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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Leiognathidae: [ 101 ] records


absconditus, Equulites Chakrabarty [P.] & Sparks [J. S.] in Chakrabarty, Chu, Nahar & Sparks 2010:18, Figs 2 (Group A), 5 [Zootaxa No. 2427; ref. 30812] Market at Tonshi, 23°27'10.1"N, 120°08'19.3"E, Taiwan. Holotype: AMNH 239270. Paratypes: AMNH 239270 (1), 242666 (97); LSUMZ 13236 (1), 13339 (21); NTUM 5698 (2). •Valid as Equulites absconditus Chakrabarty & Sparks 2010 -- (Abraham et al. 2011:11 [ref. 31311], Sparks & Chakrabarty 2015:188 [ref. 33740]). Current status: Valid as Equulites absconditus Chakrabarty & Sparks 2010. Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Taiwan and India. Habitat: marine.

achlamys, Gazza Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1917:446, Pl. 45 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 11 (nos. 3-4) (art. 17); ref. 10668] Colombo, Sri Lanka. Holotype: FMNH 58939 [ex CM 8074a]. Paratypes: FMNH [ex CM 8075] 58966 (2); CAS-SU 21652 (2), 22853 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:77 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:38 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Gazza achlamys Jordan & Starks 1917 -- (Jones 1985:569 [ref. 21842], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:342 [ref. 27969], Myers 1999:143 [ref. 23965], Mishra et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25315], Kimura et al. 2000:7 [ref. 24478], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:214 [ref. 27511], Yamashita & Kimura 2001:165 [ref. 25380], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2798 [ref. 26095], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Chakrabarty et al. 2008:152 [ref. 32414], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:113 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:16 [ref. 31311], Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Gazza achlamys Jordan & Starks 1917. Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aethopos, Equulites Suzuki [H.] & Kimura [S.] 2017:[6], Figs. 2a, 4a, 7a [Ichthyological Research v. 64 (no. 3); ref. 35231] Southern Red Sea. Holotype: HUJ 16155. Paratypes: HUJ. •Valid as Equulites aethopos Suzuki & Kimura 2017- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[5] 243 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:88 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Equulites aethopos Suzuki & Kimura 2017. Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

antongil, Photoplagios Sparks [J. S.] 2006:7, Figs. 3-4 [American Museum Novitates No. 3526; ref. 28783] Antongil Bay, Maroansetra market, Northeastern Madagascar. Holotype: AMNH 236544. Paratypes: AMNH 236545 (3); SIO 05-117 (1). Habitat as "coastal waters" of northeastern Madagascar. •Valid as Equulites antongil (Sparks 2006) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29614], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:18 [ref. 30812]). •Valid as Photolateralis antongil (Sparks 2006) -- (Sparks & Chakrabarty 2015:183 [ref. 33740]). •Valid as Photoplagios antongil Sparks 2006 -- (Sparks & Chakrabarty 2007:622 [ref. 29261], Fricke et al. 2018:191 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Photoplagios antongil Sparks 2006. Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argentarius, Zeus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:96 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Pacific [Tanna = Tana Island, Vanuatu]. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.6.13.1-2 (2). Based on description and painting (folio 232 at BMNH) in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795) -- (Dor 1984:134 [ref. 29757], Yamashita et al. 1998:276 [ref. 23474], Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:88 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argentatus, Centrogaster Houttuyn [M.] 1782:334 [Verhandelingen der Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, Haarlem v. 20 (pt 2); ref. 2220] Japan. No types known. See Boeseman 1995:6 [ref. 21811]. Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: marine.

argentea, Equula De Vis [C. W.] 1884:542 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: QM I.1699. Paralectotypes: QM (1) missing. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Leiognathus argenteus Lacepède 1802, replaced by Leiognathus devisi Whitley 1929. Lectotype selected by Whitley 1932:105 [ref. 4675]. •Synonym of Leiognathus decorus (De Vis 1884) -- (Jones 1985:578 [ref. 21842] incorrectly with a holotype, Hoese & Bray 2006:1179 [ref. 29000]). •Possible synonym of Nuchequula gerreoides (Bleeker 1851) based on status of decorus. •Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: marine.

argenteus, Leiognathus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:448, 449 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8756 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:34 [ref. 15502]. The name equula is Latin for a young horse, the name does not decline (Kottelat 2013:340). Unneeded new name for Scomber edentulus Bloch 1795. •Synonym of Leiognathus equulus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 1999:260 [ref. 24106]). •Synonymy of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:339 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

asina, Equula De Vis [C. W.] 1884:544 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: QM I.1700. Paralectotypes: ? [non-types] AMS I.355-56 (1, 1), QM I.9809 (?1 of 2). Lectotype selected by Whitley 1932:101-102 [ref. 4675]; later selected by Jones 1985:589 [ref. 21842]; originally 2 syntypes. •Synonym of Leiognathus fasciatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Jones 1985:587 [ref. 21842], Hoese & Bray 2006:1180 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Aurigequula fasciata (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Aurigequula fasciata (Lacepède 1803). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aureus, Leiognathus Abe [T.] & Haneda [Y.] 1972:3, Pl. 1 (figs. 1B, 2B) [Science Report of the Yokosuka City Museum No. 19; ref. 7599] Ambon fish market, Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Neotype: YCM-P 35792. Type catalog: Shibata et al. 2011:14 [ref. 31469]. Neotype desitnated by Kimura et al. 2003:226 [ref. 27212]; original types lost except for one paratype [ABE 16976, now YCM-P 35800] in poor condition and unidentifiable. •Valid as Leiognathus aureus Abe & Haneda 1972 -- (Jones 1985:571 [ref. 21842], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2800 [ref. 26095], Kimura et al. 2003:223 [ref. 27212], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Hoese & Bray 2006:1178 [ref. 29000], Shibata et al. 2011:14 [ref. 31469]). •Valid as Photopectoralis aureus (Abe & Haneda 1972) -- (Chakrabarty et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:10 [ref. 31311], Larson et al. 2013:128 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:236 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Photopectoralis aureus (Abe & Haneda 1972). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Mostly West Pacific, Indo-Australian Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

berbis, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:85 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:33 [ref. 15502]. Based on Scomber equula var minimus Forsskål 1775. •See Randall 1995:193 [ref. 22896]. •Nomen dubium -- (Chakrabarty et al. 2010:20 [ref. 30812]). •Valid as Leiognathus berbis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dor 1984:134 [ref. 29757], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:225 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Woodland et al. 2001:2801 [ref. 26095], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:32 [ref. 27712], Alshawy et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35105], Fricke et al. 2018:191 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:88 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Leiognathus berbis (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Indonesia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bindoides, Equula Bleeker [P.] 1851:372 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Batavia, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 8218 (9), RMNH 8219 (probably some out of 31), SMNS 10611 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:16 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:46 [ref. 29864] Also in Bleeker 1852:83 [ref. 332]. •Valid as Leiognathus bindoides (Bleeker 1851) - (authors). Current status: Valid as Leiognathus bindoides (Bleeker 1851). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

bindus, Equula Valenciennes [A.] (ex Russell) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:78 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Locality not stated [Vizagapatam, India]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:33 [ref. 15502]. Based on the 'Bindoo-karah' of Russell 1803:50, Pl. 64 (vol. 1) [ref. 13862]. •Valid as Leiognathus bindus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:131 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:135 [ref. 29757], Uyeno & Yabumoto in Masuda et al. 1984:158 [ref. 6441], Jones 1985:573 [ref. 21842], Allen & Swainston 1988:76 [ref. 25477], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:829 [ref. 20764], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:225 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:191 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:344 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:76 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:296 [ref. 26385], Larson & Williams 1997:359 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:118 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:169 [ref. 23922], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:246 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25315], Nakabo 2000:812 [ref. 25086], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:219 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2802 [ref. 26095], Nakabo 2002:812 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:366 [ref. 31338], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Ra et al. 2005:95 [ref. 28304], Hoese & Bray 2006:1178 [ref. 29000], Chakrabarty & Sparks 2007:22 [ref. 29266]). •Valid as Photopectoralis bindus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Sparks et al. 2005:316 [ref. 28434], Sparks 2006:14 [ref. 28783], Yamanoue et al. 2008:200 [ref. 29613], Chakrabarty et al. 2008:155 [ref. 32414], Chakrabarty et al. 2009:155 [ref. 30295], Kimura 2009:133 [ref. 30426], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:10 [ref. 31311], Allen & Erdmann 2012:442 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:128 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:128 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:423 [ref. 33460], Psomadakis et al. 2015:237 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:125 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:325 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:88 [ref. 36273], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:148 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:224 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Photopectoralis bindus (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and Fiji, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

blochii, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:84 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Kerala State, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-6757. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-6757 (1, poor condition) Malabar, A-6759 (2) Mahe; ZMB 8757 (1, right skin) Tranquebar. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:19 [ref. 15502], Paepke 1999:93 [ref. 24282]. Lectotype selected by Kimura et al. 2008:25 [ref. 29525]. •Valid as Leiognathus blochii (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Jones 1985:576 [ref. 21842], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:830 [ref. 20764], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:226 [ref. 24016], Kottelat et al. 1993:111 [ref. 23448], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2803 [ref. 26095], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Hoese & Bray 2006:1178 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Nuchequula blochii (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Chakrabarty & Sparks 2007:13 [ref. 29266], Kimura et al. 2008:25 [ref. 29525], Kimura 2009:133 [ref. 30426], Kottelat 2013:340 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:126 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:236 [ref. 34104], Suresh et al. 2018:223 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Nuchequula blochii (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan east to Gulf of Thailand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevirostris, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:83 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Malabar, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-6763 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:19 [ref. 15502]. •Valid as Leiognathus brevirostris (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Zheng 1989:322 [ref. 21202], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:391 [ref. 23876], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:226 [ref. 24016], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:345 [ref. 27969], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:246 [ref. 24754], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:110 [ref. 25480], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:33 [ref. 27712]). •See Randall 1995:192 [ref. 22896]. •Synonym of Leiognathus bindus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Jones 1985:573 [ref. 21842], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:829 [ref. 20764], Chakrabarty & Sparks 2007:22 [ref. 29266]). Current status: Valid as Leiognathus brevirostris (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caballa, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:73 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Indian Ocean; Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN A-6618 (1) Guam, MNHN A-6722 (1) Red Sea; MNHN 0000-3091 (1) Malabar; one syntype from Red Sea and one from Mumbai lost. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:19 [ref. 15502]. •Synonym of Leiognathus equulus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:135 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:340 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cara, Equula Cuvier [G.] 1829:212 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Indian seas [Vizagapatam, India]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:33 [ref. 15502]. Available from footnote as, "Eq. cara, N., Russel, 66." Also appeared in Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:95 [ref. 1004]. •Synonym of Leiognathus fasciatus (Lacepède 1803). •Synonym of Aurigequula fasciata (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Aurigequula fasciata (Lacepède 1803). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

coma, Equula Cuvier [G.] 1829:212 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Indian seas [Visakhapatnam]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:33 [ref. 15502]. Available from footnote as, "Eq. coma, Russ. et Seb., III, xxvii, 4, 63." Also in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:76 [ref. 1004]. •Synonym of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:339 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dacer, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:83 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Sri Lanka. Holotype: MNHN A-6730. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:19 [ref. 15502]. •Synonym of Karalla daura (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Karalla daura (Cuvier 1829). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: marine.

daura, Equula Cuvier [G.] 1829:212 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Indian seas [Vizagapatam, India]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:34 [ref. 15502]. Available from footnote as, "Eq. Daura, N., Russel, 65." •Valid as Leiognathus daura (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1995:192 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:346 [ref. 27969], Mishra et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25315], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:220 [ref. 27511], Woodland et al. 2001:2804 [ref. 26095], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Kimura 2009:131 [ref. 30426]). •Valid as Karalla daura (Cuvier 1829) -- (Chakrabarty & Sparks 2008:7 [ref. 29788], Chakrabarty et al. 2009:153 [ref. 30295], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:120 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:9 [ref. 31311], Allen & Erdmann 2012:442 [ref. 31980], Chakrabarty et al. 2008:153 [ref. 32414], Psomadakis et al. 2015:235 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Karalla daura (Cuvier 1829). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden to East Indian Region, to Molucca Islands, Indonesia and to the Philippines. Habitat: marine.

decora, Equula De Vis [C. W.] 1884:543 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Cape York, Queensland, Australia [Coral Sea, western Pacific]. Lectotype: QM I.1698. Paralectotypes: QM I.4877 (2). Lectotype selected Whitley 1932:105 [ref. 4675]. •Valid as Leiognathus decorus (De Vis 1884) -- (Jones 1985:578 [ref. 21842], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:830 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:111 [ref. 23448], Randall 1995:192 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:359 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:169 [ref. 23922], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2805 [ref. 26095], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Hoese & Bray 2006:1179 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Nuchequula decora (De Vis 1884) -- (Chakrabarty & Sparks 2007:16 [ref. 29266]). •Synonym of Nuchequula gerreoides (Bleeker 1851) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:31 [ref. 29525], Kottelat 2013:340 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Nuchequula gerreoides (Bleeker 1851). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: marine.

dentex, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:91 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN A-0578. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-6758 (1), A-6760 (1), A-6761 (3), 1995-172 [ex MNHN A-0578] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:19 [ref. 15502]. Lectotype selected by Yamashita et al. 1998:272 [ref. 23474]. •Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1797) -- (authors). •Valid as Gazza dentex (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Yamashita et al. 1998:272 [ref. 23474], Kimura et al. 2000:1 [ref. 24478], Yamashita & Kimura 2001:165 [ref. 25380], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Hoese & Bray 2006:1177 [ref. 29000], Fricke et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30213], Larson et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Gazza dentex (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles and Mascarenes east to Indonesia, north to Thailand, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

devisi, Leiognathus Whitley [G. P.] 1929:113, Fig. 2 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 17 (no. 3); ref. 4665] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: QM I.1699. Paralectotypes: QM (1) missing. Replacement name for Equula argentea De Vis 1884, secondarily preoccupied in Leiognathus by Leiognathus argenteus Lacepède 1802 -- (Jones 1985:578 [ref. 21842]). Description by De Vis was based on two syntypes, only one remained and was wrongly designated as a holotype by Whitley 1929:115 [ref. 4665]. Whitley 1932:105 [ref. 4675] stated "Lectotype of Equula argentea De Vis = holotype of Leiognathus devisi Whitley, but devisi is a replacement name taking the same two types as Equula argentea De Vis. •Synonym of Leiognathus decorus (De Vis 1884) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1179 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Nuchequula gerreoides (Bleeker 1851). •Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: marine.

dispar, Gazza De Vis [C. W.] 1884:542 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.4898 [ex QM I.1701]. •Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795) -- (Jones 1985:569 [ref. 21842], Yamashita et al. 1998:276 [ref. 23474], Hoese & Bray 2006:1177 [ref. 29000], Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dussumieri, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:77, Pl. 283 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Coromandel coast, southeastern India. Syntypes: MNHN A-6720 (1), A-6721 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:20 [ref. 15502]. •Valid as Leiognathus dussumieri (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:111 [ref. 23448], Fricke 1999:260 [ref. 24106], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:246 [ref. 24754], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Woodland et al. 2001:2806 [ref. 26095], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:33 [ref. 27712], Fricke et al. 2009:59 [ref. 30213]). •Valid as Karalla dussumieri (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Chakrabarty & Sparks 2008:7 [ref. 29788], Chakrabarty et al. 2008:153 [ref. 32414], Chakrabarty et al. 2009:153 [ref. 30295], Abraham et al. 2011:9 [ref. 31311], Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:190 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Karalla dussumieri (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Madagascar, Réunion (Mascarenes) and India east to Indonesia and Philippines. Habitat: brackish, marine.

edentulus, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1795:109, Pl. 428 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] No locality given [East India, evidently Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8756 (left skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:93 [ref. 24282]. On p. 109 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. Holotype figured in Sparks & Dunlap 2004:15 [ref. 27928] •Synonym of Leiognathus equulus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:135 [ref. 29757], Fricke 1999:260 [ref. 24106], Ataur Rahman 2003:365 [ref. 31338]). •Synonym of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:339 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

edwardsi, Leiognathus Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:68, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] San Fabian, Pangasinan, Luzon Island Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55904. •Synonym of Leiognathus leuciscus (Günther 1860) -- (Jones 1985:590 [ref. 21842]). •Valid as Leiognathus edwardsi Evermann & Seale 1907 -- (Woodland et al. 2001:2796 [ref. 26095]). Current status: Valid as Leiognathus edwardsi Evermann & Seale 1907. Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Equula Günther [A.] 1874:369 [2] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 14 (no. 83) (art. 47); ref. 2006] North Sulawesi. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1872.4.6.105. •Valid as Leiognathus elongatus (Günther 1874) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:127 [ref. 19754], Dunlap & McFall-Ngai 1984:884 [ref. 21845], Uyeno & Yabumoto in Masuda et al. 1984:158 [ref. 6441], Jones 1985:581 [ref. 21842], Smith 1986:620 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:76 [ref. 25477], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:346 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:118 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:164 [ref. 25488], Fricke 1999:261 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:810 [ref. 25086], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2807 [ref. 26095], Nakabo 2002:810 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:334, 609 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:33 [ref. 27712], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:276 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:240 [ref. 28239], Ra et al. 2005:92 [ref. 28304], Hoese & Bray 2006:1179 [ref. 29000]). ▐ Valid as Photoplagios elongatus (Günther 1874) -- (Sparks 2006:1 [ref. 28783], Sparks & Chakrabarty 2007:622 [ref. 29261]). •Valid as Equulites elongata (Günther 1874) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29614], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:18 [ref. 30812], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:120 [ref. 31090], Golani et al. 2011:S75 [ref. 31436]. Larson et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Equulites elongatus (Günther 1874) -- (Bogorodsky et al. 2014:423 [ref. 33460], Suzuki & Kimura 2017:[7] [ref. 35231], Ali et al. 2018:324 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:189 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Equulites elongatus (Günther 1874). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Guinea (and possibly Fiji), north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Leiognathus Smith [H. M.] & Pope [T. E. B.] 1906:466, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1489); ref. 4058] Kagoshima, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 55613. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Leiognathus by Equula elongata Günther 1874, replaced by Macilentichthys popei Whitley 1932. •Synonym of Leiognathus elongatus (Günther 1874) -- (Dunlap & McFall-Ngai 1984:886 [ref. 21845], Jones 1985:581 [ref. 21842]). •Synonym of Equulites elongatus (Günther 1874) -- (Kimura 2009:128 [ref. 30426]). Current status: Synonym of Equulites elongatus (Günther 1874). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: marine.

ensifera, Equula Cuvier [G.] 1829:212 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Indian seas [Tharangambadi]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8756 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:34 [ref. 15502]. Available from footnote as, "Eq. ensifera, Nob., ou Scomber edentulus, Bl., 428, ou Leyognathe argenté, Lacép." Replacement name for Scomber edetulus Block 1795. Also described in Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:66 [ref. 1004]. •Synonym of Leiognathus equulus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 1999:260 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:339 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

equula, Scomber Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:58, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P48219 (dry skin). Paralectotypes: ZMUC P48220 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:64 [ref. 9588]. Lectotype selected by Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:23 [ref. 20847]; lectotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 28 [ref. 20847] and in Sparks & Dunlap 2004:15 [ref. 27928]. Misspelled Caesio aequulus by Sonnini 1803:36 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Valid as Leiognathus equulus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:135 [ref. 29757], Jones 1985:584 [ref. 21842], Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:233 [ref. 26639], Allen & Swainston 1988:76 [ref. 25477], Ataur Rahman 1989:335 [ref. 24860], Allen 1991:135 [ref. 21090], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:831 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:111 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:192 [ref. 22896], Rainboth 1996:184 [ref. 22772], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:347 [ref. 27969], Reinthal & Stiassny 1997:354 [ref. 22780], Allen 1997:118 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:76 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:359 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:169 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:164 [ref. 25488], Myers 1999:143 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:260 [ref. 24106], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:246 [ref. 24754], Nakabo 2000:811 [ref. 25086], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:344 [ref. 25191], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:221 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:97 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2808 [ref. 26095], Allen et al. 2002:340 [ref. 25930], Nakabo 2002:811 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:626 [ref. 27495], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710] as equuals, Ataur Rahman 2003:365 [ref. 31338], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:275 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:239 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1179 [ref. 29000], Chakrabarty et al. 2008:156 [ref. 32414], Chakrabarty et al. 2009:155 [ref. 30295], Kimura 2009:131 [ref. 30426], Fricke et al. 2009:59 [ref. 30213], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:114 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:6 [ref. 31311], Allen & Erdmann 2012:442 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:127 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:84 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:235 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:124 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:325 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:88 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:106 [ref. 36262], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:146 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:222 [ref. 36495]). •Valid as Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775) -- (Uyeno & Yabumoto in Masuda et al. 1984:159 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:621 [ref. 5712], Kottelat 2013:339 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:191 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to eastern Caroline Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Fiji. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

equulaeformis, Gazza Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1835:4, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 1384. •Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795) -- (Dor 1984:134 [ref. 29757], Yamashita et al. 1998:276 [ref. 23474], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:333 [ref. 28867], Hoese & Bray 2006:1177 [ref. 29000], Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciata, Clupea Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:425, 460 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:33 [ref. 15502]. Based on Commerson manuscript and illustration. See Myers & Donaldson 2003:652 [ref. 27495]. •Valid as Leiognathus fasciatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:128 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:135 [ref. 29757], Uyeno & Yabumoto in Masuda et al. 1984:159 [ref. 6441], Jones 1985:587 [ref. 21842], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:519 [ref. 25598], James & Badrudeen 1991:219 [ref. 20324], Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:192 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:348 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:359 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:164 [ref. 25488], Fricke 1999:261 [ref. 24106], Mishra et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25315], Nakabo 2000:811 [ref. 25086], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:222 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:97 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2809 [ref. 26095], Nakabo 2002:811 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:83 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:16 [ref. 27624], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Randall 2005:240 [ref. 28239], Ra et al. 2005:92 [ref. 28304], Hoese & Bray 2006:1180 [ref. 29000], Kimura 2009:132 [ref. 30426]). •Correctly valid as Aurigequula fasciata (Lacepède 1803) -- (Chakrabarty et al. 2008:149 [ref. 32414], Chakrabarty et al. 2009:149 [ref. 30295], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:110 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:13 [ref. 31311], Larson et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32988] as fasciatus, Bogorodsky et al. 2014:423 [ref. 33460], Psomadakis et al. 2015:233 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:324 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:189 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:87 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:221 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Aurigequula fasciata (Lacepède 1803). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Palau, Tonga and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

festucosus, Halex Plumier [C.] in Lacepède 1803:470 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Not available, name only in the account of Clupanodon thrissa. Leiognathidae.

filigera, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:92, Pl. 284 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Molucca Islands; Trincomalee, Sri Lanka; Malabar; Seychelles. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3092 (1) Malabar, MNHN A-6750 (3) Seychelles, MNHN A-6751 (4) Seychelles, MNHN A-6752 (3) Trinquemali, A-6755 (1) Seychelles; Moluccas specimen lost. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:20 [ref. 15502]. •Synonym of Leiognathus fasciatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Dor 1984:135 [ref. 29757], Fricke 1999:261 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Aurigequula fasciata (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Aurigequula fasciata (Lacepède 1803). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

flavaxilla, Nuchequula Kimura [S.], Kimura [R.] & Ikejima [K.] 2008:29, Fig. 2b, 4a, 5b, 7b, 10 [Ichthyological Research v. 55; ref. 29525] Banaate, Hoilo, Panay Island, Philippines. Holotype: NSMT-P 76261. Paratypes: AMS I.44080-001 (1); BMNH 2007.2.19.2 (1); CAS 224637 (1); CSIRO H 6488-01 (1); FRLM 28836-37 (2), 30978, 80-81(3); 32743-45, 48-49, 78, 80, 82 (8); KAUM-I.1788-87 (1); MUFS 23149 (1); QM I.38087 (1); RMNH 35542 (1). •Valid as Nuchequula flavaxilla Kimura, Kimura & Ikejima 2008. Current status: Valid as Nuchequula flavaxilla Kimura, Kimura & Ikejima 2008. Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Phillipines. Habitat: marine.

gaiolus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:47 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:25 [ref. 3595] as Sparus gajolus. Leiognathidae. Habitat: marine.

gerreoides, Equula Bleeker [P.] 1851:371 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 326] Jakarta, Indonesia. Neotype: RMNH 35540 [ex. RMNH 6140]. Possible types: BMNH 1880.4.21.141-142 (2) but not labeled types. Also in Bleeker 1852:81 [ref. 332]. Neotype designated by Kimura et al. 2008:31 [ref. 29525]. •Synonym of Leiognathus daura (Cuvier 1829) -- (Woodland et al. 2001:2804 [ref. 26095]). •Valid as Nuchequula gerreoides (Bleeker 1851) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:31 [ref. 29525], Kimura 2009:133 [ref. 30426], Larson et al. 2013:128 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:340 [ref. 32989], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:48 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:236 [ref. 34104], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:146 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Nuchequula gerreoides (Bleeker 1851). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

glenysae, Nuchequula Kimura [S.], Kimura [R.] & Ikejima [K.] 2008:36, Figs. 2d, 3b, 5d, 7d, 14 [Ichthyological Research v. 55; ref. 29525] Gulf of Carpentaria, east of Wellesley Island, Queensland, Australia, 16°47'S, 139°51'E. Holotype: CSIRO A 2444. Paratypes: Many at CSIRO; FRLM 14520 (1). •Valid as Nuchequula glenysae Kimura, Kimura & Ikejima 2008 -- (Larson et al. 2013:128 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Nuchequula glenysae Kimura, Kimura & Ikejima 2008. Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Australia and eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

gomorah, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:80 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-6724. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-6725 (1) Malabar, A-6726 (1) Malabar, 0000-0581 (1) Red Sea. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:20 [ref. 15502]. Lectotype selected by Kimura et al. 2005:285 [ref. 28424]. •Synonym of Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor 1984:136 [ref. 29757], Kimura et al. 2005:285 [ref. 28424]). •Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gracilis, Equula Bleeker [P.] 1854:249 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 345] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Based on a juvenile; status uncertain. Leiognathidae. Habitat: marine.

hanedai, Secutor Mochizuki [K.] & Hayashi [M.] 1989:93, Figs. 9E-F [Science Report of the Yokosuka City Museum No. 37; ref. 20157] Sandakan, North Borneo, Malaysia, western Pacific. Holotype: YCM-HLP 180-1. Paratypes: FUMT-P 8695, 8697, 8699 & 8701-03 (7); MVM 46327 (1); URM 13225 (4), 14024 (1), 14204 (1), YCM-HLP 180-2 (1), 213-2 & 3 (2). Type catalog: Shibata et al. 2011:15 [ref. 31469]. •Valid as Secutor hanedai Mochizuki & Hayashi 1989 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:111 [ref. 23448], Yamashita et al. 2000:49 [ref. 24517], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Woodland et al. 2001:2818 [ref. 26095], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Kimura 2009:134 [ref. 30426], Shibata et al. 2011:15 [ref. 31469], Baldwin & Sparks 2011:39 [ref. 31487], Yoshida et al. 2013:128 [ref. 34464], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:49 [ref. 34319]). •Valid as Deveximentum hanedai (Mochizuki & Hayashi 1989) -- (Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989], Sparks & Chakrabarty 2015:187 [ref. 33740]). Current status: Valid as Deveximentum hanedai (Mochizuki & Hayashi 1989). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea to western Indonesia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hastatus, Liognathus Ogilby [J. D.] 1912:58 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 1; ref. 14855] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.878. Replacement name for Equula longispina De Vis 1884, preoccupied by Equula longispinis Valenciennes 1835. •Synonym of Leiognathus leuciscus (Günther 1860) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1180 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Leiognathus moretoniensis Ogilby 1912 -- (Woodland et al. 2001:2812 [ref. 26095]). •Synonym of Equulites leuciscus (Günther 1860). Current status: Synonym of Equulites leuciscus (Günther 1860). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: marine.

hataii, Leiognathus Abe [T.] & Haneda [Y.] 1972:1, Pl. 1 (figs. 1A, 2A) [Science Report of the Yokosuka City Museum No. 19; ref. 7599] Ambon fish market, Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Neotype: YCM-P 37696. Type catalog: Shibata et al. 2011:15 [ref. 31469]. Neotype designated by Kimura et al. 2003:223 [ref. 27212]; original specimens lost. •Valid as Leiognathus hataii Abe & Haneda 1972 -- (Woodland et al. 2001:2797 [ref. 26095], Kimura et al. 2003:227 [ref. 27212], Shibata et al. 2011:15 [ref. 31469] as hattai). •Valid as Photopectoralis hataii (Abe & Haneda 1972) -- (Sparks et al. 2005:316 [ref. 28434]). Current status: Valid as Photopectoralis hataii (Abe & Haneda 1972). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Ambon Island only. Habitat: marine.

indica, Siganus (Argylepes) Swainson [W.] 1839:247 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] India. No types known. Based on Russ. pl. 156 (Mitta Parah.) -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 156 [ref. 13862]. Leiognathidae. Habitat: marine.

indicius, Secutor Monkolprasit [S. P.] 1973:14, Figs. 3-4 [Fishery Research Bulletin Kasetsart University. No. 6; ref. 7378] Songkhla, southern Thailand. Holotype: KUMF 1369. Paratypes: KUMF 1370-73 (12, many, 23, 1). •Valid as Secutor indicius Monkolprasit 1973 -- (Mochizuki & Hayashi 1989:89 [ref. 20157], Kottelat et al. 1993:112 [ref. 23448], Yamashita et al. 2000:49 [ref. 24517], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Woodland et al. 2001:2819 [ref. 26095], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:84 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Kimura et al. 2008:111 [ref. 30931], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:120 [ref. 31090], Baldwin & Sparks 2011:39 [ref. 31487], Yoshida et al. 2013:129 [ref. 34464]). •Valid as Deveximentum indicum (Monkolprosit 1973) -- (Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989], Motomura et al. 2017:121 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Deveximentum indicium (Monkolprasit 1973). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

indicus, Leiognathus Singh [R.] & Talwar [P. K.] 1978:275, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Zoological Survey of India v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 8664] Puri, Orissa, India, Bay of Bengal. Holotype: ZSI F7363/2. Paratypes: ZSI F7364/2 (7), F7365/2 (1). See Das 2003:374 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Leiognathus rapsoni Munro 1964 -- (Kimura et al. 2005:283 [ref. 28424]). •Synonym of Eubleekeria rapsoni (Mundo 1964). Current status: Synonym of Eubleekeria rapsoni (Munro 1964). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: marine.

insidiator, Zeus Bloch [M. E.] 1787:41, Pl. 192 (figs. 2-3) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Surate [Surat] , Surat District, India, Tapti River estuary, into Gulf of Khambhat, Arabian Sea, Western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: ZMB 1676 (2). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:94 [ref. 24282]. On p. 31 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Leiognathus insidiator (Bloch 1787) -- (Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:232 [ref. 26639], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:390 [ref. 23876], Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Secutor insidiator (Bloch 1787) -- (Monkolprasit 1973:10 [ref. 7378], Jones 1985:605 [ref. 21842], Smith 1986:621 [ref. 5712], Mochizuki & Hayashi 1989:87 [ref. 20157], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:833 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:112 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:226 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:36 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:193 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:350 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:359 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:170 [ref. 23922], Yamashita et al. 2000:49 [ref. 24517], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:247 [ref. 24754], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703] as insidator, Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2820 [ref. 26095], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:34 [ref. 27712], Ataur Rahman 2003:364 [ref. 31338], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:276 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:241 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1182 [ref. 29000], Chakrabarty et al. 2008:150 [ref. 32414], Chakrabarty et al. 2009:150 [ref. 30295], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:118 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:14 [ref. 31311], Baldwin & Sparks 2011:39 [ref. 31487], Larson et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:237 [ref. 34104] as cf. insidiator, Ali et al. 2018:325 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:191 [ref. 35805]). •Valid as Deveximentum insidiator (Bloch 1787) -- (Kimura in Motomura et al. 2017:122 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Deveximentum insidiator (Bloch 1787). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to eastern Indonesia and Solomon Islands, south to Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia) and Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

interrupta, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:102 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-6740 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:20 [ref. 15502]. •Synonym of Secutor ruconius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Monkolprasit 1973:13 [ref. 7378], Jones 1985:608 [ref. 21842], Woodland et al. 2001:2822 [ref. 26095]). •Valid as Deveximentum interruptum (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Deveximentum interruptus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:144 [ref. 36460]). •Valid as Secutor interruptus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Mochizuki & Hayashi 1989:87 [ref. 20157], Kottelat et al. 1993:112 [ref. 23448], Yamashita et al. 2000:49 [ref. 24517], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:228 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1182 [ref. 29000], Shao et al. 2008:251 [ref. 29952], Baldwin & Sparks 2011:39 [ref. 31487], Larson et al. 2013:128 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:237 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Secutor interruptus (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan east to Taiwan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

jonesi, Leiognathus James [P. S. B. R.] 1971:316, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India v. 11 (no. 1-2) [1969]; ref. 21843] Palk Bay, vicinity of Mandapam, Tamil Nadu, southeastern India. Holotype: FMRI (confirmation not possible). Paratypes: FMRI (49). •Synonym of Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Jones 1985:599 [ref. 21842]). •Valid as Leiognathus jonesi James 1971 -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Kimura et al. 2005:277, 290 [ref. 28424]). •Valid as Eubleekeria jonesi (James 1971) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:203 [ref. 30867], Kimura 2009:130 [ref. 30426], Chakrabarty & Sparks 2008:6 [ref. 29788], Abraham et al. 2011:2 [ref. 31311], Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:125 [ref. 34464], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34319], Motomura et al. 2017:123 [ref. 35490], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:145 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Eubleekeria jonesi (James 1971). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius and Mascarenes east to Indonesia, north to northern Vietnam and Hainan Island (China), south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

klunzingeri, Equula Steindachner [F.] 1898:199 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 35 (no. 19) (for 14July 1898); ref. 20495] Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: (several) NMW 22366 (1), 59908-09 (21, 8), 59904 (1), 68276-81 (8, 26, 9, 4, 2, 13), 76008-09 (1, 8). Later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1898:782, pl. 1 (figs. 2-2a) [ref. 14693]. •Valid as Leiognathus klunzingeri (Steindachner 1898) -- (Tortonese 1973:390 [ref. 7192], Dor 1984:135 [ref. 29757], Roux in Whitehead et al. 1986:856 [ref. 13676], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:88 [ref. 26753], Dulĉić & Pallaoro 2002:523 [ref. 26144], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:274 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2007:85 [ref. 29533]). •Valid, tentatively as Photoplagios klunzingeri (Steindachner 1898) -- (Sparks et al. 2005:315 [ref. 28434]). •Valid as Photoplagios klunzingeri (Steindachner 1898) -- (Sparks 2006:1 [ref. 28783], Sparks & Chakrabarty 2007:622 [ref. 29261]). •Valid as Equulites klunzingeri (Steindachner 1898) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29614], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:18 [ref. 30812], Chakrabarty & Sparks 2008:6 [ref. 29788], Golani et al. 2011:S75 [ref. 31436], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:423 [ref. 33460], Suzuki & Kimura 2017:[11] [ref. 35231], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:88 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Equulites klunzingeri (Steindachner 1898). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

kupanensis, Leiognathus Kimura [S.] & Peristiwady [T.] in Kimura et al. 2005:281, Fig. 8 [Ichthyological Research v. 52 (no. 3); ref. 28424] Kupang, Timor, Indonesia. Holotype: NSMT-P 69427. Paratypes: AMS I.43380-001 (1); BMNH 2004.10.26.1 (1); CAS 220612 (1); FRLM 30464 and 69 (2), 30470 and 73 (2); MNHN 2004-1856 (1); UMMZ 243701 (1); USNM 380182 (1). •Valid as Eubleekeria kupanensis (Kimura & Peristiwady 2005) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:203 [ref. 30867], Chakrabarty & Sparks 2008:6 [ref. 29788]). Current status: Valid as Eubleekeria kupanensis (Kimura & Peristiwady 2005). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

laterofenestra, Photoplagios Sparks [J. S.] & Chakrabarty [P.] 2007:624, Figs. 3-4 [Copeia 2007 (no. 3); ref. 29261] Samar Sea, Carigara Bay, Philippines, 11°55'42"N, 124°28'48"E to 11°53'48"N, 124°29'06", depth 0-86 meters. Holotype: USNM 387899. Paratypes: AMNH 238682 (2); USNM 228508 (4). •Valid as Photoplagios laterofenestra Sparks & Chakrabarty 2007. •Valid as Equulites laterofenestra (Sparks & Chakrabarty 2007) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29614], Chakrabarty & Sparks 2008:6 [ref. 29788], Chakrabarty et al. 2008:156 [ref. 32414], Chakrabarty et al. 2009:155 [ref. 30295], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:18 [ref. 30812], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:110 [ref. 31090], Suzuki & Kimura 2017:[11] [ref. 35231], Motomura et al. 2017:122 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Equulites laterofenestra (Sparks & Chakrabarty 2007). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

leuciscus, Equula Günther [A.] 1860:503 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1858.4.21.243. •Valid as Leiognathus leuciscus (Günther 1860) -- (Uyeno & Yabumoto in Masuda et al. 1984:158 [ref. 6441], Jones 1985:590 [ref. 21842], Allen & Swainston 1988:76 [ref. 25477], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:289 [ref. 24014], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:348 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:118 [ref. 23977], Nakabo 2000:812 [ref. 25086], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2810 [ref. 26095], Nakabo 2002:812 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:83 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Hoese & Bray 2006:1180 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Photoplagios leuciscus (Günther 1860) -- (Sparks et al. 2005:315 [ref. 28434], Sparks 2006:1 [ref. 28783], Sparks & Chakrabarty 2007:622 [ref. 29261], Yamanoue & Toda 2008:205 [ref. 29613]). •Valid as Equulites leuciscus (Günther 1860) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29614], Chakrabarty & Sparks 2008:6 [ref. 29788], Kimura 2009:129 [ref. 30426], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:15 [ref. 30812], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:111 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:13 [ref. 31311], Allen & Erdmann 2012:441 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32988], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:46 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:234 [ref. 34104], Suzuki & Kimura 2017:[11] [ref. 35231], Fricke et al. 2018:189 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Equulites leuciscus (Günther 1860). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Madagascar and Seychelles to Vanuatu and New Caledonia, Australia to Taiwan and China. Habitat: marine.

lineolata, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:86 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: MNHN A-6738 (largest, 46 mm). Paralectotypes: MNHN A-6738 (smallest), A-6739 (1, poor condition), 1988-0327 [ex MNHN A-6739] (1, poor condition), 1988-0328 [ex MNHN A-6739] (2); Antjer specimens not found. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:20 [ref. 15502]. Jones 1985:575 [ref. 21842] designated two specimens as lectotypes; Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:22 restricted the designation to one specimen so they designated the lectotype, but see Sparks 2006:15 [ref. 28783]. •Synonym of Leiognathus bindus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Jones 1985:573 [ref. 21842]). •Valid as Leiognathus lineolatus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Uyeno & Yabumoto in Masuda et al. 1984:158 [ref. 6441], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:393 [ref. 23876], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:290 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:36 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xii [ref. 21953], Chen et al. 1997:77 [ref. 26476], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Youn 2002:334, 609 [ref. 26218], Ra et al. 2005:93 [ref. 28304]). •See Randall 1995:193 [ref. 22896]. •Valid as Photoplagios lineolatus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Sparks et al. 2005:315 [ref. 28434], Sparks 2006:15 [ref. 28783] but status uncertain, Sparks 2006:1, 12 [ref. 28783]). •In genus Equulites Fowler 1904 -- (Kimura et al. 2008:204-205 [ref. 29614]). •Valid as Equulites lineolatus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Ali et al. 2018:324 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:190 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Equulites lineolatus (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Caledonia, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

longicornis, Nuchequula Kimura [S.], Kimura [R.] & Ikejima [K.] 2008:38, Figs. 2e, 4c, 5e, 7e, 15 [Ichthyological Research v. 55; ref. 29525] Off the coast of Sri Racha, Gulf of Thailand. Holotype: NSM-P 76262. Paratypes: CAS 224638 (2); BMNH 2007.2.19.3 (1); CSIRO H 6489-01 (2); FRLN 32364, 68-74, 77, 79, 84-85 (12); KAUM-I.1789 (1); MUFS 23150 (1); NSMT-P 76263 (1) •Valid as Nuchequula longicornis Kimura, Kimura & Ikejima 2008 -- (Yoshida et al. 2013:127 [ref. 34464], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:48 [ref. 34319], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:147 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Nuchequula longicornis Kimura, Kimura & Ikejima 2008. Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand and Indonesia, north to northern Vietnam. Red Sea to New Caledonia on ref. 36460. Habitat: marine.

longispina, Equula De Vis [C. W.] 1884:542 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.878 [not AMS I.465]. Apparently described independently from (and preoccupied by) Equula longispinis Valenciennes 1835, replaced by Leiognathus hastatus Ogilby 1912. Objectively invalid. The holotype is QM I.878 and not AMS I.465 as given by Whitley 1932:107 [ref. 4675]. •Synonym of Leiognathus leuciscus (Günther 1860) -- (Jones 1985:590 [ref. 21842]). •Synonym of Equulites leuciscus (Günther 1860) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Equulites leuciscus (Günther 1860). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: marine.

longispinis, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:94 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Waigeo, Papua Barat, Indonesia. Lectotype: MNHN A-0579. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:21 [ref. 15502]. Lectotype designated by Kottelat (2013:239 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Leiognathus longispinis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Woodland et al. 2001:2811 [ref. 26095], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Sparks 2006:539 [ref. 28801], Fricke et al. 2009:59 [ref. 30213]). •Valid as Equula longispinis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Chakrabarty & Sparks, 2008:5 [ref. 29788]). •Valid as Leiognathus longipinnis (sic) (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kimura 2009:132 [ref. 30426]). •Correctly valid as Aurigequula longispina (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Chakrabarty et al. 2008:149 [ref. 32414] as longispinis, Chakrabarty et al. 2009:149 [ref. 30295], Abraham et al. 2011:14 [ref. 31311], Larson et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32988] as longispinus, Psomadakis et al. 2015:233 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Aurigequula longispina (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles, Réunion (Mascarenes) and India east to Palawan (Philippines), north to Gulf of Thailand, south to Onslow (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

mannusella, Nuchequula Chakrabarty [P.] & Sparks [J. S.] 2007:5, Figs. 4, 5A [American Museum Novitates No. 3588; ref. 29266] Tungshih Fish Market, 23°27'01"N, 120°08'19.3"E, Chiayi County, Taiwan. Holotype: AMNH 238753. Paratypes: many at AMNH, ASIZP and SIO. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:46 [ref. 31432]. Not treated by Kimura et al. 2008 [ref. 29525] because of overlap in time of printing. •Synonym of Nuchequula gerreoides (Bleeker 1851) -- (S. Kimura, pers. comm. 3/12/2008, disputed by Chakrabarty, pers. comm.). •Valid as Nuchequula mannusella Chakrabarty & Sparks 2007 -- (Chakrabarty et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:5 [ref. 31311], Ho & Shao 2011:46 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Valid as Nuchequula mannusella Chakrabarty & Sparks 2007. Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: coastal waters of Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

mazavasaoka, Secutor Baldwin [Z. H.] & Sparks [J. S.] 2011:41, Figs. 3, 4A, 5 [Zootaxa No. 2998; ref. 31487] Maroansetra Market, 15°26'S, 49°45'E, Antongil Bay, Madagascar. Holotype: AMNH 251200. Paratypes: many at AMNH, ANSP, USNM. •Valid as Leiognathus mazavasaoka (Baldwin & Sparks 2011) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:191 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Leiognathus mazavasaoka (Baldwin & Sparks 2011). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa and Mozambique east to Madagascar, Habitat: marine.

mediterraneus, Leiognathus Rhasis Erazi [R. A.] 1943:49, Fig. [Compte Rendu Annuel / Société Turque Sciences Physiques et Naturelles v. 10 (1942-43); ref. 13183] Iskenderun, southeastern Turkey, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Original not seen. •Synonym of Leiognathus klunzingeri (Steindachner 1898) -- (Tortonese 1973:390 [ref. 7192], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:88 [ref. 26753]). •Synonym of Equulites klunzingeri (Steindachner 1898). Current status: Synonym of Equulites klunzingeri (Steindachner 1898). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: marine.

megalolepis, Secutor Mochizuki [K.] & Hayashi [M.] 1989:86, Figs. 8A-B [Science Report of the Yokosuka City Museum No. 37; ref. 20157] Thailand. Holotype: URM 14964-2. Paratypes: FUMT-P 8733 (4), 21652 (1); URM 12018 (1), 14660 (1), 14964-1 (1); YCM-HLP 179 (3), 214-2 (1), 217 (5). Type catalog: Shibata et al. 2011:15 [ref. 31469]. •Valid as Secutor megalolepis Mochizuki & Hayashi 1989 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:112 [ref. 23448], Yamashita et al. 2000:49 [ref. 24517], Nakabo 2000:810 [ref. 25086], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2821 [ref. 26095], Nakabo 2002:810 [ref. 26001], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Hoese & Bray 2006:1182 [ref. 29000], Kimura 2009:134 [ref. 30426], Shibata et al. 2011:15 [ref. 31469], Baldwin & Sparks 2011:39 [ref. 31487], Larson et al. 2013:129 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:129 [ref. 34464], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:49 [ref. 34319]). •Valid as Deveximentum megalolepis (Mochizuki & Hayashi 1989) -- (Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989], Motomura et al. 2017:122 [ref. 35490], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:144 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Deveximentum megalolepis (Mochizuki & Hayashi 1989). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea east to China, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melliet, Scomber equula var. Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:220 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] •Not a new name but reference to a vernacular name in Forsskål 1775. Current status: Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

minimus, Scomber equula Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:58, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Named on p. xii, tied to description on p. 58 through common name. •In the synonymy of Leiognathus berbis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dor 1984:134 [ref. 29757], Golani & Fricke 2018:88 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Leiognathus berbis (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

minutus, Scomber Bloch [M. E.] 1795:110, Pl. 429 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Malabar [erroneous, is Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India.] Holotype (unique): ZMB 1670. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:94 [ref. 24282]. On p. 110 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:132 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:134 [ref. 29757], Uyeno & Yabumoto in Masuda et al. 1984:159 [ref. 6441], Jones 1985:569 [ref. 21842], Smith 1986:620 [ref. 5712], Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:235 [ref. 26639] dated 1797, Allen & Swainston 1988:76 [ref. 25477], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:827 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:111 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:225 [ref. 24016], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:289 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:191 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:342 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:118 [ref. 23977], Yamashita et al. 1998:276 [ref. 23474], Mishra et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25315], Kimura et al. 2000:1 [ref. 24478], Nakabo 2000:809 [ref. 25086], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:344 [ref. 25191], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:215 [ref. 27511] dated 1775, Yamashita & Kimura 2001:165 [ref. 25380], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2799 [ref. 26095], Nakabo 2002:809 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830] dated to 1797, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:82 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:32 [ref. 27712], Ataur Rahman 2003:362 [ref. 31338], Randall et al. 2004:16 [ref. 27624] dated 1797, Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:275 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:239 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1177 [ref. 29000], Chakrabarty et al. 2008:151 [ref. 32414], Chakrabarty et al. 2009:151 [ref. 30295] dated 1797, Kimura 2009:130 [ref. 30426], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:113 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:16 [ref. 31311], Allen & Erdmann 2012:441 [ref. 31980], Jawad & Al-mamry 2013:3 [ref. 32492], Larson et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:126 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:234 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:124 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:190 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:88 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines and Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northwestern Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: brackish, marine.

moretoniensis, Leiognathus Ogilby [J. D.] 1912:59 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 1; ref. 14855] Bulwer, Moreton Bay, off Moreton Island, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM I.1583 [? ex AFAQ 1106], AMS I.12590 (1) •Valid as Leiognathus moretoniensis Ogilby 1912 -- (Jones 1985:593 [ref. 21842], Larson & Williams 1997:359 [ref. 23967], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2812 [ref. 26095], Hoese & Bray 2006:1181 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Photoplagios moretoniensis (Ogilby 1912) -- (Sparks et al. 2005:315 [ref. 28434], Sparks 2006:1 [ref. 28783], Sparks & Chakrabarty 2007:622 [ref. 29261]). •Valid as Equulites moretoniensis (Ogilby 1912) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29614], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:18 [ref. 30812], as mortonensis). •Valid as Photolateralis moretoniensis (Ogilby 1912) -- (Sparks & Chakrabarty 2015:183 [ref. 33740]). Current status: Valid as Photolateralis moretoniensis (Ogilby 1912). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

neb, Equula Montrouzier [X.] 1857:455 [177] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 177 of reprint. Leiognathidae. Habitat: marine.

nigricollis, Scomber Shaw [G.] 1803:597 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Japan. Family may be incorrect. Apparently an unneeded new name for Centrogaster argentatus Houttuyn 1782 (via Gmelin). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: marine.

notatus, Zeus Bloch [M. E.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:84 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Not available; manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Equula blochii; from Malabar, India. Leiognathidae.

novaehollandiae, Equula Steindachner [F.] 1879:31 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Cleveland Bay, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 19°16'S, 146°48'E. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2285 (discarded in 1958). Type catalog: Fricke 1995:16 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:46 [ref. 29864]. Originally as novae Hollandiae, correction mandatory; later described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:11 [ref. 4228]. •Synonym of Leiognathus leuciscus (Günther 1860) -- (Jones 1985:590 [ref. 21842], Woodland et al. 2001:2810 [ref. 26095]). •Synonym of Equulites leuciscus (Günther 1860). Current status: Synonym of Equulites leuciscus (Günther 1860). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: marine.

novemaculeata, Equula splendens var. Klunzinger [C. B.] 1880:379 [55] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (1. Abth.) (nos 3-4); ref. 2624] Endeavour River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2448. Type catalog: Fricke 1992:12 [ref. 20296] and Fricke 2005:47 [ref. 29864] as novemaculata. On p. 55 of separate. •Synonym of Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1181 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nuchalis, Equula Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1845:126, Pl. 67 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 7-9; ref. 4373] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype: RMNH 1287. Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:110 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Leiognathus nuchalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1845) -- (Uyeno & Yabumoto in Masuda et al. 1984:158 [ref. 6441], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:519 [ref. 25598], Kim 1997:419 [ref. 24032], Sato et al. 1998:40 [ref. 24972], Mizuno et al. 1999:9 [ref. 25311], Nakabo 2000:810 [ref. 25086], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:111 [ref. 25480], Kim & Park 2002:344 [ref. 25913], Woodland et al. 2001:2797 [ref. 26095], Nakabo 2002:810 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:334, 609 [ref. 26218], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Ra et al. 2005:94 [ref. 28304]). •Valid as Nuchequula nuchalus (Temminck & Schlegel 1845) -- (Chakrabarty & Sparks 2007:18 [ref. 29266], Kimura et al. 2008:39 [ref. 29525], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:6 [ref. 31311], Suzuki & Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:147 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Nuchequula nuchalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1845). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam, China and Taiwan to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

oblonga, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:85 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Timor Island, southern Malay Archipelago; Malabar, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-6754 (1) Timor, A-6756 (1) Malabar. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:21 [ref. 15502] with holotype (A.6754) and paratype. •Synonym of Leiognathus berbis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dor 1984:136 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Leiognathus oblongus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Randall 1995:193 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:170 [ref. 23922], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:223 [ref. 27511] with author as Lacepède 1803, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:21 [ref. 30812]). •Valid as Equulites oblongus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kimura 2009:129 [ref. 30426], Yoshida et al. 2013:124 [ref. 34464], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:234 [ref. 34104], Suzuki & Kimura 2017:[12] [ref. 35231], Motomura et al. 2017:123 [ref. 35490], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:145 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Equulites oblongus (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

obscura, Leiognathus Seale [A.] 1901:74 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Agaña, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 84. Paratypes: ANSP 77756 (1), BPBM 85 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:119 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Leiognathus equulus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Myers & Donaldson 2003:626 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Synonym of Leiognathus equulus (Forsskål 1775). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ovalis, Equula De Vis [C. W.] 1884:543 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: QM I.1703. Paralectotypes: AMS IA.4900 (1); QM I.7802 (missing), I.9810 (8). Lectotype selected by Whitley 1932:110 [ref. 4675]. •Synonym of Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Jones 1985:599 [ref. 21842], Kimura et al. 2005:285 [ref. 28424], Hoese & Bray 2006:1181 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pan, Leiognathus Wongratana [T.] 1988:496, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 101 (no. 3); ref. 16291] Gulf of Thailand via Bangkok Wholesale Fish Market, Thailand. Holotype: CUMZ 2528.2.9.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1974.11.20.1 (1); CTNRC 2621 (1); CUMZ 2528.2.9.2-3 (1, 1); KUMF 2750 (1); USNM 276536-37 (1, 2). Additional material: BMNH uncat. (1, c&s). •Valid as Leiognathus pan Wongratana 1988 -- (Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Woodland et al. 2001:2813 [ref. 26095], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755]). •Valid as Nuchequula pan (Wongratana 1988) -- (Chakrabarty & Sparks 2007:20 [ref. 29266]). •Synonym of Nuchequula blochii (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:25 [ref. 29525], Kottelat 2013:340 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:126 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Synonym of Nuchequula blochii (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand (if valid). Habitat: marine.

panayensis, Leiognathus Kimura [S.] & Dunlap [P. V.] in Kimura et al. 2003:229, Fig. 8 [Ichthyological Research v. 50 (no. 3); ref. 27212] Baranguay Parara Norte, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Panay Island, Philippines. Holotype: UMMZ 240300. Paratypes: AMS I.41699-001 (2); BMNH 2002.10.1.1-2 (2); FRLM 29199 (1), 29200-201 (2), 29202-206 (5), 29207 (1); MNHN 2002-3320 to 3321 (2); MUFS 21493 (1); NSMT-P 64816 (1), 64817 (1); UMMZ 240301-04 (4, 5, 8, 16); USNM 371378 (2); YCM-P 37682 (1), 37683-92 (10). Type catalog: Shibata et al. 2011:15 [ref. 31469]. •Valid as Leiognathus panayensis Kimura & Dunlap 2003 -- (Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Shibata et al. 2011:15 [ref. 31469]). •Valid as Photopectoralis panayensis (Kimura & Dunlap 2003) -- (Sparks et al. 2005:316 [ref. 28434]). Current status: Valid as Photopectoralis panayensis (Kimura & Dunlap 2003). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

parviceps, Equula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:87 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN A-0580 (2), A-0581 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:21 [ref. 15502]. •Valid as Leiognathus parviceps (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Fricke 1999:261 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as ?Photoplagios parviceps (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Sparks & Chakrabarty 2007:628 [ref. 29261]). •Possibly in genus Equulites. Current status: Valid as Leiognathus parviceps (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Mauritius (Mascarenes endemic); other records probably based on misidentifications. Habitat: marine.

philippinus, Leiognathus Fowler [H. W.] 1918:15, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 70; ref. 1396] Philippines. Holotype: ANSP 47486. Paratypes: ANSP 47487-90 (4, in jar with holotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:119 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Leiognathus philippinus Fowler 1918 -- (Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928]). •Synonym of Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kimura et al. 2005:290 [ref. 28424]). •Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pilitschei, Caranxomorus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:709, 710 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Côte de Malabar [erroneous, is Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India.] Holotype (unique): ZMB 1670. Unnecessary replacement name for Scomber minutus Bloch 1795. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:25, 29 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795) -- (Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

popei, Macilentichthys Whitley [G. P.] 1932:114 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 10 (pt 2); ref. 4675] Kagoshima, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 55613. Replacement name for Leiognathus elongatus Smith & Pope 1906, preoccupied in Leiognathus by Equula elongata Günther 1874. •Synonym of Leiognathus elongatus (Günther 1874) -- (Dunlap & McFall-Ngai 1984:888 [ref. 21845], Jones 1985:581 [ref. 21842]). •Synonym of Photoplagios elongatus (Günther 1874) -- (Sparks 2006:1 [ref. 28783]). •Synonym of Equulites elongatus (Günther 1874). •Valid as Equulites popei (Whitley 1932) -- (Suzuki & Kimura 2017:[10] [ref. 35231], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:88 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Equulites popei (Whitley 1932). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to southern Japan and Philippines; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

profunda, Equula De Vis [C. W.] 1884:544 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Queensland coast, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.9818. •Synonym of Secutor ruconius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Jones 1985:610 [ref. 21842]). •Synonym of Secutor interruptus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Mochizuki & Hayashi 1989:87 [ref. 20157], Hoese & Bray 2006:1182 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Deveximentum interruptum (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Secutor interruptus (Valenciennes 1835). Current status: Synonym of Secutor interruptus (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rapsoni, Leiognathus Munro [I. S. R.] 1964:171, Fig. 14 [Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 3058] Off Redscar Bay, Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea, depth 6-8 fathoms. Holotype: CSIRO A 2137. Paratypes: CSIRO A 3087-89 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Leiognathus rapsoni Munro 1964 -- (Jones 1985:601 [ref. 21842], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:225 [ref. 27511], Woodland et al. 2001:2814 [ref. 26095], Kimura et al. 2005:283 [ref. 28424], Abraham et al. 2011:2 [ref. 31311]). •Valid as Eubleekeria rapsoni (Munro 1964) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:203 [ref. 30867], Chakrabarty & Sparks 2008:6 [ref. 29788]). Current status: Valid as Eubleekeria rapsoni (Munro 1964). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific, from scattered localities. Habitat: marine.

rhombea, Gazza Kimura [S.], Yamashita [T.] & Iwatsuki [Y.] 2000:2, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Research v. 47 (no. 1); ref. 24478] Fumauki Bay, Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan, 24°20'15"N, 123°44'20"E, depth about 50 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 55508. Paratypes: AMS I.16664-001 (2); FMNH 2428 (1), 105069-71 (1, 1, 34); FRLM 10693 (1), 10699 (1), 10702 (1), 12970 (1), 12976 (2), 14606 (1), 14763 (1), 15713 (1); MUFS 17300-01 (1, 1); NSMT-P 45892 (1), 49766 (1); URM-P 27427 (1); USNM 332347 (1), 350467 (1); YCM-HLP 122 (1), 185 (1), 443 (1); ZUMT 55151-52 (1, 1). •Valid as Gazza rhombea Kimura, Yamashita & Iwatsuki 2000 -- (Nakabo 2000:809 [ref. 25086], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:100 [ref. 26368], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:216 [ref. 27511], Yamashita & Kimura 2001:165 [ref. 25380], Nakabo 2002:809 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:626 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:83 [ref. 27510], Hoese & Bray 2006:1178 [ref. 29000], Kimura 2009:130 [ref. 30426], Larson et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:84 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:235 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Gazza rhombea Kimura, Yamashita & Iwatsuki 2000. Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan east to Philippines and Vanuatu, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

rivulata, Equula Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1845:126, Pl. 67 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 7-9; ref. 4373] Japan. Holotype: RMNH 1438. Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:110 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Leiognathus rivulatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1845) -- (Uyeno & Yabumoto in Masuda et al. 1984:158 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:812 [ref. 25086], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Shimizu 2001:30 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:812 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:334, 609 [ref. 26218], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Ra et al. 2005:94 [ref. 28304]). •Valid as Photoplagios rivulatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1845) -- (Sparks et al. 2005:315 [ref. 28434], Sparks 2006:1 [ref. 28783], Sparks & Chakrabarty 2007:622 [ref. 29261]). •Valid as Equulites rivulatus (Temminck & Sclegel 1845) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29614], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:18 [ref. 30812], Suzuki & Kimura 2017:[12] [ref. 35231]). Current status: Valid as Equulites rivulatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1845). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

robustus, Leiognathus Sparks [J. S.] & Dunlap [P. V.] 2004:6, Figs. 3-6 [American Museum Novitates No. 3459; ref. 27928] Singapore fish market. Holotype: UMMZ 242144. Paratypes: AMNH 233607 (1), UMMZ 240362 (1). •Valid as Leiognathus robustus Sparks & Dunlap 2004 -- (Chakrabarty & Sparks 2008:3 [ref. 29788]). Current status: Valid as Leiognathus robustus Sparks & Dunlap 2004. Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific basin [on market specimens]. Habitat: marine.

ruconius, Chanda Hamilton [F.] 1822:106, 371, Pl. 12 (fig. 35) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River estuaries, India. No types known. See comments in Chakrabarty et al. 2009:151 [ref. 30295] on taxonomic status. •Valid as Leiognathus ruconius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:295 [ref. 26385], Kottelat 2013:340 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Secutor ruconius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Monkolprasit 1973:13 [ref. 7378], Jones 1985:608 [ref. 21842], Smith 1986:621 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:76 [ref. 25477] as ruconis, Ataur Rahman 1989:334 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:833 [ref. 20764], Goren & Dor 1994:36 [ref. 25356], Rainboth 1996:185 [ref. 22772], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:351 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:359 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:118 [ref. 23977], Fricke 1999:259 [ref. 24106], Mishra et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25315], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Woodland et al. 2001:2822 [ref. 26095], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:34 [ref. 27712], Ataur Rahman 2003:363 [ref. 31338], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:241 [ref. 28239], Chakrabarty et al. 2008:150 [ref. 32414], Chakrabarty et al. 2009:150 [ref. 30295] with author as Hamilton-Buchannan, Chakrabarty et al. 2010:119 [ref. 31090], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:71 [ref. 35264], Abraham et al. 2011:15 [ref. 31311], Baldwin & Sparks 2011:39 [ref. 31487], Allen & Erdmann 2012:443 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:192 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Secutor ruconius (Hamilton 1822). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles and Mascarenes east to Mariana Islands, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

serrulifera, Equula Richardson [J.] 1848:137, Pl. 59 (fig. 12-14) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia [likely erroneous]. Syntypes: (7 or 8) BMNH 1848.3.18.168-170 (3). •Synonym of Leiognathus fasciatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Jones 1985:587 [ref. 21842], Hoese & Bray 2006:1180 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Aurigequula fasciata (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Aurigequula fasciata (Lacepède 1803). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

shettyi, Gazza Jayabalan [N.] 1986:42, Fig. 1 [Matsya No. 11 [for 1985]; ref. 8086] Porto Novo, Bay of Bengal, depth 30 meters. Holotype: ZSI F7861/2. Paratypes: ZSI F7862/2 (1). •Synonym of Gazza achlamys Jordan & Starks 1917 -- (Kimura et al. 2000:1 [ref. 24478], Abraham et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31311], Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Gazza achlamys Jordan & Starks 1917. Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

simplex, Equula De Vis [C. W.] 1884:544 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: QM I.1702. Paralectotypes: QM I.9811 [ex QM I.1702] (2). Lectotype selected by Whitley 1932:111 [ref. 4675]. •Synonym of Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Jones 1985:599 [ref. 21842], Hoese & Bray 2006:1181 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

smithursti, Equula Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:11 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 14464] Hood Lagoon, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS B.9962. •Valid as Leiognathus smithursti (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:129 [ref. 19754], Jones 1985:597 [ref. 21842], Allen & Swainston 1988:76 [ref. 25477], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:349 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:118 [ref. 23977], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:226 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847]). •Mention -- (Randall 2005:240 [ref. 28239]). •Synonym of Leiognathus longispinis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Sparks 2006:539 [ref. 28801]). •Synonym of Aurigequula longispina (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Larson et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32988] as longispina). Current status: Synonym of Aurigequula longispina (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific (if valid). Habitat: marine.

spilotus, Leiognathus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:516, Pl. 14 (lower right fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27529. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:119 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kimura et al. 2005:289 [ref. 28424]). •Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kimurra et al. 2008:202 [ref. 30867]). Current status: Synonym of Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spiniceps, Equula Saville-Kent [W.] 1889:10 [Preliminary Report of the Food-Fish of Queensland; ref. 18384] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. •In the synonymy of Leiognathus decorus (De Vis 1884) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1179 [ref. 29000]). •In the synonymy of Nuchequula gerreoides (Bleeker 1851) based on placement of decora. Current status: Synonym of Nuchequula gerreoides (Bleeker 1851). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae.

splendens, Equula Cuvier [G.] 1829:212 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Chennai, India [original locality: Vizagapatam, India]. Neotype: RMNH 1441. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:34 [ref. 15502]. Available from footnote as, "Eq. splendens, N., Russel, 61" [Russell 1803, v. 1:48, Pl. 61]. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:262 [ref. 24106] as the specimen shown in Russell's Pl. 61; Kimura et al. 2005:289 [ref. 28424] designated RMNH 1441 as the neotype, contending the the figure could be either of two species. •Valid as Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:130 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:136 [ref. 29757], Uyeno & Yabumoto in Masuda et al. 1984:159 [ref. 6441], Jones 1985:599 [ref. 21842], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:832 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:111 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:36 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:349 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:359 [ref. 23967], Fricke 1999:262 [ref. 24106], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:247 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25315], Nakabo 2000:811 [ref. 25086], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:227 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:97 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Woodland et al. 2001:2815 [ref. 26095], Nakabo 2002:811 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S108 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:84 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:33 [ref. 27712], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Randall 2005:240 [ref. 28239], Kimura et al. 2005:285 [ref. 28424], Hoese & Bray 2006:1181 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Chakrabarty et al. 2009:152 [ref. 30295] but as Equulites splendens in key on p. 149). •Valid as Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:202 [ref. 30867], Chakrabarty & Sparks 2008:6 [ref. 29788], Chakrabarty et al. 2008:152 [ref. 32414], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:112 [ref. 31090], Abraham et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31311], Larson et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:338 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:84 [ref. 33932], Miesen et al. 2016:89 [ref. 34492], Motomura et al. 2017:123 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:324 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:190 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:88 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Eubleekeria splendens (Cuvier 1829). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Philippines and Fiji, north to Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan, south to Kimberleys (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

squamiventralis, Gazza Yamashita [T.] & Kimura [S.] 2001:161, Figs. 1, 2A, 3A, 4A [Ichthyological Research v. 48 (no. 2); ref. 25380] Kilindini Harbor, Mombasa, Kenya, depth about 4-13 meters. Holotype: USNM 345525. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 47103-04 (3, 3); USNM 345526 (2). •Valid as Gazza squamiventralis Yamashita & Kimura 2001 -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:275 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Valid as Gazza squamiventralis Yamashita & Kimura 2001. Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

stercorarius, Leiognathus Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:67, Fig. 6 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bulan, Sorsogon, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 55906. Paratypes: ANSP 33289 (1), IU (1); BSMP (1) apparently destroyed; MCZ 32200 [not 32220] (1); CAS-SU 20004 (1), 42171 [ex IU 11595] (1); USNM 55920 (1), 126395 [ex USFC 1490 = USBF 4537] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:77 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:119 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Leiognathus stercorarius Evermann & Seale 1907 -- (Dunlap & McFall-Ngai 1984:884 [ref. 21845], Myers 1999:143 [ref. 23965], Woodland in Randall & Lim 2000:617 [ref. 25122], Woodland et al. 2001:2816 [ref. 26095], Myers & Donaldson 2003:626 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:16 [ref. 27624], Ikejima et al. 2004:908 [ref. 27755], Sparks & Dunlap 2004:7 [ref. 27928], Randall 2005:240 [ref. 28239]). •Valid as Photoplagios stercorarius (Evermann & Seale 1907) -- (Sparks et al. 2005:315 [ref. 28434], Sparks 2006:1 [ref. 28783], Sparks & Chakrabarty 2007:622 [ref. 29261]). •Valid as Equulites stercorarius (Evermann & Seale 1907) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29614], Kimura 2009:129 [ref. 30426], Chakrabarty et al. 2010:18 [ref. 30812], Kottelat 2013:337 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:125 [ref. 34464]). •Valid as Photolateralis stercorarius (Evermann & Seale 1907) -- (Sparks & Chakrabarty 2015:182 [ref. 33740], Suzuki & Kimura 2017:[12] [ref. 35231], Motomura et al. 2017:124 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Photolateralis stercorarius (Evermann & Seale 1907). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea east to Philippines. Habitat: brackish, marine.

striatus, Leiognathus James [P. S. B. R.] & Badrudeen [M.] 1991:218, Fig. 1; Pls. 1a, 2a, 2d [Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India v. 32 (nos 1-2) [1990]; ref. 20324] Gulf of Mannar at Pamban, Mandapam and Kilakarai, India. Holotype: FMRI F98/682. Paratypes: FMRI F98/682 (15). Locality of holotype not specified. Holotype apparently not separated from other types, but designated as 155 mm SL female. •Valid as Leiognathus striatus James & Badrudeen 1991 -- (Chakrabarty & Sparks 2008:3 [ref. 29788], Chakrabarty et al. 2008:158 [ref. 32414], Abraham et al. 2011:2 [ref. 31311] with second author as Badruddin). Current status: Valid as Leiognathus striatus James & Badrudeen 1991. Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Distribution: India. Habitat: marine.

tapeinosoma, Gazza Bleeker [P.] 1853:260 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (36). •Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795) -- (Yamashita et al. 1998:276 [ref. 23474]). Current status: Synonym of Gazza minuta (Bloch 1795). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

totta, Equula Cuvier [G.] 1829:212 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Indian seas [Vizagapatam, India]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1989:34 [ref. 15502]. Available from footnote as, "Eq. totta, Russel, 62." •Synonym of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:339 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Leiognathus equula (Forsskål 1775). Leiognathidae: Leiognathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vermiculatus, Leiognathus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:513, Pl. 15 (lower left fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27525. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:119 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Leiognathus leuciscus (Günther 1860) -- (Jones 1985:590 [ref. 21842], Sparks 2006:13 [ref. 28783]). •Synonym of Photopectoralis leuciscus (Günther 1860) -- (Yamanoue & Toda 2008:205 [ref. 29613]). •Synonym of Equulites leuciscus (Günther 1860) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:204 [ref. 29614]). Current status: Synonym of Equulites leuciscus (Günther 1860). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: marine.

virgatus, Leiognathus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:515, Pl. 15 (lower right fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ANSP 27526. Paratypes: (4) ANSP 27526 (1, with holotype), 27527-28 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:119 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Leiognathus bindus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Woodland et al. 2001:2802 [ref. 26095]). •Synonym of Equuites bindus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Kimura et al. 2008:205 [ref. 29614]). •Snonym of Photopectoralis bindus (Valenciennes 1835). Current status: Synonym of Photopectoralis bindus (Valenciennes 1835). Leiognathidae: Gazzinae. Habitat: marine.