Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
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Species in the family or subfamily Istiophoridae: [ 69 ] records


acutirostratus, Tetrapturus Deraniyagala [P. E. P.] 1952:no page number, Pl. 27 [A colored atlas of some vertebrates from Ceylon; ref. 12768] Name on plate, but clear from text that this was a mistake for Tetrapterus tenuirostratus Deraniyagala 1951. •Synonym of Tetrapturus audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Nakamura 1983:317 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:40 [ref. 20161]). •Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Current status: Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

albicans, Makaira Latreille [P. A.] 1804:104 [Tableau méthodique des poissons.; ref. 17490] Brazil. No types known. •Valid as Istiophorus albicans (Latreille 1804) -- (Nakamura 1983:286 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:21 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Whitehead et al. 1986:1001 [ref. 13676], Nakamura 1990:999 [ref. 19483], Cervigón 1992:342 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1994:233 [ref. 24488], Santos et al. 1997:129 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:103 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:80 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:140 [ref. 26753], Nakamura 2003:1863 [ref. 27116], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:103 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:791 [ref. 28815], Fricke et al. 2007:111 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:41 [ref. 30263]). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:335 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:169 [ref. 27754], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:425 [ref. 28072], Collette et al. 2006:465 [ref. 28911], Nakamura & Collette in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2941 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Distribution: Southwestern Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic [if treated as a valid species or subspecies]. Habitat: marine.

albidus, Tetrapturus Poey [F.] 1860:237, Pls. 15-17 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Tetrapturus albidus Poey 1860 -- (de Sylva 1973:480 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:309 [ref. 5371], Heemstra 1986:841 [ref. 5660], Nakamura 1985:35 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Whitehead et al. 1986:1003 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:265 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:469 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:181 [ref. 14674], Nakamura 1990:1005 [ref. 19483], Boschung 1992:170 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:343 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:174 [ref. 25472], Cervigón 1994:236 [ref. 24488], Fierstine & Voigt 1996:148 [ref. 22401], Santos et al. 1997:109 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:103 [ref. 24952], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:336 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:169 [ref. 27754], Collette in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:515 [ref. 26158], Nakamura 2003:1865 [ref. 27116], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:103 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:177 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:793 [ref. 28815]). •Valid as Kajikia albida (Poey 1860) -- (Collette et al. 2006:466 [ref. 28911], Page et al. 2013:182 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:182 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:84 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Nakamura & Collette in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2942 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Kajikia albida (Poey 1860). Istiophoridae. Distribution: Western Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. Habitat: marine.

amarui, Istiophorus Curtiss [A.] 1944:6 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Open sea off Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (Nakamura 1983:280 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

americanus, Histiophorus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:303 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Brazil; Commendo, Ghana. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Blanc 1961:377 [ref. 20733], Blanc & Bauchot 1964:458 [ref. 20804]. Based on literature sources. Also in Griffith & Smith 1834:352 [ref. 1908]. •Synonym of Istiophorus albicans (Latreille 1804) -- (Nakamura 1983:286 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:21 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:999 [ref. 19483], Nakamura 2003:1863 [ref. 27116]). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210], Nakamura & Collette in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2941 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

amplus, Tetrapturus Poey [F.] 1860:243, Pls. 15 (fig. 2), 16-17 (figs. 12-20, 22-25) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): Poey Coll. 190 (whereabouts unknown). Published July 1860. •Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802 -- (de Sylva 1973:479 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:330 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:33 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Whitehead et al. 1986:1002 [ref. 13676], Scott & Scott 1988:469 [ref. 25518], Nakamura 1990:1003 [ref. 19483], Nakamura 2003:1864 [ref. 27116], Mundy 2005:509 [ref. 28379], Nakamura & Collette in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2942 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

ancipitirostris, Histiophorus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:309 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9464 (spear only) [?not 9463]. Type catalog: Bauchot & Blanc 1961:378 [ref. 20733], Blanc & Bauchot 1964:457, Fig. 39 [ref. 20804]. Originally as ancipiti-rostris. •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:278 [ref. 5371] with question, Dor 1984:265 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

angustirostris, Tetrapturus Tanaka [S.] 1915:324, Pl. 88 (fig. 285) [v. 19; ref. 14907] Funakata, Boshu Province, Sagami Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 4187 (lost). •Valid as Tetrapturus angustirostris Tanaka 1915 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:298 [ref. 7348], Nakamura 1983:294 [ref. 5371], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:278 [ref. 9277], Nakamura in Masuda et al. 1984:223 [ref. 6441], Nakamura 1985:38 [ref. 20161], Heemstra 1986:841 [ref. 5660], Allen & Swainston 1988:142 [ref. 25477], Pequeño 1989:67 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:233 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:66 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:441 [ref. 15987], Nakamura 1990:1006 [ref. 19483], Gomon et al. 1994:831 [ref. 22532], Allen & Robertson 1994:279 [ref. 22193], Nakamura in Fischer et al. 1995:1192 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:378 [ref. 22896], Fierstine & Voigt 1996:148 [ref. 22401], Allen 1997:230 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:596 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:441 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:28 [ref. 23611], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:108 [ref. 24555], Fricke 1999:561 [ref. 24106], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1333 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:477 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Nakamura 2001:3764 [ref. 26306], Nakabo 2002:1333 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S121 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495] dated 1914, Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624] in Tetrapterus, Nelson et al. 2004:177 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Collette et al. 2006:466 [ref. 28911], Bray et al. 2006:1781 [ref. 29091], Gomon 2008:794 [ref. 30616] as Tetrapterus, Fricke et al. 2009:113 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:182 [ref. 32708], Psomadakis et al. 2015:320 [ref. 34104], Roberts 2015:1645 [ref. 34193], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Tetrapturus angustirostris Tanaka 1915. Istiophoridae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: South Africa. Indo-Pacific: South Africa and Mascarenes east to North America and Mexico, including Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

audax, Histiophorus Philippi [R. A.] 1887:567 [35], Pl. 8 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile Sec. 1, v. 71; ref. 3464] Iquique, Chile [southeastern Pacific]. Syntypes: (2) DBCUCH. P. 35 of separate. •Valid as Tetrapturus audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:298 [ref. 7348], Nakamura 1983:314 [ref. 5371], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:278 [ref. 9277], Nakamura in Masuda et al. 1984:223 [ref. 6441], Nakamura 1985:40 [ref. 20161], Heemstra 1986:841 [ref. 5660], Allen & Swainston 1988:142 [ref. 25477], Pequeño 1989:67 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:233 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:66 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:441 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:279 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:70 [ref. 25356], Nakamura in Fischer et al. 1995:1193 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:379 [ref. 22896], Fierstine & Voigt 1996:148 [ref. 22401], Allen 1997:230 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:597 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:108 [ref. 24555], Randall et al. 1997:441 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:562 [ref. 24106], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1332 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:477 [ref. 25191], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Nakamura 2001:3763 [ref. 26306], Nakabo 2002:1332 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:423, 677 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S121 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Parin 2003:S27 [ref. 28536], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624] in Tetrapterus, Nelson et al. 2004:177 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Mundy 2005:509 [ref. 28379], Bray et al. 2006:1781 [ref. 29091], Gomon 2008:793 [ref. 30616] as Tetrapterus, McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Ho & Shao 2011:60 [ref. 31432]). •Valid Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Collette et al. 2006:466 [ref. 28911], Fricke et al. 2009:113 [ref. 30213], Page et al. 2013:182 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:518 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:319 [ref. 34104], Roberts 2015:1643 [ref. 34193], Fourriére et al. 2016:459 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Istiophoridae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa and Mascarenes east to Panama, north to Taiwan and Hawaiian Islands; southeastern Atlantic; Revillagigedo Archipelago (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

australis, Istiompax Whitley [G. P.] 1931:321 [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] Off Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.2743 (stuffed, mounted). Based on specimen figured by Ramsay 1881, Proc. Zool. Soc. N. S. W., v. 5:295 & 522, Pl. 8. Homonym of Tetrapturus australis Macleay 1854. •Synonym of Makaira indica (Cuvier 1832) -- (Bray et al. 2006:1780 [ref. 29091]). Current status: Synonym of Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Tetrapterus Macleay [W. S.] 1854:179, Fig. 1 [The Illustrated Sydney News v. 1 (no. 23); ref. 19691] Broken Bay, Australia. Holotype: Where about unknown. . •Synonym of Makaira indica (Cuvier 1832) -- (Nakamura 1983:334 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:27 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:1001 [ref. 19483], Bray et al. 2006:1780 [ref. 29091]). •Synonym of Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Current status: Synonym of Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Istiophoridae.

belone, Tetrapturus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:54, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] 200 meters off the coast of Punta S. Ranieri, Straits of Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Neotype: USNM 196527. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:30 [ref. 3595]. Neotype designated by Robins & de Sylva 1963:98 (Fig. 4) [ref. 5247]. •Valid as Tetrapturus belone Rafinesque 1810 -- (de Sylva 1973:480 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:300 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:43 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Whitehead et al. 1986:1004 [ref. 13676], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:140 [ref. 26753], Collette et al. 2006:466 [ref. 28911], Fricke et al. 2007:112 [ref. 29533]). Current status: Valid as Tetrapturus belone Rafinesque 1810. Istiophoridae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

bermudae, Makaira Mowbray [L. L.] 1931:unpagin. p. 7, Pl. [Fauna Bermudensis v. 1; ref. 13453] St. David's Island, near northern shore of Castle Harbor, Bermuda. Holotype (unique): destroyed. •Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802 -- (de Sylva 1973:479 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:330 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:33 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:1004 [ref. 19483], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:335 [ref. 25013] as bermudensis). Current status: Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Histiophorus Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:53, Figs. [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH (parts and skin). Second specimen (rostrum) questionably included. •Synonym of Makaira indica (Cuvier 1832) -- (Nakamura 1983:335 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:27 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:1001 [ref. 19483]). •Synonym of Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Current status: Synonym of Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

brookei, Istiophorus Fowler [H. W.] 1933:403, Pl. 29 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 84 (for 1932); ref. 16367] Papeete, Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 55923 (dry mounted skin, damaged). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:116 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:280 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161], Mundy 2005:508 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

dombraini, Istiompax Whitley [G. P.] 1954:60 [Australian Zoologist v. 12 (pt 1); ref. 4720] Off Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.3150. No type specified. Based on figures by D'Ombrain 1950, Outdoors and fishing (Sydney), Oct., p. 24, 5 figs. •Synonym of Makaira indica (Cuvier 1832) -- (Nakamura 1983:337 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:27 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:1002 [ref. 19483], Bray et al. 2006:1780 [ref. 29091]). •Synonym of Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Current status: Synonym of Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Histiophorus Bleeker [P.] 1872:151 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 431] China. Based on a painting, no types known. •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:278 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

ectenes, Tetrapturus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1926:34, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS 602 (photograph only). Based on CAS 602, a photograph. •Synonym of Tetrapturus audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Nakamura 1983:315 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:40 [ref. 20161], Mundy 2005:509 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Current status: Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

ensis, Xiphias Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:288, 296 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 2; ref. 2709] La Rochelle, France, Bay of Biscay, northeastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9460 (spear only). Type catalog: Bauchot & Blanc 1961:379 [ref. 20733], Blanc & Bauchot 1964:458, Fig. 41 [ref. 20804]. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:166 [ref. 30473]. •Questionably a synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802 -- (Nakamura 1990:1003 [ref. 19483], Nakamura 1983:329 [ref. 5371]). Current status: Uncertain as Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

eriquius, Istiophorus Jordan [D. S.] & Ball [S. C.] in Jordan & Evermann 1926:48, Pl. 15 (fig. 2) [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: BPBM 3424 (lost). Paratypes: CAS 607 (dorsal fin). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:280 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

formosana, Kajikia Hirasaka [K.] & Nakamura [H.] 1947:13, Fig. [Bulletin of the Oceanographic Institute Taiwan No. 3; ref. 2174] Taiwan. No types known. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:60 [ref. 31432]. No type specimens were designated in the original description according to Ho & Shao 2011:60 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Tetrapturus audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Nakamura 1983:317 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:40 [ref. 20161], Ho & Shao 2011:60 [ref. 31432]). •Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Collette et al. 2006:465 [ref. 28911]). Current status: Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

georgii, Tetrapturus Lowe [R. T.] 1841:36 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1840 (pt. 8, no. 89); ref. 2830] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Tetrapturus georgii Lowe 1841 -- (de Sylva 1973:481 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:300 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:45 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Whitehead et al. 1986:1004 [ref. 13676], Collette et al. 2006:466 [ref. 28911], Nakamura & Collette in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2944 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Tetrapturus georgii Lowe 1841. Istiophoridae. Distribution: North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

gladifer, Istiophorus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Banks) 1801:374, 375 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 3; ref. 2710] Madagascar, Ile de France [Mauritius] No types known. •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:277 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

gladius, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1793:81, Pl. 345 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Antilles, Brazil, East Indies, Madagascar and Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. On p. 69 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. See entry on Official Index (Opinion 903), attributed to Boussonet 1786. •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:277 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161], Dor 1984:265 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

glauca, Istiompax indica Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:30 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 2; ref. 4107] Eden, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): not saved. Based on a photograph. Name proposed as "racial or varietal groups" and conditionally; regarded as infrasubspecific, not available. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

glauca, Makaira nigricans Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:30 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 2; ref. 4107] Eden, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): not saved. Based on a photograph. Name proposed as "racial or varietal groups" and conditionally; regarded as not available, infrasubspecific. This is the same taxon (based on same specimen) as Istiompax indica galuca Smith 1956:30, with substituted genus and species names. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

gracilirostris, Histiophorus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:308 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Seychelles. Syntypes: MNHN A-9461 (1), A-9462 (spear). Type catalog: Bauchot & Blanc 1961:378 [ref. 20733] and Blanc & Bauchot 1964:457, Fig. 39 [ref. 20804] with holotype and paratype. Originally as gracili-rostris. •Questionably a synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:278 [ref. 5371]). Current status: Uncertain as Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

grammatica, Makaira Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1926:55, Pl. 16 [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS 608 (photograph only). Based on a dorsal fin and a photograph. •Synonym of Tetrapturus audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Nakamura 1983:315 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:40 [ref. 20161]). •Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Current status: Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

granulifer, Histiophorus Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:42 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Saint Sébastien beach, Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): SAM 13857 (head, dry). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210]). •Synonym of Istiophorus albicans (Latreille 1804) -- (Nakamura 1983:286 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:21 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

greyi, Istiophorus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1926:41, Pl. 14 [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Near Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: CAS 605 (photograph only). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:280 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

guebucu, Skeponopodus Nardo [G. D.] 1833:col. 419 [Isis (Oken) v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 3147] Brazil. No type known. An unused junior synonym, Xiphias guebucu Walbaum 1793. •Synonym of Istiophorus albicans (Latreille 1804) -- (Nakamura 1983:286 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:21 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:999 [ref. 19483]). •Apparently a synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

guebucu, Xiphias Walbaum [J. J.] 1793:113 [J. T. Kleinii ichthyologia enodata; ref. 12604] Xiphias guebucu Walbaum 1793 is a nomen oblitum that can be suppressed if conditions of Art. 23.9.1.1 and Art. 23.9.1.2 of the Code are met. •Unused senior synonym of Skeponopodus guebucu Nardo 1833 -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

herschelii, Tetrapturus Gray [J. E.] 1838:313, Pl. 10 [Annals of Natural History, or Magazine of Zoology, Botany, and Geology v. 1 (no. 4) (art. 36); ref. 18156] Table Bay, Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, southeastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): BMNH (stuffed, 11 ft. long). •Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802 -- (de Sylva 1973:479 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:330 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:33 [ref. 20161], Heemstra 1986:840 [ref. 5660], Scott & Scott 1988:469 [ref. 25518], Nakamura 1990:1003 [ref. 19483] as hershelii). Current status: Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

holei, Makaira Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1926:63, Pl. 19 (fig. 1) [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Presumably off Santa Catalina, California, U.S.A. or off Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: CAS 610 (mounted specimen). Paratypes: LACM (1). •Synonym of Tetrapturus audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Nakamura 1983:316 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:40 [ref. 20161]). •Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Collette et al. 2006:463 [ref. 28911]). Current status: Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

howardi, Istiompax Whitley [G. P.] 1954:58, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Australian Zoologist v. 12 (pt 1); ref. 4720] Off Bermagui, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.2924. •Synonym of Makaira mazara (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Nakamura 1983:323 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:30 [ref. 20161]). •Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802 -- (de Sylva 1973:479 [ref. 7210], Bray et al. 2006:1781 [ref. 29091]). Current status: Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

illingworthi, Tetrapturus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1926:32, Pl. 8 [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaii. Holotype: CAS 600 (photograph only). Based on a dorsal fin and photograph. •Synonym of Tetrapturus angustirostris Tanaka 1915 -- (Nakamura 1983:295 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:38 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:1006 [ref. 19483]). Current status: Synonym of Tetrapturus angustirostris Tanaka 1915. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

immaculatus, Histiophorus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:39 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 1619. Not seen. Also appeared in Rüppell 1835:187 [ref. 18646] and Rüppell 1836:42 [ref. 3844]. •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:278 [ref. 5371], Dor 1984:265 [ref. 29757], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Histiophorus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:293, Pl. 229 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Indian Ocean; Red Sea; Sechelles. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1964.7.2.1 (1), MNHN A-5514 [or A-5513] (1, fragments) Mauritius. Type catalog: Bauchot & Blanc 1961:378 [ref. 20733], Blanc & Bauchot 1964:458 [ref. 20804]. Based primarily on literature sources. Also in Griffith & Smith 1834:352 [ref. 1908]. •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:278 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161], Fricke 1999:560 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Tetrapturus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:286 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Sumatra, Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Blanc 1961:377 [ref. 20733], Blanc & Bauchot 1964:458 [ref. 20804]. Based on a Bank's drawing. •Valid as Makaira indica (Cuvier 1832) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:303 [ref. 7348], Nakamura 1983:334 [ref. 5371], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:276 [ref. 9277], Nakamura in Masuda et al. 1984:223 [ref. 6441], Nakamura 1985:27 [ref. 20161], Heemstra 1986:840 [ref. 5660], Allen & Swainston 1988:142 [ref. 25477], Pequeño 1989:67 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:233 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:66 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:441 [ref. 15987], Nakamura 1990:1001 [ref. 19483], Gomon et al. 1994:830 [ref. 22532], Allen & Robertson 1994:278 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:70 [ref. 25356], Nakamura in Fischer et al. 1995:1190 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:377 [ref. 22896], Fierstine & Voigt 1996:148 [ref. 22401], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:525 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:230 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:595 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:441 [ref. 25919], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:108 [ref. 24555], Fricke 1999:561 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:751 [ref. 25471], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1332 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:476 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Nakamura 2001:3764 [ref. 26306], Nakabo 2002:1332 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:423, 676 [ref. 26218] dated 1831, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S121 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495] dated 1831, Parin 2003:S27 [ref. 28536], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576] dated 1831, Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:177 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:426 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:508 [ref. 28379], Bray et al. 2006:1780 [ref. 29091], Gomon 2008:793 [ref. 30616], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Larson et al. 2013:220 [ref. 32988]). •Tentatively valid as Istiompax indicus (Cuvier 1832) -- (Collette et al. 2006:465 [ref. 28911]). •Valid as Istiompax indicus (Cuvier 1832) -- (Fricke et al. 2009:113 [ref. 30213]). •Valid as Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832) -- (Page et al. 2013:182 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:517 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:318 [ref. 34104], Roberts 2015:1641 [ref. 34193], Fourriére et al. 2016:459 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:107 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Istiophoridae. Distribution: Nearly circumglobal in tropical through temperate seas (including Red Sea, Hawaiian Islands). Habitat: marine.

indicus, Zanclurus Swainson [W.] 1839:240 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Cuv. & Val., Pl. 229 -- which is Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:Pl. 229 [ref. 1000]. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Istiophorus Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1914:240 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 2543] Not available, no description, from Kobe, Japan; name credited to Cuvier & Valenciennes. •In the synonymy of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (Nakamura 1983:278 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae.

jauffreti, Marlina Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:31, Pl. 1 (fig. H) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 2; ref. 4107] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Based on a photograph. •Synonym of Tetrapturus audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Nakamura 1983:317 [ref. 5371], Heemstra 1986:841 [ref. 5660]). •Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Current status: Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

kraussi, Tetrapturus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1926:33, Pl. 9 [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS 601 (photograph only). •Synonym of Tetrapturus angustirostris Tanaka 1915 -- (Nakamura 1983:295 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:38 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:1006 [ref. 19483]). Current status: Synonym of Tetrapturus angustirostris Tanaka 1915. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

lessonae, Tetrapturus Canestrini [G.] 1861:259, Pl. 17 (fig. 1) [Archivio per la Zoologia, l'Anatomia e la Fisiologia v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 17326] Genoa, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MSNG 46084 [ex Coll. Univ. Genova 3680] (mounted). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:340 [ref. 10350]. •Synonym of Tetrapturus albidus Poey 1860 -- (de Sylva 1973:480 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:300 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:35 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:1005 [ref. 19483]). •Synonym of Kajikia albida (Poey 1860). Current status: Synonym of Kajikia albida (Poey 1860). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

ludibundus, Istiophorus Whitley [G. P.] 1933:83 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 4677] Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.5976. Based on a specimen of Istiophorus gladius described and illustrated by McCulloch 1921:137, Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [ref. 2945]. •Questionably a synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210]). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (Nakamura 1983:280 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161], Bray et al. 2006:1780 [ref. 29091]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

magnioci, Histiophorus Jordan [D. S.] 1927:36 [Copeia No. 163; ref. 21265] Not available, no description. Appeared as above as "Histiophorus magnioci, described by Jordan & Evermann from Florida, is, no doubt, the young of Histiophorus volador." Jordan & Evermann did not describe a species with this name, but they did describe species from Florida in 1926 [ref. 15593]; possibly confused by Jordan for Istiophorus maguirei Jordan & Evermann. •Questionably in the synonymy of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210]). •In the synonymy of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (Nakamura 1983:279 [ref. 5371]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae.

maguirei, Istiophorus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1926:45, Pl. 13 [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Off Long Key, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS 604 (photograph only). Based on a photograph. •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210]). •Synonym of Istiophorus albicans (Latreille 1804) -- (Nakamura 1983:288 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:21 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:1000 [ref. 19483]). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

makaira, Xiphias Shaw [G.] 1803:104, Pl. 16 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Ile de Ré, Bay of Biscay, France. No types known. Unneeded new name for Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802 -- (Nakamura 1990:1003 [ref. 19483], Nakamura 1983:330 [ref. 5371]). Current status: Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

marlina, Makaira Jordan [D. S.] & Hill [H. R] in Jordan & Evermann 1926:59, Pl. 17 [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Off Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: CAS 609 (photograph only). •Synonym of Makaira indica (Cuvier 1832) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:303 [ref. 7348], Nakamura 1983:335 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:27 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:1001 [ref. 19483], Nakamura 1985:27 [ref. 20161], Gomon et al. 1994:831 [ref. 22532], Nakamura in Fischer et al. 1995:1190 [ref. 22829], Youn 2002:676 [ref. 26218], Mundy 2005:508 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Makaira indica (Cuvier 1832). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

mazara, Tetrapturus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:305 [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 15 (pt 2); ref. 2506] Misaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, Sagami Sea, Japan. No types known. •Valid as Makaira mazara (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:300 [ref. 7348], Nakamura 1983:322 [ref. 5371], Nakamura in Masuda et al. 1984:223 [ref. 6441], Nakamura 1985:30 [ref. 20161], Allen & Swainston 1988:142 [ref. 25477], Pequeño 1989:67 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:233 [ref. 24556], Randall et al. 1990:441 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:278 [ref. 22193], Nakamura in Fischer et al. 1995:1191 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:378 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:230 [ref. 23977], Cheng & Zhou 1997:355 [ref. 26385], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:596 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:441 [ref. 25919], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:108 [ref. 24555], Fricke 1999:561 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:336 [ref. 25013], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1332 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:476 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Nakamura 2001:3762 [ref. 26306], Nakabo 2002:1332 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:423, 676 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S121 [ref. 27377], Parin 2003:S27 [ref. 28536], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624] dating to 1909, Nelson et al. 2004:177 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:427 [ref. 28072], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Ho & Shao 2011:60 [ref. 31432]). •Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802 -- (Bray et al. 2006:1781 [ref. 29091], Parin et al. 2014:518 [ref. 33547]). •See Collette et al. 2006:466 [ref. 28911] who says nigricans is worldwide. Current status: Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802. Istiophoridae. Distribution: Worldwide. Habitat: marine.

mitsukurii, Tetrapturus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:304, Pl. 16 (fig. 5) [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 15 (pt 2); ref. 2506] Misaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, Sagami Sea, Japan. •Synonym of Tetrapturus audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:298 [ref. 7348], Nakamura 1983:314 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:40 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Fischer et al. 1995:1193 [ref. 22829], Mundy 2005:509 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Current status: Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Eumakaira Hirasaka [K.] & Nakamura [H.] 1947:16, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the Oceanographic Institute Taiwan No. 3; ref. 2174] Taiwan. No types known. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:60 [ref. 31432]. No type specimens were designated in the original description according to Ho & Shao 2011:60 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Makaira mazara (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Nakamura 1983:323 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:30 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Fischer et al. 1995:1191 [ref. 22829], Ho & Shao 2011:60 [ref. 31432]). •Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802 -- (de Sylva 1973:479 [ref. 7210]). Current status: Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Makaira Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:688, Pl. 13 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Ile de Ré, Bay of Biscay, France [eastern North Atlantic]. No types known. Based on a drawing (at MNHN). •Valid as Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802 -- (de Sylva 1973:479 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:329 [ref. 5371], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:278 [ref. 9277], Nakamura 1985:33 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Whitehead et al. 1986:1002 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1986:840 [ref. 5660], Robins & Ray 1986:264 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:468 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:181 [ref. 14674], Nakamura 1990:1003 [ref. 19483], Boschung 1992:170 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:343 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:174 [ref. 25472], Cervigón 1994:234 [ref. 24488], Randall 1995:378 [ref. 22896], Fierstine & Voigt 1996:148 [ref. 22401], Santos et al. 1997:109 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:103 [ref. 24952], Firestine 1999:430 [ref. 24030], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:335 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:169 [ref. 27754], Firestine et al. 2001:59 [ref. 25608], Collette in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:514 [ref. 26158], Nakamura 2003:1864 [ref. 27116], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:103 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:177 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:428 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:509 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:792 [ref. 28815], Collette et al. 2006:466 [ref. 28911], Bray et al. 2006:1781 [ref. 29091], Fricke et al. 2009:113 [ref. 30213], Psomadakis et al. 2012:18 [ref. 33457], Page et al. 2013:182 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:182 [ref. 32953], Larson et al. 2013:220 [ref. 32988], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:84 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Parin et al. 2014:518 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:319 [ref. 34104], Roberts 2015:1644 [ref. 34193], Pinheiro et al. 2015:33 [ref. 34324], Nakamura & Collette in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2942 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:459 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:107 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802. Istiophoridae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through temperate seas, including the Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Histiophorus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1844:103, Pl. 55 [Fauna Japonica Parts 5-6; ref. 4372] Nagasaki, Japan. No types known. Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:97 [ref. 12876], Boeseman 1964:468, Fig. 19 [ref. 20805]. No types known; based on a drawing and manuscript of Burger. •Valid as Histiophorus orientalis Temminck & Schlegel 1844 -- (Chen et al. 1997:160 [ref. 26476] dated 1842, Cheng & Zhou 1997:353 [ref. 26385] dated 1842). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:278 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Fischer et al. 1995:1189 [ref. 22829], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Youn 2002:676 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S27 [ref. 28536], Mundy 2005:508 [ref. 28379], Parin et al. 2014:517 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

perezi, Makaira de Buen [F.] 1950:171, Figs. 1-4 [Publicaciones Cientificas, Servicio Oceanografico y de Pesca, Ministerio de Industrias y Trabajo, Montevideo No. 5; ref. 692] Vicinity of Punta Carretas, Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:7 [ref. 23527]. •Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802 -- (de Sylva 1973:479 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:331 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:33 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Whitehead et al. 1986:1002 [ref. 13676], Nakamura 1990:1004 [ref. 19483]). Current status: Synonym of Makaira nigricans Lacepède 1802. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

pfluegeri, Tetrapturus Robins [C. R.] & de Sylva [D. P.] 1963:86, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 5247] San Juan, Puerto Rico. Holotype: USNM 202818 [ex UMML 2231]. Paratypes: AMNH 20407 (1, not found in 1981), 20408SD (1, skeleton); UF 202230 [ex UMML 2230] (1), 203484 [ex UMML 3484] (1, skeleton), 205955-56 [ex UMML 5955-56] (1, 1), 211095 [ex UMML 11095] (1). •Valid as Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins & de Sylva 1963 -- (Nakamura 1983:303 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:46 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Whitehead et al. 1986:1005 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1986:841 [ref. 5660], Robins & Ray 1986:265 [ref. 23100], Nakamura 1990:1007 [ref. 19483], Boschung 1992:170 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:343 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:174 [ref. 25472], Cervigón 1994:237 [ref. 24488], Fierstine & Voigt 1996:148 [ref. 22401], Santos et al. 1997:109 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:103 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:336 [ref. 25013], Alvarez-León 2002:229 [ref. 26373], Nakamura 2003:1866 [ref. 27116], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:104 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:177 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:794 [ref. 28815], Collette et al. 2006:466 [ref. 28911], Page et al. 2013:182 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:84 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Nakamura & Collette in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2945 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins & de Sylva 1963. Istiophoridae. Distribution: Atlantic in tropical to warm temperate seas. Habitat: marine.

platypterus, Xiphias Shaw [G.] in Shaw & Nodder 1792:no page number, Pl. 88 [The Naturalist's Miscellany; ref. 4013] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1964.7.2.1. Nakamura 2003:1863 [ref. 27116] although stating the platypterus and albicans may be the same species, he prefers to follow current usage and keep the Atlantic albicans separate. Type information is provided by Whitehead 1964:444-447, P. 5 [ref. 21264] who treats a holotype (which technically should be the lectotype); the original description also mentions a sword at the BMNH. Species name misspelled platisterus by Cuvier 1831:149 [ref. 30376]. •Valid as Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) [sometimes with authors as Shaw & Nodder] -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:294 [ref. 7348], Nakamura 1983:277 [ref. 5371], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:276 [ref. 9277], Dor 1984:265 [ref. 29757], Nakamura in Masuda et al. 1984:223 [ref. 6441], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161], Heemstra 1986:840 [ref. 5660], Robins & Ray 1986:266 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:142 [ref. 25477], Pequeño 1989:67 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:232 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:66 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:441 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:170 [ref. 23239], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:173 [ref. 25472], Allen & Robertson 1994:278 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:70 [ref. 25356], Nakamura in Fischer et al. 1995:1189 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:377 [ref. 22896], Franke & Acero P. 1996:768 [ref. 22923], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:524 [ref. 27969] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Allen 1997:230 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:227 [ref. 23922], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:593 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:441 [ref. 25919], Chatterjee et al. 1998:81 [ref. 24008], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:106 [ref. 24555], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Fricke 1999:560 [ref. 24106], Francis et al. 1999:577 [ref. 24249], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:335 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:751 [ref. 25471], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1332 [ref. 25182] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:475 [ref. 25191], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:104 [ref. 26368], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:169 [ref. 27754], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Nakamura 2001:3764 [ref. 26306], Nakabo 2002:1332 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:423, 676 [ref. 26218], Nakamura 2003:1863 [ref. 27116], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S121 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Parin 2003:S27 [ref. 28536], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Nelson et al. 2004:177 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:425 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:508 [ref. 28379], Collette et al. 2006:465 [ref. 28911], Bray et al. 2006:1780 [ref. 29091], Fricke et al. 2009:113 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:230 [ref. 31256], Page et al. 2013:182 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:220 [ref. 32988], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:84 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Parin et al. 2014:517 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:319 [ref. 34104], Roberts 2015:1642 [ref. 34193], Nakamura & Collette in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2941 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:459 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:107 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Distribution: Circumglobal, including southwestern Mediterranean Sea (if albicans is treated as a synonym) and Red Sea, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

prototypus, Scheponopodus Canestrini [G.] 1872:112 [Pesci d'Italia. Parts I-II; ref. 14130] Not available, name published in synonymy. Original genus should have been Skeponopodus. •In the synonymy of Tetrapturus belone Rafinesque 1810 -- (de Sylva 1973:480 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:301 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:43 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Tetrapturus belone Rafinesque 1810. Istiophoridae.

pulchellus, Histiophorus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:305, Pl. 230 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Eastern Atlantic, north of Cape of Good Hope. Syntypes: MNHN A-6801 (1), A-6802 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Blanc 1961:378 [ref. 20733]. •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210]). •Synonym of Istiophorus albicans (Latreille 1804) -- (Nakamura 1983:286 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:21 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:999 [ref. 19483]). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

tahitiensis, Makaira nigricans Nichols [J. T.] & La Monte [F. R.] 1935:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 807; ref. 13909] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype: AMNH 15497P (photo only). Paratypes: (1, photo only). •Synonym of Makaira indica (Cuvier 1832) -- (Nakamura 1990:1002 [ref. 19483], Nakamura 1983:336 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:27 [ref. 20161]). •Synonym of Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Current status: Synonym of Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

tenuirostratus, Tetrapturus Deraniyagala [P. E. P.] 1951:139, Pl. 2 [not 1] (fig. b) [Spolia Zeylanica v. 26 (pt 2); ref. 12887] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH. •Synonym of Tetrapturus audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Nakamura 1983:317 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:40 [ref. 20161]). •Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Current status: Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

triactis, Istiophorus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:468 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Red Sea. Not available; appeared first as name in synonymy as above; also appeared in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899:9, Pl. 10 [ref. 4977] but also in synonymy. •In the synonymy of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210], Dor 1984:265 [ref. 29757], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae.

typus, Skeponopodus Nardo [G. D.] 1833:Col. 419 [Isis (Oken) v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 3147] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). •Synonym of Tetrapturus belone Rafinesque 1810 -- (de Sylva 1973:480 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:300 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:43 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Tetrapturus belone Rafinesque 1810. Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

velifer, Xiphias Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:93 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] India and east and west Indies. No type known. Based on literature sources. •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210], Nakamura 1983:277 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:23 [ref. 20161]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

velifera, Makaira Cuvier [G.] 1832:43, Pl. 3 [Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris) v. 1; ref. 18060] Haiti, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN ?B-1648. The name velifera does not appear in the text, but may appear on Pl. 3 (not examined). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:477 [ref. 7210]). •Synonym of Istiophorus albicans (Latreille 1804) -- (Nakamura 1983:286 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:21 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:999 [ref. 19483]). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

volador, Istiophorus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1926:46, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Long Key, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: CAS 606 (photograph only). •Synonym of Istiophorus albicans (Latreille 1804) -- (Nakamura 1983:288 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:21 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:1000 [ref. 19483]). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210]). Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

wrighti, Istiophorus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1926:43, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Near Miami, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS 603 (photograph only). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) -- (de Sylva 1973:478 [ref. 7210]). •Synonym of Istiophorus albicans (Latreille 1804) -- (Nakamura 1983:288 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:21 [ref. 20161], Nakamura 1990:1000 [ref. 19483]). •Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792) Current status: Synonym of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw 1792). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

xantholineata, Makaira Deraniyagala [P. E. P.] 1956:23, Pl. 1 and unnumbered text fig. [Spolia Zeylanica v. 28; ref. 12189] Fish market, Sri Lanka. Holotype: NMSL (ventral fin spike only). Based on 1 specimen that was measured, photographed, and not saved. •Synonym of Makaira indica (Cuvier 1832) -- (Nakamura 1990:1002 [ref. 19483], Nakamura 1983:337 [ref. 5371], Nakamura 1985:27 [ref. 20161]). •Synonym of Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Current status: Synonym of Istiompax indica (Cuvier 1832). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.

zelandica, Makaira Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1926:65, Pl. 19 (fig. 2) [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences v. 12; ref. 15593] Bay of Islands, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): CAS 611 (photograph only). Based on a photograph. •Synonym of Tetrapturus audax (Philippi 1887) -- (Nakamura 1983:316 [ref. 5371]). •Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Current status: Synonym of Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887). Istiophoridae. Habitat: marine.