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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Loricariidae: [ 1171 ] records


abilhoai, Ancistrus Bifi [A. G.], Pavanelli [C. S.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2009:42, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 2275; ref. 30541] Lapa, middle Rio Iguaçu basin, Rio Iguaçu, 25°47'35"S, 50°11'59"W, Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 10416. Paratypes: MCP 10435 (1), 10636 (1),18277 (1), 18278 (1); MHNCI 8429 (1), 8521 (1), 8574 (1), 8620 (1), 10403 (1), 10456 (1), 11390 (2); MZUSP 104117 (3); NUP 7502 (2), 7509 (3), •Valid as Ancistrus abilhoai Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki 2009 -- (de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus abilhoai Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki 2009. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Iguaçu basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

absaberi, Harttia Oyakawa [O. T.], Fichberg [I.] & Langeani [F.] 2013:780, Figs. 1-5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 33027] Mato Grosso do Sul State, Três Lagoas, ribeirão São Mateus, tributary of the rio Sucuriú, Rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 85805. Paratypes: DZSJRP 2741 (1); MZUEL 5007 (2); MZUSP 22848 (2), 58674 (3), 85806 (36, 2 c&s), 87921 (2). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:443 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Harttia absaberi Oyakawa, Fichberg & Langeani 2013 -- (Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia absaberi Oyakawa, Fichberg & Langeani 2013. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aburrensis, Hypostomus Posada [A.] 1909:297 [Los peces del norte de Colombia; ref. 5005] Medellín, Colombia. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155]. Chaetostoma is neuter, and aburrensis is an adjective; changed to aburrense (Ron Fricke, email Mar. 2016). •Valid as Hypostomus aburrense Posada 1909 -- (Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178] as aburrensis). •Valid as Chaetostoma aburrense (Posada 1909) -- (Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:379 [ref. 27061] as aburrensis, Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155] as aburrensis, Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975] as aburrensis, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma aburrense (Posada 1909). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

acanthicus, Rinelepis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:487 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Amazon River. Holotype (unique): destroyed in World War II. Type catalog:" Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155]. Replacement name for Acanthicus hystrix Spix & Agassiz 1829. •Objective synonym of Acanthicus hystrix Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Isbrücker 1980:75 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155], Chamon 2016:397 [ref. 34326]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthicus hystrix Spix & Agassiz 1829. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

accipenser, Loricaria Shaw [G.] 1804:36 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas, in error (is South America). No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]. Unneeded new name; based on several literature sources. •Synonym of Loricariichthys maculatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:338 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Loricariichthys maculatus (Bloch 1794). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

acestrichthys, Farlowella Pearson [N. E.] 1924:25, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Rurrenabaque, Río Beni system, upper Amazon, Bolivia. Syntypes: CAS 77322 [ex IU 17009] (3, now 2), UMMZ 66480 [ex IU 17009] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella acestrichthys Pearson 1924 -- (Isbrücker 1980:96 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910 -- (Retzer & Page 1997:56 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], Retzer 2006:64 [ref. 28957], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

acicula, Nannoxyropsis Delapieve [M. L. S.], Lehmann A [P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2018:30, Figs. 9a, 10b, 11a, 12c, 19 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 4) e170079 (for 18 Dec. 2017); ref. 35713] Igarapé Capiteo on Transamazonic road between Comunidade 28 and Vila Rayol, Itaituba, Pará, Brazil, 04°22'43"S, 56°16'32.9"W. Holotype: MCP 51326. Paratypes: MCP, MPEG, MZUSP. •Valid as Nannoxyropsis acicula Delapieve, Lehmann A & Reis 2018. Current status: Valid as Nannoxyropsis acicula Delapieve, Lehmann A & Reis 2018. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Lower rio Tapajós drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

acipenserinus, Hemiodon Kner [R.] 1853:92 [28], Pl. 7 (fig. 2a-c) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 6; ref. 2627] Rio Guaporé, Rondônia, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 46139. Paralectotypes: ZMA 112957 (1); NMW 46138 (1), 46140 (1), 74914 (1, not found in 1995). Type catalog: Isbrücker & Nijssen 1974:204 [ref. 7126]. On p. 28 of separate. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker & Nijssen 1974:204 [ref. 7126]. •Valid as Hemiodontichthys acipenserinus (Kner 1853) -- (Isbrücker 1980:130 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Britski et al. 1999:129 [ref. 24147], Le Bail et al. 2000:278 [ref. 24549], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:336 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemiodontichthys acipenserinus (Kner 1853). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Rio Madeira drainage, Amazon River basin; Essequibo, Paraguay and Oiapoque River drainages: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

acuarius, Isorineloricaria Ray [C. K.] & Armbruster [J. W.] 2016:527, Fig. 15 [Zootaxa 4072 (no. 5); ref. 34178] Rio Portuguesa, 3 km northeast of El Barriero, Portuguesa, Venezuela, 09°03'08"N, 69°29'18"W. Holotype: INHS 35685. Paratypes: ANSP, FMNH, INHS, MCNG, USNM. •Valid as Isorineloricaria acuarius Ray & Armbruster 2016. Current status: Valid as Isorineloricaria acuarius Ray & Armbruster 2016. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Apure and middle Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

acuen, Hisonotus Silva [G. S. C.], Roxo [F. F.] & Oliveira [C.] 2014:107, Figs. 1, 3-6 [ZooKeys No. 442; ref. 33533] Mato Grosso State, Municipality of Querência, rio Xingú basin, 13°00'26"S, 52°11'27"W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 115350. Paratypes: LBP, NUP. •Valid as Hisonotus acuen Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2014 -- (Roxo et al. 2015:137 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:379 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34426], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310], Roxo et al. 2018:[11] [ref. 35900], Dias et al. 2018:583 [ref. 36235]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus acuen Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2014. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Xingú basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aculeatus, Chaetostomus Perugia [A.] 1891:637 [37] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 10; ref. 3431] Río Paraguay, Asuncion, Paraguay. Holotype (unique): MSNG 8937. Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:311 [ref. 10351], Ferraris 2007:272 [ref. 29155]. On p. 37 of separate. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Megalancistrus aculeatus (Perugia 1891) -- (Isbrücker 1980:52 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:65 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:71 [ref. 27632] as Perugia 1891, Britski et al. 1999:134 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Megalancistrus parananus (Peters 1881) -- (Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:390 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:272 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:64 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Megalancistrus parananus (Peters 1881). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

aculeatus, Plecostomus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:158 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Tropical America. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:224 [ref. 29155]. Based on literature sources. •Synonym of Ancistrus temminckii (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:73 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:378 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:224 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus temminckii (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

acus, Acestra Kner [R.] 1853:93 [29], Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 6; ref. 2627] Caracas, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): NMW 47795. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155]. On p. 29 of separate. •Valid as Farlowella acus (Kner 1853) -- (Isbrücker 1980:96 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:59 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:25, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155], Ballen & Mojica 2014:140 [ref. 33176], Ballen et al. 2016:[6] [ref. 34813], Ballen et al. 2016:331 [ref. 34915], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella acus (Kner 1853). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lake Valencia and Torito River basins, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

acuta, Loricaria Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:472, Pl. 452 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Brazil ("believed to be from"). Holotype (unique): MNHN. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:269 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Loricariichthys acutus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:125 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:338 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:269 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys acutus (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Brazil (?). Habitat: freshwater.

acutirostris, Oxyropsis Miranda Ribeiro [P. de] 1951:1, Pls. 1-3 (figs. 2, 2, 2) [Boletim do Museu Nacional, Zoologia (N. S.) No. 104; ref. 12901] Paricachoeira, Rio Taquié, tributary of the Rio Vaupes, which is a tributary of the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 5745. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypoptopoma acutirostre (Miranda Ribeiro 1951) -- (Isbrücker 1980:87 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Oxyropsis acutirostris Miranda Ribeiro 1951 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Aquino & Schaefer 2002:383 [ref. 26022] as acutirostra, Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:325 [ref. 27061] as acutirostra, Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155] as acutirostra, Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127] as acutirostra, Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228] as acutirostra, Aquino & Sabaj Pérez 2016:137 [ref. 34526] as acutirostra and author as Ribeiro, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633] as acutirostra). Current status: Valid as Oxyropsis acutirostris Miranda Ribeiro 1951. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco, upper and lower Negro and Amazon basin: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

adonis, Acanthicus Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1988:166, Figs. 5-7 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 41 (no. 6); ref. 7320] Rio Tocantins at Cametá, 0°14'S, 49°30.5'W, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 38580. Paratypes: ZMA 119968 (4), 119992 (1); ZSM 26730 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:262 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Acanthicus adonis Isbrücker & Nijssen 1988 -- (Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:373 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155], Chamon 2016:405 [ref. 34326]). Current status: Valid as Acanthicus adonis Isbrücker & Nijssen 1988. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lower Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aequalicuspis, Rineloricaria Reis [R. E.] & Cardoso [A. R.] 2001:324, Figs. 3-5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 25718] Rio Três Forquilhas, opposite to church of Vila Itati, 29°30'43"S, 50°05'31"W, Terra de Areia, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 25852. Paratypes: MCP 10794-95 (1, 24), 14154 (3), 14238 (4), 14262 (3), 14817 (5), 21083 (4), 21086 (16), 21104 (7), 21338 (26), 23684 (24), 25299 (15), 25309 (28), 25318 (55), 25342 (11); MZUSP 27654-56 (1, 1, 1); UMMZ 143278-80 (6, 5, 4), 143288 (3); ZMA 119086 (7), 119088 (2). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:293 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rineloricaria aequalicuspis Reis & Cardoso 2001 -- (Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:293 [ref. 29155], Ghazzi 2008:101 [ref. 29636], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria aequalicuspis Reis & Cardoso 2001. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Três Forquilhas and Maquiné River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aequinoctialis, Chaetostomus Pellegrin [J.] 1909:518 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 15 (no. 8); ref. 14591] Río Pove at Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador, 0°13'S, 79°09'W, elevation 560 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1904-0017. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:67 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma aequinoctiale Pellegrin 1909 -- (Isbrücker 1980:59 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:379 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:214 [ref. 34894]). •Valid as Transancistrus aequinoctialis (Pellegrin 1909) -- (Lujan et al. 2015:657 [ref. 33963], Lujan et al. 2015:667 [ref. 33975], Provenzano & Villa-Navarro 2017:529 [ref. 35473] as aequinoctiale, Provenzano et al. 2017:265 [ref. 35613] as aequinoctiale). Current status: Valid as Transancistrus aequinoctialis (Pellegrin 1909). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Río Guayllabamba basin, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Otocinclus Steindachner [F.] 1877:221 [5], Pl. 1 (figs. 1-1b) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 76 (1. Abth.); ref. 14247] Streams at Santa Cruz in region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 45368:1. Paralectotypes: NMW 45368:2-3 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155]. On p. 5 of separate. Lectotype selected by Schaefer 1997:49 [ref. 23213]. •Valid as Macrotocinclus affinis (Steindachner 1877) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:20 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker et al. 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Otocinclus affinis Steindachner 1877 -- (Isbrücker 1980:81 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Schaefer 1997:46 [ref. 23213], Britto & Moreira 2002:1067 [ref. 26512], Britto et al. 2002:735 [ref. 26546], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:324 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], Delapieve et al. 2018:23 [ref. 35713]). •Stefan Koerber, pers. comm. 3/8/2010 suggests that the López et al. 2003 and Menni 2004 references are not this species and range is Brazil only. Current status: Valid as Otocinclus affinis Steindachner 1877. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Plecostomus Steindachner [F.] 1877:685 [127] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Campos (21°50'S, 41°20'W), Rio Paríba do Sul, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 44041:1. Paralectotypes: (several) ?MCZ 7818 (3), 7835 (2), 7886 (2); MSNG 8860 (2); NMW 44040 (1), 44041:2-7 (7, now 6), 44043 (8), 44044 (3), 44326 (3), 55014 (2); USNM 120428 [ex MCZ 7893] (1), 120431 [ex MCZ 8179] (1); ZSM 4843 [ex NMW 44041] (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:311 [ref. 10351], Ferraris & Vari 1992:31 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:263 [ref. 31652]. On p. 127 of separate. Lectotype selected by Mazzoni et al. 1994:5 [ref. 21507]. •Valid as Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner 1877) -- (Isbrücker 1980:18 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Mazzoni et al. 1994:5 [ref. 21507], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:355 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] dated 1876, Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Cardoso et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34373], Zanata & Pitanga 2016:231 [ref. 34535], Zawadzki et al. 2016:271 [ref. 34908]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner 1877). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

agassizii, Rhinelepis Steindachner [F.] 1877:228 [12] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 76 (1. Abth.); ref. 14247] Lake Manacapuru, 3°06'S, 61°30'W, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 8007 (1) Lake Manacapuru; NMW 44559-61 (3, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155]. On p. 12 of separate. •Valid as Pseudorinelepis agassizii (Steindachner 1877) -- (Isbrücker 1980:8 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850]). •Synonym of Pseudorinelepis genibarbis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Armbruster & Hardman 1999:57 [ref. 23670], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:366 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorinelepis genibarbis (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Rhinelepinae. Habitat: freshwater.

agastor, Paraloricaria Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1979:103, Figs. 20-21 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 5 (no. 4) (1978); ref. 2302] Paraguay (no precise locality). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1895.5.17.108. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155]. Type is also a paralectotype of Loricaria apeltogaster. •Valid as Paraloricaria agastor Isbrücker 1979 -- (Isbrücker 1980:115 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:339 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:47 [ref. 27366], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:131 [ref. 28787], Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:45 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Paraloricaria agastor Isbrücker 1979. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Argentina and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

agna, Plecostomus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1907:188 [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] v. 11 (no. 5); ref. 17767] Rio Ribeira, Iporanga, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155]. Originally as ãgnã. Not listed in Miranda Ribeiro 1953 [ref. 12732]. •Valid as Hypostomus agna (Miranda Ribeiro 1907) -- (Isbrücker 1980:18 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:355 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Oyakawa et al. 2005:4 [ref. 28322], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2015:56 [ref. 33866]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus agna (Miranda Ribeiro 1907). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

agostinhoi, Ancistrus Bifi [A. G.], Pavanelli [C. S.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2009:47, Fig. 4 [Zootaxa No. 2275; ref. 30541] Foz do Jordão, 25°39'12"S, 51°58'15"W, lower Rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 104118. Paratypes: MHNCI, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Ancistrus agostinhoi Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki 2009 -- (de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus agostinhoi Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki 2009. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Jordão drainage, affluent of lower Rio Iguaçu, southern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aguaboensis, Ancistrus Fisch-Muller [S.], Mazzoni [R.] & Weber [C.] 2001:293, Figs. 3-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 25716] Córrego Agua Boa, small tributary of River Bonito, a left bank tributary of the upper River Tocantins, 10 kilometers from Minaçú-Campinaçu, 13°35'S, 48°14'W, Minaçú, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 20850. Paratypes: MHNG 2612.46 (4, 1 c&s), 2612.47 (3); MNRJ 15192 (14); MZUSP 62957 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus aguaboensis Fisch-Muller, Mazzoni & Weber 2001 -- (Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:373 [ref. 27061], Fisch-Muller et al. 2005:570 [ref. 28242], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155], de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus aguaboensis Fisch-Muller, Mazzoni & Weber 2001. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

agustini, Farlowella Martín Salazar [F. J.] 1964:254, Fig. 5 [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 24 (no. 69); ref. 9227] Affluence of Río Chirigua and Río Pao, Cojedes, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-11940 [ex MAC 59398]. Paratypes: MAC (3). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella agustini Martín Salazar 1964 -- (Isbrücker 1980:97 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Farlowella vittata Myers 1942 -- (Retzer & Page 1997:64 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:334 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Farlowella vittata Myers 1942. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

aky, Epactionotus Azpelicueta [M. de las M.], Casciotta [J. R.], Almirón [A. E.] & Koerber [S.] 2004:82, Figs. 1-6 [Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Ichthyologie v. 4 (2004); ref. 28029] Arroyo Garibaldi, 26°38'46.1"S, 53°59'55"W, Río Uruguay basin at Misiones, Argentina. Holotype: MLP 10459 [ex AI 124]. Paratypes: AI 125 (8), MHNG 2643.39 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:236 [ref. 29155], Nadalin & López 2015:6 [ref. 34112]. •Valid as Epactionotus aky Azpelicueta, Casciotta, Almirón & Koerber 2004 -- (Ferraris 2007:236 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Hisonotus aky (Azpelicueta, Casciotta, Almirón & Koerber 2004) -- (Carvalho & Reis 2009:26 [ref. 30193], Koerber 2011:5 [ref. 31122], Garvalho & Reis 2011:35 [ref. 31240], Koerber 2014:9 [ref. 33621], Roxo et al. 2015:137 [ref. 33763], Mirande & Koerber 2015:41 [ref. 35117], Zawadzki et al. 2016:379 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[11] [ref. 35900]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus aky (Azpelicueta, Casciotta, Almirón & Koerber 2004). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

alatus, Hypostomus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:41, Pl. 20 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio Sabara, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9441 (mounted). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:71 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus alatus Castelnau 1855 -- (Isbrücker 1980:18 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:15 [ref. 23548], Gómez & Chebez 1996:63 [ref. 23791], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Britski 2001:19 [ref. 26046], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:355 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27366], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2012:246 [ref. 32031], Zanata et al. 2013:248 [ref. 32751], Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Zanata & Pitanga 2016:231 [ref. 34535], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2017:570 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus alatus Castelnau 1855. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Uruguay River and upper São Francisco River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

alberti, Hisonotus Roxo [F. F.], Silva [G. S. C.], Waltz [B. T.] & Melo [J. E. G.] 2016:228, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4109 (no. 2); ref. 34426] Minas Gerais State, municipality of São Roque de Minas, ribeirão das Posses, upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil, 20°17'15"S, 46°34'53"W. Holotype: MZUSP 118845. Paratypes: ANSP, LBP, MPUJ, NUP. •Valid as Hisonotus alberti Roxo, Silva, Waltz & Melo 2016 -- (Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[11] [ref. 35900], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506] as cf. alberti). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus alberti Roxo, Silva, Waltz & Melo 2016. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper rio Paraná basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

albivermis, Panaqolus Lujan [N. K.], Steele [S.] & Velasquez [M.] 2013:193, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa 3691 (no. 1); ref. 32784] Padre Abad Province, Irazola District, San Alejandro River, Ucayali River drainage, 8°55'02''S, 75°12'26''W, Peru, depth 195 meters. Holotype: MUSM 35879. Paratypes: ANSP 182815 (1), AUM 58781 (1), ROM 93945 (1). •Valid as Panaqolus albivermis Lujan, Steele & Velasquez 2013 -- (Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015:469 [ref. 33945], Cramer & Sousa 2016:1 [ref. 34885], Lujan et al. 2017:333 [11] [ref. 35031] subgenus Panafilus Lujan et al. 2017). Current status: Valid as Panaqolus albivermis Lujan, Steele & Velasquez 2013. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: San Alejandro River, Ucayali River drainage, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

albocinctus, Hemiancistrus Ahl [E.] 1936:111 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 116 (nos 3/4); ref. 13679] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 20955. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:93 [ref. 21847]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Peckoltia albocinctus (Ahl 1936) -- (Isbrücker 1980:55 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Ancistrus albocinctus (Ahl 1936) -- (Isbrücker 2001:25, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Ancistrus multispinis (Regan 1912) -- (Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus multispinis (Regan 1912). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

albomaculatus, Panaque Kanazawa [R. H.] 1958:327, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1958 (no. 4); ref. 12077] Río Pucuno, tributary of Río Suno, upper Río Napo basin, 0°47'S, 77°16'W, Napo Province, Ecuador. Holotype: USNM 167909. Paratypes: MEPN 4214 (2); USNM 167908 (4), 167910 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:30 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Panaque albomaculatus Kanazawa 1958 -- (Isbrücker 1980:74 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Schaefer & Stewart 1993:327 [ref. 21282], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Chockley & Armbruster 2002:83 [ref. 26069], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745]). •Valid as Panaqolus albomaculatus (Kanazawa 1958) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:21 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:390 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2013:192 [ref. 32784], Cramer 2014:69 [ref. 33229], Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015:469 [ref. 33945], Cramer & Sousa 2016:14 [ref. 34885], Lujan et al. 2017:333, [10] [ref. 35031] subgenus Panafilus Lujan et al. 2017, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Panaqolus albomaculatus (Kanazawa 1958). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

albopunctatus, Plecostomus Regan [C. T.] 1908:797, Pl. 49 (fig. 1); Fig. 206 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1907 (pt 4); ref. 14333] Rio Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1907.7.6.15. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1907.7.6.16 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Weber 1987:279 [ref. 6241]. •Valid as Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan 1908) -- (Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:18 [ref. 23548], Gómez & Chebez 1996:63 [ref. 23791], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:355 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27366], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Garavello et al. 2012:265 [ref. 32033], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Cardoso et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34373], Zawadzki et al. 2016:271 [ref. 34908], Koerber et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35267], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan 1908). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

alga, Chaetostomus Cope [E. D.] 1872:287, Pl. 15 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 921] Río Ambyiacu, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 16461-62 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Ancistrus alga (Cope 1872) -- (Isbrücker 1980:66 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:16 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178], Provenzano & Barriga-Salazar 2018:217 [ref. 36344]). •Synonym of Ancistrus hoplogenys (Günther 1864) -- (Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:376 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155], Koerber et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus alga (Cope 1872). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lower Napo River basin, Upper Amazon basin, northeast Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

alicula, Otothyropsis Lippert [B. G.], Calegari [B. B.] & Reis [R. E.] 2014:238, Fig. 1-5E [Copeia 2014 (no. 2); ref. 33355] Minas Gerais, Delfim Moreira, Rio Santo Antônio at Água Limpa, near mouth of Ribeirão do Salto, Rio Grande basin, 22°28′02″S, 45°21′35″W, Brazil, elevation 870 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 40718. Paratypes: ANSP 193487 (5), DZAJRP 14874 (4), MCP 23500 (10 + 2 c&s). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:454 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Otothyropsis alicula Lippert, Calegari & Reis 2014 -- (Calegari et al. 2017:244 [ref. 35203]). Current status: Valid as Otothyropsis alicula Lippert, Calegari & Reis 2014. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Santo Antônio, Rio Grande basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

alipionis, Pareiorhaphis Gosline [W. A.] 1947:104 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 41; ref. 1857] São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 4241. Paratypes: MNRJ 4242 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:262 [ref. 29155]. Pereira & Reis 2002:143 [ref. 26071] believe the locality to be the Ribeirão do Monjolinho in the Iporanga basin fo São Paulo, Brazil. •Valid as Pareiorhaphis alipionis Gosline 1947 -- (Isbrücker 1980:13 [ref. 2303] with locality comment, Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Isbrueckerichthys alipionis (Gosline 1947) -- (Derijst 1996:64 [ref. 22356], Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Pereira & Reis 2002:143 [ref. 26071], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:364 [ref. 27061], Pereira & Oyakawa 2003:7 [ref. 27318], Jerep et al. 2006:55 [ref. 28877], Ferraris 2007:262 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Roxo et al. 2012:38 [ref. 32073], Pereira & Reis 2017:72 [ref. 35307], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310]). Current status: Valid as Isbrueckerichthys alipionis (Gosline 1947). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Betari River, Ribeira de Iguapé River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

alternans, Ancistrus multiradiatus var. Regan [C. T.] 1904:229 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Paraguayan Chaco, Drainage of Río Paraguay in region of Vila Conceptión, Paraguay. Lectotype: BMNH 1898.7.4.5. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1898.6.3.30-31 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Weber 1992:28 [ref. 19714]. •Valid as Pterygoplichthys alternans (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:40 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Liposarcus ambrosetti Holmberg 1893 -- (Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Liposarcus anisitsi (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903) -- (Weber 1992:28 [ref. 19714], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:365 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii (Holmberg 1893) -- (Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:26 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:43 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:63 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii (Holmberg 1893). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

alternifasciatum, Chaetostoma Fowler [H. W.] 1945:116, Figs. 21-24 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 1454] Morelia, Río Caquetá drainage, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 71711. Paratypes: ANSP 71712-15 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Chaetostoma alternifasciatum Fowler 1945 -- (Isbrücker 1980:59 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:379 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842] as alternifasciatus, Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Chaetostoma vagum Fowler 1943 -- (Lujan et al. 2015:676 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Synonym of Chaetostoma vagum Fowler 1943. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

altipinnis, Liposarcus Günther [A.] 1864:239 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio Cupai [= Cupari], Rio Tapajós basin, Amazon River drainage, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1853.3.19.34. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pterygoplichthys altipinnis (Günther 1864) -- (Isbrücker 1980:40 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653]). •Valid as Glyptoperichthys altipinnis (Günther 1864) -- (Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Glyptoperichthys gibbiceps (Kner 1854) -- (Weber 1992:29 [ref. 19714], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:352 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner 1854) -- (Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner 1854). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

altipinnis, Loricaria Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1925:1, Figs. 1-2 [American Museum Novitates No. 180; ref. 15531] Río Chico, Darien, Panama. Holotype: AMNH 8404. Paratypes: AMNH 22720-23 (2, 1, 1, 7). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]. Genus is correctly Rineloricaria. •Valid as Hemiloricaria altipinnis (Breder 1925) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria altipinnis (Breder 1925) -- (Isbrücker 1980:103 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria altipinnis (Breder 1925). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Chico River basin, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

altocorpus, Farlowella Retzer [M. E.] 2006:60, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 1282; ref. 28957] Río Coroico, Cananavi, Río Beni Basin, La Paz State, Bolivia. Holotype: INHS 99773. Paratypes: INHS 36972 (2); SIUC 23150 (3). •Valid as Farlowella altocorpus Retzer 2006 -- (Ferraris 2007:444 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella altocorpus Retzer 2006. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Beni River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

amaris, Ancistrus de Souza [L. S.], Taphorn [D. C.] & Armbruster [J. W.] 2019:9, Fig. 6 [Zootaxa 4552; ref. 36504] Río Las Marías, Orinoco/Apure drainage, Estado Portuguesa, Venezuela, 9.402778°, -69.7375°. Holotype: MCNG 56679. Paratypes: AUM, CUMV, INHS, MCNG. •Valid as Ancistrus amaris de Souza, Taphorn & Armbruster 2019. Current status: Valid as Ancistrus amaris de Souza, Taphorn & Armbruster 2019. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Andean piedmont streams, Orinoco/Apure drainage, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonensis, Parotocinclus Garavello [J. C.] 1977:7, Figs. 21-22 [Arquivos de Zoologia (São Paulo) v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 7249] Ilha Sorubim, Rio Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP 10145. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:281 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus amazonensis Garavello 1977 -- (Isbrücker 1980:79 [ref. 2303], Garavello 1988:124 [ref. 6853], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Lacerda & Evers 1996:88 [ref. 22351], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:281 [ref. 29155], Lehmann A. et al. 2014:32 [ref. 33225], Lehmann A. et al. 2015:48 [ref. 33723], Roxo et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34921], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Roxo et al. 2019:354 [ref. 36855]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus amazonensis Garavello 1977. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonica, Dekeyseria Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 1985:180, Figs. 2, 4-7 [Amazoniana v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 6101] Janauacá [Janavacá] complex, Manaquiri, Rio Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 104.4. Paratypes: INPA 44 (1), 71 (7), 205 (1), 250.0 (1), 287 (1), 293 (1); MZUSP 27259 (1). Additional material: MZUSP 296 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:234 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dekeyseria amazonica Rapp Py-Daniel 1985 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:168 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:383 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:234 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633], Silva & Rapp Py-Daniel 2018:[15] [ref. 35865]). Current status: Valid as Dekeyseria amazonica Rapp Py-Daniel 1985. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonica, Loricaria Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:46, Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9560. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:74 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Loricariichthys maculatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Isbrücker 1980:127 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:339 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Loricariichthys maculatus (Bloch 1794). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonum, Acestra Günther [A.] 1864:261 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Amazon River at Santarém, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1856.3.25.22. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155]. The correct spelling of this species is amazonum, a noun that does not decline (see note under Curimatus amazonum). •Valid as Farlowella amazona (Günther 1864) -- (Isbrücker 1980:97 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:69 [ref. 23176], Britski et al. 1999:128 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:25, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27366], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155], Ballen & Mojica 2014:140 [ref. 33176], Ballen et al. 2016:[6] [ref. 34813], Ballen et al. 2016:332 [ref. 34915], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633]). •Valid as Farlowella amazonum (Günther 1864) -- (Azpelicueta & Koerber 2014:97 [ref. 33832] the correct spelling, Marajó et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36366] as "cf. amazonum", Terán et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36818]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella amazonum (Günther 1864). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon and Tocantins River basins: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonum, Loricaria apeltogaster var. Delsman [N. C.] 1941:80 [Mémoires du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique (Ser. 2) No. 21; ref. 13171] Rio Trombetas near Obidos, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 546 [not 294]. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:21 [ref. 20755], Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155]. The correct spelling of this species is amazonum, a noun that does not decline (see note under Curimatus amazonum). •Valid as Pseudohemiodon amazonum (Delsman 1941) -- (Isbrücker 1980:121 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178] as amazonus, Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:340 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155] as amazonus). Current status: Valid as Pseudohemiodon amazonum (Delsman 1941). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lower Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ambrosettii, Liposarcus Holmberg [E. L.] 1893:354 [Revista del Jardin Zoológico de Buenos Ayres v. 1 (no. 12); ref. 26086] Río Paraguay, in front of Formosa. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. Incorrectly treated as a forgotten name by some authors. •Valid as Liposarcus ambrosettii Holmberg 1893 -- (Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178]). •Nomen oblitum (forgotten name) in synonymy of Liposarcus anisitsi (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903) -- (Weber 1992:28 [ref. 19714], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:365 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii (Holmberg 1893) -- (Isbrücker 1980:40 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:38 [ref. 23548], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:26 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:43 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:63 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii (Holmberg 1893). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraguay, middle Paraná, Bermejo, and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

ammophilus, Aphanotorulus Armbruster [J. W.] & Page [L. M.] 1996:385, Figs. 2, 3c, 4 [Copeia 1996 (no. 2); ref. 22151] Río San Carlos, River Portuguesa drainage at Caño Hondo, 9°31'51"N, 68°39'39"W, Cojedes State, Venezuela. Holotype: INHS 32035. Paratypes: ANSP 173089 [ex INHS 34784] (2); FMNH 105064 [ex INHS 29001] (2); INHS 29001 (1 c&s), 34738 (2), 34784 (31); MBUCV-V-26460 [ex INHS 34738] (1); MCNG 27678 (2); SIUC 23936 [ex INHS 34738] (1); TU 173803 [ex INHS 34784] (3); UAIC 11126.01 [ex INHS 34738] (1); USNM 335171 [ex INHS 34738] (2). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:270-271 [ref. 23225], Provenzano et al. 1998:3 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:225 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus ammophilus (Armbruster & Page 1996) -- (Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], DoNascimiento 2016:533 [ref. 34727]). •Valid as Aphanotorulus ammophilus Armbruster & Page 1996 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Armbruster 1998:254 [ref. 23319], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:351 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:225 [ref. 29155], Ray & Armbruster 2016:508 [ref. 34178], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:76 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Aphanotorulus ammophilus Armbruster & Page 1996. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

analis, Hypocolpterus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:261, Figs. 56-59 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Río Orteguasa, Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70525. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypocolpterus analis Fowler 1943 -- (Isbrücker 1980:59 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Chaetostoma analis (Fowler 1943) -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653]). •Valid as Chaetostoma anale (Fowler 1943) -- (Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:379 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155], Ballen 2011:395 [ref. 31653], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma anale (Fowler 1943). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orteguasa River basin in upper Japurá River drainage, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

ancistroides, Plecostomus Ihering [R. von] 1911:396 [Revista do Museo São Paulo v. 8 (1910); ref. 14822] Rio Tatuhy and Rio Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Syntypes: DZSASP [now MZUSP] (not found). Type catalog: Britski 1969:200 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering 1911) -- (Isbrücker 1980:19 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Casatti et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25929], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:355 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Oyakawa et al. 2005:10 [ref. 28322], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2010:724 [ref. 31074], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228], Zawadzki et al. 2014:102 [ref. 33233], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617], Cardoso et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34373], Zawadzki et al. 2016:271 [ref. 34908], Zawadzki et al. 2017:570 [ref. 35666], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering 1911). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Tietê River basin, and Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

andersoni, Corymbophanes Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:5 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Aruataima Falls, Upper Potaro River, Guyana, 5°00'05'N, 59°37'33"W. Holotype (unique): FMNH 52675 [ex CM 1001]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:83 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:28 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:232 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Corymbophanes andersoni Eigenmann 1909 -- (Isbrücker 1980:14 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Armbruster et al. 2000:1001 [ref. 25018], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:352 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:232 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Corymbophanes andersoni Eigenmann 1909. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Essequibo River drainage, upper Potaro River, upstream of Kaieteur Falls, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

angipinnatus, Plecostomus Leege [C. O.] 1922:152, Pls. 9 (figs. 1-3), 10 (figs 2-3) [Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft v. 58; ref. 15350] Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): Lost. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155]. Original not seen. •Valid as Hypostomus angipinnatus (Leege 1922) -- (Isbrücker 1980:19 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2010:719 [ref. 31074]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus angipinnatus (Leege 1922). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: La Plata River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

angosturae, Farlowella Martín Salazar [F. J.] 1964:251, Fig. 3 [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 24 (no. 69); ref. 9227] Large creek west of Cuidad Bolívar, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-11939 [not MHNLS, ex AFY 49497]. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-11945 [ex AFY 49478] (1), V-11946 [ex AFY 49478] (1). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:45 [ref. 23639], Provenzano et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella angosturae Martín Salazar 1964 -- (Isbrücker 1980:97 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Farlowella vittata Myers 1942 -- (Retzer & Page 1997:64 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:334 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Farlowella vittata Myers 1942. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

angulicauda, Plecostomus Steindachner [F.] 1877:672 [114], Pl. 12 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Mucuri at Santa Clara; Rio Parahyba, southeastern Brazil. Lectotype: NMW ADD. Paralectotypes: (several) NMW 44069-70 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155]. On p. 114 of separate. Lectotype selected by Reis et al. 2006:288 [ref. 28706]. •Valid as Delturus angulicauda (Steindachner 1877) -- (Isbrücker 1980:9 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:352 [ref. 27061], Reis et al. 2006:288 [ref. 28706], Ferraris 2007:234 [ref. 29155], Ferraris 2007:444 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Delturus angulicauda (Steindachner 1877). Loricariidae: Delturinae. Distribution: Mucuri River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

anhaguapitan, Rineloricaria Ghazzi [M. S.] 2008:106, Fig. 4 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) v. 98 (no. 1); ref. 29636] Coxilha, rio Butiá na Granja, Tagliari, afluente do rio Passo Fundo, entre Rios, ca 28°05;'S, 52°28'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 21070. Paratypes: many at MCP. •Valid as Rineloricaria anhaguapitan Ghazzi 2008 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria anhaguapitan Ghazzi 2008. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Tributaries of the Passo Fundo River, upper Uruguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

anisitsi, Pterygoplichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:503 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] Laguna of Río Paraguay at Asuncion, Paraguay. Holotype: IU 9873. Paratypes: AMNH 1490 [ex IU 9874] (1), IU 9875 (orig. 1), FMNH 52563 [?ex IU 9875] (1); ZMB 16886 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:72 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Liposarcus anisitsi (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903) -- (Weber 1991:642 [ref. 19114], Weber 1992:13, 28 [ref. 19714], Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Britski et al. 1999:135 [ref. 24147], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:365 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:52 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131]). •Synonym of Liposarcus ambrosettii Holmberg 1893 -- (Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Isbrücker 1980:40 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:39 [ref. 23548], Gómez & Chebez 1996:64 [ref. 23791], Nelson et al. 2004:83 [ref. 27807], Armbruster & Page 2006:403 [ref. 28898], Scharpf 2006:20 [ref. 30386], Koerber 2011:5 [ref. 31122], Page & Burr 2011:371 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708], Koerber 2014:10 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565]). •Synonym of Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii (Holmberg 1893) -- (Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:43 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:63 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii (Holmberg 1893). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Native to South America; established in Texas, U.S.A. [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

anitae, Rineloricaria Ghazzi [M. S.] 2008:105, Fig. 3 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) v. 98 (no. 1); ref. 29636] Campos Novos, rio Canoas entre Vargem Grande e São José do Cerrito, 27°33'S, 50°53'W, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 19685. Paratypes: MCP 12342 (4), 12764 (1). •Valid as Rineloricaria anitae Ghazzi 2008 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria anitae Ghazzi 2008. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Tributaries of the Canoas River, Uruguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

annae, Plecostomus Steindachner [F.] 1881:112 [12], Pl. 3 (figs. 2-2a) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 43; ref. 14290] Guamá River basin, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 44073. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155]. On p. 12 of separate. Mistakenly listed as Chaetostomus annae in figure caption (p. 146 [46]). •Valid as Hypostomus annae (Steindachner 1881) -- (Isbrücker 1980:19 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] dated 1882). •Valid as Squaliforma annae (Steindachner 1881) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:22 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:31, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:367 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Aphanotorulus emarginatus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Ray & Armbruster 2016:512 [ref. 34178]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanotorulus emarginatus (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Guamá River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

annectens, Ancistrus Regan [C. T.] 1904:225, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] St. Javier and Río Durango, northwestern Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1902.5.27.49 (1), 2005.9.20.1 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:242 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus annectens (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:49 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:385 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:53 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:242 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:224 [ref. 34894]). •Valid as Hypostomus annectens (Regan 1940) -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], Provenzano & Barriga Salazar 2017:228 [ref. 35332], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus annectens (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Pacific coastal rivers of Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

anomalus, Chaetostomus Regan [C. T.] 1903:599 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 11 (no. 66) (art. 79); ref. 15041] Merida; Río Albrieggas and Río Milla, Venezuela, elevation 1500-3500 meters. Syntypes: (many) BMNH 1903.4.28.31-34 (4), 1903.6.30.91-101 (9); USNM 133135 [ex BMNH 1903.6.30.91-102] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:26 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma anomalum Regan 1903 -- (Isbrücker 1980:59 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:73 [ref. 23651] as anomala, Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:379 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Lujan & Armbruster 2011:224 [ref. 31416], Ballen 2011:388 [ref. 31653], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], Ballen et al. 2016:195 [ref. 34396], Provenzano et al. 2017:264 [ref. 35613], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma anomalum Regan 1903. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

anosteos, Gymnotocinclus Carvalho [T. P.], Lehmann A. [P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2008:330, Figs. 1-9 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29839] Alto Paraíso de Goiás, ribeirão das Cobras, near to road GO-239, tributary to rioTocantinzinho, rio Tocantins basin, 14°09'43"S, 47°37'57"W, Goiãs State, Brazil. Holotype: MCN 18642. Paratypes: ANSP 187156 (5); MCN 13154 (7), 13155 (6), 13538 (1), 13543 (12); MCP 42726 (5 + 2 c&s). •Valid as Gymnotocinclus anosteos Carvalho, Lehmann A. & Reis 2008 -- (Martins & Langeani 2011:66 [ref. 31235], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310], Silva et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36151]). •Valid as Corumbataia anosteops (Carvalho, Lehmann A. & Reis 2008) -- (Roxo et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36538]). Current status: Valid as Corumbataia anosteos (Carvalho, Lehmann A. & Reis 2008). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Tributaries of Tocantinzinho, Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

anthrax, Lasiancistrus Armbruster [J. W.] & Provenzano [F.] 2000:243, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 11 (no. 3); ref. 25069] Río Orinoco backwater behind sand beach about 0.5 hr upstream from Isla Temblador, 3°04'N, 66°28'W, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV V-18384. Paratypes: ANSP 162161 (2), 162175 (3); AUM 28354 (1); MBUCV V-17545 (2), V-17562 (1), V-23104 (4); FMNH 106026 (2), 106028 (3); USNM 355199 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudolithoxus anthrax (Armbruster & Provenzano 2000) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:21 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:394 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155], Lujan & Birindelli 2011:39 [ref. 31408], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633], Collins et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35943]). Current status: Valid as Pseudolithoxus anthrax (Armbruster & Provenzano 2000). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

anus, Loricaria Valenciennes [A.] 1835:Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Río de la Plata near Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9456 (396 mm SL) or A-9455. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:74 [ref. 19575] with syntypes, Ferraris 2007:269 [ref. 29155]. Name available from plate, figure caption in Valenciennes 1847:8 [ref. 5010]. Pl. 6 was published in 1835. Description appeared in Valenciennes 1840:470 [ref. 1008]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302], but technically the figured specimen is the unique holotype if identifiable. •Valid as Loricariichthys anus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Isbrücker 1980:125 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Malabarba 1989:154 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:62 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:68 [ref. 27632] dated 1840, Reis & Pereira 2000:1033 [ref. 25021], Isbrücker 2001:29, 20 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:338 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:269 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:26 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:45 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565] dated 1836). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys anus (Valenciennes 1835). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Coastal rivers of southern Brazil, Uruguay, and lower Paraná River basins: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

apeltogaster, Loricaria Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:528 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1895 (pt 3); ref. 14576] Paraguay (no specific locality). Lectotype: BMNH 1895.5.17.105. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.17.106-108 (3). Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:110 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Loricaria apeltogaster Boulenger 1895 -- (Isbrücker 1980:115 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:83 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1998:132 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27366], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:339 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:47 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:142 [ref. 28787], Thomas & Sabaj Pérez 2010:278 [ref. 30831], Rodriguez et al. 2012:54 [ref. 31866], Thomas et al. 2013:375 [ref. 32997], Litz & Koerber 2014:26 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:44 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Loricaria apeltogaster Boulenger 1895. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Uruguay, Paraná and Paraguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

apithanos, Pseudohemiodon Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1978:195, Figs. 6-8 [Beaufortia v. 27 (no. 339); ref. 2306] Río Conejo, tributary of Río San Miguel, vicinity of Santa Cecilia, 0°06'N, 76°51'W, Napo Province, Ecuador. Holotype: ANSP 134370. Paratypes: ANSP 130592 (now 2), 130593 (3), ZMA 114692 [ex ANSP 130592] (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:61 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudohemiodon apithanos Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978 -- (Isbrücker 1980:121 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:340 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155], Rojas-Molina et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36866]). Current status: Valid as Pseudohemiodon apithanos Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: San Miquel River basin, western Amazon River drainage, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

apocremnus, Eurycheilichthys Reis [R. E.] 2017:[9], Figs. 2c, 8 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 35226] Creek tributary to rio Fão, rio Taquari basin, ca. 7 km north of Barros Cassal, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 29°03'09"S, 52°34'50"W, elevation above 400 meters. Holotype: MCP 40660. Paratypes: AMNH, MCP, MZUSP. •Valid as Eurycheilichthys apocremnus Reis 2017. Current status: Valid as Eurycheilichthys apocremnus Reis 2017. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Forqueta, Rio Taquari basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

arachas, Microlepidogaster Martins [F. de O.], Calegari [B. B.] & Langeani [F.] 2013:380, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 3608 (no. 5); ref. 32415] Stream at Sacramento Municipality, tributary to rio Araguari at road from Sacramento to Araxá, rio Paranaíba drainage, upper rio Paraná basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 19°49'11"S, 47°16'0"W. Holotype: DZSJRP 2999. Paratypes: Many at AMNH, DZSJRP, LBP, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:448 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Microlepidogaster arachas Martins, Calegari & Langeani 2013 -- (Martins et al. 2014:560 [ref. 33544], Calegari et al. 2014:220 [ref. 33627], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310], Martins et al. 2017:242 [ref. 35356]). •Valid as Rhinolekos arachas (Martins, Calegari & Langeani 2013) -- (Roxo et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36538]). Current status: Valid as Rhinolekos arachas (Martins, Calegari & Langeani 2013). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Paranaíba drainage, upper rio Paraná basin. Habitat: freshwater.

arandai, Parotocinclus Sarmento-Soares [L. M.], Lehmann A. [P.] & Martins-Pinheiro [R. F.] 2009:192, Fig. 1, 2a, 3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 30254] Córrego Bananeiras on road Geribá-Palmópolis, 16°44'48"S, 40°25'46"W, Palmópolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 28296. Paratypes: (239) at AMNH, ANSP, AUM, MBML, MCP, MNRJ, UF. Sarmento-Soares et al. 2009:196 [ref. 30254] •Valid as Parotocinclus arandai Sarmento-Soares, Lehmann A. & Martins-Pinheiro 2009 -- (Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:61 [ref. 32074], Lehmann A. et al. 2013:436 [ref. 32919], Ramos et al. 2013:788 [ref. 33028]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus arandai Sarmento-Soares, Lehmann A. & Martins-Pinheiro 2009. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Tributaries of middle and upper rio Jucuruçu and upper rio Buranhém, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

arecuta, Hypostomus Cardoso [Y. P.], Almirón [A. E.], Casciotta [J. R.], Aichino [D.], Lizarralde [M. S.] & Montoya-Burgos [J. I.] 2012:77, Fig. 3 [Zootaxa No. 3453; ref. 32154] Paraná River, 27°29'54.5'S, 56°42'47.0"W, Ituzaingó, Corrientes Province, Argentina. Holotype: MACN-Ict 9677. Paratypes: MACN-Ict 9678 (2), 9679 (9), 9680 (2). •Valid as Hypostomus arecuta Cardoso, Almirón, Casciotta, Aichino, Lizarralde & Montoya-Burgos 2012 -- (Koerber 2014:9 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Cardoso et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34373]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus arecuta Cardoso, Almirón, Casciotta, Aichino, Lizarralde & Montoya-Burgos 2012. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraná River, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

arenarius, Hemiancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:185, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Yurimaguas, Peru. Holotype: CAS 77323 [ex IU 15356]. Paratypes: CAS 77324-26 [ex IU 15356-58] (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155]. See Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:392 [ref. 27061] fro more detailied type locality information. •Valid as Sophiancistrus arenarius (Eigenmann & Allen 1942) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:22 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Peckoltia arenaria (Eigenmann & Allen 1942) -- (Isbrücker 1980:55 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:392 [ref. 27061], Armbruster & Werneke 2005:12 [ref. 28101], Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Peckoltia bachi (Boulenger 1898) -- (Armbruster 2008:7 [ref. 29740]). •Synonym of Peckoltichthys bachi (Boulenger 1898) -- (Armbruster 2015:99 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Synonym of Peckoltichthys bachi (Boulenger 1898). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

argus, Plecostomus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:249, Figs. 28-31 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Villavicencio, Río Meta basin, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70510. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus argus (Fowler 1943) -- (Isbrücker 1980:19 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:76 [ref. 35773] see remarks). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus argus (Fowler 1943). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Meta River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

aripuanensis, Parotocinclus Garavello [J. C.] 1988:122, Fig. 3 [Naturalia (São Paulo) v. 13; ref. 6853] Ingazeiro, 20 kilometers upstream of Boca do Rio Canumã, Aripuanã, MT, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 36899. Paratypes: MZUSP 36900-06 (7). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:281 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus aripuanensis Garavello 1988 -- (Schaefer & Provenzano 1993:50 [ref. 20828], Lacerda & Evers 1996:88 [ref. 22351], Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:281 [ref. 29155], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:61 [ref. 32074], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus aripuanensis Garavello 1988. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Aripuanã River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

armatus, Hisonotus Carvalho [T. P.], Lehmann A. [P.], Pereira [E. H. L.] & Reis [R. E.] 2008:510, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2008 (no. 3); ref. 29799] Pedro Osório, Arroio Arambaré, about 5 kilometers south of Vila Basílio, on road to Pedro Osório, 31°54'34"S, 53°01'39"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 41323. Paratypes: ANSP 187116 (5); MCP 25138 (12, 3c&s), 34776 (31), 37682 (17, 4 c&s); MZUSP 93884 (5). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hisonotus armatus Carvalho, Lehmann A., Pereira & Reis 2008 -- (Garvalho & Reis 2011:23 [ref. 31240], Koerber & Litz 2014:4 [ref. 34967], Roxo et al. 2015:137 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:379 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:5 [ref. 35098], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900], Dias et al. 2018:583 [ref. 36235]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus armatus Carvalho, Lehmann A., Pereira & Reis 2008. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos system, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

armbrusteri, Panaque Lujan [N. K.], Hidalgo [M. H.] & Stewart [D. J.] 2010:677, Figs. 1-2, 4-5 [Copeia 2010 (no. 4); ref. 31098] Tapajós River drainage, Teles Pires River, near the highway MT-416 ferry, 9°27'07"S, 56°30'46"W, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 95465. Paratypes: many at ANSP, AUM, MZUSP •Valid as Panaque armbrusteri Lujan, Hidalgo & Stewart 2010 -- (Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015:470 [ref. 33945], Lujan et al. 2017:331 [ref. 35031] as cf. armbrusteri). Current status: Valid as Panaque armbrusteri Lujan, Hidalgo & Stewart 2010. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tapajós River drainage, Brazil; plus potentially conspecific populations in Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

arnoldi, Otocinclus Regan [C. T.] 1909:234 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 3 (no. 14); ref. 14416] "La Plata" [?Rio de la Plata], South America. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.12.5.13. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Macrotocinclus flexilis (Cope 1894) -- (Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Otocinclus flexilis Cope 1894 -- (Aquino 1996:13 [ref. 22664], Schaefer 1997:49 [ref. 23213], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:324 [ref. 27061], Carvalho & Reis 2009:2 [ref. 30193]). •Valid as Otocinclus arnoldi Regan 1909 -- (Isbrücker 1980:81 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Lehmann A. et al. 2010:60 [ref. 30756], Koerber 2011:5 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:24 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:40 [ref. 35117], Ribeiro & Lehmann A. 2016:240 [ref. 34636], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus arnoldi Regan 1909. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Tributaries of the lower Paraná River drainage, rio Uruguai and río de La Plata, South America. Habitat: freshwater.

aspera, Rhinelepis Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:4, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-2) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rio São Francisco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): destroyed in World War II. Type information: Isbrücker 1980:7 [ref. 2303]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:293 [ref. 29155]. Name first published in Cuvier 1829 [ref. 995]. •Valid as Rhinelepis aspera Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Isbrücker 1980:7 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:43 [ref. 23548], Pérez & Viloria 1994:106 [ref. 22094], Gómez & Chebez 1996:63 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1998:134 [ref. 24147], Sverlij et al. 1998:70 [ref. 27632], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Quevedo & Reis 2002:409 [ref. 26014], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:367 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:293 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:44 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Rhinelepis aspera Spix & Agassiz 1829. Loricariidae: Rhinelepinae. Distribution: São Francisco and upper Paraná river basins: Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

asperatus, Hypostomus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:41, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio Araguay, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4601 (1), A-9442 (1, mounted). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:71 [ref. 19575] with A.9442 as holotype, Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155] with a holotype. •Valid as Hypostomus asperatus Castelnau 1855 -- (Isbrücker 1980:19 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061] with a holotype, Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32701]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus asperatus Castelnau 1855. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aspidolepis, Chaetostomus Günther [A.] 1867:603 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Veragua, Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.11.5.1 (skin). Type information and comments: Isbrücker 1980:49 [ref. 2303]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:242 [ref. 29155]. Described in more detail in Günther 1868:477 [ref. 1994]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Hemiancistrus aspidolepis (Günther 1867) -- (Isbrücker 1980:49 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:385 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:242 [ref. 29155], Angulo et al. 2013:994 [ref. 33194]). •Valid as Hypostomus aspidolepis (Günther 1867) -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], Lujan et al. 2015:664 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus aspidolepis (Günther 1867). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Gatun River basin, Caribbean coastal drainage, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

aspilogaster, Plecostomus Cope [E. D.] 1894:100, Pl. 7 [8] (figs. 14, 14a) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Jacuhy, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ANSP 21781. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21782-84 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155]. Intended Pl. 7 was reversed with Pl. 8. Lectotype selected by Reis et al. 1990:733 [ref. 16139]. •Valid as Hypostomus aspilogaster (Cope 1894) -- (Isbrücker 1980:19 [ref. 2303], Malabarba 1989:151 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Reis et al. 1990:733 [ref. 16139], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Cardoso et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34373], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Zawadzki et al. 2016:271 [ref. 34908], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565], Zawadzki et al. 2017:570 [ref. 35666], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus aspilogaster (Cope 1894). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin and Laguna dos Patos drainage, Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

asurini, Pseudancistrus Silva [G. S. C.], Roxo [F. F.] & Oliveira [C.] 2015:27, Figs. 3-4 [ZooKeys No. 482; ref. 33679] Pará State, municipality of Altamira: rio Xingú (Amazon basin), Cachoeira do Espelho, Brazil, 3°39'05"S, 52°22'42"W. Holotype: MZUSP 116323. Paratypes: AUM, LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Pseudancistrus asurini Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2015. Current status: Valid as Pseudancistrus asurini Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2015. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Xingú basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

atratoensis, Pseudancistrus Dahl [G.] 1960:455, Figs. [Caldasia v. 8 (no. 39); ref. 9310] Quebrada La Noche, tributary to upper Río Atrato, Departmento de Antioquiá, Riosucio, western Colombia, elevation about 550 meters. Holotype: ICNMHN 51. Paratypes: (42) ICNMHN 46 (42), 74 (1). Type catalog: Cala 1981:3-4 [ref. 23525], Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:34 [ref. 36127]. Original as atratoênsis. •Valid as Dolichancistrus atratoensis (Dahl 1960) -- (Isbrücker 1980:47 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:384 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155], Ballen & Vari 2012:504 [ref. 32204], Lujan et al. 2015:667 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Dolichancistrus atratoensis (Dahl 1960). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Atrato River basin, Colombia and río Cubarradó in western Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

atratoensis, Spatuloricaria Schultz [L. P.] 1944:155 [Copeia 1944 (no. 3); ref. 10149] Río Truando, tributary of Río Atrato, Colombia. Holotype (unique): USNM 93810. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:31 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Spatuloricaria atratoensis Schultz 1944 -- (Isbrücker 1980:112 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:344 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27366], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155], Fichberg et al. 2014:322 [ref. 33358], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633], Londoño-Burbano et al. 2018:619 [ref. 36263]). Current status: Valid as Spatuloricaria atratoensis Schultz 1944. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Atrato River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

atropinnis, Plecostomus lima Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1890:410 [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 1; ref. 12251] Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 27265 [ex MCZ 7871a]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155]. Description is in key on p. 399. •Valid as Hypostomus atropinnis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890) -- (Isbrücker 1980:20 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32701]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus atropinnis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aurantiacus, Hypostomus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:43, Pl. 21 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Río Ucayali, Peru. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9452 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:14 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155]. Name spelled aurentiacus on figure caption. Eschmeyer et al 1998:165 acted as first reviser selecting H. aurantiacus over H. aurentiacus. •Valid as Parancistrus aurantiacus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Isbrücker 1980:58 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Rapp Py-Daniel 1989:239 [ref. 13470], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:392 [ref. 27061], Rapp Py-Daniel & Zuanon 2005:571 [ref. 28565], Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2009:53 [ref. 30056]). Current status: Valid as Parancistrus aurantiacus (Castelnau 1855). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Ucayali, Tocantins and Xingú rivers: Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

aurata, Hemiloricaria Knaack [J.] 2002:56, Figs. [Aquaristik aktuell (Germany) 1/2002; ref. 27493] Mouth of a small branch of Rio Aquidaban, stretch Loreto - San Carlos, at the border to Brazil, Depto. de Concepcion, Paraguray, 23°03.693'S, 57°23.572'W. Holotype: ZMA 123591 or 123592. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria aurata Knaack 2003 -- (Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155] dated 2002). •Valid as Rineloricaria aurata (Knaack 2002) -- (Vera-Alcaraz et al. 2012:288 [ref. 32034], Koerber et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria aurata (Knaack 2002). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

aurea, Loricaria Steindachner [F.] 1900:206 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 37 (no. 18) (for 12 July 1900); ref. 14771] Río Magdalena at Bodega Central, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:276 [ref. 28925], Ferraris 2007:298 [ref. 29155] Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1902:138, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-1a) [ref. 10435]. •Valid as Sturisoma aureum (Steindachner 1900) -- (Isbrücker 1980:93 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:298-299 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Sturisomatichthys aureus (Steindachner 1900) -- (Covain et al. 2015:514 [23] [ref. 34066], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Sturisomatichthys aureus (Steindachner 1900). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Magdalena, San Jorge and Cesar River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

aureatus, Scobinancistrus Burgess [W. E.] 1994:237, Figs. 1-6 (unnumbered) [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 21427] Ilha da Fazenda, Rio Xingú, Estado Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 47690. Paratypes: AMNH 217762 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Panaque aureatus (Burgess 1994) -- (Armbruster 2004:53 [ref. 27644] based on status of genus). •Valid as Scobinancistrus aureatus Burgess 1994 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:168 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:395 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Scobinancistrus aureatus Burgess 1994. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Xingú River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

auroguttatus, Hypostomus Kner [R.] (ex Natterer & Heckel) 1854:269 [19], Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] Locality unknown. Syntypes: (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155]. On p. 19 of separate. •Valid as Hypostomus auroguttatus Kner 1854 -- (Isbrücker 1980:20 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:63 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1998:135 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27366], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] with Natterer & Heckel as authors, Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Koerber 2014:10 [ref. 33621] not in Argentina, Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus auroguttatus Kner 1854. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Paraná River drainage: Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

avacanoeiro, Lamontichthys de Carvalho Paixão [A.] & Toledo-Piza [M.] 2009:525, Fig. 8 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 30675] Rio Tocantins, pools below U.H.E. Serra da Mesa, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 32795. Paratypes: (21, listed as 22) MNRJ 18553 (8, 1 c&s); MZUSP 54090 (2), 61974 (5 + 1 c&s), 79750 (5). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Lamontichthys avacanoeiro de Carvalho Paixão & Toledo-Piza 2009. Current status: Valid as Lamontichthys avacanoeiro de Carvalho Paixão & Toledo-Piza 2009. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

azpelicuetae, Farlowella Terán [G. E.], Ballen [G. A.], Alonso [F.], Aguilera [G.] & Mirande [J. M.] 2019:2, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 36818] Bermejo River, La Plata River basin, Salta, Argentina, 23°10ʹ56ʺS, 64°12ʹ18.36ʺW, elevation about 300 meters. Holotype: CI-FML 7277. Paratypes: CFA-IC, CI-FML, IBIGEO, MZUSP. •Valid as Farlowella azpelicuetae Terán, Ballen, Alonso, Aguilera & Mirande 2019. Current status: Valid as Farlowella azpelicuetae Terán, Ballen, Alonso, Aguilera & Mirande 2019. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Bermejo River drainage, La Plata River basin, Salta and Jujuy provinces, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

azygia, Farlowella Eigenmann [C. H.] & Vance [L.] 1917:299, Pl. 29 (figs. 1-2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 11 (nos 1-2) (art. 4); ref. 15090] Santarém, Brazil. Holotype (unique): FMNH 55091 [ex CM 3782]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:83 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:36 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella azygia Eigenmann & Vance 1917 -- (Isbrücker 1980:97 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910 -- (Retzer & Page 1997:56 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

azygolechis, Hemipsilichthys Pereira [E. H. L.] & Reis [R. E.] 2002:129, Fig. 20 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 26071] Rio Araraquara about 8 kilometers north of Garuva, 25°57'58"S, 48°49'43"W, Guaratuba, Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 19670. Paratypes: ANSP 173795 (3); MCP 18409 (3), 19781 (3), 21663 (7). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemipsilichthys azygolechis Pereira & Reis 2002 -- (Pereira et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27068], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:353 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pareiorhaphis azygolechis (Pereira & Reis 2002) -- (Periera 2005:272 [ref. 28273], Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Pereira et al. 2012:539 [ref. 32218], Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis azygolechis (Pereira & Reis 2002). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: São João River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bachi, Chaetostomus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:425, Pl. 41 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 14 (pt 7, no. 2); ref. 543] Rio Juruá, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1897.12.1.61. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Peckoltia bachi (Boulenger 1898) -- (Isbrücker 1980:55 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:392 [ref. 27061], Armbruster & Werneke 2005:12 [ref. 28101], Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155], Armbruster 2008:7 [ref. 29740], Zawadzki et al. 2010:724 [ref. 31074], de Oliveira et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30929], Fisch-Muller et al. 2012:189 [ref. 31970], de Oliveira et al. 2012:548 [ref. 32202], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004]). •Valid as Peckoltichthys bachi (Boulenger 1898) -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltichthys bachi (Boulenger 1898). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River and its tributaries: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

bahianus, Corymbophanes Gosline [W. A.] 1947:107, Pl. 3 (figs. 5-6) [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 41; ref. 1857] Fazenda Almada, Ilhus [Ilheus], Bahia State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 4243. Paratypes: MNRJ 4244-45 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155]. Combined with a genus of feminine gender, the correct adjective is bahiana. •Valid as Corymbophanes bahianus Gosline 1947 -- (Isbrücker 1980:14 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Hemipsilichthys bahianus (Gosline 1947) -- (Armbruster et al. 2000:997 [ref. 25018], Isbrücker 2001:26, 28 [ref. 25653], Pereira & Reis 2002:113 [ref. 26071], Pereira et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27068], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:353 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pareiorhaphis bahiana (Gosline 1947) (often seen as bahianus) -- (Pereira 2005:272 [ref. 28273], Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155], Pereira et al. 2012:539 [ref. 32218], Pereiro & Zanata 2014:36 [ref. 33226], Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis bahiana (Gosline 1947). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Small drainages near Ilhéus, between Pado and Contas River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bahiensis, Microlepidogaster Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:635 [7] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] Rio Itapicuru, on Federal highway BR 407, 8 kilometers north of Senhor do Bonfim to Juazeiro, Bahia State, Brazil, 40°11'01"S, 10°24'49"W. Neotype: MZUSP 99753. Syntypes: (2) MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 1071 (not found). Type catalog: Britski 1969:200 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:281 [ref. 29155]. On p. 7 of separate. Original as Microlepidogaster (?) bahiensis. Neotype designated by Britski & Garavello 2009:61 [ref. 30260]. •Valid as Parotocinclus bahiensis (Miranda Riberio 1918) -- (Garavello 1977:18 [ref. 7249], Isbrücker 1980:79 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Lacerda & Evers 1996:88 [ref. 22351], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:281 [ref. 29155], Sarmento-Soares et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30254], Britski & Garavello 2009:61 [ref. 30260], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:61 [ref. 32074], Lehmann A. et al. 2013:436 [ref. 32919], Ramos et al. 2013:788 [ref. 33028], Lehmann A. et al. 2014:32 [ref. 33225], Roxo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34921] as cf. bahiensis). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus bahiensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1918). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Itapicuru drainage, Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bahuaja, Crossoloricaria Chang [F.] & Castro [E.] 1999:83, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 23673] Río Tambopata, 12°47'05"S, 69°18'55"W, Tambopata Province, Departamento Madre de Dios, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 9916. Paratypes: MHNG 2593.97 (1); MUSM 2441 (1), 8089 (1), 8161 (1), 8393 (1), 9221 (1), 9412 (1), 9481 (1), 9574 (4), 9900 (2), 10095 (1 c&s), 10544 (1), 10645 (1 c&s); ZMA 121709 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:232 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Crossoloricaria bahuaja Chand & Castro 1999 -- (Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:331 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:232 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004]). •Valid as Rhadinoloricaria bahuaja (Chang & Castro 1999) -- (Covain et al. 2015:515 [24] [ref. 34066]). Current status: Valid as Rhadinoloricaria bahuaja (Chang & Castro 1999). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Madre de Dios River basin in Peru, Grande River in Bolivia and Manuripe River in Pando: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

baileyi, Hypoptopoma Aquino [A. E.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 2010:23, Fig. 18 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History No. 336; ref. 30875] Backwater, Rio Itenez, 10 kilometers southeast of Casta Marques, Beni, Bolivia. Holotype: AMNH 39828. Paratypes: AMNH 243579 (89).; UMMZ 205171 (107, 6 c&s). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hypoptopoma baileyi Aquino & Schaefer 2010 -- (Sarmiento et al. 2014:162, 191 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Hypoptopoma baileyi Aquino & Schaefer 2010. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Río Iténiz, upper Rio Madeira basin, on border between Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

baliola, Rineloricaria Rodriguez [M. S.] & Reis [R. E.] 2008:344, Fig. 11 [Copeia 2008 (no. 2); ref. 29630] Fortaleza dos Valos, creek tributary to Ro Ingaí about 300 meters southwest of Fazenda Colorados, 28°54'29"S, 53°17'08"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 39922. Paratypes: many at MAPA, MCP, MLP, MACN-Ict. Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:13 [ref. 33466], Loureiro et al. 2016:412 [ref. 35150] with a paratype. •Valid as Rineloricaria baliola Rodriguez & Reis 2008 -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:27 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria baliola Rodriguez & Reis 2008. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos drainage, southern Brazil, and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

bandeirante, Neoplecostomus Roxo [F. F.], Oliveira [C.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2012:4, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a, 4a-d [Zootaxa No. 3233; ref. 31839] Rio Paraitinguinha, Rio Tietê basin, 23°31'25"S, 43°53'22"W, municipality of Salesópolis, São Paulo state, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 110363. Paratypes: DZSJRP 14881 (2); LBP 2861(24), 3578 (2), 3921 (10), 4993 (3); MZUSP 59117 (2), 59118 (1), 59139 (1), 87141 (6); NUP 6103 (20). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:451 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Neoplecostomus bandeirante Roxo, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2012 -- (Roxo et al. 2014:124 [ref. 33492], Cherobim et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35001], Pereira & Reis 2017:73 [ref. 35307], Roxo et al. 2017:238 [ref. 35467], Silva et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36454]). Current status: Valid as Neoplecostomus bandeirante Roxo, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2012. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Paraitinguinha, Rio Tietê basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

barbarmatus, Dentectus Martín Salazar [F. J.], Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1982:130, Figs. 1-5 [Beaufortia v. 32 (no. 8); ref. 2900] Río Salinas, a tributary of the Río Pao Viejo, northeast of El Baul, 9°13'N, 68°07'W, Estado Cojedes, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-12780. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-12920 (2), V-12940 (1), V-12985 (6), V-13173 (1); ZMA 116638 (1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Dentectus barbarmatus Martín Salazar, Isbrücker & Nijssen 1982 -- (Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Dentectus barbarmatus Martín Salazar, Isbrücker & Nijssen 1982. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

barbata, Loricaria Kner [R.] 1853:87 [23], Pl. 5 (figs. 1-3) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 6; ref. 2627] Rio Cuiabá, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 46155. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]. On p. 23 of separate. •Valid as Sturisoma barbatum (Kner 1853) -- (Isbrücker 1980:93 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:63 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:129 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:44 [ref. 35117], Londoño-Burbano 2018:[13] [ref. 35813]). Current status: Valid as Sturisoma barbatum (Kner 1853). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Argentina and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

barbatus, Ancistrus Steindachner [F.] 1911:376 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 48 (no. 17) (for 6 July 1911); ref. 14817] Rio Tapajós at Vila Braga, Brazil. Appeared as "Ancistrus barbatus (C.V.) Reg." Apparently not the same as Hypostomus barbatus Valenciennes 1840. Name proposed invertently by Isbrücker 1980 according to Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:394 [ref. 27061]. •Valid as Pterygoplichthys barbatus (Steindachner 1911) -- (Isbrücker 1980:40 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860]). •In the synonymy of Pseudancistrus barbatus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:394 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudancistrus barbatus (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

barbatus, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:506 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] La Mana River, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9564. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:72 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudancistrus barbatus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:10 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:252 [ref. 24549], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:27 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:394 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:5 [ref. 27844], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155], De Chambrier & Montoya-Burgos 2008:52 [ref. 29881], Silva et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33302], Silva et al. 2015:21 [ref. 33679]). Current status: Valid as Pseudancistrus barbatus (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Oyapock, Mana, Maroni, Suriname, Corantijn and Essequibo River basins: French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

barrae, Ancistrus Steindachner [F.] 1910:58 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 47 (no. 8) (for 10 Mar. 1910); ref. 14813] Rio São Francisco near Barra, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 48019-20 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:272 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Megalancistrus barrae (Steindachner 1910) -- (Isbrücker 1980:52 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:390 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:272 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Megalancistrus barrae (Steindachner 1910). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

basilisko, Hypostomus Tencatt [L. F. C.], Zawadzki [C. H.] & Froehlich [O.] 2014:590, Figs. 3b, 4b, 5b, 6b,10-12 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 33520] Mato Grosso do Sul State, Bodoquena, córrego Salobrinha, rio Paraguay basin, 20°40’33"S, 56°46’34"W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 111110. Paratypes: Many at CPUFMP, FMNH, INPA, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP, NUP 5076, ZUFMS-PIS. •Valid as Hypostomus basilisko Tencatt, Zawadzki & Froehlich 2014 -- (Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus basilisko Tencatt, Zawadzki & Froehlich 2014. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Salobra basin, rio Paraguay basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bathyphilus, Panaque Lujan [N. K.] & Chamon [C. C.] 2008:275, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 19 (no. 3); ref. 29977] Solimões River, upstream of its confluence with Purus River, 3°39'52"S, 61°28'53"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP 56790. •Valid as Panaque bathyphilus Lujan & Chamon 2008 -- (Lujan et al. 2017:331 [ref. 35031]). Current status: Valid as Panaque bathyphilus Lujan & Chamon 2008. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Solimões River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

batmani, Otocinclus Lehmann A. [P.] 2006 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 28896] Small tributary stream of Río Puré, Río Japurá draingae, upper Amazonas basin, 2°07'05"S, 69°37'50"W, Amazonas, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN 6721. Paratypes: ANSP 178616 (4, 1 c&s); ICNMHN 6722 (1); MCP 28172 (1), 34087 (1 c&s); MHNUC 474 (1). Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:34 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Otocinclus batmani Lehmann A. 2006 -- (Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Ribeiro & Lehmann A. 2016:240 [ref. 34636], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus batmani Lehmann A. 2006. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

baudensis, Ancistrus Fowler [H. W.] 1945:122, Figs. 33-36 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 1454] Alto Río Baudó, Pacific slope of Colombia, elevation 3000 feet. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71709. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus baudensis Fowler 1945 -- (Isbrücker 1980:66 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Ancistrus centrolepis Regan 1913 -- (Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155], Taphorn et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32678]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus centrolepis Regan 1913. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

beggini, Baryancistrus Lujan [N. K.], Arce H. [M.] & Armbruster [J. W.] 2009:51, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2009 (no. 1); ref. 30056] Río Ventuari, 4°04'32"N, 66°53'34"W, Río Orinoco drainage, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 55351. Paratypes: ANSP 182806 (3); AUM 39227 (9), 39908 (4), 42108 (1), 42145 (5), 42173 (6), 42210 (134), FMNH 117454 (3); IAvHO 7045 (4); ICN 9913 (2); MCNG 55356 (3), Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Baryancistrus beggini Lujan, Arce H. & Armbruster 2009 -- (Rapp Py-Daniel et al. 2011:241[ref. 31383], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633], de Oliveira et al. 2019:490 [ref. 36981]). Current status: Valid as Baryancistrus beggini Lujan, Arce H. & Armbruster 2009. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River drainage, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

beni, Loricaria Pearson [N. E.] 1924:25, Pl. 5 (fig. 4) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Lake Rogoagua, Río Beni Basin, upper Amazon River basin, Bolivia. Holotype: CAS 28772 [ex IU 17016]. Paratypes: CAS 61029 [ex IU 17016] (now 1), UMMZ 66482 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]. Holotype established in caption to Pl. 5, type, no. 17016, 78 mm. •Valid as Hemiloricaria beni (Pearson 1924) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Knaack 2002:59 [ref. 27493], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria beni (Pearson 1924) -- (Isbrücker 1980:103 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria beni (Pearson 1924). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Beni River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

biamnicus, Otothyropsis Calegari [B. B.], Lehmann A. [P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2013:138, Figs. 3C-D, 6 [Zootaxa 3619 (no. 2); ref. 32493] Telêmaco Borba, ribeirão Harmonia, tributary to rio Tibagi basin, rio Paraná drainage, 24°18’19"S, 50°36’23"W, Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 47288. Paratypes: Many at IFRGS, MCP, •Valid as Otothyropsis biamnicus Calegari, Lehmann A. & Reis 2013 -- (Lippert et al. 2014:243 [ref. 33355], Calegari et al. 2017:244 [ref. 35203]). Current status: Valid as Otothyropsis biamnicus Calegari, Lehmann A. & Reis 2013. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Paraná Basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bianale, Hypoptopoma Aquino [A. E.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 2010:57, Fig. 31 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History No. 336; ref. 30875] Amazon River at 2 to 3 miles upstream from Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 105977. Paratypes: AMNH 243576 (2); FMNH 117745 (10, 2 c&s). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hypoptopoma bianale Aquino & Schaefer 2010 -- (Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypoptopoma bianale Aquino & Schaefer 2010. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

bicirrosus, Plecostomus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:158 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Tropical America [Suriname River]. Holotype or syntype illustrated. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:259 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Isbrücker 1980:30-31 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:361 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] top of p., Ferraris 2007:259 [ref. 29155], Weber et al. 2012:210 [ref. 31999]). Current status: Synonym of Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus 1758). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

bidentatus, Parotocinclus Gauger [M. F. W.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2005:512, Figs. 2, 5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28562] Rio Pirapetinga, Município de Resende, 22°28'08"S, 44°26'48"W, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 27962. Paratypes: AMNH 236543 (3); MNRJ 14217 (9, 1 c&s), 16011 (1), 17467 (1), 28225 (1), 28226 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus bidentatus Gauger & Buckup 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Sarmento-Soares et al. 2009:196 [ref. 30254], Britski & Garavello 2009:60 [ref. 30260], Lehmann A. et al. 2014:32 [ref. 33225], Ramos et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35268]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus bidentatus Gauger & Buckup 2005. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bifax, Guyanancistrus brevispinis Fisch-Muller [S.], Mol [J. H. A.] & Covain [R.] 2018:35, Figs. 8g-h, 9-10 [PLoS ONE v. 13 (no. 1) e0189789; ref. 35723] Crique Petit Laussat, right tributary of Mana River, French Guiana, 05˚24'28.6"N, 53˚34'53.6"W. Holotype: MNHN 2017-0448 [ex MHNG 2734.090]. Paratypes: MHNG, MNHN. Plus additional non-type material. •Synonym of Guyanancistrus brevispinis (Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983). Current status: Synonym of Guyanancistrus brevispinis (Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Maroni to the Mana and Sinnamary River basins, French Guiana (this subspecies). Habitat: freshwater.

bifurcum, Chaetostoma Lujan [N. K.], Meza-Vargas [V.], Astudillo-Clavijo [V.], Barriga Salazar [R. E.] & López-Fernández [H.] 2015:676, Fig. 7 [Copeia 103 (no. 3); ref. 33975] Santo Domingo de las Tsa´chilas Province, Guayas River drainage, Otongo River upstream of confluence with Baba River, Ecuador, 00°21'06.90"S, 79°12'52.32"W. Holotype: MEPN 14687. Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, FMNH, ROM. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Chaetostoma bifurcum Lujan, Meza-Vargas, Astudillo-Clavijo, Barriga Salazar & López-Fernández 2015. Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma bifurcum Lujan, Meza-Vargas, Astudillo-Clavijo, Barriga Salazar & López-Fernández 2015. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Pacific Coast drainages of western Ecuador and northwestern Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

bilineatus, Epactionotus Reis [R. E.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 1998:5, Fig. 3 [American Museum Novitates No. 3254; ref. 23691] Mouth of arroio do Ouro, which flows into rio Maquiné, between Barra do Ouro and Maquiné, 29°35'S, 50°17'W, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 20279. Paratypes: ANSP 168961 (4), 168970 (4); MCN 11099 (4), 11104 (4); MCP 13610 (2), 14151 (1), 14806 (5, 1 c&s), 20280 (19, 2 c&s); MZUSP 52460 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:236 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Epactionotus bilineatus Reis & Schaefer 1998 -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:322 [ref. 27061], Azpelicueta et al. 2004:89 [ref. 28029], Almirón et al. 2004:143 [ref. 27988], Ferraris 2007:236 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561]). •Valid as Hisonotus bilineatus (Reis & Schaefer 1998) -- (Roxo et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36538]). Current status: Valid as Epactionotus bilineatus Reis & Schaefer 1998. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Maquiné and Três Forquilhas River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bilobatum, Hypoptopoma Cope [E. D.] 1870:566, Figs. [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pebas, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 8280-81 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:250 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypoptopoma bilobatum Cope 1870 -- (Isbrücker 1980:87 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:323 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:250 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745]). •Synonym of Hypoptopoma thoracatum Günther 1868 -- (Aquino & Schaefer 2010:38 [ref. 30875]). Current status: Synonym of Hypoptopoma thoracatum Günther 1868. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Peru and Ecuador [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

birindellii, Loricaria Thomas [M. R.] & Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] 2010:276, Figs. 2, 3B, 4B-C, 5, 6 [Copeia 2010 (no. 2); ref. 30831] Rio Curuá, Iriri-Xingú drainage, near town of Castelo dos Sonhos, 8°19'07"S, 55°05'23"W, Altamira Municipality, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 97210. Paratypes: ANSP 189318 (1). •Valid as Loricaria birindellii Thomas & Sabaj Pérez 2010. Current status: Valid as Loricaria birindellii Thomas & Sabaj Pérez 2010. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Rio Curuá, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

biseriatus, Plecostomus Cope [E. D.] 1872:285, Pl. 16 (figs. 1-2) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 921] Amazon River, Peru or Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8279. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus biseriatus (Cope 1872) -- (Isbrücker 1980:20 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644]). •Valid as Squaliforma biseriata (Cope 1872) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:22 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:31, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:367 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Aphanotorulus horridus (Kner 1854) -- (Ray & Armbruster 2016:519 [ref. 34178]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanotorulus horridus (Kner 1854). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

bocaiuva, Hisonotus Roxo [F. F.], Silva [G. S. C.], Oliveira [C.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2013:320, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 23 (no. 4) (for 2012); ref. 32527] Bocaiúva, corregó Cachoeria, Rio Jequitaí drainage, Rio São Francisco basin, 17°08'55"S, 43°49'32"W, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 112204. Paratypes: DZSJRP 16461 (3); LIB 9817 (9,4c&s); MNRJ 40368 (2); NUP 12331 (4). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:444 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Hisonotus bocaiuva Roxo, Silva, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2013 -- (Roxo et al. 2015:137 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34426], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900], Dias et al. 2018:583 [ref. 36235]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus bocaiuva Roxo, Silva, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2013. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio São Francisco basin, Bocaiúva, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bockmanni, Hisonotus Carvalho [M.] & Datovo [A.] 2012:266, Figs. 1-9 [Copeia 2012 (no. 2); ref. 32054] Upper Rio Tapajós basin, sandbank at Rio Cururu, tributary to Rio Teles Pires, tributary to Rio Tapajós, 8°53'42.2"S, 57°14'27.8"W, Jacareacanga Municipality, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: LIRP 8139. Paratypes: LIRP 8140 (4), MCP 46046 (3). •Valid as Hisonotus bockmanni Carvalho & Datovo 2012 -- (Roxo et al. 2014:57 [ref. 33252], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus bockmanni Carvalho & Datovo 2012. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Cururu, tributary to Rio Teles Pires, tributary to Rio Tapajós, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bodenhameri, Ancistrus brevifilis Schultz [L. P.] 1944:305, Pl. 10 (fig. A) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río San Pedro at bridge south of Mene Grande, Río Motatán system, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121066. Paratypes: MCZ 37241 [ex USNM 121067] (3); UMMZ 141940 [ex USNM 121067] (6); USNM 121067 (132, now 123), 121068-69 (1, 2), 121299 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:25 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Ancistrus brevifilis Eigenmann 1920, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Pérez & Viloria 1994:106 [ref. 22094]). •Valid as Ancistrus bodenhameri Schultz 1944 -- (Isbrücker 1980:66 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento 2016:539 [ref. 34727]). •Synonym of Ancistrus matini Schultz 1944 -- (Taphorn et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32678]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus martini Schultz 1944. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo tributaries, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

boliviana, Farlowella Steindachner [F.] 1910:404 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 24 (nos. 3-4) (for 1910-1911); ref. 10014] Colombia. Holotype (unique): NMW (apparently lost). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. Type lost (Isbrücker 1979:114 [ref. 2302]). •Valid as Farlowella boliviana Steindachner 1910 -- (Isbrücker 1980:97 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Farlowella gracilis Regan 1904 -- (Retzer & Page 1997:75 [ref. 23176], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Farlowella gracilis Regan 1904. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Colombia [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

boliviana, Xenocara Steindachner [F.] 1915:95 [81], Pl. 9 (figs. 5-6) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Río Songo in North Yungas, upper Amazon River basin, Bolivia. Syntypes: (several) NMW 43475-76 (2, 27). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155]. On p. 81 of separate; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. Species originally described as "Xenocara bufonia (C.V.) Regan, juv.? (an Xenocara boliviana n. sp.)." •Valid as Ancistrus bolivianus (Steindachner 1915) -- (Isbrücker 1980:66 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:161, 191 [ref. 35004], Provenzano & Barriga-Salazar 2018:235 [ref. 36344]). •Synonym of Ancistrus marcapatae (Regan 1904) -- (Bifi et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36821]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus marcapatae (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

bolivianus, Plecostomus Pearson [N. E.] 1924:21, Pl. 4 (figs. 1-3) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Río Popoi, Upper Río Beni, upper Amazon system, Bolivia. Holotype: CAS 77347 [ex IU 17011]. Paratypes: CAS 213883 [ex CAS 77347, ex IU 17011] (orig. 16, now 9), UMMZ 66475 [ex IU 17011] (6). Additional material or paratypes: IU 17012 (orig. 15), UMMZ 66310 [ex IU 17012] (6), USNM 117586 [ex UMMZ 66310, ex IU 17012] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:31 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus bolivianus (Pearson 1924) -- (Isbrücker 1980:20 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Zawadzki et al. 2015:56 [ref. 33866]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus bolivianus (Pearson 1924). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Beni River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

borellii, Plecostomus Boulenger [G. A.] 1897:2 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 12 (no. 279); ref. 14624] Misión de San Francisco, Río Pilcomayo, Bolivia. Syntypes: BMNH 1897.1.27.19 (1); MZUT 1393 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:137 [ref. 21559], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus borellii (Boulenger 1897) -- (Isbrücker 1980:20 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:19 [ref. 23548], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27366], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2010:719 [ref. 31074], Zawadzki et al. 2014:102 [ref. 33233], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565], Zawadzki et al. 2017:570 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus borellii (Boulenger 1897). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper and middle Pilcomayo River basin: Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

bororo, Otocinclus Schaefer [S. A.] 1997:69, Fig. 43 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 148; ref. 23213] Barra do Bugres, stream crossing road between Barra do Bugres and Cáceres, about 15°20'S, 57°12'W, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 19285. Paratypes: AMNH 215990 (5); MCP 15604 (3), 15721 (7, 2 c&s), 15796 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:274 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus bororo Schaefer 1997 -- (Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Britto & Moreira 2002:1067 [ref. 26512], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:324 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:274 [ref. 29155], Lehmann A. et al. 2010:638 [ref. 31083]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus bororo Schaefer 1997. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

botucatu, Neoplecostomus Roxo [F. F.], Oliveira [C.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2012:9, Figs. 2b, 3b, 4e-h, 6, 7b [Zootaxa No. 3233; ref. 31839] Côrrego Åguas de Madalena, tributary of Rio Pardo, Rio Paranapanema basin, 22°59'25"S, 48°25'37"W, Municipality of Botucatu, São Paulo state, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 110364. Paratypes: many at DZSJRP, LBP, MZUSP, NUP. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:451 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Neoplecostomus botucatu Roxo, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2012 -- (Roxo et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32073], Roxo et al. 2014:125 [ref. 33492], Andrade & Langeani 2014:9 [ref. 33618], Cherobim et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35001], Pereira & Reis 2017:73 [ref. 35307], Roxo et al. 2017:238 [ref. 35467], Silva et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36454]). Current status: Valid as Neoplecostomus botucatu Roxo, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2012. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Côrrego Åguas de Madalena, tributary of Rio Pardo, Rio Paranapanema basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

boujardi, Lithoxus Muller [S.] & Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1993:72, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 17 (no. 1); ref. 20657] Approuague basin, Arataye, between Japigny Fall and Pararé Fall, French Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 1992-1321. Paratypes: MHNG 2536.81 (1), 2536.82 (1); MNHN 1992-1322 (2), 1992-1323 (1), ZMA 120813 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:267 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Lithoxus boujardi Muller & Isbrücker 1993 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Le Bail et al. 2000:242 [ref. 24549], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:389 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:267 [ref. 29155], Silva et al. 2017:167 [ref. 35668]). •Valid as Paralithoxus boujardi (Muller & Isbrücker 1993) -- (Lujan et al. 2018:[9] [ref. 36081]). Current status: Valid as Paralithoxus boujardi (Muller & Isbrücker 1993). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Approuague and Oyapock River basins, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

boulengeri, Plecostomus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:502 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] Mato Grosso, Brazil or Asunción, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 58554 [ex IU 9868]. Paratypes: CAS 58555 [ex IU 9869] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155]. See Britski et al. 1998:135 [ref. 24147]. •Valid as Hypostomus boulengeri (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903) -- (Isbrücker 1980:20 [ref. 2303], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Zawadzki et al. 2010:719 [ref. 31074], Koerber 2011:5 [ref. 31122], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Zawadzki et al. 2014:102 [ref. 33233], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617], Koerber 2014:9 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Cardoso et al. 2016:16 [ref. 34373], Zawadzki et al. 2016:272 [ref. 34908], Koerber et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35267], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus boulengeri (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

bourguyi, Microlepidogaster Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1911:90 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 16; ref. 3716] Brazil. Syntypes: possibly MNRJ 1036 (12). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:300 [ref. 29155]. Original as Microlepidogaster (?) lophophanes. •Valid as Otocinclus bourguyi (Miranda Ribeiro 1911) -- (Isbrücker 1980:82 [ref. 2303]). •Valid as Microlepidogaster bourguyi Miranda Ribeiro 1911 -- (Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Hisonotus bourguyi (Miranda Ribeiro 1911) -- (Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178]). •Species inquirenda in Loricariidae, subfamily Hypoptopomatinae -- (Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:327 [ref. 27061]). •Species inquirenda in Loricariidae -- (Ferraris 2007:300 [ref. 29155]). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bovallii, Ancistrus Regan [C. T.] 1906:96 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 17 (no. 97); ref. 3627] Kaat River, tributary of Treng River [= Ireng], upper Potaro, Guyana. Lectotype: BMNH 1905.11.1.43. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1905.11.1.44-48 (6). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:267 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Nijssen & Isbrücker 1990:332 [ref. 16655]. •Valid as Ancistrus bovallii Regan 1906 -- (Boeseman 1982:49 [ref. 492], Nijssen & Isbrücker 1990:332 [ref. 16655]). •Valid as Lithoxus bovallii (Regan 1906) -- (Isbrücker 1980:77 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Muller & Isbrücker 1993:75 [ref. 20657], Schindler 1996:223 [ref. 34080], Le Bail et al. 2000:246 [ref. 24549], Isbrücker 2001:25, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:389 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:267 [ref. 29155], Silva et al. 2017:167 [ref. 35668]). •Valid as Paralithoxus bovallii (Regan 1906) -- (Lujan et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36081]). Current status: Valid as Paralithoxus bovallii (Regan 1906). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Ireng River along the western border between Guyana and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brachyrhyncha, Pareiorhina Chamon [C. C.], Aranda [A. T.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2005:551, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2005 (no. 3); ref. 28313] Vera Cruz farm, 22°46'14.1"S, 45°26'42.5"W, Bairro Ribeirão Grande, Ribeirão Grande, Munic. Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 25033. Paratypes: MNRJ 22198 (9), 22202 (1), 22267 (2 c&s), 23836 (1), 23855 (2); MZUSP 49296 (13). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Pareiorhina brachyrhyncha Chamon, Aranda & Buckup 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:281 [ref. 29155], Roxo et al. 2012:38 [ref. 32073], Soto et al. 2012:65 [ref. 32231], Silva et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32763], Azevedo-Santos & Roxo 2015:383 [ref. 33717], Silva et al. 2016:389 [ref. 34417], Pereira & Reis 2017:76 [ref. 35307], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhina brachyrhyncha Chamon, Aranda & Buckup 2005. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brachyurus, Ancistrus Kner [R.] 1854:279, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] Manaus, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 47268. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:234 [ref. 29155]. On p. 29 of separate. •Valid as Peckoltia brachyura (Kner 1854) -- (Isbrücker 1980:55 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Zonancistrus brachyurus (Kner 1854) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:25, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:30 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Dekeyseria brachyura (Kner 1854) -- (Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:383 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:234 [ref. 29155], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633]). •Synonym of Dekeyseria picta (Kner 1854) -- (Silva & Rapp Py-Daniel 2018:[4] [ref. 35865]). Current status: Synonym of Dekeyseria picta (Kner 1854). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

branickii, Chaetostomus Steindachner [F.] 1881:118 [18], Pl. 6 (figs. 1-1b) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 43; ref. 14290] Cajamarca, Rio Chota [Chotano], Peru, elevation 1465-1585 meters. Syntypes: (several) NMW 47270-71 (2, 3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155]. On p. 18 of separate. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma branickii Steindachner 1881 -- (Isbrücker 1980:59 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:379 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:63 [ref. 28542], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975] and as cf. branickii on p. 698). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma branickii Steindachner 1881. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

bransfordi, Loricaria Gill [T. N.] 1877:338 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 28 (for 1876); ref. 17633] Empire Station, Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 16673. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:28 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:240 [ref.29155]. •Synonym of Fonchiiichthys uracanthus (Kner & Steindachner 1863) -- (Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Rineloricaria uracantha (Kner 1863) -- (Isbrücker 1980:110 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:344 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Rineloricaria uracantha (Kner 1863). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

brasiliensis, Plecostomus Bleeker [P.] (ex Valenciennes) 1863:2 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 401] No locality [Maracaibo Lagoon, Maracaibo Lake in western Venezuela]. Lectotype: not RMNH 3102. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:259 [ref. 29155]. Pre-Linnaean name adopted by Bleeker; other species listed in synonymy. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1968:37 et seq. [ref. 7872] is incorrect; see also Boeseman 1972:311 [ref. 19698]. See Ferraris 2007:259 [ref. 29155]. See Weber et al. 2012:219 for status of types and dating of the species. •Synonym of Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Isbrücker 1980:31 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:361 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] top of p., Ferraris 2007:259 [ref. 29155]). •Status needs to be revised -- (Weber et al. 2012:219 [ref. 31999]). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

braueri, Hemiancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:232, Pl. 28 (figs. 1-2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Takutu, Guyana. Holotype: ZMB 3174 (larger specimen). Paratypes: ZMB 3174 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus braueri Eigenmann 1912 -- (Isbrücker 1980:49 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:232 [ref. 24549] as aff. braueri). •Valid as Hemiancistrus braueri Eigenmann 1912 -- (Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858]). •Valid as Peckoltia braueri (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Isbrücker 2001:27, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:392 [ref. 27061], Armbruster & Werneke 2005:2 [ref. 28101], Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155], Armbruster 2008:14 [ref. 29740], de Oliveira et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30929], Fisch-Muller et al. 2012:189 [ref. 31970], de Oliveira et al. 2012:548 [ref. 32202], Armbruster 2015:99 [ref. 33670], Armbruster & Lujan 2016:116 [ref. 34264], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia braueri (Eigenmann 1912). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Takutu and Pirara rivers, Negro and Branco River drainages: Guyana and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevibracchium, Neblinichthys Taphorn [D. C.], Armbruster [J. W.], López-Fernández [H.] & Bernard [C. R.] 2010:616, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 30973] Upper Mazaruni River drainage, Kukui River, near town of Philipai, 5°21'37"N, 60°22'18"W, Guyana. Holotype: CSBD 1652 [es ROM 83713]. Paratypes: AUM 49999 [ ex ROM 83692] (1), ROM 84965 (1). •Valid as Neblinichthys brevibracchium Taphorn, Armbruster, López-Fernández & Bernard 2010 -- (Armbruster & Taphorn 2013:67 [ref. 32700]). Current status: Valid as Neblinichthys brevibracchium Taphorn, Armbruster, López-Fernández & Bernard 2010. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Mazaruni River drainage, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

brevicauda, Plecostomus Günther [A.] 1864:235 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.19.16-17 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus brevicauda (Günther 1864) -- (Isbrücker 1980:20-21 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155], Zanata et al. 2013:247 [ref. 32751], Zanata & Pitanga 2016:231 [ref. 34535], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus brevicauda (Günther 1864). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Eastern coastal drainages, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevifilis, Ancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1920:7, Fig. 2; Pl. 1 [Indiana University Studies v. 7 (no. 44); ref. 11120] Río Tiquirito at El Concejo, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS 64609 [ex IU 15080]. Paratypes: CAS 64610 [ex IU 15080] (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus brevifilis Eigenmann 1920 -- (Isbrücker 1980:66 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento 2016:532 [ref. 34727], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35679], de Souza et al. 2019:14 [ref. 36504]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus brevifilis Eigenmann 1920. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tuy River basin, Caribbean Sea coast, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

brevilabiatus, Chaetostomus Dahl [G.] 1942:80 [1], Figs. 1-2 [Förhanglingar / Klungl. Fysiografiska sällskapet i Lund = Proceedings of the Royal Physiographic Society at Lund. v. 11 (no. 8); ref. 13197] Río Volcán near junction with Río San Bartolomé, tributary of Río Magdalena, Antióquia Dept., Colombia, elevation about 600 meters. Holotype (unique): ICNMHN 6134 [ex ZMUL]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:31 [ref. 36127]. On p. 1 of separate. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma brevilabiatum Dahl 1942 -- (Isbrücker 1980:59-60 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:380 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma brevilabiatum Dahl 1942. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Magdalena and Cimitarra River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

brevipinnis, Xenocara Regan [C. T.] 1904:257 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1891.3.16.76. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus brevipinnis (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:67 [ref. 2303], Malabarba 1989:148 [ref. 14217], Muller 1989:894 [ref. 13512], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Knaack 1999:152 [ref. 23874], Isbrücker 2001:25, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155], de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869] as brevispinnis, Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus brevipinnis (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevirostratum, Hypoptopoma Aquino [A. E.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 2010:43, Fig. 26 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History No. 336; ref. 30875] Rio Amazonas, 1 mile upstream from Leticia, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 105076. Paratypes: AMNH 243577 (2), FMNH 117744 (18). •Valid as Hypoptopoma brevirostratum Aquino & Schaefer 2010 -- (Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypoptopoma brevirostratum Aquino & Schaefer 2010. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

brevirostris, Loricaria Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:35 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Rio Iça, tributary of Rio Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 8095. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sturisoma brevirostre (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Isbrücker 1980:93 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155], Londoño-Burbano 2018:[13] [ref. 35813]). Current status: Valid as Sturisoma brevirostre (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Rio Solimões, Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevis, Chaetostomus Regan [C. T.] 1904:247, Pl. 13 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Eastern Ecuador. Syntypes: (6) BMNH 1898.11.4.33-36 (4), MSNM 40 [ex MSNM 5592] (1) Rio Zamora; MZUT 1488-89 (total 15 specimens, 1 evidently is a syntype). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:137 [ref. 21559], Conci & Michelangeli 1974:226 [ref. 21560] Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma breve Regan 1904 -- (Isbrücker 1980:60 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:379 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:62 [ref. 28542], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Ballen 2011:388 [ref. 31653], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Lujan et al. 2015:685 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma breve Regan 1904. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Zamora River basin in upper Marañón River drainage, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

brevis, Delturus Reis [R. E.] & Pereira [E. H. L.] in Reis, Pereira & Armbruster 2006:295, Fig. 12 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 147 (no. 2); ref. 28706] Rio Araçuaí upstream of its mouth on Rio Jequitinhonha, Araçuaí, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 69858. Paratypes: MCP 26927 (3, 1 c&s), 28035 (3); MZUSP 69859 (3); NMW 44070 (1, also paralectotype of angulicauda). •Valid as Delturus brevis Reis & Pereira 2006 -- (Ferraris 2007:443 [ref. 29155], Pereira et al. 2010:37 [ref. 30753]). Current status: Valid as Delturus brevis Reis & Pereira 2006. Loricariidae: Delturinae. Distribution: Upper portions of Jequitinhonha River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevis, Hemiancistrus La Monte [F. R.] 1935:3, Fig. 2 [American Museum Novitates No. 784; ref. 13893] Near Sena Madureira, near mouth of River Macaua, tributary of Rio Iaco, itself a tributary to Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 12602. Non-types: MSNM 42 [ex MSNM 4702 and ex AMNH] (1). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:227 [ref. 21560], Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Peckoltia brevis (La Monte 1935) -- (Isbrücker 1980:55 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:392 [ref. 27061], Armbruster & Werneke 2005:12 [ref. 28101], Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155], Armbruster 2008:16 [ref. 29740], Zawadzki et al. 2010:724 [ref. 31074], de Oliveira et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30929], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], Armbruster & Lujan 2016:116 [ref. 34264], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia brevis (La Monte 1935). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Purus River basin and upper Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

brevis, Plecostomus Nichols [J. T.] 1919:413 [5], 423 [5] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 11; ref. 15221] Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 7150. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155]. On p. 5 of both Portuguese and English sections of separate. •Valid as Hypostomus brevis (Nichols 1919) -- (Isbrücker 1980:21 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus brevis (Nichols 1919). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraná River basin [or eastern Brazilian coastal drainage?], Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevispinis, Lasiancistrus Heitmans [W. R. B.], Nijssen [H.] & Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1983:38, Figs. 4-7 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 53 (no. 1); ref. 5278] Fallawatra River, rapid 5 kilometers southwest of Stondansie Fall, Nickerie District, Suriname. Holotype: ZMA 107740. Paratypes: BMNH 1982.9.30.1-2 (2); CAS 53133 (2); IRSNB 626 (orig. 3, now 1), 627 (orig. 15, now 8), 628-629 (2, 1); FMNH 94506 (2); INPA; MBUCV-V-13442 (1); MCZ 59812 (2); MHNG; MNHN (20 in 11 lots); MNRJ; MZUSP [ex IRSNB 626] (2), [ex IRSNB 627] (7); NMW 77971 (2); NRM 29420 (2); RMNH; USNM 276368 (2); ZMA; ZMB 31366 (2), ZSM 26348 [ex ZMA 106447] (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:51 [ref. 12367], Walschaerts 1987:20 [ref. 20755], Ferraris & Vari 1992:27 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:12 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:264 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Lasiancistrus brevispinis Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983 -- (Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:236 [ref. 24549], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233]). •Valid as Pseudancistrus brevispinis (Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983) -- (Armbruster 2004:5 [ref. 27844], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155], Cardoso & Montoya-Burgos 2009:947 [ref. 34068], Willink et al. 2010:41 [ref. 30670]). •Valid as Guyanancistrus brevispinis (Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:19 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:385 [ref. 27061], Mol et al. 2012:287 [ref. 32867], Silva et al. 2014:11[ref. 33302], Melo et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34701], Fisch-Muller et al. 2018:23 [ref. 35723]). Current status: Valid as Guyanancistrus brevispinis (Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Corantijn River basin to the upper Tapanahony River basin, Suriname (the nominate subspecies). Habitat: freshwater.

brevitentaculatus, Hypostomus Ranzani [C.] 1841:63 [Nuovi annali delle scienze naturali e rendiconto dei lavori dell'Accademia della Scienze dell'Instituto di Bologna con appendice agraria. Bologna Anno III, Tomo V; ref. 24074] Province Divi Pauli, Brazilia [Rio São Francisco]. Holotype (unique): MZUB uncat. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. Also appeared in more detail in Ranzani 1842:329 [ref. 18607]. •Valid as Pterygoplichthys brevitentaculatus (Ranzani 1841) -- (Isbrücker 1980:40 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pterygoplichthys etentaculatus (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Weber 1992:25 [ref. 19714], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:366 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pterygoplichthys etentaculatus (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

britskii, Corumbataia Ferreira [K. M.] & Ribeiro [A. C.] 2007:60, Figs. 1, 3A, 4A, 5A [Zootaxa No. 1386; ref. 28908] Chapadão Pedra Azul, 19°12'15"S, 52°43'55"W, Rio Sucuriú, upper Rio Paraná basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Holotype: LIRP 5584. Paratypes: LIRP 4937 (5, 2 c&s), 5897 (2, c&s), 5898 (8). Not treated by Ferraris 2007 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Corumbataia britskii Ferreira & Ribeiro 2007 -- (Carvalho 2008:552 [ref. 29798], Silva et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36151]). Current status: Valid as Corumbataia britskii Ferreira & Ribeiro 2007. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

britskii, Parotocinclus Boeseman [M.] 1974:267, Fig. 2; Pl. 2 [Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (Series C, Biological and Medical Sciences) v. 77 (no. 3); ref. 7490] Left tributary of Coppename River, Suriname, 3°51'N, 56°55'W. Holotype: ZMA 106593. Paratypes: RMNH 26924 (2), ZMA 106592 (3). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:60 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus britskii Boeseman 1974 -- (Isbrücker 1980:79 [ref. 2303], Garavello 1988:124 [ref. 6853], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Schaefer & Provenzano 1993:42 [ref. 20828], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:61 [ref. 32074], Lehmann A. et al. 2015:48 [ref. 33723], Roxo et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34921]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus britskii Boeseman 1974. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin and Atlantic coastal drainages of the Guianas: Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

britskii, Rhinolekos Martins [F. de O.], Langeani [F.] & Costa [F. C.] in Martins & Langeani 2011:68, Figs. 1a, 4 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 31235] Bela Vista de Goiás, tributary of the córrego Arapuca, Fazenda Arapuca, rio Paranaíba drainage, 17°04'06"S, 48°43'59"W, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: DZSJRP 6489. Paratypes: many at DZSJR, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:456 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Rhinolekos britskii Martins, Langeani & Costa 2011 -- (Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228], Roxo et al. 2015:124 [ref. 33671], Roxo et al. 2017:352 [ref. 35310], Martins et al. 2017:242 [ref. 35356]). Current status: Valid as Rhinolekos britskii Martins, Langeani & Costa 2011. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Paranaíba drainage, upper rio Paraná system, Goiás State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brownsbergensis, Guyanancistrus Mol [J. H. A.], Fisch-Muller [S.] & Covain [R.] 2018:40, Figs. 6f, 13 [PLoS ONE v. 13 (no. 1) e0189789; ref. 35723] Kumbu Creek above Kumbu Falls, Saramacca River basin, Brownsberg Nature Park, Brownsberg Mountains, Brokopondo, Suriname, 4˚56'57"N, 55˚11'07"W. Holotype: MHNG 2745.065. Paratypes: MHNG, NZCS. •Valid as Guyanancistrus brownsbergensis Mol, Fisch-Muller & Covain 2018. Current status: Valid as Guyanancistrus brownsbergensis Mol, Fisch-Muller & Covain 2018. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Kumbu Creek, Saramacca River basin, Brownsberg Nature Park, Brownsberg Mountains, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

brunnea, Loricaria Hancock [J.] 1828:247 [Zoological Journal, London v. 4; ref. 18242] Orinoco River, Demerara, Guyana. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:269 [ref. 29155]. •Species inquirenda in Loricariichthys -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:339 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Loricariichthys brunneus (Hancock 1828) -- (Isbrücker 1980:126 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:269 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:75 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys brunneus (Hancock 1828). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Guyana and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

brunneus, Hisonotus Carvalho [T. P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2011:38, Figs. 4g, 8g, 40-41 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 31240] Cruz Alta, rio Passo Novo, on road from Cruz Alta to Ibirubá, rio Jacuí drainage, 28°38'43"S, 53°33'35"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 44516. Paratypes: ANSP 188705 (4); MCP 22701 (30, 3 c&s), 41072 (13); MZUSP 104947 (4). •Valid as Hisonotus brunneus Carvalho & Reis 2011 -- (Roxo et al. 2015:137 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus brunneus Carvalho & Reis 2011. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper rio Jacuí basin, Laguna dos Patos system, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bufonius, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:511 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Río Apurimac, Peru, elevation 2000 meters. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2228 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:68 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus bufonius (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:67 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:16 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:161, 191 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus bufonius (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Apurimac River basin, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

butantanis, Plecostomus margaritifer Ihering [R. von] 1911:394 [Revista do Museo São Paulo v. 8 (1910); ref. 14822] Rio Pinheiros, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): DZSASP [now MZUSP] (not found). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Hypostomus margaritifer (Regan 1908) -- (Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Hypostomus butantanis (Ihering 1911) -- (Isbrücker 1980:21 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus butantanis (Ihering 1911). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Brazil [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

cabessadecuia, Parotocinclus Ramos [T. P. A.], Lima [S. M. Q.] & Ramos [R. T. C.] 2017:[2], Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 2) e160153; ref. 35268] São Gonçalo do Gurgueia, rio Gurgueia, rio Parnaíba basin, Piauí, Brazil, 10°06'27.0"S, 45°21'24.0"W. Holotype: UFPB 10029. Paratypes: MZUSP, UFPB, UFRN. •Valid as Parotocinclus cabessadecuia Ramos, Lima & Ramos 2017. Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus cabessadecuia Ramos, Lima & Ramos 2017. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper and middle rio Parnaíba basin, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cacerensis, Loricaria Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1912:11 [Loricariidae, Callichthyidae, Doradidae e Trichomycteridae Annexo no. 5; ref. 3718] Caceres, Matto Grosso, Rio Paraguay drainage, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 645A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 645 (2). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:400 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:400 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria cacerensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1912) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria cacerensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:104 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:130 [ref. 24147], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061], Ghazzi 2008:102 [ref. 29636], Vera-Alcaraz et al. 2012:294 [ref. 32034]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria cacerensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1912). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cadeae, Loricaria Hensel [R.] 1868:369 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 34 (pt 1); ref. 14075] Rio Cadéa [Cadeia], Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMB 7430. Paralectotypes: ZMB 22437 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:112 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Rineloricaria cadeae (Hensel 1868) -- (Isbrücker 1980:104 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Malabarba 1989:155 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:3 [ref. 28173], Ferraris 2007:293-294 [ref. 29155], Rodriguez & Reis 2008:335 [ref. 29630], Ghazzi 2008:101 [ref. 29636], Litz & Koerber 2014:27 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria cadeae (Hensel 1868). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos basin, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

caenosa, Peckoltia Armbruster [J. W.] 2008:20, Fig. 12 [Zootaxa No. 1822; ref. 29740] Caño Maraca, tributary of Caño Igues - Río Portuguesa, Guanare-Guanarito road at road kilometer 60, 8°49'39"N, 69°20'42"W, Rio Orinoco drainage, Portuguesa, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 42665. Paratype: ANSP 166749 (3), 180224 (1); AUM 18946 (4, 1 c&s), 22836 (1); MCNG 9721 (1), 24200 (1), 37452 (1), 38972 (1); UF 32382 (2). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Peckoltia caenosa Armbruster 2008 -- (de Oliveira et al. 2012:548 [ref. 32202], Armbruster et al. 2015:100 [ref. 33670], Armbruster & Lujan 2016:116 [ref. 34264], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia caenosa Armbruster 2008. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Llanos of Venezuela in rivers draining to the middle Orinoco River: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

calamita, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:515 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Río Apurimac, Peru. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2227 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:68 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus calamita (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:67 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus bufonius (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

callis, Paulasquama Armbruster [J. W.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2011:48, Figs. 1-2. 3B [Copeia 2011 (no. 1); ref. 31222] Waruma River, Kako River-Mazaruni River drainage, riffles and shallow rapids upstream from camp, 05.4755"-060.77967", Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Guyana. Holotype: UG 1654. Paratypes: AUM 50000 (4, 1c&s). ROM 83784 (5), UG 1655 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Paulasquama callis Armbruster & Taphorn 2011 -- (Lujan & Armbruster 2011:224 [ref. 31416], Salcedo 2013:564 [ref. 32670], Reis et al. 2016:15 [ref. 34496]). Current status: Valid as Paulasquama callis Armbruster & Taphorn 2011. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Waruma River, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

calmoni, Psilichthys Steindachner [F.] 1907:82 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 44 (no. 6) (for 28 Feb. 1907); ref. 20499] •Emendation of Hemipsilichthys cameroni Steindachner 1907 -- (Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155]). •In the synonymy of Pareiorhaphis cameroni (Steindachner 1907). Current status: Synonym of Pareiorhaphis cameroni (Steindachner 1907). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae.

calvus, Isbrueckerichthys Jerep [F. C.], Shibatta [O. A.], Pereira [E. H. L.] & Oyakawa [O. T.] 2006:60, Fig. 2 [Zootaxa No. 1372; ref. 28877] Apucarana, rio Tibagi basin, córrego Juruba, 23°34'44.6"S, 51°33'12.6"W, Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUEL 3714. Paratypes: MCP 40207 (2), 40208 (2); MZUEL 3638 (5), 3715 (1), 3724 (9); MZUSP 90804 (3). •Valid as Isbrueckerichthys calvus Jerep, Shibatta, Pereira & Oyakawa 2006 -- (Ferraris 2007:441 [ref. 29155], Pereira et al. 2010:37 [ref. 30753], Pereira & Reis 2017:72 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Isbrueckerichthys calvus Jerep, Shibatta, Pereira & Oyakawa 2006. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Tibagi River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cameroni, Psilichthys Steindachner [F.] 1907:82 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 44 (no. 6) (for 28 Feb. 1907); ref. 20499] Rio Cubatao in Santa Catarina State at Theresopolis, Brazil. Lectotype: ZSM 4837. Paralectotypes: (23) MNHN 1907-0175 (1); NMW 46414 (1), 46438 (7), 46442-44 (7, 2, 1), SMF 5415-16 [ex NMW] (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:73 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:267 [ref. 31652] The species was originally named as above in this abstract, name later changed to Hemipsilichthys cameroni and illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1907:475, Pls. 1-2 [ref. 18797]. Steindachner 1908:31 [ref. 4243] indicated that the name should have been calmoni, but this is an unjustified emendation, but Pereira & Reis 2002:100 [ref. 26071] suggest using the spelling calmoni. For information regarding the type locality see Van der Stigchel 1947:148 [ref. 13094] and Lucena & Lucena 1990 [ref. 16142]. For date issues see Neumann 2011:267 [ref. 31652]. Lectotype selected by Pereira & Reis 2002:106 [ref. 26071] but perhaps not technically meeting the requirements of the 2000 code. •Valid as Hemipsilichthys cameroni (Steindachner 1907) [also as calmoni] -- (Isbrücker 1980:11 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Pereira & Reis 1992:114 [ref. 17635], Bizerril 1995:121 [ref. 25087], Pereira et al. 2000:377 [ref. 25081], Isbrücker 2001:28, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Hemipsilichthys calmoni (Steindachner 1907) -- (Pereira & Reis 2002:104 [ref. 26071], Pereira et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27068], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:353 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pareiorhaphis cameroni (Steindachner 1907) -- (Periera 2005:272 [ref. 28273] as calmoni, Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155], Pereira et al. 2010:37 [ref. 30753], Pereira et al. 2012:539 [ref. 32218], Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307]) Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis cameroni (Steindachner 1907). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Cubatão, Tubarão and Araranguá River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

canaliferus, Otothyris Myers [G. S.] 1927:128 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 3096] Hills in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 31577. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1932-0201 [ex SU] (1), CAS-SU 24071 (1), USNM 92974 (3), ZMB 22229 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:73 [ref. 19575], Böhlke 1953:46 [ref. 12291], Ferraris & Vari 1992:30 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Garavello et al. 1998:7 [ref. 23346]. •Valid as Otothyris canaliferus Myers 1927 -- (Isbrücker 1980:85 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653]). •Synonym of Otothyris lophophanes (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Garavello et al. 1998:5 [ref. 23346], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:325 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Otothyris lophophanes (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

canastra, Neoplecostomus Roxo [F. F.], Silva [G. S. C.], Zawadzki [C. H.] & Oliveira [C.] 2017:228, Figs. 1, 4A [Zootaxa 4294 (no. 2); ref. 35467] Córrego Tamborete, municipality of Capitólio, rio Grande basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 20°38'54''S, 46°09'52''W. Holotype: MZUSP 121504. Paratypes: LBP, MNRJ, NUP, ZUFMS. •Valid as Neoplecostomus canastra Roxo, Silva, Zawadzki & Oliveira 2017. Current status: Valid as Neoplecostomus canastra Roxo, Silva, Zawadzki & Oliveira 2017. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Grande, Upper Rio Paraná basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

candombe, Hisonotus Casciotta [J. R.], Azpelicueta [M. de las M.], Almirón [A. E.] & Litz [T.] 2006:147, Figs. 1-2 [Spixiana (München) v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 28758] Arroyo Palomas, 31°04.71'S, 57°37.44'W, río Uruguay basin, Departamento Salto, Uruguay. Holotype: ZVC-P 5595. Paratypes: AI 187 (4); MHNG 2662.86 (2); MLP 10462 [ex Al 164] (1); ZSM 32062, not 33062 [ex CTL 539] (3). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:267 [ref. 31652], Nadalin & López 2015:7 [ref. 34112], Loureiro et al. 2016:414 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Hisonotus candombe Casciotta, Azpelicueta, Almirón & Litz 2006 -- (Azpelicueta & Almirón 2007:596 [ref. 29353], Ferraris 2007:440 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Hisonotus ringueleti Aquino, Schaefer & Miquelarena 2001 -- (Carvalho & Reis 2009:31 [ref. 30193], Litz & Koerber 2014:24 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Hisonotus ringueleti Aquino, Schaefer & Miquelarena 2001. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Lower Uruguay River basin, Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

canensis, Acanthicus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:80 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Río Cana, Cana, Darien, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7581. Paratypes: FMNH 26305-18 (14), 29294-309 (16); USNM 78300 (now 14, 15 in ledger). Type catalog: Grey 1947:111 [ref. 12302], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:4 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:25 [ref. 19771] with remarks, Ferraris 2007:266 [ref. 29155]. Probable paratypes; original description specifically cited only type but is based on more than one specimen collected at type locality. •Valid as Leptoancistrus canensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Isbrücker 1980:65 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:388 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:266 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2015:667 [ref. 33975], Provenzano et al. 2017:265 [ref. 35613], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leptoancistrus canensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Pacific drainages in Panama and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

canoeiro, Gymnotocinclus Roxo [F. F.], Silva [G. S. C.], Ochoa [L. E.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2017:342, Figs. 3-6 [Zootaxa 4268 (no. 3); ref. 35310] Tributary of rio das Almas, tributary of rio Paranã, municipality of Cavalcante, rio Tocantins basin, Goiás State, Brazil, 13°43'12.6"S, 47°27'19.8"W. Holotype: MZUSP 121544. Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, LBP, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Gymnotocinclus canoeiro Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Zawadzki 2017 -- (Silva et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36151]). •Valid as Corumbataia canoeiro (Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Zawadzki 2017) -- (Roxo et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36538]). Current status: Valid as Corumbataia canoeiro (Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Zawadzki 2017). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Paranã, Tocantins River basin, Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

capetensis, Loricaria Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:80 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Río Capetí, Río Tuyra basin, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7582. Paratypes: USNM 78340 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:53 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:28 [ref. 19771] with remarks, Ferraris 2007:233 [ref. 29155]. Probable paratypes; original description specifically cited only type but is based on more than one specimen collected at type locality. •Valid as Dasyloricaria capetensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Isbrücker 1980:111 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:331 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:233 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Dasyloricaria latiura (Eigenmann & Vance 1912) -- (Londoño-Burbano & Reis 2016:[8] [ref. 34381], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Synonym of Dasyloricaria latiura (Eigenmann & Vance 1912). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Tuira River basin, Panama (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

capetinga, Rhinolekos Roxo [F. F.], Ochoa [L. E.], Silva [G. S. C.] & Oliveira [C.] 2015:114, Figs. 1-3 [ZooKeys No. 481; ref. 33671] Goiás State, municipality of Água Fria de Goiás, córrego da Branca, drainage of the rio Tocantizinho, rio Tocantins basin, 14°53'47.2"S, 47°34'58.4"W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 116102. Paratypes: LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Rhinolekos capetinga Roxo, Ochoa, Silva & Oliveira 2015. Current status: Valid as Rhinolekos capetinga Roxo, Ochoa, Silva & Oliveira 2015. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Tocantizinho, rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

capitonia, Rineloricaria Ghazzi [M. S.] 2008:110, Figs. 6-7 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) v. 98 (no. 1); ref. 29636] Condor, rio Alegre estrada Condor/Colônia Cash, 28°11'S, 53°27'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 19687. Paratypes: MCN 11846 (4); MCP 18739 (24), 18740 (8), 19911 (3), 26900 (5), 31717 (8). Plus additional material. •Valid as Rineloricaria capitonia Ghazzi 2008 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria capitonia Ghazzi 2008. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Alegre, Palmeira and Passo Fundo rivers, upper Ijuí River, Uruguay River system, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

capitulata, Peckoltia Fisch-Muller [S.] & Covain [R.] in Fisch-Muller, Montoya-Burgos, Le Bail & Covain 2012:180, Figs. 7, 10 [Cybium v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 31970] Approuague River, rapids of Saut Athanase, 4°11'12"N, 52°20'03"W, French Guiana. Holotype: MHNG 2723.086. Paratypes:MNHN 2011-0011 (1). •Valid as Peckoltia capitulata Fisch-Muller & Covain 2012 -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:100 [ref. 33670], Armbruster & Lujan 2016:116 [ref. 34264]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia capitulata Fisch-Muller & Covain 2012. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Approuague River, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

caquetae, Euacanthagenys Fowler [H. W.] 1945:125, Figs. 37-40 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 1454] Morelia, Río Caquetá drainage, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71718. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Loricaria caquetae Fowler 1943 in Spatuloricaria, replaced by Spatuloricaria euacanthagenys Isbrücker 1979. •In the synonymy of Spatuloricaria euacanthagenys Isbrücker 1979 -- (Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:344 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155], Fichberg et al. 2014:322 [ref. 33358]). Current status: Synonym of Spatuloricaria euacanthagenys Isbrücker 1979. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

caquetae, Harttia Fowler [H. W.] 1945:126, Figs. 41-43 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 1454] Morelia, Río Caquetá drainage, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71719. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:300 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sturisomatichthys caquetae (Fowler 1945) -- (Isbrücker 1980:92 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 2001:27, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:346 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:300 [ref. 29155], Londoño-Burbano 2018:[16] [ref. 35813]). •Valid as Sturisoma caquetae (Fowler 1945) -- (Covain et al. 2015:514 [23] [ref. 34066], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Sturisoma caquetae (Fowler 1945). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Caquetá River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

caquetae, Hemiancistrus Fowler [H. W.] 1945:115, Figs. 17-20 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 1454] Morelia, Río Caquetá drainage, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71708 (poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Peckoltia caquetae (Fowler 1945) -- (Isbrücker 1980:55 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860]). •Incertae sedis -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Lasiancistrus caquetae (Fowler 1945) -- (Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:387 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Lasiancistrus schomburgkii (Günther 1864) -- (Armbruster 2005:561 [ref. 28554], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Synonym of Lasiancistrus schomburgkii (Günther 1864). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

caquetae, Loricaria Fowler [H. W.] 1943:261, Figs. 60-62 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Río Orteguasa, Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 70526. Paratypes: ANSP 70527 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Spatuloricaria caquetae (Fowler 1943) -- (Isbrücker 1980:112 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:344 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155], Fichberg et al. 2014:322 [ref. 33358], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633], Londoño-Burbano et al. 2018:619 [ref. 36263]). Current status: Valid as Spatuloricaria caquetae (Fowler 1943). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Orteguasa River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

caracasensis, Hemiloricaria Bleeker [P.] 1862:3 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 393] Caracas, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3120. Type information: Van der Stigchel 1947:177 [ref. 13094], Boeseman 1972:312 and pl. 1 [ref. 19698]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]. Also appeared in Bleeker 1863:81 [ref. 401]. For locality information see Boeseman 1972:312 [ref. 19698]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria caracasensis Bleeker 1862 -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria caracasensis (Bleeker 1862) -- (Isbrücker 1980:104 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria caracasensis (Bleeker 1862). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Caribbean coastal drainages, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

carachama, Monistiancistrus Fowler [H. W.] 1940:236, Figs. 26-27 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91 (for 1939); ref. 1432] Contamana, Río Ucayali basin, Ucayali, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68654. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Monistiancistrus carachama Fowler 1940 -- (Isbrücker 1980:57 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pseudorinelepis genibarbis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Armbruster & Hardman 1999:57 [ref. 23670], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:366 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorinelepis genibarbis (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Rhinelepinae. Habitat: freshwater.

careopinnatus, Hypostomus Martins [F. de O.], Marinho [M. M. F.], Langeani [F.] & Serra [J. P.] 2012:494, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2012 (no. 3); ref. 32197] Alto Araguaia, tributary of Rio Ariranha, Rio Taquari drainage, upper Rio Paraguay basin, 17°18'37"S, 53°32'22"W, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: DZSIRP 12231. Paratypes: at ANSP, AUM, CPUFMT, DZSJRP, INPA, MNRJ, MZUSP, NUP, UFRGS. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:444 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Hypostomus careopinnatus Martins, Marinho, Langeani & Serra 2012 -- (Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228], Zawadzki et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33233], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus careopinnatus Martins, Marinho, Langeani & Serra 2012. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Taquari drainage, upper Rio Paraguay basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

carinata, Farlowella Garman [S.] in Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889:32 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Gurupá, Oarä state, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 9830. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1889.11.14.68 (1); MCZ 7742 (2), 7769 (orig. 2, now 1), 7770 (orig. 4, now 1), 7771 (orig. 3, now 1), 7773 (1), 54411 [ex MCZ 9830] (1); ZMA 115267 [ex MCZ 9830] (1), 115268 [ex MCZ 7769] (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:51-52 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155] Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:114 [ref. 2302]. The correct spelling of the valid species epithet is amazonum, a noun that does not decline (see note under Curimatus amazonum). •Valid as Farlowella carinata Garman 1889 -- (Isbrücker 1980:97 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Farlowella amazona (Günther 1864) -- (Retzer & Page 1997:69 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Farlowella amazonum (Günther 1864) -- (Marajó et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36366]). Current status: Synonym of Farlowella amazonum (Günther 1864). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

carinata, Hirtella Pereira [E. H. L.], Zanata [A. M.], Cetra [M.] & Reis [R. E.] 2014:674, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2014 (no. 4); ref. 33601] Bahia, Camacan, Riacho Braço do Sul, tributary to Rio Panelão, lower Rio Pardo drainage, Brazil, 15°25'17"S, 39°34'01"W, elevation 300 meters. Holotype: MCP 48127. Paratypes: AMNH, MCP, MZUSP, UFBA. •Valid as Hirtella carinata Pereira, Zanata, Cetra & Reis 2014 -- (Pereira & Reis 2017:71 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Hirtella carinata Pereira, Zanata, Cetra & Reis 2014. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Riacho Braço do Sul tributaries, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

carinata, Loricaria Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:46, Pl. 23 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9562. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:74 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155]. Type information: Isbrücker 1972:178-179, Fig. 8 [ref. 20708]. •Synonym of Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758 -- (Isbrücker 1980:116 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:60 [ref. 5522], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

carinatum, Hypoptopoma Steindachner [F.] 1879:48, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 41; ref. 4228] Tributaries of the Amazon at the border of Peru. Holotype (unique): NMW 46267. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155]. Species not included in earlier abstract [ref. 20480]. Oxyropsis is feminine so the correct combination is Oxyropsis carinata. •Valid as Hypoptopoma carinatum Steindachner 1879 -- (Isbrücker 1980:87 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Oxyropsis carinatum (Steindachner 1879) -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:6 [ref. 24302]). •Valid as Oxyropsis carinata (Steindachner 1879) -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Aquino & Miquelarena 2001:3 [ref. 26083], Aquino & Schaefer 2002:381 [ref. 26022], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:325 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Aquino & Sabaj Pérez 2016:137 [ref. 34526], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Oxyropsis carinata (Steindachner 1879). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

carinatus, Plecostomus Steindachner [F.] 1881:108 [8], Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 43; ref. 14290] Amazon River at Jatuarana, Ueranduba and Lake Saraca. Syntypes: (several) ?MCZ 27266 (1); NMW 44094 (1), 44096 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155]. On p. 8 of separate. •Valid as Watawata carinata (Steindachner 1881) -- (Isbrücker eal. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:31, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:30 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Hypostomus carinatus (Steindachner 1881) -- (Isbrücker 1980:21 [ref. 2303], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] dated 1882, Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2013:74 [ref. 32701], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Zawadzki et al. 2015:56 [ref. 33866], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus carinatus (Steindachner 1881). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

carinotus, Plecostomus (Carinotus) La Monte [F. R.] 1933:2, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 591; ref. 2705] Rio Doce, Espirito Santo State, eastern Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 11911. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Delturus carinotus (La Monte 1933) -- (Isbrücker 1980:9 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:352 [ref. 27061], Reis et al. 2006:293 [ref. 28706], Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Delturus carinotus (La Monte 1933). Loricariidae: Delturinae. Distribution: Doce River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

carnegiei, Pseudancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1916:85 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 6); ref. 1233] Río San Gil, Santander, Río Magdalena system, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 58350 [ex CM 7346]. Paratypes: CAS 77344 [ex IU 13661] (2), 77345 [ex IU 13662] (4); FMNH 58351 (5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:85 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:70 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Lasiancistrus carnegiei (Eigenmann 1916) -- (Isbrücker 1980:43-44 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233]). •Valid as Dolichancistrus carnegiei (Eigenmann 1916) -- (Isbrücker 2001:26, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:384 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155], Ballen & Vari 2012:508 [ref. 32204], Lujan et al. 2015:667 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Dolichancistrus carnegiei (Eigenmann 1916). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

carrancas, Pareiorhina Bockmann [F. A.] & Ribeiro [A. C.] 2003:232, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 27391] Córrego Debaixo da Serra, an upper course tributary of córrego do Beijinho, a left margin affluent of rio Grande at Reservoir of Camargos, in piedmont of Serra de Carrancas, 44°36'08.7"W, 21°26'39.7"S, Carrancas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, depth 980-1000 m. Holotype: MNRJ 23156 [? LIRP 2280]. Paratypes: LIRP 2280 (1, c&s), MNRJ 17064 (2 + 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:281 [ref. 29155] with holotype as LIRP 2280. •Valid as Pareiorhina carrancas Bockmann & Ribeiro 2003 -- (Chamon et al. 2005:550 [ref. 28313], Ferraris 2007:281 [ref. 29155], Pereira et al. 2010:37 [ref. 30753], Roxo et al. 2012:38 [ref. 32073] and belonging to a new genus, Soto et al. 2012:65 [ref. 32231], Silva et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32763], Azevedo-Santos & Roxo 2015:383 [ref. 33717], Silva et al. 2016:389 [ref. 34417], Pereira & Reis 2017:76 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhina carrancas Bockmann & Ribeiro 2003. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Grande River basin, upper Paraná River system, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

carreiro, Hisonotus Carvalho [T. P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2011:27, Figs. 4d, 8d, 28, 29 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 31240] Serafina Corrêa, rio Carreiro, downstream of Carreiro bathing spot, 28°42'10"S, 51°50'57"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 44515. Paratypes: ANSP 188702 (3); MCN 16361 (3); MCP 40495 (4, 2 c&s), 40943 (3), 41548 (1); MZUSP 104944 (3); UFRGS 6961 (7). Name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Hisonotus carreiro Carvalho & Reis 2011 -- (Roxo et al. 2015:137 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus carreiro Carvalho & Reis 2011. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Carreiro drainage, tributary of the rio Taquari, rio Jacuí basin, Laguna dos Patos system, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

carrioni, Lipopterichthys Norman [J. R.] 1935:628, Figs. [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 15 (no. 90); ref. 3223] Río Zamora near Loja, upper Amazon River basin, eastern Ecuador. Holotype: BMNH 1933.5.29.1 (78 mm). Paratypes: BMNH 1933.5.29.2-5 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:267 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Lipopterichthys carrioni Norman 1935 -- (Isbrücker 1980:65 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:389 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:267 [ref. 29155], Salcedo 2013:564 [ref. 32670], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745]). •Valid as Chaetostoma carrioni (Norman 1935) -- (Salcedo 2006:62 [ref. 28542], Lujan et al. 2015:676 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma carrioni (Norman 1935). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Santiago River drainage, southwestern Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

carvalhoi, Harttia Miranda Ribeiro [P. de] 1939:11, Pl. 2 (upper) [Boletím Biológico, São Paulo (Nova Série) v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3024] Rio Paquequer, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) MNRJ 1038 [ex Seçao de Zoologia do Museau Nacional, Brasil]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155] with 11 syntypes. •Valid as Harttia carvalhoi Miranda Ribeiro 1939 -- (Isbrücker 1980:90 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Oyakawa 1993:19 [ref. 21109], Langeani et al. 2001:141 [ref. 25126], Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001:80 [ref. 25404], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia carvalhoi Miranda Ribeiro 1939. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Paquequer River basin in Paraíba do Sul River drainage, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

carvalhoi, Plecostomus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1937:54 [O Campo Rio de Janeiro No. 1; ref. 5025] Rio Granjeiro, Crato, Ceará, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 924A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 924 (3). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:401 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:401 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355] state MNRJ 28870 (2) as syntypes. •Valid as Hypostomus carvalhoi (Miranda Ribeiro 1937) -- (Isbrücker 1980:21 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155], Zanata et al. 2013:241 [ref. 32751], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus carvalhoi (Miranda Ribeiro 1937). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Jaguaribe River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cashibo, Loricaria Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:205 [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Lake Cashiboya, Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Holotype (unique): IU 15416. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Loricariichthys cashibo (Eigenmann & Allen 1942) -- (Isbrücker 1980:126 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:338 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745] as Loricarichthys). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys cashibo (Eigenmann & Allen 1942). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

castanea, Loricaria Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:46, Pl. 23 (fig. 4) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9561. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:74 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Loricariichthys castaneus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Isbrücker 1980:126 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Reis & Pereira 2000:1035 [ref. 25021], Isbrücker 2001:29, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:338 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys castaneus (Castelnau 1855). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Coastal streams in southeastern Brazil between southern São Paulo and northern Espírito Santo, including the Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

castaneus, Eurycheilichthys Reis [R. E.] 2017:[11], Figs. 2d, 9 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 35226] Arroio Burro Preto, tributary to rio Guaporé, rio Taquari basin, on road RS-324, between Passo Fundo and Marau, Marau, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 28°21'29"S, 52°15'51"W, elevation above 400 meters. Holotype: MCP 40664. Paratypes: AMNH, MCP, MZUSP. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Eurycheilichthys castaneus Reis 2017. Current status: Valid as Eurycheilichthys castaneus Reis 2017. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Guaporé, Rio Taquari basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

castelnaui, Hemiancistrus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1911:58 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 16; ref. 3716] Río Ucayali, Peru. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]. Replacement name for Hypostomus pictus Castelnau 1855, secondarily preoccupied in Hemiancistrus by Ancistrus pictus Kner 1854. Lasiancistrus castelnaui should be used as valid since the replacement of the secondary junior homonym pictus happened before 1961 (see Art. 59.3 of the Code). However, castelnaui has been found to be a synonym of schomburgkii (Günther 1864). •Valid as Lasiancistrus castelnaui (Miranda Ribeiro 1911) -- (Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:387 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Lasiancistrus schomburgkii (Günther 1864) -- (Armbruster 2005:561 [ref. 28554], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155], Armbruster 2015:99 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Synonym of Lasiancistrus schomburgkii (Günther 1864). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

castroi, Rineloricaria Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1984:93, Fig. 1 [Beaufortia v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 9845] Rio Trombetas, Trapiche da Reserva Biológica de Trombetas, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP 15731. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria castroi (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1984) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria castroi Isbrücker & Nijssen 1984 -- (Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633], Londoño-Burbano & Urbano-Bonilla 2018:382 [ref. 36212]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria castroi Isbrücker & Nijssen 1984. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

catamarcensis, Loricaria Berg [C.] 1895:137 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires v. 4; ref. 14575] Arroyo El Tala, Catamarca Province, Argentina. Syntypes: MACN 3585 (1), 5171 (1). Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:100 [ref. 23697], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]. Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155] indicates types were not found at MACN. •Valid as Rineloricaria catamarcensis (Berg 1895) -- (Isbrücker 1980:104 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], López et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26808], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:2 [ref. 28173], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:46 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria catamarcensis (Berg 1895). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Tala and Salí River basins in Catamarca Province, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

cataphracta, Loricaria Linnaeus [C.] 1758:307 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mouth of Marowijne River, near Galibi, 5°45'N, 54°00'W, Suriname. Lectotype: NRM 33. Paralectotypes: ZMUC (1). Type catalog: Isbrücker 1972:163 et seq. [ref. 20708], Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:223-224 [ref. 20707], Nijssen et al. 1982:57 [ref. 19236]. Type information: Wheeler 1989:214 [ref. 21873] with a lectotype (ZMUC 27). Neotype (ZMA 109616) designated by Isbrücker 1972:172-175 [ref. 20708] for the species sensu stricto (not including L. cataphracta beta), but that became invalid when syntypes were found. •Valid as Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758 -- (Isbrücker 1972 [ref. 20708], Isbrücker 1980:116 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:58 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1998:132 [ref. 24147], Le Bail et al. 2000:280 [ref. 24549], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Schmidt 2001:235 [ref. 25646], Lasso et al. 2001:99 [ref. 25928], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2003:865 [ref. 26999], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Melo et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34701], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin and coastal rivers in the Guianas: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cataphracta, Plecostomus Meuschen [F. C.] 1778:39 [Museum Gronovianum; ref. 17682] Original not seen. Not available, published in a rejected work (Opinion 260). Loricariidae: Loricariinae.

cataphracta, Plecostomus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:158 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] South America (probably Suriname). Neotype: ZMB 3163. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]. Regarded by Isbrücker 1971:1, 15-16 [ref. 21907] as separate from Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758. Neotype designated by Isbrücker 1971:15 [ref. 21907]. •Objective synonym of Loricariichthys maculatus (Bloch 1794) after lectotype designation -- (Isbrücker 1971:12 [ref. 21907], Isbrücker 1980:127 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:26 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:339 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Loricariichthys maculatus (Bloch 1794). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

caucanus, Ancistrus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:253, Figs. 40-43 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Sonsón, Río Cauca basin, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 70516. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus caucanus Fowler 1943 -- (Isbrücker 1980:67 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155], Taphorn et al. 2013:346 [ref. 32678], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus caucanus Fowler 1943. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

caucanus, Lasiancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:11 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Cartago, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56034 [ex CM 4824]. Paratypes: (8, CM and IU) CAS 77327 [ex IU 12683] (4); FMNH 56035 (4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:84 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:51 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155]. Armbruster 2005:555 [ref. 28554] serves as first reviser selecting L. caucanus over H. mayoloi. •Valid as Lasiancistrus caucanus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Isbrücker 1980:44 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:387 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2005:553 [ref. 28554], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Lasiancistrus caucanus Eigenmann 1912. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Trans-Andian, Colombia and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

cavatica, Peckoltia Armbruster [J. W.] & Werneke [D. C.] 2005:8, Figs. 2, 4 [Zootaxa No. 882; ref. 28101] Rupununi River, 3.7 kilometers south-southeast. of Massara, 03.86228°N, -059.28439°W, Rupununi (Region 9), Guyana. Holotype: UG/CSBD 11043. Paratypes: ANSP 180209-10 (6, 10); AUM 35536 (8, 2 c&s), 36229 (7, 4 c&s); UG/CSBD 11044 (6); USNM 372572 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Peckoltia cavatica Armbruster & Werneke 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155], Armbruster 2008:24 [ref. 29740], de Oliveira et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30929] as cf. cavatica, Fisch-Muller et al. 2012:189 [ref. 31970], de Oliveira et al. 2012:548 [ref. 32202], Armbruster & Lujan 2016:117 [ref. 34264]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia cavatica Armbruster & Werneke 2005. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rupununi River, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

caxarari, Otocinclus Schaefer [S. A.] 1997:71, Figs. 44, 49b [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 148; ref. 23213] Between Guajara-Mirim and Mato Grosso, about 10°48'S, 65°23'W, Rio Solimões/Madeira/Guaporé basin, Brazil/Bolivia border. Holotype: MZUSP 51102. Paratypes: MCP 19286 (9), MZUSP 51602 (9), USNM 316402 (21, 2 c&s), plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:274 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus caxarari Schaefer 1997 -- (Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Britto & Moreira 2002:1067 [ref. 26512], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:324 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:274 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus caxarari Schaefer 1997. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Madeira River basin: Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cearensis, Parotocinclus Garavello [J. C.] 1977:14, Figs. 19-20 [Arquivos de Zoologia (São Paulo) v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 7249] Cachoeira do Gusmao, Ipu, Ceará State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 10176. Paratypes: ANSP 69414 (1), 69415-16 (2); MNRJ 8689 and 10155-10175 (124). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155].. •Valid as Parotocinclus cearensis Garavello 1977 -- (Isbrücker 1980:79 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Lacerda & Evers 1996:88 [ref. 22351], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:218 [ref. 26534], Britski & Garavello 2002:287 [ref. 26540], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Lehmann A. et al. 2013:437 [ref. 32919], Ramos et al. 2013:787 [ref. 33028], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Ramos et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35268]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus cearensis Garavello 1977. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

centrolepis, Ancistrus Regan [C. T.] 1913:470 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 3656] Río Condoto, Colombia. Lectotype: BMNH 1913.10.1.58. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1910.4.11.122 (1) Rio San Juan, Colombia Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype designation not researched, not designated here. •Valid as Ancistrus centrolepis Regan 1913 -- (Isbrücker 1980:67 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:219 [ref. 29155], Taphorn et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32678], Taphorn et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32678], de Oliveira et al. 2015:73 [ref. 33869], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633], Provenzano & Barriga-Salazar 2018:231 [ref. 36344]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus centrolepis Regan 1913. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of northern Andes, rivers of northern Colombia, Atrato, Baudo and San Juan River basins: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cephalacanthus, Otocinclus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1911:93 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 16; ref. 3716] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 1050. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:400 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus cephalacanthus Miranda Ribeiro 1911 -- (Isbrücker 1980:82 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860]). •In Otothyris -- (Schaefer 1997:8 [ref. 23213]). •Synonym of Otothyris lophophanes (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Garavello et al. 1998:5 [ref. 23346], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:325 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Otothyris lophophanes (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cephalaspis, Crossoloricaria Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1979:102, Figs. 18-19 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 5 (no. 4) (1978); ref. 2302] Río Magdalena, Colombia (either 11°00'N, 74°50'W; 6°28'N, 74°28'W or 5°15'N, 74°50'W). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1947.7.1.228. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:232 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Crossoloricaria cephalaspis Isbrücker 1979 -- (Isbrücker 1980:120 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Chang & Castro 1999:81 [ref. 23673], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:331 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:232 [ref. 29155], Covain et al. 2015:515 [24] [ref. 34066], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Crossoloricaria cephalaspis Isbrücker 1979. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cepta, Pareiorhina Roxo [F. F.], Silva [G. S. C.], Mehanna [M.] & Oliveira [C.] 2012:65, Figs. 1-2, 3a [Zootaxa No. 3512; ref. 32231] Corrego do Lavapés, affluent Rio Santo Antônio, affluent Rio Samburá, Rio São Francisco basin, 20°08'36"S, 46°38'21"W, municipality of São Roque de Minas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 111095. Paratypes: LBP 10261 (1), 10287 (13), 11835 (20, 1 c&s); LIRP 8950 (2); MCP 46896 (2), NUP 13578 (2). •Valid as Pareiorhina cepta Roxo, Silva, Mehanna & Oliveira 2012 -- (Silva et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32763], Azevedo-Santos & Roxo 2015:383 [ref. 33717], Silva et al. 2016:389 [ref. 34417], Pereira & Reis 2017:76 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhina cepta Roxo, Silva, Mehanna & Oliveira 2012. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cerosus, Hemipsilichthys Miranda Ribeiro [P. de] (ex A. de Miranda Ribeiro) 1951:xxxix [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 42 (no. 1); ref. 19699] No locality. Lectotype: MNRJ 648. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 22213 [ex MNRJ 648] (1). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:400 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:400 [ref. 12732] but specimen not isolated. Lectotype selected by Pereira & Reis 2002:115 [ref. 26071]. Species name is an adjective and corrected to cerosa when in genus Pareiorhaphis. •Valid as Hemipsilichthys cerosus Miranda Ribeiro 1951 -- (Isbrücker 1980:11-12 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Oliveira & Oyakawa 1999:79 [ref. 23672], Pereira et al. 2000:377 [ref. 25081], Bizerril 1995:116 [ref. 25087], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Pereira & Reis 2002:115 [ref. 26071], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:353 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pareiorhaphis cerosus (Miranda Ribeiro 1951) -- (Periera 2005:272 [ref. 28273], Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155], Pereira et al. 2012:539 [ref. 32218], Pereiro & Zanata 2014:36 [ref. 33226], Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307]). •Valid as Pareiorhaphis cerosa (Miranda Ribeiro 1951). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis cerosa (Miranda Ribeiro 1951). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Eastern Brazilian coastal basin. Habitat: freshwater.

cerrado, Hemiancistrus de Souza [L. S.], Melo [M. R. S.], Chamon [C. C.] & Armbruster [J. W.] 2008:420, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29848] Município Goiás Velho, rio Bugre, tributary of rio Vermelho, under bridge on road GO-164, 25 kilometers northwest of Goiás, 15°47'13"S, 50°07'53"W, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 89078. Paratypes: AUM 45427 (4); MZUSP 26549 (1), 89389 (1), 98668 (6, 1 c&s). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as "Hemiancistrus" cerrado de Souza, Melo, Chamon & Armbruster 2008 -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Valid as Hemiancistrus cerrado de Souza, Melo, Chamon & Armbruster 2008. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tributaries of the Araguaia River, Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cesarpintoi, Parotocinclus Miranda Ribeiro [P. de] 1939:364, Fig. [Boletím Biológico, São Paulo (Nova Série) v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 10385] Rio Paraíba, at Quebrângulo, Alagôas, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) Seçao de Zoologia do Museau Nacional, Brasil [? now MNRJ 1022 (2 of 7) or 1024 (2)]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus cesarpintoi Miranda Ribeiro 1939 -- (Garavello 1977:17 [ref. 7249], Isbrücker 1980:79 [ref. 2303], Garavello 1988:117 [ref. 6853], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Lacerda & Evers 1996:88 [ref. 22351], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:218 [ref. 26534], Britski & Garavello 2002:287 [ref. 26540], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Ramos et al. 2013:788 [ref. 33028]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus cesarpintoi Miranda Ribeiro 1939. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Paraibá do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

chagresi, Ancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:47 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Río Chagres, Panama Canal Zone, Panama. Syntypes: MCZ 8026 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus chagresi Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 -- (Isbrücker 1980:67 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155], Taphorn et al. 2013:354 [ref. 32678], de Oliveira et al. 2015:73 [ref. 33869]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus chagresi Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Panama Canal Zone, Chagres, Gatun and Chorrera River basins, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

changae, Chaetostoma Salcedo [N. J.] 2006:61, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2006 (no. 1); ref. 28542] Vicinity of Tingo María, backwater near Puerto Nuevo, flowinginto Río Tullamaya, 9°18'S, 75°59'W, Departamento de Huánuco, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 179125. Paratypes: ANSP 138891 (1), 138950 (13); MUSM 14904 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Chaetostoma changae Salcedo 2006 -- (Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma changae Salcedo 2006. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Huallaga River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

changae, Panaque Chockley [B. R.] & Armbruster [J. W.] 2002:83, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 26069] Río Itaya, río Amazonas drainage, 11 kilometers south-southwest of center of Iquitos at bearing 39°, 3°49'47.6"S, 73°18'2.9"W, Loreto, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 17107. Paratypes: AUM 29929 (1), INHS 42419 (2), MUSM 17108 (1), SIU 29928 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Panaque changae Chockley & Armbruster 2002 -- (Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:391 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Panaqolus changae (Chockley & Armbruster 2002) -- (Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155], Fisch-Muller et al. 2012:189 [ref. 31970], Lujan et al. 2013:192 [ref. 32784], Cramer 2014:69 [ref. 33229], Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015:469 [ref. 33945], Cramer & Sousa 2016:14 [ref. 34885], Lujan et al. 2017:333 [12] [ref. 35031] as subgenus Panaqolus). Current status: Valid as Panaqolus changae (Chockley & Armbruster 2002). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Itaya and Momon River basins, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

chanjoo, Parahemiodon Fowler [H. W.] 1940:240, Figs. 30-32 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91 (for 1939); ref. 1432] Contamana, Río Ucayali basin, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 68656. Paratypes: ANSP 68657-59 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Loricariichthys chanjoo (Fowler 1940) -- (Isbrücker 1980:126 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker et al. 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:338 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745] and Loricarichthys). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys chanjoo (Fowler 1940). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

chaparae, Plecostomus Fowler [H. W.] 1940:81, Figs. 38-40 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Boca Chapare, Río Chimore, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69067. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus chaparae (Fowler 1940) -- (Isbrücker 1980:21 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Armbruster & Page 1996:384 [ref. 22151], Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901]). •Synonym of Aphanotorulus popoi (Pearson 1924) -- (Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:26 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Hypostomus unicolor (Steindachner 1908) -- (Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] top of page). •Synonym of Aphanotorulus unicolor (Steindachner 1908) -- (Armbruster 1998:254 [ref. 23319], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:352 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155], Ray & Armbruster 2016:526 [ref. 34178]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanotorulus unicolor (Steindachner 1908). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

charrua, Hisonotus Almirón [A. E.], Azpelicueta [M. de las M.], Casciotta [J. R.] & Litz [T.] 2006:87 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 113 (no. 1); ref. 28713] Ríp Uruguay basin, Cañada de Los Peña, 31°39.09'S, 56°12.32'W, Dept. Tacuarembó, Uruguay. Holotype: ZVC-P 5639. Paratypes: Al, MHNG, MTD, ZVC. Type catalog: Nadalin & López 2015:7 [ref. 34112], Loureiro et al. 2016:414 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Hisonotus charrua Almirón, Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Litz 2006 -- (Azpelicueta & Almirón 2007:596 [ref. 29353], Ferraris 2007:440 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Carvalho & Reis 2009:35 [ref. 30193], Koerber 2011:6 [ref. 31122], Garvalho & Reis 2011:21 [ref. 31240], Koerber 2014:9 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:24 [ref. 33622], Roxo et al. 2015:137 [ref. 33763], Mirande & Koerber 2015:41 [ref. 35117], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565] with authors as Almirón, Casciotta, Azpelicueta & Litz, Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus charrua Almirón, Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Litz 2006. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: De la Plata River and Uruguay River basins, Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

chauliodon, Brochiloricaria Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1979:90, 102, Figs. 15-17 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 5 (no. 4) (1978); ref. 2302] Isla El Dorado, Paraná Guaza [Guazú], 60 kilometers northwest of Villa Ballester, Province Entre Rios, Argentina. Holotype: ZSM 23342. Paratypes: NMW 45144 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:263 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Brochiloricaria chauliodon Isbrücker 1979 -- (Isbrücker 1980:119 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:331 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:142 [ref. 28787], Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:44 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Brochiloricaria chauliodon Isbrücker 1979. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: La Plata River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

chlorostictus, Hemiancistrus Cardoso [A. R.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 1999:144, Figs. 2-3 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 12; ref. 24148] Passo Fundo dam, Gerasul UHPF, Ronda Alta, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, about 27°40'09"S, 52°45'25"W. Holotype: MCP 21153. Paratypes: MCP 19939 (6), 19941 (7). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus chlorostictus Cardoso & Malabarba 1999 -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:385 [ref. 27061], Cardoso & da Silva 2004:1 [ref. 27704], Cardoso 2004:176 [ref. 27799], Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670] as "Hemiancistrus", Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Hemiancistrus chlorostictus Cardoso & Malabarba 1999. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Uruguay River basin, Passo Fundo dam, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

chromodontus, Hisonotus Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 2007:414, Figs. 1 [Brazilian Journal of Biology v. 67 (no. 3); ref. 29429] Diamantino, creek no. 1, tributary of Rio Preto, on road to São Francisco, Rio Arinos drainage, about 14°18'S, 56°20'W, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 45355. Paratypes: many at ANSP, MCP, MHNG and MZUSP. •Valid as Hisonotus chromodontus Britski & Garavello 2007 -- (Garvalho & Reis 2011:44 [ref. 31240], Carvalho & Datovo 2012:266 [ref. 32054], Roxo et al. 2014:57 [ref. 33252], Silva et al. 2014:119 [ref. 33533], Roxo et al. 2015:137 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34426], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900], Dias et al. 2018:583 [ref. 36235]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus chromodontus Britski & Garavello 2007. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Tapajós drainage, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

chrysolomus, Baryancistrus Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.], Zuanon [J.] & de Oliveira [R. R.] 2011:247, Figs. 5-6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 31383] Rio Xingú at Furo do Ramiro, 3°15'21"S, 52°05'06"W, Altamira, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 33947. Paratypes: many at INPA, MPEG, MZUSP, ZUEC. •Valid as Baryancistrus chrysolomus Rapp Py-Daniel, Zuanon & de Oliveira 2011 -- (de Oliveira et al. 2019:491 [ref. 36981]). Current status: Valid as Baryancistrus chrysolomus Rapp Py-Daniel, Zuanon & de Oliveira 2011. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Xingú and rio Iriri, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

chrysostiktos, Hypostomus Birindelli [J. L. O.], Zanata [A. M.] & Lima [F. C. T.] 2007:272, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 29280] Iaçu, rio Paraguaçu, Fazenda Santo Antonio at 10 kilometers from Vila São Vicente, 12°30'54.1"S, 39°22'53.9"W, Bahia State, Brazil, elevation 134 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 88157. Paratypes: many at ANSP, AUM, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP and UFBA. •Valid as Hypostomus chrysostiktos Birindelli, Zanata & Lima 2007 -- (Zanata et al. 2013:247 [ref. 32751], Zanata & Pitanga 2016:231 [ref. 34535], Zawadzki et al. 2016:272 [ref. 34908], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus chrysostiktos Birindelli, Zanata & Lima 2007. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraguaçu River basin, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ciliatus, Hypostomus Bleeker [P.] 1864:11 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 20; ref. 14181] Not available, museum name mentioned in passing under Pseudancistrus guttatus. Loricariidae: Hypostominae.

cirrhosa, Loricaria Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:125, Pl. 34 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] South America. Lectotype: ZMB 3160. Paralectotypes: ZMB 22223 [ex ZMB 3160] (1). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:95, and errata on inside of back cover [ref. 24282], Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1972:170 [ref. 20708]. •Synonym of Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758 -- (Isbrücker 1980:116 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:60 [ref. 5522], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cirrhosa, Loricaria Perugia [A.] 1897:22 [7] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 18; ref. 18536] Río Beni, Mission Mosetenes, Bolivia. Lectotype: MSNG 8850. Paralectotypes: (3) MSNG 43118 [ex 8850] (2). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:311 [ref. 10351], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155].. On p. 7 of separate. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Loricaria cirrhosa Bloch & Schneider 1801. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1973:174 [ref. 22669]. •Synonym of Spatuloricaria evansii (Boulenger 1892) -- (Isbrücker 1980:113 [ref. 2303] with question, Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:46 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Spatuloricaria evansii (Boulenger 1892). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cirrhosus, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] 1836:Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] No locality. Non-types (possibly incl. holotype): MNHN 0000-4845 (4), A-9565 (2), and B-0603 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:68 [ref. 19575] as syntypes; technically the figured specimen is the unique holotype if identifiable, Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155]. Name available from plate as above, description in Valenciennes 1847:8 [ref. 5010]. Pl. 7 was published in 1836. See also Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:511 [ref. 1008]. A lectotype (MNHN 4845, 86.8 mm SL) was selected by Isbrücker 1980:67 [ref. 2303] but that has no standing. •Valid as Ancistrus cirrhosus (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Isbrücker 1980:67-68 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:16 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:65 [ref. 23791], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Knaack 1999:152 [ref. 23874], Britski et al. 1999:134 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:25, 28 [ref. 25653], Miquelarena et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26517], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:53 [ref. 27366] dating to 1840, Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Bifi et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30541], Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:161, 191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:41 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565] dated 1840). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus cirrhosus (Valenciennes 1836). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Bolivia, Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

citurensis, Oxyloricaria Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:82 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Río Cupe at Cituro, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7585. Paratypes: FMNH 29499 (1), 29500-06 (7), 29507 (1), 29508-36 (29), 29537-41 (5), 29542-54 (13), 29555-56 (2), 29557-58 (2), 19559-648 (90); USNM 78363 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:63 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:30 [ref. 19771] with remarks, Ferraris 2007:300 [ref. 29155]. Probable paratypes; original description specifically cited only the type but species is based on more than one specimen collected at type locality. •Valid as Sturisomatichthys citurensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Isbrücker 1980:92 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860] as citrensis, Isbrücker 2001:30, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:346 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:300 [ref. 29155], Covain et al. 2015:514 [23] [ref. 34066]). Current status: Valid as Sturisomatichthys citurensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Tuira and Bayano River basins, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

claro, Ancistrus Knaack [J.] 1999:71, Figs. 1-3 + unnumbered [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 47 (no. 10); ref. 23828] Rio Claro, above the bridge, in the direction of Chappada dos Guimaraes, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 28667 [ex ZMB 32918]. Paratypes: MCP 28668 [ex ZMB 32919] (9). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus claro Knaack 1999 -- (Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155], Bifi et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30541], de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869], Bifi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36821]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus claro Knaack 1999. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Cuiabá River basin in upper Paraguay River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

claustellifer, Panaqolus Tan [M.], de Souza [L. S.] & Armbruster [J. W.] 2016:[3], Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 14 (no. 2) (e150033); ref. 34532] Amazon River - rio Branco drainage, Takutu River near Lethem, Guyana, 3.47043°, -059.80993°. Holotype: CSBD F1702 (ex AUM 44721). Paratypes: AUM, MZUSP. •Valid as Panaqolus claustellifer Tan, de Souza & Armbruster 2016 -- (Cramer & de Sousa 2016:1 [ref. 34885], Lujan et al. 2017:333 [12] [ref. 35031] as subgenus Panaqolus). Current status: Valid as Panaqolus claustellifer Tan, de Souza & Armbruster 2016. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Guyana and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

clavipinna, Loricaria Fowler [H. W.] 1940:247, Figs. 44-47 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91 (for 1939); ref. 1432] Contamana, Ucayali River basin, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68665. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Loricaria clavipinna Fowler 1940 -- (Isbrücker 1980:117 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:78 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155], Thomas & Sabaj Pérez 2010:280 [ref. 30831], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Loricaria clavipinna Fowler 1940. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

clementinae, Ancistrus Rendahl [H.] 1937:4, Fig. 2 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 29 (pt. 3) A (art. 11); ref. 15300] Río Clementina system, northwest of Babahoyo, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): NRM 10369. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus clementinae Rendahl 1937 -- (Isbrücker 1980:68 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:375 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:212 [ref. 34894], Provenzano & Barriga-Salazar 2018:222 [ref. 36344]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus clementinae Rendahl 1937. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Pacific versant of Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cobrensis, Pseudancistrus pediculatus Schultz [L. P.] 1944:299, Pl. 9 (figs. A-B) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Cobre, tributary to Río Quinta, below La Grita, Catatumbo system, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121036. Paratypes: MBUCV (10); MCZ 37225 (50); MBUCV-V-18375 [ex USNM 121037] (10); UMMZ 141941 (60, 1 c&s); USNM 121037 (4820, now 4670); ZMA 102631 (30). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:61 [ref. 19236], Ferraris & Vari 1992:31 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:15 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pseudancistrus pediculatus Eigenmann 1918, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Galvis et al. 1997:96 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Dolichancistrus cobrensis (Schultz 1944) -- (Isbrücker 1980:48 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:384 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155], Ballen & Vari 2012:510 [ref. 32204], Lujan et al. 2015:667 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Dolichancistrus cobrensis (Schultz 1944). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Catatumbo River basin in Lake Maracaibo drainage, Colombia and Venezuela and upper Apure in the río Orinoco basin. Habitat: freshwater.

cocama, Otocinclus Reis [R. E.] 2004:110, Figs. 1-4 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 27934] Quebrada Yamayacu, about 4°55'S, 73°43'W, tributary to the caño of the cocha Supay in Jenaro Herrera, Provincia Requena, Departamento Loreto, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 20686. Paratypes: AMNH 233730 (3), MCP 34842 (10, 2 c&s), MUSM 20687 (5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:274 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus cocama Reis 2004 -- (Ferraris 2007:274 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro & Lehmann A. 2016:245 [ref. 34636]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus cocama Reis 2004. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Lower Ucayali and Marañon rivers, upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cochliodon, Chaetostomus Steindachner [F.] 1879:194 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 18) (for 17 July 1879); ref. 20479] Río Cauca, Magdalena River drinage, Colombia. Syntypes: NMW 47297-98 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:187 [p. 69 in separate] [ref. 4229]. •Valid as Panaque cochliodon (Steindachner 1879) -- (Isbrücker 1980:74 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:391 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2010:683 [ref. 31098], Lujan et al. 2017:331 [ref. 35031], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Panaque cochliodon (Steindachner 1879). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Cauca and Magdalena River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cochliodon, Hypostomus Kner [R.] 1854:265 [15], Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] Rio Cuiabá, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 44101. Syntypes: NMW 46277 (1), 59395 (1, dry); RMNH D1897 [ex NMW] (1). Type information: Van der Stigchel 1947:157 [ref. 13094]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype designated by Tencatt et al. 2014:590 [ref. 33520]. On p. 15 of separate. •Valid as Cochliodon cochliodon (Kner 1854) -- (Isbrücker 1980:39 [ref. 2303], Lilyestrom 1984:41 [ref. 23620], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:10 [ref. 23548], Gómez & Chebez 1996:64 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:135 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:26, 28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:14 [ref. 27178], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Hypostomus cochliodon Kner 1854 -- (Weber & Montoya-Burgos 2002:366 [ref. 26428], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:357 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27366], Armbruster 2003:21 [ref. 27426], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Armbruster et al. 2007:67 [ref. 29252], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155], Carvalho et al. 2010:39 [ref. 30754], Zawadzki et al. 2010:719 [ref. 31074], Weber et al. 2012:211 [ref. 31999], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Zawadzki & Carvalho 2014:49 [ref. 33227], Zawadzki et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33233], Tencatt et al. 2014:587 [ref. 33520], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Zawadzki et al. 2015:50 [ref. 33866], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35267], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus cochliodon Kner 1854. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraguay and middle Paraná River basins: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

collinsae, Parotocinclus Schmidt [R. E.] & Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] 1985:341, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 98 (no. 2); ref. 17274] Essequibo River drainage, tributary to Takutu River, 6°15'N, 59°5'W, Essequibo, Guyana. Holotype: AMNH 55433. Paratypes: AMNH 55434 (4, largest c&s), USNM 265091 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:31 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus collinsae Schmidt & Ferraris 1985 -- (Garavello 1988:124 [ref. 6853], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Schaefer & Provenzano 1993:50 [ref. 20828], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Gauger & Buckup 2005:517 [ref. 28562], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Lehmann A. et al. 2013:437 [ref. 32919], Lehmann A. et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33224], Lehmann A. et al. 2015:47 [ref. 33723], Roxo et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34921]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus collinsae Schmidt & Ferraris 1985. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

colombiensis, Acestridium Retzer [M. E.] 2005:2, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 972; ref. 28228] Río Inirida, lagoon at 1 kilometer up river from Puerto Inirida, Orinoco Basin, Guainia State, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 115255. Paratypes: FMNH 105169 (10), INHS 99093 (2), USNM 381314 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Acestridium colombiense Retzer 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155], Rodriguez & Reis 2007:429 [ref. 29464], Reis & Lehmann A. 2009:451 [ref. 30379], Rodriguez et al. 2015:325 [ref. 33908], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35633] as colombiensis). Current status: Valid as Acestridium colombiense Retzer 2005. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Inirida River, Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

colombiensis, Farlowella Retzer [M. E.] & Page [L. M.] 1997:62, Fig. 33 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 147; ref. 23176] Río Upia drainage, area of Guaicaramo, Meta Dept., Colombia. Holotype: CAS 123733. Paratypes: ANSP 88080 (11), CAS 169739 [ex CAS 123733] (1), INHS 32939 [ex ASNP 88080] (2). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:271 [ref. 23225], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella colombiensis Retzer & Page 1997 -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155], Ballen & Mojica 2014:140 [ref. 33176], Ballen et al. 2016:331 [ref. 34915], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella colombiensis Retzer & Page 1997. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Orinico River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

commersoni, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] 1836:Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Río de La Plata, Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9444 (dry). Valenciennes specimens and non-types: ?BMNH 1899.24.5.1 (1, dry), ?BMNH 1899.24.5.4-3 (2, dry); MNHN A-9443 (1), A-9445 (1), A-9563 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:70 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155]. See Casatti & Castro 1998:232 [ref. 23663]. Name available from plate in 1837, description in Valenciennes 1847:8 [ref. 5010]. See also Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:495 [ref. 1008]. Lectotype selected by Weber 1986:994 [ref. 8023] as MNHN 99.24.5.7 [ex A.9444] but 99.24.5.7 is a BMNH number; but technically the unique holotype is the figured specimen in Pl. 7 (fig. 2) and that may be MNHN A.9444; A.9444 and A.9443 were collected by d'Orbigny and one or the other is the type. •Valid as Hypostomus commersoni Valenciennes 1836 -- (Isbrücker 1980:21 [ref. 2303], Weber 1986:994 [ref. 8023], Malabarba 1989:152 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Reis et al. 1990:736 [ref. 16139], López & Miquelarena 1991:20 [ref. 23548], Gómez & Chebez 1996:63 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1998:135 [ref. 24147], Sverlij et al. 1998:67 [ref. 27632] dated 1840, Butí & Cancino 1999:72 [ref. 25277], Zawadzki et al. 2001:914 [ref. 25469] as cf. commersonii, Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Miquelarena et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26517], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:357 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27366], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] as commersonii 1840, Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:252 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2010:724 [ref. 31074], Garavello et al. 2012:267 [ref. 32033], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Zawadzki et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33233], Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622], Zawadzki et al. 2015:56 [ref. 33866], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Cardoso et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34373], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Zawadzki et al. 2016:272 [ref. 34908], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35267], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944], Cardoso et al. 2019:[8] [ref. 36685]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus commersoni Valenciennes 1836. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lower Paraná River basin (including the Iguazú. Paraguay, Plata and Dulce rivers): Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

commersonoides, Loricaria Devincenzi [G. J.] 1943:3, Figs. 2-4 [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 13048] Río Uruguay at Paysandú, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): MHNM (apparently lost). Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:4 [ref. 23527], Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155], Loureiro et al. 2016:412 [ref. 35150]. •Mention as Paraloricaria commersonoides (Devincenzi 1943) -- (Isbrücker 1979:112 [ref. 2302]). •Valid as Paraloricaria commersonoides (Devincenzi 1943) -- (Isbrücker 1980:115 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:339 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:47 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:26 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:45 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Paraloricaria commersonoides (Devincenzi 1943). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil (?) and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

commersonoides, Plecostomus Marini [T. L.], Nichols [J. T.] & La Monte [F. R.] 1933:3 [American Museum Novitates No. 618; ref. 2889] Dársena Norte, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype: AMNH 12243. Paratypes: AMNH 12244 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Plecostomus commersonoides Marini, Nichols & La Monte 1933 -- (Isbrücker 1980:22 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Hypostomus commersonoides (Marini, Nichols & La Monte 1933) -- (Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644]). •Synonym of Hypostomus laplatae (Eigenmann 1907) -- (López & Miquelarena 1991:29 [ref. 23548], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Cardoso et al. 2019:[17] [ref. 36685]). Current status: Synonym of Hypostomus laplatae (Eigenmann 1907). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

compta, Peckoltia de Oliveira [R. R.], Zuanon [J.], Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] & Rocha [M. S.] 2010:49, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 2534; ref. 30929] Itaituba, Pimental, rio Tapajós downstream from confluence with rio Ja,anxim, 4°41'06"S, 56°23'07"W, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 6865. Paratypes: INPA 6782 (4, 1 c&s), 6975 (4); MCP 45008 (1); MPEG 18643 (1); MZUSP 105752 (1). •Valid as Peckoltia compta de Oliveira, Zuanon, Rapp Py-Daniel & Rocha 2010 -- (de Oliveira et al. 2012:548 [ref. 32202], Armbruster et al. 2015:100 [ref. 33670], Armbruster & Lujan 2016:116 [ref. 34264]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia compta de Oliveira, Zuanon, Rapp Py-Daniel & Rocha 2010. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rios Tapajós and Jamanxim, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

condei, Apistoloricaria Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1986:104, Figs. 1-4 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 12 (no. 4) (1985); ref. 5212] Río Napo basin (upper Amazon), Napo Province, Ecuador. Holotype: FMNH 94683. Paratypes: EPN uncat. (1), EPN uncat. (1); FMNH 94677 (4), 94808 (1), 96551-52 (1, 1), 96558 (1); ZMA 119407 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Apistoloricaria condei Isbrücker & Nijssen 1986 -- (Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:330 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745]). •Valid as Rhadinoloricaria condei (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1986) -- (Covain et al. 2015:515 [24] [ref. 34066]). Current status: Valid as Rhadinoloricaria condei (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1986). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River drainage, Napo River basin, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

contradens, Hypancistrus Armbruster [J. W.], Lujan [N. K.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2007:64, Figs. 1A, 2 [Copeia 2007 (no. 1); ref. 29036] Río Ventuari, 23 kilometers northeast of Macuruco, 94 kilometers east of San Fernando de Atabapo, 4°04'50"N, 66°51'31"W, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 54656. Paratypes: Many lots at ANSP, AUM, FMNH, and MCNG. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hypancistrus contradens Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007 -- (Tan & Armbruster 2016:134 [ref. 34145], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypancistrus contradens Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

coppenamensis, Hypostomus Boeseman [M.] 1969:120, Fig. 3 [Beaufortia v. 16 (no. 215); ref. 7799] Left Coppename River, Suriname, 3°54'N, 56°46'W. Holotype: ZMA 105856. Paratypes: ZMA 106143 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:54-55 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus coppenamensis Boeseman 1969 -- (Isbrücker 1980:22 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:357 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155], Weber et al. 2012:211 [ref. 31999]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus coppenamensis Boeseman 1969. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Coppename River basin, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

coquenani, Ancistrus (Pseudancistrus) Steindachner [F.] 1915:90 [76], Pl. 11 (figs. 3-5) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Río Coquenan, Venezuela. Syntypes: (3) NMW 48023 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155]. On p. 76 of separate; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. Described as ...coquenani n. sp.? an A. güntheri Regan female. •Valid as Pseudancistrus coquenani (Steindachner 1915) -- (Isbrücker 1980:10 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:95 [ref. 23651], Isbrücker 2001:25, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:27 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:394 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:5 [ref. 27844], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155], Armbruster & Taphorn 2008:39 [ref. 29748], Willink et al. 2010:41 [ref. 30670]). Current status: Valid as Pseudancistrus coquenani (Steindachner 1915). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Kukenan River basin in upper Caroni River drainage, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

corantijni, Hypostomus Boeseman [M.] 1968:40, Pl. 4 (figs. 1-4) [Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) No. 99; ref. 7872] Sipaliwini River, Suriname. Holotype: RMNH 25471 (largest of 3). Paratypes: RMNH 25470 (1), 25471 (2 of 3, with holotype), 25472-75 (9, 1, 1, 1), 25519 (1), 25523 (1); ZMA 110171 [ex RMNH 25472] (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:55 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus corantijni Boeseman 1968 -- (Isbrücker 1980:22 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:357 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155], Weber et al. 2012:211 [ref. 31999], Zawadzki et al. 2015:56 [ref. 33866], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus corantijni Boeseman 1968. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Corantijn River basin, upstream of first cataracts, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

corantijniensis, Pseudancistrus De Chambrier [S.] & Montoya-Burgos [J. I.] 2008:47, Figs. 1-2, 3 (lower right) [Zootaxa No. 1918; ref. 29881] Corantijn River at Kaw Falls, 4°59'48.3"N, 57°37'49.5"W, Corantijn River drainage, Sipaliwini District, Suriname. Holotype: MHNG 2672.092. Paratypes: MHNG 2672.056 (1), 2672.066 (1), 2672.081 (1), 2672.090 (1), 2672-074 (10, now 8), 2712/100 [ex 2672.092] (5 not 7); MNHN 2007-1931 (1), 2007-1932 (1); NZCS F7064-65 (2). •Valid as Pseudancistrus corantijniensis De Chambrier & Montoya-Burgos 2008 -- (Willink et al. 2010:41 [ref. 30670]. Silva et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33302], Silva et al. 2015:21 [ref. 33679]). Current status: Valid as Pseudancistrus corantijniensis De Chambrier & Montoya-Burgos 2008. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Corantijn River, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

cordobensis, Leptoancistrus Dahl [G.] in Dahl, Medem & Ramos Henao 1964:32, Unnum. pl. [El "Bocachico" contribución al estudio de su biología y de su ambiente; ref. 23526] Río Uré of the upper San Jorge in tributaries of Río Sinú, Colombia. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:266 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Leptoancistrus cordobensis Dahl 1964 -- (Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:389 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:266 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2015:667 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leptoancistrus cordobensis Dahl 1964. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cordovae, Plecostomus Günther [A.] 1880:11 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 6 (no. 31) (art. 2); ref. 14279] Cordova [Córdoba], Argentina. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1878.4.4.1. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:258 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Hypostomus paranensis Weyenbergh 1877 -- (Ferraris 2007:258 [ref. 29155], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617]). •Valid as Hypostomus cordovae (Günther 1880) -- (Isbrücker 1980:22 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:24 [ref. 23548], Gómez & Chebez 1996:64 [ref. 23791], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], Butí & Cancino 1999:71 [ref. 25277], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], López et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26808], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:357 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27366], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Armbruster et al. 2007:67 [ref. 29252], Cardoso et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34373], Cardoso et al. 2019:[14] [ref. 36685], Koerber et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus cordovae (Günther 1880). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: South America: Argentina: Primero, Segundo, Cuarto, and Quinto rivers (Córdoba), Horcones river (Santiago del Estero), Juramento river (Salta), Del Cajón, Calera, and Salí rivers (Tucumán), Carcarañá river (Santa Fe). Habitat: freshwater.

corumba, Neoplecostomus Zawadzki [C. H.], Pavanelli [C. S.] & Langeani [F.] 2008:32, Fig. 2 [Zootaxa No. 1757; ref. 29594] Córrego Gameleira, affluent of Rio Corumbá, rio Paranaíba basin, 17°59'S, 48°29'W, Corumbaiba, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: DZSJRP 6713. Paratypes: DZSJRP 6193 (5); MZUSP 86208 (9); NUP 2528 (5). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:451 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Neoplecostomus corumba Zawadzki, Pavanelli & Langeani 2008 -- (Roxo et al. 2012:2 [ref. 31839], Roxo et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32073], Roxo et al. 2014:125 [ref. 33492], Andrade & Langeani 2014:9 [ref. 33618], Cherobim et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35001], Pereira & Reis 2017:74 [ref. 35307], Roxo et al. 2017:238 [ref. 35467], Silva et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36454]). Current status: Valid as Neoplecostomus corumba Zawadzki, Pavanelli & Langeani 2008. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Paranaíba River basin, Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

coryphaenus, Eurycheilichthys Reis [R. E.] 2017:[13], Figs. 2e, 3, 10 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 35226] Arroio Contendas, rio Taquari basin, Tainhas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, approximately 29°17'S, 50°14'W, elevation above 400 meters. Holotype: MCP 40665. Paratypes: AMNH, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP, UFRGS. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Eurycheilichthys coryphaenus Reis 2017. Current status: Valid as Eurycheilichthys coryphaenus Reis 2017. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio das Antas drainage, Rio Taquari basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

coximensis, Loricaria Rodriguez [M. S.], Cavallaro [M. R.] & Thomas [M. R.] 2012:49, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2012; ref. 31866] São Gabriel do Oeste, Rio Coxim, riffle justt downriver of Ponte Alta hydroelectric powerhouse, 19°24'47"S, 54°27'27"W, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: LIRP 7547. Paratypes: many at FMNH, LIRP, ZUFMS-PIS 1889 (2). •Valid as Loricaria coximensis Rodriguez, Cavallaro & Thomas 2012 -- (Thomas et al. 2013:376 [ref. 32997]). Current status: Valid as Loricaria coximensis Rodriguez, Cavallaro & Thomas 2012. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Rio Caxim basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

coxipone, Curculionichthys Roxo [F. F.], Silva [G. S. C.], Ochoa [L. E.] & Oliveira [C.] 2015:117, Figs. 4B, 5D, 9-10 [ZooKeys No. 534; ref. 34024] Municipality of Cuiabá, tributary of. Rio Aricá Mirim, Rio Cuiabá drainage, Rio Paraguay basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 15°46'03"S, 55°30'44"W. Holotype: MZUSP 117380. Paratypes: LBP, NUP. •Valid as Curculionichthys coxipone Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Oliveira 2015 -- (Silva et al. 2016:289 [ref. 34828], Roxo et al. 2017:268 [ref. 35655], Calegari et al. 2018:669 [ref. 36345]). Current status: Valid as Curculionichthys coxipone Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Oliveira 2015. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Cuiabá dranage, Rio Paraguay basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

crassicauda, Harttia Boeseman [M.] 1953:10, Figs. 1b, 2 [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 32 (no. 1); ref. 12684] Creek in Nassau Mountains, Suriname. Holotype: RMNH 19418 (largest of 15). Paratypes: RMNH 19418 (14 of 15). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:242 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Harttiella crassicauda (Boeseman 1953) -- (Isbrücker 1980:89 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:276 [ref. 24549], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:336 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:242 [ref. 29155], Covain et al. 2012:139 [ref. 32000]). Current status: Valid as Harttiella crassicauda (Boeseman 1953). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Marowijne River basin, Nassau Mountains, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

crassicauda, Hypostomus Boeseman [M.] 1968:42, Pl. 17 (figs. 1-2) [Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) No. 99; ref. 7872] Sipaliwini River, Suriname. Holotype: RMNH 25489 (212 mm TL specimen of 5). Paratypes: RMNH 25489 (4, with holotype). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus crassicauda Boeseman 1968 -- (Isbrücker 1980:22 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:357 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155], Weber et al. 2012:211 [ref. 31999], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus crassicauda Boeseman 1968. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Sipaliwini River basin, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

cristatus, Parotocinclus Garavello [J. C.] 1977:6, Figs. 9-10 [Arquivos de Zoologia (São Paulo) v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 7249] Fazenda Almada, Ilhéus, Bahia State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 10132. Paratypes: MNRJ 10122-31 (10). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus cristatus Garavello 1977 -- (Isbrücker 1980:80 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Lacerda & Evers 1996:88, 89 [ref. 22351], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Garavello & Britski 2003:258 [ref. 27469], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Sarmento-Soares et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30254], Britski & Garavello 2009:60 [ref. 30260], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Ramos et al. 2013:788 [ref. 33028], Lehmann A. et al. 2014:32 [ref. 33224], Ramos et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35268]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus cristatus Garavello 1977. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Coastal rivers near Ilhéus, Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cryptodon, Pseudohemiodon (Planiloricaria) Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1971:278, Figs. 3-8 [Bonner Zoologische Beiträge v. 21 (no. 3/4) (1970); ref. 2300] Río Ucayali, near Pucallpa, Peru. Holotype (unique): ZFMK 1865 [ex ZFMK I/66/1717]. Type catalog: Busse 1984:219 [ref. 28342]., Ferraris 2007:285 [ref. 29155], Herder et al. 2010:121 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Planiloricaria cryptodon (Isbrücker 1971) -- (Isbrücker 1980:122 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:31, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:340 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:285 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Planiloricaria cryptodon (Isbrücker 1971). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River drainage: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cryptophthalmus, Ancistrus Reis [R. E.] 1987:82, Figs. 1, 3-4 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 6263] Caverna Passa Três, about 300 meters into the cave, 13°20' to 13°52'S, 46°16' to 46°30'W, Rio São Vicente system, São Domingos, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 28809. Paratypes: IRSNB 730 (1), MAPA 2566-2567, MCP 10523, MFA 555, MFA 874-878, MZUSP 24486, MZUSP 28806, MZUSP 28807-08, ZMA 119409 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus cryptophthalmus Reis 1987 -- (Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Pérez & Viloria 1994:106 [ref. 22094], Sabino & Trajano 1997:73 [ref. 23465], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:375 [ref. 27061], Fisch-Muller et al. 2005:570 [ref. 28242], Proudlove 2006:151 [ref. 28992], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155], Bifi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36821]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus cryptophthalmus Reis 1987. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River, Tocantins River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ctenistus, Leptotocinclus Delapieve [M. L. S.], Lehmann A [P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2018:24, Figs. 3c, 7f, 13, 15 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 4) e170079 (for 18 Dec. 2017); ref. 35713] Igarapé São Sebastião, tributary to igarapé do Baré, lago Amanã basin, Maraã, Amazonas, Brazil, 02°17'06"S, 64°40'36"W. Holotype: INPA 53272. Paratypes: ICNMHN, INPA, MCP, MPEG. •Valid as Leptotocinclus ctenistus Delapieve, Lehmann A & Reis 2018. Current status: Valid as Leptotocinclus ctenistus Delapieve, Lehmann A & Reis 2018. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Solimões and rio Negro drainages, Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cubataonis, Loricaria Steindachner [F.] 1907:489 [15] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 116 (1. Abth.); ref. 18797] Cubatao River, Santa Catarina State, near Theoresopolis, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW (not found). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]. On p. 15 of separate. Types not found (Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]). For information regarding the type locality see Lucena & Lucena 1990 [ref. 16142]. •Valid as Rineloricaria cubataonis (Steindachner 1907) -- (Isbrücker 1980:104 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155], Ghazzi 2008:102 [ref. 29636]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria cubataonis (Steindachner 1907). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Coastal Atlantic rivers of southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cuestae, Corumbataia Britski [H. A.] 1997:234, Figs. 3, 5-6 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 40 (no. 15); ref. 24174] Rio Corumbataí, Cachoeira de Analândia, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 51222. Paratypes: MZUSP 22420 (8), 22690 (124), 22821 (40), 22926 (1), 24549 (28), 27778 (2), 39846 (32), 39856 (35), 47967 (31). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:232 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Corumbataia cuestae Britski 1997 -- (Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:322 [ref. 27061], Ferreira & Ribeiro 2007:61 [ref. 28908], Ferraris 2007:232 [ref. 29155], Carvalho 2008:552 [ref. 29798], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Roxo et al. 2015:106 [ref. 34024], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310], Silva et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36151]). Current status: Valid as Corumbataia cuestae Britski 1997. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Tietê River basin, upper Paraná river basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cuiabae, Ancistrus Knaack [J.] 1999:151, Figs. [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 47 (no. 12); ref. 23874] Pantanal, 36 kilometers southeast of Poconé, in a permanent remnant water of Rio Bento Gome, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 28671 [ex ZMB 32920]. Paratypes: BZM 32921 (9). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus cuiabae Knaack 1999 -- (Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:375 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155], Bifi et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30541], de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869], Bifi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36821]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus cuiabae Knaack 1999. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Cuiabá River basin in upper Paraguay River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

curtirostra, Farlowella Myers [G. S.] 1942:102, Fig. 11 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 3121] Quebrada Tabor, tributary of Río Motatan system, 30 kilometers north of Trujillo, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS-SU 36508. Paratypes: CAS-SU 36509-10 (2, 10); USNM 130635 [ex CAS-SU 36510] (2) Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:46 [ref. 12291], Ferraris & Vari 1992:27 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella curtirostra Myers 1942 -- (Isbrücker 1980:97 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:50 [ref. 23176], Galvis et al. 1997:84 [ref. 23651], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155], Ballen & Mojica 2014:140 [ref. 33176], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella curtirostra Myers 1942. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo drainage, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

curvidens, Plesioptopoma Reis [R. E.], Pereira [E. H. L.] & Lehmann A. [P.] 2012:6, Figs. 1-4 [Copeia 2012 (no. 1); ref. 31863] Cristiano Otoni, Rio Paraopeba, upper Rio São Francisco drainage, at old bridge ca. 100 meters west of highway BR-040, 20°49'11"S, 43°48'47"W, Minas Gerias, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 46286. Paratypes: AMNH 253202 (3), MCP 36861 (8 + 2 c&s)m NNRJ 21426 (3 + 1 c&s). •Valid as Plesioptopoma curvidens Reis, Pereira & Lehmann A. 2012 -- (Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:61 [ref. 32074], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228], Roxo et al. 2017:352 [ref. 35310]). Current status: Valid as Plesioptopoma curvidens Reis, Pereira & Lehmann A. 2012. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Paraopeba, upper Rio São Francisco drainage, Minas Gerias, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

curvispina, Loricaria Dahl [G.] 1942:85 [6], Figs. 5-7 [Förhanglingar / Klungl. Fysiografiska sällskapet i Lund = Proceedings of the Royal Physiographic Society at Lund. v. 11 (no. 8); ref. 13197] Río Batatal, tributary to Río San Jorge, Río Magdalena system, Bolivar Dept., Colombia. Holotype (unique): ZMUL. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155]. On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Spatuloricaria curvispina (Dahl 1942) -- (Isbrücker 1980:112 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:344 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155], Fichberg et al. 2014:322 [ref. 33358], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Spatuloricaria curvispina (Dahl 1942). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

daguae, Hemiancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:11 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Caldas, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56052 [ex CM 4842]. Paratypes: (42, CM and IU) CAS 56745 [ex IU 12698] (7), 74161 [ex IU 12699] (4); FMNH 56053-54 (27, 4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:83 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:231 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Lasiancistrus daguae (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:44 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233]). •Valid as Cordylancistrus daguae (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Isbrücker 2001:26, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:14 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:383 [ref. 27061], Provenzano & Milani 2006:34 [ref. 28579], Ferraris 2007:231 [ref. 29155], Tan & Armbruster 2012:52 [ref. 31842], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], Lujan et al. 2015:659 [ref. 33963], Provenzano & Villa-Navarro 2017:529 [ref. 35473], Provenzano et al. 2017:263 [ref. 35613], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35633]). •Incertae sedis within the Chaetostoma group -- (Lujan et al. 2015:667 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Valid as Cordylancistrus daguae (Eigenmann 1912). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Dagua River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

daidalmatos, Chaetostoma Salcedo [N. J.] 2006:208, Figs. 1-2, 3a [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 3); ref. 28842] Tingo María, Río Huallaga, 9°18'S, 76°00'W, Province Leoncio Prado, Depto. Huánuco, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 25552. Paratypes: MUSM 10579 (2), 14911 (1), 15153 (1), 16472 (2, 1 c&s). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Chaetostoma daidalmatos Salcedo 2006 -- (Ferraris 2007:444 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma daidalmatos Salcedo 2006. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Huallaga River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

damasceni, Xenocara Steindachner [F.] 1907:292 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 44 (no. 17) (for 4 July 1907); ref. 18799] Rio Parnahyba near Victoria and Filomena, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 43489-90 (4, 7); ZSM 7579 [ex NMW 43491] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:268 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Ancistrus damasceni (Steindachner 1907) -- (Isbrücker 1980:68 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:375 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus damasceni (Steindachner 1907). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Parnaíba River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dani, Parotocinclus Roxo [F. F.], Silva [G. S. C.] & Oliveira [C.] 2016:127, Figs. 1, 2a, 3 [ZooKeys No. 634; ref. 34921] Small tributary of rio Peixoto de Azevedo, drainage of rio Teles Pires, rio Tapajós basin, municipality of Peixoto de Azevedo, Mato Gross State, Brazil, 10°23'10"S, 54°18'22"W. Holotype: MZUSP 120737. Paratypes: LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Parotocinclus dani Roxo, Silva & Oliveira 2016 -- (Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Ramos et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35268], Roxo et al. 2019:354 [ref. 36855]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus dani Roxo, Silva & Oliveira 2016. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

daraha, Rineloricaria Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] & Fichberg [I.] 2008:340, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29840] Rio Daraã, cachoeira do Aracu, 0°25'00"S, 64°46'59"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 28579. Paratypes: INPA 6586 (4), 6587 (2), 12045 (7), 17939 (3), 28780 (1); MZUSP 31396 (1 c&s), 35094 (2). •Valid as Rineloricaria daraha Rapp Py-Daniel & Fichberg 2008 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633], Londoño-Burbano & Urbano-Bonilla 2018:382 [ref. 36212]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria daraha Rapp Py-Daniel & Fichberg 2008. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

dardanelos, Hypostomus Zawadzki [C. H.] & Carvalho [P. H.] 2014:44, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 33227] Mato Grosso State, município de Aripuanã, rio Madeira basin, rio Praia Grande (at its mouth to rio Aripuanã downstream cachoeira Dardanelos and Andorinhas), 10°02’51"S, 59°23’21"W, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 37342. Paratypes: Many, Rio Aripuanã basin: INPA, MNRJ, MZUSP, NUP. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Hypostomus dardanelos Zawadzki & Carvalho 2014 -- (Tencatt et al. 2014:601 [ref. 33520]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus dardanelos Zawadzki & Carvalho 2014. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Aripuanã basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dariensis, Oxyloricaria Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:81 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Río Tuyra, Boca de Cupe, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7584. Paratypes: FMNH 29649-87 (total 39). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:63 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sturisoma dariense (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Isbrücker 1980:94 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:30, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Sturisomatichthys dariensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913 )-- (Covain et al. 2015:514 [23] [ref. 34066]). Current status: Valid as Sturisomatichthys dariensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Tuira River basin, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

debilittera, Hypancistrus Armbruster [J. W.], Lujan [N. K.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2007:68, Figs. 1D, 5 [Copeia 2007 (no. 1); ref. 29036] Pasaganado, 38 kilometers north of San Fernando de Atabapo, 4°23'04"N, 67°46'28"W, Río Orinoco, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MNGN 54661. Paratypes: ANSP 182800 (2), AUM 42136 (3), MSNG 54662 (2). •Valid as Hypancistrus debilittera Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007 -- (Tan & Armbruster 2016:123 [ref. 34145], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypancistrus debilittera Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

delimai, Hypostomus Zawadzki [C. H.], de Oliveira [R. R.] & Debona [T.] 2013:74, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 32701] Itupiranga, rio Tocantins, 5°07'29.6"S, 49°18'44.4"W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 6191. Paratypes: Many at ANSP, INPA, MPEG, MZUSP, NUP, ZUEC. •Valid as Hypostomus delimai Zawadzki, de Oliveira & Debona 2013 -- (Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus delimai Zawadzki, de Oliveira & Debona 2013. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins and rio Araguaia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

demantoides, Baryancistrus Werneke [D. C.], Sabaj Pérez [M. H.], Lujan [N. K.] & Armbruster [J. W.] 2005:535, Figs. 1a,b, 2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28457] Rio Ventuari near ornamental fish market in river, 04.07565°N, 066.89285°W, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 54029. Paratypes: ANSP 180226 (1), 180227 (1), 180228 (1); AUM 37974 (1), 42034 (1), 42169 (2); MCNG 54030 (1), 54031 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Baryancistrus demantoides Werneke, Sabaj Pérez, Lujan & Armbruster 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2009:53 [ref. 30056], Rapp Py-Daniel et al. 2011:241[ref. 31383], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633], de Oliveira et al. 2019:491 [ref. 36981]). Current status: Valid as Baryancistrus demantoides Werneke, Sabaj Pérez, Lujan & Armbruster 2005. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River and upper tributaries, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

dentata, Loricaria Shaw [G.] 1804:37 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas, in error [South America]. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155]. Unneeded new name; based on several literature sources. •Synonym of Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758 -- (Isbrücker 1980:116 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:60 [ref. 5522], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

dentex, Chaetostomus Günther [A.] 1868:477 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 1992] Xeberos (or Jeberos), upper Río Aipena system, tributary to Río Huallaga, about 5°18'S, 76°17'W, Dept. Loreto, Peru. Holotype: BMNH 1867.6.13.37. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. Also published in Günther (Sept.) 1868:233 [ref. 5756]. •Valid as Panaque dentex (Günther 1868) -- (Isbrücker 1980:74-75 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Schaefer & Stewart 1993:321 [ref. 21282], Le Bail et al. 2000:248 [ref. 24549] as cf. dentex, Chockley & Armbruster 2002:83 [ref. 26069], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:391 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745]). •Valid as Panaqolus dentex (Günther 1868) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:21 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155], Fisch-Muller et al. 2012:189 [ref. 31970], Lujan et al. 2013:192 [ref. 32784], Cramer 2014:69 [ref. 33229], Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015:469 [ref. 33945], Cramer & Sousa 2016:14 [ref. 34885]). Current status: Valid as Panaqolus dentex (Günther 1868). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Napo, Pastaza and Marañón River basins: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

denticulatus, Hypostomus Zawadzki [C. H.], Weber [C.] & Pavanelli [C. S.] 2008:404, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29846] Município de Caldas Novas, rio do Peixe, tributary to rio Corumbá, rio Paranaába drainage, 17°34'24"S, 48°29'50" W, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 98770. Paratypes: many at ASNP, MHNG, MNRJ, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Hypostomus denticulatus Zawadzki, Weber & Pavanelli 2008 -- (Zawadzki et al. 2012:246 [ref. 32031], Zawadzki et al. 2015:56 [ref. 33866], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus denticulatus Zawadzki, Weber & Pavanelli 2008. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Corumba River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

depressa, Harttia Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] & Oliveira [E. C.] 2001:87, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 25404] Rio Pitinga, River Uatumã basin, below the Paranapanema Enterprise dam, Cachoeira 40 Ilhas, 59°34'24"W, 0°53'20"S, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 3901. Paratypes: INPA 3150 (2), 14981 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Harttia depressa Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001 -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia depressa Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Uatumã River basin, Amazonas - Guiana Shield, northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

depressicauda, Otocinclus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:635 [7] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] Sorocaba, Rio Paraná, São Paulo State, Brazil. Lectotype: MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 1004. Paralectotypes: (10) MNRJ 1931 (4), MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 5381-5384 (4). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:400 [ref. 12732], Britski 1969:208-209 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155] On p. 7 of separate. Lectotype selected by Britski 1969:208 [ref. 12401]. •Valid as Otocinclus depressicauda Miranda Ribeiro 1918 -- (Isbrücker 1980:82 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860]). •In Microlepidogaster -- (Schaefer 1997:8 [ref. 23213]). •Valid as Hisonotus depressicauda (Miranda Ribeiro 1918) -- (Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Aquino et al. 2001:9 [ref. 25673], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Britski & Garavello 2003:593 [ref. 27131], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:322 [ref. 27061], Almirón et al. 2006:92 [ref. 28713], Azpelicueta & Almirón 2007:596 [ref. 29353], Britski & Garavello 2007:414 [ref. 29429], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155], Roxo et al. 2015:137 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34426], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900], Dias et al. 2018:583 [ref. 36235]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus depressicauda (Miranda Ribeiro 1918). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Tietê River basin, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

depressinotus, Microlepidogaster Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:633 [5] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 2156. Type catalog: Britski 1969:208 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155]. On p. 5 of separate. •Valid as Otocinclus depressinotus (Miranda Ribeiro 1918) -- (Isbrücker 1980:82 [ref. 2303]). •Valid as Microlepidogaster depressinotus Miranda Ribeiro 1918 -- (Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Hisonotus depressinotus (Miranda Ribeiro 1918) -- (Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Aquino et al. 2001:9 [ref. 25673], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Britski & Garavello 2003:593 [ref. 27131], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:322 [ref. 27061], Almirón & Azpelicueta 2006:92 [ref. 28713], Azpelicueta & Almirón 2007:596 [ref. 29353], Britski & Garavello 2007:414 [ref. 29429], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203]). •Synonym of Hisonotus paulinus (Regan 1908) -- (H. A. Britski pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Hisonotus paulinus (Regan 1908). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

depressus, Chaetostomus Günther [A.] 1868:476 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 1992] Probably Suriname. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.8.14.139. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. Also published in Günther (Sept.) 1868:232 [ref. 5756]. •Valid as Pseudancistrus depressus (Günther 1868) -- (Isbrücker 1980:10 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:27 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:394 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:5 [ref. 27844], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155], De Chambrier & Montoya-Burgos 2008:52 [ref. 29881], Willink et al. 2010:41 [ref. 30670], Silva et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33302], Silva et al. 2015:21 [ref. 33679]). Current status: Valid as Pseudancistrus depressus (Günther 1868). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rivers of central Suriname: Suriname and Coppename rivers. Habitat: freshwater.

depressus, Hemiodon Kner [R.] 1853:91 [27], Pl. 7 (fig. 1a-c) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 6; ref. 2627] Marabitanas, 0°57'N, 66°55'W, Amazonas, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 9438. Paralectotypes: NMW 44862 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:293 [ref. 29155]. On p. 27 of separate. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker & Nijssen 1974:219 [ref. 7126]. •Valid as Reganella depressa (Kner 1853) -- (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1974:219 [ref. 7126], Isbrücker 1980:123 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1980:123 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:293 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Reganella depressa (Kner 1853). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Negro, Branco and Tapajós River basins, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

derbyi, Loricariichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1915:267, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 15099] Rio Jaguaribe at Barro Alto, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 39932. Paratypes: ANSP 39933 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Loricariichthys derbyi Fowler 1915 -- (Isbrücker 1980:126 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker et al. 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:338 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496], Melo et al. 2016:376 [ref. 35317]). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys derbyi Fowler 1915. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Jaguaribe River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

derbyi, Plecostomus Haseman [J. D.] 1911:384, Pls. 79-81 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (19); ref. 2048] Rio Iguaçu at Porto União da Victoria, Brazil. Holotype (unique): FMNH 54246 [ex CM 2865]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:84 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus derbyi (Haseman 1911) -- (Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Cardoso et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34373], Zawadzki et al. 2016:272 [ref. 34908], Koerber et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35267], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus derbyi (Haseman 1911). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Iguaçu River and Uruga-í Creek basins, Paraguayan tributaries of Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

dermorhynchus, Chaetostomus Boulenger [G. A.] 1887:277, Pl. 22 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 1 Mar. 1887); ref. 532] Canelos, eastern Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1880.12.8.64-66 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. Specific name is a noun. •Valid as Chaetostoma dermorhynchus Boulenger 1887 (often seen as dermorhynchum) -- (Isbrücker 1980:60 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:380 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:62 [ref. 28542], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2015:689 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma dermorhynchus Boulenger 1887. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Pastaza and Napo river drainages, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

devidei, Hisonotus Roxo [F. F.], Silva [G. S. C.] & Melo [B. F.] 2018:[2], Figs. 1, 2a, 3-4 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 92 (no. 6); ref. 35900] Córrego Catolé, Rio Pandeiros drainage, Rio São Francisco basin, Bonito de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 15°17'22"S, 44°49'20"W. Holotype: MZUSP 123294. Paratypes: ANSP, LBP, MCNIP, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Hisonotus devidei Roxo, Silva & Melo 2018 -- (Dias et al. 2018:583 [ref. 36235]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus devidei Roxo, Silva & Melo 2018. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Pandeiros drainage, Rio São Francisco basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

devincenzii, Loricaria Señorans [J. Soriano] 1950:265 [Revista de la Facultad de Humanidides y Ciencias, Montevideo v. 4 (no. 5); ref. 18739] 200 meters down Espinillar brook, Río Uruguay, Salto, eastern Uruguay. Holotype (unique): MHNM (apparently lost). Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:5 [ref. 23527], Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155], Loureiro et al. 2016:412 [ref. 35150]. Species misspelled in title as devicenzii. •Mention as Pseudohemiodon devincenzii (Señorans 1950) -- (Isbrücker 1979:110 [ref. 2302]). •Valid as Pseudohemiodon devincenzii (Señorans 1950) -- (Isbrücker 1980:121 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:340 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:47 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:27 [ref. 33622], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565] with author as Soriano-Señorans). Current status: Valid as Pseudohemiodon devincenzii (Señorans 1950). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin: Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

dialeukos, Otothyropsis Calegari [B. B.], Morlis [W. G.] & Reis [R. E.] 2017:232, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4244 (no. 2); ref. 35203] Arroyo Itá at Paso Itá, near to Embalse de Acaray, ca. 8 km from road between Hernandarias and Ciudad del Este, Río Paraná basin, Hernandarias, Alto Paraná, Paraguay, 25°22'56.9"S, 54°41'34.8"W, elevation approximately 200 meters. Holotype: MNHNP 3880. Paratypes: MCP, MNHNP. •Valid as Otothyropsis dialeukos Calegari, Morlis & Reis 2017 -- (Koerber et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Otothyropsis dialeukos Calegari, Morlis & Reis 2017. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Paraná basin, Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

dichromum, Acestridium Retzer [M. E.], Nico [L. G.] & Provenzano [F.] 1999:316, Figs. 3a-c [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 4); ref. 24231] Pozo Lucas, tributary of Río Orinoco, 7 kilometers south of San Fernando de Atabapo, 4°02'N, 67°42'W, Orinoco Basin, Amazonas State, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-26780. Paratypes: FMNH 103326 (6); INHS 27642 (1), 40427 (1); MBUCV-V-13037 (30, 4 c&s); MCNG 19427 (8), 21746 (20). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Acestridium dichromum Retzer, Nico & Provenzano 1999 -- (Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:321 [ref. 27061], Retzer 2005:4 [ref. 28228], Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155], Rodriguez & Reis 2007:429 [ref. 29464], Reis & Lehmann A. 2009:451 [ref. 30379], Rodriguez et al. 2015:325 [ref. 33908], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Acestridium dichromum Retzer, Nico & Provenzano 1999. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

dimorpha, Microlepidogaster Martins [F. de O.] & Langeani [F.] 2011:80, Figs. 1, 2b, 3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 31236] Uberaba, riacho Grotão at Fazenda Nossa Senhora da Abadia, unpaved road at BR-262, rio Grande drainage, 19°41'31"S, 47°42'57"W, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Holotype: DZSJRP 10543. Paratypes: DZSJRP 5564 (11), 8750 (19, 2 c&s), 12332 (17, 2 c&s); LBP 4854 (4); MCP 45866 (2), 41912 (4); MNRJ 37848 (2); MZUSP 107585 (2). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:449 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Microlepidogaster dimorpha Martins & Langeani 2011 -- (Martins et al. 2013:386 [ref. 32415], Martins et al. 2014:560 [ref. 33544], Calegari et al. 2014:220 [ref. 33627], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Martins et al. 2017:242 [ref. 35356]). Current status: Valid as Microlepidogaster dimorpha Martins & Langeani 2011. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Tributaries of rio Grande, upper rio Paraná system, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

discontenta, Microlepidogaster Calegari [B. B.], Silva [E. V.] & Reis [R. E.] 2014:214, Figs. 1-2, 3b [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 33627] Goiás State: Cristalina, córrego Morais, tributary to córrego Arrependido, 1.5 km east of highway BR-251, rio São Francisco basin, 16°14'39"S, 47°21'53"W, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 48107. Paratypes: MCP, UFRGS, USNM. •Valid as Microlepidogaster discontenta Calegari, Silva & Reis 2014 -- (Martins et al. 2017:242 [ref. 35356]). Current status: Valid as Microlepidogaster discontenta Calegari, Silva & Reis 2014. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

discus, Acestridium Haseman [J. D.] 1911:319, Pls. 50 (fig. 1), 51 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (17); ref. 2047] Igarapé de Cachoeira Grande, near Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54339 [ex CM 2985]. Paratypes: FMNH 54340 (1), UMMZ 138203 [ex CM 2986] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:83 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:4 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Acestridium discus Haseman 1911 -- (Isbrücker 1980:102 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Retzer et al. 1999:315 [ref. 24231], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:321 [ref. 27061], Retzer 2005:4 [ref. 28228], Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155], Rodriguez & Reis 2007:429 [ref. 29464], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Reis & Lehmann A. 2009:451 [ref. 30379], Rodriguez et al. 2015:325 [ref. 33908]). Current status: Valid as Acestridium discus Haseman 1911. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Lower Negro River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

discus, Microlepidogaster Martins [F. de O.], Rosa [A. C.] & Langeani [F.] 2014:161, Figs. 1-4a [Zootaxa 3873 (no. 5); ref. 33544] Minas Gerais State, Botumirim, unnamed stream on dirt road Ita/cambira-Botumirim, tributary to rio Itacambiruçu, rio Jequitinhonha basin, 16°47’40"S, 43°03’39"W, Brazil, elevation 946 meters. Holotype: DZSJRP 19101. Paratypes: DZSJRP, MCP, MZUSP. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:450 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Microlepidogaster discus Martins, Rosa & Langeani 2014 -- (Martins et al. 2017:242 [ref. 35356]). Current status: Valid as Microlepidogaster discus Martins, Rosa & Langeani 2014. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Headwaters of rio Itacambiruçu, coastal basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

disjunctivus, Liposarcus Weber [C.] 1991:638 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 98 (no. 3); ref. 19114] Rio Madeira, Amazon River system, Restauracao, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 28360. Paratypes: CAS 11687 (1); FCMBB 305 (2); INPA 465 (1), 500 (5), 2223 (1), 2227 (1); INPA POLO 195 (3); MHNG 2479.10 (1); MNHN 1988-0102 to 0103 (1, 2), 1988-109 (14); MZUSP 28360 (1); ZMA 119345 (1), 119568 (2), 119572 (6). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Liposarcus disjunctivus Weber 1991 -- (Weber 1992:12, 28 [ref. 19714], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Fuller et al. 1999:224 [ref. 25838], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Sakai et al. 2001:88 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:282 [ref. 26001], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (López & Miquelarena 1991:39 [ref. 23548], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:365 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber 1991) -- (Nelson et al. 2004:84 [ref. 27807], Chavez et al. 2006:59 [ref. 28577], Page & Robins 2006:455 [ref. 28913], Armbruster & Page 2006:403 [ref. 28898], Scharpf 2006:20 [ref. 30386], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155], Page & Burr 2011:371 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708], Kottelat 2013:216 [ref. 32989], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Zhang et al. 2016:211 [ref. 34477], Labatos 2017:3 [ref. 36239], Robins et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35886], Ng et al. 2019:532 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber 1991). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Madeira River basin: Bolivia and Brazil; introduced in Asia; established in Florida. Habitat: freshwater.

dissidens, Harttia Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] & Oliveira [E. C.] 2001:91, Fig. 8 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 25404] Rio Tapajós, Pimental, 4°35'22"S, 56°15'16"W, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 7739. Paratypes: INPA 6734 (5), 6637 (11), 6703 (9), 6776 (11), 7046 (20, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cteniloricaria dissidens (Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001) -- (Isbrücker 2001:26, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Harttia dissidens Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001 -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al, 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia dissidens Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Tapajós River basin, northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dlouhyi, Hypostomus Weber [C.] 1985:956, Figs. 1-5 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 92 (no. 4); ref. 8128] Lake in arm of Río Yguazú, River Paraná system, 25°25'30"S, 55°20'W, Paraguay. Holotype: MHNG 2229.43. Paratypes: (14) CAS 60262 [ex MHNG 2229.44] (1); CFAP; MCZ 65044 [ex MHNG 2229.44] (1); MHNG; ZMA. Type catalog: Weber 1998:9 [ref. 23532], Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus dlouhyi Weber 1995 -- (Zawadzki et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33233], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617], Cardoso et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34373], Koerber et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35267], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus dlouhyi Weber 1985. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Yguazú River basin in middle Paraná River drainage, Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

doceanus, Microlepidogaster Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:634 [6] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] Rio Doce, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 1016. Type catalog: Britski 1969:208 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155] On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Microlepidogaster doceanus Miranda Ribeiro 1918 -- (Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Parotocinclus doceanus (Miranda Ribeiro 1918) -- (Garavello 1977:11 [ref. 7249], Isbrücker 1980:80 [ref. 2303], Garavello 1988:124 [ref. 6853], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Lacerda & Evers 1996:88 [ref. 22351], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534] with author and date as Garavello 1977, Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Garavello & Britski 2003:258 [ref. 27469], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Sarmento-Soares et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30254], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus doceanus (Miranda Ribeiro 1918). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Doce River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

doceensis, Neoplecostomus Roxo [F. F.], Silva [G. S. C.], Zawadzki [C. H.] & Oliveira [C.] 2014:117, Figs. 1-2 [ZooKeys No. 440; ref. 33492] Minas Gerais State, municipality of Ouro Preto, córrego Bananeiras, affluent of rio Gualaxo do Norte, rio Doce basin, 20°14'20"S, 43°28'40"W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 115486. Paratypes: (all from Rio Doce basin) LBP, MCNIP, MZUSP, NUP. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Neoplecostomus doceensis Roxo, Silva, Zawadzki & Oliveira 2014 -- (Pereira & Reis 2017:74 [ref. 35307], Roxo et al. 2017:238 [ref. 35467], Silva et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36454]). Current status: Valid as Neoplecostomus doceensis Roxo, Silva, Zawadzki & Oliveira 2014. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Doce basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dolichopterus, Ancistrus Kner [R.] 1854:274 [24], Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] Manaus, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 46276 (2), 47164 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155]. On p. 24 of separate. •Valid as Ancistrus dolichopterus Kner 1854 -- (Isbrücker 1980:68 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:375 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155], de Oliveira et al. 2015:73 [ref. 33869], de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869], de Souza et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36504]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus dolichopterus Kner 1854. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Negro basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsalis, Chaetostomus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:226 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Río Albirregas and Río Millo, near Merida, northwestern Venezuela. Holotype: CAS 77093 [ex IU 13940]. Paratypes: CAS 77094 [ex IU 13656], 82268 [ex IU 13940] (2), 82269 [ex IU 13946]; UMMZ (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. Based on Chaetostomus anomalus Regan 1903 (in part, specimens from Merida and mountain streams above it). •Valid as Chaetostoma dorsale Eigenmann 1922 -- (Isbrücker 1980:60 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:380 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Ballen 2011:388 [ref. 31653], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], Ballen et al. 2016:194 [ref. 34396], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:75 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma dorsale Eigenmann 1922. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

dubius, Ancistrus cirrhosus var. Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:48 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Gurupa [Curupá], Para State, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 7993. Paratypes: MCZ 7983 (5), 7984 (orig. 5, now 6), 7993 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus dubius Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 -- (Isbrücker 1980:68 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Knaack 1999:152 [ref. 23874], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:375 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155], Bifi et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30541], Sarmiento et al. 2014:161, 191 [ref. 35004], de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869] as cf. dubius, Koerber et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35267], Provenzano & Barriga-Salazar 2018:235 [ref. 36344], de Souza et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36504]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus dubius Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Amazon River basin; middle Paraná and Paraguay River basins: Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

dumus, Lasiancistrus Armbruster [J. W.] & Provenzano [F.] 2000:246, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 11 (no. 3); ref. 25069] Río Orinoco, backwater behind sand playa about 0.5 hr upstream from Isla Temblador, 3°04'N, 66°28'W, Amazonas State, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV V-17544. Paratypes: ANSP 162160 (1), 162403 (1); MBUCV V-17543 (1); MCNG 25796 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudolithoxus dumus (Armbruster & Provenzano 2000) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:21 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:394 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155], Lujan & Birindelli 2011:39 [ref. 31408], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633], Collins et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35943]). Current status: Valid as Pseudolithoxus dumus (Armbruster & Provenzano 2000). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

duodecimalis, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:498, Pl. 454 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Rio São Francisco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9446 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:69 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pterygoplichthys duodecimalis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:40 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pterygoplichthys etentaculatus (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Weber 1992:25 [ref. 19714], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:366 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pterygoplichthys etentaculatus (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

dupouii, Chaetostoma Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1945:27 [3] [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 5 (no. 14); ref. 13083] Río Encantado, about 1 kilometer from junction of Río Encantado and Río Grande, Venezuela. Holotype: AFY. Paratypes: AFY (11). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155]. On p. 3 of separate. •Valid as Chaetostoma dupouii Fernández-Yépez 1945 -- (Isbrücker 1980:60 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:380 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma dupouii Fernández-Yépez 1945. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tuy River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

dura, Loricaria Bleeker [P.] 1862:3 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 393] Suriname and unknown. Syntypes: RMNH 3113-16 (1, 2, 1). Type catalog: Boeseman 1972:311 [ref. 19698], Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155]. Based on Linnaeus 1754 (pre-Linnaean) -- named cataphracta by Linnaeus 1758 -- and on specimens. Also in Bleeker 1863:80 [ref. 401]. Covain & Fisch-Muller 2007:32 [ref. 29329] say holotype is NRM 33. •Synonym of Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758 -- (Isbrücker 1980:116 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:58 [ref. 5522], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

duriventris, Harttia Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] & Oliveira [E. C.] 2001:84, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 25404] Rio Tocantins, Igarapé Bacuri, 4°29'44"S, 49°30'32"W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 2833. Paratypes: INPA 2968-69 (1, 4), 2973 (2, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cteniloricaria duriventris Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001 -- (Isbrücker 2001:26, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Harttia duriventris Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001 -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia duriventris Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, above Tucurui dam, and Araguaia River, northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

duseni, Hemipsilichthys Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1907:187, Fig. [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] v. 11 (no. 5); ref. 17767] Ribeirão do Monjolinho, Iporanga, São Paulo, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 772. Paralectotypes: (1) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:400 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:262 [ref. 29155] Lectotype selected by Gosline 1947:102 [ref. 1857]. •Valid as Pareiorhaphis duseni (Miranda Ribeiro 1907) -- (Isbrücker 1980:13 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Isbrueckerichthys duseni (Miranda Ribeiro 1907) -- (Derijst 1996:64 [ref. 22356], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Pereira & Reis 2002:141 [ref. 26071], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:364 [ref. 27061], Pereira & Oyakawa 2003:7 [ref. 27318], Jerep et al. 2006:55 [ref. 28877], Ferraris 2007:262 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Roxo et al. 2012:38 [ref. 32073], Pereira & Reis 2017:72 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Isbrueckerichthys duseni (Miranda Ribeiro 1907). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Ribeira de Iguapé River in Paraná state, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

echinasus, Neblinichthys Taphorn [D. C.], Armbruster [J. W.], López-Fernández [H.] & Bernard [C. R.] 2010:619 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 30973] Upper Mazaruni River drainage, Kukui River, near town of Philipai, 5°21'37"N, 60°22'18"W, Guyana. CSBD 1652 [ex ROM 83713]. •Valid as Neblinichthys echinasus Taphorn, Armbruster, López-Fernández & Bernard 2010 -- (Armbruster & Taphorn 2013:67 [ref. 32700]). Current status: Valid as Neblinichthys echinasus Taphorn, Armbruster, López-Fernández & Bernard 2010. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Mazaruni River drainage, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

edentatus, Loricariichthys Reis [R. E.] & Pereira [E. H. L.] 2000:1041, Fig. 8 [Copeia 2000 (no. 4); ref. 25021] Rio Uruguay at brazo Itape, south of Isla Canario, Concepción del Uruguay, Argentina, 32°29'S, 58°14'W. Holotype: MACN 4041. Paratypes: MACN 7943 (2), MCP 17167-68 (1, 1), MLP 3290 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:13 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Loricariichthys edentatus Reis & Pereira 2000 -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:30 [ref. 25653], López et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26808], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:338 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:26 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:45 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565], Terán et al. 2019:60 [ref. 36764]). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys edentatus Reis & Pereira 2000. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: South America: lower Uruguay River basin and Paraná River, Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Loricaria Pellegrin [J.] 1908:125 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 33 (for 25 June 1908); ref. 14331] Sarare, Venezuela. Lectotype: MNHN 1899-0118 (101.5 mm SL). Paralectotypes: MNHN 1899-0119 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:75 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria eigenmanni (Pellegrin 1908) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria eigenmanni (Pellegrin 1908) -- (Isbrücker 1980:104 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:87 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria eigenmanni (Pellegrin 1908). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

eleonorae, Nannoplecostomus Ribeiro [A. C.], Lima [F. C. T.] & Pereira [E. H. L.] 2012:638, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2012 (no. 4); ref. 32358] São Domingos, Rio da Lapa, a tributary to Rio São Domingos, itself a tributary to Rio Paranã, upper Rio Tocantins basin, near the entrance of Lapa Terra Ronca, Terra Ronca State Park, 13°43'09"S, 46°21'17"W, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 106059. Paratypes: many at AMNH, ANSP, CPUFMT, MNRJ, MZUSP, ZUEC. •Valid as Nannoplecostomus eleonorae Ribeiro, Lima & Pereira 2012 -- (Pereira & Reis 2017:82 [ref. 35307] no subfamily, Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310]). Current status: Valid as Nannoplecostomus eleonorae Ribeiro, Lima & Pereira 2012. Loricariidae. Distribution: Rio Paranã, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatum, Hypoptopoma Aquino [A. E.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 2010:67, Figs. 35 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History No. 336; ref. 30875] Rio Tapajos, Itaituba, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 7240. Paratypes: INPA 29657 (58, 2 c&s). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hypoptopoma elongatum Aquino & Schaefer 2010. Current status: Valid as Hypoptopoma elongatum Aquino & Schaefer 2010. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Lower Rio Tapajos and lower Rio Trombetas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

emarginatus, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:500 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Probably from Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9447 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:70 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus emarginatus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Isbrücker 1980:23 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850]). •Valid as Squaliforma emarginata (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:22 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:28, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:367 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Zawadzki et al. 2015:57 [ref. 33866], DoNascimiento 2016:533 [ref. 34727]). •Valid as Aphanotorulus emarginatus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Ray & Armbruster 2016:512 [ref. 34178], Oliveira et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35225], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:76 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Aphanotorulus emarginatus (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco River, Essequibo River basin and lower Amazon River basin, South America. Habitat: freshwater.

epakmos, Isbrueckerichthys Pereira [E. H. L.] & Oyakawa [O. T.] 2003:6, Fig. 2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 27318] Rio Ribeira de Iguapé drainage, rio Verde at Piúva. on road to Rio Verde, 23°58'22"S, 47°34'23"W, Tapiraí, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 79804. Paratypes: MCP 28276 (63); MZUSP 78444 (6), 79498 (4). •Valid as Isbrueckerichthys epakmos Pereira & Oyakawa 2003 -- (Jerep et al. 2006:55 [ref. 28877], Pereira et al. 2010:37 [ref. 30753], Pereira & Reis 2017:72 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Isbrueckerichthys epakmos Pereira & Oyakawa 2003. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Headwaters of the Juquiá River, Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ephippia, Oxyropsis Aquino [A. E.] & Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] 2016:132, Figs. 1A, 2A, 3, 4, 5A [Zootaxa 4136 (no. 1); ref. 34526] Deer Falls, between Deer Creek and Water Dog Falls, Burro Burro river, Essequibo drainage, Guyana, 4°39'53"N, 58°50'28"W. Holotype: ANSP 177381. Paratypes: AMNH, ANSP, AUM, INPA, MCP. •Valid as Nannoxyropsis ephippia (Aquino & Sabaj Pérez 2016) -- (Delapieve et al. 2018:30 [ref. 35713]). Current status: Valid as Nannoxyropsis ephippia (Aquino & Sabaj Pérez 2016). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Essequibo and Branco river basins, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

ephippiata, Peckoltia Armbruster [J. W.], Werneke [D. C.] & Tan [M.] 2015:102, Fig. 2 [ZooKeys No. 480; ref. 33670] Rôndonia, Presidente Médici, rio Madeira drainage, rio Leitão on highway BR-364, about 5 km north of Presidente Médici, -11.1328°, -061.9008°, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 35627. Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, MCP, MNRJ, UF. •Valid as Peckoltia ephippiata Armbruster, Werneke & Tan 2015 -- (Armbruster & Lujan 2016:117 [ref. 34264]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia ephippiata Armbruster, Werneke & Tan 2015. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Madeira drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

eppleyi, Parotocinclus Schaefer [S. A.] & Provenzano [F.] 1993:46, Figs. 5-6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 20828] Caño Curicurito, about 1 kilometer above its mouth into the Río Autana, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela, 4°47'N, 67°25'W. Holotype: MBUCV-V-22530. Paratypes: ANSP 160645 (1), 160657 (1), 160700 (6), 161495 (2), 162164 (2), 165845 (12), 165846 (1), 169470 (9); MBUCV-V-4728 (36, not 20), V-16890 (3), V-17574 (1), V-18378 (3), V-20188 (4, not 3), V-22524 (155, not 157). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus eppleyi Schaefer & Provenzano 1993 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Lehmann A. et al. 2015:47 [ref. 33723], Roxo et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34921], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus eppleyi Schaefer & Provenzano 1993. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

eptingi, Chaetostomus Fowler [H. W.] 1941:158, Figs. 66-68 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil [probably mistaken, probably Rio Parnaíba basin]. Holotype: ANSP 69447. Paratypes: ANSP 69448-50 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. Type locality incorrect Zawadzki et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35355]. •Valid as Hypostomus eptingi (Fowler 1941) -- (Isbrücker 1980:60 [ref. 2302], Burgess 1898:435 [ref. 12860], Zanata et al. 2013:247 [ref. 32751], Zawadzki et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35355] as possible synonym of Hypostomus johnii (Steindachner 1877)). •Synonym of Hypostomus johnii (Steindachner 1877) -- (Ramos et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35396]). Current status: Synonym of Hypostomus johnii (Steindachner 1877). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

ericae, Hypostomus Hollanda Carvalho [P.] & Weber [C.] 2005:958, Figs. 3-6 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 111 (no. 4) (for 2004); ref. 28067] Porto Alfredinho, 14°02'22.1"S, 48°31'28.6"W, Rio Tocantins, Tocantins River basin, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 27861. Paratypes: MHNG 2650.025 -.028 (1, 1, 3, 1), MNRJ 24251- 64 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 27862-63 (1, 4) Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155]. Valid as Hypostomus ericae Hollanda Carvalho & Weber 2005 -- (Zawadzki & Carvalho 2014:36 [ref. 33227], Tencatt et al. 2014:601 [ref. 33520]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus ericae Hollanda Carvalho & Weber 2005. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins River drainage, State of Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ericius, Hypostomus Armbruster [J. W.] 2003:25, Fig. 9 [Zootaxa No. 249; ref. 27426] 1 kilometer upstream from Caterpiza, River Marañon, Amazonas, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 17441. Paratypes: AMNH 218035 (1); ANSP 176149 (1); INHS 36876 (1); LACM 39947-7 (1), 41893-6 (1), 42004-9 (1); SIUC 29195 (1); USNM 357392 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155]. The holotype is listed both as the holotype and as a paratype. •Valid as Hypostomus ericius Armbruster 2003 -- (Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Hollanda Carvalho & Weber 2004:955 [ref. 28067], Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Tencatt et al. 2014:601 [ref. 33520]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus ericius Armbruster 2003. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

erinaceus, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:510 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Chile. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9568 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:68 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus erinaceus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:68 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:375 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus erinaceus (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Chile (?). Habitat: freshwater.

eschwartzae, Andeancistrus Lujan [N. K.], Meza-Vargas [V.] & Barriga Salazar [R. E.] 2015:652, Fig. 4 [Copeia v. 103 (no. 3); ref. 33963] Morona-Santiago Province, Palora Canton, Sangay Sector, Pastaza River drainage, Amundalo River 10.3 km WSW of Palora, Ecuador, 1°44'54.90"S, 78°02'39.78"W, elevation 953 meters. Holotype: MEPN 14780 (ex ROM 93927). Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, ROM. •Valid as Andeancistrus eschwartzae Lujan, Meza-Vargas & Barriga Salazar 2015 -- (Provenzano & Villa-Navarro 2017:528 [ref. 35473], Provenzano et al. 2017:264 [ref. 35613]). Current status: Valid as Andeancistrus eschwartzae Lujan, Meza-Vargas & Barriga Salazar 2015. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Amundalo River [Río Amundal], Morona Santiago, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

espiritosantensis, Neoplecostomus Langeani [F.] 1990:16, Figs. 3, 6 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 16736] Rio Jacu (braço sul), Victor Hugo, Mun. de Domingos Martins, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 38573. Paratypes: MNRJ 4240 (9); MZUSP 38574-75 (2); ZUFES 130325 (5), 130722 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:273 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Neoplecostomus espiritosantensis Langeani 1990 -- (Bizerril 1995:698 [ref. 23196], Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:319 [ref. 27061], Zawadzki et al. 2004:579 [ref. 27753], Ferraris 2007:273 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2008:46 [ref. 29594], Roxo et al. 2012:16 [ref. 31839], Roxo et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32073], Roxo et al. 2014:125 [ref. 33492], Andrade & Langeani 2014:9 [ref. 33618], Cherobim et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35001], Pereira & Reis 2017:74 [ref. 35307], Roxo et al. 2017:238 [ref. 35467], Silva et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36454]). Current status: Valid as Neoplecostomus espiritosantensis Langeani 1990. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of the eastern slope of Serra do Mar, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

etentaculatum, Hypostoma Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:7, Pl. 4 (figs. 1-2) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rio São Francisco, Januaria, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Neotype: MZUSP 35821. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. Name first published in Cuvier 1829 [ref. 995]. Neotype designated by Weber 1992:25 [ref. 19714]. Species name misspelled etentaculum by Cuvier 1831:221 [ref. 30376]. •Valid as Pterygoplichthys etentaculatus (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Isbrücker 1980:41 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], Weber 1991:642 [ref. 19114], Weber 1992:4, 25 [ref. 19714], Isbrücker 2001:28, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:366 [ref. 27061], Armbruster & Page 2006:403 [ref. 28898], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Pterygoplichthys etentaculatus (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

euacanthagenys, Spatuloricaria Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1979:113, Figs. 24-26, 27b [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 5 (no. 4) (1978); ref. 2302] Morelia, Río Caquetá drainage, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71718. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155]. Replacement name for Euacanthagenys caquetae Fowler 1945, secondarily preoccupied in Spatuloricaria by Loricaria caquetae Fowler 1943. •Valid as Spatuloricaria euacanthagenys Isbrücker 1979 -- (Isbrücker 1980:112 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:344 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155], Fichberg et al. 2014:322 [ref. 33358], Fichberg et al. 2014:322 [ref. 33358], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Spatuloricaria euacanthagenys Isbrücker 1979. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Caquetá River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

eurycephalus, Hemipsilichthys Pereira [E. H. L.] & Reis [R. E.] 2002:131, Fig. 21 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 26071] Creek tributary of rio Canoas, east of vila São José, on road to serra do Corvo Branco, 28°03'33"S, 49°25'42"W, Urubici, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 19778. Paratypes: MCP 22342 (22), 22352 (19), 22360 (8), 22361 (21); MNRJ 18340 (22). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemipsilichthys eurycephalus Pe eira & Reis 2002 -- (Pereira et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27068], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:354 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pareiorhaphis eurycephalus (Pereira & Reis 2002) -- (Pereira 2005:272 [ref. 28273], Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155], Pereira & Britto 2012:524 [ref. 32198], Pereira et al. 2012:539 [ref. 32218], Pereira & Zanata 2014:36 [ref. 33226], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561], Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis eurycephalus (Pereira & Reis 2002). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Canoas River basin, Rio Uruguay drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

eustictus, Pristiancistrus Fowler [H. W.] 1945:121, Figs. 29-32 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 1454] Upper Río Baudó, Pacific slope of Colombia, elevation 3000 feet. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71710. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus eustictus (Fowler 1945) -- (Isbrücker 1980:68 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:375 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Ancistrus centrolepis Regan 1913 -- (see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus eustictus (Fowler 1945). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Baudó River basin, Colombia [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

evansii, Loricaria Boulenger [G. A.] 1892:10, Pl. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 10 (no. 55) (art. 2); ref. 533] Jangada, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1892.4.20.29. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Spatuloricaria evansii (Boulenger 1892) -- (Isbrücker 1980:113 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:63 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:130 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:296 [ref. 29155], Fichberg et al. 2014:322 [ref. 33358], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:46 [ref. 35117], Londoño-Burbano et al. 2018:619 [ref. 36263]). Current status: Valid as Spatuloricaria evansii (Boulenger 1892). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Paraná/Paraguay, Beni and Tocantins River basins: Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

falconensis, Ancistrus Taphorn [D. C.], Armbruster [J. W.] & Rodríguez-Olarte [D.] 2010:26, Figs. 2-3 [Zootaxa No. 2345; ref. 30697] El Hueque River, 11°09'41.4"N, 69°33'24.9" W, at bridge on highway from Churuguara to Coro, Falcón State, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 56067. Paratypes: ANSP 189316 (2); AUM 84518 (2); Cpucla 1638 (3); MNCL 54543 (9), 54538 (3), 54552 (12). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Ancistrus falconensis Taphorn, Armbruster & Rodríguez-Olarte 2010. Current status: Valid as Ancistrus falconensis Taphorn, Armbruster & Rodríguez-Olarte 2010. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Hueque and Ricoa rivers, (Caribbean) Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

fallax, Loricaria (Loricariichthys) Steindachner [F.] 1915:101 [87], Pl. 13 (figs. 1-4) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Igarapé de Carauná, Amazon River basin, Est. Rpraía, Brazil, elevation 200 meters. Lectotype: NMW 44864. Paralectotypes: NMW 44865-69 (2, 5, 3 now 2, 1, 1), 45046 (1), 46157 (2), 46159 (2), 84990 (1); ZMA 114349 (1); ZSM 4869 [ex NMW 44867] (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:58 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:264 [ref. 31652]. On p. 87 of separate; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979:198 [ref. 8822]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria fallax (Steindachner 1915) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria fallax (Steindachner 1915) -- (Isbrücker 1980:105 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria fallax (Steindachner 1915). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Rupununi and Branco River basins: Brazil and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

faveolus, Hypostomus Zawadzki [C. H.], Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Lima [F. C. T.] 2008:396, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29845] Cocalinho, Corixo da Saudade (Corixinho), 25 kilometers north of Cocalinho on road MT 136, rio Araguaia drainage, rio Tocantins basin, 14°17'20.6"S, 51°09'12.1"W, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 90722. Paratypes: many at ANSP, MHNG, MZUSP and UNT. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hypostomus faveolus Zawadzki, Birindelli & Lima 2008 -- (Zawadzki et al. 2012:245 [ref. 32031], Zawadzki et al. 2013:74 [ref. 32701], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus faveolus Zawadzki, Birindelli & Lima 2008. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tocantins and upper Xingú River basins, and upper Paraná drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

feldbergae, Peckoltia de Oliveira [R. R.], Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.], Zuanon [J.] & Rocha [M. S.] 2012:547, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2012 (no. 3); ref. 32202] Río Xingú, Ilha de Babaquara, upstream of Altamira, 3°23'45"S, 52°12'16"W, Altamira, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 32352. Paratypes: many at ANSP, INPA, MCP, MPEG, MZUEL, MZUSP, NUP, ROM. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Ancistomus feldbergae (de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel, Zuanon & Rocha 2012) -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:100 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Valid as Ancistomus feldbergae (de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel, Zuanon & Rocha 2012). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Río Xingú, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

felipponei, Loricaria Fowler [H. W.] 1943:319, Figs. 7-9 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1444] Uruguay. Holotype: ANSP 70324. Paratypes: ANSP 67777-82 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rineloricaria felipponei (Fowler 1943) -- (Isbrücker 1980:105 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], López et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27366], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:2 [ref. 28173], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155], Ghazzi 2008:102 [ref. 29636], Litz & Koerber 2014:27 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:46 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria felipponei (Fowler 1943). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lower La Plata River basin: Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

ferrarisi, Niobichthys Schaefer [S. A.] & Provenzano [F.] 1998:226, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 23317] Río Baria, about 200 meters above Neblina base camp, Municipio Autónomo Río Negro, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela, 0°55'N, 66°10'W. Holotype: MBUCV-V-20225. Paratypes: AMNH 74452 (5), 74453 (5, 1 c&s); MBUCV-V-14903 (16, not 12, 1 c&s), V-14916 (?7, not 6). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:13 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:274 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Niobichthys ferrarisi Schaefer & Provenzano 1998 -- (Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:324 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:274 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Niobichthys ferrarisi Schaefer & Provenzano 1998. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Baria River, Negro River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

festae, Plecostomus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:11 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 13 (no. 329); ref. 14677] Río Vinces and Río Peripa, Ecuador. BMNH 1898.11.4.32. Syntypes: BMNH 1898.11.4.32 (1), ZMUT 1518 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:137 [ref. 21559], Ferraris 2007:263 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Isorineloricaria festae (Boulenger 1898) -- (Isbrücker 1980:17 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178]). •Probably a synonym of Hypostomus spinosissimus (Steindachner 1880) -- (Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] top of p.). •Synonym of Isorineloricaria spinosissima (Steindachner 1880) -- (Weber in Reis et al. 2003:364 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:263 [ref. 29155], Ray & Armbruster 2016:530 [ref. 34178]). Current status: Synonym of Isorineloricaria spinosissima (Steindachner 1880). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

festivum, Sturisoma Myers [G. S.] 1942:100, Figs. 8-10 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 3121] Río Monay, 35 kilometers north of Trujillo, Motatan system, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS-SU 36505. Paratypes: (9) CAS-SU 36506 (9, now 7), USNM 130637 [ex SU 36506] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:46 [ref. 12291], Ferraris & Vari 1992:31 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sturisoma festivum Myers 1942 -- (Isbrücker 1980:94 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:97 [ref. 23651], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento 2016:534 [ref. 34727]). •Valid as Sturisomatichthys festivus (Myers 1942) -- (Covain et al. 2015:514 [23] [ref. 34066], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Sturisomatichthys festivus (Myers 1942). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

filamentissima, Harttia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:211, Pl. 8 (figs. 1-2) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Río Huallaga, upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Holotype: CAS 28541 [ex IU 15378]. Paratypes: CAS 28542 [ex IU 15379] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155]. •Questionably a synonym of Lamontichthys filamentosus (La Monte 1935) -- (Isbrücker 1980:91 [ref. 2303]). •Synonym of Lamontichthys filamentosus (La Monte 1935) -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:336 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155], de Carvalho Paixão & Toledo-Piza 2009:527 [ref. 30675]). Current status: Synonym of Lamontichthys filamentosus (La Monte 1935). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

filamentosa, Harttia La Monte [F. R.] 1935:5, Fig. 4 [American Museum Novitates No. 784; ref. 13893] Near Envira, near mouth of Rio Embira, tributary of River Tarauaca, itself a tributary to Rio Jurua, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: AMNH 12616. Paratypes: AMNH 26941 (1), ?MSNM 41 [ex MSNM 4721 and ex AMNH] (1). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:226 [ref. 21560], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Lamontichthys filamentosus (La Monte 1935) -- (Isbrücker 1980:91 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:336 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155], de Carvalho Paixão & Toledo-Piza 2009:527 [ref. 30675], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Lamontichthys filamentosus (La Monte 1935). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

filamentosa, Loricaria Steindachner [F.] 1878:90 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 15 (no. 12) (for 9 May 1878); ref. 20476] Magdalena River, Colombia. Lectotype: NMW 44874. Paralectotypes: NMW 44870-73 (3, 5, 1, 5), 44874:2 (1), 44875-77 (4, 2, 1); ZMUC 86 (1) Rio Magdalena. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:52 [ref. 9588], Ferraris 2007:233 [ref. 29155]. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:45 [p. 29 of separate], Pl. 9 (figs. 1-2) [ref. 4227]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Loricaria filamentosa Steindachner 1878 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:90 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Dasyloricaria filamentosa (Steindachner 1878) -- (Isbrücker 1980:111 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:331 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:233 [ref. 29155], Londoño-Burbano & Reis 2016:[4] [ref. 34381], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Dasyloricaria filamentosa (Steindachner 1878). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, lower Cauca, río Sinú and Maracaibo basin, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

filicaudatus, Peckoltichthys Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1917:49 [Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Sciências (Rio de Janeiro) v. 1; ref. 5742] Solimões River, upper Amazon River basin, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 969. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:401 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Peckoltia filicaudatus (Miranda Ribeiro 1917) -- (Isbrücker 1980:55 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Peckoltia filicauda (Miranda Ribeiro 1917) -- (Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:392 [ref. 27061], Armbruster & Werneke 2005:12 [ref. 28101], Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Peckoltia bachi (Boulenger 1898) -- (Armbruster 2008:7 [ref. 29740]). •Synonym of Peckoltichthys bachi Boulenger 1898 -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:100 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Synonym of Peckoltichthys bachi (Boulenger 1898). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Solimões River basin, Brazil [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

fimbriata, Loricaria Eigenmann [C. H.] & Vance [L.] in Eigenmann 1912:12 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Boca de Certegai, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 55117 [ex CM 3808]. Paratypes: (2, CM and IU) CAS 77173 [ex IU 12714] (1), FMNH 55118 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:84 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:53 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Loricaria filamentosa Steindachner 1878 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:90 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Spatuloricaria fimbriata (Eigenmann & Vance 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:113 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155], Fichberg et al. 2014:323 [ref. 33358], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Spatuloricaria fimbriata (Eigenmann & Vance 1912). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Magdalena River at Boca de Certegai and Tiura River: Colombia and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

fimbriatus, Otocinclus Cope [E. D.] 1894:98, Pl. 9 (figs. 16, 16a-b) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Jacuhy [Jacuí], Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Syntypes: ANSP 21752 (4), 21585-97 (14). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus fimbriatus Cope 1894 -- (Isbrücker 1980:82 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Macrotocinclus flexilis (Cope 1894) -- (Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Otocinclus flexilis Cope 1894 -- (Malabarba 1989:150-151 [ref. 14217], Schaefer 1997:49 [ref. 23213], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:324 [ref. 27061], Lehmann A. et al. 2010:60 [ref. 30756], Litz & Koerber 2014:24 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Otocinclus flexilis Cope 1894. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

fimbriatus, Pseudacanthicus (Lithoxus) Steindachner [F.] 1915:201 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 52 (no. 17); ref. 15071] Río Coquenan, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): NMW 44418. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155]. Genus originally misspelled as Pseudocanthicus in the above abstract, later corrected as Pseudacanthicus when illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1915:92 [p. 78 of separate], Pl. 10 (figs. 1-3) [ref. 4244]; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. •Valid as Exastilithoxus fimbriatus (Steindachner 1915) -- (Isbrücker 1980:78 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:384 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2018:[5] [ref. 36081]). Current status: Valid as Exastilithoxus fimbriatus (Steindachner 1915). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Caroni and Matacuni River basins in Orinoco River drainage, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

fischeri, Chaetostomus Steindachner [F.] 1879:150 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 15) (for 19 June 1879); ref. 20478] Río Mamoni near Chepo, Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW 47170-73 (1, 1, 2, 1), 54991 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:162 [p. 14 in separate], Pl. 4 [ref. 18782]. •Valid as Chaetostoma fischeri Steindachner 1879 -- (Isbrücker 1980:61 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Lasso et al. 1998:62 [ref. 24173], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:380 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:216 [ref. 34894], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma fischeri Steindachner 1879. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Colombia, Ecuador and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

flagellaris, Plecostomus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:158 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Suriname. Holotype: BMNH 1863.11.12.195. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758 -- (Isbrücker 1980:116 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:60 [ref. 5522], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:26 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

flava, Loricaria Shaw [G.] 1804:38, Pl. 101 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Sea, in error [South America]. Lectotype: NRM 32 (57.8 mm SL). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:259 [ref. 29155]. Unneeded new name; based on several literature sources. Lectotype selected bn Weber et al. 2012:210 [ref. 31999] •Synonym of Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Isbrücker 1980:30 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:361 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:259 [ref. 29155], Weber et al. 2012:210 [ref. 31999]). Current status: Synonym of Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus 1758). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

flexilis, Otocinclus Cope [E. D.] 1894:97, Pl. 8 [7] (figs. 13, 13a-b) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Jacuhy [Jacuí], Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ANSP 21756. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21622-26 (5), 21757-67 (11). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155]. Intended Pl. 7 was reversed with Pl. 8. Lectotype selected by Schaefer 1997:53 [ref. 23213]. •Valid as Macrotocinclus flexilis (Cope 1894) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:20 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker et al. 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127]). •Valid as Otocinclus flexilis Cope 1894 -- (Isbrücker 1980:82 [ref. 2303], Malabarba 1989:150 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Schaefer 1991:6 [ref. 18926], Aquino 1994:218 [ref. 22311], Aquino 1996:13 [ref. 22664], Schaefer 1997:49 [ref. 23213], Gómez & Chebez 1996:62 [ref. 23791], Britto & Moreira 2002:1067 [ref. 26512], Britto et al. 2002:735 [ref. 26546], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:324 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27366], Axenrot & Kullander 2003:256 [ref. 27393], Lehmann A. et al. 2010:60 [ref. 30756], Koerber 2011:5 [ref. 31122], Litz & Koerber 2014:24 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus flexilis Cope 1894. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Jacuí, Laguna dos Patos system, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

floridablancaensis, Chaetostoma Ardila Rodríguez [C. A.] 2013:[5], Figs. 1 et seq. [Peces del Departamento de Santander - Colombia. No. 6; ref. 33712] Departamento de Santander, municipio de Floridablanca, quebrada Aranzoque, afluente del río de Oro, cuenca alto del río Lebrija, elevation 925 meters. Holotype: CAR 633.1. Paratypes: CAR, IMCN, MBUCV, MUSM. Genus Chaetostoma is neuter, therefore correction to floridablancaense. •Valid as Chaetostoma floridablancaense Ardila Rodríguez 2013 -- (Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975] as floridablancaensis, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma floridablancaense Ardila Rodríguez 2013. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Floridablanca, afluente del Río Oro, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

fluminense, Parotocinclus Roxo [F. F.], Melo [B. F.], Silva [G. S. C.] & Oliveira [C.] 2017:261, Figs. 1, 2a [Zootaxa 4232 (no. 2); ref. 35139] Municipality of Casemiro de Abreu, rio Branco, tributary of rio São João, coastal drainage, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 22°27'04"S, 42°05'04"W. Holotype: MZUSP 120989. Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, LBP, MCP, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Parotocinclus fluminense Roxo, Melo, Silva & Oliveira 2017. Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus fluminense Roxo, Melo, Silva & Oliveira 2017. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio São João drainage, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

fluminensis, Harttia Covain [R.] & Fisch-Muller [S.] in Covain, Fisch-Muller, Montoya-Burgos, Mol, Le Bail & Dray 2012:151 [Cybium v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 32000] Coppename River at Raleighvallen, Suriname. Holotype: MHNG 2724.003 [ex MHNG 2690.013]. Paratypes: MHNG 2690.012 (6), 2690.013 (14); MNHN 2011-0033 (2); NZCS F7077 (1) •Valid as Harttia fluminensis Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012 -- (Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia fluminensis Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Coppername River drainage, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

fluviatilis, Plecostomus Schubart [O.] 1964:7, Figs. 1-4 [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Zoologia, Nova Série No. 251; ref. 3425] Rio Mogi Guaçu basin, Brazil. Syntypes: (6) EEBP 282 (3), 658 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus fluviatilis (Schubart 1964) -- (Isbrücker 1980:23 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:357 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus fluviatilis (Schubart 1964). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Grande River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

fonchii, Hypostomus Weber [C.] & Montoya-Burgos [J. I.] 2002:357, Figs. 2-3 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 109 (no. 2); ref. 26428] Lower part near mouth of Río Pauya, 6°36'7.0"S, 75°56'26.3"W, Quebrada John, Ucayali, Peru, elevation 360 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2613.66. MHNG 2613.67 (tissue), 2613.68 (1); MUSM 18791 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus fonchii Weber & Montoya-Burgos 2002 -- (Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki & Carvalho 2014:50 [ref. 33227], Zawadzki et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33233], Tencatt et al. 2014:601 [ref. 33520]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus fonchii Weber & Montoya-Burgos 2002. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Cushabatay River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

fordii, Chaetostomus Günther [A.] 1868:476 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 1992] Probably Suriname. Syntypes: BMNH 1866.8.14.148-152 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:286 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. Also published in Günther (Sept.) 1868:231, Pl. 21 [ref. 5756]. •Valid as Pseudacanthicus fordii (Günther 1868) -- (Isbrücker 1980:76 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:27 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:393 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:286 [ref. 29155], Fisch-Muller et al. 2012:189 [ref. 31970], Chamon & Sousa 2016:13 [ref. 34852], Chamon & Costa e Silva 2018:507 [ref. 35821]). Current status: Valid as Pseudacanthicus fordii (Günther 1868). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

forestii, Microplecostomus Silva [G. S. C.], Roxo [F. F.], Ochoa [L. E.] & Oliveira [C.] 2016:136, Figs. 1-6 [ZooKeys No. 598; ref. 34486] Roncador Stream, a tributary of das Brancas Stream, tributary of the Tocantizinho River, Tocantins River basin, municipality of São João D’Aliança, Goiás state, Brazil, 14°53'47.2"S, 47°34'58.4"W. Holotype: MZUSP 118673. Paratypes: AUM, LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Microplecostomus forestii Silva, Roxo, Ochoa & Oliveira 2016 -- (Pereira & Reis 2017:82 [ref. 35307] no subfamily). Current status: Valid as Microplecostomus forestii Silva, Roxo, Ochoa & Oliveira 2016. Loricariidae. Distribution: Tocantizinho River, Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

formosa, Rineloricaria Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1979:192, Figs. 1-3 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 48 (no. 2); ref. 8822] Lagoon about 1 kilometer upriver from Puerto Inírida, Río Orinoco basin, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 83713. Paratypes: FMNH 83714-15 (22, 8); IRSNB 608-609 (now 3, now 7); MZUSP (8), MZUSP [ex IRSNB 608 (2), MZUSP ex IRSNB 609] (5); ZMA 114922-23 (5, 2), 115182 (1), 115196-97 (1, 1); ZSM 25821 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:62 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:76 [ref. 12367], Walschaerts 1987:21 [ref. 20755], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:268 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria formosa (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria formosa Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979 -- (Isbrücker 1980:105 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria formosa Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Western Orinoco and upper Amazon River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

formosae, Chaetostoma Ballen [G. A.] 2011:384, Figs. 1 and 3 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 51 (no. 26); ref. 31653] Caño Chuy, affluent of río Upía, Boyacá -- Casanare border, upper río Meta basin, Orinoco drainage, San Luis de Gaceno, Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN 17114. Paratypes: many as CZUT-IC, ICNMHN and MLS. Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:31 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Chaetostoma formosae Ballen 2011 -- (Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], Ballen et al. 2016:194 [ref. 34396], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:75 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma formosae Ballen 2011. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper río Meta and Guaviare basins, Orinoco River drainage, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

formosae, Hypostomus Cardoso [Y. P.], Brancolini [F.], Paracampo [A.], Lizarralde [M. S.], Covain [R.] & Montoya-Burgos [J. I.] 2016:13, Figs. 2, 3c, 4a [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 27 (no. 1); ref. 34373] Formosa Province, Saladillo Stream, tributary of Paraguay River, Argentina, 26°26'28"S, 58°24'03"W. Holotype: MACN Ict 9720. Paratypes: CFA-IC, MACN, MHNG. •Valid as Hypostomus formosae Cardoso, Brancolini, Paracampo, Lizzaralde, Covain & Montoya-Burgos 2016 -- (Koerber et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus formosae Cardoso, Brancolini, Paracampo, Lizzaralde, Covain & Montoya-Burgos 2016. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: South America: Paraguay River basin, Argentina and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

formoso, Ancistrus Sabino [J.] & Trajano [E.] 1997:74, Figs. 3-4 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 24 (no. 3-4); ref. 23465] Buraco do Ducho cave, Serra da Bodoquena, Município de Bonito, 21°08'S, 56°28'W, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP 51836. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus formoso Sabino & Trajano 1997 -- (Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Romero & Paulson 2001:29 [ref. 26040], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:375 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:154 [ref. 28992], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155], Bifi et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30541]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus formoso Sabino & Trajano 1997. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Cave in Formoso phreatic system, Rio Formoso basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

fowleri, Oxyloricaria Pellegrin [J.] 1908:126 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 33 (for 25 June 1908); ref. 14331] Camopi River, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1901-0372. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:75 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:233 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cteniloricaria fowleri (Pellegrin 1908) -- (Isbrücker 1980:91 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:266 [ref. 24549], Isbrücker 2001:26, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:331 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:233 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Harttia fowleri (Pellegrin 1908) -- (Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001:81 [ref. 25404], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Covain et al. 2006:9 [ref. 28739], Covain et al. 2012:154 [ref. 32000], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia fowleri (Pellegrin 1908). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Oyapock River basin: Brazil and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

francirochai, Otocinclus Ihering [R. von] 1928:2, Fig. 1 [Boletim Biologico, Trabalho do Laboratorio de Parasitologia da Facultade de Medicina de São Paulo v. 11 (no. 42); ref. 13840] Creeks by Pirangy, head waters of Rio Turvo, Brazil. Lectotype: MZUSP 3258 [ex DZSASP]. Paralectotypes: MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 5387-5397 (11). Type catalog: Britski 1969:209 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Britski 1969:209 [ref. 12401]. •Valid as Otocinclus francirochai Ihering 1928 -- (Isbrücker 1980:82 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860]). •In Microlepidogaster -- (Schaefer 1997:8 [ref. 23213]). •Valid as Microlepidogaster francirochai (Ihering 1928) -- (Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333]). •Valid as Hisonotus francirochai (Ihering 1928) -- (Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Britski & Garavello 2003:593 [ref. 27131], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:322 [ref. 27061], Almirón & Azpelicueta 2006:92 [ref. 28713], Azpelicueta & Almirón 2007:596 [ref. 29353], Britski & Garavello 2007:414 [ref. 29429], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Garvalho & Reis 2011:27 [ref. 31240], Roxo et al. 2015:137 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34426], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900], Dias et al. 2018:583 [ref. 36235]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus francirochai (Ihering 1928). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Grande River basin, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

francisci, Plecostomus Lütken [C. F.] 1874:30 [2] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 1); ref. 2855] Rio São Francisco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMUC 60. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:52 [ref. 9588], Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155]. On p. 2 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:143 (and p. II of summary) [ref. 19674]. •Valid as Hypostomus francisci (Lütken 1874) -- (Isbrücker 1980:23 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Britski 2001:19 [ref. 26046], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27366], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2012:246 [ref. 32031], Zanata et al. 2013:248 [ref. 32751], Koerber 2014:10 [ref. 33621] not in Argentina, Zanata & Pitanga 2016:231 [ref. 34535], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus francisci (Lütken 1874). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Paraná River basin: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

franciscoensis, Neoplecostomus Langeani [F.] 1990:22, Figs. 5-6 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 16736] Riacho afluente do córrego da Mutuca, à direita da estrada Belo Horizonte-Nova Lima, kilometer 20, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 20°06'S,43°55'W. Holotype: MZUSP 38577. Paratypes: MZUSP 37149 (40), 37163 (2), 37171 (4); ZMA 120343 (7). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:273 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Neoplecostomus franciscoensis Langeani 1990 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Casatti & Castro 1998:232 [ref. 23663], Bizerril 1995:698 [ref. 23196], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:319 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:273 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2008:46 [ref. 29594], Roxo et al. 2012:16 [ref. 31839], Roxo et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32073], Roxo et al. 2014:125 [ref. 33492], Andrade & Langeani 2014:9 [ref. 33618], Cherobim et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35001], Pereira & Reis 2017:74 [ref. 35307], Roxo et al. 2017:238 [ref. 35467], Silva et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36454]). Current status: Valid as Neoplecostomus franciscoensis Langeani 1990. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Headwaters of Das Velhas and Paraopeba River basins, São Francisco River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

frankei, Aphanotorulus Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1983:108, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 9 (no. 4) (1982); ref. 5389] Río Neshua, Río Aguaytia system, about 8°36'S, 74°50'W, 60 kilometers southwest of Pucallpa, Coronel Portillo Province, Peru. Holotype: ZMA 116640. Paratypes: ZMA 116641 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ahanotorulus frankei Isbrücker & Nijssen 1983 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Armbruster & Page 1996:384 [ref. 22151], Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Hypostomus unicolor (Steindachner 1908) -- (Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] top of p.). •Synonym of Aphanotorulus unicolor (Steindachner 1908) -- (Armbruster 1998:254 [ref. 23319], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:352 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155], Ray & Armbruster 2016:526 [ref. 34178]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanotorulus unicolor (Steindachner 1908). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

frenata, Loricaria Boulenger [G. A.] 1902:69 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 9 (no. 49) (art. 15); ref. 14844] Salidero, northwestern Ecuador, elevation 350 feet. Lectotype: BMNH 1901.8.3.29. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1901.8.3.30-31 (2), 1901.6.27.23-24 (2), ?1902.5.27.46-48 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Sturisoma frenatum (Boulenger 1902) -- (Isbrücker 1980:94 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:234 [ref. 34894]). •Valid as Sturisomatichthys frenatus (Boulenger 1902) -- (Covain et al. 2015:514 [23] [ref. 34066]). Current status: Valid as Sturisomatichthys frenatus (Boulenger 1902). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Pacific versant rivers, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

fuesslii, Ancistrus Steindachner [F.] 1911:373 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 48 (no. 17) (for 6 July 1911); ref. 14817] Sosomoco, Colombia, elevation 800 meters. Holotype (unique): NMW 48026. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155]. Species originally spelled as füsslii. •Valid as Lasiancistrus fuesslii (Steindachner 1911) -- (Isbrücker 1980:44 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233]). •Valid as Dolichancistrus fuesslii (Steindachner 1911) -- (Isbrücker 2001:25, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:384 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:235 [ref. 29155], Ballen & Vari 2012:513 [ref. 32204], Lujan et al. 2015:667 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:76 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Dolichancistrus fuesslii (Steindachner 1911). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Río Orinoco system, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

fugleri, Hemiancistrus Ovchynnyk [M. M.] 1971:108, Figs. 12-15 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 187 (nos 1/2); ref. 7699] Río Bogota, Parroquia Cadondelet, 1°06'N, 78°45'W, Province Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): MUSM 5133. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus fugleri Ovchynnyk 1971 -- (Isbrücker 1980:49 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:385 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745]). •Synonym of Hypostomus annectens (Regan 1904) -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], Provenzano & Barriga Salazar 2017:228 [ref. 35332]). Current status: Synonym of Hypostomus annectens (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

fuliginosus, Hemiancistrus Cardoso [A. R.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 1999:148, Figs. 5-6 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 12; ref. 24148] Rio Jacutinga, road Seara-Concórdia (BR283), Concórdia, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, about 27°10'S, 52°09'W. Holotype: MCP 21155. Paratypes: MCP 10878 (18), 11717 (3), 11855 (2), 12514 (10), 12521 (15), 12615 (1), 12647 (1), 12773 (2), 12900 (3), 12999 (1), 16192 (2), 16793 (2), 16820 (12), 18419 (5), 18442 (1), 18464 (28), 18559 (6), 18784 (11), 18869 (5), 18896 (4), 18898 (15), 19063 (12), 19397 (3), 19887 (1), 19940 (11), 20392 (2), 20417 (1), 20444 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus fuliginosus Cardoso & Malabarba 1999 -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:386 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:53 [ref. 27366], Cardoso & da Silva 2004:1 [ref. 27704], Cardoso 2004:176 [ref. 27799], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena & López 2004:234 [ref. 28357], Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670] as "Hemicancistrus", Mirande & Koerber 2015:41 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565] with author as Cardozo & Malabarba). Current status: Valid as Hemiancistrus fuliginosus Cardoso & Malabarba 1999. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper and middle Uruguay River basin, Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

fulva, Xenocara Holly [M.] 1929:119 [3] [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenshaften in Wien Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 66; ref. 16088] Alto Rio Acara, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNW 57203. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]. On p. 3 of separate. •Valid as Ancistrus fulvus (Holly 1929) -- (Isbrücker 1980:69 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:375 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155], de Oliveira et al. 2015:73 [ref. 33869]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus fulvus (Holly 1929). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Acará River basin in lower Amazon drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

furcatus, Chaetostomus Fowler [H. W.] 1940:238, Figs. 28-29 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91 (for 1939); ref. 1432] Contamana, Río Ucayali basin, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68655. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma furcatum Fowler 1940 -- (Isbrücker 1980:61 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653]). •Valid as Peckoltia furcata (Fowler 1940) -- (Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:392 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155], Armbruster 2008:26 [ref. 29740], de Oliveira et al. 2010:55 [ref. 30929], de Oliveira et al. 2012:548 [ref. 32202], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], Lujan et al. 2015:664 [ref. 33975], Armbruster & Lujan 2016:115, 117 [ref. 34264]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia furcata (Fowler 1940). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River, Marañon and Ucayali rivers: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

furtivus, Hemiancistrus Provenzano [F.] & Barriga Salazar [R. E.] 2017:223, Figs. 1, 2A [Zootaxa 4272 (no. 2); ref. 35332] Río Silanche, río Blanco tributary, close to San Francisco de Silanche town, Esmeraldas River basin, Pichincha Province, Ecuador, approximately 00°08'45"N, 79°16'38"W. Holotype: MEPN 11569. Paratypes: AUM, MCZ, MEPN. •Valid as Hemiancistrus furtivus Provenzano R. & Barriga Salazar 2017. Current status: Valid as Hemiancistrus furtivus Provenzano R. & Barriga Salazar 2017. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Esmeraldas River basin, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

furunculus, Hypancistrus Armbruster [J. W.], Lujan [N. K.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2007:71, Figs. 1C, 7 [Copeia 2007 (no. 1); ref. 29036] Cucue Amerindian village on Río Orinoco, 60 kilometers east of San Juan de Atabapo, 3°58'26"N, 67°09'30"W, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 54658. Paratypes: Many lots at ANSP, AUM, and MCNG, •Valid as Hypancistrus furunculus Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007 -- (Tan & Armbruster 2016:123 [ref. 34145], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypancistrus furunculus Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

galani, Ancistrus Pérez [A.] & Viloria [A.] 1994:105, Figs. 3-5 [Mémoires de Biospéologie v. 21; ref. 22094] Los Laureles cave, Río Socuy, Sierra de Perijá, Zulia State, Venezuela, 10°45'04"N, 72°27'42"W, elevation 650 meters. Holotype: MBLUZ 04351. Paratypes: MCP 15634 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus galani Pérez & Viloria 1994 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Sabino & Trajano 1997:73 [ref. 23465], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Romero & Paulson 2001:29 [ref. 26040], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178] dated 1987, Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:375 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:153 [ref. 28992], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155], Bifi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36821]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus galani Pérez & Viloria 1994. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Socuy River basin, Lake Maracaibo phreatic system, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

galaxias, Leporacanthicus Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1989:546, Figs 8-10, 13-15 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 42 (no. 9); ref. 13622] Rio Tocantins, Lagoa em frenta a Jacobal, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 24136. Paratypes: INPA 674 (1); INPA-TOC 1578 (1); IRSNB 694 (1); MZUSP 27665 (17); ZMA 107862 (16), 119396 (4), 119477 (1), 120337 (2 + 1 mutilated), 120344 (1); ZSM 26672 (1), 26735 (9). Additional material: ZMA 120338 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:264 [ref. 31652] •Valid as Leporacanthicus galaxias Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:388 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporacanthicus galaxias Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

garapia, Pareiorhaphis Pereira [E. H. L.], Lehmann A. [P.], Schvambach [L. J.] & Reis [R. E.] 2015:557, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4034 (no. 3); ref. 34007] Rio Grande do Sul, Maquiné, Barra do Ouro, Arroio Garapiá upstream the Garapiá waterfall, Brazil, 29°30’05.2"S, 50°13’15.8"W. Holotype: MCP 48861. Paratypes: AMNH, MCP, MNRJ. •Valid as Pareiorhaphis garapia Pereira, Lehmann A., Schvambach & Reis 2015 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561], Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307], Pereira et al. 2018:639 [ref. 36274]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis garapia Pereira, Lehmann A., Schvambach & Reis 2015. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Arroio Garapiá, Rio Tramandaí drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

garavelloi, Harttia Oyakawa [O. T.] 1993:13, Fig. 4 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 6; ref. 21109] Rio Fanado, near city of Minas Nova, Ráo Jequitinha basin, Brazil, 17°15'S, 42°35'W. Holotype: MZUSP 43266. Paratypes: MCP 15105 (3); MNRJ 12142 (3); MZUSP 42484 (6), 42485 (1), 42696 (2, c&s) Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Harttia garavelloi Oyakawa 1993 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Langeani et al. 2001:141 [ref. 25126], Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001:80 [ref. 25404], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia garavelloi Oyakawa 1993. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Fanado and Araçuaí River basins, São Francisco basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

garavelloi, Rhinolekos Martins [F. de O.] & Langeani [F.] 2011:71, Figs. 1b, 5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 31235] Caldas Novas, rio Paranaíba drainage, stream at Fazenda Lageado, near road GO-213, after rio Corumbá bridge, 17°44'20"S, 48°28'27"W, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: DZSJRP 10479. Paratypes: DZSJRP 10477 (22, 3 c&s), 12191 (37, 4 c&s); MCP 44057 (6); MNRJ 34127 (5); MZUSP 103697 (5). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:456 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Rhinolekos garavelloi Martins & Langeani 2011 -- (Roxo et al. 2015:124 [ref. 33671], Martins et al. 2017:242 [ref. 35356]). Current status: Valid as Rhinolekos garavelloi Martins & Langeani 2011. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Paranaíba drainage, upper rio Paraná system, Goiás State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

garbei, Hemipsilichthys Ihering [R. von] 1911:399 [Revista do Museo São Paulo v. 8 (1910); ref. 14822] Rio Macahé [Macaé], Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Lectotype: MZUSP 1163. Paralectotypes: MZUSP 2107 (1), 2108 (16), 47060 (1), 47918 (1), MNRJ 945 (6), NMW 60905 (1). Type catalog: Britski 1969:200 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by and redescription by Oliveira 1997:117 [ref. 26081]. •Valid as Hemipsilichthys garbei Ihering 1911 -- (Isbrücker 1980:12 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Oliveira 1997:117 [ref. 26081], Oliveira & Oyakawa 1999:79 [ref. 23672], Pereira et al. 2000:377 [ref. 25081], Bizerril 1995:116 [ref. 25087], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Pereira & Reis 2002:107 [ref. 26071], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Pereira et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27068], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:354 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pareiorhaphis garbei (Ihering 1911) -- (Periera 2005:272 [ref. 28273], Lazzarotto et al. 2007:91 [ref. 28803], Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155], Pereira et al. 2012:539 [ref. 32218], Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis garbei (Ihering 1911). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Macaé River basin, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

garmani, Plecostomus Regan [C. T.] 1904:214, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Rio das Velhas, eastern Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1904.1.28.3 [ex MCZ]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus garmani (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:23 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Casatti & Castro 1998:232 [ref. 23663], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155], Zanata et al. 2013:248 [ref. 32751], Zawadzki et al. 2016:272 [ref. 34908], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus garmani (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

genibarbis, Rinelepis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:484, Pl. 453 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Probably Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN (dry) (not found). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudorinelepis genibarbis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:8 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Armbruster & Hardman 1999:57 [ref. 23670], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Quevedo & Reis 2002:408 [ref. 26014], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:366 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35633], Celis-Granada et al. 2019:193 [ref. 36914]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorinelepis genibarbis (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Rhinelepinae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and Orinoco Lowlands: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

genisetiger, Pseudancistrus Fowler [H. W.] 1941:155, Figs. 59-62 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Jaguaribe, Orós, Ceará State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69441. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Lasiancistrus genisetiger (Fowler 1941) [sometimes as genistiger] -- (Isbrücker 1980:44 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233]). •Valid as Lithoxancistrus genisetiger (Fowler 1941) -- (Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:389 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pseudancistrus genisetiger Fowler 1941 -- (Armbruster 2004:5 [ref. 27844], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155], Willink et al. 2010:41 [ref. 30670], Silva et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33302]). •Sister to Hemipsilichthys gobio and may represent an undescribed genus -- (Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012:235 [ref. 31998]). Current status: Valid as Pseudancistrus genisetiger Fowler 1941. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Jaguaribe River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gianetii, Farlowella Ballen [G. A.], Pastana [M. N. L.] & Peixoto [L. A. W.] 2016:[2], Figs. 1, 2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 14 (no. 3) e160046; ref. 34813] Rio Couto de Magalhães, Campinápolis, rio Xingu basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 13°50'17"S, 53°03'53"W. Holotype: MZUSP 95564. Paratypes: MZUSP. •Valid as Farlowella gianetii Ballen, Pastana & Peixoto 2016. Current status: Valid as Farlowella gianetii Ballen, Pastana & Peixoto 2016. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Rio Xingu basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gibbiceps, Ancistrus Kner [R.] 1854:284 [34], Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] Upper Rio Negro near Marabitanos, Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. On p. 34 of separate. •Valid as Glyptoperichthys gibbiceps (Kner 1854) -- (Weber 1991:643 [ref. 19114], Weber 1992:17, 29 [ref. 19714], Chang & Ortega 1995:6 [ref. 24302], Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Lasso et al. 2001:99 [ref. 25928], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:352 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner 1854) -- (Isbrücker 1980:41 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], Armbruster & Page 2006:402 [ref. 28898], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner 1854). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Middle and upper Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

gibbosus, Chaetostomus cochliodon Steindachner [F.] 1880:63, Pl. 4 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 42; ref. 14403] Río Cauca, Colombia. Syntypes: NMW 47297-98 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. Described as "sive gibbosus" -- an unneeded replacement name proposed conditionally for cochliodon. •Synonym of Panaque cochliodon (Steindachner 1879) -- (Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:391 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Panaque cochliodon (Steindachner 1879). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

gibbosus, Otocinclus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1908:[2], Figs 2-2a. [Kosmos, Rio de Janeiro [Rev. Art. Sci. Litt.] v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1907); ref. 3715] Rio Bethary [Betharí], São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 1048. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:401 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155]. •Generic placement uncertain -- (Schaefer 1997:8 [ref. 23213]). •Valid as Lampiella gibbosa (Miranda Ribeiro 1908) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:19 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:29, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310]). •Valid as Otocinclus gibbosus Miranda Ribeiro 1908 -- (Isbrücker 1980:83 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:324 [ref. 27061], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127]). Current status: Valid as Lampiella gibbosa (Miranda Ribeiro 1908). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gigas, Chaetostomus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:526 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1895 (pt 3); ref. 14576] Paraguay. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1895.5.17.72. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:272 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Megalancistrus gigas (Boulenger 1895) -- (Isbrücker 1980:52 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Megalancistrus parananus (Peters 1881) -- (Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:14 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:390 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:272 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:64 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Megalancistrus parananus (Peters 1881). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

gladiolus, Acestra Günther [A.] 1864:261 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio Cupai [= Cupari], Rio Tapajós basin, Amazon River drainage, Pará State, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1853.3.19.66 (91 mm SL). Paralectotypes: (2) BMNH 1853.3.19.67 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:114 [ref. 2302]. The correct spelling of the valid species epithet is amazonum, a noun that does not decline (see note under Curimatus amazonum). •Valid as Farlowella gladiolus (Günther 1864) -- (Isbrücker 1980:98 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Farlowella amazona (Günther 1864) -- (Retzer & Page 1997:69 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Farlowella gladiolus (Günther 1864) -- (Covain et al. 2015:513 [22] [ref. 34066]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella gladiolus (Günther 1864). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gladius, Acestra Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:425, Pl. 41 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 14 (pt 7, no. 2); ref. 543] Rio Juruá, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1897.12.1.80 (202 mm SL). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1897.12.1.81 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:239 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:114 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Farlowella gladius (Boulenger 1898) -- (Isbrücker 1980:98 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:62 [ref. 23791]). •Synonym of Farlowella oxyrryncha (Kner 1853) -- (Retzer & Page 1997:77 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27366], Ferraris 2007:239 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Farlowella oxyrryncha (Kner 1853). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gnomus, Panaque Schaefer [S. A.] & Stewart [D. J.] 1993:333, Fig. 17 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 21282] Río Cushuimi at Cushuimi, about 2°39'S, 77°43'W, upper Río Morona - Marañón basin, Ecuador, elevation 300+ meters. Holotype: FMNH 70860. Paratypes: FMNH 96950 (3, 2 c&s), 97597-98 (3, 2); LACM 36329-5 (1), 36330-4 (2), 36357-32 (4), 41726-17 (1), 41992-6 (2), 42005-11 (1), 42115-7 (2); MEPN 1829 (1), 2945 (6), 3017 (4); USNM 163912 (1), 177209 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Panaque gnomus Schaefer & Stewart 1993 -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Chockley & Armbruster 2002:83 [ref. 26069], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:391 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745]). •Valid as Panaqolus gnomus (Schaefer & Stewart 1993) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:20 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2013:197 [ref. 32784], Cramer 2014:69 [ref. 33229], Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015:469 [ref. 33945], Tan et al. 2016:[19] [ref. 34532], Cramer & Sousa 2016:16 [ref. 34885], Lujan et al. 2017:333 [12] [ref. 35031] as subgenus Panaqolus). Current status: Valid as Panaqolus gnomus (Schaefer & Stewart 1993). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Pastaza and upper Marañón River basins: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

gobio, Xenomystus Lütken [C. F.] 1874:217 [16], Pl. 4 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1873 (nos 13-14); ref. 2854] Rio Parahyba, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMUC 76. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:52 [ref. 9588], Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:247 [ref. 29155]. On p. 16 of separate. •Valid as Hemipsilichthys gobio (Lütken 1874) -- (Isbrücker 1980:12 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Oliveira 1997:119, 123 [ref. 26081], Oliveira & Oyakawa 1999:79 [ref. 23672], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Pereira et al. 2000:377 [ref. 25081], Bizerril 1995:116 [ref. 25087], Isbrücker 2001:28, 32 [ref. 25653], Pereira & Reis 2002:99 [ref. 26071], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Pereira et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27068], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:354 [ref. 27061], Periera 2005:272 [ref. 28273], Reis et al. 2006:281 [ref. 28706], Ferraris 2007:247 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Hemipsilichthys gobio (Lütken 1874). Loricariidae: Delturinae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gomesi, Plecostomus Fowler [H. W.] 1942:2 [The Fish Culturist v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 17876] Ceará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69409. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:298 [ref. 29155]. Replacement name for Plecostomus iheringi Fowler 1941, preoccupied by Plecostomus iheringii Regan 1908. •Valid as Hypostomus gomesi (Fowler 1942) -- (Isbrücker 1980:24 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). •Valid as Squaliforma gomesi (Fowler 1942) -- (Weber in Reis et al. 2003:367 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:298 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Aphanotorulus gomesi (Fowler 1942) -- (Ray & Armbruster 2016:517 [ref. 34178] dated 1941). Current status: Valid as Aphanotorulus gomesi (Fowler 1942). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Jaguaribe River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

goyazensis, Plecostomus Regan [C. T.] 1908:798, Fig. 207 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1907 (pt 4); ref. 14333] Goiás, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1889.11.14.49 [ex MCZ]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus goyazensis (Regan 1908) -- (Isbrücker 1980:24 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32701]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus goyazensis (Regan 1908). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Epactionotus Reis [R. E.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 1998:12, Fig. 6 [American Museum Novitates No. 3254; ref. 23691] Rio Jordão at Jordão Alto, 28°36'S, 49°29'W, Nova Veneza, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 20282. Paratypes: ANSP 168968 (20); MCP 11615 (19, 2 c&s), 19193 (2); USNM 285878 (10). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:236 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Epactionotus gracilis Reis & Schaefer 1998 -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:322 [ref. 27061], Azpelicueta et al. 2004:89 [ref. 28029], Almirón et al. 2004:143 [ref. 27988], Ferraris 2007:236 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Hisonotus gracilis (Reis & Schaefer 1998) -- (Roxo et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36538]). Current status: Valid as Epactionotus gracilis Reis & Schaefer 1998. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Araranguá River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Farlowella Regan [C. T.] 1904:303, Pl. 20 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Río Caquetá, Cauca Valley, southern Colombia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1902.5.29.180. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella gracilis Regan 1904 -- (Isbrücker 1980:98 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:75 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27061], Retzer 2006:61 [ref. 28957], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155], Ballen & Mojica 2014:140 [ref. 33176], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Ballen et al. 2016:331 [ref. 34915], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella gracilis Regan 1904. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Harttia Oyakawa [O. T.] 1993:16, Fig. 5 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 6; ref. 21109] Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil, 20°58'S, 46°47'W. Holotype: MZUSP 43267. Paratypes: MCP 15106 (3); MNRJ 12143 (3); MZUSP 35399 (6), 42695 (2, c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Harttia gracilis Oyakawa 1993 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Langeani et al. 2001:141 [ref. 25126], Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001:80 [ref. 25404], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia gracilis Oyakawa 1993. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

graffini, Sturisoma Londoño-Burbano [A.] 2018:1002 [4], Figs. 1a, 2a, 3-5 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 92 (no. 4); ref. 35813] Picaflor Creek, at Pakitza guard post, Castanel Trail #12 to Caña Brava Trail #16, Madre de Dios River basin, Amazonas, Peru, 11°49'60"S, 71°20'59"W. Holotype: MUSM 58700 [ex ROM 64044]. Paratypes: CAS, MUSM, ROM, USNM. •Valid as Sturisoma graffini Londoño-Burbano 2018. Current status: Valid as Sturisoma graffini Londoño-Burbano 2018. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Madre de Dios River basin, upper Amazon, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

granosus, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:502 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Cayenne, French Guiana; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN B-0597 (6) Cayenne, B-0598 (5 or 6) Brazil, 9566 (3) Rio de Janeiro. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:75 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:273 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Neoplecostomus granosus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:6 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Langeani 1990:25 [ref. 16736], de Pinna 1998:304 [ref. 23847], Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:319 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:273 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2008:46 [ref. 29594], Andrade & Langeani 2014:9 [ref. 33618], Pereira & Reis 2017:74 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Neoplecostomus granosus (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Locality uncertain: Brazil (?) and French Guiana (?). Habitat: freshwater.

greedoi, Peckoltia Armbruster [J. W.], Werneke [D. C.] & Tan [M.] 2015:107, Fig. 4 [ZooKeys No. 480; ref. 33670] Pará, río Gurupi on BR 316 at border of Pará and Maranhão, -01.8003°, -046.3167°, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 21972. Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, MCP, MNRJ. •Valid as Peckoltia greedoi Armbruster, Werneke & Tan 2015 -- (Armbruster & Lujan 2016:117 [ref. 34264]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia greedoi Armbruster, Werneke & Tan 2015. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Gurupi drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

greeni, Chaetostoma Isbrücker [I. J. H.] in Isbrücker et al. 2001:24 [DATZ-Sonderheft Harnischwelse 2 [Special issue no. 2]; ref. 25649] "Rozmaiu, Upper Peru" [locality uncertain, Peru likely]. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.10.12.3-4 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155]. Replacement name for Chaetostomus maculatus Regan 1904, preoccupied by Chaetostomus (Ancistrus) cirrhosus var. maculata Steindachner 1881. •Valid as Chaetostoma greeni Isbrücker 2001 -- (Isbrücker in Isbrücker 2001:24 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:380 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:63 [ref. 28542], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745] as cf. greeni). •Valid as Ancistrus greeni (Isbrücker 2001) -- (Lujan et al. 2015:673 [ref. 33975], Bifi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36821]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus greeni (Isbrücker 2001). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: ?Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

griseus, Loricaria Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:8 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Konawaruk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53077 [ex CM 1504]. Paratypes: (33, IU and CM) BMNH 1912.1.31.1-2 (2); CAS 77333-34 [ex IU 11926-27] (3, 3); FMNH 7416 (1), 53078 (3), 53554 (9); MCZ 30054 (1); CAS-SU 21776 (1); NMW 44880 (1); USNM 66224 (1); ZMA 102160 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:84 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:46 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:57 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:53 [ref. 12367] as 13 paratypes at FMNH, Ferraris & Vari 1992:28 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:266 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Limatulichthys punctatus (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:124 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522]). •See account of Limatulichthys punctatus (Regan 1904). •Valid as Limatulichthys griseus (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:266 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Londoño-Burbano et al. 2014:362 [ref. 33580] and cf. griseus, Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:75 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Limatulichthys griseus (Eigenmann 1909). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins. Habitat: freshwater.

guacari, Hypostomus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:144, 145, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Les rivières de l'Amérique méridionale. Lectotype: NRM 32 (57.8 mm SL). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:258 [ref. 29155]. See account of Acipenser plecostomus. Regarded as an unneeded substitute name for Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus 1758). Lectotype selected by Weber et al. 2012:210 [ref. 31999]. •Synonym of Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Isbrücker 1980:30 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:86 [ref. 23651], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:361 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] top of page, Ferraris 2007:258 [ref. 29155], Weber et al. 2012:209 [ref. 31999]). Current status: Synonym of Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus 1758). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

guacharote, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:508 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Puerto Rico [in error]; actual probably Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Syntypes: MNHN A-9567 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:72 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]. In genus Lasiancistrus, probably with incorrect locality -- (Armbruster 2004:13 [ref. 27844]). See Armbruster 2005:557 [ref, 28554] for comments on the type locality. •Valid as Guyanancistrus guacharote (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:19 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Lasiancistrus guacharote (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:44 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:387 [ref. 27061], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:387 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2005:555 [ref. 28554], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento 2016:533 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Lasiancistrus guacharote (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

guahiborum, Hemiancistrus Werneke [D. C.], Armbruster [J. W.], Lujan [N. K.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2005:544, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28456] Rio Ventuari at raudales Tencua, 56 kilometers ese of San Juan de Manapiare, 05.04968°N, 065.62722°W, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 51994. Paratypes: Many lots at ANSP, AUM, CAS, CUMV, FMNH, MBUCV-V, MCNG, UF, USNM. Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus guahiborum Werneke, Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670] as "Hemiancistrus", DoNascimiento et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35633] as "Hemiancistrus"). Current status: Valid as Hemiancistrus guahiborum Werneke, Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2005. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

guairensis, Chaetostomus Steindachner [F.] 1881:121 [21], Pl. 3 (figs. 1-1a) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 43; ref. 14290] Río Guaire near Caracas, Venezuela. Syntypes: (several) NMW 47183-85 (2, 2, 3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. On p. 21 of separate. •Valid as Chaetostoma guairense Steindachner 1881 -- (Isbrücker 1980:61 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850] as guiarensis, Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:380 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Tan & Armbruster 2012:52 [ref. 31842], Tan & Armbruster 2012:58 [ref. 31842], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], Provenzano et al. 2017:264 [ref. 35613]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma guairense Steindachner 1881. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tuy and Guaire River and Lake Valencia basins, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

guapore, Lasiancistrus Knaack [J.] 2000:57, 8 figs. (unnumbered) [Aquaristik aktuell (Germany) v. 8 (nos 9-10); ref. 27233] Rio Guaporé at Pontes E Lacerda, 15°07.627'S, 58°57.786'W, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 28678 [ex ZMB 33137]. Paratypes: ZMB [as BZM] 33136 (7). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Lasiancistrus guapore Knaack 2000 -- (Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:387 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Lasiancistrus schomburgkii (Günther 1864) -- (Armbruster 2005:561 [ref. 28554], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Lasiancistrus schomburgkii (Günther 1864). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Guaporé River basin, Brazil [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

guaricensis, Farlowella Martín Salazar [F. J.] 1964:253, Fig. 4 [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 24 (no. 69); ref. 9227] Puente de Uverito, Río Guárico, San Juan de Los Morros at Ortiz, Estado Guárico, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-11941 [not MHNLS, ex AFY 51018]. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-11943 [ex AFY 51018] (1), MAC-APU [ex AFY 56222] (6). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:45-46 [ref. 23639], Provenzano et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella guaricensis Martín Salazar 1964 -- (Isbrücker 1980:98 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Farlowella vittata Myers 1942 -- (Retzer & Page 1997:64 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:334 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Farlowella vittata Myers 1942. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

guentheri, Ancistrus Regan [C. T.] 1904:241, Pl. 12 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Guyana. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1978.3.2.1. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudancistrus guentheri (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:10 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:27 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:394 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:5 [ref. 27844], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155], Willink et al. 2010:41 [ref. 30670], Silva et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33302]). Current status: Valid as Pseudancistrus guentheri (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Unknown locality in Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

guentheri, Hypoptopoma Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:526 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1895 (pt 3); ref. 14576] Descalvados, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Syntypes: (numerous) BMNH 1895.5.17.77-82 (6). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:250 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypoptopoma guentheri Boulenger 1895 -- (Isbrücker 1980:87 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:133 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Aquino & Miquelarena 2001:5 [ref. 26083], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Hypoptopoma inexspectatum (Holmberg 1893) -- (Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:323 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:250 [ref. 29155], Aquino & Schaefer 2010:60 [ref. 30875], Mirande & Koerber 2015:40 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Hypoptopoma inexspectatum (Holmberg 1893). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

guentheri, Oxyloricaria Regan [C. T.] 1904:299, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Xeberos, upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.6.13.36. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sturisoma guentheri (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:94 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:30, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Londoño-Burbano 2018:[13] [ref. 35813]). Current status: Valid as Sturisoma guentheri (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper and middle Amazon River basin: Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

guianense, Hypoptopoma Boeseman [M.] 1974:259, Fig. 1; Pl. 1 [Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (Series C, Biological and Medical Sciences) v. 77 (no. 3); ref. 7490] Left tributary of Nickerie River, a few kilometers upstream from Stonedansi Falls, Suriname. Holotype: RMNH 26919. Paratypes: MZUSP (1); RMNH 26920 (orig. 12, now 8), 26921-22 (2, 4); USNM 213484 [ex RMNH 26920] (2); ZMA 106591 (9). Non-types: USNM 102224 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:54 [ref. 19236], Ferraris & Vari 1992:27 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:250 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypoptopoma guianense Boeseman 1974 -- (Isbrücker 1980:87 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:323 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:250 [ref. 29155], Aquino & Schaefer 2010:28 [ref. 30875], Aquino & Sabaj Pérez 2016:139 [ref. 34526]). Current status: Valid as Hypoptopoma guianense Boeseman 1974. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Essequibo (Guyana) and Nickerie (Suriname) rivers. Habitat: freshwater.

guianensis, Harttia Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] & Oliveira [E. C.] 2001:88, Fig. 6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 25404] Approuague River, Saut Athanase, 4°11'N, 52°19'W, French Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 1998-0395. Paratypes: INPA 3184 (6), 3308 (6); MNHN 1998-0396 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Harttia guianensis Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001 -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Covain et al. 2006:9 [ref. 28739], Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Covain et al. 2012:150 [ref. 32000], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]) Current status: Valid as Harttia guianensis Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Maroni/Maeowijni to Approuague River: Brazil and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

gulare, Hypoptopoma Cope [E. D.] 1878:679 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Loreto, Río Marañón, Peruvian Amazon, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21477. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:250 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypoptopoma gulare Cope 1878 -- (Isbrücker 1980:88 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Aquino & Schaefer 2002:386 [ref. 26022], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:323 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:250 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Aquino & Schaefer 2010:83 [ref. 30875], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:162, 191 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento 2016:539 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypoptopoma gulare Cope 1878. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

guntheri, Microlepidogaster Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:634 [6] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] Ilha de São Sebastião, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Lectotype: MZUSP 1015. Paralectotypes: (23) MZUSP 5365-5380 (16). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:295 [ref. 29155]. On p. 6 of separate. Spelled guntheri in heading and footnote. Lectotype selected by Britski 1969:208 [ref. 12401]. Listed (Isbrücker 1980:85-86 [ref. 2303] as guentheri). See Ferraris 2007:295 [ref. 29155] for comments on spelling of the species name. Named after the collector F. Günther (name misspelled on p. 634, but correct on p. 635). Miranda Ribeiro later used güntheri for the species and being based on a German name to be corrected to guentheri (ICZN Art. 32.5.1). •Valid as Schizolecis guentheri (Miranda Ribeiro 1918) (often seen as guntheri) -- (Britski & Garavello 1984:229 [ref. 5166], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:30, 32 [ref. 25653] , Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:327 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:295 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Roxo et al. 2017:352 [ref. 35310]). Current status: Valid as Schizolecis guentheri (Miranda Ribeiro 1918). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

guttatus, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:508 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Region near Paramaribo, Suriname. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3126. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155]. For information on type and locality see Boeseman 1972:305 [ref. 19698], also Isbrücker 1980:10 [ref. 2303]. •Synonym of Pseudancistrus barbatus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:10 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:394 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:5 [ref. 27844], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155], De Chambrier & Montoya-Burgos 2008:46 [ref. 29881]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudancistrus barbatus (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnogaster, Acestridium Reis [R. E.] & Lehmann A. [P.] 2009:446, Figs. 1, 5C [Copeia 2009 (no. 3); ref. 30379] Rio Traira, ca. 33 kilometers east of Rio Madeira onTrans-Amazon road, 7°35'33"S, 62°44'45"W, Município de Humaltá, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 43199. Paratypes: ANSP 189026 (2); MCP 37783 (10), 37784 (12 + 2 c&s), 37786 (1); MNRJ 32558 (2). •Valid as Acestridium gymnogaster Reis & Lehmann A. 2009 -- (Rodriguez et al. 2015:325 [ref. 33908]). Current status: Valid as Acestridium gymnogaster Reis & Lehmann A. 2009. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Madeira drainage, Amazonas Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnogaster, Loricaria Eigenmann [C. H.] & Vance [L.] in Eigenmann 1912:12 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Apulo, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 28773 [ex IU 12691]. Paratypes: (48, CM and IU) CAS 28774-75 [ex IU 12692-93] (7, 10); FMNH 55138 (29); USNM 79218 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:53 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:28 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Loricaria gymnogaster Eigenmann & Vance 1912 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Spatuloricaria gymnogaster (Eigenmann & Vance 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:113 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155], Fichberg et al. 2014:323 [ref. 33358], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633], Londoño-Burbano et al. 2018:620 [ref. 36263]). Current status: Valid as Spatuloricaria gymnogaster (Eigenmann & Vance 1912). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnorhynchus, Ancistrus Kner [R.] 1854:275 [25] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): NMW 43495. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]. On p. 25 of separate. •Valid as Ancistrus gymnorhynchus Kner 1854 -- (Isbrücker 1980:69 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:376 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155], Taphorn et al. 2010:21 [ref. 30697], de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35679], de Souza et al. 2019:58 [ref. 36504]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus gymnorhynchus Kner 1854. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Venezuela: Coastal rivers of Falcón, Lara, Carabobo and Yaracuy states and upper Pao River drainage in the Orinoco River basin Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnorhynchus, Plecostomus Norman [J. R.] 1926:95 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 18 (no. 103); ref. 15602] Iponcin Creek, into Approuague River, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1926.3.2.745. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus gymnorhynchus (Norman 1926) -- (Isbrücker 1980:24 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:254 [ref. 24549], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155], Weber et al. 2012:209, 211 [ref. 31999], Zawadzki et al. 2015:56 [ref. 33866], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus gymnorhynchus (Norman 1926). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Guianan coastal drainages, from Oyapock westward to Suriname basin: French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

hadrostomus, Baryancistrus de Oliveira [R. R.], Rapp Py-Daniel [L.] & Oyakawa [O. T.] 2019:486, Figs. 3B, 6, 7 [Copeia v. 107 (no. 3); ref. 36981] First waterfall of the Iratapuru River, Laranjal do Jari, Amapá, Brazil, 0°33'50.4"S, 52°34'42.4"W. Holotype: INPA 6041. Paratypes: INPA, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Baryancistrus hadrostomus de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel & Oyakawa 2019. Current status: Valid as Baryancistrus hadrostomus de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel & Oyakawa 2019. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Jari River basin, northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

haerteli, Farlowella Schreitmüller [W.] 1936:93 [Nachrichtenblatt für Aquarien- und Terrarien-Vereine 1936 (Nr. 8); ref. 33637] Amazonenstromgebiet. No types known. Figured in Schreitmüller 1936:218 [ref. 35557]. •Possibly a synonym of Farlowella vittata Myers 1942 -- (RVL). Current status: Uncertain as Farlowella vittata Myers 1942. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

hahni, Farlowella Meinken [H.] 1937:77, Fig. 2 [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 48 (no. 4); ref. 15288] Río Paraná, about 2 kilometers east of Ayolas, 27°24'S, 56°46'W, Misiones Dept., Paraguay. Neotype: UMMZ 228132. Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:271 [ref. 23225], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. Neotype designated by Retzer & Page 1997:76 [ref. 23176]; 2 original syntypes lost. •Valid as Farlowella hahni Meinken 1937 -- (Isbrücker 1980:98 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:76 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta & Koerber 2014:97 [ref. 33832], Mirande & Koerber 2015:44 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:64 [ref. 35267], Terán et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36818]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella hahni Meinken 1937. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Middle Paraná River basin: Argentina and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

halbothi, Parotocinclus Lehmann A. [P.], Lazzarotto [H.] & Reis [R. E.] 2014:28, Figs. 1-2a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 33225] Pará, Oriximiná, creek tributary to igarapé do Moura at Platô Monte Branco, rio Trombetas drainage, Amazon basin, 1°35’58.09"S, 56°31’21.83"W, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 48029. Paratypes: INPA, MCP, MPEG, USNM. Pará, Oriximiná, creek tributary to igarapé do Moura at Platô Monte Branco, rio Trombetas drainage, Amazon basin, 1°35°58.09"S, 56º31’21.83"W, Brazil. •Valid as Parotocinclus halbothi Lehmann A., Lazzarotto & Reis 2014 -- (Lehmann A. et al. 2015:47 [ref. 33723], Roxo et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34921], Ramos et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35268]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus halbothi Lehmann A., Lazzarotto & Reis 2014. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Trombetas and Marowijne river basins, Brazil and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

hammarlundi, Hemiancistrus Rendahl [H.] 1937:2, Fig. 1 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 29 (pt. 3) A (art. 11); ref. 15300] Río Clementina system, northwest of Babahoyo, Los Rios, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): NRM 10370. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus hammarlundi Rendahl 1937 -- (Isbrücker 1980:50 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:386 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:226 [ref. 34894]). •Synonym of Hemicancistrus landoni Eigenmann 1916 -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], Provenzano & Barriga Salazar 2017:229 [ref. 35332]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiancistrus landoni Eigenmann 1916. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

hargreavesi, Farlowella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:252, Pl. 32 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Guyana. Holotype (unique): GNMGG uncat. (apparently lost). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella hargreavesi Eigenmann 1912 -- (Isbrücker 1980:98 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910 -- (Retzer & Page 1997:56 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15-16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

haroldoi, Parotocinclus Garavello [J. C.] 1988:118, Fig. 1 [Naturalia (São Paulo) v. 13; ref. 6853] Córrego do Otaviano, Poço do Sanharó, Riacho Sanharó, Piauí, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 10531. Paratypes: MNRJ 10532-37 (6), 36890 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus haroldoi Garavello 1988 -- (Lacerda & Evers 1996:88, 92 [ref. 22351], Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:218 [ref. 26534], Britski & Garavello 2002:287 [ref. 26540], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Ramos et al. 2013:788 [ref. 33028], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Ramos et al. 2016:[10] [ref. 34352], Ramos et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35268]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus haroldoi Garavello 1988. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Parnaíba basin, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Farlowella Eigenmann [C. H.] & Vance [L.] 1917:301, Pl. 30 (figs. 1-2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 11 (nos 1-2) (art. 4); ref. 15090] Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 55089 [ex CM 3781a]. Paratypes: FMNH 55090 [ex CM 3781b] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:83 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:36 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella hasemani Eigenmann & Vance 1917 -- (Isbrücker 1980:99 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:54 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], Retzer 2006:64 [ref. 28957], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella hasemani Eigenmann & Vance 1917. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Pará State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Otocinclus Steindachner [F.] 1915:348 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 52 (no. 27); ref. 20500] Rio Parnaiba basin, Engenhão de Agua, about 4°52'S, 43°10'W, Maranhão State, Brazil. Lectotype: 45369:1 (largest). Paralectotypes: NMW 45369:2-20 (21). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:274 [ref. 29155]. Species described in more detail in Steindachner 1915:578 [ref. 15070]. Lectotype selected by Schaefer 1997:62 [ref. 23213]. •Valid as Otocinclus hasemani Steindachner 1915 -- (Isbrücker 1980:83 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Schaefer 1997:60 [ref. 23213], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Britto & Moreira 2002:1067 [ref. 26512], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:324 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:274 [ref. 29155], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus hasemani Steindachner 1915. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Tocantins and Parnaíba River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Rineloricaria Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1979:200, Figs. 4-5 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 48 (no. 2); ref. 8822] Forest streams along Bragança railroad (Bragança, 1°02'S, 46°46'W), Maguary near Belém, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: NMW 45133 or 44865. Paratypes: NMW 44865 (2, now 1), ZSM 19732 [ex NMW 44865] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:268 [ref. 31652]. Original says holotype is NMW 44865, so needs research. •Valid as Hemiloricaria hasemani (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria hasemani Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979 -- (Isbrücker 1980:105 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria hasemani Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lower Amazon or Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hauxwelli, Loricariichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1915:238, Fig. 10 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 1392] Río Ambyiacu, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8301. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:122 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Loricariichthys hauxwelli Fowler 1915 -- (Isbrücker 1980:126 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker et al. 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:338 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745] as Loricarichthys, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633]). •Valid as Rineloricaria hauxwelli (Fowler 1915) -- (Grant 2017:15 [ref. 35441]). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys hauxwelli Fowler 1915. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

hemicochliodon, Hypostomus Armbruster [J. W.] 2003:29, Fig. 12 [Zootaxa No. 249; ref. 27426] 4.54 kilometers from Iquitos center, 269° bearing, 3°45'07"S, 73°16'59". Río Amazonas drainage at Pampa Chica, Río Nanay, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 17442. Paratypes: AMNH 218019 (1); AUM 28907 (1); FMNH 97010 (1); INHS 36878 (2, 1 c&s), 39690 (1), 39962 (1), 50131 (2, 1 c&s); LACM 39862-5 (1), 39937-6 (1), 39947-5 (2), 41729-34 (1), 41853-3 (1), 42013-4 (1), 41886-2 (1), 41893-4 (1); SIUC 36690 (1). Plus nontype material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus hemicochliodon Armbruster 2003 -- (Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Hollanda Carvalho & Weber 2004:955 [ref. 28067], Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155], Carvalho et al. 2010:39 [ref. 30754], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Zawadzki & Carvalho 2014:50 [ref. 33227], Tencatt et al. 2014:601 [ref. 33520], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus hemicochliodon Armbruster 2003. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Widespread in central South America: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

hemiurus, Plecostomus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:224, Fig. 34, Pl. 25 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Amatuk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53110 [ex CM 1544]. Paratypes: FMNH 53111 [ex CM 1545a; IU 11963] (4), BMNH 1911.10.31.113 (1), CAS 77341 [ex IU 11963] (2). Additional original material: CAS 77337 [ex IU 11965] (1), 77338-40 [ex IU 11964, -66-67] (1, 1, 1); FMNH 53112-16 [ex CM 1546-1550] (5, 1, 1, 1, 1), 53149 [ex CM 1586] (1); MCZ 30052 [ex CM 1547] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:85 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:407 [ref. 1224]. Ibarra & Stewart list 10 paratypes from 6 localities at FMNH, but some are not types but additional original material. •Valid as Hypostomus hemiurus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:24 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2015:56 [ref. 33866], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus hemiurus (Eigenmann 1912). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

henriquei, Farlowella Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:636 [8] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] Rio Vermlho, Santa Rita das Antas, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 2159. Type catalog: Britski 1969:208 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. On p. 8 of separate. •Valid as Farlowella henriquei Miranda Ribeiro 1918 -- (Isbrücker 1980:99 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:71 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155], Ballen et al. 2016:[6] [ref. 34813], Ballen et al. 2016:332 [ref. 34915]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella henriquei Miranda Ribeiro 1918. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

henselii, Loricaria Steindachner [F.] 1907:488 [14] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 116 (1. Abth.); ref. 18797] Rio Cubatao, Santa Catherina near Theresopolis, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW (not found). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]. On p. 14 of separate. Types not located (Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]). For information regarding the type locality see Lucena & Lucena 1990 [ref. 16142]. •Valid as Rineloricaria henselii (Steindachner 1907) -- (Isbrücker 1980:105 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155], Ghazzi 2008:102 [ref. 29636]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria henselii (Steindachner 1907). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Cubatão River in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hera, Curculionichthys Gamarra [S. P.], Calegari [B. B.] & Reis [R. E.] 2019:2, Figs. 1, 2a, 3, 6a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 2): e190001; ref. 36703] Igarapé do Onça, tributary to rio Curuá-Una on road BR-163 between Belterra and Rurópolis, Belterra, Pará, Brazil, 3°33'35.3"S, 54°52'09.2"W, elevation 80 meters. Holotype: MCP 52500. Paratypes: AMNH, MCP, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Curculionichthys hera Gamarra, Calegari & Reis 2019. Current status: Valid as Curculionichthys hera Gamarra, Calegari & Reis 2019. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper rio Curuá-Una drainage, Amazon basin, Pará State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heraldoi, Hypostomus Zawadzki [C. H.], Weber [C.] & Pavanelli [C. S.] 2008:408, Fig. 5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29846] Município de Caldas Novas, rio Pirapitinga, tributary to rio Corumbá, rio Paranaíba drainage, 17°43'37"S, 48°32'54"W, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 98771. Paratypes: many at ANS, MHNG, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Hypostomus heraldoi Zawadzki, Weber & Pavanelli 2008. Current status: Valid as Hypostomus heraldoi Zawadzki, Weber & Pavanelli 2008. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Corumbá and Grande river drainages, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hermanni, Plecostomus Ihering [R. von] 1905:560 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 90) (art. 75); ref. 15388] Rio Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.9.5. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus hermanni (Ihering 1905) -- (Isbrücker 1980:24 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:64 [ref. 23791], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27366], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Zawadzki et al. 2016:272 [ref. 34908], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus hermanni (Ihering 1905). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tietê River basin and upper Paraná River basin: Argentina and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heteracanthus, Chaetostomus Günther [A.] 1869:425, Figs. 3-4 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 2); ref. 5780] Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1869.5.21.3. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Lasiancistrus heteracanthus (Günther 1869) -- (Isbrücker 1980:44 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233], Isbrücker 2001:26, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:387 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2005:558 [ref. 28554], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Lasiancistrus heteracanthus (Günther 1869). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Napo River, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

heterodon, Leporacanthicus Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1989:547, Figs. 12, 18-19 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 42 (no. 9); ref. 13622] Cachoeira von Martius, upper Rio Xingú, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: IRSNB 693. Paratypes: ZMA 120336 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:266 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Leporacanthicus heterodon Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:388 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:266 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Leporacanthicus heterodon Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Xingú River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heterogaster, Hisonotus Carvalho [T. P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2011:40, Figs. 4h, 8h, 42-43 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 31240] Júlio de Castilhos, arroio Felicio, on road from Nova Palma to Júlio de Castilhos, 29°19'04"S, 53°37'54"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 44514. Paratypes: ANSP 188706 (3); MCP 26802 (1)41073 (7, 2 c&s); MZUSP 14948 (3). •Valid as Hisonotus heterogaster Carvalho & Reis 2011 -- (Roxo et al. 2015:137 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus heterogaster Carvalho & Reis 2011. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Jacuí basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heteroptera, Rineloricaria Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1976:112, Figs. 1-4 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 196 (no. 1-2); ref. 7340] Near Manaus, Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype: IRSNB 555. Paratypes: IRSNB 556 (1), 557 (orig. 19, now 11); MZUSP [ex IRSNB 557] (7); ZMA 114504 to 506 (4). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:62 [ref. 19236], Walschaerts 1987:21 [ref. 20755], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Leliella heteroptera (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1976) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:20 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653]). •Valid as Rineloricaria heteroptera Isbrücker & Nijssen 1976 -- (Isbrücker 1980:106 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria heteroptera Isbrücker & Nijssen 1976. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin near Manaus, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heterorhynchus, Xenocara Regan [C. T.] 1912:668, Pl. 76 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1912 (pt 3) (art. 36); ref. 14862] Uruhuasi, Peru, elevation 4000 feet. Syntypes: BMNH 1911.12.20.35-36 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus heterorhynchus (Regan 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:69 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:16 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:376 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Ancistrus marcapatae (Regan 1904) -- (Bifi et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36821]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus marcapatae (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

heylandi, Plecostomus Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:165 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 5 (no. 26) (art. 19); ref. 14718] Mountain stream near Santos, São Paulo State, Brazil, elevation 400 feet. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1899.12.18.1. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:263 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Kronichthys heylandi (Boulenger 1900) -- (Isbrücker 1980:14 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:430 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:365 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:263 [ref. 29155], Roxo et al. 2012:38 [ref. 32073], Pereira & Reis 2017:73 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Kronichthys heylandi (Boulenger 1900). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Eastern Brazilian coastal streams between Santos and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

histrix, Loricaria Vandelli [D.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:486 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy of Rinelepis histrix Valenciennes 1840. •In the synonymy of Pseudacanthicus histrix (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:76 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:89 [ref. 5522], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudacanthicus histrix (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae.

histrix, Rinelepis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:486 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] No locality [=Brazil]. No types know. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:286 [ref. 29155]. See Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:393 [ref. 27061] for historical information. •Valid as Pseudacanthicus histrix (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:76 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:31, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:27 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:393 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:286 [ref. 29155], Chamon & Sousa 2016:13 [ref. 34852] as cf. histrix, Chamon & Costa e Silva 2018:508 [ref. 35821] as cf. histrix). Current status: Valid as Pseudacanthicus histrix (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Negro and lower Amazon River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hoedemani, Exastilithoxus Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1985:227, Figs. 3-4 [Spixiana (München) v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 8152] Rio Marauiá, foot of the Sierra Neblina, Cachoeira "Pora Comeschie", Rio Negro basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 506. Paratypes: ZMA 116639 (1), ZSM 26070 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:263 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Exastilithoxus hoedemani Isbrücker & Nijssen 1985 -- (Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:384 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:237 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2018:[5] [ref. 36081]). Current status: Valid as Exastilithoxus hoedemani Isbrücker & Nijssen 1985. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Marauiá River in upper Negro River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hoehnei, Loricaria Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1912:11 [Loricariidae, Callichthyidae, Doradidae e Trichomycteridae Annexo no. 5; ref. 3718] Coxim, Rio Paraguay drainage, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 650. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:400 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria hoehnei (Miranda Ribeiro 1912) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Knaack 2002:59 [ref. 27493], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:245 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria hoehnei (Miranda Ribeiro 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:106 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:130 [ref. 24147], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:2 [ref. 28173], Ghazzi 2008:102 [ref. 29636]). •Synonym of Rineloricaria lanceolata (Günther 1868) -- (Vera-Alcaraz et al. 2012:297 [ref. 32034], Covain et al. 2015:514 [23] [ref. 34066], Mirande & Koerber 2015:46 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Rineloricaria lanceolata (Günther 1868). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

holmbergi, Loricaria Rodriguez [M. S.] & Miquelarena [A. M.] 2005:142, Fig. 1a-b [Anales de la Academie Nacional de Ciencias Exactis, Físicas y Naturales Buenos Aires v. 55 [for 2003]; ref. 28787] Arroyo en Aguas Calientes, 23°44'S, 64°38'W, cuenca del río San Francisco, Province Jujuy, Argentina, elevation 500 meters. Holotype: ILPLA 1706. Paratypes: ILPLA 347 (36); MLP ?9057 (11), 9058 (9). Type catalog: Koerber 2007:2 [ref. 29776], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:12 [ref. 33466]. Not treated by Ferraris 2007 [ref. 29155]. Loricaria holmergi is a misspelling. •Valid as Loricaria holmbergi Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005 -- (Koerber 2011:5 [ref. 31122], Rodriguez et al. 2012:54 [ref. 31866], Thomas et al. 2013:374 [ref. 32997], Koerber 2014:10 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:44 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Loricaria holmbergi Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: San Francisco River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

holostictus, Hemiancistrus Regan [C. T.] 1913:469 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 3656] Río Condoto, tributary of Río San Juan, (Pacific slope) Colombia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1913.10.1.57. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus holostictus Regan 1913 -- (Isbrücker 1980:50 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:386 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Hypostomus holostictus (Regan 1903) -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35633] as "Hypostomus"). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus holostictus (Regan 1913). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: San Juan River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

hondae, Plecostomus Regan [C. T.] 1912:666, Pl. 76 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1912 (pt 3) (art. 36); ref. 14862] Honda, Colombia. Syntypes: BMNH 1909.7.23.43-44 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155]. Armbruster 2003:32 wrongly treats a holotype and paratype; no holotype was established in the original description. •Valid as Cochliodon hondae (Regan 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:39 [ref. 2303], Lilyestrom 1984:43 [ref. 23620], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:82 [ref. 23651], Isbrücker 2001:26, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:14 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Hypostomus hondae (Regan 1912) -- (Weber & Montoya-Burgos 2002:366 [ref. 26428], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2003:32 [ref. 27426], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki & Carvalho 2014:50 [ref. 33227], Tencatt et al. 2014:601 [ref. 33520], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus hondae (Regan 1912). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Magdalena River and Lake Maracaibo basins: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

hoplogenys, Chaetostomus Günther [A.] 1864:247 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio Capin [= Capim], Pará State, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1849.11.8.89-91 (3), ? BMNH 1864.1.21.85 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Ancistrus hoplogenys (Günther 1864) -- (Isbrücker 1980:69 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:16 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Knaack 1999:152 [ref. 23874], Britski et al. 1999:134 [ref. 24147], Le Bail et al. 2000:226 [ref. 24549] as aff. hoplogenys, Isbrücker 2001:25, 26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:376 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:53 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:221 [ref. 29155], Bifi et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30541], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Koerber 2014:10 [ref. 33621] not in Argentina, Sarmiento et al. 2014:161, 191 [ref. 35004], de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35267], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35679], Provenzano & Barriga-Salazar 2018:229 [ref. 36344], de Souza et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36504]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus hoplogenys (Günther 1864). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Amazon and Paraguay River basins: Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

hoplonites, Hypostomus Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 1988:14, Figs. 2-3 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) No. 68; ref. 17721] Rio Solimões, Janauacá Lakes complex, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 109.2. Paratypes: INPA 103 (1), 490 (4), 507 (3), uncat. (38); MZUSP 27258 (1); MPEG (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus hoplonites Rapp Py-Daniel 1988 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:254 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2013:74 [ref. 32701], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Zawadzki et al. 2015:57 [ref. 33866], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus hoplonites Rapp Py-Daniel 1988. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Middle Amazon River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

hoppei, Otocinclus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1939:359 [Boletím Biológico, São Paulo (Nova Série) v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 3023] Amazon River at Belém, Pará State, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 1030. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 1030 (1). Type catalog and lectotype designation: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:401 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus hoppei Miranda Ribeiro 1939 -- (Isbrücker 1980:83 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Britto & Moreira 2002:1067 [ref. 26512], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:324 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Lehmann A. et al. 2010:636 [ref. 31083], Ribeiro & Lehmann A. 2016:244 [ref. 34636]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus hoppei Miranda Ribeiro 1939. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

horridus, Hypostomus Kner [R.] (ex Heckel) 1854:259, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] Forte do Principe, Rio Guaporé, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 16325 (1, dry), 86604 (1, dry). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:298 [ref. 29155]. Name based on Heckel ms. name; apparently Kner composed the description. On p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Hypostomus horridus Kner 1854 -- (Isbrücker 1980:24 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644]). •Valid as Squaliforma horrida (Kner 1854) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:22 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:28, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:367 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:298 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004]). •Valid as Aphanotorulus horridus (Kner 1854) -- (Ray & Armbruster 2016:519 [ref. 34178], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Aphanotorulus horridus (Kner 1854). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

huaorani, Otocinclus Schaefer [S. A.] 1997:74, Fig. 46 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 148; ref. 23213] Tributary to Río San Miguel (kilometer 50, 4.5 kilometers south of Tipischca), about 0°10'N, 76°13'W, Río Amazonas/Napo basin, Napo, Ecuador. Holotype: FMNH 101555. Paratypes: ANSP 130492 (1), FMNH 101548-49 (1, 4), MCZ 51879 (4), plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus huaorani Schaefer 1997 -- (Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Britto & Moreira 2002:1067 [ref. 26512], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:324 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:75 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus huaorani Schaefer 1997. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

hungy, Hisonotus Azpelicueta [M. de las M.], Almirón [A. E.], Casciotta [J. R.] & Koerber [S.] 2007:592, Figs. 1, 3 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 114 (no. 3); ref. 29353] Arroyo Tiria, affluent of arroyo Urugua-í, 26°01'S, 55°22'W, Río Paraná basin, Province Misiones, Argentina. Holotype: MACN-ict 8860. Paratypes: MHNG 2664.79 (2), MLP 10466 [ex AI 189] (5, 1 c&s), ZFMK 39472-75 (4), ZSM 33313 (2). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:267 [ref. 31652], Nadalin & López 2015:7 [ref. 34112]. •Valid as Hisonotus hungy Azpelicueta, Almirón, Casciotta & Koerber 2007 -- (Koerber 2011:6 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:9 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:41 [ref. 35117], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203] as hungi). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus hungy Azpelicueta, Almirón, Casciotta & Koerber 2007. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Arroyo Tirica, arroyo Urugua-í basin, Misiones, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

hypostomus, Cochliodon Kner [R.] (ex Heckel) 1854:265 [15] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] On p. 15 of separate. Name not available, published in synonymy of Hypostomus cochliodon Kner 1854, based on Heckel ms. name (see Isbrücker 1980:39 [ref. 2303]). •In the synonymy of Hypostomus cochliodon Kner 1854 -- (Weber in Reis et al. 2003:357 [ref. 27061], Tencatt et al. 2014:587 [ref. 33520], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Hypostomus cochliodon Kner 1854. Loricariidae: Hypostominae.

hypselurus, Hemipsilichthys Pereira [E. H. L.] & Reis [R. E.] 2002:136, Fig. 23 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 26071] Rio Forqueta, tributary to rio Maquiné, 29°32'42"S, 50°14'21"W, Maquiné, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 19665. Paratypes: MCP 21337 (49), 23676 (15), 26109 (11); UFRGS 4498 (6). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:280 [ref. 29155], •Valid as Hemipsilichthys hypselurus Pereira & Reis 2002 -- (Pereira et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27068], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:354 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pareiorhaphis hypselurus (Pereira & Reis 2002) -- (Periera 2005:272 [ref. 28273], Ferraris 2007:280 [ref. 29155], Pereira et al. 2012:539 [ref. 32218], Pereira et al. 2015:563 [ref. 34007], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561], Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis hypselurus (Pereira & Reis 2002). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Maquiné, Três Forquillas, Mampituba and Araranguá River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hyptiorhachis, Pareiorhina Silva [G. S. C.], Roxo [F. F.] & Oliveira [C.] 2013:67, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a, 4 [ZooKeys No. 313; ref. 32763] Minas Gerais State, municipality of Santa Bárbara do Tugúrio, Ribeirão Fernandes, a tributary of Rio Pomba, Rio Paraíba do Sul basin, 21°14'47"S, 43°34'07"W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 111956. Paratypes: LBP 1093 (1), 8368 (5), 12248 (6, 1 c&s), 12257 (1); MCP 29432 (6); NUP 14331 (1). •Valid as Pareiorhina hyptiorhachis Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2013 -- (Azevedo-Santos & Roxo 2015:383 [ref. 33717], Silva et al. 2016:389 [ref. 34417], Pereira & Reis 2017:76 [ref. 35307], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhina hyptiorhachis Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2013. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Paraíba do Sul and upper Paraná basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hystrix, Acanthicus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:3, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Amazon River. Holotype (unique): destroyed in World War II. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155]. Name first published in Cuvier 1829 [ref. 995]. Author also seen as Agassiz in Spix & Agassiz. •Valid as Acanthicus hystrix Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Isbrücker 1980:75 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:16 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2003:865 [ref. 26999], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:373 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155], Chamon 2016:397 [ref. 34326], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Acanthicus hystrix Spix & Agassiz 1829. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Amazon, Tocantins-Araguaia and Orinoco River basins, South America. Habitat: freshwater.

hystrix, Hemipsilichthys Pereira [E. H. L.] & Reis [R. E.] 2002:134, Fig. 22 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 26071] Creek tributary of rio dos Touros, on road from Silveira to Rondinha, 28°39'18"S, 50°18'25"W, Bom Jesus, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 19779. Paratypes: MCP 14348 (68). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:280 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemipsilichthys hystrix Pereira & Reis 2002 -- (Pereira et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27068], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:354 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pareiorhaphis hystrix (Pereira & Reis 2002) -- (Periera 2005:272 [ref. 28273], Ferraris 2007:280 [ref. 29155], Pereira et al. 2012:539 [ref. 32218], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561], Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis hystrix (Pereira & Reis 2002). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Uruguay and Taquari basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ignota, Pseudotothyris Martins [F. de O.], Britski [H. A.] & Langeani [F.] 2014:825, Fig. 7, 8 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 170 (no. 4); ref. 33221] Santa Catarina, stream tributary to lago Acaraí, São Francisco do Sul, 26°17'33"S, 48°35'21"W, Brazil. Holotype: UFRGS 16404. Paratypes: DZSJRP, MCP, MZUSP, UFRGS. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:455 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Pseudotothyris ignota Martins, Britski & Langeani 2014. Current status: Valid as Pseudotothyris ignota Martins, Britski & Langeani 2014. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

iheringi, Plecostomus Fowler [H. W.] 1941:150, Figs. 50-52 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Ceará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69409. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:298 [ref. 29155]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Plecostomus inheringii Regan 1908, replaced by Plecostomus gomesi Fowler 1942. •Objective synonym of Hypostomus gomesi (Fowler 1942) -- (Isbrücker 1980:24 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:26 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Squaliforma gomesi (Fowler 1942) -- (Weber in Reis et al. 2003:367 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:298 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Aphanotorulus gomesi (Fowler 1942) -- (Ray & Armbruster 2016:517 [ref. 34178]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanotorulus gomesi (Fowler 1942). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

iheringii, Plecostomus Regan [C. T.] 1908:795, Pl. 47 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1907 (pt 4); ref. 14333] Rio Piracicaba, San Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1907.7.6.13. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus iheringii (Regan 1908) -- (Isbrücker 1980:24-25 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus iheringii (Regan 1908). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tietê River basin, Rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

immaculatus, Spectracanthicus Chamon [C. C.] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2014:12, Figs. 9-10, 11b [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 33224] Pará, rio Tapajós, near Itaituba, approximately 4°16’46.56"S, 55°59’5.77"W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 92797. Paratypes: MZUSP 92617 (11). •Valid as Spectracanthicus immaculatus Chamon & Rapp Py-Daniel 2014 -- (Chamon et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35755]). Current status: Valid as Spectracanthicus immaculatus Chamon & Rapp Py-Daniel 2014. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Tapajós, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

incognitum, Hypoptopoma Aquino [A. E.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 2010:70, Fig. 36 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History No. 336; ref. 30875] Río Itenez, opposite to Costa Marques, Beni, Bolivia. Holotype: AMNH 39759. Paratypes: AMNH 241976 (19, 2 c&s); UMMZ 204339 (16, 3 c&s). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hypoptopoma incognitum Aquino & Schaefer 2010 -- (Sarmiento et al. 2014:162, 191 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Hypoptopoma incognitum Aquino & Schaefer 2010. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Widespread across central and lower Rio Amazonas basin: Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

inexspectata, Aristommata Holmberg [E. L.] 1893:96 [Revista del Jardin Zoológico de Buenos Ayres v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 2193] Río Paraguay, near Formosa city, Formosa Province, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MACN 5164. Also appeared in Holmberg 1893:354 [ref. 26086]. •Valid as Hypoptopoma inexspectatum (Holmberg 1893) -- (Isbrücker 1980:88 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:62 [ref. 23791] as inexpecta, Isbrücker 2001:26, 28 [ref. 25653], Aquino & Miquelarena 2001:5 [ref. 26083] as inexspectata, Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Aquino & Schaefer 2002:386 [ref. 26022] as inexspectata, Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:323 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:250 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127] as inexpectatum, Aquino & Schaefer 2010:60 [ref. 30875], Sarmiento et al. 2014:162, 191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:40 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Hypoptopoma inexspectatum (Holmberg 1893). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Paraná/Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

inspector, Hypancistrus Armbruster [J. W.] 2002:87, Fig. 2 [Copeia 2002 (no. 1); ref. 25891] Río Casiquiare, Río Negro, Río Amazonas drainage, about 10 river kilometers above the Río Negro, below Solano, 1°58'N, 67°05'W, Dpto. Casiquiare, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 12133. Paratypes: AUM 31019 (1), MCNG 37040 (3); plus nontypes. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:249 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypancistrus inspector Armbruster 2002 -- (Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:387 [ref. 27061], Armbruster et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29036], Ferraris 2007:249 [ref. 29155], Tan & Armbruster 2016:134 [ref. 34145], DoNascimiento 2016:533 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypancistrus inspector Armbruster 2002. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

insperatus, Hisonotus Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 2003:588, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2003 (no. 3); ref. 27131] Rio Capivara, Rio Tietê drainage, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 78957. Paratypes: ANSP 178701 (3); LIRP 2262-63 (1, 8), 2265-66 (37, 5); MNRJ 23840 (3); MZUSP 22826 (1), 24719 (3), 24832 (1), 24980 (1), 47969 (1), 78958-59 (5, 4), 78960 (35, 5 c&s), 78961-63 (19, 1, 3), 78964-68 (8, 13, 7, 2, 5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hisonotus insperatus Britski & Garavello 2003 -- (Almirón & Azpelicueta 2006:92 [ref. 28713], Azpelicueta & Almirón 2007:596 [ref. 29353], Britski & Garavello 2007:413 [ref. 29429], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Garvalho & Reis 2011:44 [ref. 31240], Carvalho & Datovo 2012: 268 [ref. 32054], Martins & Langeani 2012:30 [ref. 32060], Roxo et al. 2014:57 [ref. 33252], Silva et al.2014:119 [ref. 33533], Roxo et al. 2015:138 [ref. 33763]). •Valid as Curculionichthys insperatus (Britski & Garavello 2003) -- (Roxo et al. 2015:127 [ref. 34024], Silva et al. 2016:289 [ref. 34828], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310], Roxo et al. 2017:268 [ref. 35655], Calegari et al. 2018:669 [ref. 36345], Gamarra et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36703]). Current status: Valid as Curculionichthys insperatus (Britski & Garavello 2003). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedia, Harttiella Covain [R.] & Fisch-Muller [S.] in Covain, Fisch-Muller, Montoya-Burgos, Mol, Le Bail & Dray 2012:142, Figs. 5, 9 [Cybium v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 32000] Sinnamary River drainage, Tabular Mountain of Trinité massif, Crique Grand Leblond, 4°36'35"N, 53°21'33"W, French Guinea, elevation 320 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2011-0021 [ex MHNG 2713.087]. Paratypes: MNHN 2011-0022 (2), MNHG 22713.087. •Valid as Harttiella intermedia Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012. Current status: Valid as Harttiella intermedia Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Headwaters of Crique Grand Leblond, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedius, Pseudotocinclus Nichols [J. T.] 1919:534 [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 11; ref. 3172] Campo Grande, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: AMNH 7177. Paratypes: MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 714 (1), 1003 (1). Type catalog: Britski 1969:210 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:290 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudotocinclus intermedius Nichols 1919 -- (Isbrücker 1980:86 [ref. 2303]). •Synonym of Pseudotocinclus tietensis (Ihering 1907) -- (Britski & Garavello 1984:226 [ref. 5166], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:327 [ref. 27061], Takako et al. 2005:501 [ref. 28465], Ferraris 2007:290 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotocinclus tietensis (Ihering 1907). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

intermontana, Harttia Oliveira [J. C. de] & Oyakawa [O. T.] 2019:404, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa 4586 (no. 3); ref. 36657] Córrego Bananeiras, tributary of Rio Gualaxo do Norte, Rio Doce basin, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 20°14'20"S, 43°28'40"W, elevation 794 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 109337. Paratypes: ANSP, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP, UFJF. •Valid as Harttia intermontana Oliveira & Oyakawa 2019. Current status: Valid as Harttia intermontana Oliveira & Oyakawa 2019. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

interruptus, Plecostomus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:632 [4] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] Rio Juquiá, Fazenda Poço Grande, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 2110. Type catalog: Britski 1969:209 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155] On p. 4 of separate. •Valid as Hypostomus interruptus (Miranda Ribeiro 1918) -- (Isbrücker 1980:25 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Oyakawa et al. 2005:14 [ref. 28322], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155], Cardoso et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34373], Zawadzki et al. 2016:272 [ref. 34908]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus interruptus (Miranda Ribeiro 1918). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

iota, Hisonotus Carvalho [T. P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2009:4, Figs. 2, 3A, 4, 5A, 6A, 7 [Zootaxa No. 2113; ref. 30193] Coronel de Freitas, rio Chapecó at vila São Miguel on road from Coronel de Freitas to Quilombo, rio Uruguay basin, 26°51'26"S, 52°44'29"W, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 42575. Paratypes: ANSP 187472 (4), MCP 40029 (18 + 3 c&s). •Valid as Hisonotus iota Carvalho & Reis 2009 -- (Garvalho & Reis 2011:27 [ref. 31240], Roxo et al. 2015:138 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:236 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900], Dias et al. 2018:583 [ref. 36235]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus iota Carvalho & Reis 2009. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Chapecó, a tributary of the upper rio Uruguay basin: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

isaaci, Rineloricaria Rodriguez [M. S.] & Miquelarena [A. M.] 2008:1436, Fig. 1, 2c, 3a, 4, 5, 6. [Journal of Fish Biology v. 73; ref. 29906] Los Loros stream, about 31°52'S, 58°14'W, Uruguay River drainage, Entre Ríos Province, Argentina. Holotype: MACN-Ict 8969. Paratypes: ILPLA 1715 (1 c&s), 1716 (3); MCP 9670 (1), 10380 (1), 35147 (1), 35255 (1), 40602 (1); MLP 9668 (1). Type catalog: Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:14 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Rineloricaria isaaci Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2008 -- (Koerber 2011:5 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:10 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:27 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:46 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria isaaci Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2008. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Uruguay River drainage, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

isbruckeri, Farlowella Retzer [M. E.] & Page [L. M.] 1997:55, Fig. 24 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 147; ref. 23176] Small river on highway from Cuibá to Porto Velho, about 32 kilometers from Lacerda, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 37641 [lost]. Paratypes: INHS 32943 [ex MZUSP 37641] (1), MZUSP 27704 (1). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:271 [ref. 23225], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. Holotype not found in MZUSP 37641, see Ballen et al. 2016 [ref. 34813]. •Valid as Farlowella isbruckeri Retzer & Page 1997 -- (Britski et al. 1999:129 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], Retzer 2006:64 [ref. 28957], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155], Ballen et al. 2016:[6] [ref. 34813]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella isbruckeri Retzer & Page 1997. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

isbrueckeri, Hypostomus Reis [R. E.], Weber [C.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 1990:752, Figs. 1, 21-23 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 97 (no. 3); ref. 16139] Rio Conceição, Ijui, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 10488. Paratypes: MCP 10486 (4), 10494-95 (4, 1), 10861-62 (1, 2), 10885 (1), 12045 (2), 12305-08 (2, 7, 4, 1), 12310 (15), 12494-95 (3, 3), 12938 (1); USNM 303680 (3), plus many additional lots from Santa Catarina. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus isbrueckeri Reis, Weber & Malabarba 1990 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:358 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2012:246 [ref. 32031], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Koerber & Litz 2014:4 [ref. 34967], Zawadzki et al. 2015:57 [ref. 33866], Cardoso et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34373], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:5 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus isbrueckeri Reis, Weber & Malabarba 1990. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Uruguay basin, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

itacua, Hypostomus Valenciennes [A.] 1836:Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Affluents of the Rio de la Plata. No types known. Type information: Isbrücker 1980:50 [ref. 2303] but there would be a unique holotype (figured specimen), not syntypes, Ferraris 2007:217 [ref. 29155]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:8 [ref. 5010]. See also Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:505 [ref. 1008]. See Weber in Reis et al. 2003:351 [ref. 27061]. Pl. 7 was published in 1836. •Species incertae sedis in Loricariidae, subfamily Hypostominae -- (Weber in Reis et al. 2003:351 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Hemiancistrus itacua (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Isbrücker 1980:50 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Cardoso & Malabarba 1999:156 [ref. 24148], Isbrücker 2001:27, 28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644]). •Incertae sedis in Loricariidae -- (Ferraris 2007:217 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Hypostomus itacua Valenciennes 1836 incertae sedis -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:100 [ref. 33670], Koerber 2014:9 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus itacua Valenciennes 1836. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Middle Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil (?) and Paraguay (?). Habitat: freshwater.

itaim, Curculionichthys Roxo [F. F.], Dias [A. C.], Silva [G. S. C.] & Oliveira [C.] 2017:263, Figs. 4-5 [Zootaxa 4341 (no. 2); ref. 35655] Igarapé Nambuaí, rio Tapajós basin, municipality of Itaituba, state of Pará, Brazil, 04°37'28"S, 56°23'18"W. Holotype: MZUSP 123011. Paratypes: AUM, LBP, NUP, ZUFMS. •Valid as Curculionichthys itaim Roxo, Dias, Silva & Oliveira 2017 -- (Calegari et al. 2018:669 [ref. 36345], Gamarra et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36703]). Current status: Valid as Curculionichthys itaim Roxo, Dias, Silva & Oliveira 2017. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Tapajós basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

itaimbezinho, Epactionotus Reis [R. E.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 1998:9, Fig. 5 [American Museum Novitates No. 3254; ref. 23691] Rio Canoas, tributary of rio Mampituba, about 8 kilometers from Praia Grande in the direction of Mãe dos Homens, 29°14'S, 50°01'W, Praia Grande, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 20281. Paratypes: ANSP 168954 (5), MCP 14708 (15, 3 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:236 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Epactionotus itaimbezinho Reis & Schaefer 1998 -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:322 [ref. 27061], Azpelicueta et al. 2004:89 [ref. 28029], Almirón et al. 2004:143 [ref. 27988], Ferraris 2007:236 [ref. 29155], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561]). •Valid as Hisonotus itaimbezinho (Reis & Schaefer 1998) -- (Roxo et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36538]). Current status: Valid as Epactionotus itaimbezinho Reis & Schaefer 1998. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Mampituba River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jaguar, Hypostomus Zanata [A. M.], Sardeiro [B.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2013:248, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 32751] Bahia, Iaçu, rio Paraguaçu at Fazenda Os Touros, 18 km from Iaçu, 12°42'10.6"S, 40°07'47"W, elevation 143 meters, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 110603. Paratypes:MZUSP, NUP, UFBA. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Hypostomus jaguar Zanata, Sardeiro & Zawadzki 2013 -- (Zanata & Pitanga 2016:231 [ref. 34535], Zawadzki et al. 2016:272 [ref. 34908], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus jaguar Zanata, Sardeiro & Zawadzki 2013. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Paraguaçu basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jaguari, Neoplecostomus Andrade [B. N.] & Langeani [F.] 2014:[2] 676, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 33618] Minas Gerais State, Extrema, ribeirão do Forja, 22°52'20''S, 46°17'27''W, Brazil. Holotype: LIRP 2277. Paratypes: LIRP, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Neoplecostomus jaguari Andrade & Langeani 2014 -- (Cherobim et al. 2016:10 [ref. 35001], Pereira & Reis 2017:74 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Neoplecostomus jaguari Andrade & Langeani 2014. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jaguribensis, Plecostomus Fowler [H. W.] 1915:264, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 15099] Rio Jaguaribe at Barro Alto, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 39930. Paratypes: ANSP 39931 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus jaguribensis (Fowler 1915) -- (Isbrücker 1980:25 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155], Zanata et al. 2013:247 [ref. 32751], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus jaguribensis (Fowler 1915). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Jaguaribe River basin, Ceará State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

janeirensis, Pseudotothyris Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 1984:234, Figs. 9-10 [Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo v. 35 (no. 21); ref. 5166] Rio dos Macacos, Represa Engenho da Serra, Paulo de Frontin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 10278. Paratypes: MNRJ 4707 and 10279-10297 (134), 5925 (1), 10066 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:290 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudotothyris janeirensis Britski & Garavello 1984 -- (Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:327 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:290 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Martins et al. 2014:822, 833 [ref. 33221], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228]). Current status: Valid as Pseudotothyris janeirensis Britski & Garavello 1984. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

janmoli, Harttiella Covain [R.] & Fisch-Muller [S.] in Covain, Fisch-Muller, Montoya-Burgos, Mol, Le Bail & Dray 2012:147, Figs. 5, 12 [Cybium v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 32000] Maroni River River drainage, Kotika Mountain, 3°57'16"N, 54°10'50"W, elevation 515 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2011-0031 [ex MHNG 2695.059]. Paratypes: ANSP 190962 (2); MNHN 2011-0032 (35); MZUSP 108149 (2); NZCS F7076 (2); RMNH 37459 (1), 34460 (1). •Valid as Harttiella janmoli Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012. Current status: Valid as Harttiella janmoli Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Kotika Mountain creek, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

jantjae, Lithoxus Lujan [N. K.] 2008:414, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29847] Río Ventuari, above Tencua Falls 58 kilometers east-southeast of San Juan de Manapiare, ca. 5°02'N, 65°36'W, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 55349. Paratypes: ANSP 182809 (4), AUM 39478 (4), MCNG 55350 (2). •Valid as Lithoxus jantjae Lujan 2008 -- (Silva et al. 2017:151 [ref. 35668]). •Valid as Avalithoxus jantjae (Lujan 2008) -- (Lujan et al. 2018:[10] [ref. 36081]). Current status: Valid as Avalithoxus jantjae (Lujan 2008). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Ventuari River, right bank tributary of the Upper Orinoco River, Amazonas, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

jaraguensis, Loricaria Steindachner [F.] 1909:196 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 46 (no. 12) (for 13 May 1909); ref. 18808] Rio Jaraguá, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 44886. Paralectotypes: (several) MNHN 1910-0156 to 0157 [ex NMW] (1, 1); NMW 44882-85 (3, 1, 1, 1); ZMA 112292 (1). Porential pralectotypes: ZSM 4848 [ex NMW 44906] (1), 4849 [ex NMW 44912] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:75 [ref. 19575], Nijssen et al. 1982:57 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:264 [ref. 31652]. Species described in more detail in Steindachner 1910:57 [p. 1 of separate] [ref. 14813]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Rineloricaria jaraguensis (Steindachner 1909) -- (Isbrücker 1980:106 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155], Ghazzi 2008:102 [ref. 29636]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria jaraguensis (Steindachner 1909). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Jaraguá River basin in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jariensis, Lithoxus Silva [G. S. C.], Covain [R.], Oliveira [C.] & Roxo [F. F.] 2017:154, Fig. 2 [Zootaxa 4347 (no. 1); ref. 35668] Rio Itapuru, cachoeira de São Raimundo, rio Jari, rio Amazonas basin, municipality of Laranjal do Jari, Amapá State, Brazil, 00°33'59"S, 52°34'40"W. Holotype: MZUSP 123131. Paratypes: LBP, MHNG, MZUSP. •Valid as Paralithoxus jariensis (Silva, Covain, Oliveira & Roxo 2017) -- (Lujan et al. 2018:[9] [ref. 36081]). Current status: Valid as Paralithoxus jariensis (Silva, Covain, Oliveira & Roxo 2017). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Jari basin, Brazilian Guiana Shield, Amapá, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jataiensis, Ancistrus Fisch-Muller [S.], Cardoso [A. R.], da Silva [J. F. P.] & Bertaco [V. A.] 2005:567, Fig. 4 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 112 (no. 2); ref. 28242] Mambaí, córrego Jataí, tributary of rio Vermelho, 14°29'S, 46°06'W, rio Tocantins basin, Goías State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 35244. Paratypes: MCP 33921 (3, 1 c&s), 33923 (1); MHNG 2652.92 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus jataiensis Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco 2005 -- (Fisch-Muller et al. 2005:531 [ref. 28561], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155], de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869], de Oliveira et al. 2016:76 [ref. 34368]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus jataiensis Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco 2005. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jauruensis, Farlowella Eigenmann [C. H.] & Vance [L.] 1917:300, Pl. 30 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 11 (nos 1-2) (art. 4); ref. 15090] Jaurú [Jaura], Brazil [Cáceres, rio Jauru, Rio Paraguai drainage, Mato Grosso, 16°08'14.5"S, 58°00'37.5"W]. Holotype (unique): FMNH 55088 [ex CM 3780]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:83 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:36 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. Original as jauruënsis. See Ballen et al. 2016 [ref. 34813] for type locality. •Valid as Farlowella jauruensis Eigenmann & Vance 1917 -- (Isbrücker 1980:99 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:56 [ref. 23176], Britski et al. 1999:129 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], Retzer 2006:64 [ref. 28957] as juarensis but jaurensis on p. 59, Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155], Ballen et al. 2016:[6] [ref. 34813]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella jauruensis Eigenmann & Vance 1917. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

javae, Spectracanthicus Chamon [C. C.], Pereira [T. N. A.], Mendonça [M. B.] & Akama [A.] 2018:[3], Figs. 1-4 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 92 (no. 2); ref. 35755] Rio Javaés, Ilha do Bananal, Pedral da Sambaíba, Pium, Tocantins, Brazil, 10° 00' 01"S, 50° 01'29"W. Holotype: MPEG 34993. Paratypes: INPA, MNRJ, MPEG, MZUSP, UNT. •Valid as Spectracanthicus javae Chamon, Pereira, Mendonça & Akama 2018. Current status: Valid as Spectracanthicus javae Chamon, Pereira, Mendonça & Akama 2018. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Araguaia basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jeanesianus, Liposarcus Cope [E. D.] 1874:135 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 26; ref. 931] Nauta [= River Marañon, Amazonas basin], Peru. Lectotype: ANSP 8241. Paralectotypes: ANSP 8242 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:292 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Weber 1992:27 [ref. 19714]. •Valid as Pterygoplichthys jeanesianus (Cope 1874) -- (Isbrücker 1980:41 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Liposarcus pardalis (Castelnau 1855) -- (Weber 1992:27 [ref. 19714], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:365 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau 1855) -- (Ferraris 2007:292 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau 1855). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

jegui, Chaetostoma Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 1991:240, Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 13586] Rio Uraricoera, Maracá Island, 3°21'N, 61°26'W, Federal Territory of Roraima, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 2822. Paratypes: INPA 1958 (40), 1968 (21), 1977 (8), 2013 (2); MNHN 1990-0647 (5); MPEG uncat. (2), MPEG uncat. (2); MZUSP 41303 (2); ZMA 120348 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Chaetostoma jegui Rapp Py-Daniel 1991 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Lasso et al. 1998:61 [ref. 24173], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155], Ballen 2011:395 [ref. 31653], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], Ballen et al. 2016:195 [ref. 34396]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma jegui Rapp Py-Daniel 1991. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Uraricoera and Tacutu River basins in Branco River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jelskii, Chaetostomus Steindachner [F.] 1876:603 [53] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] Amable Maria and Monterico, Peru. Syntypes: (several): NMW. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. On p. 53 of separate. •Valid as Ancistrus jelskii (Steindachner 1876) -- (Isbrücker 1980:69 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:16 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:376 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus jelskii (Steindachner 1876). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tulumayo River basin in upper Ucayali River drainage, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

jequi, Parotocinclus Lehmann A. [P.], Koech Braun [B.], Pereira [E. H. L.] & Reis [R. E.] 2013:435, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2013 (no. 3); ref. 32919] Minas Gerais, Serro, headwater creek of the Rio Jequitinhonha at Cachoeira do Moinho de Esteira, on road BR-259 from Serro to Pedro Lessa, 18°34'21"S, 43°29'35"W, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 47533. Paratypes: AMNH 258314 (2); MCP 42425 (2), 44959 (4 + 2 c&s, + juveniles). •Valid as Parotocinclus jequi Lehmann A., Koech Braun, Pereira & Reis 2013 -- (Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus jequi Lehmann A., Koech Braun, Pereira & Reis 2013. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Río Jequitinhonha, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jimi, Parotocinclus Garavello [J. C.] 1977:9, Figs. 25-26 [Arquivos de Zoologia (São Paulo) v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 7249] Rio do Peixe, small tributary of Rio de Contas, Fazenda Pedra Branca, Itagibá, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 12133. Paratypes: FMNH [ex MZUSP] 96046-47 (2, 1); MZUSP 12134-12153 (20), 12154 (orig. 194). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:64 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus jimi Garavello 1977 -- (Isbrücker 1980:80 [ref. 2303], Garavello 1988:124 [ref. 6853], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Lacerda & Evers 1996:88, 90 [ref. 22351], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Garavello & Britski 2003:258 [ref. 27469], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Sarmento-Soares et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30254], Britski & Garavello 2009:60 [ref. 30260], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Ramos et al. 2013:788 [ref. 33028], Lehmann A. et al. 2014:32 [ref. 33225], Ramos et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35268]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus jimi Garavello 1977. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

joberti, Otocinclus Vaillant [L. L.] 1880:147 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 17851] Upper Amazon at Calderon, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-1966. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:73 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:250 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypoptopoma joberti (Vaillant 1880) -- (Isbrücker 1980:88 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:323 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:250 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Hypotopomaa gulare Cope 1878 -- (Aquino & Schaefer 2010:83 [ref. 30875]). Current status: Synonym of Hypoptopoma gulare Cope 1878. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

johnii, Plecostomus Steindachner [F.] 1877:691 [133] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Poti, rio Parnaíba basin, municipality of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 7831. Paralectotypes: MCZ 7863-64 (4, 2); NMW 44191-93 (2, 2, 2); USNM 123009 [ex MCZ 7831] (2). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:31 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155] On p. 133 of separate. Lectotype selected by Ramos et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35396]. •Valid as Hypostomus johnii (Steindachner 1877) -- (Isbrücker 1980:25 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] dated 1876, Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2012:246 [ref. 32031], Zanata et al. 2013:248 [ref. 32751], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Zawadzki et al. 2015:57 [ref. 33866], Zanata & Pitanga 2016:229 [ref. 34535], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus johnii (Steindachner 1877). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Parnaíba River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

joropo, Chaetostoma Ballen [G. A.], Urbano-Bonilla [A.] & Maldonado-Ocampo [J. A.] 2016:183, Figs. 1-2, 3 left [Zootaxa 4105 (no. 2); ref. 34396] Meta, Mesetas, Resevera, Guaviare, rio Güejar, upper rio Guaviare basin, Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Holotype: MPUJ 7197. Paratypes: ICNMHN, MPUJ. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Chaetostoma joropo Ballen, Urbano-Bonilla & Maldonado-Ocampo 2016 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:75 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma joropo Ballen, Urbano-Bonilla & Maldonado-Ocampo 2016. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River drainage, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

joselimai, Leporacanthicus Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1989:546, Figs. 11, 16-17 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 42 (no. 9); ref. 13622] Rio Tapajós, perta de Itaituba, Maloquinha, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 21921. Paratypes: MZUSP 22012 (1), 23787 (1), 24279 (1); ZMA 107879 (2), 120169 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:266 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Leporacanthicus joselimai Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:266 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Leporacanthicus joselimai Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tapajós River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

joselimaianus, Glyptoperichthys Weber [C.] 1991:640 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 98 (no. 3); ref. 19114] Rio Araguaya, affluent of Tocantins, Amazon system, Arunanã, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 4873. Paratypes: INPA 1763 (1), 4416 (1), 1323 (1); MNHG 2483.76 (1); MZUSP 4955 (1), 24074 (2), 24224 (1), 24090 (2), 39781 (12). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Glyptoperichthys joselimaianus Weber 1991 -- (Weber 1992:20, 30 [ref. 19714], Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178] Weber in Reis et al. 2003:352 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pterygoplichthys joselimaianus (Weber 1991) -- (Armbruster & Page 2006:403 [ref. 28898], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Pterygoplichthys joselimaianus (Weber 1991). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jubata, Loricaria Boulenger [G. A.] 1902:70 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 9 (no. 49) (art. 15); ref. 14844] St. Javier, elevation 60 feet, and Río Durango, northwestern Ecuador, elevation 350 feet. Lectotype: BMNH 1902.5.27.45. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1901.3.29.74-76 (3?). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:112 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria jubata (Boulenger 1902) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria jubata (Boulenger 1902) -- (Isbrücker 1980:106 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:231 [ref. 34894], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria jubata (Boulenger 1902). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

jumaorum, Hisonotus Dias [A. C.], Silva [G. S. C.], Oliveira [C.] & Roxo [F. F.] 2018:578, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a [Zootaxa 4504 (no. 4); ref. 36235] Rio Juma, tributary of Rio Aripuanã, Rio Madeira basin, municipality of Apuí, Amazonas State, Brazil, 7°12'43.7"S, 59°55'19.6"W. Holotype: MZUSP 123835. Paratypes: LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Curculionichthys jumaorum (Dias, Silva, Oliveira & Roxo 2018) -- (Calegari et al. 2018:669 [ref. 36345], Gamarra et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36703]). Current status: Valid as Curculionichthys jumaorum (Dias, Silva, Oliveira & Roxo 2018). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Lower Rio Aripuanã drainage, Madeira basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jumbo, Parotocinclus Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 2002:280, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 26540] Rio Paraíba do Norte, at bridge on road PB 408, northwest of Umbuzeiro, 7°38'27"S, 35°42'30"W, Paraíba, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 69513. Paratypes: ANSP 69420-69439a (21 [see remarks]), 178004 (4); MNRJ 21294 (4); MZUSP 42120 (4), 69514 (10, 1 c&s, 1 SEM), 69515-16 (5, 5), 69519 (1, c&s); UFPB 4081 (7), 4094 (1), 4118 (6), 4134 (10), 4189 (6), 4381 (6). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155]. ANSP 69420-69439a: 21 paratypes of Plecostomus spilosoma are determined by the authors as small-size individuals, possibly young, of P. jumbo. •Valid as Parotocinclus jumbo Britski & Garavello 2002 -- (Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Martins & Langeani 2011:76 [ref. 31235], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Lehmann A. et al. 2013:437 [ref. 32919], Ramos et al. 2013:788 [ref. 33028], Lehmann A. et al. 2014:32 [ref. 33225], Ramos et al. 2016:[10] [ref. 34352]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus jumbo Britski & Garavello 2002. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Coastal rivers in Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco and Alagoas states, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

juquiae, Otothyris Garavello [J. C.], Britski [H. A.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 1998:8, Fig. 4 [American Museum Novitates No. 3222; ref. 23346] Juquiá creek at Cantaagalo farm, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 10309. Paratypes: MZUSP 8383-8400 (15), 38122 (1, c&s), 38616 (3), 41877 (1), 51284-86 (2, 1, 1) Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otothyris juquiae Garavello, Britski & Schaefer 1998 -- (Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:325 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228]). Current status: Valid as Otothyris juquiae Garavello, Britski & Schaefer 1998. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

juquiae, Pseudotocinclus Takako [A. K.], Oliveira [C.] & Oyakawa [O. T.] 2005:504, Fig. 4 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28465] First tributary of rio Juquiá, near ribeirão das Antas on road from São Lourenço da Serra to Jaquitiba, 23°59', 49.1"S. 46°56'01.1"W, Jaquitiba, São Paulo, Brazil, elevation 670 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 49333. Paratypes: MZUSP 42040 (1), 49339 (1), 58805 (3), 58816 (2, C&S), 79047 (2), 79048 (2). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:290 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudotocinclus juquiae Takako, Oliveira & Oyakawa 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:290 [ref. 29155], Reis et al. 2012:10 [ref. 31863]). Current status: Valid as Pseudotocinclus juquiae Takako, Oliveira & Oyakawa 2005. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Juquiá River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

juruenae, Otocinclus Ribeiro [A. C.] & Lehmann A. [P.] 2016:241, Figs. 1, 3 [Zootaxa 4147 (no. 3); ref. 34636] Bridge over Rio São João da Barra, Juara, Rio Juruena drainage, Tapajos basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 10°18'46.0"S, 57°38'44.0"W. Holotype: MZUSP 120361. Paratypes: CPUFMT, MCP. •Valid as Otocinclus juruenae Ribeiro & Lehmann A. 2016. Current status: Valid as Otocinclus juruenae Ribeiro & Lehmann A. 2016. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Tapajos basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jurupari, Rineloricaria Londoño-Burbano [A.] & Urbano-Bonilla [A.] 2018:377, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 36212] Unilla River drainage, tributary to the upper Vaupés River subbasin, Amazon basin, Caño La Tigra, Calamar, Guaviare Department, Colombia, 2°10'56"N, 72°50'15"W, elevation 249 meters. Holotype: MPUJ 12520. Paratypes: MPUJ. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Rineloricaria jurupari Londoño-Burbano & Urbano-Bonilla 2018. Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria jurupari Londoño-Burbano & Urbano-Bonilla 2018. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Vaupés River drainage, Amazon basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

juvens, Pterygoplichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:504 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] Asuncion, Río Paraguay, Paraguay. Holotype (unique): CAS 59784 [ex IU 9876]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pterygoplichthys juvens Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (Isbrücker 1980:41 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 -- (López & Miquelarena 1991:39 [ref. 23548], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:365 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Liposarcus ambrosettii Holmberg 1893 -- (Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii (Holmberg 1893) -- (Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:26 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:43 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:63 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii (Holmberg 1893). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

kaiei, Corymbophanes Armbruster [J. W.] & Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] in Armbruster, Sabaj Pérez, Hardman, Page & Knouft 2000:1002, Fig. 3 [Copeia 2000 (no. 4); ref. 25018] Oung Creek, Chenapou River-Potaro River drainage, about 1 hour hike southwest of coordinates 04°58'26"N, 59°34'41"W, (mouth of Chenapou River), Potaro-Siparuni region, Guyana. Holotype: UG/CSBD F644. Paratypes: AUM 28163 (2, 1 c&s), FMNH 108246 (1), INHS 49583 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:232 [ref. 29155], •Valid as Corymbophanes kaiei Armbruster & Sabaj Pérez 2000 -- (Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:352 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:232 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Corymbophanes kaiei Armbruster & Sabaj Pérez 2000. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Essequibo River drainage, upper Potaro River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

karajas, Ancistrus de Oliveira [R. R.], Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.], Zawadzki [C. H.] & Zuanon [J.] 2016:71, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 27 (no. 1); ref. 34368] Igarapé Alemão, rio Parauapebas, Floresta Nacional de Carajás, rio Tocantins basin, Pará, Brazil, 6°00'13"S, 50°34'34"W. Holotype: INPA 37583. Paratypes: INPA, MCP, NUP. •Valid as Ancistrus karajas de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel, Zawadzki & Zuanon 2016. Current status: Valid as Ancistrus karajas de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel, Zawadzki & Zuanon 2016. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lower rio Tocantins basin, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

karipuna, Curculionichthys Silva [G. S. C.], Roxo [F. F.], Melo [B. F.] & Oliveira [C.] 2016:282, Figs. 1, 2A, 3C, 4B, 5 [Zootaxa 4175 (no. 3); ref. 34828] Rio Cassiporé, Atlantic coastal river, small stream under the bridge of the road BR-156 at Campo Alegre farm, municipality of Oiapoque, state of Amapá, Brazil, 3°04'49.7"N, 51°28'50.7"W. Holotype: MZUSP 120190. Paratypes: LBP, NUP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Curculionichthys karipuna Silva, Roxo, Melo & Oliveira 2016 -- (Roxo et al. 2017:268 [ref. 35655], Gamarra et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36703]). Current status: Valid as Curculionichthys karipuna Silva, Roxo, Melo & Oliveira 2016. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Coastal rivers, Amapá, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

karstenii, Hypostomus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Krøyer) 1874:204 [3] [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1873 (nos 13-14); ref. 2854] On p. 3 of separate. Not available, name in the synonymy of Chaetostomus gymnorhynchus (Kner 1854) -- (Isbrücker 1980:69 [ref. 2303]). •Treated as synonym of Ancistrus gymnorhynchus Kner 1854 -- (Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653]). •In the synonymy of Ancistrus gymnorhynchus Kner 1854 -- (Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:376 [ref. 27061], Taphorn et al. 2010:21 [ref. 30697]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus gymnorhynchus Kner 1854. Loricariidae: Hypostominae.

kayabi, Pseudancistrus Silva [G. S. C.], Roxo [F. F.] & Oliveira [C.] 2015:23, Fig. 1 [ZooKeys No. 482; ref. 33679] Mato Grosso State, municipality of Itaúba: rio Teles Pires (Tapajós River basin), Brazil, 10°58'30"S, 55°44'03"W. Holotype: MZUSP 116322. Paratypes: AUM, LPB, MZUSP. •Valid as Pseudancistrus kayabi Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2015. Current status: Valid as Pseudancistrus kayabi Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2015. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Teles Pires (Tapajós River basin), Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kellerae, Ancistrus de Souza [L. S.], Taphorn [D. C.] & Armbruster [J. W.] 2019:16, Figs. 9-10 [Zootaxa 4552; ref. 36504] Kuribrong River, in rapids at Grass Shoals, Potaro River drainage, Region 8 (Potaro/Siparuni), Guyana, 5.40791°, -59.53179°. Holotype: CSBD F 1721. Paratypes: AUM, FMNH. •Valid as Ancistrus kellerae de Souza, Taphorn & Armbruster 2019. Current status: Valid as Ancistrus kellerae de Souza, Taphorn & Armbruster 2019. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Kuribrong River drainage, Potaro River system, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

kelsorum, Pseudolithoxus Lujan [N. K.] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2011:39, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 2941; ref. 31408] Orinoco River at Merey, 97.6 km north of San Fernando de Atabapo, 4°55'04"N, 67°49'58"W, Orinoco River drainage, Amazonas State, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 55357. Paratypes: ANSP 182813 (1), AUM 51644 (2), MCNG 55358 (1), MZUSP 108090 (1). •Valid as Pseudolithoxus kelsorum Lujan & Birindelli 2011 -- (Reis et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34496], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633], Collins et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35943]). Current status: Valid as Pseudolithoxus kelsorum Lujan & Birindelli 2011. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

khimaera, Hypostomus Tencatt [L. F. C.], Zawadzki [C. H.] & Froehlich [O.] 2014:597, 3c, 4c, 5c, 6c, 13-14 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 33520] Mato Grosso State, Serra das Araras, Porto Estrela, córrego Salobo, rio Paraguay basin, 15°39’03"S, 57°12’54"W, Baszil. Holotype: MZUSP 111129. Paratypes: CPUFMT 1449 (2), INPA 37744 (1), MNRJ 40185 (2), MZUEL 5821 (16), NUP 14506 (4). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Hypostomus khimaera Tencatt, Zawadzki & Froehlich 2014 -- (Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus khimaera Tencatt, Zawadzki & Froehlich 2014. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Paraguay basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kinja, Pseudolithoxus Bifi [A. G.], de Oliveira [R. R.], Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] & Collins [R. A.] in Collins, Bifi, de Oliveira, Ribeiro, Lujan et al. 2018:[4], Figs. 1-2 [Systematics and Biodiversity v. 16 (no. 6); ref. 35943] Rio Uatumã, Santa Luzia de Jacarequara, São Sebastião do Uatumã, Amazonas, Brazil, 02°26'46.7"S, 58°16'31.9"W. Holotype: INPA 3220. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MPEG, MZUEL, MZUSP, NUP. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Pseudolithoxus kinja Bifi, de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel & Collins 2018. Current status: Valid as Pseudolithoxus kinja Bifi, de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel & Collins 2018. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Clearwater rivers of the Brazilian and Guiana shields in Amazonas State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kneri, Loricaria De Filippi [F.] in Tortonese 1940:137 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino. (Ser. 3) v. 48 (no. 111); ref. 21559] Not available, manuscript name and specimens listed in type catalog (locality Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela). Renamed in an available way as Sturisoma kneri by Ghazzi 2005:559 [ref. 28314]. See Sturisoma kneri Ghazzi 2005. •Treated as valid as Sturisoma kneri dating to 1940 -- (Isbrücker 1980:94 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], DoNascimiento 2016:534 [ref. 34727]). •In the synonymy of Sturisomatichthys kneri (Ghazzi 2005). Current status: Synonym of Sturisomatichthys kneri (Ghazzi 2005). Loricariidae: Loricariinae.

kneri, Sturisoma Ghazzi [M. S.] 2005:559, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2005 (no. 3); ref. 28314] Lago Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: MZUT 764. Paratypes: INHS 35576 (2); MCNG 32239 (1), 33532 (1), 33535 (1); MZUSP 62828 (1) Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]. See Loricaria kneri De Filippi. •Valid as Sturisoma kneri Ghazzi 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Sturisomatichthys kneri (Ghazzi 2005) -- (Covain et al. 2015:514 [23] [ref. 34066], Londoño-Burbano 2018:[16] [ref. 35813]). Current status: Valid as Sturisomatichthys kneri (Ghazzi 2005). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lago Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

knerii, Acestra Steindachner [F.] 1882:177 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Canelos, eastern Ecuador. Lectotype: NMW 47796. Paralectotypes: NMW 76420 [ex 47796] (1); ?USNM 120428 [ex MCZ 7893] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:26, Pl. 7 (figs. 1-1a) [ref. 14353]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:114 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Farlowella knerii (Corydoras 1882) -- (Isbrücker 1980:99 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:73 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:25, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella knerii (Steindachner 1882). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River drainage, Napo and Pastaza River basins, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

koko, Panaqolus Fisch-Muller [S.] & Covain [R.] in Fisch-Muller, Montoya-Burgos, Le Bail & Covain 2012:184, Figs. 7, 13-14 [Cybium v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 31970] Marouini River, vicinity of Antecume Pata, Wayana Amerindian fisherman, French Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 2011-0013 [ex MHNG 2675.096]. Paratypes: MHNG, MNHN. Name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Panaqolus koko Fisch-Muller & Covain 2012 -- (Lujan et al. 2013:192 [ref. 32784], Cramer 2014:69 [ref. 33229], Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015:469 [ref. 33945], Tan et al. 2016:[19] [ref. 34532], Cramer & Sousa 2016:16 [ref. 34885]). •Valid as Pseudoqolus koko (Fisch-Muller & Covain 2012) -- (Lujan et al. 2017:334 [13] [ref. 35031]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoqolus koko (Fisch-Muller & Covain 2012). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Antecume Pata in upper Maroni River basin, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

konopickyi, Loricaria Steindachner [F.] 1879:34 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Amazon River. Holotype (unique): NMW 44934. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:45, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [ref. 4228]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria konopickyi (Steindachner 1879) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria konopickyi (Steindachner 1879) -- (Isbrücker 1980:106 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria konopickyi (Steindachner 1879). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kopeyaka, Hypostomus Carvalho [P. H.], Lima [F. C. T.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2010:40, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 30754] Rio Tiquié, Serra do Mucura village, 0°10'N, 69°07'W, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 98764. Paratypes: MZUSP 92186 (1), 92485 (1), 93074 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Hypostomus kopeyaka Carvalho, Lima & Zawadzki 2010 -- (Zawadzki & Carvalho 2014:50 [ref. 33227], Tencatt et al. 2014:602 [ref. 33520]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus kopeyaka Carvalho, Lima & Zawadzki 2010. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Tiquié basin, upper rio Negro basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

krenakarore, Ancistrus de Oliveira [R. R.], Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.], Zawadzki [C. H.] & Zuanon [J.] 2016:69, Figs. 2a, 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 27 (no. 1); ref. 34368] Rio Itapacurá, right bank tributary of Rio Tapajós, Rurópolis, Pará State, Brazil, 4°36'20"S, 55°30'41"W. Holotype: INPA 34155. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MCP, MPEG, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Ancistrus krenakarore de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel, Zawadzki & Zuanon 2016. Current status: Valid as Ancistrus krenakarore de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel, Zawadzki & Zuanon 2016. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lower rio Tapajós drainage, Pará State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kronei, Harttia Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1908:[2], Figs. 3-3a [Kosmos, Rio de Janeiro [Rev. Art. Sci. Litt.] v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1907); ref. 3715] Rio Bethary of Rio Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 713A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 713 (2). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:399-400 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:400 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Valid as Harttia kronei Miranda Ribeiro 1908 -- (Isbrücker 1980:90 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Oyakawa 1993:20 [ref. 21109], Langeani et al. 2001:141 [ref. 25126], Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001:80 [ref. 25404], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia kronei Miranda Ribeiro 1908. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Ribeira de Iguapé River, upper Paraná basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kronei, Loricaria Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1911:132, Pl. 34 (fig. 2) [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 16; ref. 3716] Rio Iporanga, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ (not found). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]. Citation to illustration on pl. 34 (fig. 2) may be for this species, but caption states "[Loricaria] latirostris Boul." which is the next species discussed. In the account of latirostris, reference is made to Pl. 35, which does not include any loricariids. Thus, an illustration of one of these two species was omitted from publication. •Valid as Rineloricaria kronei (Miranda Ribeiro 1911) -- (Isbrücker 1980:107 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155], Ghazzi 2008:102 [ref. 29636] dated 1912). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria kronei (Miranda Ribeiro 1911). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kuarup, Hypostomus Zawadzki [C. H.], Kullander [S. O.] & Lima [F. C. T.] 2012:246, Figs. 1-4 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 32031] Rio Xingú basin, rio Culuene (at the former rapids, current area of reservoir Paranatinga 11), 13°51'03"S, 53°15'31"W, Campinãpolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 109765. Paratypes: ANSP 192412 (5), INPA 37075 (5), MCP 46838 (5), MNRJ 39116 (5);ZUSP 91970 (29); NUP 11269 (5), ZUEC 6551 (5). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Hypostomus kuarup Zawadzki, Kullander & Lima 2012 -- (Zawadzki et al. 2015:57 [ref. 33866]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus kuarup Zawadzki, Kullander & Lima 2012. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper rio Xingú basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kuhlmanni, Peckoltichthys Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1920:10, Unnum. Pl. 5 (middle) [Peixes (excl. Characinidae) No. 58 (Annexo 5); ref. 3727] Rio Tapajos [Tapajóz], Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 2044A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 2044 (1). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:401 [ref. 12732] as kuhlman on p. 391, Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:401 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Likely a synonym of Peckoltia vittata (Steindachner 1881) -- (Armbruster & Werneke 2005:12 [ref. 28101]). •Valid as Peckoltia kuhlmanni (Miranda Ribeiro 1920) -- (Isbrücker 1980:56 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:392 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:284 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Peckoltia vittata (Steindachner 1881) -- (Armbruster 2008:40 [ref. 29740], Armbruster et al. 2015:100 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Synonym of Peckoltia vittata (Steindachner 1881). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

kwinti, Pseudancistrus Willink [P. W.], Mol [J. H. A.] & Chernoff [B.] 2010:41, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 2332; ref. 30670] Coppename River at base of Sidonkroetoe-val rapids, Central Suriname Nature Reserve, 4°31'51"N, 56°30'56"W, Sipaliwini State, Suriname. Holotype: FMNH 116976. Paratypes: FMNH 116975 (1), NZCS F7066 (1). •Valid as Pseudancistrus kwinti Willink, Mol & Chernoff 2010 -- (Zawadzki et al. 2010:724 [ref. 31074], Silva et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33302]). Current status: Valid as Pseudancistrus kwinti Willink, Mol & Chernoff 2010. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Coppename River drainage, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

laani, Apistoloricaria Nijssen [H.] & Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1988:34, Figs. 2-4 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 7322] Río Metica, El Aviso, about 3°59'N, 72°59'W, Meta Dept., Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 131483. Paratypes: ANSP 131484 (1), 157750 (1), 157940-41 (5, 1); ZMA 119444 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155]; DoNascimiento et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Apistoloricaria laani Nijssen & Isbrücker 1988 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:330 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rhadinoloricaria laani (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1988) -- (Covain et al. 2015:515 [24] [ref. 34066], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Rhadinoloricaria laani (Nijssen & Isbrücker 1988). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Orinoco River drainage, Meta River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

labialis, Loricaria Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:527 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1895 (pt 3); ref. 14576] Paraguay. Lectotype: BMNH 1895.5.17.98 (197 mm SL). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.17.99-100 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Loricariichthys labialis (Boulenger 1895) -- (Isbrücker 1980:126 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:131 [ref. 24147], Reis & Pereira 2000:1037 [ref. 25021], Isbrücker 2001:29, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:338 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:26 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:45 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys labialis (Boulenger 1895). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Paraguay and middle Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

lacerta, Plecostomus Nichols [J. T.] 1919:424 [6] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 11; ref. 15221] Poço Grande, Rio Juquia, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: AMNH 7151 or 7152 (published). Paratypes: AMNH 7159 (1), MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 964 (1). Type catalog: Britski 1969:209 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:263 [ref. 29155]. On p. 6 of both Portuguese and English sections of separate. •Valid as Hypostomus lacerta (Nichols 1919) -- (Isbrücker 1980:25 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols 1919) -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Armbruster & Page 1997:228 [ref. 22698], Isbrücker 2001:29, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:365 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:263 [ref. 29155], Roxo et al. 2012:38 [ref. 32073], Pereira & Reis 2017:73 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols 1919). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Baia de Paranaguá and Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

laevior, Hisonotus Cope [E. D.] 1894:95, Pl. 8 [7] (figs. 12, 12a-b) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Jacuhy [Jacuí] , Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21563. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus laevior (Cope 1894) -- (Isbrücker 1980:83 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Microlepidogaster laevior (Cope 1894) -- (Malabarba 1989:149 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Hisonotus laevior Cope 1894 -- (Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Aquino et al. 2001:9 [ref. 25673], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:322 [ref. 27061], Almirón & Azpelicueta 2006:93 [ref. 28713], Casciotta et al. 2006:150 [ref. 28758], Britski & Garavello 2007:414 [ref. 29429], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155], Carvalho et al. 2008:515 [ref. 29799], Garvalho & Reis 2011:12 [ref. 31240], Roxo et al. 2015:138 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:236 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus laevior Cope 1894. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Jacuí River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

laeviuscula, Loricaria Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:476 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-0365. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:124 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:340 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lower and middle Amazon River basin, including Negro and Branco rivers, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lagoichthys, Loricaria gymnogaster Schultz [L. P.] 1944:331, Pl. 13 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Palmar near Totuma, about 100 kilometers southwest of Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121092. Paratypes: Dahl coll. (6); FMNH 42792 (5); MBUCV-V-13215 (1); MCZ 37213 (10); UMMZ 141937 (15); USNM 121093-94 (3, 15), 121095 (now 30), 121096 (19, not 18), 121097 (43), 121098 (433, now 399), 121099-101 (4, 3, 13); ZMA 102126 (6); ZMUL (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:57 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:53 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:28 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:12 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Loricaria lagoichthys Schultz 1944 -- (González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960]). •Synonym of Loricaria gymnogaster Eigenmann & Vance 1912, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Galvis et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23651]). •Synonym of Spatuloricaria phelpsi Schultz 1944 -- (Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Spatuloricaria lagoichthys (Schultz 1944) -- (Isbrücker 1980:113 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155], Fichberg et al. 2014:323 [ref. 33358], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633], Londoño-Burbano et al. 2018:620 [ref. 36263]). Current status: Valid as Spatuloricaria lagoichthys (Schultz 1944). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Magdalena and Atrato River basins, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

lamina, Loricaria Günther [A.] 1868:478 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 1992] Xeberos, upper Amazon River, Peru. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.6.13.33 (158.8 mm SL). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1867.6.13.34-35 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155]. Also published in Günther (Sept.) 1868:239, Figs. 6-7 [ref. 5756]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1973:186 [ref. 22669]. •Valid as Pseudohemiodon lamina (Günther 1868) -- (Isbrücker 1980:121 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:340 [ref. 27061] as laminus, Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155] as laminus, Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Rojas-Molina et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36866]). Current status: Valid as Pseudohemiodon lamina (Günther 1868). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

lanceolata, Loricaria Günther [A.] 1868:477 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 1992] Xeberos, upper Amazon River, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.6.13.79. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]. Also published in Günther (Sept.) 1868:235, Fig. 3 [ref. 5756]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria lanceolata (Günther 1868) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2002:159 [ref. 27892], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], López et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria lanceolata (Günther 1868) -- (Isbrücker 1973:77 [ref. 34745], Isbrücker 1980:107 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:2 [ref. 28173], Vera-Alcaraz et al. 2012:285 [ref. 32034], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:46 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633], Londoño-Burbano & Urbano-Bonilla 2018:382 [ref. 36212]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria lanceolata (Günther 1868). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Guyana, Colombia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

landoni, Hemiancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1916:84 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 6); ref. 1233] Naranjito, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): CAS 59939 [ex IU 13654]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus landoni Eigenmann 1916 -- (Isbrücker 1980:50 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:386 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:53 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670] as "Hemiancistrus", Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:227 [ref. 34894], Provenzano & Barriga Salazar 2017:229 [ref. 35332]). Current status: Valid as Hemiancistrus landoni Eigenmann 1916. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Guyanas River basin: Ecuador and Peru?. Habitat: freshwater.

langeanii, Neoplecostomus Roxo [F. F.], Oliveira [C.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2012:12, Figs. 8 [Zootaxa No. 3233; ref. 31839] Rio São Domingos, tributary of Rio Muzambinho, Rio Grande basin, 21°23'22"S, 46°28'40"W, municipality of Muzambinho, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 110365. Paratypes: many at DZSJRP, LBP, MZUSP, NUP. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:451 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Neoplecostomus langeanii Roxo, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2012 -- (Roxo et al. 2014:125 [ref. 33492], Andrade & Langeani 2014:9 [ref. 33618], Cherobim et al. 2016:10 [ref. 35001], Pereira & Reis 2017:74 [ref. 35307], Roxo et al. 2017:238 [ref. 35467], Silva et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36454]). Current status: Valid as Neoplecostomus langeanii Roxo, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2012. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Muzambinho drainages, Rio Grande basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

langei, Rineloricaria Ingenito [L. F. S.], Ghazzi [M. S.], Duboc [L. F.] & Abilhoa [V.] 2008:356, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29842] Quatro Varras, rio Iraí, at Fazenda Moura-Daz, downstream Reservoir of rio Iraí - SANEPAR, 49°05'26"W, 25°29'23"S, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 42506. Paratypes: MCP 23459 (4); MHNCI 8937 (10); MNRJ 31157 (5, 1 c&s). •Valid as Rineloricaria langei Ingenito, Ghazzi, Duboc & Abilhoa 2008. Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria langei Ingenito, Ghazzi, Duboc & Abilhoa 2008. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Iraí River, headwater of upper Iguaça River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

laplatae, Plecostomus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1907:450, Pl. 21 (figs. 1-3) [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 8 (for 1906); ref. 10024] Rio Tiquié, Serra do Mucura village, Argentina. Holotype: Princeton Univ. Paratypes: CAS 77342 [ex IU 11351] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus laplatae (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Isbrücker 1980:25 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:28 [ref. 23548], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], López et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26808], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], López et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27366], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2010:724 [ref. 31074], Zawadzki et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33233], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617], Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Cardoso et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34373], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565], Cardoso et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 36685]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus laplatae (Eigenmann 1907). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: La Plata River basin and lower Paraná River: Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

lata, Loricaria Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:36 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Goiás, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 46721 [ex MCZ 8123]. Paralectotypes: (10) BMNH 1889.11.14.64 (1), MCZ 8123 (4, some not this species), MCZ 46722 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:269 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1972:179 [ref. 20708]. •Valid as Loricaria lata Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 -- (Isbrücker 1980:118 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1972 [ref. 20708], Isbrücker 1981:67 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:22 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:268 [ref. 29155], Thomas & Sabaj Pérez 2010:280 [ref. 30831], Thomas et al. 2013:376 [ref. 32997]). Current status: Valid as Loricaria lata Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

laticeps, Loricaria Regan [C. T.] 1904:295, Pl. 20 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Paraguay. Lectotype: BMNH 1895.5.17.113 (189.7 mm SL). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.17.114 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1973:187 [ref. 22669]. •Valid as Pseudohemiodon laticeps (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:121 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:340 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:47 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:288 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:45 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561], Koerber et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35267], Rojas-Molina et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36866]). Current status: Valid as Pseudohemiodon laticeps (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Uruguay, Paraná and Paraguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

latifrons, Chaetostomus Günther [A.] 1869:426 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 2); ref. 5780] Upper Amazon River, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1869.5.21.4. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Ancistrus latifrons (Günther 1869) -- (Isbrücker 1980:69 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:16 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:376 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], de Oliveira et al. 2015:73 [ref. 33869], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus latifrons (Günther 1869). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Amazon and Solimões River basins: Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

latifrons, Hypostomus Weber [C.] 1986:991, Figs. %d, 6 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 93 (no. 4); ref. 8023] Río Aguaray-guazú, Río Paraguay basin, River Paraná system, 24°22;50"S, 58°00'W, Paraguay. Holotype: MHNG 2256.67. Paratypes: MHNG 2256.68-71 (4, 2, 1, 1); ZMA 119782 (1). Type catalog: Weber 1998:9 [ref. 23532], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus latifrons Weber 1986 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Britski et al. 1998:135 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2010:719 [ref. 31074], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Zawadzki et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33233], Koerber 2014:9 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:43 [ref. 35117], Cardoso et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34373], Koerber et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus latifrons Weber 1986. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Bolivia, Argentina and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

latirostris, Loricaria Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:165 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 5 (no. 26) (art. 19); ref. 14718] Rio Mogi Guaçu, about 250 miles inland of Santos, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1899.12.18.6 (228 mm SL). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1899.12.18.7 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:112 [ref. 2302]. Regan (1904:283) serves as first reviser selecting latirostris over paulina. •Valid as Rineloricaria latirostris (Boulenger 1900) -- (Isbrücker 1980:107 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Langeani & de Araujo 1994:158 [ref. 22095], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:342 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155], Ghazzi 2008:102 [ref. 29636], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228] as Rineloricara), Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria latirostris (Boulenger 1900). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

latirostris, Plecostomus Regan [C. T.] 1904:213, Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Rio Jungada [= Jangada], Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1892.4.20.26. Paralectotype: BMNH 1892.4.20.27. Lectotype selected by Zawadzki et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 35944]. •Valid as Hypostomus latirostris (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:25 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1998:135 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Zawadzki et al. 2010:719 [ref. 31074], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Zawadzki et al. 2015:57 [ref. 33866], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus latirostris (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Cuiabá drainage, Paraguay River basin: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

latisoma, Farlowella Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1939:361 [Boletím Biológico, São Paulo (Nova Série) v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 3023] Oriximiná, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 761. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:399 [ref. 12732]. •Valid as Farlowella latisoma Miranda Ribeiro 1939 -- (Isbrücker 1980:99 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Farlowella schreitmuelleri Arnold 1936 -- (Retzer & Page 1997:74 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:334 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:239 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Farlowella schreitmuelleri Arnold 1936. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

latiura, Loricaria filamentosa Eigenmann [C. H.] & Vance [L.] in Eigenmann 1912:13 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Boca de Certegai, Colombia. Lectotype: FMNH 124472 (out of FMNH 55115). Paralectotypes: (12) FMNH 55115 (6), USNM 79219 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:84 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:53 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:28 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:233 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Londoño-Burbano & Reis 2016:[11] [ref. 34381]. •Synonym of Loricaria filamentosa Steindachner 1878 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:90 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Dasyloricaria latiura (Eigenmann & Vance 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:111 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:233 [ref. 29155], Londoño-Burbano & Reis 2016:[8] [ref. 34381], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Dasyloricaria latiura (Eigenmann & Vance 1912). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Turia and Atrato River basins: Colombia and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

leightoni, Oxyloricaria Regan [C. T.] 1912:669, Pl. 77 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1912 (pt 3) (art. 36); ref. 14862] Honda, Colombia, elevation 300-400 feet. Lectotype: BMNH 1909.7.23.45 (57 mm SL). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1909.7.23.46-47 (1 of 2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:300 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Sturisomatichthys leightoni (Regan 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:92 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:30, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:346 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:300 [ref. 29155], Covain et al. 2015:514 [23] [ref. 34066], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Sturisomatichthys leightoni (Regan 1912). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Magdalena and Cauca River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

leiopleura, Harttia Oyakawa [O. T.] 1993:5, Fig. 1 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 6; ref. 21109] Rio São Francisco, Brazil, 20°60'S, 43°55'W. Holotype: MZUSP 43264. Paratypes: MCP 15102 (12); MNRJ 12140 (12); MZUSP 37151 (10), 42701 (2, c&s), 43265 (15). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Quiritixys leiopleura (Oyakawa 1993) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:21 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Harttia leiopleura Oyakawa 1993 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Langeani et al. 2001:141 [ref. 25126], Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001:80 [ref. 25404], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia leiopleura Oyakawa 1993. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: São Francisco basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lentiginosa, Loricaria prolixa Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1979:97, Figs. 9, 10 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 5 (no. 4) (1978); ref. 2302] High basin of Rio Paraná, Represa de Volta Grande, Rio Grande, São Paulo, eastern Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 13188. Paratypes: MZUSP 13187 (1), 13190 (1); ZMA 115183 [ex MZUSP 13189] (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:58 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:286 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Proloricaria lentiginosa (Isbrücker 1979) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:21 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker et al. 2001:29, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:27 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:286 [ref. 29155], Rodriguez et al. 2012:54 [ref. 31866]). •Valid as Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker 1979 -- (Isbrücker 1980:118 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:86 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], Thomas et al. 2013:376 [ref. 32997]). Current status: Valid as Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker 1979. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

leoni, Ancistrus de Souza [L. S.], Taphorn [D. C.] & Armbruster [J. W.] 2019:20, Figs. 11-12 [Zootaxa 4552; ref. 36504] Río Negro, in rapids about 1 km south (downstream) of the mouth of the Casiquiare, Atabapo District, Amazonas State, Venezuela, 1.987611°, -67.120250°. Holotype: MCNG 56680 [ex MCNG 53811]. Paratypes: AUM, CAS, MCNG. •Valid as Ancistrus leoni de Souza, Taphorn & Armbruster 2019. Current status: Valid as Ancistrus leoni de Souza, Taphorn & Armbruster 2019. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper río Negro and río Orinoco, Venezuela, northernmost Brazil and probably tributaries of the río Negro in adjacent regions of Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

leopardus, Stoneiella Fowler [H. W.] 1914:271, Fig. 17 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 66; ref. 1390] Rupununi River, Guyana, 2°-3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype (unique): ANSP 39345. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:286 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudacanthicus leopardus (Fowler 1914) -- (Isbrücker 1980:77 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:31, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:27 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:393 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:286 [ref. 29155], Fisch-Muller et al. 2012:189 [ref. 31970], Chamon 2015:317 [ref. 33851], Chamon & Sousa 2016:13 [ref. 34852], Chamon & Costa e Silva 2018:507 [ref. 35821]). Current status: Valid as Pseudacanthicus leopardus (Fowler 1914). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rupununi River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

leptochilus, Hisonotus Cope [E. D.] 1894:96, Pl. 8 [7] (figs. 11 a-b) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Jacuhy [Jacuí], Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21564. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155]. Intended Pl. 7 was reversed with Pl. 8. Garvalho & Reis 2011:12 [ref. 31240] serve as first revisers, selecting laevior over leptochilus; both published in the same publication. •Valid as Otocinclus leptochilus (Cope 1894) -- (Isbrücker 1980:83 [ref. 2303]). •Valid as Microlepidogaster leptochilus (Cope 1894) -- (Malabarba 1989:149 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Hisonotus leptochilus Cope 1894 -- (Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:322 [ref. 27061], Almirón & Azpelicueta 2006:93 [ref. 28713], Casciotta et al. 2006:150 [ref. 28758], Britski & Garavello 2007:414 [ref. 29429], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155], Carvalho et al. 2008:515 [ref. 29799]). •Snonym of Hisonotus laevior Cope 1894 -- (Garvalho & Reis 2011:12 [ref. 31240]). Current status: Synonym of Hisonotus laevior Cope 1894. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

lepturus, Chaetostomus Regan [C. T.] 1912:667, Pl. 75 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1912 (pt 3) (art. 36); ref. 14862] Río Tamana, Río San Juan system, Chocó Dept., southwestern Colombia. Syntypes: BMNH 1910.7.11.116-118 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma lepturum Regan 1912 -- (Isbrücker 1980:61 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:380 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma lepturum Regan 1912. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper San Juan River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

leucofrenatus, Otocinclus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1908:[2] [Kosmos, Rio de Janeiro [Rev. Art. Sci. Litt.] v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1907); ref. 3715] Rio das Pedras of Rio Ribeira, Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus leucofrenatus Miranda Ribeiro 1908 -- (Isbrücker 1980:83 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860]). •In Microlepidogaster -- (Schaefer 1997:8 [ref. 23213]). •Valid as Hisonotus leucofrenatus (Miranda Ribeiro 1908) -- (Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Aquino et al. 2001:9 [ref. 25673], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:323 [ref. 27061], Almirón & Azpelicueta 2006:93 [ref. 28713], Britski & Garavello 2007:414 [ref. 29429], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Garvalho & Reis 2011:18 [ref. 31240], Roxo et al. 2015:138 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:236 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900], Dias et al. 2018:583 [ref. 36235]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus leucofrenatus (Miranda Ribeiro 1908). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos drainage, rio Tramandaí system and Brazilian Atlantic coastal drainages, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

leucomelas, Chaetostomus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1918:681 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 56 (no. 7); ref. 12304] Río Patía, halfway between the Río Magui and Río Telembi, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 60167 [ex IU 13652, largest specimen]. Paratypes: CAS 60168 [ex IU 13652] (1), FMNH 58344 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma leucomelas Eigenmann 1918 -- (Isbrücker 1980:61 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:380 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma leucomelas Eigenmann 1918. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Patia and upper Cauca River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

leucophaeus, Hypostomus Zanata [A. M.] & Pitanga [B. R.] 2016:224, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4137 (no. 2); ref. 34535] Bahia, Rio Real, Fazenda Pau Ferro, rio Itapicuru, around 15 km from Rio Real, Brazil, 11°34'41"S, 38°00'26"W, elevation 87 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 119822. Paratypes: MZUSP, UFBA. •Valid as Hypostomus leucophaeus Zanata & Pitanga 2016. Current status: Valid as Hypostomus leucophaeus Zanata & Pitanga 2016. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Itapicuru basin, Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

leucophrys, Hisonotus Carvalho [T. P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2009:12, Figs. 5B, 6B, 9 [Zootaxa No. 2113; ref. 30193] Rio Ariranhas on bridge of highway SC-466, rio Uruguay basin, 27°04'17"S. 52°20'34"W, Xavantina, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 42576. Paratypes: ANSP 187473 (2); MCN 12024 (1), 12553 (1), 12741 (2); MCP 41351 (1), 42354 (3 + 2 c&s), •Valid as Hisonotus leucophrys Carvalho & Reis 2009 -- (Garvalho & Reis 2011:18 [ref. 31240], Roxo et al. 2015:138 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:380 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:236 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Calegari et al. 2017:243 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus leucophrys Carvalho & Reis 2009. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper rio Uruguay basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

leucostictus, Chaetostomus Günther [A.] 1864:248 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Essequibo River, Guyana. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.21.85. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Ancistrus leucostictus (Günther 1864) -- (Isbrücker 1980:69 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:16 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Knaack 1999:152 [ref. 23874], Le Bail et al. 2000:228 [ref. 24549] as cf. leucostictus, Isbrücker 2001:25, 26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:376 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155], de Souza et al. 2019:24 [ref. 36504]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus leucostictus (Günther 1864). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Middle and upper Essequibo River basin, Guyana, and probably Cuyuni River drainage, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

levis, Rhinelepis Pearson [N. E.] 1924:22, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-3) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Huachi, Río Madeira system, Bolivia. Holotype: CAS 77349 [ex IU 17014]. Paratypes: CAS 77350 [ex IU 17014] (3, now 2), UMMZ 66496 [ex IU 17014] (1). Additional material or paratypes: CAS 56747 [ex IU 17015] (4, now 3, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cochliodon levis (Pearson 1924) -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Armbruster & Page 1997:231 [ref. 22698], Isbrücker 2001:26, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:14 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Hypostomus levis (Pearson 1924) -- (Isbrücker 1980:25-26 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Weber & Montoya-Burgos 2002:366 [ref. 26428], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2003:35 [ref. 27426], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Hollanda Carvalho & Weber 2004:954 [ref. 28067], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155], Martins et al. 2012:496 [ref. 32197], Zawadzki & Carvalho 2014:36 [ref. 33227], Tencatt et al. 2014:602 [ref. 33520], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus levis (Pearson 1924). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Cochabamba and Popoi rivers, upper Beni River basin, Madeira River drainage, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

lexa, Loraxichthys Salcedo [N. J.] 2013:560, Figs. 1-2, 4b, 5b [Zootaxa 3640 (no. 4); ref. 32670] Mariano Dámaso Beraun, vicinity of Tingo María, Cueva de las Pavas, Quebrada Luconyupe, 9°22'15.1"S, 75°58'32.7"W, Provincia de Leoncio Prado, Departamento de Huánuco, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 179128. Paratypes: ANSP 179124 (13, 1c&s), 179129 (4, 1c&s). •Valid as Chaetostoma lexa (Salcedo 2013) -- (Lujan et al. 2015:676 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma lexa (Salcedo 2013). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tingo María, Huánuco, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

lexi, Plecostomus Ihering [R. von] 1911:387 [Revista do Museo São Paulo v. 8 (1910); ref. 14822] Rio Pardo, perto de Barretos, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 2126. Type catalog: Britski 1969:209 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus lexi (Ihering 1911) -- (Isbrücker 1980:26 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:255 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus lexi (Ihering 1911). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Grande River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

liliai, Corumbataia Silva [G. S. C.], Roxo [F. F.], Souza [C. S.] & Oliveira [C.] 2018:323, Figs. 2e-f, 3c, 4b [Zootaxa 4483 (no, 2); ref. 36151] Córrego da Cachoeira, Rio Corrente drainage, upper Rio Paraná basin, municipality of Aporé, Goiás state, Brazil, 18°34'50.8"S, 52°05'52.8"W. Holotype: MZUSP 123826. Paratypes: AUM, LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Corumbataia liliai Silva, Roxo, Souza & Oliveira 2018. Current status: Valid as Corumbataia liliai Silva, Roxo, Souza & Oliveira 2018. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Paraná basin, Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lima, Loricaria Kner [R.] 1853:89 [25], Pl. 6 (fig. 1a-b) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 6; ref. 2627] Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW (probably lost). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]. On p. 25 of separate. Type probably lost (Isbrücker 1980:107 [ref. 2303]). •Valid as Rineloricaria lima (Kner 1853) -- (Isbrücker 1980:107 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Britski 2001:19 [ref. 26046], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:343 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:2 [ref. 28173], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:27 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:46 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria lima (Kner 1853). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: River de la Plata: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

lima, Plecostomus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1874:29 [1] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 1); ref. 2855] Rio das Velhas, Ribeirao do Mato and Lagoa Santa, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1876.1.10.1-2 [ex ZMUC] (2); MNHN 0000-9573 [ex ZMUC] (1); NMW 44194-95 (1, 1); SMNS 2050 (1); ZMUC P30143 [ex 51] (1), P30144-147 [ex 56-59] (1, 1, 1, 1), P30148 [ex 611] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:71 [ref. 19575], Nielsen 1974:52 [ref. 9588], Fricke 1995:16 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:47 [ref. 29864], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]. Type information: Isbrücker 1980:26 [ref. 2303]. On p. 1 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:140 (and p. II of summary) [ref. 19674]. •Valid as Hypostomus lima (Lütken 1874) -- (Isbrücker 1980:26 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061] with author as Reinhardt, Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155] with author as Reinhardt, Zanata et al. 2013:248 [ref. 32751], Zanata & Pitanga 2016:231 [ref. 34535], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus lima (Lütken 1874). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

limosus, Plecostomus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:168 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 7869. Paralectotypes: MCZ 88946 [ex MCZ 7869] (2), BMNH 1904.1.28.1 [ex MCZ] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Reis et al. 1990:737 [ref. 16139]. •Valid as Hypostomus limosus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Isbrücker 1980:26 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644]). •Synonym of Hypostomus commersonii Valenciennes 1836 -- (Malabarba 1989:152 [ref. 14217], Reis et al. 1990:736 [ref. 16139], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:26 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:357 [ref. 27061] as commersoni, Ferraris 2007:253 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117] as commersoni, Koerber et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35267]). •Synonym of Hypostomus spiniger (Hensel 1870) -- (Cardoso et al. 2019:[12] [ref. 36685]). Current status: Synonym of Hypostomus spiniger (Hensel 1870). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

limulus, Eurycheilichthys Reis [R. E.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 1998:15, Fig. 7 [American Museum Novitates No. 3254; ref. 23691] Rio Jacuí on road RS-010, between Marau and Passo Fundo, 28°18'S, 52°18'W, Rio Grande do sul State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 20283. Paratypes: ANSP 168965 (28, 5 c&s); MCP 13086 (48, 2 c&s), 14528 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:236 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Eurycheilichthys limulus Reis & Schaefer 1998 -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:322 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:236 [ref. 29155], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561], Reis 2017:[6] [ref. 35226]). Current status: Valid as Eurycheilichthys limulus Reis & Schaefer 1998. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Jacuí River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lineata, Pareiorhaphis Pereira [E. H. L.], Pessali [T. C.], Andrade [F. de] & Reis [R. E.] 2017:2, Figs. 1, 2, 6a,b [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 3) e170007; ref. 35608] Rio Itacambiruçu, rio Jequitinhonha basin, Grão Mogol, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 16°35'51.6"S, 42°50'15.4"W. Holotype: MCP 50863. Paratypes: AMNH, AUM, MCNIP, MCP, MNRJ, MZUEL. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Pareiorhaphis lineata Pereira, Pessali, Andrade & Reis 2017 -- (Pereira et al. 2018:639 [ref. 36274]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis lineata Pereira, Pessali, Andrade & Reis 2017. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper and middle Rio Jequitinhonha basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lineola, Peckoltia Armbruster [J. W.] 2008:29, Figs. 2e, 16 [Zootaxa No. 1822; ref. 29740] Río Ventuari, 23 kilometers northeast of Macuruco, 94 kilometers east of San Fernando de Atabapo, 4°04'50"N, 66°51'55"W, Río Orinoco drainage, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 55684. Paratypes: ANSP 185222 (2, 1 c&s); AUM 39245 (2, 1 c&s), 41561 (1); ICNMNH 9910 (2); MCNG 37054 (1). Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:34 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Peckoltia lineola Armbruster 2008 -- (de Oliveira et al. 2012:548 [ref. 32202], Armbruster et al. 2015:100 [ref. 33670], Armbruster & Lujan 2016:115 [ref. 34264], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia lineola Armbruster 2008. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

lineolatus, Ancistrus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:255, Figs. 44-47 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Río Orteguasa, Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70517. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus lineolatus Fowler 1943 -- (Isbrücker 1980:69 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Knaack 1999:152 [ref. 23874], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:376 [ref. 27061], Fisch-Muller et al. 2005:570 [ref. 28242], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633]). •Synonym of Ancistrus malacops (Cope 1872) -- (Provenzano & Barriga-Salazar 2018:227 [ref. 36344]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus malacops (Cope 1872). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

lineopunctata, Chaetostoma Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:192, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Río Azupizú, a tributary of Río Pachitea, upper Amazon River system, Peru. Holotype: CAS 64650 [ex IU 15373]. Paratypes: CAS 64651 [ex IU 15373] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Chaetostoma lineopunctatum Eigenmann & Allen 1942 -- (Isbrücker 1980:61 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:380 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:63 [ref. 28542], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155], Salcedo et al. 2011:503 [ref. 31722], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975] and as aff. lineopunctatum on p. 699, Ballen et al. 2016:195 [ref. 34396]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma lineopunctatum Eigenmann & Allen 1942. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Río Ucayali and Río Madre de Dios basins, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

listrorhinos, Apistoloricaria Nijssen [H.] & Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1988:36, Figs. 5-7 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 7322] Río Metica, about 1.5 kilometers east of Rajote, 3°56'N, 73°03'W, Meta Dept. Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 131482. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Apistoloricaria listrorhinos Nijssen & Isbrücker 1988 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:330 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rhadinoloricaria listrorhinos (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1988) -- (Covain et al. 2015:515 [24] [ref. 34066], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Rhadinoloricaria listrorhinos (Nijssen & Isbrücker 1988). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Orinoco River drainage, Metica River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

lithoides, Lithoxus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:242, Pl. 29 (figs. 1-4) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Amatuk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53557 [ex CM 1527]. Paratypes: (181) AMNH 7119 (5); ANSP 39121 (1); BMNH 1911.10.31.109-112 (4); CAS 77332 [ex IU 11951] (10); FMNH 7415 (3), 53094 (50, 3 c&s), 53095-98 (10, 2, 3, 1), 53558 (1), 69707 (6), 69711 (46), 69803 (3); MCZ 30057 (2); CAS-SU 21928 (3); UMMZ 185334 [ex IU 11952] (3); USNM 66223 [ex CM 1528] (3); ZMA 110632 (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:84 [ref. 12305], Nijssen et al. 1982:57 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:53 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:28 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:267 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:412 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Lithoxus lithoides Eigenmann 1912 -- (Isbrücker 1980:77-78 [ref. 2303], Boeseman 1982:46 [ref. 492], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Nijssen & Isbrücker 1990:332 [ref. 16655], Muller & Isbrücker 1993:75 [ref. 20657], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:21 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:389 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:267 [ref. 29155], Lujan 2008:416 [ref. 29847], Silva et al. 2017:151 [ref. 35668], Lujan et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36081]). Current status: Valid as Lithoxus lithoides Eigenmann 1912. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Essequibo and upper Correntyne River basin: Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

lithurgicus, Ancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:241, Fig. 36, Pl. 25 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Crab Falls, Essequibo River, Guyana [approximately 5.403128, -58.820068]. Holotype: FMNH 53091 [ex CM 1524]. Paratypes: (15) BMNH 1911.10.31.107-108 (2); CAS 64613 [ex IU 11950] (4); FMNH 7413 (1), 53092 (4); MCZ 30051 [ex CM 1525 or IU 11950] (1); CAS-SU 21904 (1); USNM 66104 [ex CM 1525] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:83 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:45-46 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:25 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155].. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:409 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Ancistrus lithurgicus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Isbrücker 1980:70 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:376 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155], de Souza et al. 2019:27 [ref. 36504]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus lithurgicus Eigenmann 1912. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Essequibo and Berbice River basins, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

lituratus, Ancistrus Kner [R.] 1854:285 [35], Pl. 5 (fig. 3) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] Rio Guaporé near Mato Grosso, Amazon system, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 16416. Paralectotypes: (5) NMW 16408 (1), 46274 (1), 91117 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. On p. 35 of separate. Lectotype selected by Weber 1992:28 [ref. 19714]. •Valid as Glyptoperichthys lituratus (Kner 1854) -- (Weber 1991:643 [ref. 19114], Weber 1992:15, 28 [ref. 19714], Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:25, 27 [ref. 25653], Lasso et al. 2001:99 [ref. 25928], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:353 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pterygoplichthys lituratus (Kner 1854) -- (Isbrücker 1980:41 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], Armbruster & Page 2006:402 [ref. 28898], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pterygoplichthys lituratus (Kner 1854). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Colombia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

llanero, Lamontichthys Taphorn [D. C.] & Lilyestrom [C. G.] 1984:96, Fig. 2 [Revista Unellez de Ciencia y Tecnologia v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 19837] Near La Hoyada, Río Guanare Viejo, Portuguesa, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 10000. Paratypes: MCNG 3313 (5), 3492 (1), 3525 (2), 3591 (2), 5186 (3), 5185 (3); MBUCV-V-3546 (1), V-8795 (1), V-8856 (1); UF 39561 [ex MCNG 3469] (1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Lamontichthys llanero Taphorn & Lilyestrom 1984 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:336 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155], de Carvalho Paixão & Toledo-Piza 2009:529 [ref. 30675], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Lamontichthys llanero Taphorn & Lilyestrom 1984. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

loborhynchos, Chaetostoma Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:26, Pl. 4 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Río Tullunayo in Vitoc Mountain, eastern Andes, Peru. Syntypes: ?NMW 47190 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:52 [ref. 25858], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]. Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:381 [ref. 27061] has NMW 47190 as holotype. •Valid as Chaetostoma loborhynchos Tschudi 1846 -- (Isbrücker 1980:61 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:381 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:63 [ref. 28542], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155], Ballen 2011:388 [ref. 31653], Salcedo et al. 2011:505 [ref. 31722], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975] and as cf. loborhynchos on p. 699). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma loborhynchos Tschudi 1846. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tambo River basin in the Ucayali River drainage, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

longicauda, Harttiella Covain [R.] & Fisch-Muller [S.] in Covain, Fisch-Muller, Montoya-Burgos, Mol, Le Bail & Dray 2012:144, Figs. 5, 11 [Cybium v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 32000] Trinité Mountains, Mana River drainage, in the tributary of Crique Baboune, Crique Aya around 100 meters in front of Aya Camp, 4°36'11"N, 53°25'04"W, elevation 122 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2011-0027 [ex MHNG 2699.070]. Paratypes: Many at MHNG, MNHN, MZUSP. •Valid as Harttiella longicauda Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012. Current status: Valid as Harttiella longicauda Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Trinité and Balenfois massifs, Trinité Mountains, northern French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

longicauda, Rineloricaria Reis [R. E.] 1983:64, Figs. 4-9, 10-14 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) No. 62; ref. 12857] Canal west of BR-471, Estaçao Ecológia, Banhado do Taim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 16078. Paratypes: DZUFRGS 0435-43 (8), 0557-66 (10), 0574 (1), 0682 (1), 1629-34 (6); MAPA 1333 (1), 1335-39 (5); MZUSP 15488 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rineloricaria longicauda Reis 1983 -- (Malabarba 1989:155 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:343 [ref. 27061], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:2 [ref. 28173], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155], Rodriguez & Reis 2008:337 [ref. 29630], Ghazzi 2008:101 [ref. 29636], Litz & Koerber 2014:27 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria longicauda Reis 1983. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

longicolla, Microlepidogaster Calegari [B. B.] & Reis [R. E.] 2010:626, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 30974] Ribeirão Santana, tributary to rio São João, on road from Cidade Ocidental to Brasilia, 16°00'55"S, 47°48'02"W, Distrito Federal, Brasilia, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 44877. Paratypes: AMNH, DZSJRP, MCP, LISDEBE. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:451 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Microlepidogaster longicolla Calegari & Reis 2010 -- (Martins & Langeani 2011:76 [ref. 31235], Martins & Langeani 2011:80 [ref. 31236], Martins et al. 2013:386 [ref. 32415], Martins et al. 2014:560 [ref. 33544], Calegari et al. 2014:220 [ref. 33627], Martins et al. 2017:242 [ref. 35356]). •Valid as Rhinolekos longicolla (Calegari & Reis 2010) -- (Roxo et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36538] as longicollum). Current status: Valid as Microlepidogaster longicolla Calegari & Reis 2010. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper rio Paraná basin, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longimanus, Ancistrus Kner [R.] (ex Heckel) 1854:283 [33], Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] Unknown locality. Syntypes: (2) NMW (apparently lost). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. On p. 33 of separate. Name taken from Heckel manuscript. •Valid as Pterygoplichthys longimanus (Kner 1854) -- (Isbrücker 1980:41 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pterygoplichthys etentaculatus (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Weber 1992:25 [ref. 19714], Isbrücker 2001:25, 28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12, 19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:366 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pterygoplichthys etentaculatus (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

longipinna, Harttia Langeani [F.], Oyakawa [O. T.] & Montoya-Burgos [J. I.] 2001:137, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2001 (no. 1); ref. 25126] Rio Pará, bridge on road BR 262 between Nova Serrana and Pará de Minas, about 19°53'S, 44°52'W, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 54579. Paratypes: ANSP 177847 (3); DZSJRP 2819 (1), 3666 (6); MCP 16682 (4), 177848 (2); MZUSP 57168 (6), 57898 (7), 58522 (1); plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Andrade et al. 2017:443 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Harttia longipinna Langeani, Oyakawa & Montoya-Burgos 2001 -- (Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia longipinna Langeani, Oyakawa & Montoya-Burgos 2001. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longipinnis, Hemiancistrus Kindle [E. M.] 1895:255 [Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences v. 8 (art. 9) [for 1894]; ref. 12354] Troceira on Rio Tocantins, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 29051. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155]. Name appeared earlier as a nomen nudum in Kindle 1893:72 [ref. 27364]. •Valid as Parancistrus longipinnis (Kindle 1895) -- (Isbrücker 1980:58 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Baryancistrus longipinnis (Kindle 1895) -- (Isbrücker 2001:26, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:379 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2009:53 [ref. 30056], Rapp Py-Daniel et al. 2011:241[ref. 31383], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], de Oliveira et al. 2019:491 [ref. 36981]). Current status: Valid as Baryancistrus longipinnis (Kindle 1895). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longiradiatus, Plecostomus Holly [M.] 1929:118 [2] [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenshaften in Wien Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 66; ref. 16088] Rio Guaná, assumably a tributary of the Madeira, itself a tributary of the Amazon, Brazil. Syntypes: (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]. On p. 2 of separate. •Valid as Hypostomus longiradiatus (Holly 1929) -- (Isbrücker 1980:26 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155] with a holotype). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus longiradiatus (Holly 1929). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Guamá River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longirostris, Parotocinclus Garavello [J. C.] 1988:120, Fig. 2 [Naturalia (São Paulo) v. 13; ref. 6853] Rio Preto da Eva, Manaus-Itacoatiara highway, kilometer 80, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 36891. Paratypes: MZUSP 36892-94 (3), 36895-98 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:282-283 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Parotocinclus longirostris Garavello 1988 -- (Schaefer & Provenzano 1993:50 [ref. 20828], Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:326 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:282 [ref. 29155], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Lehmann A. et al. 2014:32 [ref. 33225], Lehmann A. et al. 2015:47 [ref. 33723], Roxo et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34921], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Lehmann A. et al. 2018:590 [ref. 36321], Roxo et al. 2019:354 [ref. 36855]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus longirostris Garavello 1988. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longispinis, Lasiancistrus Heitmans [W. R. B.], Nijssen [H.] & Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1983:45, Figs. 8-9 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 53 (no. 1); ref. 5278] Camopi River at Pauwé Jean-Jean, upstream of Saut Mauvais, 3°11'N, 52°22'W, Oyapock River system, French Guiana. Holotype: IRSNB 612. Paratypes: IRSNB 613 (orig. 6, now 2), 614-615 (2, 1), 616 (orig. 12, now 7); MNHN 1979-0158 to 0163 (1 ea. = 6), 1982-0851 to 0852 (1, 1); MZUSP [ex IRSNB 613] (4), [ex IRSNB 616] (5); ZMA 115306 (2), 115307-09 (3, 1, 2), 107748 (1). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:20 [ref. 20755], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Lasiancistrus longispinis Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983 -- (Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:238 [ref. 24549], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233]). •Valid as Pseudancistrus longispinis (Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983) -- (Armbruster 2004:5 [ref. 27844], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155], Willink et al. 2010:41 [ref. 30670]). •Valid as Guyanancistrus longispinis (Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:19 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:385 [ref. 27061], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Silva et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33302], Fisch-Muller et al. 2018:49 [ref. 35723]). Current status: Valid as Guyanancistrus longispinis (Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Oyapock River basin, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

longissima, Farlowella Ladiges [W.] 1931:250, Fig. 10 [Der Aquarienfisch- und Naturfreund v. 2 (no. 11); ref. 35796] Published without diagnosis, not available. •In the synonymy of Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910. Current status: Synonym of Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910. Loricariidae: Loricariinae.

lophia, Pareiorhaphis Pereira [E. H. L.] & Zanata [A. M.] 2014:36, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 33226] Bahia State, Lençóis, rio Paraguaçu drainage, rio Santo Antônio at bridge on road BR-242, 12°29’37"S, 41°19’38"W, elevation 350 meters. Holotype: MCP 47711. Paratypes: MCP, MZUSP, UFBA. •Valid as Pareiorhaphis lophia Pereira & Zanata 2014 -- (Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis lophia Pereira & Zanata 2014. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Paraguaçu basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lophophanes, Rhinelepis Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:9 [West American Scientist v. 6 (no. 42); ref. 1258] Santa Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 8164. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155]. Also described as new in Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 (Aug.):42 [ref. 1253]. A lectotype was selected by Garavello et al. 1998:7 [ref. 23346] but apparently there was only a holotype in the original description above. •Valid as Otocinclus lophophanes (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Isbrücker 1980:83 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178]). •Valid as Microlepidogaster lophophanes (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860]). •In Otothyris -- (Schaefer 1997:8 [ref. 23213]). •Valid as Otothyris lophophanes (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Garavello et al. 1998:5 [ref. 23346], Isbrücker 2001:30, 32 [ref. 25653], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:325 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228]). Current status: Valid as Otothyris lophophanes (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Atlantic coastal streams of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

loricariformis, Harttia Steindachner [F.] 1877:669 [111], Pl. 6 (figs. 2, 2a-b) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Parahyba and its tributaries, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 46346. Paralectotypes: (several) MCZ (mixed) 8118 (2), 8121-22 (1, 1); NMW 46344-45 (1, 2); USNM 120415 [ex MCZ 8071] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155]. On p. 111 of separate. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Harttia loricariformis Steindachner 1877 -- (Isbrücker 1980:90 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Oyakawa 1993:19 [ref. 21109], Langeani et al. 2001:141 [ref. 25126], Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001:80 [ref. 25404], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia loricariformis Steindachner 1877. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

loro, Araichthys Zawadzki [C. H.], Bifi [A. G.] & Mariotto [S.] 2016:363, Figs. 1-3, 6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 27 (no. 4) for Dec.; ref. 34917] Rio Papagaio, municipality of Sapezal, rio Tapajós basin, Amazon drainage, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 13°33'34"S, 58°24'28"W. Holotype: UFRGS 20255. Paratypes: INPA, LBP, MCP, MZUEL, MZUSP, NUP, UFRGS. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Araichthys loro Zawadzki, Bifi & Mariotto 2016. Current status: Valid as Araichthys loro Zawadzki, Bifi & Mariotto 2016. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

luciae, Loricaria Thomas [M. R.], Rodriguez [M. S.], Carvallaro [M. R.], Froehlich [O.] & Macedo Corrêa E Castro [R.] 2013:366, Figs. 1A, 2-4 [Zootaxa 3745 (no. 3); ref. 32997] Paraná basin, Corrientes Province, rio Paraná (left bank) at private park (Club San Martin) near town of Perichon, North of Rt. 12, northeast of Corrientes, 27°25’6.94"S, 58°45’27.47"W, Argentina. Holotype: ANSP 182408. Paratypes: ANSP, CBF, CI-FML, INPA, LIRP, MNRJ, MZUSP, UF, UMMZ. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Loricaria luciae Thomas, Rodriguez, Carvallaro, Froehlich & Macedo Corrêa & Castro 2013 -- (Koerber 2014:10 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:45 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Loricaria luciae Thomas, Rodriguez, Carvallaro, Froehlich & Macedo Corrêa E Castro 2013. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lucianoi, Corumbataia Silva [G. S. C.], Roxo [F. F.], Souza [C. S.] & Oliveira [C.] 2018:318, Figs. 1, 2b -d, 3a, 4a [Zootaxa 4483 (no, 2); ref. 36151] Rio Corrente, upper Rio Paraná basin, municipality of Aporé, Goiás state, Brazil, 18°30'50.7"S, 52°05'48.4"W. Holotype: MZUSP 123824. Paratypes: AUM, LBP, MZUSP. •Valid as Corumbataia lucianoi Silva, Roxo, Souza & Oliveira 2018. Current status: Valid as Corumbataia lucianoi Silva, Roxo, Souza & Oliveira 2018. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Paraná basin, Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lucifer, Harttiella Covain [R.] & Fisch-Muller [S.] in Covain, Fisch-Muller, Montoya-Burgos, Mol, Le Bail & Dray 2012:143, Figs. 5, 10 [Cybium v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 32000] Mana River drainage, Lucifer Mountains, west of Crique Cascade, 4°47'44.7"N, 53°55'49.4"W, French Guiana, elevation 450 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2011-0023 [ex MHNG 2721.088]. Paratypes: many at MHNG, MNHN, NCZS •Valid as Harttiella lucifer Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012. Current status: Valid as Harttiella lucifer Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Mountain areas of Lucifer and Galbao massifs, central French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

luderwaldti, Pseudancistrus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:632 [4] [Historia Natural. Zoologia. Cichlidae Publ. 46 (Annexo 5); ref. 3720] Hansa, margins of Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 2109. Type catalog: Britski 1969:210 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:280 [ref. 29155]. On p. 4 of separate. The correct original spelling is luderwaldti. •Valid as Pseudancistrus luderwaldti Miranda Ribeiro 1918 -- (Isbrücker 1980:10-11 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653]). •Valid as Hemipsilichthys luderwaldti (Miranda Ribeiro 1918) -- (Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Hemipsilichthys steindachneri Miranda Ribeiro 1918 -- (Periera & Reis 2002:109 [ref. 26071] as luederwaldti, Weber in Reis et al. 2003:355 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Pareiorhaphis steindachneri (Miranda Ribeiro 1918) -- (Periera 2005:272 [ref. 28273] based on placement of steindachneri, Ferraris 2007:280 [ref. 29155]) Current status: Synonym of Pareiorhaphis steindachneri (Miranda Ribeiro 1918). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

luetkeni, Plecostomus Steindachner [F.] 1877:217 [1] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 76 (1. Abth.); ref. 14247] Rio Paraíba do Sul and tributaries, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 44196:1. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1889.11.14.50 (1); ?MCZ 7866 (1), 88208-09 (12, 5); MNHN 1889-0288 (1); NMW 44190 or 44198 (1), 44196:2-7 (6), 44199 (4), 45014 (3). On p. 1 of separate. Species originally spelled lütkeni. Lectotype selected by Mazzoni et al. 1994:8, 10 [ref. 21507]. •Synonym of Hypostomus auroguttatus Kner 1854 -- (Weber in Reis et al. 2003:356 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:251 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622]). •Valid as Hypostomus luetkeni (Steindachner 1877) -- (Isbrücker 1980:27 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:31 [ref. 23548], Mazzoni et al. 1994:8 [ref. 21507], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Zawadzki et al. 2015:57 [ref. 33866], Zawadzki et al. 2016:272 [ref. 34908], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus luetkeni (Steindachner 1877). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul and tributaries, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

luisae, Eurycheilichthys Reis [R. E.] 2017:[15], Figs. 2f, 12 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 35226] Arroio Três Pontes, rio Taquari basin, on road from Soledade to Arvorezinha, ca. 18 km SE of road BR-386, Arvorezinha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 28°48'24"S, 52°18'14"W, elevation above 400 meters. Holotype: MCP 40662. Paratypes: AMNH, MCP, MZUSP. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Hisonotus luisae (Reis 2017) -- (Roxo et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36538]). •Valid as Eurycheilichthys luisae Reis 2017 -- (Reis pers. comm. 3/2019). Current status: Valid as Eurycheilichthys luisae Reis 2017. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Taquari basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lujani, Peckoltia Armbruster [J. W.], Werneke [D. C.] & Tan [M.] 2015:111, Fig. 5 [ZooKeys No. 480; ref. 33670] Amazonas, río Orinoco at Paso Ganado, 38 km NNW of San Fernando de Atabapo, 04.3842°, -067.7747°, Colombia. Holotype: AUM 53523. Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, AUM, MCNG, ROM, Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Peckoltia lujani Armbruster, Werneke & Tan 2015 -- (Armbruster & Lujan 2016:117 [ref. 34264], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia lujani Armbruster, Werneke & Tan 2015. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

lunaorum, Hypancistrus Armbruster [J. W.], Lujan [N. K.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2007:74, Figs. 1B, 8 [Copeia 2007 (no. 1); ref. 29036] Río Guapuchi, first major riffle complex, Río Ventrari drainage, 4°07'00"N, 66°46'00"W, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 54665. Paratypes: Many lots at ANSP, AUM, FMNH and MCNG. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hypancistrus lunaorum Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007 -- (Tan & Armbruster 2016:134 [ref. 34145], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypancistrus lunaorum Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Ventuari River and Orinoco River, Amazonas, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

lundbergi, Loricaria Thomas [M. R.] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2008:389, Figs. 4c, 8 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29844] Rio Negro, 4.3 kilometers downstream of Carvoeiro, 37.0 kilometers upstream of Moura, 1°20'26.5"S, 61°55'19.0"W, Amazon River drainage, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 28854 [ex ANSP 178694]. Paratypes ANSP 74474 (1), 178694 (1 c&s), 187412 (2); INPA 28855 [ex ANSP 178694] (2). •Valid as Loricaria lundbergi Thomas & Rapp Py-Daniel 2008 -- (Rodriguez et al. 2012:51 [ref. 31866], Thomas et al. 2013:3764 [ref. 32997]). Current status: Valid as Loricaria lundbergi Thomas & Rapp Py-Daniel 2008. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Rio Negro system, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

luteofrenatus, Hisonotus Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 2007:416, Fig. 2 [Brazilian Journal of Biology v. 67 (no. 3); ref. 29429] Sinop, Riacho Loanda, tributary of Rio Teles Pires, about 54 kilometers north of Sinop on BR-163 road to Santarém 11°25'S, 55°21'W, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 62593. Paratypes: ANSP 180649 [ex MZUSP 87144] (2); MHNG 2664.080 (3); MZUSP 42458 (6), 62590 (2), 62594 (8, 1 c&s), 87144 (13, no 11, 1 c&s), •Valid as Hisonotus luteofrenatus Britski & Garavello 2007 -- (Garvalho & Reis 2011:44 [ref. 31240], Carvalho & Datovo 2012:266 [ref. 32054], Martins & Langeani 2012:30 [ref. 32060], Roxo et al. 2014:57 [ref. 33252], Roxo et al. 2015:138 [ref. 33763]). •Valid as Curculionichthys luteofrenatus (Britski & Garavello 2007) -- (Roxo et al. 2015:127 [ref. 34024], Silva et al. 2016:290 [ref. 34828], Roxo et al. 2017:268 [ref. 35655], Calegari et al. 2018:669 [ref. 36345]). Current status: Valid as Curculionichthys luteofrenatus (Britski & Garavello 2007). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Tapajós River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

luteomaculatus, Plecostomus Devincenzi [G. J.] in Devincenzi & Teague 1942:20, Pl. 3 (figs. 2-3) [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Serie 2) v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 12268] Río Uruguay at Paysandú, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): MHNM CI 359. Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:5 [ref. 23527], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155], Loureiro et al. 2016:412 [ref. 35150]. •Synonym of Hypostomus regani (Ihering 1905) -- (Reis et al. 1990:745 [ref. 16139]). •Valid as Hypostomus luteomaculatus (Devincenzi 1942) -- (Isbrücker 1980:27 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:32 [ref. 23548], Gómez & Chebez 1996:64 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:66 [ref. 27632] as Devincenzi & Teague, Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], López et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27366], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644] with author as Devicenzi & Teague, Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2012:246 [ref. 32031], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:43 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus luteomaculatus (Devincenzi 1942). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

luteus, Plecostomus Godoy [M. P. de] 1980:29, Figs. 15-16 [Poluiçao -- peixes e pesca; ref. 19214] Rio Pelotas at Volta Grande Dois, Marcelino Ramos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MHNP. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus luteus (Godoy 1980) -- (Reis et al. 1990:741 [ref. 16139], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:359 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Cardoso et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34373], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus luteus (Godoy 1980). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Uruguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lyra, Oxyloricaria Regan [C. T.] 1904:300, Pl. 19 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Rio Juruá, middle Amazon River basin. Lectotype: BMNH 1897.12.1.64 (225 mm SL). Paralectotypes: (9) BMNH 1897.12.1.65-71 (7), 1897.12.1.72 (1, skeleton). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Sturisoma lyra (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:94 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:30, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155], Londoño-Burbano 2018:[13] [ref. 35813]). Current status: Valid as Sturisoma lyra (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Juruá River, middle Amazon basin: Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

maacki, Rineloricaria Ingenito [L. F. S.], Ghazzi [M. S.], Duboc [L. F.] & Abilhoa [V.] 2008:359, Figs. 3-5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29842] União da Victória, rio Iguaçu, 21°10'16"S, 51°10'31"W, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 31158. Paratypes: MNNCI 11455 (1), 11457 (2), 11682 (1); NUP 2540 (3, 1 c&s), 3059 (1). •Valid as Rineloricaria maacki Ingenito, Ghazzi, Duboc & Abilhoa 2008. Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria maacki Ingenito, Ghazzi, Duboc & Abilhoa 2008. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Iguaçu River, Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maccus, Panaque Schaefer [S. A.] & Stewart [D. J.] 1993:335, Figs. 18-19 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 21282] Río Las Marinas, tributary of Río Portuguesa, Río Orinoco basin, about 9°05'N, 69°40'W, Estado Portuguesa, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-24010 [ex FMNH 97602]. Paratypes: FMNH 96949 (2, c&s), 97603 (3); MCNG 5433 (10), 5475 (23). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:13 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Panaque maccus Schaefer & Stewart 1993 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Chockley & Armbruster 2002:83 [ref. 26069]). •Valid as Panaqolus maccus (Schaefer & Stewart 1993) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:21 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2013:197 [ref. 32784], Cramer 2014:69 [ref. 33229], Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015:469 [ref. 33945], DoNascimiento 2016:533 [ref. 34727], Cramer & Sousa 2016:16 [ref. 34885], Lujan et al. 2017:332, [10] [ref. 35031] subgenus Panaqoco Lujan et al. 2017, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:75 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Panaqolus maccus (Schaefer & Stewart 1993). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River drainage, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

machadoi, Hypoptopoma Aquino [A. E.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 2010:89, Fig. 44 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History No. 336; ref. 30875] Swamps on south bank of Río Apure, ca. 3 kilometers west of Fisheries Station, San Fernando de Apure, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-CV-35362. Paratypes: AMNH 77794 (23). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hypoptopoma machadoi Aquino & Schaefer 2010 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:75 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Hypoptopoma machadoi Aquino & Schaefer 2010. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Orinoco basin in Venezuela and Rio Meta drainage in Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

machiquensis, Chaetostoma Fernández-Yépez [A.] & Martín Salazar [F. J.] 1953:238, Fig. [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 13 (no. 35); ref. 12693] Rio Negro, 16 kilometers west of Machiques, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Holotype: MHNLS 1558 [not MHNLS 46, ex AFY 50145]. Paratypes: AFY 50145 (1). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:45 [ref. 23639], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Chaetostoma machiquense Fernández-Yépez & Martín Salazar 1953 -- (Isbrücker 1980:61-62 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:381 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155], Ballen 2011:388 [ref. 31653], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma machiquense Fernández-Yépez & Martín Salazar 1953. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Negro River basin in Lake Maracaibo drainage, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

macrochir, Loricaria Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] (ex Ihering & Eigenmann) 1918:718 [14] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3723] On p. 14 of separate. Not available, name only published in synonymy of Loricaria macrodon -- (Isbrücker 1980:119 [ref. 2303]). •In the synonymy of Proloricaria prolixa (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978) -- (Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:22 [ref. 27178]). Current status: Synonym of Proloricaria prolixa (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978). Loricariidae: Loricariinae.

macrodon, Loricaria Kner [R.] 1853:79 [15], Pls. 1 (fig. 3a-d), 2 (fig. 1-3) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 6; ref. 2627] Rio Cuiabá, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 45087. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155]. On p. 15 of separate. •Valid as Brochiloricaria macrodon (Kner 1853) -- (Isbrücker 1980:119 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1980:119 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:132 [ref. 24147] as Brachyloricaria, Isbrücker 2001:26, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:331 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Brochiloricaria macrodon (Kner 1853). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

macromystax, Loricaria Günther [A.] 1869:426, Figs. 5-6 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 2); ref. 5780] Upper Amazon River, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1869.5.21.8. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:293 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhadinoloricaria macromystax (Günther 1869) -- (Isbrücker 1980:122 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:293 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Rhadinoloricaria macromystax (Günther 1869). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalma, Xenocara Pellegrin [J.] 1912:271, Fig. 1 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 37; ref. 14857] Río Orinoco, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1887-0650. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:69 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus macrophthalmus (Pellegrin 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:70 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:376 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633], de Souza et al. 2019:31 [ref. 36504]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus macrophthalmus (Pellegrin 1912). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco River system from the Río Cinaruco and further upstream to the Río Casiquiare, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalmus, Hypostomus pseudohemiurus Boeseman [M.] 1968:56, Pl. 10 (figs. 1-4) [Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) No. 99; ref. 7872] Sipaliwini River, near air strip, Suriname. Holotype: RMNH 25514. Paratypes: RMNH 25513 (8), 25514 (10, with holotype), 25515 (1); ZMA 110174 [ex RMNH] (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:55 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus macrophthalmus Boeseman 1968 -- (Isbrücker 1980:27 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1998:135 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus macrophthalmus Boeseman 1968. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Sipaliwini River basin, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

macrops, Chaetostomus Lütken [C. F.] 1874:209 [8] [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1873 (nos 13-14); ref. 2854] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P30142 [ex 74]. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:52 [ref. 9588], Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155] Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. On p. 8 of separate. •Valid as Hemiancistrus macrops (Lütken 1874) -- (Isbrücker 1980:50 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:386 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155]). •Probably a junior synonym of H. megacephalus (Günther 1868) -- (Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858]). •Synonym of "Pseudancistrus" megacephalus (Günther 1868) -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudancistrus megacephalus (Günther 1868). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Suriname (?). Habitat: freshwater.

macrops, Loricaria Regan [C. T.] 1904:290, Pl. 17 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Rio de la Plata, Argentina/Uruguay. Lectotype: BMNH 1868.9.16.2. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1855.9.19.1180 (219 mm, poor condition). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:293 [ref. 29155] with lectotype as BMNH 1868.9.16.2 Lectotype selected by Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978:184 [ref. 2306]. •Valid as Ricola macrops (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:114 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:63 [ref. 23791], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:140 [ref. 28787], Litz & Koerber 2014:27 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:45 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Ricola macrops (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lower Paraná River basin: Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

macrops, Plecostomus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:170 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 7888. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]. Available from description provided in key on p. 170. •Valid as Hypostomus macrops (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Isbrücker 1980:27 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155], Zanata et al. 2013:248 [ref. 32751], Zanata & Pitanga 2016:231 [ref. 34535], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus macrops (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Das Velhas River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

macrospilus, Otocinclus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:201, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Río Morona, upper Amazon River basin, Dpto Loreto, Peru. Holotype: CAS 77335 [ex IU 15606]. Paratypes: CAS 77336 [ex IU 15606] (11). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus macrospilus Eigenmann & Allen 1942 -- (Isbrücker 1980:84 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Schaefer 1997:67 [ref. 23213], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Britto & Moreira 2002:1067 [ref. 26512], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:325 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155], Lehmann A. et al. 2010:636 [ref. 31083], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Ribeiro & Lehmann A. 2016:244 [ref. 34636], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus macrospilus Eigenmann & Allen 1942. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

maculata, Chaetostomus (Ancistrus) cirrhosus var. Steindachner [F.] 1881:123 [23] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 43; ref. 14290] Cudajas, Obidos, Rio Tajapoura, Rio Chagres, South America. Syntypes: (several) NMW 47282 (1), 47289-90 (2, 1), 55035 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Ancistrus maculatus (Steindachner 1881) -- (Isbrücker 1980:70 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus maculatus (Steindachner 1881). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maculata, Loricaria Bloch [M. E.] 1794:73, Pl. 375 (figs. 1-2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 8; ref. 463] South America (probably Suriname). Lectotype: ZMB 3163. Paralectotypes: ZMB 22224 [ex ZMB 3163] (1). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:95-96 [ref. 24282], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155]. Based in part on Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus, but Bloch also recognizes L. cataphracta as valid. On p. 60 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 11 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1971:12 [ref. 21907]. •Valid as Loricariichthys maculatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Isbrücker 1971 [ref. 21907], Isbrücker 1980:127 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:63 [ref. 23791], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:29, 30 [ref. 25653], Lasso et al. 2001:99 [ref. 25928], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:338 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:270 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys maculatus (Bloch 1794). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Suriname, Bolivia and ? Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

maculata, Parasturisoma Boeseman [M.] 1971:33, Pl. 5 [Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) No. 116; ref. 490] Sipaliwini, near airstrip, upper Corantijn River basin, Suriname. Holotype: RMNH 26381 (largest of 5). Paratypes: RMNH 17332 (2), 25063 (1), 25342 (1), 26381 (4 of 5) 26832-83 (5, 1); ZMA 106345 (2), 106390 (1), 106518-19 (14, 10), 106522 (14). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:59-60 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:233 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Harttia maculata (Boeseman 1971) -- (Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001:80 [ref. 25404], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Covain et al. 2006:9 [ref. 28739]). •Valid as Cteniloricaria maculata (Boeseman 1971) -- (Isbrücker 1980:91 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:268 [ref. 24549], Isbrücker 2001:26, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:331 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:233 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Cteniloicaria platystoma (Günther 1868) -- (Covain et al. 2012:134.2 [ref. 32000]). Current status: Synonym of Cteniloricaria platystoma (Günther 1868). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Maroni and Corantijn River basins: French Guiana and Suriname [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Chaetostomus Regan [C. T.] 1904:246, Pl. 14 (fig. 4) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Rozmaiu, Peru. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.10.12.3-4 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. Preoccupied by Chaetostomus (Ancistrus) cirrosus var. maculata Steindachner 1881, replaced by Chaetostoma greeni Isbrücker in Isbrücker et al. 2001:24. •Valid as Chaetostoma maculatum Regan 1904 -- (Isbrücker 1980:62 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653]). •Synonym of Chaetostoma greeni Isbrücker 2001 -- (Isbrücker 2002:14 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:385 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:228 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Ancistrus greeni (Isbrücker 2001) -- (Lujan 2015:673 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus greeni (Isbrücker 2001). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Loricaria (Plecostomus) Swainson [W.] 1839:304 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Gronovius, pl. 2. and Bloch, pl. 375, fig. 2. The later is Bloch is Bloch 1794:Pl. 375 (fig. 2) [ref. 463]. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

maculicauda, Otocinclus Steindachner [F.] 1877:222 [6], Pl. 1 (Figs. 2-2b) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 76 (1. Abth.); ref. 14247] Southeastern Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 45381:1. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1904.1.28.12 [ex MCZ] (1); MCZ 89082 [ex MCZ 7769] (2); NMW 45380-81 (7, 6). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:283 [ref. 29155]. Misspelled caudimacula once. On p. 6 of separate. Lectotype selected by Schaefer 1996:1034 [ref. 22569]. •Valid as Parotocinclus maculicauda (Steindachner 1877) -- (Garavello 1977:11 [ref. 7249], Isbrücker 1980:80 [ref. 2303], Garavello 1988:117 [ref. 6853], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Lacerda & Evers 1996:88 [ref. 22351], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:30, 31 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:327 [ref. 27061], Garavello & Britski 2003:258 [ref. 27469], Gauger & Buckup 2005:516 [ref. 28562], Ferraris 2007:283 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Sarmento-Soares et al. 2009:196 [ref. 30254], Britski & Garavello 2009:60 [ref. 30260], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228], Roxo et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34921], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310], Roxo et al. 2019:354 [ref. 36855]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus maculicauda (Steindachner 1877). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Coastal rivers between Espírto Santo to Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro states, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maculipinnis, Otocinclus Regan [C. T.] 1912:668, Pl. 77 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1912 (pt 3) (art. 36); ref. 14862] Rio de la Plata, South America. Syntypes: BMNH 1909.4.2.19-22 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus maculipinnis Regan 1912 -- (Isbrücker 1980:84 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Schaefer 1991:6 [ref. 18926]). •In Microlepidogaster -- (Schaefer 1997:8 [ref. 23213]). •Valid as Microlepidogaster maculipinnis (Regan 1912) -- (López et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Hisonotus maculipinnis (Regan 1912) -- (Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Aquino et al. 2001:9 [ref. 25673], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:323 [ref. 27061], Almirón & Azpelicueta 2006:87 [ref. 28713], Casciotta et al. 2006:150 [ref. 28758], Azpelicueta & Almirón 2007:596 [ref. 29353], Britski & Garavello 2007:414 [ref. 29429], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155], Garvalho & Reis 2011:9 [ref. 31240], Litz & Koerber 2014:24 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:41 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565], Calegari et al. 2017:244 [ref. 35203], Koerber et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus maculipinnis (Regan 1912). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Lower Paraná basin, Paraguay and La Plata River basins: Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

macushi, Hypostomus Armbruster [J. W.] & de Souza [L. S.] 2005:3, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 920; ref. 28321] Ireng River, 6.9 kilometers west-southwest of Karasabai, Takutu River- Negor River drainage, 04.01957°N, 059.60170°W. Holotype: UG/CSBD 11047. Paratypes: ANSP 180211 (2), 180212 (2), 180213 (1); AUM 35540 (3), 35544 (1), 35548 (1), 35553 (3), 38884 (1); MCP 35157 (1), 33157 [sic] (1); UG/CSBD 11048 (1), 11049 (2). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]. Named after Macushi people; a noun in apposition. •Valid as Hypostomus macushi Armbruster & de Souza 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155], Carvalho et al. 2010:39 [ref. 30754], Weber et al. 2012:211 [ref. 31999], Zawadzki & Carvalho 2014:50 [ref. 33227], Tencatt et al. 2014:602 [ref. 33520]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus macushi Armbruster & de Souza 2005. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rupununi River, Esswquibo River and Takutu and Ireng rivers, Negro River drainage, Guyana-Brazil border. Habitat: freshwater.

madeirae, Leptotocinclus Delapieve [M. L. S.], Lehmann A [P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2018:28, Figs. 7e, 18 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 4) e170079 (for 18 Dec. 2017); ref. 35713] Igarapé do Vinte e Dois at Recanto do Sanari, Transamazon road ca. 20 km SW of rio Madeira towards Lábrea, Humaitá, Amazonas, Brazil, 07°35'36"S, 63°10'27"W. Holotype: MCP 51352. Paratypes: MCP, UFRO. •Valid as Leptotocinclus madeirae Delapieve, Lehmann A & Reis 2018. Current status: Valid as Leptotocinclus madeirae Delapieve, Lehmann A & Reis 2018. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Middle rio Madeira and Purus, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

madeirae, Plecostomus Fowler [H. W.] 1913:571, Fig. 23 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Rio Madeira, about 200 miles east of 63°54'W, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 39312. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:225 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Hypostomus madeirae (Fowler 1913) -- (Isbrücker 1980:27 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Aphanotorulus madeirae (Fowler 1913) -- (Armbruster & Page 1996:384 [ref. 22151], Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:25, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Aphanotorulus unicolor (Steindachner 1908) -- (Armbruster 1998:254 [ref. 23319], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:352 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:225 [ref. 29155], Ray & Armbruster 2016:524 [ref. 34178]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanotorulus unicolor (Steindachner 1908). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenae, Loricaria Steindachner [F.] 1879:74 [58] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 39; ref. 4227] Río Magdalena, Colombia. Lectotype: NMW 45080. Paralectotypes: NMW 45800 (6). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]. Species not included in the original abstract [ref. 20476]. On p. 58 of separate. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:112 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Loricaria magdalenae Steindachner 1879 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:92 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Hemiloricaria magdalenae (Steindachner 1879) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria magdalenae (Steindachner 1879) -- (Isbrücker 1980:107 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:343 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria magdalenae (Steindachner 1879). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Sinú, Magdalena and possibly Catatumbo River basins: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

major, Pseudacanthicus Chamon [C. C.] & Costa e Silva [T.] 2018:500, Figs. 1-2, 3A-B [Zootaxa 4387 (no. 3); ref. 35821] Rio Areias near to the confluence with rio Tocantins, Porto Nacional, Brazil, 1050'30"S, 4823'35"W. Holotype: MNRJ 50822 [ex UNT 8345]. Paratypes: INPA, MNRJ, MZUSP, UNT. •Valid as Pseudacanthicus major Chamon & Costa e Silva 2018. Current status: Valid as Pseudacanthicus major Chamon & Costa e Silva 2018. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

malabarbai, Rineloricaria Rodriguez [M. S.] & Reis [R. E.] 2008:338, Fig. 9 [Copeia 2008 (no. 2); ref. 29630] Agudo, Arroio Corupá on road between Agudo and Dona Francisca hydroelectric dam, 29°33'54"S, 53°17'09"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 39923. Paratypes: many at UF, MCP, MACN-Ict, MAPA, UFRGS. Type catalog: Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:14 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Rineloricaria malabarbai Rodriguez & Reis 2008 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria malabarbai Rodriguez & Reis 2008. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Jacuí and Camaquã rivers, Laguna dos Patos drainage, southern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

malacops, Chaetostomus Cope [E. D.] 1872:287, Pl. 5 (figs. 2a-b) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 921] Río Ambyiacu, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 8299 (2, disintegrated). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Ancistrus malacops (Cope 1872) -- (Isbrücker 1980:70 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:16 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:222 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Provenzano & Barriga-Salazar 2018:227 [ref. 36344], de Souza et al. 2019:61 [ref. 36504], Bifi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36821]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus malacops (Cope 1872). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Ecuador, Peru, Colombia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mangaba, Otocinclus Lehmann A. [P.], Mayer [F.] & Reis [R. E.] 2010:635, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2010 (no. 4); ref. 31083] Igarapé do Vinte e Dois at Recanto do Sanari, ca. 20 kilometers west of Humaitá toward Lábrea, 7°35'36"S. 63°10'27"W, Rio Madeira drainage, Humaitá, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 44291. Paratypes: ANSP 188816 (5); MCP 35594 (25), 35595 (9 + 2 c&s); MNRJ 36098 (5) •Valid as Otocinclus mangaba Lehmann A., Mayer & Reis 2010 -- (Ribeiro & Lehmann A. 2016:240 [ref. 34636]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus mangaba Lehmann A., Mayer & Reis 2010. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Madeira drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maquinensis, Rineloricaria Reis [R. E.] & Cardoso [A. R.] 2001:321, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 25718] Arroio Agua Parada, tributary to rio Maquiné, about 29°40'S, 50°12'W, Maquiné, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 25817. Paratypes: MAPA 1258 (2); MCP 10769 (14), 25336 (1); MZUSP 27347 (1), 27348-55 (8); ZMA 119082 (4). Plus non types. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rineloricaria maquinensis Reis & Cardoso 2001 -- (Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:343 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:294 [ref. 29155], Ghazzi 2008:101 [ref. 29636], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria maquinensis Reis & Cardoso 2001. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Maquiné and Araranguá River basins, southern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maracaibero, Lamontichthys Taphorn [D. C.] & Lilyestrom [C. G.] 1984:94, fig. 1 [Revista Unellez de Ciencia y Tecnologia v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 19837] Río Motatán, District Miranda, Trujillo, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 3592. Paratypes: MCNG 3593 (4); MBUCV-V-14616 (1); DISCA 201-1 (3), 202-2 (1), UF 30743 (1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:11-12 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Lamontichthys maracaibero Taphorn & Lilyestrom 1984 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Galvis et al. 1997:88 [ref. 23651], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:336 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155], de Carvalho Paixão & Toledo-Piza 2009:530 [ref. 30675], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Lamontichthys maracaibero Taphorn & Lilyestrom 1984. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

maracaiboensis, Hemiancistrus Schultz [L. P.] 1944:317, Pl. 10 (fig. C) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Near the mouth of Río Concha in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121012. Paratypes: MCZ 37232 [ex USNM 121014] (1); USNM 121013 (2), 121014 (2, now 1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:27 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus maracaiboensis Schultz 1944 -- (Isbrücker 1980:51 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:85 [ref. 23651], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:386 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento 2016:532 [ref. 34727]). •Valid as Hypostomus maracaiboensis (Schultz 1944) -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus maracaiboensis (Schultz 1944). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

maracaiboensis, Lasiancistrus Schultz [L. P.] 1944:314, Pl. 11 (figs. A-B) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Socuy, 3 kilometers above its mouth, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121038. Paratypes: G. Dahl [ex USNM] (6); MCZ 37245 [ex USNM] (9); UMMZ 141934 [ex USNM] (9); USNM 121039 (17), 121040 (50 not 49), 121041-44 (2, 36, 2, 3), 121045 (91, now 71), 121046 (1), 121047 (85, now 76), 121048-50 (34, 8, 11); ZMA 102135 (now 4). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:56 [ref. 19236], Ferraris & Vari 1992:28 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Lasiancistrus mayoloi (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Galvis et al. 1997:86 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Lasiancistrus maracaiboensis Schultz 1944 -- (Isbrücker 1980:45 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:387 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Lasiancistrus guacharote (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Armbruster 2005:555 [ref. 28554], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Lasiancistrus guacharote (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

maracasae, Ancistrus Fowler [H. W.] 1946:2, Figs. 1-4 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 165; ref. 13124] Maracas River, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71723. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus maracasae Fowler 1946 -- (Isbrücker 1980:70 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155], Phillip et al. 2013:19 [ref. 32896], Bifi et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36821]). •Synonym of Ancistrus trinitatis (Günther 1864) -- (de Souza et al. 2019:48 [ref. 36504]) Current status: Valid as Ancistrus trinitatis (Günther 1864). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

marapoama, Otothyropsis Ribeiro [A. C.], Carvalho [M.] & Melo [A. L. A.] 2005:491, Figs. 1, 3-6, 7b, 8-9 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28566] Rio Tietê basin, Município de Marapoama, ribeirão Cubatão, road beween Marapoama and Elisiário, 21°11'35"S, 49°07'22"W, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: LIRP 5640. Paratypes: DZSJEP 7887 (8); LIRP 4621 (3, 1 c&s), 5641 (20. 4 c&s, 4 stained); MCP 39303 (10); MZUSP 87892 (1), 87893 (10). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155], Andrade et al. 2017:455 [ref. 35588].. •Valid as Otothyropsis marapoama Ribeiro, Carvalho & Melo 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:276 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Calegari et al. 2011:253 [ref. 31384], Caliegari et al. 2012:131 [ref. 32493], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228], Lippert et al. 2014:243 [ref. 33355], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Calegari et al. 2017:244 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310]). •Valid as Hisonotus marapoama (Ribeiro, Carvalho & Melo 2005) -- (Roxo et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36538]). Current status: Valid as Otothyropsis marapoama Ribeiro, Carvalho & Melo 2005. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Tietê River, Paraná River basin, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

marcapatae, Chaetostomus Regan [C. T.] 1904:246, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Marcapata Valley, eastern Peru (río Inambari basin). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1902.5.29.211. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma marcapatae Regan 1904 -- (Isbrücker 1980:62 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:381 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:63 [ref. 28542], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Ancistrus marcapatae (Regan 1904) -- (Lujan et al. 2015:673 [ref. 33975], Bifi et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36821]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus marcapatae (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Beni and Madre de Dios drainages, Madeira basin, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

margaritatus, Hypancistrus Tan [M.] & Armbruster [J. W.] 2016:128, Figs. 3-4 [ZooKeys No. 552; ref. 34145] Takutu River ca. 2.75 km W of Saint Ignatius, Rio Branco, Rio Negro drainage, Amazon basin, Guyana, 3.35500°N, 59.83077°W. Holotype (unique): CSBD F1701/AUM 35610. Holotype for the time being in AUM, eventually to be transferred to CSBD. •Valid as Hypancistrus margaritatus Tan & Armbruster 2016. Current status: Valid as Hypancistrus margaritatus Tan & Armbruster 2016. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Takutu River, tributary of the Rio Branco, Rio Negro drainage, Amazon basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

margaritifer, Plecostomus Regan [C. T.] 1908:796, Pl. 47 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1907 (pt 4); ref. 14333] Rio Piracicaba, San Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1907.7.6.14. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus margaritifer (Regan 1908) -- (Isbrücker 1980:27 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2016:273 [ref. 34908], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396] as cf. margaritifer, Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus margaritifer (Regan 1908). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper and middle Paraná River basin: Brazil and Paraguay (?). Habitat: freshwater.

marginatus, Chaetostomus Regan [C. T.] 1904:249, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Salidero, northwestern Ecuador [= Near Bulún [Pulún], about 1°05'N, 78°40'W, Rio Bogota, Esmeraldas, Ecuador, elevation 50-110 m]. Syntypes: BMNH 1901.8.3/27-28 (2), ?1902.5.27.44 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma marginatum Regan 1904 -- (Isbrücker 1980:62 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:381 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:218 [ref. 34894], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma marginatum Regan 1904. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

mariae, Otocinclus Fowler [H. W.] 1940:83, Figs. 41-43 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Boca Chapare, Río Chimore, tributary to Río Ichilo, about 15°58'S, 64°42'W, Río Mamoré system, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69068. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus mariae Fowler 1940 -- (Isbrücker 1980:84 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Schaefer 1997:66 [ref. 23213], Le Bail et al. 2000:264 [ref. 24549] as cf. mariae, Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Britto & Moreira 2002:1067 [ref. 26512], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:325 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127] as cf. mariae, Lehmann A. et al. 2010:636 [ref. 31083], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Ribeiro & Lehmann A. 2016:244 [ref. 34636]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus mariae Fowler 1940. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Madeira and lower Amazon River basins, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

mariaelenae, Farlowella Martín Salazar [F. J.] 1964:246, Fig. 1 [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 24 (no. 69); ref. 9227] Río Salinas, tributary of Río Pao Viejo, northeast of El Baúl, Estados Cojedes, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-11938 [not MHNLS, ex AFY 50060]. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-11944 [ex AFY] (now 3). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:46 [ref. 23639], Provenzano et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella mariaelenae Martín Salazar 1964 -- (Isbrücker 1980:99 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:51 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155], Ballen & Mojica 2014:140 [ref. 33176], Ballen et al. 2016:331 [ref. 34915], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella mariaelenae Martín Salazar 1964. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, and possibly Caribbean coastal rivers: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

marmorescens, Chaetostoma Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:193 [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Huanacachupa Creek near Huanuco, River Tingo, Peru, elevation 6000 feet. Holotype: IU 15403 (largest specimen) not at CAS. Paratypes: [none found at CAS in 1997] IU 15403 ("many"), IU 15402 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Chaetostoma marmorescens Eigenmann & Allen 1942 -- (Isbrücker 1980:62 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:381 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:63 [ref. 28542], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma marmorescens Eigenmann & Allen 1942. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

martini, Acestridium Retzer [M. E.], Nico [L. G.] & Provenzano [F.] 1999:318, Figs. 3d-f [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 4); ref. 24231] Caño Pozo Azul, tributary of Río Orinoco, near Balneario Pozo Azul, 5°45'49"N, 67°29'21"W, Orinoco Basin, Amazonas State, Venezuela, elevation 75 meters. Holotype: MCNG 36484. Paratypes: FMNH 103325 (25), 103555 (20); INHS 40425 (1), 61564 (6); MBUCV-V-16448 (5); MCNG 21747 (31), 23422 (14), 26585 (7); UF 105694 (2); plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Acestridium martini Retzer, Nico & Provenzano 1999 -- (Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Lima & Toledo-Piza 2001:1062 [ref. 25823], Isbrücker 2002:11 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:322 [ref. 27061], Retzer 2005:4 [ref. 28228], Ferraris 2007:218 [ref. 29155], Rodriguez & Reis 2007:429 [ref. 29464], Reis & Lehmann A. 2009:451 [ref. 30379], Rodriguez et al. 2015:325 [ref. 33908], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Acestridium martini Retzer, Nico & Provenzano 1999. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco and Negro River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

martini, Ancistrus triradiatus Schultz [L. P.] 1944:302, Pl. 9 (figs. C-D) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Táchira, 7 kilometers north of San Antonio, Río Catatumbo system, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121064. Paratypes: MCZ 37233 (1); USNM 120094 (1), 121065 (3, now 2, 1 to MCZ). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:25 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus martini Schultz 1944 -- (Isbrücker 1980:70 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155], Taphorn et al. 2013:357 [ref. 32678], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus martini Schultz 1944. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lake Maricaibo basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

martini, Farlowella Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1972:22, Pl. 15 [Análisis ictiológico del complejo hidrográfico; ref. 19696] Tributary of Río Aroa, Río Yaracuy drainage, Río Magdalena basin, Venezuela. Syntypes: (21) (2 listed as holotypes and 19 as paratypes) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella martini Fernández-Yépez 1972 -- (Isbrücker 1980:99 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:63 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella martini Fernández-Yépez 1972. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Caribbean coastal rivers in Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

mattogrossenssis, Ancistrus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1912:5 [Loricariidae, Callichthyidae, Doradidae e Trichomycteridae Annexo no. 5; ref. 3718] Mato Grosso?, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:300 [ref. 29155]. Perhaps intended to be mattogrossensis as used by current authors. •Valid as Ancistrus mattogrossensis Miranda Ribeiro 1912 -- (Isbrücker 1980:70 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Knaack 1999:152 [ref. 23874], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061]). •Species inquirenda in Loricariidae -- (Ferraris 2007:300 [ref. 29155], Bifi et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30541] as not inn Ancistrus). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus mattogrossensis Miranda Ribeiro 1912. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Mato Grosso?, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maximus, Ancistrus de Oliveira [R. R.], Zuanon [J.], Zawadzki [C. H.] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2015:76, Figs. 1-2, 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 33869] Roraima, Rorainópolis, Macoari stream, tributary to right side of rio Branco, 1°09'12.1"S, 61°50'40.8"W, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 25629. Paratypes: INPA, MHNG, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Ancistrus maximus de Oliveira, Zuanon, Zawadzki & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015 -- (de Oliveira et al. 2016:78 [ref. 34368], de Souza et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36504]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus maximus de Oliveira, Zuanon, Zawadzki & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Branco drainage, Roraima State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mayoloi, Hemiancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:10 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Río San Juan, Istmina, Colombia, 5°11'N, 76°39'W. Holotype: FMNH 56036 [ex CM 4826]. Paratypes: (5, CM and IU) CAS 77330 [ex IU 12688] (3), FMNH 56037 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:84 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Lasiancistrus mayoloi (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:45 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:89 [ref. 23651], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:388 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Lasiancistrus caucanus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Armbruster 2005:553 [ref. 28554], Ferraris 2007:264 [ref. 29155], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Synonym of Lasiancistrus caucanus Eigenmann 1912. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: San Juan River basin, Colombia [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

medians, Ancistrus Kner [R.] 1854:(256) 281 [6, 31] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] Grand Inini River, Saut S, 3°36'19"N, 53°48'25"W, Suriname. Neotype: SMNS 26503 [ex MHNG 2675.094]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155] with type at NMW. On pp. 6 & 31 of separate. See Isbrucker 1980 [ref. 2303] for type information. Neotype selected by Fisch-Muller 2012:189 [ref. 31970] •Valid as Hemiancistrus medians (Kner 1854) -- (Isbrücker 1980:51 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:234 [ref. 24549], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:386 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:243 [ref. 29155], Fisch-Muller et al. 2012:189 [ref. 31970], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Valid as Hemiancistrus medians (Kner 1854). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Maroni River basin: French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

megacephalus, Chaetostomus Günther [A.] 1868:476 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 1992] Probably Suriname. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1978.9.12.3. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:244 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. Also published in Günther (Sept.) 1868:232 [ref. 5756]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus megacephalus (Günther 1868) -- (Isbrücker 1980:51 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Cardoso & Lucinda 2003:74 [ref. 26858], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:386 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:244 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento 2016:532 [ref. 34727]). •Valid as "Pseudancistrus" megacephalus (Günther 1868) -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Valid as Pseudancistrus megacephalus (Günther 1868). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Essequibo basin, Guyana and coastal drainages of Suriname: Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

megaloplax, Hisonotus Carvalho [T. P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2009:18, Figs. 5C, 6C, 11, 12 [Zootaxa No. 2113; ref. 30193] Arroio Caraguatá on secondary road to highway BR-153 between Passo Fundo and Ipiranga, 28°07'55"S, 52°20'56"W, Coxilha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 42577. Paratypes: ANSP 187474 (4); MCP 31765 (2), 31779 (9 + 3 c&s), 41352 (6) •Valid as Hisonotus megaloplax Carvalho & Reis 2009 -- (Garvalho & Reis 2011:35 [ref. 31240], Roxo et al. 2015:138 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:381 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:236 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Calegari et al. 2017:244 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900], Dias et al. 2018:583 [ref. 36235]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus megaloplax Carvalho & Reis 2009. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Passo Fundo drainage, upper rio Uruguay basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

megalopteryx, Hemiancistrus Cardoso [A. R.] 2004:174, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 27799] Rio Braço do Norte, downstream dam (tributary of rio Tubarão), about 28°16'38"S, 49°11'01"W, Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 32229. Paratypes: MCP 25589 (1), 29697-99 (8, 4, 3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:244 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus megalopteryx Cardoso 2004 -- (Ferraris 2007:244 [ref. 29155], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670] as "Hemiancistrus"). Current status: Valid as Hemiancistrus megalopteryx Cardoso 2004. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tubarão River system, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

megalostomus, Ancistrus Pearson [N. E.] 1924:23, Pl. 7 (figs. 1-2) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Huachi, at junction of Bopi and Cochabamba rivers, Bolivia, elevation 2235 feet. Syntypes: CAS 64614 [ex IU 17007] (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus megalostomus Pearson 1924 -- (Isbrücker 1980:71 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:161, 191 [ref. 35004], de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869], Provenzano & Barriga-Salazar 2018:235 [ref. 36344] in ? Chaetostoma, Bifi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36821]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus megalostomus Pearson 1924. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Beni River basin in Madeira River drainage, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

megastictus, Guyanancistrus Fisch-Muller [S.], Mol [J. H. A.] & Covain [R.] 2018:46, Figs. 6c, 17 [PLoS ONE v. 13 (no. 1) e0189789; ref. 35723] Crique Alama, tributary of Crique Saranou, Maroni River basin, Massif du Mitaraka, French Guiana, 2˚18'08"N, 54˚32'00"W. Holotype: MNHN 2002-3508. Paratype: MHNG. •Valid as Guyanancistrus megastictus Fisch-Muller, Mol & Covain 2018. Current status: Valid as Guyanancistrus megastictus Fisch-Muller, Mol & Covain 2018. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Maroni River basin, Massif du Mitaraka, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

meizospilos, Hemiancistrus Cardoso [A. R.] & da Silva [J. F. P.] 2004:4, Fig. 6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 27704] Rio Chapecó, tributary of the rio Uruguai basin, Coronel Freitas, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 34091. Paratypes: MCP 34092-93 (21, 1); MNRJ 25921 (5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:244 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus meizospilos Cardoso & da Silva 2004 -- (Ferraris 2007:244 [ref. 29155] Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670] as "Hemiancistrus", Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Hemiancistrus meizospilos Cardoso & da Silva 2004. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Chapecó River system, upper Uruguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanephelis, Hypostomus Zawadzki [C. H.], Oliveira [A. S.], de Oliveira [R. R.] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2015:50, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 33866] Pará State, Itaituba Municipality, Pimental village, rio Amazonas basin, rio Tapajós, just downstream of mouth of rio Jamanxim, 4°33'41'S, 56°15'50"W, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 7039. Paratypes: INPA, LBP, NUP, MZUSP. •Valid as Hypostomus melanephelis Zawadzki, Oliveira, de Oliveira & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015. Current status: Valid as Hypostomus melanephelis Zawadzki, Oliveira, de Oliveira & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Tapajós basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanocheilus, Loricariichthys Reis [R. E.] & Pereira [E. H. L.] 2000:1042, Fig. 9 [Copeia 2000 (no. 4); ref. 25021] Mouth of rio Ijuí-Mirim, tributary of rio Ijuí, Pirapó, Rio Grande do Sul, río Uruguay drainage, 28°03'S, 55°11'W, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 16961. Paratypes: MACN 7941 (3); MCP 11782 (1), 12389 (1), 12446 (1), 13030 (2), 13229 (5), 13517 (2), 13521 (2), 14276 (6), 15381 (3); MLP 9097 (3); MZUSP 41012 (2), 46769 (5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:13 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Loricariichthys melanocheilus Reis & Pereira 2000 -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:339 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:26 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:45 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:419 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys melanocheilus Reis & Pereira 2000. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Lower Paraná and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

melanoptera, Loricaria Kner [R.] (ex Natterer) 1854:265 [15] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] On p. 15 of separate. Name not available, published in synonymy of Hypostomus cochliodon Kner 1854, based on Natterer notes; see Isbrücker 1980:39 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:89 [ref. 5522]. •In the synonymy of Cochliodon cochliodon (Kner 1854) -- (Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:22 [ref. 27178]). •In the synonymy of Hypostomus cochliodon Kner 1854 -- (Weber in Reis et al. 2003:357 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2003:21 [ref. 27426], Tencatt et al. 2014:587 [ref. 33520], Mirande & Koerber 2015:42 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Hypostomus cochliodon Kner 1854. Loricariidae: Hypostominae.

melas, Ancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1916:83 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 6); ref. 1233] Condoto, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 58339 [ex CM 7335]. Paratypes: CAS 64615-16 [ex IU 13650-01] (2, 1), FMNH 58340 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:83 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus melas Eigenmann 1916 -- (Isbrücker 1980:71 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Ancistrus centrolepis Regan 1913 -- (Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:374 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:220 [ref. 29155], Taphorn et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32678]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus centrolepis Regan 1913. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

meleagris, Plecostomus Marini [T. L.], Nichols [J. T.] & La Monte [F. R.] 1933:4 [American Museum Novitates No. 618; ref. 2889] Southeastern Brazil. Holotype: AMNH 12246. Paratypes: AMNH 12249 (orig. 6, now 4), MZUSP (1), MACN Buenos Aires(1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus meleagris (Marini, Nichols & La Monte 1933) -- (Isbrücker 1980:27 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2012:246 [ref. 32031], Koerber et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus meleagris (Marini, Nichols & La Monte 1933). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper and middle Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

melini, Loricariichthys Schindler [O.] 1959:387, Fig. 1 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 12 (no. 26); ref. 12023] Rio Solimões near Manacapuru, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NRM 10830 [?now 25560]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria melini (Schindler 1959) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria melini (Schindler 1959) -- (Isbrücker 1980:108 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:343 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria melini (Schindler 1959). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

menezesi, Pyxiloricaria Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1984:164, Figs. 1-4 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 54 (no. 2); ref. 5279] "Lagoas marginais da rodovia Transpantaneira, município de Miranda", 20°10'S, 56°19'W, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 26800. Paratypes: ZMA 107890 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:292 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pyxiloricaria menezesi Isbrücker & Nijssen 1984 -- (Burgess 1989:444 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:132 [ref. 24147], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:341 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:292 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:45 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Pyxiloricaria menezesi Isbrücker & Nijssen 1984. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

merevari, Harttia Provenzano [F.], Machado-Allison [A.], Chernoff [B.], Willink [P. W.] & Petry [P.] 2005:520, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28461] Caura River at top of Salto Pará waterfalls, Bolivar State, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-26578. Paratypes: FMNH 116184 (3), MBUCV-V-30950 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Harttia merevari Provenzano, Machado-Allison, Chernoff, Willink & Petry 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia merevari Provenzano, Machado-Allison, Chernoff, Willink & Petry 2005. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

microdon, Loricaria Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:7 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Rupununi River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53555 [ex CM 1507]. Paratypes: CAS 35141 [ex 11942] (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:84 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:53 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Loricariichthys microdon (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Isbrücker 1980:128 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:339 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys microdon (Eigenmann 1909). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Rupununi River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepidogaster, Loricaria Regan [C. T.] 1904:283, Pl. 15 (fig. 4) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1884.2.5.41. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:295 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rineloricaria microlepidogaster (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:108 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Malabarba 1989:155 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:63 [ref. 23791], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:343 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27366], Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005:2 [ref. 28173], Ferraris 2007:295 [ref. 29155], Rodriguez & Reis 2008:337 [ref. 29630], Ghazzi 2008:101 [ref. 29636], Koerber & Litz 2014:4 [ref. 34967], Mirande & Koerber 2015:46 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565] as aff. microlepidogaster with author as Reis 1983). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria microlepidogaster (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Uruguay, Argentina and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepidota, Loricaria lima var. Steindachner [F.] 1907:154 [3] [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 44 (no. 10) (for 25 Apr. 1907); ref. 18795] Juruá River, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) NMW (apparently lost). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:295 [ref. 29155]. On p. 3 of separate. No types found (Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]). •Valid as Rineloricaria microlepidota (Steindachner 1907) -- (Isbrücker 1980:108 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:343 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:295 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria microlepidota (Steindachner 1907). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Juruá River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

micromaculatus, Hypostomus Boeseman [M.] 1968:49, 77 [addendum], Pl. 7 (figs. 1-4) [Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) No. 99; ref. 7872] Mamadam Falls, Suriname River, Suriname. Holotype: RMNH 25487 (largest). Paratypes: RMNH 25482-86 (1, 1, 4, 2, 2), 25487 (1, with holotype), 25521 (1), 25787 (198), 25938 (1); ZMA 106015 (10). Additional material: RMNH 25487 (39). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:55 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus micromaculatus Boeseman 1968 -- (Isbrücker 1980:28 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Armbruster et al. 2007:67 [ref. 29252], Ferraris 2007:256 [ref. 29155], Weber et al. 2012:211 [ref. 31999], Zawadzki et al. 2015:57 [ref. 33866], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus micromaculatus Boeseman 1968. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper and middle Suriname River basin, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

micrommatos, Hemiancistrus Cardoso [A. R.] & Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2003:77, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 1); ref. 26858] Rio Tocantins, at site of future hydroelectric dam of Serra da Mesa, between Minaçu and Cavalcante, Minaçu, about 13°50'S, 48°19'W, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 20873. Paratypes: MCP 26331-32 (1, 1), 26393 (1), 26488 (3); MNRJ 20874 (26); UNT 372 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:244 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemiancistrus micrommatos Cardoso & Lucinda 2003 -- (Ferraris 2007:244 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Ancistomus micrommatos (Cardoso & Lucinda 2003) -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:00 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Valid as Ancistomus micrommatos (Cardoso & Lucinda 2003). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins River and its tributaries, lower Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

microps, Chaetostomus Günther [A.] 1864:250 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Andes of western Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.6.16.137-143 (7). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma microps Günther 1864 -- (Isbrücker 1980:62 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:381 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155], Ballen 2011:388 [ref. 31653], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:220 [ref. 34894], Lujan et al. 2015:692 [ref. 33975], Lujan et al. 2015:666, 692 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma microps Günther 1864. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

microps, Harttia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:211, Pl. 8 (figs. 3-4), Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Iquitos, Peru. Lectotype: CAS 28543 [ex IU 15380]. Paralectotypes: CAS 28544 [ex IU 15380] (4, now 2, 2 to USNM), USNM 86820 [ex IU 15380] (1), 167890 [ex IU 15380] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:27 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:290 [ref. 29155]. Original description lists IU 15380, 5 specimens, type and paratypes. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978:71 [ref. 2305]. •Valid as Pterosturisoma microps (Eigenmann & Allen 1942) -- (Isbrücker 1980:92 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:340 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:290 [ref. 29155], de Carvalho Paixão & Toledo-Piza 2009:565 [ref. 30675], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745] as cf. microps, Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Pterosturisoma microps (Eigenmann & Allen 1942). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Ecuador?, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

microps, Plecostomus Steindachner [F.] 1877:688 [130], Pl. 13 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio de Janeiro (possibly Rio Parahyba), Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 45337.1. Paralectotypes: NMW 45337.2 (1). Type catalog:Ferraris 2007:273 [ref. 29155]. On p. 130 of separate. Lectotype selected by Langeani 1990:8 [ref. 16376]. •Valid as Neoplecostomus microps (Steindachner 1877) -- (Isbrücker 1980:7 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Langeani 1990:8 [ref. 16736], Bizerril 1995:698 [ref. 23196], de Pinna 1998:304 [ref. 23847], Isbrücker 2001:30, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:319 [ref. 27061], Zawadzki et al. 2004:579 [ref. 27753], Ferraris 2007:273 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2008:46 [ref. 29594], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Pereira et al. 2010:37 [ref. 30753], Roxo et al. 2012:16 [ref. 31839], Roxo et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32073], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228], Roxo et al. 2014:125 [ref. 33492], Cherobim et al. 2016:10 [ref. 35001], Pereira & Reis 2017:74 [ref. 35307], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310], Roxo et al. 2017:238 [ref. 35467], Silva et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36454]). Current status: Valid as Neoplecostomus microps (Steindachner 1877). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

microps, Plecostomus (Rhinelepis) Ihering [R. von] 1907:24 [Revista do Museu Paulista (N. S.) v. 1 (fasc. 1); ref. 2294] Piquete (Lorena), upper reaches of rio Paraíbo do Sul basin, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 2154. Type catalog: Britski 1969:209 [ref. 12401]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Plecostomus microps Steindachner 1876, replaced by Rhinelepis rudolphi Miranda Ribeiro 1911. •Synonym of Pareiorhina rudolphi (Miranda Ribeiro 1911) -- (Isbrücker 1980:15 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:26 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:365 [ref. 27061], Bockmann & Ribeiro 2003:231 [ref. 27391], Chamon et al. 2005:550 [ref. 28313]). Current status: Synonym of Pareiorhina rudolphi (Miranda Ribeiro 1911). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

micropunctatus, Baryancistrus de Oliveira [R. R.], Rapp Py-Daniel [L.] & Oyakawa [O. T.] 2019:482, Figs. 1, 2, 3A [Copeia v. 107 (no. 3); ref. 36981] Jari River downstream of Santo Antônio waterfall, Monte Dourado district, Almeirim, Pará, Brazil, 0°39'31.7"S, 52°30'49.0"W. Holotype: INPA 6042. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MCP, MPEG, MZUEL, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Baryancistrus micropunctatus de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel & Oyakawa 2019. Current status: Valid as Baryancistrus micropunctatus de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel & Oyakawa 2019. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Jari River basin, northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

micropunctatus, Plecostomus La Monte [F. R.] 1935:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 784; ref. 13893] Near mouth of Rio Macaua, tributary of Rio Iaco, itself a tributary to Rio Purus, near Sena Madureira, Brazil. Holotype: AMNH 12598. Paratypes: AMNH 26943 (4), ?MSNM 44 [ex MSNM 4699 and ex AMNH] (3). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:227 [ref. 21560], Ferraris 2007:225 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus micropunctatus (La Monte 1935) -- (Isbrücker 1980:28 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:431 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Aphanotorulus micropunctatus (La Monte 1935) -- (Armbruster & Page 1996:384 [ref. 22151], Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Isbrücker 2001:25, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178]). •Synonym of Hypostomus unicolor (Steindachner 1908) -- (Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644]). •Synonym of Aphanotorulus unicolor (Steindachner 1908) -- (Armbruster 1998:254 [ref. 23319], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:352 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:225 [ref. 29155], Ray & Armbruster 2016:525 [ref. 34178]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanotorulus unicolor (Steindachner 1908). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

microstomus, Hypostomus Weber [C.] 1987:275, Figs. 2-3, 7a [Archives des Sciences (Geneva) v. 40 (no. 3); ref. 6241] Río Alta-Paraná, Río Paraná system, 15 kilometers southeast of Encarnacion, Campichuelo, 27°26'S, 55°45'W, Paraguay. Holotype: MHNG 2367.90. Paratypes: MHNG 2367.91-92 (4, 1). Type catalog: Weber 1998:9 [ref. 23532], Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Watawata microstomus (Weber 1987) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:22 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:28, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:30 [ref. 27178], López et al. 2003:52 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Hypostomus microstomus Weber 1987 -- (López & Miquelarena 1991:36 [ref. 23548], Gómez & Chebez 1996:64 [ref. 23791], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2010:724 [ref. 31074], Koerber 2011:5 [ref. 31122], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Zawadzki et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33233], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617], Koerber 2014:9 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:25 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:43 [ref. 35117], Cardoso et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34373], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565] with author in parentheses, Koerber et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35267], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus microstomus Weber 1987. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

milesi, Chaetostomus Fowler [H. W.] 1941:2, Figs. 1-5 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 73; ref. 13236] Honda, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69330. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma milesi Fowler 1941 -- (Isbrücker 1980:62 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:381 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Ferraris 2007:229 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], Ballen et al. 2016:195 [ref. 34396], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma milesi Fowler 1941. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Magdalena and Apuré River basins: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

mimulus, Otocinclus Axenrot [T. E.] & Kullander [S. O.] 2003:251, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 27393] Small stream (arroyo) at Estancia María Belén, 8 kilometers from Colonel Patricio Colman, 25°40'13"S, 55°05'52"W, río Paraná drainage, Depto. Caaguazú, Paraguay. Holotype: MNHNP uncat. [ex. NRM 43480]. Paratypes: MHNG 2353.027 (1), 2531.072 (7); NRM 41800 (3), 41924 (9), 42102 (3), 42278 (5), 42332 (13), 42466 (5), 43478 (1, c&s), 43479 (1, c&s), 43557 (1), 43558 (1), 45142 (1), 46725 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus mimulus Axenrot & Kullander 2003 -- (Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155], Lehmann A. et al. 2010:60 [ref. 30756], Ribeiro & Lehmann A. 2016:240 [ref. 34636], Koerber et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus mimulus Axenrot & Kullander 2003. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Tributary of the Monday [Mondai] River, a tributary of the lower Paraná River, Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Ancistrus Fisch-Muller [S.], Mazzoni [R.] & Weber [C.] 2001:298, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 25716] Córrego Batéias, a left bank tributary of the upper rio Tocantins, 13°49'S, 48°20'W, Minaçú, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 20851. Paratypes: MHNG 2612.48 (2), 2612.49 (2, 1 c&s), 2612.50 (1); MNRJ 15221 (4), 15243 (2), 15258 (6), 15272 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus minutus Fisch-Muller, Mazzoni & Weber 2001 -- (Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061], Fisch-Muller et al. 2005:570 [ref. 28242], Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus minutus Fisch-Muller, Mazzoni & Weber 2001. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins tributaries in Goiás State upstream of Serra da Mesa dam, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Hisonotus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1890:391 [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 1; ref. 12251] Apparently a lapsus under Hisonotus notatus for notatus as, "Dr. Steindachner probably includes minutus with his maculicauda. We here wish to restrict the name maculicauda to the species figured by Dr. Steindachner." •In the synonymy of Otocinclus notatus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890) -- (Isbrücker 1980:84 [ref. 2303]). •In the synonymy of Hisonotus notatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890 -- (Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16-17 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:323 [ref. 27061]). •Unavailable name -- (Ferraris 2007:249 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Hisonotus. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae.

minutus, Parotocinclus Garavello [J. C.] 1977:15, Figs. 13-14 [Arquivos de Zoologia (São Paulo) v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 7249] Rio Vasa-Barris, Canudos, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 10135. Paratypes: MNRJ 10133-34 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:283 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus minutus Garavello 1977 -- (Isbrücker 1980:80 [ref. 2303], Garavello 1988:124 [ref. 6853], Burgess 1989:438 [ref. 12860], Lacerda & Evers 1996:88 [ref. 22351], Isbrücker 2001:31 [ref. 25653], Ribeiro et al. 2002:223 [ref. 26534], Isbrücker 2002:25 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:327 [ref. 27061], Garavello & Britski 2003:258 [ref. 27469], Ferraris 2007:283 [ref. 29155], Sarmento-Soares et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30254], Britski & Garavello 2009:60 [ref. 30260], Lehmann A. & Reis 2012:62 [ref. 32074], Ramos et al. 2013:788 [ref. 33028], Ramos et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35268]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus minutus Garavello 1977. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Vasa-Barris River basin, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

miracollis, Ancistrus Bifi [A. G.], de Oliveira [R. R.] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2019:2, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 36821] Igarapé do Mureru, tributary of rio Sucunduri, rio Madeira basin, comunidade Terra Preta, Apuí, Amazonas State, Brazil, 7°45'45"S, 58°49'00"W. Holotype: INPA 57624. Paratypes: INPA, MCP, MPEG, MZUSP. •Valid as Ancistrus miracollis Bifi, de Oliveira & Rapp Py-Daniel 2019. Current status: Valid as Ancistrus miracollis Bifi, de Oliveira & Rapp Py-Daniel 2019. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Sucunduri drainage, Madeira basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

misionera, Rineloricaria Rodriguez [M. S.] & Miquelarena [A. M.] 2005:5, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 945; ref. 28173] Arroyo Cuña-Pirú, 27°08'S, 54°54'W, Cainguás Dept., Misiones Province, Argentina. Holotype: ILPLA 1698. Paratypes: ILPLA 1064 (1), 1065 (2, c&s), 1190 (7), 1189 (2), 1191 (6), 1210 (1), 1336 (1), 1546 (2), 1551 (1), 1681 (2), 1684 (1); MCP 35793 (3); MLP 3368 (1), 3370 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:295 [ref. 29155], Koerber 2007:2 [ref. 29776], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:14 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Rineloricaria misionera Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:295 [ref. 29155], Ghazzi 2008:101 [ref. 29636], Koerber 2011:5 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:10 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:46 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria misionera Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2005. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Paraná and Uruguay River basins, Misiones Province, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

mitoupibo, Farlowella Ballen [G. A.], Urbano-Bonilla [A.] & Zamudio [J. E.] 2016:326, Figs. 1, 2a, 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 27 (no. 4) for Dec.; ref. 34915] Caño Caribe, Puerto Lleras municipality, Ariari River, Upper Guaviare River drainage, Orinoco River basin, Meta Colombia, 3°12'45"N, 73°28'40"W, elevation 259 meters. Holotype: MPUJ 8481. •Valid as Farlowella mitoupibo Ballen, Urbano-Bonilla & Zamudio 2016 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella mitoupibo Ballen, Urbano-Bonilla & Zamudio 2016. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Guaviare River drainage, Orinoco basin, Meta, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

mollinasus, Chaetostomus Pearson [N. E.] 1937:96, Pl. 13 (figs. 1-2) [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 23 (no. 7); ref. 12297] Balsas, elevation 3500 feet, and Cajamarca, elevation 9843 feet, Peru. Syntypes: CAS 64653 [ex IU 17654] (8), 64654 [ex IU 17655] (5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:230 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Chaetostoma mollinasum Pearson 1937 -- (Isbrücker 1980:62 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:381 [ref. 27061], Salcedo 2006:63 [ref. 28542], Salcedo 2006:218 [ref. 28842], Ferraris 2007:230 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745] as cf. microps). •Synonym of Chaetostoma microps Günther 1864 -- (Lujan et al. 2015:676 [ref. 33975]). Current status: Synonym of Chaetostoma microps Günther 1864. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

monopelte, Sturisoma Fowler [H. W.] 1914:274, Fig. 18 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 66; ref. 1390] Rupununi River, Guyana, 2°-3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype (unique): ANSP 39346. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sturisoma monopelte Fowler 1914 -- (Isbrücker 1980:95 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:346 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155], Londoño-Burbano 2018:[13] [ref. 35813]). Current status: Valid as Sturisoma monopelte Fowler 1914. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Rupununi River drainage, Essequibo basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

montana, Xenocara Regan [C. T.] 1904:258, Pl. 14 (fig. 6) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Tumupasa, Andes of Bolivia, elevation 1500 feet. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1902.12.18.4. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ancistrus montanus (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:71 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:161, 191 [ref. 35004], Bifi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36821]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus montanus (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Beni River drainage, upper Madeira basin, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

montanus, Hisonotus Carvalho [T. P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2009:22, Figs. 5D, 6D, 13, 14 [Zootaxa No. 2113; ref. 30193] Rio Rufino on highway SC-427 by the city of Rio Rufino, 27°51'36"S, 49°46'55"W, Rio Canoas drainage, rio Uruguay basin, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 42578. Paratypes: ANSP 187475 (4); UFRGS 9597 (3); MCP 22369 (1)41459 (16 + 3 c&s). •Valid as Hisonotus montanus Carvalho & Reis 2009 -- (Garvalho & Reis 2011:35 [ref. 31240], Roxo et al. 2015:138 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:381 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:236 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Calegari et al. 2017:244 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900], Dias et al. 2018:583 [ref. 36235]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus montanus Carvalho & Reis 2009. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Canoas drainage, upper rio Uruguay basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

montebelloi, Canthopomus Fowler [H. W.] 1940:55, Figs. 9-11 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Monte Bello, Tarija, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68832. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:263 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Ixinandria montebelloi (Fowler 1940) -- (Isbrücker 1980:103 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:336 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:263 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Ixinandria steinbachi (Regan 1906) -- (Rodriguez et al. 2008:367 [ref. 29843], Mirande & Koerber 2015:44 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Rineloricaria steinbachi (Regan 1906). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Habitat: freshwater.

morrowi, Rhineloricaria Fowler [H. W.] 1940:244, Figs. 39-41 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91 (for 1939); ref. 1432] Contamana, Río Ucayali basin, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68663. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]. Genus is correctly Rineloricaria. •Valid as Hemiloricaria morrowi (Fowler 1940) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria morrowi Fowler 1940 -- (Isbrücker 1980:108 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:343 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria morrowi Fowler 1940. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

mucurina, Pareiorhaphis Pereira [E. H. L.], Pessali [T. C.] & Reis [R. E.] 2018:633, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia v. 106 (no. 4); ref. 36274] Preto River, Mucuri River basin, Catuji, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 17°23'50.47"S, 41°31'18.56"W. Holotype: MCP 53888. Paratypes: MCNIP, MCP, MZUEL, NUP, UNT, ZUEC. •Valid as Pareiorhaphis mucurina Pereira, Pessali & Reis 2018. Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis mucurina Pereira, Pessali & Reis 2018. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Mucuri River basin, Minas Gerais State, eastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mullerae, Ancistrus Bifi [A. G.], Pavanelli [C. S.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2009:50, Fig.5 [Zootaxa No. 2275; ref. 30541] Três Barras do Paraná, lower Rio Iguaçu basin, affluent of Rio Iguaçu, Rio Guarani, 25°25'29"S, 53°07'30"W, Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 104121. Paratypes: At MCP, MHNCI, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Ancistrus mullerae Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki 2009 -- (de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869], Koerber et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus mullerae Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki 2009. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: South America: Rio Iguaçu basin, Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

multidens, Hypostomus Jerep [F. C.], Shibatta [O. A.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2007:436, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 29465] Londrina, District de Maravilha, rio Tibagi basin, rio Taquara, at its mouth, 23°30'51"S, 50°57'18", Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUEL 4712. Paratypes: ANSP 187121 (2); MZUEL 152 (1), 153 (1), 154 (1), 2100 (1), 2101 (1), 3388 (2), 4497 (2); MZUSP 93883 (2); NUP 2561 (5), 4821 (2), 4829 (1); LISDEBE 1966 (2), 1967 (1), 1968 (1). •Valid as Hypostomus multidens Jerep, Shibatta & Zawadzki 2007 -- (Zawadzki et al. 2012:246 [ref. 32031], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617], Zawadzki et al. 2015:57 [ref. 33866], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus multidens Jerep, Shibatta & Zawadzki 2007. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Paranapanema basin and rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

multiradiatus, Hypostomus Hancock [J.] 1828:246 [Zoological Journal, London v. 4; ref. 18242] [Probably near Santa Catalina, Orinoco system], Demerara, Guyana. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1857.6.13.162 [ex Zool. Soc.] (stuffed). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock 1828) -- (Weber 1991:642 [ref. 19114], Weber 1992:9, 27 [ref. 19714], Chang & Ortega 1995:7 [ref. 24302], Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Fuller et al. 1999:225 [ref. 25838], Isbrücker 2001:28, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:365 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus (Hancock 1828) -- (Isbrücker 1980:42 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:433 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:42 [ref. 23548], Page & Burr 1991:211 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:84 [ref. 27807], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131] as multiradiata, Mundy 2005:156 [ref. 28379], Page & Robins 2006:455 [ref. 28913], Armbruster & Page 2006:403 [ref. 28898], Scharpf 2006:20 [ref. 30386], Ferraris 2007:291 [ref. 29155], Page & Burr 2011:371 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32708], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:76 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus (Hancock 1828). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia, Guyana (?) and Venezuela; Argentina (?); introduced elsewhere, including Taiwan, Hawaiian Islands and Florida. Habitat: freshwater.

multispinis, Ancistrus Holly [M.] 1929:119 [3] [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenshaften in Wien Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 66; ref. 16088] Mercado Belém, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 8952. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]. On p. 3 of separate. At one time secondarily preoccupied by Xenocara multispinis Regan 1912 that is now placed in Ancistrus, but both taxa are no longer considered congeneric and multispinis Holly need not be replaced. •Synonym of Lasiancistrus schomburgkii (Günther 1864) -- (Armbruster 2005:561 [ref. 28554], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Lasiancistrus multispinis (Holly 1929) -- (Isbrücker 1980:45 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233], Isbrücker 2001:25, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:388 [ref. 27061]). •Status uncertain, valid as Peckoltia multispinis or a synonym of P. vittata -- (Armbruster 2008:34 [ref. 29740]). •Valid as Peckoltia multispinis (Holly 1929) -- (Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], Armbruster & Lujan 2016:115 [ref. 34264]). Current status: Valid as Peckoltia multispinis (Holly 1929). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

multispinis, Xenocara Regan [C. T.] 1912:668, Pl. 76 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1912 (pt 3) (art. 36); ref. 14862] Rio Humboldt, Rio Itapocú, Santa Catherina, southeastern Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1910.7.26.32. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1910.7.26.31 (1), 1910.7.26.33 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Muller 1989:894 [ref. 13512]. •Valid as Ancistrus multispinis (Regan 1912) -- (Isbrücker 1980:71 [ref. 2303], Muller 1989:894 [ref. 13512], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:25, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155], Bifi et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30541], de Oliveira et al. 2015:81 [ref. 33869], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus multispinis (Regan 1912). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Atlantic coastal drainages of eastern Brazil from Macacú River to Maquiné River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mura, Otocinclus Schaefer [S. A.] 1997:77, Fig. 47 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 148; ref. 23213] Rio Sanabani, munícìpio de Silves, about 2°51'40"S, 58°15'40:W, rio Solimões/Sanabani/Lago Canaçari basin, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 51101. Paratypes: MZUSP 51100 (103, 2 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus mura Schaefer 1997 -- (Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Britto & Moreira 2002:1067 [ref. 26512], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:325 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:275 [ref. 29155], Lehmann A. et al. 2010:636 [ref. 31083]). Current status: Valid as Otocinclus mura Schaefer 1997. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

muriaensis, Parotocinclus Gauger [M. F. W.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2005:514, Figs. 1, 7 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28562] Rio Muriaé, near intersection of highways BR-356 and RJ-186, 20 kilometers downstream from Itaperuna, about 21°15'S, 41°45'S, Município de Itaperuna, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 28528. Paratypes: MNRJ 14753 (4, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:283 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parotocinclus muriaensis Gauger & Buckup 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:283 [ref. 29155], Sarmento-Soares et al. 2009:196 [ref. 30254], Britski & Garavello 2009:60 [ref. 30260], Lehmann A. et al. 2014:32 [ref. 33225], Ramos et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35268]). Current status: Valid as Parotocinclus muriaensis Gauger & Buckup 2005. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Itaperuna River, Paraíba do Sul River basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

murinus, Spectracanthicus Nijssen [H.] & Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1987:94, Figs. 1-3 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 13 (no. 4) (1986); ref. 5993] Poça de Pedra, Rio Tapajós, eastern Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 22011. Paratypes: MZUSP 21849 (2), 24293 (2), 27663 (1); ZMA 107876-78 (1, 1, 2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Spectracanthicus murinus Nijssen & Isbrücker 1987 -- (Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:395 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2009:53 [ref. 30056], Chamon & Rapp Py-Daniel 2014:2 [ref. 33224], Chamon et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35755]). Current status: Valid as Spectracanthicus murinus Nijssen & Isbrücker 1987. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tapajós River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mutuca, Hemipsilichthys Oliveira [J. C. de] & Oyakawa [O. T.] 1999:75, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 23672] Rio das Velhas drainage, Nova Lima County, Córrego Mutuca, at right side of road from Belo Horizonte to Nova Lima, kilometer 20, about 20°60'S, 43°55'W, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 37148. Paratypes: MCP 18805 (14); MNRJ 14797 (12); MZUSP 45883 (2, c&s), 51055 (29); USNM 342768 (12); ZMUC P30129 (12). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:280 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemipsilichthys mutuca Oliveira & Oyakawa 1999 -- (Pereira et al. 2000:377 [ref. 25081], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Pereira & Reis 2002:124 [ref. 26071], Britto & Moreira 2002:1068 [ref. 26512], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Pereira et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27068], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:354 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pareiorhaphis mutuca (Oliveira & Oyakawa 1999) -- (Periera 2005:272 [ref. 28273], Ferraris 2007:280 [ref. 29155], Pereira et al. 2012:539 [ref. 32218], Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis mutuca (Oliveira & Oyakawa 1999). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Headwaters of Das Velhas River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mutucae, Hypostomus Knaack [J.] 1999:102, Figs. unnumbered [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 47 (no. 11); ref. 23866] Rio Mutuca, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 28669. Paratypes: BZM 32923 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus mutucae Knaack 1999 -- (Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061] with 28669 as holotype, Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155] with a holotype, Zawadzki et al. 2010:719 [ref. 31074], Zawadzki et al. 2012:246 [ref. 32031], Zawadzki et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33233], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus mutucae Knaack 1999. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Cuiabá River drainage, Rio Paraguay basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

muzuspi, Hypoptopoma Aquino [A. E.] & Schaefer [S. A.] 2010:48, Fig. 28 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History No. 336; ref. 30875] Rio Agua Fria, fazenda Praia Alta 2, estrada Araguaçu/Barreira do Piqui, 27 kilometers ao norte de Araguaçu, Araguaçu, Tocantins State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 52135. Paratypes: AMNH 243578 (5, 1 c&s), MZUSP 95186 (24, 2 c&s). •Valid as Hypoptopoma muzuspi Aquino & Schaefer 2010. Current status: Valid as Hypoptopoma muzuspi Aquino & Schaefer 2010. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

myersi, Plecostomus Gosline [W. A.] 1947:116, Pl. 5 (figs. 9-10) [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 41; ref. 1857] Rio Iguaçu at Porto União, Paraná, southern Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 4251. Paratypes: MNRJ 4252 (2), CAS-SU uncat. (2, not found). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus myersi (Gosline 1947) -- (Isbrücker 1980:28 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:432 [ref. 12860], López & Miquelarena 1991:35 [ref. 23548], Gómez & Chebez 1996:64 [ref. 23791], Miquelarena et al. 1997:70 [ref. 23469], Zawadzki et al. 2001:914 [ref. 25469], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27366], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155], Garavello et al. 2012:263 [ref. 32033], Garavello et al. 2012:263 [ref. 32033], Mirande & Koerber 2015:43 [ref. 35117], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus myersi (Gosline 1947). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Iguaçu River and Uruga-í Creek basins: Argentina and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

myriodon, Aposturisoma Isbrücker [I. J. H.], Britski [H. A.], Nijssen [H.] & Ortega [H.] 1983:35, Figs. 3-6 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 5388] Río Aguaytia basin, Río Huacamayo, about 9°S, 75°29'W, Dept. Ucayali, Province Coronel Portillo, Peru. Holotype: MZUSP 15328. Paratypes: MHNG 2087.1-2 (2); MHNJP-IVITA 0899-0912 (14); MZUSP 15330-32 (1, 1, 1), 15333-41 (9), 15342 (1), 15343-51 (9); ZMA 116393 [ex MZUSP 15329] (1), 116394 (4), 119001-03 (4, 2, 2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Aposturisoma myriodon Isbrücker, Britski, Nijssen & Ortega 1983 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:330 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:226 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Aposturisoma myriodon Isbrücker, Britski, Nijssen & Ortega 1983. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River drainage, Aguaytia River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

mystacinus, Ancistrus Kner [R.] 1854:276 [26] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 7; ref. 2628] Caracas, Venezuela [in error]. Probably somewhere in Venezuela but not Caracas. Holotype (unique): NMW 44200. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]. On p. 26 of separate. See Armbruster 2005:557 [ref, 28554] for comments on the type locality. •Valid as Lasiancistrus mystacinus (Kner 1854) -- (Isbrücker 1980:45 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233], Isbrücker 2001:25, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:388 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Lasiancistrus guacharote (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Armbruster 2005:555 [ref. 28554], Ferraris 2007:265 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Lasiancistrus guacharote (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

nanodon, Fonchiiloricaria Rodriguez [M. S.], Ortega [H.] & Covain [R.] 2011:885, Figs. 4, 5a, 6c. 7, 8 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 79 (no. 4); ref. 31506] Río Huallaga, between Tingo Maria and Aucayacu, Huanuco Department, Leoncio Prado Province, Peru, ca. 9°19'22"S, 76°01'50"W. Holotype: MUSM 37953. Paratypes: many at ANSP, MHNG, MUSM. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Fonchiiloricaria nanodon Rodriguez, Ortega & Covain 2011. Current status: Valid as Fonchiiloricaria nanodon Rodriguez, Ortega & Covain 2011. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Río Huallaga, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

napova, Cteniloricaria Covain [R.] & Fisch-Muller [S.] In Covain, Fisch-Muller, Montoya-Burgos, Mol, Le Beial & Dray 2012:135, Figs. 5-6 [Cybium v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 32000] Sipaliwini Savannah in Trio Amerindian territory at the Suriname-Brazil border, Four Brothers Mountains in a tributary of the Paru de Oeste River, gift of the Trio tribe in Sipaliwini. Holotype: MZUSP 108146 [ex MHNG 2704-030]. Paratypes: MHNG 2704-030 (6); MNHN 2011-0017 (2); MZUSP 108147 (2); NZCS F7071 (1). •Valid as Cteniloricaria napova Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012 -- (Covain et al. 2012:135 [ref. 32000]). Current status: Valid as Cteniloricaria napova Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Paru de Oeste River: Suriname-Brazil border. Habitat: freshwater.

nasarcus, Limatulichthys Londoño-Burbano [A.], Lefebvre [S. L.] & Lujan [N. K.] 2014:362, Fig. 2 [Zootaxa 3884 (no. 4); ref. 33580] MCNG 56560 (ex. AUM 39845), 150.9 mm SL, Venezuela, Orinoco River drainage, Ventuari River, beach below Raudales Tencua, 56 km ESE of San Juan de Manapiare, N 05°02'59'', W 65°40'20'', Holotype. Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, MBUCV. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Limatulichthys nasarcus Londoño-Burbano, Lefebvre & Lujan 2014. Current status: Valid as Limatulichthys nasarcus Londoño-Burbano, Lefebvre & Lujan 2014. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Orinoco River drainage, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

nassauensis, Guyanancistrus Mol [J. H. A.], Fisch-Muller [S.] & Covain [R.] 2018:37, Figs. 6e, 12, 18b [PLoS ONE v. 13 (no. 1) e0189789; ref. 35723] Paramaka Creek (Na3 site), Marowijne River drainage, Nassau Mountains, Sipaliwini, Suriname, 4˚51'36"N, 54˚35'30"W. Holotype: MHNG 2679.100. Paratypes: AUM, MHNG, NZCS. •Valid as Guyanancistrus nassauensis Mol, Fisch-Muller & Covain 2018. Current status: Valid as Guyanancistrus nassauensis Mol, Fisch-Muller & Covain 2018. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Marowijne River drainage, Nassau Mountains, Sipaliwini, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

nasuta, Pareiorhaphis Pereira [E. H. L.], Vieira [F.] & Reis [R. E.] 2007:445, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 29466] Ribeirão Areia Branca, tributary to hydroelectric dam Túlio Cordeiro de Mello, rio Matipó basin, rio Doce drainage, 20°11'17"S, 42°22'27"W, District of Granada, Abre Campo, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 41764. Paratypes: ANSP 187153 (2); MCP 37176 (12, 2 c&s), 38807 (3), 38808 (11, 1 c&s), 38809 (11); MZUFV 2567 (3). •Valid as Pareiorhaphis nasuta Pereira, Vieira & Reis 2007 -- (Pereira et al. 2010:37 [ref. 30753], Pereira & Britto 2012:523 [ref. 32198], Pereira et al. 2016:448 [ref. 34623], Pereira & Reis 2017:75 [ref. 35307]). Current status: Valid as Pareiorhaphis nasuta Pereira, Vieira & Reis 2007. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Upper Doce River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nationi, Lasiancistrus Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1972:23, Pl. 23 [Análisis ictiológico del complejo hidrográfico; ref. 19696] Río Yaracuy drainage, Venezuela. Holotype: AFY (lost). Paratypes: (9). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Lasiancistrus nationi Fernández-Yépez 1972 -- (Isbrücker 1980:45 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:20 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:388 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Ancistrus nationi (Fernández-Yépez 1972) -- (Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Ancistrus gymnorhynchus Kner 1854 -- (Taphorn et al. 2010:21 [ref. 30697], DoNascimiento 2016:540 [ref. 34727]). Current status: Synonym of Ancistrus gymnorhynchus Kner 1854. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Venezuela [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

nattereri, Farlowella Steindachner [F.] 1910:403, Figured [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 24 (nos. 3-4) (for 1910-1911); ref. 10014] Middle Amazon River, possibly Río Negro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 46497. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910 -- (Isbrücker 1980:100 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Retzer & Page 1997:56 [ref. 23176], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27061], Retzer 2006:61 [ref. 28957], Ferraris 2007:238 [ref. 29155], Ballen & Mojica 2014:140 [ref. 33176], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Ballen et al. 2016:[6] [ref. 34813], Ballen et al. 2016:332 [ref. 34915], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon and Essequibo River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

negomata, Microlepidogaster Martins [F. de O.], Cherobim [A. M.], Andrade [B. N.] & Langeani [F.] 2017:235, Figs. 1, 2, 3E [Zootaxa 4276 (no. 2); ref. 35356] Ribeirão Bebedouro on road to Chaves, upstream Arapuá, Rio Abaeté drainage, Rio São Francisco basin, Arapuá, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 19°02'50"S, 46°09'26"W, elevation 920 meters. Holotype: DZSJRP 20135. Paratypes: DZSJRP, LBP, MZUSP. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:451 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Microlepidogaster negomata Martins, Cherobim, Andrade & Langeani 2017. Current status: Valid as Microlepidogaster negomata Martins, Cherobim, Andrade & Langeani 2017. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio São Francisco basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nematopterus, Hypostomus Isbrücker [I. J. H.] & Nijssen [H.] 1984:9, Fig. 1 [Bulletin Zoölogisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 9846] Alikene Creek, left bank tributary to Camopi River, Oyapock River basin, French Guiana. Holotype: IRSNB 689. Paratypes: ZMA 107804 (1). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:20 [ref. 20755], Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus nematopterus Isbrücker & Nijssen 1984 -- (Burgess 1989:432 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155], Weber et al. 2012:211 [ref. 31999]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus nematopterus Isbrücker & Nijssen 1984. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Oyapock River basin, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

nephelion, Cordylancistrus Provenzano [F.] & Milani [N.] 2006:31, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 1116; ref. 28579] Mesia River, tributary of Guare River, near village Corocito, about 10°12'N, 67°05'W, Tuy River system, Caribbean Sea basin, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-21800. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-12526 (1), 16382 (1), 21801 (1), 21806 (1), 22700 (1), 27872 (1). Not treated by Ferraris 2007 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cordylancistrus nephelion Provenzano & Milani 2006 -- (Ferraris 2007:443 [ref. 29155], Tan & Armbruster 2012:52 [ref. 31842], Lujan et al. 2015:659 [ref. 33963], Provenzano & Villa-Navarro 2017:529 [ref. 35473], Provenzano et al. 2017:263 [ref. 35613]). Current status: Valid as Cordylancistrus nephelion Provenzano & Milani 2006. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tributaries of Tuy River, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

niceforoi, Hemiancistrus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:250, Figs. 32-35 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Río Orteguasa, Florencia, Caquetá Dept., Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 70511. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus niceforoi (Fowler 1943) -- (Isbrücker 1980:28 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:432 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27, 28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 2764], Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:76 [ref. 35773] see remarks). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus niceforoi (Fowler 1943). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Japurá River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

nickeriensis, Hypostomus Boeseman [M.] 1969:125, Fig. 4 [Beaufortia v. 16 (no. 215); ref. 7799] Stondansie Falls, Nickerie River, Suriname. Holotype: ZMA 105765. Paratypes: RMNH 25982 (2); ZMA 105767 (14), 106012 (5), 106142 (10). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:55 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus nickeriensis Boeseman 1969 -- (Isbrücker 1980:28 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:432 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2013:360 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:2570[ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Hypostomus corantijni Boeseman 1968 -- (Weber et al. 2012:218 [ref. 31999]). Current status: Synonym of Hypostomus corantijni Boeseman 1968. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Nickerie River basin, Suriname [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

nickeriensis, Loricaria Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 1979:97, Figs. 11-13 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 5 (no. 4) (1978); ref. 2302] Fallawatra River, 5 kilometers south-southwest of Stondansie falls, Nickerie District, Suriname. Holotype: ZMA 107561. Paratypes: ZMA 106235-37 (3, 8, 8). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:57 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:269 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Loricaria nickeriensis Isbrücker 1979 -- (Isbrücker 1980:118 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:79 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:280 [ref. 24549], Isbrücker 2001:29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:22 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:337 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:269 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Loricaria nickeriensis Isbrücker 1979. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Colombia, French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

nicoi, Lasiancistrus Armbruster [J. W.] & Provenzano [F.] 2000:249, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 11 (no. 3); ref. 25069] Río Manipitare (Río Siapa drainage), from about 5-8 kilometers upstream from confluence with Río Siapa, Depto Río Negro, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 37033. Paratypes: ANSP 177766 (1); AUM 28355 (1); MCNG 12149 (1), 12290 (1), 12441 (1), 37034-39 (2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2); MBUCV V-27916 (1), V-29125 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudolithoxus nicoi (Armbruster & Provenzano 2000) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:21 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:28 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:394 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:289 [ref. 29155], Lujan & Birindelli 2011:39 [ref. 31408], Collins et al. 2018:[1] [ref. 35943]). Current status: Valid as Pseudolithoxus nicoi (Armbruster & Provenzano 2000). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Negro River basin, including Canal Casiquiare basin, Venezuela and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

niger, Hemiancistrus Norman [J. R.] 1926:96 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 18 (no. 103); ref. 15602] Oyapock River at "Sant" Cafesoca [Saut Cafesoca], French Guiana. Lectotype: BMNH 1926.3.2.756. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1926.3.2.757-760 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Heitmans el al. 1983:35 [ref. 5278]. •Valid as Lasiancistrus niger (Norman 1926) -- (Isbrücker 1980:45 [ref. 2303], Heitmans et al. 1983:35 [ref. 5278], Burgess 1989:434 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Le Bail et al. 2000:240 [ref. 24549], Knaack 2000:58 [ref. 27233]). •Valid as Pseudancistrus niger (Norman 1926) -- (Armbruster 2004:5 [ref. 27844], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155], De Chambrier & Montoya-Burgos 2008:52 [ref. 29881], Willink et al. 2010:41 [ref. 30670]). •Valid as Guyanancistrus niger (Norman 1926) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:19 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:385 [ref. 27061], Silva et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33302], Armbruster et al. 2015:99 [ref. 33670], Fisch-Muller et al. 2018:49 [ref. 35723]). Current status: Valid as Guyanancistrus niger (Norman 1926). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Oyapock River basin, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

niger, Plecostomus Marini [T. L.], Nichols [J. T.] & La Monte [F. R.] 1933:4 [American Museum Novitates No. 618; ref. 2889] Southeastern Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 12245. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus niger (Marini, Nichols & La Monte 1933) -- (Isbrücker 1980:28 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:432 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:360 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus niger (Marini, Nichols & La Monte 1933). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rivers of southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrescens, Pseudancistrus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:234, Fig. 35, Pl. 25 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Amatuk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53105 [ex CM 1539]. Paratypes: CAS 77343 [ex IU 11960] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:85 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:70 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:409 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Pseudancistrus nigrescens Eigenmann 1912 -- (Isbrücker 1980:11 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:429 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:27 [ref. 27178], Armbruster 2004:5 [ref. 27844], Ferraris 2007:287 [ref. 29155], De Chambrier & Montoya-Burgos 2008:52 [ref. 29881], Willink et al. 2010:41 [ref. 30670], Silva et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33302], Silva et al. 2015:21 [ref. 33679]). Current status: Valid as Pseudancistrus nigrescens Eigenmann 1912. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Potaro River basin, tributary of middle Essequibo River, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

nigricans, Hypostomus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:44, Pl. 22 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9576. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:14 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Parancistrus nigricans (Castelnau 1855) -- (Isbrücker 1980:58 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Parancistrus aurantiacus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Rapp Py-Daniel 1989:239 [ref. 13470], Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:392 [ref. 27061], Rapp Py-Daniel & Zuanon 2005:571 [ref. 28565], Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Parancistrus aurantiacus (Castelnau 1855). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Habitat: freshwater.

nigricauda, Loricaria Regan [C. T.] 1904:275, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 3, no. 1); ref. 3621] Porto Real, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1891.6.16.32 (55.4 mm SL). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1891.6.16.33-35 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Hemiloricaria nigricauda (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:23 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:27, 29 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:17 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:246 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rineloricaria nigricauda (Regan 1904) -- (Isbrücker 1980:108 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:442 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:130 [ref. 24147], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:343 [ref. 27061], Ghazzi 2008:102 [ref. 29636], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Rineloricaria nigricauda (Regan 1904). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Coastal streams in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nigricauda, Otocinclus Boulenger [G. A.] 1891:234, Pl. 25 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891 (pt 2); ref. 17039] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1891.3.16.53-62 (10, now 9). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Otocinclus nigricauda Boulenger 1891 -- (Isbrücker 1980:84 [ref. 2303], Schaefer 1991:6 [ref. 18926]). •Valid as Microlepidogaster nigricauda (Boulenger 1891) -- (Malabarba 1989:150 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Hisonotus nigricauda (Boulenger 1891) -- (Isbrücker 2001:28, 30 [ref. 25653], Aquino et al. 2001:9 [ref. 25673], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Britski & Garavello 2003:592 [ref. 27131], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:323 [ref. 27061], Almirón & Azpelicueta 2006:93 [ref. 28713], Casciotta et al. 2006:150 [ref. 28758], Britski & Garavello 2007:414 [ref. 29429], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155], Carvalho et al. 2008:515 [ref. 29799], Chiachio et al. 2008:610 [ref. 30127], Carvalho & Reis 2009:35 [ref. 30193], Koerber 2011:6 [ref. 31122], Garvalho & Reis 2011:3 [ref. 31240], Koerber 2014:9 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:24 [ref. 33622], Roxo et al. 2015:138 [ref. 33763], Mirande & Koerber 2015:41 [ref. 35117], Zawadzki et al. 2016:381 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:236 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35565], Calegari et al. 2017:244 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus nigricauda (Boulenger 1891). Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Paraná/Paraguay River basin, Uruguay River basin, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrirostrum, Sturiosoma Fowler [H. W.] 1940:249, Figs. 48-50 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91 (for 1939); ref. 1432] Contamana, Río Ucayali, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 68666. Paratypes: ANSP 68667-68 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155]. Original genus should have been Sturisoma. •Valid as Sturisoma nigrirostrum Fowler 1940 -- (Isbrücker 1980:95 [ref. 2303], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:346 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:299 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:112 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Londoño-Burbano 2018:[13] [ref. 35813]). Current status: Valid as Sturisoma nigrirostrum Fowler 1940. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Ucayali River drainage, Amazon basin, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrolineatus, Chaetostomus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:471, Unnumbered pl. following p. 556 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1877; ref. 18538] Guárico River at Calabozo, Apure River drainage, Guárico State, Venezuela. Syntypes: ZMB 10046-47 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. •Valid as Panaque nigrolineatus (Peters 1877) -- (Isbrücker 1980:75 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Montoya-Burgos et al. 1998:367 [ref. 23850], Isbrücker 2001:26, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:391 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:278 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2010:687 [ref. 31098], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745], Lujan et al. 2015:664 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35633], Lujan et al. 2017:331 [ref. 35031], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:75 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Panaque nigrolineatus (Peters 1877). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Orinoco River and Amazon River tributaries: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrolineatus, Hypostomus Zawadzki [C. H.], Carvalho [P. H.], Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Azevedo [F. M.] 2016:266, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 27 (no. 3) for Nov.; ref. 34908] Rio Fanado under the bridge on road to Turmalina, tributary of rio Araçuaí, rio Jequintinhonha basin, municipality of Minas Novas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 17°13'14"S, 42°35'46"W. Holotype: MZUSP 93717. Paratypes: MZUEL, MZUSP, NUP. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Hypostomus nigrolineatus Zawadzki, Carvalho, Birindelli & Azevedo 2016. Current status: Valid as Hypostomus nigrolineatus Zawadzki, Carvalho, Birindelli & Azevedo 2016. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Jequitinhonha and rio Pardo basins, eastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nigromaculatus, Plecostomus Schubart [O.] 1964:2, Figs. 2, 5 [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Zoologia, Nova Série No. 251; ref. 3425] Cachoeira de Emas, Rio Mogi Guassu basin, Brazil. Holotype: EEBP 304. Paratypes: EEBP 217 (6), 295 (2), 297-98 (8, 2) 304 (23, with holotype), 305 (16), 307 (10), 309-11 (22, 11, 13), 589 (7). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus nigromaculatus (Schubart 1964) -- (Isbrücker 1980:28 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:432 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:28, 31 [ref. 25653], Casatti et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25929], Isbrücker 2002:19 [ref. 27178], Weber in Reis et al. 2003:361 [ref. 27061], Armbruster 2004:79 [ref. 27644], Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155], Zawadzki et al. 2010:724 [ref. 31074], Cardoso et al. 2012:77 [ref. 32154], Zawadzki et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33233], Martins et al. 2014:7 [ref. 33617], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus nigromaculatus (Schubart 1964). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Middle and upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nigropunctatus, Hypostomus Garavello [J. C.], Britski [H. A.] & Zawadzki [C. H.] 2012:277, Fig. 7 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 32033] Rio Iguaçu, Salto Segredoreservoir, Brazil, Municipality of Mangueirinha/Reserva do Iguaçu, 25°46’45"S 52°07’00"W, Paraná State, Brazil, Holotype: MZUSP 106072. Paratypes: Many at LBP, LISDEBE, MHNCI, NUP, ZSM. •Valid as Hypostomus nigropunctatus Garavello, Britski & Zawadzki 2012 -- (Zawadzki et al. 2015:57 [ref. 33866], Zawadzki et al. 2016:273 [ref. 34908], Zawadzki et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35944]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus nigropunctatus Garavello, Britski & Zawadzki 2012. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nijsseni, Harttia Boeseman [M.] 1976:170, Pl. 8 [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 50 (no. 11); ref. 6991] Sipaliwini River, southwestern Suriname. Holotype: RMNH 27498. Paratypes: RMNH 27494-97 (3, 1, 1, 5), 27499-501 (5, 4, 2), 27502 (orig. 4, now 3), 27503-04 (1, 1); USNM 216482 [probably ex RMNH 27502] (1); ZMA 114310 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:52 [ref. 19236], Ferraris & Vari 1992:27 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:272 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Metaloricaria paucidens Isbrücker 1975, but a valid subspecies -- (Le Bail et al. 2000:284 [ref. 24549]). •Valid as Metaloricaria nijseni (Boeseman 1976) -- (Isbrücker 1980:96 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:440 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:339 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:272 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Metaloricaria nijsseni (Boeseman 1976). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Suriname, Saramacca, Nickerie and Corantijn River basins, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

nimius, Hemipsilichthys Pereira [E. H. L.], Reis [R. E.], Souza [P. F. M.] & Lazzarotto [H.] 2003:5, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 285; ref. 27068] Rio Carrasquinho below the Cachoeira do Tobogã, upper Perequê-Açu basin, Penha, about 7.5 kilometers west of highway BR101, on road from Parati do Cunha, 23°12'51"S, 44°47'28"W, Parati, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 33049. Paratypes: MCP 30671 (10, 1 c&s), 31573 (1), 31990 (11); MNRJ 24909-13 (2, 1, 2, 1, 6). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:247 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemipsilichthys nimius Pereira, Reis, Souza & Lazzarotto 2003 -- (Periera 2005:272 [ref. 28273], Reis et al. 2006:286 [ref. 28706], Ferraris 2007:247 [ref. 29155], Ferraris 2007:444 [ref. 29155], Pereira et al. 2010:37 [ref. 30753]). Current status: Valid as Hemipsilichthys nimius Pereira, Reis, Souza & Lazzarotto 2003. Loricariidae: Delturinae. Distribution: Perequê-Açu and Taquarí rivers, southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

niveatus, Hypostomus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:43, Pl. 21 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio Araguay, Goiás State, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-9453 (1, dry), A-9454 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:14 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parancistrus niveatus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Isbrücker 1980:58 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Baryancistrus niveatus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Rapp Py-Daniel 1989:245 [ref. 13470], Isbrücker 2001:26, 28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:379 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:227 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2009:53 [ref. 30056], Rapp Py-Daniel et al. 2011:241[ref. 31383], de Oliveira et al. 2019:491 [ref. 36981]). Current status: Valid as Baryancistrus niveatus (Castelnau 1855). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Tocantins, Xingú, Tapajós and Trombetas River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

niveatus, Plecostomus La Monte [F. R.] 1929:3, Figs. 2-3 [American Museum Novitates No. 373; ref. 3039] Caño Pescado, 5 miles north of Esmeralda, Upper Orinoco drainage, Venezuela, elevation about 325 feet. Holotype (unique): AMNH 9601 [not 9061]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:234 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Peckoltia niveata (La Monte 1929) -- (Isbrücker 1980:56 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:435 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Dekeyseria niveata (La Monte 1929) -- (Isbrücker 2001:26, 31 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:15 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:383 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:234 [ref. 29155], Armbruster et al. 2015:100 [ref. 33670]). Current status: Valid as Dekeyseria niveata (La Monte 1929). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

niveum, Chaetostoma Fowler [H. W.] 1944:238, Figs. 14-16 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1452] Clear waters of Río Jurubidá, Nuquí, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71432. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:230 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Chaetostoma niveum Fowler 1944 -- (Isbrücker 1980:62 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:381 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:230 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma niveum Fowler 1944. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Jurubidá River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

nix, Panaqolus Cramer [C. A.] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2015:462, Figs. 1-5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 33945] Rondônia, rio Madeira, cofferdam at construction site of Santo Antônio hydroelectric power plant (former Santo Antônio rapids), Brazil, 8°48'06"S, 63°57'00"W. Holotype: INPA 39606. Paratypes: INPA, MZUSP, UFRO-I. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Panaqolus nix Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015 -- (Cramer & Sousa 2016:16 [ref. 34885], Lujan et al. 2017:333 [11] [ref. 35031] subgenus Panafilus Lujan et al. 2017). Current status: Valid as Panaqolus nix Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nocturnus, Panaque Schaefer [S. A.] & Stewart [D. J.] 1993:330, Fig. 15 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 21282] Río Santiago near la Poza, Río Marañón basin, 4°01'24"S, 77°45'06"W, Depart. Amazonas, Peru. Holotype: LACM 41729-51. Paratypes: FMNH 96955 (3, 2 c&s), 97599-600 (1, 2); LACM 41723-5 (4), 41729-35 (4); MEPN 1560 (1), 3020 (3); USNM 167907 (4), 177209 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Panaque nocturnus Schaefer & Stewart 1993 -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Burgess & Finley 1996:169 [ref. 22901], Chockley & Armbruster 2002:83 [ref. 26069], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:391 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:113 [ref. 35745]). •Valid as Panaqolus nocturnus (Schaefer & Stewart 1993) -- (Isbrücker et al. 2001:21 [ref. 25649], Isbrücker 2001:30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:24 [ref. 27178], Ferraris 2007:277 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2013:192 [ref. 32784], Cramer 2014:69 [ref. 33229], Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015:469 [ref. 33945], Cramer & Sousa 2016:16 [ref. 34885], Tan et al. 2016:[19] [ref. 34532], Lujan et al. 2017:333 [10] [ref. 35031] subgenus Panafilus Lujan et al. 2017). Current status: Valid as Panaqolus nocturnus (Schaefer & Stewart 1993). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Upper Napo drainage: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

notatus, Hisonotus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:41 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Rio de Janeiro State, Santa Cruz, rio Guandu, Santa Cruz farm - Emperor Pedro II's farm, Brazil, 22°54'40"S, 43°41'7"W. [old locality: Santa Cruz, within urban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Lectotype: MNRJ 42969 (out of 28882). Paralectotypes: ANSP 166924 [ex MCZ 7764] (6); BMNH 1904.1.28.13-16 [ex MCZ 7764] (4); MCZ 7764 (95, now 79) Santa Cruz, not 8177 (1) Juiz de Fora; MNRJ 28882 (5). Some specimens lost. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Martins & Langeani 2016:12 [ref. 34533]. •Valid as Otocinclus notatus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Isbrücker 1980:84 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:439 [ref. 12860], Schaefer 1991:6 [ref. 18926]). •In Microlepidogaster -- (Schaefer 1997:8 [ref. 23213]). •Valid as Hisonotus notatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 -- (Isbrücker 2001:28 [ref. 25653], Aquino et al. 2001:9 [ref. 25673], Isbrücker 2002:18 [ref. 27178], Britto & Moreira 2002:1064 [ref. 26512], Britski & Garavello 2003:592 [ref. 27131], Schaefer in Reis et al. 2003:323 [ref. 27061], Almirón & Azpelicueta 2006:93 [ref. 28713], Britski & Garavello 2007:414 [ref. 29429], Ferraris 2007:248 [ref. 29155], Garvalho & Reis 2011:1 [ref. 31240], Rosa et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33228], Silva et al. 2014:119 [ref. 33533], Roxo et al. 2015:138 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:381 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:236 [ref. 34426], Martins & Langeani 2016:10 [ref. 34533], Roxo et al. 2017:267 [ref. 35139], Calegari et al. 2017:244 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2017:351 [ref. 35310], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus notatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Rio São João drainage, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

notopagos, Hisonotus Carvalho [T. P.] & Reis [R. E.] 2011:24, Figs. 4c, 6c, 8c, 25, 26, 27c [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 31240] Lavras do Sul, small creek tributary of arroio das Lavras on road from Lavras do Sul to Bagé, rio Camaquã drainage, 30°50'18"S, 53°55'43"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 44517. Paratypes: many at ANSP, MCP, MZUSP, UFRGS. •Valid as Hisonotus notopagos Carvalho & Reis 2011 -- (Roxo et al. 2015:138 [ref. 33763], Zawadzki et al. 2016:381 [ref. 34367], Roxo et al. 2016:236 [ref. 34426], Bertaco et al. 2016:418 [ref. 34561], Calegari et al. 2017:244 [ref. 35203], Roxo et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35900]). Current status: Valid as Hisonotus notopagos Carvalho & Reis 2011. Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae. Distribution: Headwaters of Rio Camaquã drainage, Laguna dos Patos system, southern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

novaesi, Furcodontichthys Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 1981:4, Figs. 1-6 [Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Nova Serie, Zoologia No. 105; ref. 3568] Lake Tefé, Rio Solimões, Caititu, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 79-014. Paratypes: INPA 79-015 (1), 79-013 (1); MPEG 42 (1) Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:240 [ref.29155]. •Valid as Furcodontichthys novaesi Rapp Py-Daniel 1981 -- (Burgess 1989:441 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:334 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:240 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Furcodontichthys novaesi Rapp Py-Daniel 1981. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Solimões River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

novalimensis, Harttia Oyakawa [O. T.] 1993:8, Fig. 2 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 6; ref. 21109] Rio São Francisco, Brazil, 20°60'S, 43°55'W. Holotype: MZUSP 43262. Paratypes: MCP 15103 (20); MNRJ 12141 (20); MZUSP 37147 (16), 42702 (2, c&s), 43263 (34). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Harttia novalimensis Oyakawa 1993 -- (Oyakawa 1993:19 [ref. 21109], Burgess & Finley 1996:170 [ref. 22901], Langeani et al. 2001:141 [ref. 25126], Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001:80 [ref. 25404], Isbrücker 2001:27 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:16 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:335 [ref. 27061], Provenzano et al. 2005:521 [ref. 28461], Ferraris 2007:241 [ref. 29155], Oyakawa et al. 2013:785 [ref. 33027], Oyakawa et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35818]). Current status: Valid as Harttia novalimensis Oyakawa 1993. Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nudiceps, Hypostomus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:631 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Takutu, Guyana. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3180. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155]. Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061] treats ZMB 3180 as the holotype [needs checking]. •Valid as Ancistrus nudiceps (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Isbrücker 1980:71 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:437 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:25, 28 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:12 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:377 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:223 [ref. 29155], de Souza et al. 2019:35 [ref. 36504]). Current status: Valid as Ancistrus nudiceps (Müller & Troschel 1849). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Essequibo River system and tributaries of the Amazon River basin (Takutu River), Guyana, and Cuyuni River, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

nudirostris, Chaetostomus Lütken [C. F.] 1874:207 [6] [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1873 (nos 13-14); ref. 2854] Valencia, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P30168 [ex 71]. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:52 [ref. 9588], Ferraris 2007:230 [ref. 29155]. Original genus is correctly Chaetostoma. On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Chaetostoma nudirostre Lütken 1874 -- (Isbrücker 1980:63 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:436 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:26 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:13 [ref. 27178], Fisch-Muller in Reis et al. 2003:381 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:230 [ref. 29155], Ballen 2011:388 [ref. 31653], Lujan et al. 2015:666 [ref. 33975], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[18] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Chaetostoma nudirostre Lütken 1874. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Lake Valencia basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

nudirostris, Loricaria Kner [R.] 1853:86 [22], Pl. 4 (figs. 1-3) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 6; ref. 2627] Manaus, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 45092:1. Paralectotypes: NMW 45092:2 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155]. On p. 22 of separate. Lectotype selected by Isbrücker 1979:113 [ref. 2302]. •Valid as Loricariichthys nudirostris (Kner 1853) -- (Isbrücker 1980:128 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Ortega & Vari 1986:17 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:445 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 30 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:23 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:339 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:271 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Loricariichthys nudirostris (Kner 1853). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nudiventris, Loricaria Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:469 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Rio São Francisco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9558 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:74 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Spatuloricaria nudiventris (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Isbrücker 1980:113 [ref. 2303], Isbrücker 1981:88 [ref. 5522], Burgess 1989:443 [ref. 12860], Isbrücker 2001:29, 32 [ref. 25653], Isbrücker 2002:29 [ref. 27178], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:345 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:81 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:297 [ref. 29155], Fichberg et al. 2014:323 [ref. 33358], Litz & Koerber 2014:27 [ref. 33622], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Spatuloricaria nudiventris (Valenciennes 1840). Loricariidae: Loricariinae. Distribution: De la Plata River and São Francisco River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

nudiventris, Parancistrus Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] & Zuanon [J.] 2005:573, Figs. 1-2, 4-5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28565] Rio Xingú, bedrock at ilha do Bacabal, 3°23'19"S, 51°43'24"W, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 15037. Paratypes: 24 specimens at INPA, ZUEC 4538 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parancistrus nudiventris Rapp Py-Daniel & Zuanon 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:279 [ref. 29155], Lujan et al. 2009:53 [ref. 30056]). Current status: Valid as Parancistrus nudiventris Rapp Py-Daniel & Zuanon 2005. Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Xingú River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nudiventris, Plecostomus Fowler [H. W.] 1941:147, Figs. 44-46 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Choró, Ceará, near Fortaleza, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69402. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:123 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:257 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypostomus nudiventris (Fowler 1941) -- (Isbrücker 1980:29 [ref. 2303], Burgess 1989:432 [ref. 12860], Zanata et al. 2013:248 [ref. 32751], Zawadzki et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35355], Ramos et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35396], Zawadzki et al. 2017:571 [ref. 35666]). Current status: Valid as Hypostomus nudiventris (Fowler 1941). Loricariidae: Hypostominae. Distribution: Northern Brazilian coastal drainages. Habitat: freshwater.