] New Britain Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Original as novae-Britanniae. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

occidentalis, Myriopristis Gill [T. N.] 1863:87 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 6269. Paralectotypes: USNM 6348 (29), 6350 (37), 6352-53 (7, 51), 198176 (12). Lectotype regarded as designated by Greenfield 1965:235 [ref. 21267] but with other types as paratypes. Original genus should have been Myripristis. •Synonym of Myripristis leiognathus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Greenfield 1965:234 [ref. 21267], Mundy 2005:307 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis leiognathus Valenciennes 1846. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

oligolepis, Holotrachys Whitley [G. P.] 1941:28, Pl. 1 (fig. 19) [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 1); ref. 4701] Between Cape Naturaliste and Geraldton, Western Australia, depth 20-100 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS E.2479. •Valid as Pristilepis oligolepis (Whitley 1941) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1986:426 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:379 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:53 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:155 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Kotlyar 1996:90 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Kotlyar 1998:210 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:135 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:493 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:493 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:310 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:781 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:150 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:34 [ref. 30213], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:111 [ref. 36167], Roberts 2015:1024 [ref. 34256], Kotlyar 2017:38 [ref. 35137]). Current status: Valid as Pristilepis oligolepis (Whitley 1941). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Réunion (Mascarenes), Western Australia, Japan and Ogasawara Islands, Hawaiian Islands, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Kermadec Ridge, Rapa, Easter Island; probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

operculare, Holocentrum Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:501 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Carteret Harbour, Lambom Island, near Cape Saint-George, southern New Ireland, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific, ca. 4°48'S, 152°51'E. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2655. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:17 [ref. 20740]. •Valid as Flammeo opercularis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Neoniphon opercularis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:4 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:416 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:378 [ref. 12442] as operculare, Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:64 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:83 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:64 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:64 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:83 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2244 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:492 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:144 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:492 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S100 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:31 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:135 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:93 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:780 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:34 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:173 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33932], Copus et al. 2015:2 [ref. 33666], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:84 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:114 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:83 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:351 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Neoniphon opercularis (Valenciennes 1831). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar, Saint Brandon's Shoals and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Line Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

orientale, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] 1829:150 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Puducherry, India. Neotype: MNHN-5516 (dry). Cuvier specimens: MNHN A-0073 (2), A-0077 (1), A-0078 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:17 [ref. 20740]. Available from footnote 2 of account of Holocentrum as "Hol. orientale, Nob., Seb., III, xxvii, 1." Described also by Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:197 [ref. 4879] from specimens from Pondicherry, the Red Sea and the Indian archipelago. Lectotype selected by Bauchot 1970:17 [ref. 20740] from Pondicherry specimen, but this is incorrect; this specimen was correctly designated the neotype by Randall 1998:67 [ref. 23300]. Predated by Holocentrus orientale Cuvier in Guérin-Méneville 1827-31, Pl. 27 [ref. 29508]. •Synonym of Adioryx ruber (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:71 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:16 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:65 [ref. 23300], Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397 [ref. 29507]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

orientale, Holocentrus Cuvier [G.] in Guérin-Méneville 1828:no page number, Livraison 13 [Planches de Seba v. 3; ref. 29508] No types known. Text applies to Pl. 27 (no. 1) published in 1827. Predates Holocentrus orientale Cuvier 1829. See Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397, 399 [ref. 29507]. •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forrskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397, 399 [ref. 29507]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

ornatus, Rhynchichthys Day [F.] 1868:149 [1] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 1); ref. 14070] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1868.10.27.37 [? formerly ZSI 2825]. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. On p. 1 of separate. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

osculum, Holocentrum Poey [F.] 1860:156 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Possible types: MCZ 21884 (1). •Synonym of Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Woods 1955:104 [ref. 12538]). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

ovaloculus, Ostichthys Randall [J. E.] & Wrobel [L.] 1988:243, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 35 (no. 3); ref. 12743] Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands, depth about 300 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 31643. •Valid as Ostichthys ovaloculus Randall & Wrobel 1988 -- (Kotlyar 1996:89 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:210 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2234 [ref. 24790], Greenfield et al. 2017:24 [ref. 35170], Fricke 2017:67 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[5] [ref. 35637], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[28] [ref. 35840]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys ovaloculus Randall & Wrobel 1988. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Pacific near Tahiti, French Polynesia. Habitat: marine.

pahudi, Myripristis Bleeker [P.] 1863:22 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 15; ref. 17008] Hitu, Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 24909 [ex RMNH 5420]. Paralectotypes: (6) ?BMNH 1880.4.21.19 (1); RMNH 5420 (2). Lectotype selected by Randall & Greenfield 1996:53 [ref. 22543]. •Synonym of Myripristis vittatus Cuvier 1831 -- (Greenfield 1974:19 [ref. 7142], Randall & Greenfield 1996:52 [ref. 22543]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis vittata Valenciennes 1831. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

parvidens, Myripristis Cuvier [G.] 1829:151 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Port Praslin, New Ireland Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2581. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:22 [ref. 20740], with the Port Praslin specimen as lectotype. Appeared under Myripristis as "Myr. parvidens, Nob., id., 109" [= Russell 1803:pl. 109]. Described one month later in Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:173 [ref. 4879] on a specimen from Port Praslin (MNHN A.2581); with Russell account referred on pp. 180-181 by name and pl. 109; it is clear from this treatment that the Pl. 109 in Cuvier 1829 should have been Pl. 104 (pl. 109 is not a holocentrid). We suggest that Myripristis parvidens Cuvier 1829 (Mar.) be treated as unavailable (characters of genus in conflict with Pl. 109) and regard the Apr. treatment as available (following current authors); an alternative is to apply to the ICZN to reject parvidens Cuvier (Mar.) 1829. •Valid as Myripristis parvidens Cuvier 1829 -- (Greenfield 1974:11 [ref. 7142], Paxton et al. 1989:377 [ref. 12442], Kotlyar 1996:88 [ref. 23292]). •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:72 [ref. 29757], Chen et al. 1990:254 [ref. 16678], Randall & Greenfield 1996:39 [ref. 22543], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2242 [ref. 24790], Randall 2005:89 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:148 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36673]). •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

pauciradiatus, Holocentrus Tortonese [E.] 1939:276 [100], Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino. (Ser. 3) v. 47 (no. 100); ref. 4414] St. Cristobal, Solomon Islands. Holotype (unique): MZUT 3264. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:143 [ref. 21559]. On p. 100 of separate. •Synonym of Sargocentron tiereoides (Bleeker 1853) -- (Randall 1998:84 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiereoides (Bleeker 1853). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

pelamidis, Rhynchichthys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:504, Pl. 208 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Indian Seas, below Equator, 85° Longitude to the east of Paris meridian. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0870 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:24 [ref. 20740]. •Juvenile of a Myripristis. Current status: Synonym of Myripristis. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

pencei, Neoniphon Copus [J. M.], Pyle [R. L.] & Earle [J. L.] 2015:4, Figs. 1-3 [Biodiversity Data Journal 3.e4180; ref. 33666] Rarotonga, Cook Islands, east side, Matavera, off Charles J. Boyle's house, depth 115 meters. Holotype: BPBM 41197. Paratypes: BPBM 41196 (10), CAS 237596 (1), USNM 431482 (1). •Valid as Neoniphon pencei Copus, Pyle & Earle 2015. Current status: Valid as Neoniphon pencei Copus, Pyle & Earle 2015. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Habitat: marine.

pentacanthus, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:40, Pl. 225 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Brazil. No types known. On p. 29 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm, 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

percacaroli, Holocentrus Curtiss [A.] 1938:80 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

perlatum, Holocentrum Poey [F.] 1860:157 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10938 (2), 20914 (1), 21919-20 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:183 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Woods 1955:104 [ref. 12538]). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

phaeopus, Myripristis Seale [A.] 1906:28, Fig. 8 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, southern Pacific. Holotype (unique): BPBM 2280. •Synonym of Myripristis kuntee Valenciennes 1831 -- (Greenfield 1974:29 [ref. 7142], Randall & Greenfield 1996:36 [ref. 22543]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis kuntee Valenciennes 1831. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

pillwaxii, Myripristis Steindachner [F.] 1893:150 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 14) (for 18 May 1893); ref. 20494] Yokohama, Japan or Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): NMW. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1893:215, Pl. 1 [ref. 14536]. Locality in abstract [ref. 20494] as Yokohama, later as Honolulu in main work [ref. 14536]. •Synonym of Ostichthys japonicus (Cuvier 1829). •Synonym of Ostichthys archiepiscopus (Valenciennes 1862) -- (Randall & Greenfield 1999:2246 [ref. 24790], Mundy 2005:309 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:149 [ref. 30952], Greenfield et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35170]). Current status: Synonym of Ostichthys archiepiscopus (Valenciennes 1862). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

platyrrhinum, Holocentrum Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:725 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: BMNH 1871.7.15.33 (1), ZIN 2660 (1), ZMB 7896 (1). •Synonym of Flammeo sammara (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:71 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:4 [ref. 5144], Golani & Fricke 2018:45 [ref. 36273]). •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

poco, Adioryx Woods [L. P.] 1965:1, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 377; ref. 9268] About 1/4 miles north of Green Cay, (north of Rose Island), Bahamas, depth 0-50 feet. Holotype: ANSP 101995. Paratypes: ANSP 103011 (1); FMNH 72758 (1); UF 12334 (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:114 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:5 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Holocentrus poco (Woods 1955) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:114 [ref. 23100], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1018 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27754]). •Valid as Sargocentron poco (Woods 1965) -- (Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:200 [ref. 24674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:186 [ref. 25013], Greenfield 2003:1202 [ref. 27041], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:73 [ref. 31601], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:34 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron poco (Woods 1965). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

poecilopterus, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1855:356 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 16936] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5423. •Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

poecilopus, Rhamphoberyx Gill [T. N.] 1863:87 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 6273 (2), 93275 (2). •Synonym of Myripristis leiognathus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Greenfield 1965:234 [ref. 21267] as leiognathos). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis leiognathus Valenciennes 1846. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

polynesiae, Holocenthrus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:229, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 56; ref. 1365] Thornton Island [Caroline Atoll], Polynesia, southern Pacific. Holotype: ANSP 23277 (dry skin, missing). Paratypes: ANSP 23278-79 (2, dry skins, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

pralinius, Myripristis Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:170 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Port Praslin, New Ireland Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7834. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:22 [ref. 20740]. Correct spelling apparently is Myripristis pralinia. •Valid as Myripristis pralinia Cuvier 1829 -- (Greenfield 1974:22 [ref. 7142] as pralinius, Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:113 [ref. 6441] as pralinius, Randall & Heemstra 1986:424 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:378 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:16 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:63 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1990:255 [ref. 16678], Kotlyar 1996:88 [ref. 23292], Randall & Greenfield 1996:40 [ref. 22543], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:64 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:63 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:208 [ref. 24674] as pralinius, Myers 1999:81 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2254 [ref. 24790], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268] as pralinius, Nakabo 2000:496 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:142 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:496 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:30 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:90 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:779 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:170 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:75 [ref. 34690], Fricke et al. 2018:113 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis pralinia Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Line and Marquesas islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

praslin, Perca Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:397, 419 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Savo, Solomon Islands [New Georgia Sound, Solomon Sea, western Pacific], depth 1-2 meters [Original locality Port Praslin, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea]. Neotype: BPBM 20293. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:35 [ref. 20740], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:117 [ref. 12478]. Based on Commerson manuscript. Neotype designated by Randall & Heemstra 1985:14 [ref. 5144]. •Valid as Sargocentron praslin (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:14 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Randall 1995:96 [ref. 22896], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:58 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Iwatsuki et al. 1999:51 [ref. 23927], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:138 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2250 [ref. 24790], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:489 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:489 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:97 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2010:84 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:176 [ref. 31980], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:95 [ref. 34690], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:86 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:354 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron praslin (Lacepède 1802). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

productum, Holocentrum Poey [F.] 1868:300 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. Syntypes: USNM 37428 (1). •Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Woods 1955:100 [ref. 12538] but USNM 37428 not this species). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

prospinosum, Holocentrum Poey [F.] 1861:343 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:183-184 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 21884 as lectotype, but Poey says no specimens. Unneeded new name for Holocentrum retrospinus Guichenot. •Synonym of Plectrypops retrospinis (Guichenot 1853) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Plectrypops retrospinis (Guichenot 1853). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

pulchella, Perca Bennett [E. T.] 1827:377, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Zoological Journal, London v. 3 (no. 11, art. 37); ref. 16782] Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Sargocentron diadema (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall 1998:21 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron diadema (Lacepède 1802). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

punctatissimum, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:215 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Strong Island, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0107. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-2632 (2), A-2633 (2). Type catalog: Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:122, Fig. 2 on p. 123 [ref. 20909], Bauchot 1970:18 [ref. 20740]. Lectotype selected by Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:122 [ref. 20909]. •Valid as Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:15 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:53 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:67 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:67 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:60 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:138 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:491 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:491 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:32 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:97 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:312 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:153 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:85 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:177 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:96 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:18 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:86 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Easter Island, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

puncticulatus, Holocentrus Barbour [T.] 1905:117, Pl. 2 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 46 (no. 7); ref. 15336] Flatts Inlet, Bermuda, depth about 10 feet. Holotype (unique): MCZ 29054. •Synonym of Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:185 [ref. 25013], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Myripristis Greenfield [D. W.] 1974:34, Figs. 23, 27 [Science Bulletin, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County No. 19; ref. 7142] Rurutu Island, Austral Islands, off Avera, South Pacific, depth 150 feet. Holotype: BPBM 11479. Paratypes: ANSP 117833 (1); BMNH 1972.2.25.1 (1); BPBM 11473 (2), 12116 (1); CAS 14159 (1); FMNH 71213 (1); LACM 32708-1 (1); MNHN 1972-0019 (1); USNM 206691 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:59 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Myripristis randalli Greenfield 1974 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441], Kotlyar 1996:88 [ref. 23292], Randall & Yamakawa 1996:221 [ref. 22430], Randall & Greenfield 1996:43 [ref. 22543], Kotlyar 1998:208 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2254 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:90 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis randalli Greenfield 1974. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

retrospinis, Holocentrum Guichenot [A.] 1853:35, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Sagra, R. de la, Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l'Ile de Cuba; ref. 18164] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2596. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:18 [ref. 20740]. •Valid as Plectrypops retrospinis (Guichenot 1853) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:115 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:251 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:341 [ref. 23827], Kotlyar 1996:90 [ref. 23292], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1023 [ref. 23897], Kotlyar 1998:210 [ref. 24674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:185 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:104 [ref. 26784], Greenfield 2003:1201 [ref. 27041], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:17 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:92 [ref. 28239], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:34 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:10 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Plectrypops retrospinis (Guichenot 1853). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic from Florida to Venezuela, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Bahamas, Bermuda, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands. Habitat: marine.

riparium, Holocentrum Poey [F.] 1875:111 [37] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 4 (for 13 Jan. 1875); ref. 3509] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10934 (4), 10936 (4). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:183 [ref. 22926]. On p. 37 of separate. •Synonym of Holocentrus vexillarium (Poey 1860) -- (Woods 1955:109 [ref. 12538]). •Synonym of Neoniphon vexillarium (Poey 1860). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon vexillarium (Poey 1860). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

riukiuensis, Holotrachys Fowler [H. W.] 1946:125, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 98; ref. 1456] Aguni Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): ANSP 72002. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Plectrypops lima (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Plectrypops lima (Valenciennes 1831). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

robusta, Myripristis Randall [J. E.] & Greenfield [D. W.] 1996:43, Pl. 5C [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 25; ref. 22543] Bagalangit, Calumpan Peninsula, Batangas, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: BPBM 23473. Paratypes: AMS I.37470-001 [ex BPBM 23473] (1), BPBM 32576 (1), USNM 341528 (1). •Valid as Myripristis robusta Randall & Greenfield 1996 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1999:2234 [ref. 24790], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:131 [ref. 26352], Allen & Erdmann 2012:171 [ref. 31980], Yoshida et al. 2013:66 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33932], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:76 [ref. 34690]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis robusta Randall & Greenfield 1996. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Gulf of Thailand. Habitat: marine.

rosea, Harpage De Vis [C. W.] 1884:448 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] South Sea islands. No types known. •Synonym of Plectrypops lima (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Plectrypops lima (Valenciennes 1831). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

rostratum, Holocentrum Poey [F.] 1860:157 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10969 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:183 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Holocentrus marianus Cuvier 1829 -- (Woods 1955:99 [ref. 12538]). •Synonym of Neoniphon marianus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon marianus (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Holocentrus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:173 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] South Atlantic. No types known. •Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

rubellio, Holocentrus Seale [A.] 1906:22, Fig. 5 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 1395. •Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838) -- (Randall 1998:14 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

rubens, Aspro Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1802:419 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Appeared as "Aspro rubens, lineis septum fuscis, ..." in the account of Perca praslin. Regarded as non-binominal and not available. See ICZN Opinion 89. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae.

ruber, Centropomus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:253, 273 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius; Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:36 [ref. 20740], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:114 [ref. 12478]. Based on Commerson manuscript. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Holocentrus by Sciaena rubra Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Sargocentron seychellense (Smith & Smith 1963) -- (Fricke 1999:139 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron seychellense (Smith & Smith 1963). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Rocky bottoms and coral reefs. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Holocentrus Bennett [J. W.] 1828:unnum. p., Pl. 4 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. Secondarily preoccupied in Holocentrus by Sciaena ruber Forsskål 1775 -- (see Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:44 [ref. 21456]). Also objectivley invalid; preoccupied by Holocentrus ruber Rafinesque 1814 -- (see Eschmeyer & Pethiyagoda 1996:143 [ref. 22472]). •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

rubra, Sciaena Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:82 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No types known. Based on Perca rubra Catesby, not available. Also objectively invalid; preoccupied by Sciaena rubra Forsskål 1775; from America. •Synonym of Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Woods 1955:104 [ref. 12538]). •In the synonymy of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (J. E. Randall, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

rubra, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:48, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Off Customs dock, Port Sudan harbor, Sudan, Red Sea, depth 3-4 meters. Neotype: BPBM 28183. Neotype designated by Randall & Heemstra 1985:17 [ref. 5144]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:23 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Holocentrus ruber (Forsskål 1775) -- (Nielsen 1973:342 [ref. 6885]). •Valid as Adioryx ruber (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:50 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:41 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:70 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Dispinus ruber (Forsskål 1775) -- (Chen et al. 1997:31 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:16 [ref. 5144], Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:754 [ref. 13676], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:67 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:76 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:96 [ref. 22896], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:191 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:351 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:67 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:65 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Khan 1998:230 [ref. 24980], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2251 [ref. 24790], Johnson 1999:725 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:489 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:146 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:52 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2000:177 [ref. 25987], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:489 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:24 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Golani 2005:30 [ref. 37112], Randall 2005:97 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:784 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2007:72 [ref. 29533], Fricke 2008:23 [ref. 30182], Satapoomin 2009:54 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:177 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:67 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:414 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:182 [ref. 34104], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:98 [ref. 34690], Motomura et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35490], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:117 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:72 [ref. 36460], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864], Fricke et al. 2019:87 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) and Lord Howe Island; southeastern Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Marmara (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

rubrofuscus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:343, 389 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Near Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:49 [ref. 20740]. Based on Commerson manuscript. •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 1999:132-133 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

rufa, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:351 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated [Carolina, U.S.A.]. No types known. Based on Perca marina rufa of Catesby. •Valid as Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Woods 1955:104 [ref. 12538], Robins & Ray 1986:115 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:248 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:92 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:340 [ref. 23827], Tyler et al. 1993:1130 [ref. 21502], Kotlyar 1996:82 [ref. 23292], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1019 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Kotlyar 1998:205 [ref. 24674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:184 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:103 [ref. 26784], Greenfield 2003:1198 [ref. 27041], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:17 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:34 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

sammara, Sciaena Fabricius [J. C.] (ex Forsskål) in Niebuhr 1775:48, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P4042 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:58 [ref. 9588]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pls. 15-16 [ref. 20847]. Spelled samara in Rüppell 1829:85 [ref. 3843]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:23 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Flammeo sammara (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:71 [ref. 29757], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Neoniphon sammara (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:4 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:416 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:379 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:64 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:17 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:95 [ref. 22896], Kotlyar 1996:83 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:64 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:64 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:83 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:132 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2245 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:492 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:144 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:492 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:226, 550 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S100 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:31 [ref. 27510] dated 1831, Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:135 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:93 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:309 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:780 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:151 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:34 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:52 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:173 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33932], Copus et al. 2015:2 [ref. 33666], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:85 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:114 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:45 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:18 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:84 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:351 [ref. 37272]). •Valid as Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:23 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Valid as Neoniphon sammara (Fabricius 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, Ogasawara Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to Western Australia at 20°33'S, Lord Howe Island, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

sanctipauli, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1880:4, Pl. 1 (fig. A) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Saint Paul's Rocks, 0°56'N, 29°22'W, Atlantic. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.104. Originally as sancti pauli. •Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Woods 1955:100 [ref. 12538]). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

sandix, Ostichthys Randall [J. E.], Shimizu [T.] & Yamakawa [T.] 1982:(10) 16, Fig. 10 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 3602] Off Campbell Industrial Park, Waianae coast, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 150-180 meters. Holotype: BPBM 22708. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.11.14.1 (1), BPBM 10963 (1), USNM 220898 (1), ZUMT 54238 (1). •Valid as Ostichthys sandix Randall, Shimizu & Yamakawa 1982 -- (Randall & Wrobel 1988:243 [ref. 12743], Kotlyar 1996:90 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:210 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2234 [ref. 24790], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Mundy 2005:309 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:149 [ref. 30952], Greenfield et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35170], Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[5] [ref. 35637], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[28] [ref. 35840]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys sandix Randall, Shimizu & Yamakawa 1982. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands, Guam, northern Mariana Islands and French Polynesia. Habitat: marine.

sanguineus, Myripristis Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] in Seale 1906:26, Fig. 7 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51721. Paratypes: ANSP 88562 (1), BPBM 1445 (1), CAS-SU 8672 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Myripristis pralinius Cuvier 1829 -- (Greenfield 1974:22 [ref. 7142]). •Synonym of Myripristis pralinia Cuvier 1829 -- (Chen et al. 1990:255 [ref. 16678], Randall & Greenfield 1996:40 [ref. 22543], Randall 2005:90 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis pralinia Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

schultzei, Myripristis Seale [A.] 1910:504 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Samal Island, Davao Gulf, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 3899 (apparently lost). •Synonym of Myripristis violaceus Bleeker 1851 -- (Greenfield 1974:12 [ref. 7142]). •Synonym of Myripristis violacea Bleeker 1851 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:51 [ref. 22543]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis violacea Bleeker 1851. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

scythrops, Flammeo Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:174 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50633. Paratypes: AMNH 2285 (1); ANSP 24214 (1); BPBM 1691 (1); CAS [old no.] 1491 (1, lost in 1906), 417 [ex IU 9804] (1); FMNH 3967 (1); MCZ 28893 (1); CAS-SU 7455 (3, now 1), 7456 (11, now 8); USNM 50634 (1), 126575 [ex USFC 2705] (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:36 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Flammeo scythrops Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Allen & Cross 1983:7 [ref. 8381], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:113 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Neoniphon aurolineatus (Liénard 1839) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:3 [ref. 5144], Randall et al. 1990:64 [ref. 15987], Randall 2005:92 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:308 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:151 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon aurolineatus (Liénard 1839). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

sealei, Myripristis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:439, Fig. 13 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands [probably erroneous; should be eastern Pacific]. Holotype: USNM 50708. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23298 (11). •Synonym of Myripristis leiognathus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Greenfield 1965:234 [ref. 21267] as leiognathos, Mundy 2005:307 [ref. 28379] but locality doubtful). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis leiognathus Valenciennes 1846. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

seychellensis, Holocentrus Smith [J. L. B.] & Smith [M. M.] 1963:9, Pl. 87 (fig. E) [The fishes of Seychelles; ref. 5319] Mahé, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 994. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 995 (9). Described in more detail by Smith 1963:33 [ref. 32120]. •Valid as Sargocentron seychellense (Smith & Smith 1963) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:18 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:421 [ref. 5707], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall 1995:96 [ref. 22896], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:69 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:139 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2018:117 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron seychellense (Smith & Smith 1963). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Socotra, Seychelles, Comores, Madagascar, Réunion and Mauritius (Mascarenes), southwestern Indian Ocean. (western Mascarenes), Cargados Carajos, Oman, Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

seychellensis, Myripristis Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:172 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9518. Non-type material: MNHN 0000-7579 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:23 [ref. 20740] as holotype (9518) and paratype. •Synonym of Myripristis murdjan (Forsskål 1775) -- (Greenfield 1974:20 [ref. 7142]). •Valid as Myripristis seychellensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:424 [ref. 5707], Chen et al. 1990:256 [ref. 16678], Kotlyar 1996:88 [ref. 23292], Randall & Greenfield 1996:47 [ref. 22543], Kotlyar 1998:208 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:130 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:33 [ref. 30213], Nair & Dineshkumar 2016:2 [ref. 35100], Fricke et al. 2018:113 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:18 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis seychellensis Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Seychelles, Comores, Madagascar, Saint Brandon's Shoals, Réunion (western Mascarenes) and India. Habitat: marine.

sheni, Ostichthys Chen [J.-P.], Shao [K.-T.] & Mok [H.-K.] 1990:258, Fig. 14 [Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology Academia Sinica (Taipei) v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 16678] Chungchou, Taiwan. Holotype: NSYU 792. Paratypes: NTUM 03682 (1), THUP (now at NMMBP) 00478 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:39 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Ostichthys sheni Chen, Shao & Mok 1990 -- (Kotlyar 1998:210 [ref. 24674], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Ho & Shao 2011:39 [ref. 31432], Greenfield et al. 2017:27 [ref. 35170], Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[5] [ref. 35637]). •Synonym of Ostichthys japonicus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Matsunuma et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35840]). Current status: Synonym of Ostichthys japonicus (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Pacific near Taiwan and in the South China Sea [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

shimizui, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.] 1998:Fig. 28 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 27; ref. 23300] Dodepo and Pasejogo islands, 0°21'33"N, 121°34'10"E, Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, Indonesia, depth 2.5-6 meters. Holotype: USNM 146022. Paratypes: BPBM 31977 (1). •Valid as Sargocentron shimizui Randall 1998 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:177 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron shimizui Randall 1998. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi. Habitat: marine.

sicciferum, Holocentrum Cope [E. D.] 1871:465 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] New Providence Island, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): ANSP 14138. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Holocentrus vexillarium (Poey 1860) -- (Woods 1955:109 [ref. 12538]). •Synonym of Neoniphon vexillarium (Poey 1860). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon vexillarium (Poey 1860). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

sogo, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:61, Pl. 232 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Japan [in error, Africa ?]. Lectotype: ZMB 474. Paralectotypes: ZMB 8730 (1, dry, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:87 [ref. 24282]. Based on literature sources and specimens. On p. 46 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:87 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:627 [ref. 17305], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:183 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

spiniceps, Ostichthys Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:31 [Annals of the Queensland Museum No. 9 (pt 1); ref. 3285] Great Barrier Reef, Australia [or South Sea islands]. Holotype (unique): ?QM I.1203. •Synonym of Myripristis hexagonus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:377 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Myripristis hexagona (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:32 [ref. 22543], Allen et al. 2006:778 [ref. 29066]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis hexagona (Lacepède 1802). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

spinifera, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:49, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P4043 (dry half skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:58 [ref. 9588]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 16 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Adioryx spinifer (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:52 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:71 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:111 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:19 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:421 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:67 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356] as spinifer, Randall 1995:96 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:191 [ref. 27969], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:31 [ref. 26476] as spinifer, Kuiter 1997:62 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:67 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:74 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:140 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2252 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:487 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:147 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:487 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:136 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:98 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:313 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:784 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:153 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:85 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:178 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2015:17 [ref. 34709], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:99 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:117 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:47 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:87 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:354 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

spiniger, Ostichthys Fricke [R.] 2017:[2], Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 65 (no. 1); ref. 35637] Western Pacific Ocean, Papua New Guinea, New Ireland Province, 11.5 km westnorthwest of Kavieng, 2°33.33'S, 150°41.45'E - 2°33.32'S, 150°43.18'E, depth 180-181 meters. Holotype (unique): NTUM 11245. •Valid as Ostichthys spiniger Fricke 2017 -- (Fricke et al. 2019:84 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys spiniger Fricke 2017. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: New Ireland (Papua New Guinea endemic). Habitat: marine.

spinosissimum, Holocentrum Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:22, Pl. 8 A [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] No locality stated [Nagasaki, Japan]. Lectotype: RMNH D232 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D233 (1, stuffed), 386 (2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:37 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Sargocentron spinosissimum (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:78 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Nakabo 2000:491 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:491 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:226, 551 [ref. 26218], Mundy 2005:313 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:154 [ref. 30952], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:101 [ref. 34690]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron spinosissimum (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western and central North Pacific: Taiwan to Ryukyu Islands and southern Korea, Ogasawara Islands, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

spinosus, Corniger Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:122, Pl. 75 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. No types known. •Valid as Corniger spinosus Agassiz 1831 -- (Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:275 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:115 [ref. 23100], Lozano & Brito 1989:131 [ref. 12828], Anato et al. 1991:295 [ref. 20017], Boschung 1992:91 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:340 [ref. 23827] as espinosus, Kotlyar 1996:86 [ref. 23292], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1013 [ref. 23897], Kotlyar 1998:210 [ref. 24674], Greenfield 2003:1200 [ref. 27041], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27192] dated 1829, Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:73 [ref. 31601], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Greenfield 2016:2201 [ref. 34606], Brown et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:156 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Corniger spinosus Agassiz 1831. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

stercusmuscarum, Holocentrum Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:503 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2637. Type catalog: Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:125, Fig. 4 on p. 123 [ref. 20909], Bauchot 1970:18-19 [ref. 20740]. Originally as stercus muscarum. •Synonym of Neoniphon argenteus (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:3 [ref. 5144]). Current status: Synonym of Neoniphon argenteus (Valenciennes 1831). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific from the African coast to Tuamotu (Gambier Island) [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Holocentrus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:173 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Antilles. No types known. •Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

suborbitale, Holocentrum Gill [T. N.] 1863:86 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: ?CAS 79588 [ex IU 6101] (1), USNM 2319 and 2320 (mixed, total 40). Sargocentron is neuter, so suborbitale would be the correct spelling. •Valid as Sargocentron suborbitalis [or suborbitale] (Gill 1863) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:95 [ref. 22193], Schneider & Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:1185 [ref. 22829], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:212 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:276 [ref. 24023], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674] as suborbitale, Thomson et al. 2000:60 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Béarez & Séret 2009:146 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871] as suborbitalis, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). •Valid as Neoniphon suborbitalis (Gill 1863) -- (Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], González-Murcia et al. 2019:292 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron suborbitale (Gill 1863). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Ecuador, including Clipperton and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

sufensis, Ostichthys hypsipterygion Golani [D.] 1984:98, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 8976] Nuweiba, Egypt, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 300 meters. Holotype: HUJ 11286. Paratypes: BPBM 26362 (1), HUJ 11287 (1). Type catalog: Golani 2006:23 [ref. 28840]. •Synonym of Ostichthys hypsipterygion Randall, Shimizu & Yamakawa 1982, but a valid subspecies -- (Golani 1984 [ref. 8976], Baranes & Golani 1993:304 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Ostichthys sufensis Golani 1984 -- (Greenfield et al. 2017:28 [ref. 35170], Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[6] [ref. 35637], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[23] 261 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:45 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[28] [ref. 35840]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys sufensis Golani 1984. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

sur, Holocentrum Montrouzier [X.] 1857:426 [148] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 148 of reprint. •Unidentifiable, may be genus Sargocentron -- (J. E. Randall, pers. comm.). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

symmetricus, Myripristis Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:173 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Hilo, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50632. Paratypes: FMNH 3950 (1), CAS-SU 7454 (1), USNM 126539 [ex USBF 1080 = USFC 2704] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:59 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Myripristis amaenus (Castelnau 1873) -- (Greenfield 1974:8 [ref. 7142]). •Synonym of Myripristis amaena (Castelnau 1873) -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:15 [ref. 22543], Mundy 2005:306 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis amaena (Castelnau 1873). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

tagen, Holocentrum Montrouzier [X.] 1857:427 [149] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 149 of reprint. •Unidentifiable, may be genus Sargocentron -- (J. E. Randall, pers. comm.). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

tahiticum, Holocentrum Kner [R.] 1864:482 [2] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 49; ref. 4927] Tahiti, Society Islands. On p. 2 of separate. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

teatae, Holocentrus Curtiss [A.] 1938:83 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

teharei, Holocentrus Curtiss [A.] 1938:82 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

termastigma, Faremusca lacteoguttata Fowler [H. W.] 1946:127, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 98; ref. 1456] Aguni Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): ANSP 72003. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:61 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

tetracanthus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:334, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Donated by "la république batave". No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:35 [ref. 20740]. •Unidentifiable, may be genus Sargocentron -- (J. E. Randall, pers. comm.). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

theresae, Holocentrus Curtiss [A.] 1938:82 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

thorntonensis, Holocenthrus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:231, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 56; ref. 1365] Thornton Island, South Pacific, 10°00'01"S, 150°14'30"W. Holotype (unique): ANSP 23769. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621]. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

thunberg, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:333, 367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Japan. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:45 [ref. 20740]. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

tiere, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:202 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Matavai barrier reef, Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2628. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:19 [ref. 20740]. Redescribed in Lesson 1830:221, Pl. 25 (fig. 1) [ref. 2776]. •Valid as Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:20 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:421 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:68 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:86 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:192 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:68 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:141 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2253 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:490 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:147 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:490 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:98 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:313 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:784 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:154 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:178 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:102 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:117 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:87 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Seychelles and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga, and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

tiereoides, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1853:334 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5117] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Non-types: RMNH 5429 (3, no specimen of correct length). Original as tiereoïdes. •Valid as Sargocentron tiereoides (Bleeker 1853) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:20 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:421 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:68 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:86 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:68 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:84 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:491 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:491 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:99 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:314 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:785 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:36 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:54 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:178 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:88 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron tiereoides (Bleeker 1853). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Comores and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands and Wake Atoll, south to Vanuatu and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

tiki, Myripristis Greenfield [D. W.] 1974:9, Figs. 6, 24 [Science Bulletin, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County No. 19; ref. 7142] Hanga Pico, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 7 meters. Holotype: UBC 65-453. Paratypes: BMNH 1966.5.23.1 (1); BPBM 6607 (3), 11506 (4), 12115 (now 14); FMNH 73474 (1); LACM 6560-10 (46); CAS-SU 67178 (1, missing); UBC uncat. (1); USNM 200381 (2); 202537 [ex UW 19697] (1). Additional material: UBC (6 lots, 45), USNM 65592 (5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:59 [ref. 12367]. Fig. 24 is not this species. •Valid as Myripristis tiki Greenfield 1974 -- (Pequeño 1989:53 [ref. 14125], Kotlyar 1996:88 [ref. 23292], Randall & Greenfield 1996:48 [ref. 22543], Kotlyar 1998:208 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2255 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:90 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis tiki Greenfield 1974. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tiki, Myripristis amaenus Greenfield [D. W.] 1966:facsimile p. 52 [Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering v. 27 (no. 6) (for Dec. 1966); ref. 1890] Name only in abstract, not available. Appeared in 1985 facsimile, but not regarded as available; later described as Myripristis tiki. Current status: Synonym of Myripristis tiki Greenfield 1974. Holocentridae: Myripristinae.

tortugae, Holocentrus Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [J. C.] 1905:236, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 24 (for 1904); ref. 2538] Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 8412. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:185 [ref. 25013], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

trachyacron, Myripristis Bleeker [P.] 1863:24 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 15; ref. 17008] Hitu, Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5419. •Valid as Myripristis trachyacron Bleeker 1863 -- (Greenfield 1974:15 [ref. 7142], Kotlyar 1996:88 [ref. 23292], Randall & Greenfield 1996:50 [ref. 22543], Kotlyar 1998:208 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2255 [ref. 24790], Allen & Adrim 2003:26 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:171 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis trachyacron Bleeker 1863. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Soloman Islands and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

trachypoma, Myripristis Günther [A.] 1859:25 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Cuba and West Indies. Syntypes: BMNH 1842.12.12.66 (1, stuffed), 1859.3.14.22 (1) Cuba. Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]. Also listed was Plate III, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Valid as Ostichthys trachypoma (Günther 1859) -- (Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:276 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:115 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:253 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:92 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:341 [ref. 23827], Kotlyar 1996:90 [ref. 23292], Schwartz 1997:183 [ref. 25308], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:10220 [ref. 23897], Kotlyar 1998:209 [ref. 24674], Moore et al. in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:298 [ref. 26158], Greenfield 2003:1200 [ref. 27041], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27192], Roa-Varón et al. 2003:9 [ref. 27814], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195] as trachipoma, Greenfield et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35170], Fricke 2017:68 [ref. 35313], Fricke 2017:[6] [ref. 35637], Matsunuma et al. 2018:[28] [ref. 35840]). Current status: Valid as Ostichthys trachypoma (Günther 1859). Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic from New York to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

tripetalon, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:334, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Donated by "la république batave" [Java, Indonesia]. No types known. Spelled tripetalon on p. 334; tripetalus on p. 372; first reviser not researched. •Unidentifiable, may be genus Sargocentron -- (J. E. Randall, pers. comm.). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

undecimalis, Myripristis Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:393 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 18 (no. 12); ref. 2109] Takaroa Island, Tuamotu Islands. Holotype (unique): FMNH 17228. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:59 [ref. 12367]. The spelling violacea is correct. •Synonym of Myripristis violaceus Bleeker 1851 -- (Greenfield 1974:12 [ref. 7142]). •Synonym of Myripristis violacea Bleeker 1851 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:51 [ref. 22543]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis violacea Bleeker 1851. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

unipunctatum, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1874:95, Pl. 65 (fig. A) [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Solomon Islands. Lectotype: BMNH 1871.3.29.2. Paralectotypes: BMNH uncat. (1) Tonga. Lectotype selected by Randall 1998:76 [ref. 23300]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:74 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

verticalis, Holocentrus Seale [A.] 1906:22, Fig. 6 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype: BPBM 1394. Paratypes: ANSP 90602 [ex BPBM 1392] (1); 90645 [ex BPBM 1393] (1); BPBM 1391 (1); USNM 109394 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:75 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

vexillarium, Holocentrum Poey [F.] 1860:158 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10935 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:182-183 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 10935 as holotype. •Valid as Holocentrus vexillarius Poey 1860 -- (Woods 1955:109 [ref. 12538], Robins & Ray 1986:114 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:246 [ref. 24472]). •Valid as Adioryx vexillarius (Poey 1860) -- (Boschung 1992:91 [ref. 23239]). •Valid as Sargocentron vexillarium (Poey 1860) -- (Kotlyar 1996:86 [ref. 23292] as vexillarius, Kotlyar 1998:200 [ref. 24674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:186 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:104 [ref. 26784], Greenfield 2003:1202 [ref. 27041], Smith et al. 2003:17 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:34 [ref. 33341], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). •Valid as Neoniphon vexillarium (Poey 1860) -- (Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Neoniphon vexillarium (Poey 1860). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

violaceum, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1853:335 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5117] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: SMNS 10599 or RMNH 5432. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1880.4.21.16 (1); RMNH 1642 (1), 28983 [ex RMNH 5432] (4). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:15 [ref. 13474] and Fricke 2005:43 [ref. 29864] regards SMNS 10599 as holotype, but Randall & Heemstra 1985:22 [ref. 5144] believe RMNH 5432 is probably the holotype but they did not examine SMNS 10599. •Valid as Sargocentron violaceum (Bleeker 1853) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:21 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:422 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:68 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:86 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:193 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:62 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:68 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:88 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:488 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:488 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:33 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:99 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:785 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:179 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:74 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:102 [ref. 34690], Fricke et al. 2018:117 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:88 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron violaceum (Bleeker 1853). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles and Madagascar east to Line Islands and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

violaceus, Myripristis Bleeker [P.] 1851:234 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 331] Banda Neira, Banda Islands, Maluku, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH 1642. •Valid as Myripristis violacea Bleeker 1851 -- (Greenfield 1974:12 [ref. 7142] as violaceus, Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:114 [ref. 6441] as violaceus, Randall & Heemstra 1986:425 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:378 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:63 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1990:256 [ref. 16678], Randall & Greenfield 1996:51 [ref. 22543], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:63 [ref. 25919], Kotlyar 1998:208 [ref. 24674] as violaceus, Myers 1999:81 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2243 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:498 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:143 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:498 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:30 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:91 [ref. 28239], Motomura et al. 2010:83 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:171 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:66 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:76 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:16 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:113 [ref. 35805], Bourjon & Fricke 2019:417 [ref. 37177], Fricke et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis violacea Bleeker 1851. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Line Islands, Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

viridensis, Myripristis Troschel [F. H.] 1866:199 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 32 (pt. 1); ref. 4465] Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Myripristis jacobus Cuvier 1829 -- (Greenfield 1974:31 [ref. 7142]). Current status: Synonym of Myripristis jacobus Cuvier 1829. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Habitat: marine.

vittatus, Myripristis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:492 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7588. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:23 [ref. 20740]. •Valid as Myripristis vittatus Valenciennes 1831 -- (Greenfield 1974:18 [ref. 7142], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:113 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:378 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Kotlyar 1996:89 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:208 [ref. 24674], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268]). •Valid as Myripristis vittata Valenciennes 1831 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:425 [ref. 5707], Randall et al. 1990:63 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1990:256 [ref. 16678], Randall et al. 1993:227 [ref. 21003], Randall & Greenfield 1996:52 [ref. 22543], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:30 [ref. 26476] with author as Cuvier, Kuiter 1997:64 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:63 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:81 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:131 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2255 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:495 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:143 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:495 [ref. 26001] with author as Cuvier, Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830] with author as Cuvier, Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624] with author as Cuvier, Randall 2005:91 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:308 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:779 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:149 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:34 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:172 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:77 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:16 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:114 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis vittata Valenciennes 1831. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

wilhelmi, Holocentrum de Buen [F.] 1963:25 [Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepción v. 35/36 (1960-61); ref. 4325] Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Holotype: EBMC 125. Paratypes: CIZ (4); EBMC 72-75 (2), 243 (1), 10.187 (1). •Valid as Sargocentron wilhelmi (de Buen 1963) -- (Pequeño 1989:53 [ref. 14125], Randall 1998:90 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron wilhelmi (de Buen 1963). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

woodsi, Myripristis Greenfield [D. W.] 1974:32, Figs. 22, 24 (with wrong label) [Science Bulletin, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County No. 19; ref. 7142] Eniwetak Atoll, Giriinien Island, Marshall Islands. Holotype: USNM 199393. Paratypes: BMNH 1965.10.19.16 (1), BPBM 7275 (1), FMNH 44422 (3), CAS-SU 63239 (1), USNM 199392 (1), UW 18603 (1). Additional non-type material: FMNH (4 lots, 13), CAS-SU (5 lots, 15), USNM (15 lots, 28), UW (5 lots, 8). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:59 [ref. 12367] but only as 3 paratypes, original mentions 13. Appeared first as name only in abstract in Greenfield 1966 [ref. 1890]. •Synonym of Myripristis violacea Bleeker 1851 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:53 [ref. 22543]). •Valid as Myripristis woodsi Greenfield 1974 -- (Kotlyar 1996:89 [ref. 23292], Randall & Yamakawa 1996:221 [ref. 22430], Kotlyar 1998:208 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:81 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2234 [ref. 24790], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2256 [ref. 24790], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:91 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis woodsi Greenfield 1974. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

xanthacrus, Myripristis Randall [J. E.] & Guézé [P.] 1981:6, Figs. 1C, 4, 10 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 334; ref. 8561] South side near entrance of Suakin Harbor , Red Sea State, Sudan, Red Sea, cave at depth of 15-17 meters. Holotype: BPBM 19784. Paratypes: ANSP 137869 (1); BMNH 1960.3.15.100-101 (2), 1960.3.15.111-113 (3); BPBM 20381 (2), 20443 (2), 20469 (1), 20735 (2), 21568 (2); CAS 38534 (1); HUJF 8374 (1); LACM 36278-1 (1); MNHN 1977-0001 (1), 1977-0452 (7); USNM 216608-11 (17, 12, 5, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621], Golani 2006:23 [ref. 28840]. Correct spelling in Myripristis apparently is xanthacra. •Valid as Myripristis xanthacrus Randall & Guézé 1981 -- (Dor 1984:72 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:17 [ref. 25356], Kotlyar 1996:89 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:209 [ref. 24674], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Myripristis xanthacra Randall & Guézé 1981 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1996:55 [ref. 22543], DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:45 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Myripristis xanthacra Randall & Guézé 1981. Holocentridae: Myripristinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

xantherythrus, Holocentrus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:175 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50635. Paratypes: AMNH 2286 (1); ANSP 24215 (1), ?27272 (1), ?28103 (1), 83959 (1); BPBM 1692 (1); CAS 1492 (1, missing); FMNH 4190 (1); IU 9805 (1, missing at CAS); MCZ 28894 (1); CAS-SU 7457 (2); USFC 2706 (1), 2733 (1); USNM 50636 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:47 [ref. 12367] as 2 specimens at FMNH, originally 1. •Valid as Sargocentron xantherythrum (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Randall 1998:92 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674], Mundy 2005:314 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:155 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron xantherythrum (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll. Habitat: marine.

xanthurus, Holocentrus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:166, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1451] Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71356 [not 70356]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:75 [ref. 23300]). •Valid as Sargocentron xanthurum (Fowler 1944) -- (Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

zapyrus, Holocentrus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] in Brigham 1904:18 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 2 (no. 2) (for 1903); ref. 20225] Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621]; also see Fowler 1928:101 [ref. 5596]. No description, not available; from Kailua, Hawaii I., Hawaiian Is., U.S.A.; non-types ANSP 83959 (1) and BPBM 1712 (1). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae.

zebra, Holocentrus Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:132 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines. No types known. Apparently an overlooked available name. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.