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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Lethrinidae: [ 148 ] records


abbreviatus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:312 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1144 (stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:71 [ref. 21545]. Based on Ehrenberg drawing. •Synonym of Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:25 [ref. 8884], Dor 1984:154 [ref. 29757], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:69 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

abuhamrur, Sciaena Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:310 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Red Sea. No types known. Originally Sciaena Abu hamrur, correction mandatory. •Unidentifiable (J.E. Randall, pers. comm.). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

acutus, Lethrinus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1884:39, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Die Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 2625] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea; Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: NMW 8890 (1), 8893 (3); SMNS 913 (2) Massaua, 3448 (1) Kosseir. Type catalog: Fricke 2005:47 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Lethrinella variegata (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Dor 1984:153 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Lethrinus microdon Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:55 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:71 [ref. 13577], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus microdon Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Monotaxis Whitley [G. P.] 1943:139, Fig. 12 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 68 (pts 3-4) (nos. 307-308); ref. 4702] North Gardiner Bank, off Fraser Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.6609. •Synonym of Gymnocranius euanus (Günther 1879) -- (Sato 1986:606 [ref. 5152], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:24 [ref. 13577], Randall 2005:273 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1233 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius euanus (Günther 1879). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

alboguttatus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:314 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Bonin Islands. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:71 [ref. 21545]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

amamianus, Lethrinus Akazaki [M.] 1962:259, 363, Fig. 46 [Studies on the spariform fishes; ref. 5771] Amami Island, Oshima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: FAKU [ex MIKU 1980]. Paratypes: [now at FAKU] MIKU 1911 (1), 1913 (1), 1916 (1), 1932-33 (2), 1954 (1). •Valid as Lethrinus amamianus Akazaki 1962 -- (Sato 1978:23 [ref. 8884], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Lethrinus miniatus (Forster 1801) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:73 [ref. 13577], Carpenter 2001:3036 [ref. 26105], Randall 2005:277 [ref. 28239], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus miniatus (Forster 1801). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

amboinensis, Lethrinus Bleeker [P.] 1854:490 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 344] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) RMNH 3542 (2 of 3). •Valid as Lethrinus amboinensis Bleeker 1854 -- (Sato 1978:56 [ref. 8884], Kyushin et al. 1982:108 [ref. 19754], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:47 [ref. 13577], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:154 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:866 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:101 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3026 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:866 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Allen et al. 2006:1234 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:494 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32988], Koeda et al. 2016:47 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus amboinensis Bleeker 1854. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Marshall Islands and Samoa, north to Japan, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

anarhynchus, Lethrinus Postel [E.] 1965:247, Fig. 3 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 37 (no. 2); ref. 9245] Market in Nouméa, New Caledonia. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:71 [ref. 21545]. •Valid as Lethrinus anarhynchus Postel 1965 -- (Sato 1978:28 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus laticaudis Alleyne & Macleay 1877 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:66 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:200 [ref. 15987], Carpenter 2001:3033 [ref. 26105], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:335 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus laticaudis Alleyne & Macleay 1877. Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

anatarius, Lethrinus Richardson [J.] 1845:145 [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:213, Pl. 5a [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:303 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Seychelles. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-9061. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2907 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:66 [ref. 21545]. Lectotype selected by Sato 1978:33 [ref. 8884]. •Synonym of Lethrinus opercularis Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:33 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577], Fricke et al. 2018:215 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

atkinsoni, Lethrinus Seale [A.] 1910:515, Pl. 11 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Balabac Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 5080 (apparently destroyed). •Synonym of Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:25 [ref. 8884]). •Valid as Lethrinus atkinsoni Seale 1910 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:158 [ref. 25477], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:48 [ref. 13577], Francis & Randall et al. 1990:198 [ref. 15987], Randall 1993:120 [ref. 20996], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:250 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:198 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:155 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:863 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:268 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:139 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:103 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3027 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:863 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624] dated 1909, Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:274 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1234 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:126 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:494 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2017:155 [ref. 35490], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:171 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus atkinsoni Seale 1910. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Mariana and Cook islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:275 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] St. Jago and Porto Praya, Cape Verde Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6219 (1), 9806 (1, dry), A-7848 (1, dry), A-7849 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:66 [ref. 21545]. Preceded by the unused name Dentex unispinosus Bowdich 1825, which was declared a nomen oblitum (see Parenti 2019:93 [ref. 36892]); therefore reversal of precedence. •Valid as Lethrinus atlanticus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:44 [ref. 8884], Roux 1990:789 [ref. 18781], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:50 [ref. 13577], Afonso et al. 1999:75 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:34 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32972], Carpenter in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2565 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus atlanticus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Congo, including Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

audleyi, Gymnocranius Ogilby [J. D.] 1916:170, Pl. 22 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 5; ref. 3297] Snapper banks off Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM I.2138 (2, not found in 1970 or 1997). •Synonym of Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Sato 1986:606 [ref. 5152]). •Valid as Gymnocranius audleyi Ogilby 1916 -- (Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:22 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:197 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:176 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:197 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Carpenter 2001:3018 [ref. 26105], Béarez 2003:61 [ref. 27027], Allen et al. 2006:1232 [ref. 29090], Chen et al. 2017:527 [ref. 35766]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocranius audleyi Ogilby 1916. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

aureolineatus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:42, 132 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): Not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:86 [ref. 20898], Bauchot et al. 1983:73 [ref. 21545]. Originally spelled aureo-lineatus. Based on description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Spelled aurolineatus (in genus Pentapus) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:269, Pl. 157 [ref. 996]. •Valid as Gnathodentex aureolineatus (Lacepède 1802) [but often misspelled aurolineatus] -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:121 [ref. 19754], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441], Sato 1986:604 [ref. 5152], Smith 1986:595 [ref. 5712], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:17 [ref. 13577], Winterbottom et al. 1989:38 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:197 [ref. 15987], Francis & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:197 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:327 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:98 [ref. 26476] as aurolineatus dated 1803, Kuiter 1997:176 [ref. 25488] as aurolineatus, Randall et al. 1997:197 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:151 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:295 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:860 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:273 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:14 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:103 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3017 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:860 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830] as aurolineatus, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:627 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:99 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:242 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:273 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1232 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:66 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:126 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:491 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:8 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:212 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Gnathodentex aureolineatus (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to (Western Australia), eastern Australia, New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

aurolineatus, Lethrinus Fourmanoir [P.] 1961:90 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 4; ref. 9346] Nosy Bé, Madagascar. Holotype (unique): IRSMNB (probably lost). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Lethrinus aurolineatus Macleay 1882. •Synonym of Lethrinus obsoletus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:216 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus obsoletus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

aurolineatus, Lethrinus Macleay [W.] 1882:247 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 2); ref. 17584] New Guinea. Syntypes: AMS I.16341-001 [ex MAMU F1159] (2). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

azureus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Quoy & Gaimard) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:300 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Carteret Harbour, Lambom Island, near Cape Saint-George, southern New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, ca. 4°48'S, 152°51'E. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9087. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:66 [ref. 21545]. Based on a description in manuscript by Quoy & Gaimard, and an underlying specimen. •Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:15 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:64 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:350 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bitorquatus, Gymnocranius Cockerell [T. D. A.] (ex Ogilby) 1916:56 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 5; ref. 18780] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Described from scales only. •Synonym of Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Sato 1986:606 [ref. 5152]). •Synonym of Gymnocranius audleyi Ogilby 1916 -- (Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:22 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:197 [ref. 15987], Carpenter 2001:3018 [ref. 26105], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:335 [ref. 28867], Allen et al. 2006:1232 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius audleyi Ogilby 1916. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Lethrinus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1884:41 [Die Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 2625] Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:64 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bonhamensis, Lethrinus Günther [A.] 1874:65, Pl. 47 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Bonham Island, Marshall Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.4.3.160. Spelled banhamensis on plate, spelled as above elsewhere. •Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:15 [ref. 8884], Carpenter & Allen 1989:64 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:350 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

borbonicus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:303 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Saint Denis, Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9092 (1), 0000-9373 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:67 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus mahsenoides Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:38 [ref. 8884], Dor 1984:154 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Lethrinus borbonicus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:51 [ref. 13577], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:219 [ref. 22896], Canter et al. 1997:183 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:297 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:66 [ref. 30213], Psomadakis et al. 2015:264 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:330 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:213 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:98 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:115 [ref. 36262], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus borbonicus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Gulf of Aden and East Africa to Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar, Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues (Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

bungus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:279 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Indian Ocean; Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea; Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9060 (1) Gulf of Suez. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:67 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:25 [ref. 8884]). •Questionable synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Dor 1984:154 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Lethrinus borbonicus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:51 [ref. 13577], Golani & Fricke 2018:98 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus borbonicus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:301 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9071 (2), 0000-9099 (2); ZMUC 198 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:66 [ref. 9588] as coeruleus; Bauchot et al. 1983:67 [ref. 21545]. •Valid as Lethrinus caeruleus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:158 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:25 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:69 [ref. 13577], Fricke et al. 2018:215 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

carinatus, Lethrinus Weber [M.] 1913:289, Pl. 2 (fig. 1); Fig. 68 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Seget, Galewo Straits, New Guinea, Siboga station 163; Tual, Niedrig Kei, Siboga station 258. Syntypes: ZMA 111064 (1), 112619 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:88 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

centurio, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:301, Pl. 158 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0688 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:67 [ref. 21545]. Genus is spelled Lethrynus on the plate. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:216 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

choerorynchus, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:278 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Japan. Holotype (?): ZMB 8743 (right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:94 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Lethrinus choerorhynchus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) [should be choerorynchus] -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:154 [ref. 19756], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477]). •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:141 [ref. 25480], Carpenter 2001:3037 [ref. 26105], Choi & Kim 2004:84 [ref. 27749], Allen et al. 2006:1237 [ref. 29090], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chrysostomus, Lethrinus Richardson [J.] 1848:118, Pl. 60 (fig. 6-7) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Norfolk Island. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2012.11.10.6. •Valid as Lethrinus chrysostomus Richardson 1848 -- (Sato 1978:45 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus miniatus (Forster 1801) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:73 [ref. 13577], Johnson 2001:737 [ref. 25471], Carpenter 2001:3036 [ref. 26105], Randall 2005:277 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:335 [ref. 28867], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus miniatus (Forster 1801). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

chumchum, Lethrinus nebulosus var. Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:754 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:155 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cinereus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Kaitz, Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9077. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:67 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cinnabarinus, Lethrinus Richardson [J.] 1843:8, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Icones piscium, or plates of rare fishes; ref. 6537] Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. No types known. Originally Lethrinus?. •Synonym of Lethrinus erythracanthus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:57 [ref. 13577], Allen et al. 2006:1235 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus erythracanthus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

cocosensis, Lethrinus Bleeker [P.] 1854:40 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 16938] Nova Selma, Cocos Islands. [Cocos-Keeling Islands], Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5759 (1 or none of 4). •Synonym of Lethrinus ramak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:35 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

conchyliatus, Lethrinella Smith [J. L. B.] 1959:292, Pl. 22 (fig. E) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 17; ref. 12029] Pinda, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 23. Paratypes: not researched. •Valid as Lethrinella conchyliatus Smith 1959 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:146 [ref. 19756]). •Valid as Lethrinus conchyliatus (Smith 1959) -- (Sato 1978:50 [ref. 8884], Kyushin et al. 1982:109 [ref. 19754], Smith 1986:597 [ref. 5712] as concyliatus, Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:53 [ref. 13577], Winterbottom et al. 1989:39 [ref. 13251], Mishra 1994:186 [ref. 24012], Carpenter 2001:3028 [ref. 26105], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:495 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:213 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus conchyliatus (Smith 1959). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa and Madagascar east to Andaman Sea and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

croceopterus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:302 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Seychelles. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9063 (3), 0000-9066 (1); ZMB 8745 (1, right skin) ? Seychelles. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:67 [ref. 21545], Paepke 1999:94 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Lethrinus opercularis Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:33 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577], Fricke et al. 2018:215 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

crocineus, Lethrinus Smith [J. L. B.] 1959:290, Pls. 20 (fig. A), 21 (figs. F-G) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 17; ref. 12029] Pinda, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 22 (head and skin). Paratypes: not researched. •Synonym of Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:25 [ref. 8884]). •Valid as Lethrinus crocineus Smith 1959 -- (Smith 1986:597 [ref. 5712], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:54 [ref. 13577], Fricke 1999:297 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:244 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:66 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:495 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:214 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus crocineus Smith 1959. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa, East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Sri Lanka and Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

curtus, Pentapus Guichenot [A.] 1863:C-5 [Faune ichthyologique 2nd Partie, Annexe C.; ref. 1943] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1317. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:20 [ref. 11366], Bauchot et al. 1983:70 [ref. 21545]. •Questionably the same as Gymnocranius robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Sato 1986:607 [ref. 5152]). •Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:27 [ref. 13577], Fricke 1999:296 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

cutambi, Lethrinus Seale [A.] 1910:514, Pl. 10 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Sitanki Island, Jolo Archipelago, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 4678 (apparently destroyed). •Synonym of Lethrinus ramak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:35 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus obsoletus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:77 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus obsoletus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

cyanoxanthus, Lethrinus Richardson [J.] 1843:7, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Icones piscium, or plates of rare fishes; ref. 6537] Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. No types known. Originally Lethrinus ?. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Allen et al. 2006:1237 [ref. 29090], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

devisianus, Lethrinus Whitley [G. P.] 1929:122 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 17 (no. 3); ref. 4665] Wide Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM (apparently lost). Replacement name for Lethrinus ornatus De Vis 1884; preoccupied by Lethrinis ornatus Valenciennes 1830. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Allen et al. 2006:1237 [ref. 29090], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dux, Pentapus Valenciennes [A.] 1862:1203 [8] [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences v. 54; ref. 4506] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-2591 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:20 [ref. 11366], Bauchot et al. 1983:70 [ref. 21545]. On p. 8 of separate. •Questionably the same as Gymnocranius robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Sato 1986:607 [ref. 5152]). •Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:27 [ref. 13577], Fricke 1999:296 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

ehrenbergii, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:312 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:71 [ref. 21545]. •Doubtful validity -- (Dor 1984:155 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Lethrinus ehrenbergii Valenciennes 1830 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356] as ehrenbergi). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus ehrenbergii Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Gymnocranius Senta [T.] 1973:135, Figs. 1-5 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 20 (no. 3); ref. 7589] Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia, 3°31'-3°37'N, 110°15'-110°23'E, depth 67-74 meters. Holotype: RD-Res. Dept. S.E. Asian Fish. Dev. Cter 7110001. Paratypes: NSMT-P 17800 [ex RD] (1), ZRC 2355 (1), RD 7110002 (1), USBS (School of Biol. Sci., Univ. Sci. Malaysia) 720002 (1); ZRC 2355 [Ex RD 7110002] (1), 9256 [ex RD 7102, 7103, 7106] (3). Holotype will be deposited at ZRC. •Valid as Gymnocranius elongatus Senta 1973 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:118 [ref. 19754], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441], Sato 1986:607 [ref. 5152], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:23 [ref. 13577], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xi [ref. 21953], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:174 [ref. 25488], Nakabo 2000:861 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:101 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3019 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:861 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Allen et al. 2006:1232 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:491 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32988], Borsa et al. 2013:234 [ref. 33484], Yoshida et al. 2013:148 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:93 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:153 [ref. 35490], Chen et al. 2017:527 [ref. 35766], Fricke et al. 2018:213 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocranius elongatus Senta 1973. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines and Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Northern Territory (Australia). Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:289 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMB 22245 (stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:72 [ref. 21545]. Type information: Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994]. •Synonym of Lethrinella variegata (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Dor 1984:153 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Lethrinus miniatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Sato 1978:40 [ref. 8884]). •Valid as Lethrinus elongatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Smith 1986:597 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:39 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:328 [ref. 27969]). •Synonym of Lethrinus microdon Valenciennes 1830 through first reviser action -- (Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:71 [ref. 13577], Carpenter 2001:3035 [ref. 26105], Fricke et al. 2018:215 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus microdon Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

enigmaticus, Lethrinus Smith [J. L. B.] 1959:291, Pl. 21 (fig. E) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 17; ref. 12029] Bird Island, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 25. Paratypes: (1) not researched. •Synonym of Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:25 [ref. 8884]). •Valid as Lethrinus enigmaticus Smith 1959 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:160 [ref. 19756], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:55 [ref. 13577], Fricke et al. 2018:214 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus enigmaticus Smith 1959. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Seychelles and Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

erythracanthus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:314 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Luganor [Lukunor Island], Caroline Islands, western Pacific. No types preserved. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:72 [ref. 21545]. Based on a drawing by Mertens and Ketlitz [Franz Karl Mertens, 1764-1831, German botanist; Friedrich Heinrich Freiherr von Kittlitz, 1799-1874, German explorer and naturalist, member of the Russian Expedition around the world 1826-1829]. •Synonym of Lethrinus kallopterus Bleeker 1856 -- (Sato 1978:20 [ref. 8884]). •Valid as Lethrinus erythracanthus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:57 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:199 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:199 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:155 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:297 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:863 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3029 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:863 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:99 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:275 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1234 [ref. 29090], Nair 2008:234 [ref. 29901], Allen & Erdmann 2012:495 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:93 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:214 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus erythracanthus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marshall Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

erythrophthalmus, Lethrinus Kittlitz [F. H.] 1858:87 [Denkwürdigkeiten einer Reise nach dem russischen Amerika, nach Mikronesien und durch Kamschatka; ref. 18421] Original not seen. Not available, no distinguishing features -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:96 [ref. 13577]). From Senjawins I., 6°N, 20.5°W. Lethrinidae.

erythropterus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:313 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Uléa, Caroline Islands, western Pacific, ca. 7°22'N, 143°54'E. No types preserved. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:72 [ref. 21545]. Based on a drawing by Mertens and 'Ketlitz' (Franz Karl Mertens, 1764-1831, German botanist; Friedrich Heinrich Freiherr von Kittlitz, 1799-1874, German ornithologist and naturalist). •Synonym of Lethrinus kallopterus Bleeker 1856 -- (Sato 1978:20 [ref. 8884]). •Valid as Lethrinus erythropterus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:59 [ref. 13577], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xi [ref. 21953], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:155 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:298 [ref. 24106], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:101 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3030 [ref. 26105], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:100 [ref. 27510], Allen et al. 2006:1235 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:496 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:93 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:214 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:171 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus erythropterus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Caroline Islands (Micronesia), New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to Philippines, south to off Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

erythrurus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Sri Lanka. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5635 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:67 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

esculentus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:Pl. 158 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Seychelles. Holotype: MNHN 688 (1 of 2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:72 [ref. 21545]. Genus wrongly as Lethrynus. Described as Lethrinus centurio in text on p. 301. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

euanus, Sphaerodon Günther [A.] 1879:137 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 4 (no. 20); ref. 18237] Eua, Friendly Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.22.137. •Valid as Gymnocranius euanus (Günther 1879) -- (Sato 1986:606 [ref. 5152], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:24 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:197 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:197 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:152 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:861 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:268 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3020 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:861 [ref. 26001], Béarez 2003:61 [ref. 27027], Myers & Donaldson 2003:627 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:273 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1233 [ref. 29090], Borsa et al. 2010:246 [ref. 30820], Motomura et al. 2010:126 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:492 [ref. 31980], Borsa et al. 2013:234 [ref. 33484], Koeda et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35333], Chen et al. 2017:527 [ref. 35766]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocranius euanus (Günther 1879). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand, Malaysia, to Tonga and eastern Australia, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:290 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9081. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:68 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

flavescens, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:299 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Tongatapu, Tonga. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9079 [?9032]. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:68 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Sato 1978:42 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fletus, Lethrinus Whitley [G. P.] 1943:138 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 68 (pts 3-4) (nos. 307-308); ref. 4702] Sir Edward Pellew Islands, Gulf of Carpentaria, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.2579. Paratypes: (1) not saved. Specimen on which description was based was from Stradbroke I., Queensland, Australia; regarded as a paratype and apparently not saved. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus laticaudis Alleyne & Macleay 1877 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:66 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:200 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:198 [ref. 23929], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Johnson 2001:737 [ref. 25471], Carpenter 2001:3033 [ref. 26105], Randall 2005:276 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1236 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus laticaudis Alleyne & Macleay 1877. Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

floridus, Lethrinus Wheeler [J. F. G.] 1961:46, Pl. 3 (fig. 20) [Colonial Office, Fishery Publications (London) No. 15; ref. 9389] Seychelle Is; Chagos Archipelago; Amirante Islands; Coetivy Island; Saya de Mahla Bank. Syntypes: (46) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Lethrinus conchyliatus (Smith 1959) -- (Sato 1978:51 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:53 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus conchyliatus (Smith 1959). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

fraenatus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:291 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9072. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:68 [ref. 21545]. •Valid as Lethrinus fraenatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477]). •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Carpenter 2001:3037 [ref. 26105], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

frenatus, Gymnocranius Bleeker [P.] 1873:43 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 7; ref. 433] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5703. •Questionably the same as Gymnocranius robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Sato 1986:607 [ref. 5152]). •Valid as Gymnocranius frenatus Bleeker 1873 -- (Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:25 [ref. 13577], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Carpenter 2001:3021 [ref. 26105], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Borsa et al. 2010:245 [ref. 30820], Allen & Erdmann 2012:492 [ref. 31980], Chen et al. 2017:527 [ref. 35766], Fricke et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocranius frenatus Bleeker 1873. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand, South China Sea and Indonesia east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea). Habitat: marine.

fusciceps, Lethrinus Macleay [W.] 1878:350, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 17573] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16340-001 [ex MAMU F596]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Lethrinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel 1844 -- (Sato 1978:47 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577], Allen et al. 2006:1236 [ref. 29090], Larson et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

geniguttatus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:304 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9075. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:68 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Sato 1978:42 [ref. 8884]). •Valid as Lethrinus geniguttatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:61 [ref. 13577], Larson et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus geniguttatus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

genivittatus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:306, Pl. 159 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Indian seas. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9074. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:68 [ref. 21545]. Genus is spelled Lethrynus on the plate. •Synonym of Lethrinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel 1844 -- (Sato 1978:47 [ref. 8884]). •Valid as Lethrinus genivittatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:61 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:199 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:198 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:199 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:155 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:863 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:269 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3031 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:863 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:344, 616 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:100 [ref. 27510], Choi & Kim 2004:81 [ref. 27749], Randall 2005:275 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1235 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:496 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2017:155 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2019:171 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus genivittatus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia east to Caroline Islands, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Vanuatu, north to Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Merimbula (New South Wales, Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

glyphodon, Lethrinus Günther [A.] 1859:462 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Louisiade Archipelago, Melanesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1850.7.20.103 (1, stuffed), 1856.9.11.12 (1, stuffed, Macgillivray spec.). Also listed was Plate XXV, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." Spelled gliphodon by Castelnau 1879:350 [ref. 764]. •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gothofredi, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:286 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9089. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:68 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Dor 1984:154 [ref. 29757], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grandoculis, Cantharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:341 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-8811. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:82 [ref. 20898], Bauchot et al. 1983:66 [ref. 21545]. •Questionably the same as Gymnocranius robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Sato 1986:607 [ref. 5152]). •Valid as Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:27 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:198 [ref. 15987], Mishra 1994:185 [ref. 24012], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xii [ref. 21953], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:198 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:152 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:296 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:862 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:14 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3022 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:862 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Béarez 2003:61 [ref. 27027], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:243 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:274 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1233 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:66 [ref. 30213], Borsa et al. 2010:244 [ref. 30820], Allen & Erdmann 2012:492 [ref. 31980] Larson et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32988], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:425 [ref. 33460], Borsa et al. 2013:234 [ref. 33484], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2017:154 [ref. 35490], Chen et al. 2017:527 [ref. 35766], Fricke et al. 2018:213 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:98 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comores, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall, Line and Marquesas islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

grandoculis, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xii, 53 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:302 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:168 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:122 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:156 [ref. 29757], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:178 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:599 [ref. 5712], Sato 1986:603 [ref. 5152], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:91 [ref. 13577], Winterbottom et al. 1989:40 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:204 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:221 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:334 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:92 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:172 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:204 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:156 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:302 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:860 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:273 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:14 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:101 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3049 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:860 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:280 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:386 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1239 [ref. 29090], Randall 2007:256 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:67 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Shibukawa 2009:164 [ref. 31132], Motomura et al. 2010:126 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:501 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2012:17 [ref. 33457], Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:143 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:94 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:267 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35333], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:217 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:100 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:173 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga, Austral Islands and Gambier Islands. Habitat: marine.

griseus, Dentex Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:72, Pl. 36 [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Southwestern coast of Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D2248 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH D323-325 (1, 1, 1, dry), 1026 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:76 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:124 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:114 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:156 [ref. 29757], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura et al. 1985:507, 687 [ref. 8056], Sato 1986:606 [ref. 5152], Smith 1986:595 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:28 [ref. 13577], Winterbottom et al. 1989:39 [ref. 13251], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:285 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:327 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:98 [ref. 26476] dated 1846, Myers 1999:152 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:862 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:103 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3023 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:862 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:344, 616 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830] dating to Schlegel 1844, Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495] with author as Schlegel, Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:99 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:36 [ref. 27712] with author as Schlegel, Choi & Kim 2004:81 [ref. 27749], Allen et al. 2006:1233 [ref. 29090], Motomura in Motomura & Shibukawa 2009:161 [ref. 31132], Motomura et al. 2010:126 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:493 [ref. 31980], Yoshida et al. 2013:149 [ref. 34464], Motomura et al. 2015:24 [ref. 34709], Motomura et al. 2017:154 [ref. 35490], Chen et al. 2017:527 [ref. 35766], Jawad et al. 2018:114 [ref. 36262], Fricke et al. 2019:170 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: India east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan. (Records from Western Indian Ocean and Red Sea are probably based on G. grandoculis). Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Lethrinus Bleeker [P.] 1873:153, Pl. 2 (bottom fig.) [Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles v. 8; ref. 17098] Kiusiu, Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5766. Second specimen, from literature, questionably referred and therefore not a type. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

haematopterus, Lethrinus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1844:74, Pl. 38 [Fauna Japonica Parts 5-6; ref. 4372] Japan coast. Lectotype: RMNH D435 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH D436 (1, dry), D437 (1, dry), 1047 (3), D2181 (1, dry), D2246 (1, dry); ZMB 8123 [ex RMNH] (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:330 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:77 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Lethrinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel 1844 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:111 [ref. 19754], Sato 1978:47 [ref. 8884], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:63 [ref. 13577], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Nakabo 2000:865 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:139 [ref. 25480], Carpenter 2001:3016 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:865 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:344, 617 [ref. 26218], Choi & Kim 2004:82 [ref. 27749], Motomura et al. 2010:126 [ref. 31256]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel 1844. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

harak, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:52, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (Red Sea). Lectotype: ZMUC P49348 (dry skin). Paralectotypes: ZMUC P49349 (1, dry skin, head missing). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:66 [ref. 9588]. Types figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 22 [ref. 20847]. Lectotype selected by Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:21 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:15 [ref. 8884], Dor 1984:153 [ref. 29757], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:597 [ref. 5712], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:64 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:200 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:219 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:329 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:174 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:200 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:155 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:298 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:862 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:269 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:101 [ref. 26368], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:248 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3032 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:862 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Choi & Kim 2004:83 [ref. 27749], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:245 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:276 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1235 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:66 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Shibukawa 2009:162 [ref. 31132], Motomura et al. 2010:126 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:496 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:350 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:93 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:265 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:47 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:156 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:214 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:98 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:20 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:171 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

heterodon, Pagrus Bleeker [P.] 1854:54 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 16923] Sindangole, Halmahera, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1986:603 [ref. 5152], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:91 [ref. 13577]). •Valid as Monotaxis heterodon (Bleeker 1854) -- (Randall 2005:281 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:256 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:502 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:94 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:173 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Monotaxis heterodon (Bleeker 1854). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles east to Marshall Islands and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Malaysia, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

hutchinsi, Lethrinus A manuscript name not yet published (B. Hutchins, pers. comm. 2/2002); apparently never published. •Treated as valid as Lethrinus hutchinsi -- (Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841]). Lethrinidae.

hypselopterus, Lethrinus Bleeker [P.] 1873:326 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 17085] Benculen, Sumatra, Indonesia; Singapore; Java; Obi Major; Solor; Waigeo, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5) RMNH 5767 (1), 24412 (3). •Valid as Lethrinus hypselopterus Bleeker 1873 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:162 [ref. 19756], Sato 1978:22 [ref. 8884], Smith 1986:597 [ref. 5712], Winterbottom et al. 1989:39 [ref. 13251], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:329 [ref. 27969]). •Synonym of Lethrinus erythropterus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:59 [ref. 13577], Carpenter 2001:3030 [ref. 26105]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus erythropterus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

imperialis, Lethrinus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:146 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 17384] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. No types known. •Synonym of Lethrinus chrysostomus Richardson 1848 -- (Sato 1978:42 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus miniatus (Forster 1801) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:73 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus miniatus (Forster 1801). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

indica, Monotaxis Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:688 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. No types known. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. •Synonym of Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1986:603 [ref. 5152], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:91 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

insulindicus, Lethrinus Bleeker [P.] 1873:334 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 17085] Java; Sulawesi; Ambon; Timor; Philippines. Syntypes: RMNH 5764 (5). •Synonym of Lethrinus mahsenoides Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:38 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus ornatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:80 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus ornatus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

jagorii, Lethrinus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:257 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 3442] Paracali, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): ZMB 6302 (poor condition). •Status uncertain -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:96 [ref. 13577]). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Gymnocranius Akazaki [M.] 1961:438, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1961 (no. 4); ref. 6600] Nase Market, Amami Oshima, Japan. Holotype: FAKU [ex MIKU 1751]. Paratypes: FAKU [ex MIKU 1752] (1), 26416 (1), 28428 (1). •Valid as Gymnocranius japonicus Akazaki 1961 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:116 [ref. 19754], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Gymnocranius euanus (Günther 1879) -- (Sato 1986:606 [ref. 5152], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:24 [ref. 13577], Carpenter 2001:3020 [ref. 26105], Randall 2005:273 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:335 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius euanus (Günther 1879). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

johnii, Lethrinus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] •Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:64 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kallopterus, Lethrinus Bleeker [P.] 1856:47 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5760 (1 of 2, 290 mm SL). Randall 2005:275 [ref. 28239] •Valid as Lethrinus kallopterus Bleeker 1856 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:164 [ref. 19756], Sato 1978:20 [ref. 8884], Kyushin et al. 1982:113 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:154 [ref. 29757], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:597 [ref. 5712], Winterbottom et al. 1989:39 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:330 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:89 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Lethrinus erythracanthus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:57 [ref. 13577], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xii [ref. 21953], Carpenter 2001:3029 [ref. 26105], Randall 2005:275 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:335 [ref. 28867], Fricke et al. 2018:214 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus erythracanthus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

karwa, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:311 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:72 [ref. 21545]. Based on Karwa of Russell 1803, v. 1:71, Pl. 89. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:155 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

korely, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:292 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Puducherry, India Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7835 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:68 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lachrymans, Lethrinus Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. Lethrinidae.

laticaudis, Lethrinus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:276, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Percy Islands [Northumberland Islands], Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16338-001 [ex MAMU F589]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Lethrinus laticaudis Alleyne & Macleay 1877 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:66 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:200 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:198 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:200 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3033 [ref. 26105], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:276 [ref. 28239] as laticaudus, Allen et al. 2006:1236 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:497 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus laticaudis Alleyne & Macleay 1877. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: Indonesia, Australia, Paua New Guine, Solomon Islands to New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

latidens, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] New Guinea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:72 [ref. 21545]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1986:603 [ref. 5152], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:91 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

latifrons, Lethrinus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:118, Pl. 28 (fig. 4) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Al Muwaylih, Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 1331. Paralectotypes: SMF 5562-63 (1, 1), ?ZMB 1135 (1). Lectotype selected by Sato 1978:49 [ref. 8884] if not selected earlier. •Synonym of Lethrinella variegata (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Dor 1984:153 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Lethrinus variegatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:49 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:88 [ref. 13577], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus variegatus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

lentjan, Bodianus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:281, 293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated [probably Java, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7847 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:12 [ref. 19171], Bauchot et al. 1983:66 [ref. 21545]. Based on a specimen donated from RMNH to MNHN. •Valid as Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:156 [ref. 19756], Sato 1978:42 [ref. 8884], Kyushin et al. 1982:110 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:154 [ref. 29757], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:598 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:200 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:219 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:330 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:90 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:184 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:200 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:155 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:298 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:864 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:269 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:140 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:101 [ref. 26368], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:249 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3034 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:864 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:276 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1236 [ref. 29090], Shibukawa in Motomura & Shibukawa 2009:162 [ref. 31132], Allen & Erdmann 2012:497 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:149 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:425 [ref. 33460], Psomadakis et al. 2015:265 [ref. 34104], Shibukawa in Kimura et al. 2015:59 [ref. 34319], Motomura et al. 2017:156 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:330 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:215 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:115 [ref. 36262], Shibukawa in Kimura et al. 2018:172 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:225 [ref. 36495], Arndt & Fricke 2019:20 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:171 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Persian Gulf east to Marshall Islands and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lethrinoides, Dentex Bleeker [P.] 1850:11 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 6); ref. 16894] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5680 (247-mm TL spec. of 7). Bleeker specimens: NMV 46449 (1). Also in Bleeker 1850:102 [ref. 16888]. •Valid as Gymnocranius lethrinoides (Bleeker 1850) -- (Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441]). •Questionably the same as Gymnocranius robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Sato 1986:607 [ref. 5152]). •Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Carpenter & Allen 1989:27 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:198 [ref. 15987], Randall 2005:274 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

leutjanus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:309 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] An unjustified emendation and objective synonym of Bodianus lentjan Lacepède 1802. Valenciennes referred to "Bodian lentjean, Lacep. t. IV, p. 294," providing both the original name (albeit misspelled) and the emended name. •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longirostris, Lethrinus Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:44, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1865.9.21.6. •Synonym of Lethrinus miniatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Sato 1978:40 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:78 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

lycogenis, Dentex Bennett [E. T.] 1831:127 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 16794] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Correct spelling is aureolineatus. •Synonym of Gnathodentex aureolineatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Sato 1986:604 [ref. 5152], Carpenter & Allen 1989:17 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Gnathodentex aureolineatus (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:292 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Puducherry [Pondicherry], India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9086. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:69 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mahsena, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xii, 52 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [Capta ad promontorium Djimûm] Ra’s Barīdī, NNW Yanbu’, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea 24°17'N 37°31'E. Lectotype: ZMUC P49346 (dry skin). Paralectotypes: ZMUC P49347 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:66 [ref. 9588]. Types figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 21 [ref. 20847]. Lectotype selected by Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:21 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:25 [ref. 8884], Dor 1984:154 [ref. 29757], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:598 [ref. 5712], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:69 [ref. 13577], Winterbottom et al. 1989:39 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:198 [ref. 15987], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:286 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:220 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:331 [ref. 27969], Fricke 1999:299 [ref. 24106], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:270 [ref. 25191], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:244 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:66 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Shibukawa 2009:162 [ref. 31132], Fricke et al. 2018:215 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Socotra, Aldabra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascerenes east to Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

mahsenoides, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:286 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] [No locality stated] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea; Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Syntypes or possible holotype: MNHN 0000-9076 (1) Massawa, 0000-9371 (1) Suez. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:69 [ref. 21545]. •Valid as Lethrinus mahsenoides Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:38 [ref. 8884], Dor 1984:154 [ref. 29757], Kyushin et al. 1982:112 [ref. 19754], Smith 1986:598 [ref. 5712], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577], Randall 1995:219 [ref. 22896], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:140 [ref. 25480], Fricke et al. 2018:215 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

margaritifer, Lethrinus Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, no distinguishing features; from Queensland, Australia -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:96 [ref. 13577]). Lethrinidae.

marshalli, Paradentex Whitley [G. P.] 1936:27 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 11 (pt 1); ref. 4687] Rib Reef, near Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.5284. •Synonym of Gymnocranius robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Sato 1986:608 [ref. 5152]). •Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:27 [ref. 13577], Allen et al. 2006:1233 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

microdon, Dentex Bleeker [P.] 1851:219 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 330] Bulucomba, southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5681. •Valid as Gymnocranius microdon (Bleeker 1851) -- (Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441], Sato 1986:608 [ref. 5152], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:30 [ref. 13577], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:152 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:862 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Carpenter 2001:3024 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:862 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830] dated 1857, Allen et al. 2006:1234 [ref. 29090], Borsa et al. 2010:245 [ref. 30820], Allen & Erdmann 2012:493 [ref. 31980], Chen et al. 2017:527 [ref. 35766]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocranius microdon (Bleeker 1851). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

microdon, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:295 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Nnortheastern Pulau Buru, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9073. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:69 [ref. 21545]. •Valid as Lethrinella microdon (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:152 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:152 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Lethrinus microdon Valenciennes 1830, after microdon selected over elongatus (described in same work) -- (Sato 1978:55 [ref. 8884], Kyushin et al. 1982:106 [ref. 19754], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:71 [ref. 13577], Winterbottom et al. 1989:39 [ref. 13251], Mishra 1994:186 [ref. 24012], Goren & Dor 1994:42 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:220 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:331 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:184 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:90 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:174 [ref. 25488], Myers 1999:155 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:299 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:865 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3035 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:865 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Allen et al. 2006:1236 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:66 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:497 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2015:265 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:47 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:156 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:330 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:215 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:171 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus microdon Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Palau and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

microprion, Lobotes Bleeker [P.] 1851:174 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 16895] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) RMNH 5680 (68-mm and 75-mm specimen of 7). •Questionably the same as Gymnocranius robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Sato 1986:607 [ref. 5152]). •Synonym of Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:28 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

miniatus, Sparus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:281 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tonga Islands and New Caledonia. Based on description and drawing in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Forster drawing reproduced in Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994]. •Valid as Lethrinella miniata (Forster 1801) -- (Dor 1984:152 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Lethrinus miniatus (Forster 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:150 [ref. 19756], Sato 1978:40 [ref. 8884], Kyushin et al. 1982:107 [ref. 19754], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:73 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:201 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:90 [ref. 26476] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Randall et al. 1997:201 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:863 [ref. 25086] with authors as Forster & Schneider, Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:270 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3036 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:863 [ref. 26001] with authors as Forster & Schneider, Randall 2005:277 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:279 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1237 [ref. 29090] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider, Larson et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32988] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider 1801, Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus miniatus (Forster 1801). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

moensii, Lethrinus Bleeker [P.] 1855:435 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 16850] Obi major Island; Batjan, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5754 (1 of 2, 189 mm SL). Paralectotypes: (1) apparently in RMNH 5754. Lectotype selected by Sato 1978:60 [ref. 8884]. •Synonym of Lethrinus semicinctus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:60 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:84 [ref. 13577], Carpenter & Randall 2003:3 [ref. 26959]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus semicinctus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

mossambicus, Gnathodentex Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:122, Pl. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 10 (no. 110); ref. 12173] Pinda reef, 14°10'S, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean, depth 70 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 439. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (2) not researched. •Valid as Gnathodentex mossambicus Smith 1957 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:128 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:120 [ref. 19754]). •Valid as Wattsia mossambica (Smith 1957) -- (Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:599 [ref. 5712], Sato 1986:604 [ref. 5152], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:93 [ref. 13577], Kramer et al. 1994:75 [ref. 21258], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:335 [ref. 27969], Randall et al. 1997:517 [ref. 25919], Nakabo 2000:860 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:494 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3050 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:860 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Randall et al. 2005:124 [ref. 28745] as mossambicus, Allen et al. 2006:1240 [ref. 29090], Motomura in Motomura & Shibukawa 2009:164 [ref. 31132], Larson et al. 2013:143 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:94 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:173 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Wattsia mossambica (Smith 1957). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Marshall Islands and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

nebulosa, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:52, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P49345 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:67 [ref. 9588]. Originally Sciaena nebulosa, hamrur on p. 52, Sciaena nebulosa on p. xii. Regarded as two names for the same taxon, but hamrurr has not been used as a name for a valid species (Kottelat 2013). Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 20 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Dor 1984:154 [ref. 29757], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:598 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Akazaki et al. 1989:165 [ref. 19396], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Winterbottom et al. 1989:39 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:201 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:198 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:220 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:91 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:184 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:174 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:201 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:300 [ref. 24106], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:864 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:271 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:140 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3037 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:864 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:344, 617 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Choi & Kim 2004:84 [ref. 27749], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:245 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:277 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1237 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:67 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Shibukawa 2009:163 [ref. 31132], Motomura et al. 2010:126 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:498 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:266 [ref. 34104], Miesen et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34492], Motomura et al. 2017:156 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:330 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:215 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:115 [ref. 36262] as L. nebulosus s.l., Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:172 [ref. 36460], Arndt & Fricke 2019:20 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:171 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Cape Pasley (Western Australia), Port Hacking (New South Wales, Australia), Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nematacanthus, Lethrinus Bleeker [P.] 1854:403 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 13964] Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: (2) RMNH 5755 (2 larger specimens of 3). •Valid as Lethrinus nematacanthus Bleeker 1854 -- (Sato 1978:17 [ref. 8884], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:332 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:91 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Lethrinus genivittatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:61 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:199 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:198 [ref. 23929], Johnson 2001:737 [ref. 25471], Carpenter 2001:3031 [ref. 26105], Youn 2002:617 [ref. 26218], Choi & Kim 2004:81 [ref. 27749], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:335 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus genivittatus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nubilus, Pentapodus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1031 [49] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.459 (left half skin). On p. 49 of separate. •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577] as nubilis). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

obesus, Gymnocranius Chen [W.-J.], Miki [R.] & Borsa [P.] 2017:526, Figs. 1-2 [Comptes Rendus Biologies 340; ref. 35766] Fugang, Taitung, Taiwan. Holotype: NTUM 12079. Paratypes: MUFS, NTUM. •Valid as Gymnocranius obesus Chen, Miki & Borsa 2017. Current status: Valid as Gymnocranius obesus Chen, Miki & Borsa 2017. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Ryukyu Islands to Bali, including Taiwan and the Flores Sea. Habitat: marine.

oblongus, Gymnocranius Borsa [P.], Béarez [P.] & Chen [W.-J.] 2010:242, Figs. 1-3 [Comptes Rendus Biologies v. 333 (no. 3); ref. 30820] Southern lagoon, New Caledonia, depth about 8-15 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2009-009. Paratypes: MNHN-2009-0005 (1), -0007 (1), -0008 (1). Plus 2 non-type specimens preserved as skulls and tissue samples as IRDN-20090410-A and B. •Valid as Gymnocranius oblongus Borsa, Béarez & Chen 2010 -- (Borsa et al. 2013:234 [ref. 33484], Chen et al. 2017:527 [ref. 35766]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocranius oblongus Borsa, Béarez & Chen 2010. Lethrinidae. Distribution: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

obsoleta, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xii, 52 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P49352 (dry skin). Paralectotypes: ZMUC P49353 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:67 [ref. 9588]. Originally Sciaena ramak, obsoleta on p. 52, Sciaena obsoleta on p. xii. The version on p. 52 is not available, as two names apply to the same taxon (ICZN, Art. 11.5). Both versions, however, are linked together by the species code ‘64’; the name Sciaena obsoleta on p. xii is thus accompanied by a diagnosis and description, and is available by indication (ICZN, Art. 12.2.2) (see Fricke 2008:39 [ref. 30182]). Types figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 24 [ref. 20847]; variety figured in Pl. 23. Lectotype selected by Smith 1959:287 [ref. 12029]. •Treated as a synonym of Lethrinus ramak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:35 [ref. 8884], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:598 [ref. 5712], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:333 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Lethrinus obsoletus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:155 [ref. 29757], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:77 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:201 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:221 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:201 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:155 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:864 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:271 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:141 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3038 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:864 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:246 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:278 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1238 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:498 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706], Psomadakis et al. 2015:266 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:157 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:216 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:172 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus obsoletus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra and Madagascar east to Wake Atoll, Marshall Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

ochrolineata, Lethrinus nebulosus var. Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:390 [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9847. Also appeared in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:12 [ref. 14246]. Kottelat (2013) dates to Kossmann 1876:390, holotype -- needs research. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:155 [ref. 29757] as ochrolineatus, Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

oculomaculatus, Gnathodentex Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:407 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 18 (no. 12); ref. 2109] Tenibuli, Ysabel Island, Solomon Islands. Holotype: FMNH 17335. Paratypes: FMNH 17336 (1), CAS-SU 24438 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:76 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:40 [ref. 12367]. Originaly as oculo-maculatus. •Synonym of Gnathodentex aurolineatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Sato 1986:604 [ref. 5152], Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:17 [ref. 13577] as ocumaculatus). •Synonym of Gnathodentex aureolineatus (Lacepède 1802). Current status: Synonym of Gnathodentex aureolineatus (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

olivaceus, Gymnocranius Fourmanoir [P.] 1961:90 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 4; ref. 9346] Nosy Iranza, northwestern Madagascar, depth 180 meters. Syntypes: IRSMNB (5) lost (not at MNHN). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:71 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:213 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

olivaceus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:295 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Anyer, Jawa Barat, Java Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5741. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:69 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus miniatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Sato 1978:40 [ref. 8884]). •Valid as Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:78 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:202 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:202 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:156 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:864 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:271 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3039 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:864 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:278 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1238 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:498 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:94 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:266 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:47 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:157 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:216 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:172 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871] as cf. olivaceus). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Marshall and northern Line Islands and Henderson Island (Pitcairn Group), north to Ryukyu Islands (southern Japan), south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

opercularis, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:289 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9057 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:69 [ref. 21545]. •Valid as Lethrinus opercularis Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:33 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577], Carpenter 2001:3034 [ref. 26105]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

orbis, Gymnocranius Fowler [H. W.] 1938:29, Fig. 3 [Hong Kong Naturalist No. 6, Suppl.; ref. 17760] Hong Kong. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68291. •Synonym of Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:28 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

ornatus, Lethrinus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:458 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4898] Wide Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM (whereabouts unknown). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Lethrinus ornatus Valenciennes 1830, replaced by Lethrinus devisianus Whitley 1929. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Allen et al. 2006:1237 [ref. 29090], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ornatus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:310 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH D442 (dry). •Valid as Lethrinus ornatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:36 [ref. 8884], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:80 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:202 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:332 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:91 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:172 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:202 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:24 [ref. 23611], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:156 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:864 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:142 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:101 [ref. 26368], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:250 [ref. 27511], Carpenter 2001:3040 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:864 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:100 [ref. 27510], Allen et al. 2006:1238 [ref. 29090], Shibukawa in Motomura & Shibukawa 2009:163 [ref. 31132], Allen & Erdmann 2012:499 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:94 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:267 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:157 [ref. 35490], Shibukawa in Kimura et al. 2018:173 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:172 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus ornatus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

ornatus, Sparus Sevastianoff [A.] 1805:521, Pl. 10 [Nova Acta Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae v. 14 (for 1797-1798); ref. 30476] Mer du Sud [South Pacific]. Holotype: ZIL (whereabouts unknown). Originally as Sparvs ornatvs in historical typesetting, equals Sparus ornatus. Would be a senior synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Not used as valid after 1899, therefore reversal of precedence (ICZN Art. 23.9) in favor of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). •In the synonymy of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

papuensis, Lethrinus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:276, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Hall Sound, Central Province, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16339-001 [ex MAMU F590]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:15 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:64 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:350 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

perselectus, Lethrinus Whitley [G. P.] 1933:75 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 4677] Northwest Inlet, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.5011. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Allen et al. 2006:1237 [ref. 29090], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctulatus, Lethrinus Macleay [W.] 1878:351, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 17573] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Syntypes: [all ex MAMU F584] AMS I.16337-001 (1), I.16337-002 (2), I.16337-003 (3). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Lethrinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel 1844 -- (Sato 1978:47 [ref. 8884]). •Questionably a synonym of Lethrinus laticaudis Alleyne & Macleay 1877 -- (Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967]). •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1236 [ref. 29090]). •Synonym of Lethrinus laticaudis Alleyne & Macleay 1877 -- (Larson et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus laticaudis Alleyne & Macleay 1877. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

ramak, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:52 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P49352 (dry skin). Paralectotypes: ZMUC P49353 (1, dry skin). For discussion see account of Sciaena obsoleta Forsskål 1775. Also in Bonnaterre 1788:124 [ref. 4940]. •Objective synonym of Lethrinus obsoletus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:77 [ref. 13577], Randall 1995:221 [ref. 22896], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:141 [ref. 25480], Carpenter 2001:3038 [ref. 26105], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:246 [ref. 28072], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:335 [ref. 28867], Fricke 2008:39 [ref. 30182], Fricke et al. 2018:216 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus obsoletus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

ravus, Lethrinus Carpenter [K. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 2003:3, Fig. 1b [Zootaxa No. 240; ref. 26959] Off Kinda Reef, northeastern coast of New Caledonia. Holotype: BPBM 27109. Paratypes: AMS I.42658-001 (3); BPBM 22263 (1), 27070 (1); NSMT-P 66334 (2); USNM 372781-82 (8, 1); WAM P.32329-001 (2). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:29 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Lethrinus ravus Carpenter & Randall 2003 -- (Randall 2005:279 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1238 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:499 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus ravus Carpenter & Randall 2003. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: Indonesia, Philippines, New Caledonia, Loyalty Islands, Australia to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

regius, Lethrinus Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, no distinguishing features; from Queensland, Australia -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:97 [ref. 13577]). Lethrinidae.

reticulatus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:298 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9085. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:69 [ref. 21545]. •Valid as Lethrinus reticulatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:53 [ref. 8884], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:81 [ref. 13577], Winterbottom et al. 1989:39 [ref. 13251], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Nakabo 2000:866 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Carpenter 2001:3041 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:866 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945], Allen & Erdmann 2012:499 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2019:172 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus reticulatus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Chagos Archipelago and Andaman Sea east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

rhodopterus, Lethrinus Bleeker [P.] 1852:65 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 16832] Singapore. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5758 (largest of 10 specimens). •Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:15 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:64 [ref. 13577], Carpenter 2001:3032 [ref. 26105], Kottelat 2013:350 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus harak (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

richardsonii, Lethrinus Günther [A.] 1859:456 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] China Sea; Hong Kong. Lectotype: BMNH 1851.12.27.45 (1 of 2, 98 mm SL). Paralectotypes: (at least 8) ?BMNH 1848.2.15 [sic] (1), 1848.3.18.126 (1), 1851.12.27.367 (1 skin), 1851.12.27.369 (1 skin), 1855.9.19.? (1), 1968.3.11.25 (1), ?1995.7.27.3 (1). Based on specimens and Lethrinus haematopterus of Richardson and of Bleeker (not of Temminck & Schlegel). Lectotype selected by Sato 1978:48 [ref. 8884]. The 3 BMNH lots cataloged in 1848 and 1855 are in one bottle, but only 2 specimens are present. •Synonym of Lethrinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel 1844 -- (Sato 1978:47 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:63 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel 1844. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

rivulatus, Dentex Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:116, Pl. 29 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 3042 (dry). Originally Dentex ? rivulatus. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Dentex rivulatus Bennett 1835, replaced by Gymnocranius ruppellii Smith 1941. •Synonym of Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Dor 1984:156 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Gymnocranius robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Sato 1986:607 [ref. 5152]). •Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Carpenter & Allen 1989:27 [ref. 13577], Randall 2005:274 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1233 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2018:213 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

robinsoni, Dentex Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1909:226 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 3, no. 5); ref. 1650] Natal coast south of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 10037. •Synonym of Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Dor 1984:156 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnocranius robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson 1909) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:126 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:115 [ref. 19754], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:179 [ref. 6441], Sato 1986:607 [ref. 5152], Smith 1986:596 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:39 [ref. 13251], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:328 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:99 [ref. 26476] dated 1908). •Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Carpenter & Allen 1989:27 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:198 [ref. 15987], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xii [ref. 21953], Carpenter 2001:3022 [ref. 26105], Randall 2005:274 [ref. 28239], Golani & Fricke 2018:98 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:296 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH D443 (stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:72 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinella miniata (Forster 1801) -- (Dor 1984:152 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Lethrinus miniatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Sato 1978:40 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:78 [ref. 13577], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:335 [ref. 28867], Fricke et al. 2018:216 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

rubrioperculatus, Lethrinus Sato [T.] 1978:58, Pl. 12 (fig. A); Fig. 34 [Bulletin of the University Museum, University of Tokyo No. 15; ref. 8884] Naha fish market, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 53991. Paratypes: [some missing] BPBM 8557 (1); FAKU 33034 (1), 33047 (1); ?HUMZ A2428 (1), HUMZ A2434 (1); MIKU 1955 (1); RMNH 5754 (1); ZUMT 52525 (1), 52601 (1), 52614 (1), 52619 (1), 52623 (1), 52626-27 (2), 52685-93 (9), 52897 (1), 53996 (1). •Valid as Lethrinus rubrioperculatus Sato 1978 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:109 [ref. 19754], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:181 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:598 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:83 [ref. 13577], Winterbottom et al. 1989:40 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:202 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:202 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:156 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:300 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:866 [ref. 25086], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:142 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:14 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:101 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3042 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:866 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Carpenter & Randall 2003:3 [ref. 26959], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:279 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:124 [ref. 28745], Allen et al. 2006:1238 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:67 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:126 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:500 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32988], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:47 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:158 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:216 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus rubrioperculatus Sato 1978. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll, Marshall Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

ruppellii, Gymnocranius Smith [J. L. B.] 1941:449 [Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa v. 28 (pt 5); ref. 19229] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Replacement name for Dentex rivulatus Rüppell 1838, preoccupied by Dentex rivulatus Bennett 1835. Correct spelling is ruppellii -- see Kullander 2016:96 [ref. 34436]. •Synonym of Gymnocranius robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Sato 1986:608 [ref. 5152]). •Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Carpenter & Allen 1989:27 [ref. 13577], Fricke et al. 2018:213 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes 1830). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

sanguineus, Lethrinus Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:12, Pl. 3 (fig. 14) [Memorias do Museu Dr. Alvaro de Castro No. 3; ref. 4101] Shimoni, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 606. Paratypes: (several) not researched. •Valid as Lethrinus sanguineus Smith 1955 -- (Sato 1978:19 [ref. 8884], Dor 1984:155 [ref. 29757], Smith 1986:599 [ref. 5712]). •Synonym of Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:69 [ref. 13577], Randall 1995:220 [ref. 22896], Fricke et al. 2018:215 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

satoi, Gymnocranius Borsa [P.], Béarez [P.], Paijo [S.] & Chen [W.-J.] 2013:237, Fig. 3 [Comptes Rendus Biologies 336; ref. 33484] Kedonganan (Bali) fish market (from Lombok or West Sumbawa) Lesser Sunda Islands, but localities are questioned. Holotype: MNHH 2011-0103. •Valid as Gymnocranius satoi Borsa, Béarez, Paijo & Chen 2013 -- (Chen et al. 2017:527 [ref. 35766]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocranius satoi Borsa, Béarez, Paijo & Chen 2013. Lethrinidae. Distribution: New Caledonia and from Raja Ampat of west Papua, Japan and possible the Great Barrier Reef, Solomon Sea, Bismarck Sea, New Guinea and Lesser Sunda Islands (holotype). Habitat: marine.

scoparius, Lethrinus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:168 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 9927. •Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sato 1978:30 [ref. 8884], Smith 1986:598 [ref. 5712], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:75 [ref. 13577], Kottelat 2013:351 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål 1775). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

semicinctus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:294 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Bourou [? = Buru Island, Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9078. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:69 [ref. 21545]. •Valid as Lethrinus semicinctus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:60 [ref. 8884], Kyushin et al. 1982:1080 [ref. 19754], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:181 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:84 [ref. 13577], Randall et al. 1990:202 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:333 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:156 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:866 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3043 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:866 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Carpenter & Randall 2003:2 [ref. 26959], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:101 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Allen et al. 2006:1239 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:500 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2019:172 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus semicinctus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Marshall Islands and Fiji, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

similis, Neolethrinus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:12 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:73 [ref. 21545]. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

sordidus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:298 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9091 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:69 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus semicinctus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:60 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:84 [ref. 13577], Carpenter & Randall 2003:2 [ref. 26959]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus semicinctus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

specificus, Lethrinus rostratus Borodin [N. A.] 1932:82 [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 3); ref. 16361] Bora Bora, Society Islands. Syntypes: VMM 790 (2) (now at AMNH). •Synonym of Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:78 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Lethrinus Steindachner [F.] 1866:479, Pl. 5 (fig. 3) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 16; ref. 5030] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): NMW 42888. •Synonym of Lethrinus kallopterus Bleeker 1856 -- (Sato 1978:20 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus erythropterus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:59 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus erythropterus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

suli, Sciaena obsoleta Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:53, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Not available, a locality name on p. xii tied to description on p. 53. Lethrinidae.

superciliosus, Gymnocranius Borsa [P.], Béarez [P.], Paijo [S.] & Chen [W.-J.] 2013:235, Figs. 1-2 [Comptes Rendus Biologies 336; ref. 33484] Northwestern lagoon of New Caledonia's Grande Terre and in Chesterfield Islands (central Coral Sea), depth 5-7 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2009-0010. Paratypes: MNHN 2009-0011 (1), -0012 (1), -0013 (1), MNHN ICOS-00715 (skeleton). •Valid as Gymnocranius superciliosus Borsa, Béarez, Paijo & Chen 2013 -- (Miki et al. 2014:85 [ref. 35056], Chen et al. 2017:527 [ref. 35766]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocranius superciliosus Borsa, Béarez, Paijo & Chen 2013. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Pacific: Ryukyu Islands, Chesterfield Islands, New Caledonia and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

unispinosus, Dentex Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:235, Fig. 42 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Porto Praya, St. Jago Island, Cape Verde Islands. Unused senior synonym of Lethrinus atlanticus Valenciennes 1830; declared as nomen oblitum (see Parenti 2019:93 [ref. 36892]). Therefore reversal of precedence. •In the synonymy of Lethrinus atlanticus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Parenti 2019:93 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus atlanticus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:287 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea; Suez, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9062 (1) Massawa, MNHN no number (1) Suez [apparently lost]; ?ZMB 1135 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:70 [ref. 21545]. •Valid as Lethrinella variegata (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:144 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:153 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Lethrinus variegatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:49 [ref. 8884], Kyushin et al. 1982:108 [ref. 19754], Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:599 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:88 [ref. 13577], Winterbottom et al. 1989:40 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:203 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:334 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:174 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:203 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:156 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:301 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:865 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:272 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:251 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847] as cf. variegatus, Carpenter 2001:3044 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:865 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:279 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1239 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:67 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:500 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:143 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2018:217 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:99 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:172 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus variegatus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Palau and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

violaceofasciata, Sciaena nebulosa Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:52, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Arabia. No types known. Originally as violaceo-fasciata; named on p. xii, tied to brief description on p. 52, as (b) Variat. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

virescens, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:308 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] No locality. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:73 [ref. 21545]. •Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802) -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:67 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède 1802). Lethrinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

viridis, Lethrinus Whitley [G. P.] 1932:339 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 6); ref. 4674] Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.4930. Paratypes: AMS IA.4942 (1), QM I.4931 (5) Lethrinus viridis Saville-Kent 1893 is nomen nudum and therefore not available, so Whitley specifically chose that name for these specimens. •Incertae sedis in Lethrinidae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1240 [ref. 29090]). Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

viridis, Lethrinus Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, no distinguishing features; from Queensland, Australia -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:97 [ref. 13577]). •Incertae sedis in Lethrinidae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1240 [ref. 29090]). Lethrinidae.

waigiensis, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:297 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Waigeo, Indonesia. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-9065. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2908 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:70 [ref. 21545]. Lectotype selected by Sato 1978:41 [ref. 8884]. •Synonym of Lethrinus miniatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Sato 1978:40 [ref. 8884]). •Synonym of Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:78 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

xanthochilus, Lethrinus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:753 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMNS 1602 (1, dry, not found), ZMB 7984 (1). Type information: Fricke 1992:13 [ref. 20296]. Type catalog: Fricke 2005:47 [ref. 29864]. •Valid as Lethrinella xanthochilus (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Dor 1984:153 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Lethrinus xanthochilus Klunzinger 1870 -- (Sato 1978:52 [ref. 8884] with a holotype, Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:180 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:599 [ref. 5712], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:89 [ref. 13577], Winterbottom et al. 1989:40 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:203 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:134 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:92 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:174 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:203 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:156 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:301 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:865 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:620 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:272 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:14 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3045 [ref. 26105], Nakabo 2002:865 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:40 [ref. 26830] as xanthocheilus, Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:280 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1239 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:67 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:501 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:143 [ref. 32988], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:47 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:217 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:100 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:173 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Lethrinus xanthochilus Klunzinger 1870. Lethrinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Marquesas Islands and Gambier Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands (southern Japan), south to Rowley Shoals (Western Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

xanthopterus, Dentex Bleeker [P.] 1845:522 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 2 (3); ref. 312] Not available, no distinguishing features; from Batavia, Java -- (see Allen in Carpenter & Allen 1989:95 [ref. 13577]). Lethrinidae.

xanthopterus, Lethrinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:315 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Uléa, Caroline Islands, western Pacific, ca. 7°22'N, 143°54'E. No types preserved. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1983:73 [ref. 21545]. Based on a drawing, probably by Mertens (Franz Karl Mertens, 1764-1831, German botanist). •Synonym of Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:78 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.

xanthotaenia, Lethrinus Bleeker [P.] 1851:176 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 16895] Western Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) RMNH 5762 (2 of 38). •Synonym of Lethrinus ornatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Sato 1978:37 [ref. 8884], Carpenter in Carpenter & Allen 1989:80 [ref. 13577]). Current status: Synonym of Lethrinus ornatus Valenciennes 1830. Lethrinidae. Habitat: marine.