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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Monacanthidae: [ 312 ] records


abassai, Aluterus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:490 [212] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:294 [ref. 28887] On p. 212 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy under Aluterus nasicornis; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. •In the synonymy of Pseudalutarius nasicornis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:294 [ref. 28887]) Current status: Synonym of Pseudalutarius nasicornis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Monacanthidae.

abassai, Monacanthus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:493 [215] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 215 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy under Monacanthus hispidus; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. Monacanthidae.

albopunctatus, Monacanthus Seale [A.] 1901:13, Fig. 6 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 14358] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 667. •Synonym of Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854) -- (Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:396 [ref. 22896], Mundy 2005:528 [ref. 28379], Randall 2011:9 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

alternans, Monacanthus Ogilby [J. D.] 1899:741 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 23 (pt 4); ref. 3277] Maroubra Beach, New South Wales, Australia. Lectotype: AMS IA.4019. Paralectotypes: QM I.793 (1) Lord Howe I. Lectotype established by Whitley 1930:121 [ref. 4669]. •Synonym of Pervagor nitesn (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283]). •Valid as Pervagor alternans (Ogilby 1899) -- (Hutchins 1986:15 [ref. 19371], Randall et al. 1990:464 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:398 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Randall et al. 1997:464 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:286 [ref. 23965], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:460 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:3935 [ref. 26316], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:636 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1895 [ref. 29098], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Pervagor alternans (Ogilby 1899). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Australia, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Marshall Islands. Habitat: marine.

amphacanthoides, Alutarius Bleeker [P.] 1851:23, Pl. 2 (fig. 5) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 11); ref. 16836] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) ?BMNH 1867.11.28.152 (1), RMNH 7305 (2). Original as amphacanthoïdes. •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1062 [ref. 19527], Galeote 2001:314 [ref. 26422]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

amphioxys, Monacanthus Cope [E. D.] 1871:477 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Lectotype: ANSP 777. Paralectotypes: ANSP 778 (1), 798 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:25 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype established by Fowler 1919:142 [ref. 22576]. •Probably a synonym of Amanses pullus (Ranzani 1842) -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:71 [ref. 19549]). •Synonym of Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527] as amphioxus, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:350 [ref. 25013], Randall 2011:22 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

analis, Pseudomonacanthus Waite [E. R.] 1904:173, Fig. 32 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 4561] Lord Howe Island. Holotype (unique): AMS I.5842. •Valid as Thamnaconus analis (Waite 1904) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283], Paulin et al. 1989:243 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Allen et al. 2006:1898 [ref. 29098], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1722 [ref. 34322]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus analis (Waite 1904). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

anginosus, Aluterus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1855:11 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 4; ref. 19529] Indian Seas; Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN A-8476 (1, dry) Pondichery, MNHN A-8477 (1, dry) Mer des Indes, B-1950 (1) Mer des Indes. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:527 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:286 [ref. 28887]. Appeared first and dates to Monacanthus anginosus Hollard in Guichenot 1853. •Synonym of Alutera monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283]). •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1062 [ref. 19527], Allen et al. 2006:1881 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

anginosus, Monacanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] in Guichenot 1853:184 [Sagra, R. de la, Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l'Ile de Cuba; ref. 18164] Indian seas; Cuba. Possible syntypes: MNHN A-8476-77 (1, 1), B-1950 (1). Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:299 [ref. 28887]. Based on Hollard [manuscript] and to Parra citation taken from Hollard; original localities therefore are Cuba and Indian seas. Also appeared in Hollard 1855:11 [ref. 19529] as Aluterus anginosus (see that account). •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

angusticauda, Balistes Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:327 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 5, art. 1); ref. 30214] New York City, New York, U.S.A., from Atlantic. No types known. Based on a drawing. Monacanthidae.

arabicus, Paramonacanthus Hutchins [J. B.] 1997:9, Figs. 5b, 6e, 8-9 [Records of the Western Australian Museum Suppl. No. 54; ref. 23117] Near Tanajib Bay (near Safaniya, 28°00'N, 48°50'E), Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia. Holotype: WAM P.31180-001. Paratypes: AMS I. 37401-001 (7); BMNH 1996.10.29.2-7 (6); BPBM 21213 (1), 21291 (2), 29497 (14), 30911 (4), 35415 (1); USNM 342554-55 (1, 1); WAM P.25977-010 (11), P.25979-003 (3), P.25980-007 (2), P.25988-001 (3), P.29813-001 (2, c&s), P.31179-001 (3), P.31181-001 (14), P.31182-001 (2), P.31183-001 (3), P.31184-001 (7), P.31185-001 (1), P.31186-001 (1), P.31187-001 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:52 [ref. 30117] •Valid as Paramonacanthus arabicus Hutchins 1997 -- (Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Eagderi et al. 2019:135 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus arabicus Hutchins 1997. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: marine.

arenaceus, Cantherines Barnard [K. H.] 1927:78 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 20 (no. 115) (art. 8); ref. 193] South Africa, no exact locality, probably Natal. Holotype (unique): SAM 13078. Also appeared as new in Barnard 1927:958 [ref. 194]. •Valid as Thamnaconus arenaceus (Barnard 1927) -- (Hutchins 1986:887 [ref. 5673] with original genus as Cantherhines, Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2018:382 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus arenaceus (Barnard 1927). Monacanthidae. Distribution: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

armata, Alutera Garman [S.] 1903:240, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 39 (no. 8); ref. 15030] Suva, Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28312. •Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

arqat, Paraluteres Clark [E.] & Gohar [H. A. F.] 1953:43, Fig. 10 [Publications of the Marine Biological Station Al-Ghardaqa (Red Sea) No. 8; ref. 12688] Hurghada, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): MBSH uncat. •Valid as Paraluteres arqat Clark & Gohar 1953 -- (Dor 1984:280 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Myers 1999:285 [ref. 23965], Randall 2005:635 [ref. 28239], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], DiBattista et al. 2015:20 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:179 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Paraluteres arqat Clark & Gohar 1953. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

aspersus, Monacanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:362 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 2; ref. 18301] Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:299 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527], Beaunier et al. 2009:299 [ref. 28887], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

aspricaudus, Monacanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:330 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 2; ref. 18301] Unknown locality. Lectotype: MNHN A-8545 (dry). Paralectotypes: MNHN B-1969 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:519-520 [ref. 21538] as holotype and paratype, Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887]. Lectotype established in Hutchins 1986:19-20 [ref. 19371]. The paralectotype might be the holotype of Monacathus dumerilii Hollard 1854. •Valid as Pervagor aspricaudus (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1986:18 [ref. 19371], Randall et al. 1990:465 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:465 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:29 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:286 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:594 [ref. 24106], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1410 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:3935 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1410 [ref. 26193], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:636 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:529 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1895 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:480 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:119 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1077 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2018:381 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pervagor aspricaudus (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Comoros and Madagascar east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia; antiequatorial. Habitat: marine.

aurantiacus, Balistes Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:468 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Smith 1986:459 [ref. 22186] as schoepfi, Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1062 [ref. 19527], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:349 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

auratus, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:77 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Genus Stephanolepis is feminine, so the species name should be spelled aurata. •Valid as Stephanolepis auratus (Castelnau 1861) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283], Hutchins 1986:886 [ref. 5673], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:446 [ref. 28072], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2018:381 [ref. 35805], Kumar et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36793]). •Valid as Stephanolepis aurata (Castelnau 1861). Current status: Valid as Stephanolepis aurata (Castelnau 1861). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa, East Africa and Madagascar east to northwestern India. IUCN (2019): LC. Habitat: marine.

auriga, Monacanthus Lowe [R. T.] 1852:253 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1850 (pt 18) (art. 5); ref. 2835] Off Madeira. Syntypes: (several) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispidus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Tortonese 1973:643 [ref. 7192], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1065 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Balistes Donovan [E.] 1824:no page, Pl. LXXVI [The naturalist's repository v. 3 [for 1825]; ref. 17409] Tasmania, Australia. No types known. •Valid as Meuschenia australis (Donovan 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Kuiter 1993:403 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:880 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:396 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2008:833 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Meuschenia australis (Donovan 1824). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. Habitat: marine.

auwawa, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:464 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Indian Ocean. An earlier name for Balistes linguatula Gray 1854. •Synonym of Alutera monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2002:310 [ref. 26661]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

ayraud, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:216, Pl. 47 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2018. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:525 [ref. 21538] as ayraudi, Beaunier et al. 2009:287 [ref. 28887]. The spelling ayraud is acceptable. •Valid as Nelusetta ayraud (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283] as ayraudi, Paulin et al. 1989:243 [ref. 24556] as ayraudi, Kuiter 1993:401 [ref. 23929] as ayraudi, Gomon et al. 1994:888 [ref. 22532] as ayraudi, Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471] as ayraudi, Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3941 [ref. 26316] as ayraudi, Allen et al. 2006:1892 [ref. 29098] as ayraudi, Hutchins 2008:839 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1721 [ref. 34322], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Nelusetta ayraud (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern Australia, waif to New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

bacilligerus, Monacanthus Desjardins [J.] in Liénard 1836:61 [L'Institut v. 4 (no. 167, 175); ref. 2778] Mauritius. Not seen. Apparently name only and not available. Monacanthidae.

barbarae, Arotrolepis (Scurrilichthys) Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1941:187, Fig. 3 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 8 (no. 45); ref. 1494] Australia (possibly Queensland). Holotype: BMNH 1851.2.20.15 (largest). Paratypes: AMS IB.5387 [ex BMNH] (1), BMNH 1851.2.20.15 (smaller of 2). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus sulcatus (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283]). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus otisensis Whitley 1931 -- (Hutchins 1997:40 [ref. 23117], Allen et al. 2006:1894 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus otisensis Whitley 1931. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

barbatus, Anacanthus Gray [J. E.] 1830:no page number, Pl. 84 (fig. 2) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] Singapore. No types known. Published about 6 Jan. 1830; also in Gray 1831:8 [ref. 1879]. •Valid as Psilocephalus barbatus (Gray 1830) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:288 [ref. 19754], Lindberg et al. 1997:41 [ref. 23547]). •Valid as Anacanthus barbatus Gray 1830 -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283] dated to1831, Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:613 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:375 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:3937 [ref. 26316] dated 1831, Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1882 [ref. 29098], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1071 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:228 [ref. 34464], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576] dated 1931, Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2015:102 [ref. 34319], Motomura et al. 2017:232 [ref. 35490], Psomadakis et al. 2020:611 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Anacanthus barbatus Gray 1830. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India and Myanmar east to Philippines, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

barbatus, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:464 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. •Synonym of Alutera monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2002:310 [ref. 26661]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

barbatus, Pogonognathus Bleeker [P.] 1849:73 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 316] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia; Singapore. No types known. Not an independent new species description, but a new combination for Aluthera barbata of Müller, based on Anacanthus barbatus Gray 1830. •In the synonymy of Anacanthus barbatus Gray 1830. Current status: Synonym of Anacanthus barbatus Gray 1830. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

barnardi, Paramonacanthus Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1941:193, Fig. 6 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 8 (no. 45); ref. 1494] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1864.11.15.86. Paratypes: BMNH 1913.4.7.164 (1). Plus additional material: BMNH (9, poor condition). •Valid as Paramonacanthus barnardi Fraser-Brunner 1941 -- (Dor 1984:280 [ref. 29757], Hutchins 1986:885 [ref. 5673], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356]). •In part in the synonymy of Paramonacanthus frenatus (Peters 1855) -- (Hutchins 1997:23 [ref. 23117]). •In part synonym of Paramonacanthus nematophorus (Günther 1870) -- (Hutchins 1997:36 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus frenatus (Peters 1855). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

baudini, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:55 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Victoria, Australia; Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Syntypes: (2). •Questionably a synonym of Eubalichthys gunnii (Günther 1870) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283]). •Incertae sedis in Monacanthidae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1900 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Eubalichthys gunnii (Günther 1870). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

baueri, Aleuterius Richardson [J.] 1846:68 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Coast of Australia. No types known. Based on drawing. Correct spelling for genus is Aluterus. •Valid as Brachaluteres baueri (Richardson 1846) -- (Hutchins1977:54 [ref. 2283], Dor 1984:279 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1883 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

beibar, Monacanthus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:492 [214] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 214 of reprint. Monacanthidae.

berardi, Aluteres Lesson [R. P.] 1831:108, Poissons Pl. 7 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1949. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:526 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:286 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1061 [ref. 19527], Randall 2007:477 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

bertolonii, Monacanthus Bianconi [G. G.] 1854:69 [Rendiconto delle Sessioni dell'Accademia delle Scienze dell'Instituto dei Bologna 1853-1854 (for 11 May 1854); ref. 17949] Mozambique. No types known. Also in Bianconi 1854:226 [ref. 295] with figure. Name also appeared in Bianconi 1855:148 [ref. 26452] with figure. •Synonym of Paramonacanthus frenatus (Peters 1855) -- (Hutchins 1997:23 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus frenatus (Peters 1855). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

bifilamentosus, Monacanthus Lesson [R. P.] 1831:109, Poissons Pl. 8 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2004 (poor condition). Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

blankerti, Aluteres Metzelaar [J.] 1919:295, Fig. 64 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Cape Blanc [Blanco], [Mauritania/Spanish Sahara], northwestern coast of Africa. Syntypes: (several) ZMA 102359 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:109 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Aluterus heudelotii Hollard 1855 -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:67 [ref. 19549], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1061 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus heudelotii Hollard 1855. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Monacanthus Billberg [G. J.] 1833:52 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] America [in error]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4167. Based on the Balistes tomentosus of Bloch 1786:Pl. 148 (fig. 1) [ref. 465], allegedly different from Balistes tomentosus Linnaeus 1758 according to Billberg 1833; see Kullander 2016:113 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Acreichthys tomentosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kullander 2016:113 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Acreichthys tomentosus (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

bovinus, Hanomanctus Smith [J. L. B.] 1949:403, Fig. 1143 [The sea fishes of southern Africa; ref. 5846] Near East London, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 121. •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Hutchins 1986:884 [ref. 5673], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

brevispinosus, Monocanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:335 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 2; ref. 18301] Indian Sea ["Mer des Indes"]. Holotype (unique): MNHN. Original genus should have been Monacanthus. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

broccus, Balistes Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:467 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

broekii, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1858:35 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 3 (art. 10); ref. 360] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7300. Bleeker specimens: NMV 46362 (1). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus japonicus (Tilesius 1809) -- (Hutchins 1997:26 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus japonicus (Tilesius 1809). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

brownii, Aleuterius Richardson [J.] 1846:68 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Coasts of Australia. No types known. Originally Aleuterius ?. Based on a drawing. Correct spelling for genus is Aluterus. •Valid as Bigener brownii (Richardson 1846) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283]). •Valid as Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson 1846) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:868 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:398 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1879 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:824 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson 1846). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia, South Australia. Habitat: marine.

brunneri, Cantherines Norman [J. R.] 1937:57, Fig. 3 [B. A. N. Z. Antarctic research expedition 1929-1931 v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 15294] Australian coastal waters, off Albany, station 76. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1937.9.21.39. •Synonym of Eubalichthys bucephalus (Whitley 1931) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1886 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Eubalichthys bucephalus (Whitley 1931). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:108 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Noble Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2046. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:523 [ref. 21538]. Not Monacanthus brunneus Castelnau on p. 145 of same reference. •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Allen et al. 2006:1884 [ref. 29098], Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:145 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Fremantle, Western Australia. No types known. Homonym of Monacanthus brunneus Castelnau 1873 in same work on p. 108. •Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1898 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

bucephalus, Blandowskius Whitley [G. P.] 1931:329, Pl. 26 (fig. 1) [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] Off Wilsons Promontory, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS E.1263. •Valid as Eubalichthys bucephalus (Whitley 1931) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Kuiter 1993:409 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:873 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:394 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1886 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:829 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Eubalichthys bucephalus (Whitley 1931). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

caeruleoguttatus, Eubalichthys Hutchins [J. B.] 1977:28, Fig. 8 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 2283] Near Beagle Island, 29°48'S, 114°52'E, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.5204-001. Paratypes: BMNH 1876.8.23.2 (1); WAM P.9156 (1), P.9157-001 (1), P.9159-001 (1), P.11828/11829-001 (1, 1), P.14845-001 (1, skel.), P.14875-001 (1), P.14887-001 (1), P.22100-001 (1), P.22310-001 (1), P.25555-001 to 25559-001 (1, 1, 1, 5 not 6, 1), P.25579-001 (1); USNM 216434 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:44 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Eubalichthys caeruleoguttatus Hutchins 1977 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1886 [ref. 29098], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Eubalichthys caeruleoguttatus Hutchins 1977. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

carolae, Cantherines Jordan [D. S.] & McGregor [E. A.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1713 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 11995. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:144 [ref. 12291]. Original genus should have been spelled Cantherhines. •Synonym of Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854) -- (Randall 1995:396 [ref. 22896], Lindberg et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23547], Mundy 2005:528 [ref. 28379], Randall 2011:9 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

castelnaui, Monacanthus Macleay [W.] 1881:252 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 4); ref. 2869] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Bigener brownii (Richardson 1846) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283]). •Synonym of Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson 1846) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1879 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson 1846). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

cerinus, Cantherhines Randall [J. E.] 2011:7, Pl. IA, B [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 40; ref. 31468] Offshore reef, Bolinao, Luzon, Philippines. Holotype: BPBM 36836. Paratypes: FMNH 119627 (1), USNM 399289 (1). •Valid as Cantherhines cerinus Randall 2011 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1071 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Cantherhines cerinus Randall 2011. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

chinensis, Balistes Osbeck [P.] 1765:147 [Reise nach Ostindien und China; ref. 3311] South China Sea southwest of Macao/China. No types known. Spelled sinensis in Gmelin 1789:1470 [ref. 18139]. •Valid as Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:463 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:400 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:887 [ref. 22532], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:616 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:375 [ref. 23967], Chen et al. 1997:182 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:400 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:463 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1411 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:276 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3940 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1411 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:223 [ref. 27510], Allen et al. 2006:1891 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:838 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2009:331 [ref. 31171], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1073 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:233 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:228 [ref. 34464], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2015:102 [ref. 34319], Motomura et al. 2017:232 [ref. 35490], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:306 [ref. 36460], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to Geographe Bay (Western Australia) and Westernport (Victoria, Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

choirocephalus, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1851:19, Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 11); ref. 16836] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes and Bleeker specimens: (8) AMS B.7612 (1), BMNH 1867.11.28.204 (1), RMNH 7301 (47, some probably syntypes), MNHN 0000-4788 (2) Jakarta, NMV 46537 (2), SMNS 10614 (3 syntypes). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:520 [ref. 21538], Fricke 1991:17 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:48 [ref. 29864], Beaunier et al. 2009:303 [ref. 28887]. •Valid as Paramonacanthus choirocephalus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:283 [ref. 19754], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:301 [ref. 24014], Larson & Williams 1997:375 [ref. 23967], Hutchins 1997:19 [ref. 23117], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:237 [ref. 23922], Chhapgar & Muley 1997:582 [ref. 24979], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3942 [ref. 26316], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:49 [ref. 27712], Allen et al. 2006:1893 [ref. 29098], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1075 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:234 [ref. 32988] dated 1852, Yoshida et al. 2013:229 [ref. 34464] dated 1852, Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576] dated 1853, Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2015:103 [ref. 34319] dated 1852, Motomura et al. 2017:233 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus choirocephalus (Bleeker 1851). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: east Indian region and south to Australia. Habitat: marine.

chrysospilos, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1853:126 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 16900] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: MNHN 0000-3019 (1) Batu. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:525 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:303 [ref. 28887]. Spelled chrijsospilos on p. 101, with ij in Dutch equivalent to y in Latin. •Synonym of Oxymonacanthus longirostris (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Oxymonacanthus longirostris (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

ciliatus, Balistes Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:326 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 5, art. 1); ref. 30214] Straits of Bahamas, Atlantic, depth 40 fathoms. No types known. •Valid as Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill 1818) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:469 [ref. 14275] as cliliatus, Robins & Ray 1986:301 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:565 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:225 [ref. 14674], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1066 [ref. 19527], Boschung 1992:181 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:360 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204] in Monacamthus [sic], Cervigón 1996:102 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:506 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:350 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:595 [ref. 26158], Matsuura 2003:1976 [ref. 27119], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:909 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:87 [ref. 33341], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill 1818). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Atlantic, in tropical and temperate waters. Habitat: marine.

cinerea, Alutera Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:292, Pl. 131 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1701 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1700 (1, stuffed), ZMB 4177 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:330 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:210 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1061 [ref. 19527], Lindberg et al. 1997:71 [ref. 23547]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

cingalensis, Laputa Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1941:191, Fig. 5 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 8 (no. 45); ref. 1494] Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1902.8.23.4. •Valid as Laputa cingalensis Fraser-Brunner 1941 -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283]). •Valid as Paramonacanthus cingalensis (Fraser-Brunner 1941) -- (Hutchins 1986:885 [ref. 5673]). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829) -- (Hutchins 1997:43 [ref. 23117], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:446 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

cirrhifer, Monacanthus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:290, Pl. 130 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1685 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1681-1684 (4, stuffed), D1734 (1, stuffed), 4143 (3), 4144 (8), 4145 (1); ZMB 4175 [ex RMNH] (1, stuffed), 4176 [ex RMNH] (1, stuffed), 5913 (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:330 [ref. 25566] as cirrifer. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:209 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Randall 1995:397 [ref. 22896], Chen et al. 1997:182 [ref. 26476] dated 1846, Cheng & Zhou 1997:470 [ref. 26385] dated 1846, Lindberg et al. 1997:80 [ref. 23547], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1411 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:278 [ref. 25480], Shinohara et al. 2000:183 [ref. 25987], Hutchins 2001:3946 [ref. 26316], Shimizu 2001:46 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:1411 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:448, 694 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S33 [ref. 28536], Markevich & Balanov 2011:678 [ref. 32459], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Parin et al. 2014:551 [ref. 33547], Kwun et al. 2017:143 [ref. 37287], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:308 [ref. 36460], Sonoyama et al. 2020:128 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam and southern China to southern Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

cirrosus, Monacanthus Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:413 [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 14385. Also appeared in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:30, Pisces Pl. 2 (fig. 10) [ref. 14246]. •Valid as Monacanthus cirrosus Kossmann & Räuber 1877 -- (Dor 1984:279 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus nematophorus (Günther 1870) -- (Hutchins 1997:36 [ref. 23117], Golani & Fricke 2018:179 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus nematophorus (Günther 1870). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

convexifrons, Aluterus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1855:10 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 4; ref. 19529] Syntypes: not found. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:294 [ref. 28887]. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

convexirostris, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1870:248 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Tasmania, Australia; New Zealand. Syntypes: (orig. at least 5) BMNH 1849.11.2.4 (1), 1860.12.9.1 (1, skin), BMNH uncat. (stuffed, ? lost). •Synonym of Meuschenia australis (Donovan 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1888 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Meuschenia australis (Donovan 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

crenulatus, Monacanthus Cuvier [G.] in van Hasselt 1824:91, footnote [Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles et de Géologie (Férussac), Paris v. 2 (Zoologie, art. 73); ref. 5104] Not available, no distinguishing features. Monacanthidae.

cryptodon, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1855:431 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 2020.5.5.1 (1), RMNH 7291 (1). •Valid as Paramonacanthus cryptodon Bleeker 1855 -- (Myers 1999:285 [ref. 23965]). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus japonicus (Tilesius 1809) -- (Hutchins 1997:26 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus japonicus (Tilseius 1809). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

cultrifrons, Aluterus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1855:8, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 4; ref. 19529] Brazil and New York. Syntypes: MNHN B-1943 (1) and B-1944 (1) Bahia, B-1945 (1) and B-1946 (1) New York. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:527 [ref. 21538] with B.1944 as figured holotype, Beaunier et al. 2009:286 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Smith 1986:459 [ref. 22186] as schoepfi, Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1062 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

curtorhynchos, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1855:430 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.147 (1), RMNH 7292 (1). Misspelled curtorhynchus in Allen et al. 2006:1893 [ref. 29098]. •Synonym of Paramonacanthus japonicus (Tilesius 1809) -- (Hutchins 1997:26 [ref. 23117], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:190 [ref. 23219]). •Valid as Paramonacanthus curtorhynchos (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall 2005:636 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1894 [ref. 29098], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1075 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2017:233 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus curtorhynchos (Bleeker 1855). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Bay of Bengal to Fiji, and Australia to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

cuspicauda, Balistes Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:326 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 5, art. 1); ref. 30214] New York City, New York, U.S.A., from Atlantic. No types known. •Synonym of Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Smith 1986:459 [ref. 22186] as schoepfi, Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1062 [ref. 19527] with DeKay 1842 as author). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Monacanthus Billberg [G. J.] 1833:53 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] No locality stated Holotype (unique): ZMB 5195. Based on the Balistes monoceros of Bloch 1786:Pl. 147 [ref. 465], allegedly different from Balistes monoceros Linnaeus 1758 according to Billberg 1833; see Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

cyanoura, Eubalichthys Hutchins [J. B.] 1987:51, Fig. 1 [Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 17677] Sandy Hook Island, Recherche Archipelago, Western Australia, depth 20 meters. Holotype: WAM P.25762-001. Paratypes: AMS I.26445-001; WAM P.24841-001 (1), P.25998-001 (1), P.27137-001 (2), P.28393-004 (1), P.28865-002 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:44 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:52 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Eubalichthys cyanoura Hutchins 1987 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:875 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1887 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:830 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Eubalichthys cyanoura Hutchins 1987. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia, South Australia. Habitat: marine.

daemelii, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1876:402 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 17 (no. 101) (art. 43); ref. 2007] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1876.5.1.3. Originally as Dämelii. It is unclear if Castelnau's Monacanthus brunneus (p. 145) was intended as a new species separate from Monacanthus brunneus Castelnau p. 108; if it was, then Günther's daemelii probably should be regarded as a replacement name for M. brunneus on p. 145 (with a change in the type and type locality). •Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283] with author as Shaw and species as damelii, Allen et al. 2006:1898 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

davidsonii, Monacanthus Cope [E. D.] 1871:476 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 785. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill 1818) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1066 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill 1818). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

degeni, Pseudomonacanthus Regan [C. T.] 1903:299, Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1902, v. 2 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 4 Nov. 1902); ref. 14413] Melbourne Market, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1899.2.14.56. •Valid as Thamnaconus degeni (Regan 1903) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283], Kuiter 1993:407 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:891 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:402 [ref. 25488], Allen et al. 2006:1899 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:841 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus degeni (Regan 1903). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Australia: Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia. Habitat: marine.

diaspros, Stephanolepis Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1940:528, Fig. 4 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 5 (no. 30); ref. 17233] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1888.12.29.204. Paratypes: BMNH 1887.11.11.344-346 (3), plus BMNH (2). •Valid as Stephanolepis diaspros Fraser-Brunner 1940 -- (Tortonese 1973:643 [ref. 7192], Dor 1984:280 [ref. 29757], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1338 [ref. 13677], Vanni 1993:11 [ref. 21841], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:397 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:238 [ref. 23922], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:156 [ref. 26753], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Dulĉić & Pallaoro 2003:321 [ref. 27524], Golani 2005:64 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:75 [ref. 36649], Zenetos et al. 2010:414 [ref. 31201], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Psomadakis et al. 2015:335 [ref. 34104], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:180 [ref. 36273], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36864], Eagderi et al. 2019:136 [ref. 37020], Kumar et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36793], Bariche & Fricke 2020:148 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Stephanolepis diaspros Fraser-Brunner 1940. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf east to northwestern India; Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Marmara (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

distortus, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:146 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Rivière des Cygnes, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4564 (dry, poor condition). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:526 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins1977:54 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1883 [ref. 29098], Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

dumerilii, Monacanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:361 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 2; ref. 18301] Mauritius. Holotype (unique): possibley MNHN B-1969. Type catalog: see Beaunier et al. 2009:292, 299 [ref. 28887]. See Randall 2011:11[ref. 31468] for remarks on the holotype. •Valid as Cantherhinus dumerilii (Hollard 1854) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:360 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:462 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:297 [ref. 22193], Bussing & Lavenberg in Fischer et al. 1995:1280 [ref. 22830] as dumerili, Randall 1995:396 [ref. 22896], Lindberg et al. 1997:94 [ref. 23547] as Cantherines, Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:600 [ref. 24023] as dumerili, Kuiter 1997:398 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:462 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:285 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:591 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268] as Cantherines, Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:459 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:270 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377] as dumerili, Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:444 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:633 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:528 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:479 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:118 [ref. 30213], with genus as Cantherhinus, Randall 2011:9 [ref. 31468]). •Valid as Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283] as dumerili, Hutchins 1986:884 [ref. 5673], Winterbottom et al. 1989:67 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Nakabo 2000:1405 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:3938 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1405 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:448, 693 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], Allen et al. 2006:1884 [ref. 29098], Béarez & Séret 2009:152 [ref. 36646], Motomura et al. 2010:235 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1072 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:195 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] as Cantherines, Francis & Duffy 2015:483 [ref. 36161], Psomadakis et al. 2015:334 [ref. 34104], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Fricke et al. 2018:380 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:327 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:611 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:128 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Clipperton Island and Panama, north to central Japan, Ogasawara Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to Lord Howe Island, northern New Zealand, Kermadec Islands, Rapa and Ducie (Pitcairn Group). Habitat: marine.

edelensis, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:50 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Fremantle, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Questionably a synonym of Eubalichthys gunnii (Günther 1870) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283]). •Incertae sedis in Monacanthidae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1900 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Eubalichthys gunnii (Günther 1870). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Pseudomonacanthus Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1940:66, Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 16; ref. 17235] Questionably Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1911.4.1.59. •Valid as Pseudomonacanthus elongatus Fraser-Brunner 1940 -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3945 [ref. 26316], Allen et al. 2006:1896 [ref. 29098], Larson et al. 2013:234 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Pseudomonacanthus elongatus Fraser-Brunner 1940. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

ercodes, Rudarius Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1902:270, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1287); ref. 2457] Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 7127. Paratypes: ANSP 29477-82 (6), 29630-34 (5); BMNH 1905.2.4.477-478 (2), 1905.2.4.479-488 (?); CAS-SU 7206 (54); USNM 231812 (2), 231816 (10). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:144 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. Types: Shinohara & Williams 2006:566 [ref. 31656]. •Valid as Rudarius ercodes Jordan & Fowler 1902 -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:361 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:83 [ref. 23547], Mizuno et al. 1999:13 [ref. 25311], Nakabo 2000:1406 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2000:183 [ref. 25987], Shimizu 2001:46 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:1406 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:448, 694 [ref. 26218], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Sonoyama et al. 2020:128 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Rudarius ercodes Jordan & Fowler 1902. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

erythraeensis, Thamnaconus modestoides Bauchot [M.-L.] & Maugé [A. L.] 1978:541 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 3: Zoologie) Art. 356 (for Nov.-Dec. 1978); ref. 9015] Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: MNHN 1977-1089. Paratypes: HUJ 7175 (2). Type catalog: Golani 2006:35 [ref. 28840] with paratype as 7275, Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Thamnaconus modestoides (Barnard 1927), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Dor 1984:281 [ref. 29757], Baranes & Golani 1993:312 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]). •Valid as Thamnaconus erythraeensis Bauchot & Maugé 1978 -- (DiBattista et al. 2015:20 [ref. 35706] as Thamnoconus erythraensis, Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:180 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus erythraeensis Bauchot & Maugé 1978. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

excelsus, Rudarius Hutchins [J. B.] 1977:49, Fig. 13 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 2283] Near Lindeman Island, 20°27'S, 149°02'E, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.6764. Paratypes: AMS I.19169-002 (2), WAM P.25603-001 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:52 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Rudarius excelsus Hutchins 1977 -- (Matsuura 1989:482 [ref. 12751], Randall et al. 1990:466 [ref. 15987], Lindberg et al. 1997:83 [ref. 23547], Kuiter 1997:402 [ref. 25488] as excelsius, Randall et al. 1997:466 [ref. 25919], Nakabo 2000:1406 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3935 [ref. 26316], Hutchins 2002:213 [ref. 26078], Nakabo 2002:1406 [ref. 26193], Allen et al. 2006:1897 [ref. 29098], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1079 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2019:329 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Rudarius excelsus Hutchins 1977. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

fahaqa, Brachaluteres baueri Clark [E.] & Gohar [H. A. F.] 1953:45, Figs. 11-12 [Publications of the Marine Biological Station Al-Ghardaqa (Red Sea) No. 8; ref. 12688] Red Sea. Holotype: MBSH uncat. Paratypes: MBSH uncat. (2). •Synonym of Brachaluteres baueri (Richardson 1846), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Dor 1984:279 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Brachaluteres fahaqa Clark & Gohar 1953 -- (Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:179 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Brachaluteres fahaqa Clark & Gohar 1953. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

fajardoi, Thamnaconus Smith [J. L. B.] 1953:19, Fig. 2 [Memorias do Museu Dr. Alvaro de Castro No. 2; ref. 4087] Southern Mozambique Channel, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 111. •Valid as Thamnaconus fajardoi Smith 1953 -- (Hutchins 1986:887 [ref. 5673], Matsuura 1999:217 [ref. 23889], Fricke 1999:595 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:119 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2018:382 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus fajardoi Smith 1953. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Mozambique to Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

falcatus, Paramonacanthus Kotthaus [A.] 1979:31, Fig. 481 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 28; ref. 8818] Off Perim, Yemen, Red Sea, 12°52'N, 43°19.8'E, Meteor station 76, depth 40 meters. Holotype: ZMH 5633. Paratypes: ZMH 5634-35 (14, 1). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:421 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Paramonacanthus falcatus Kotthaus 1979 -- (Dor 1984:280 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829) -- (Hutchins 1997:43 [ref. 23117], ). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

fatensis, Monacanthus Seale [A.] 1906:74, Fig. 13 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Faté, Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): BPBM 997. •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

fidens, Brachaluteres Whitley [G. P.] 1931:333 [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] Shellharbour, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.1822. •Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1883 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

fijiensis, Thamnaconus Hutchins [J. B.] & Matsuura [K.] 1984:387, Figs. 1-2 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 11 (pt 4); ref. 7092] Fish trap, outside Suva Barrier Reef, Fiji Islands, depth 183 meters. Holotype (unique): USP 4541. •Valid as Thamnaconus fijiensis Hutchins & Matsuura 1984 -- (Matsuura & Tyler 1997:191 [ref. 23219], Matsuura 1999:216 [ref. 23889], Nakabo 2000:1407 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:3935 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1407 [ref. 26193], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus fijiensis Hutchins & Matsuura 1984. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Fiji. Habitat: marine.

filamentosus, Enigmacanthus Hutchins [J. B.] 2002:214, Figs. 1-3 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 21 (pt 2); ref. 26078] Lagoon 3 kilometers west of Bush Island, Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands, depth 36 meters. Holotype: USNM 140642. Paratypes: BMNH 1908.3.23.294 (1), USNM 361255 (1, c&s). •Valid as Enigmacanthus filamentosus Hutchins 2002 -- (Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Enigmacanthus filamentosus Hutchins 2002. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Marshall Islands and Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

filamentosus, Monacanthus Valenciennes [A.] 1838:[95], Pl. 17 (fig. 1) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Non-types: MNHN 0000-6326 (1, poor condition), Canary Is., B-1999 (1, poor condition) Bahia. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:521 [ref. 21538] with holotype from Canaries and paratype from Bahia; Beaunier et al. 2009:300, 303 [ref. 28887]. Dates to Pl. 17 in 1838, p. 95 published in 1843. •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispidus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1065 [ref. 19527], Beaunier et al. 2009:300 [ref. 28887]). •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

filicauda, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1880:50, Pl. 23 (fig. D) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] South of New Guinea, Challenger station 188, depth 28 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.391-394 (4). Hutchins 2001 placement in Arotrolepis is in error; the type species of Arotrolepis he places in Paramonacanthus. •Valid as Paramonacanthus filicauda (Günther 1880) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1893 [ref. 29098], Larson et al. 2013:234 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Arotrolepis filicauda (Günther 1880) -- (Hutchins 2001:3937 [ref. 26316], Hutchins 2008:826 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33516] but misspelled Artrolepis). Current status: Valid as Arotrolepis filicauda (Günther 1880). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Australia and southern Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

flavolineata, Meuschenia Hutchins [J. B.] 1977:40, Fig. 11 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 2283] Middle Bank, 2 kilometers south east of Rottnest Island, 32°05'S, 115°33'E, Western Australia, depth 15 meters. Holotype: WAM P.25489-001. Paratypes: AM I.17019-027 (1), I.17033-051 (13), I.18301 (2) ; BMNH 1976.8.23.1 (1); QVM 1975:5:197-199 (3); USNM 216433 (1); WAM P.9155-001 (1), P.24514-001 (1), P.25150-008 (1), P.25173-001 (1, skel.), P.25250-004 (1), P.25251-003 (2), P.25252-002 (1), P.25549-001 (1), P.25550-001 (1), P.25551-001 (1), P.25553-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:44 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:52 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Meuschenia flavolineata Hutchins 1977 -- (Kuiter 1993:404 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:881 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:394 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1888 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:834 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Meuschenia flavolineata Hutchins 1977. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: New South Wales to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

forsteri, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:204 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): not fond at MNHN. Non-types: MNHN B-2044 (3), NMV 51853 (not found in 1997). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:524-525 [ref. 21538] with 3 paratypes, Beaunier et al. 2009:300 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1880 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

frauenfeldii, Monacanthus Kner [R.] 1867:397 [Reise der öesterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18426] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: ?NMW 76427 (8). Doubtful new species. •Synonym of Nelusetta ayraud (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283] as ayraudi, Allen et al. 2006:1891 [ref. 29098] as ayraudi). Current status: Synonym of Nelusetta ayraud (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

frenatus, Monacanthus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:464 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Querimba Island, Mozambique, Inhambane, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: ZMB 4164-65 (2, 3). Also described as new in Peters 1855:276 [ref. 13448]. •Valid as Paramonacanthus frenatus (Peters 1855) -- (Hutchins 1997:23 [ref. 23117], Hutchins 2002:218 [ref. 26078], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus frenatus (Peters 1855). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Natal (South Africa), possibly Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

freycineti, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:213 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Mauritius [perhaps in error, possibly southeastern Australia]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4100. Non-types: MNHN A-4107 (1), A-4108 (2). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:520 [ref. 21538] with holotype and paratypes, Beaunier et al. 2009:289 [ref. 28887]. •Valid as Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Kuiter 1993:402 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:882 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:396 [ref. 25488], Fricke 1999:589 [ref. 24106], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2002:213 [ref. 26078], Allen et al. 2006:1889 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:835 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: New South Wales to Western Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fronticinctus, Monacanthus Günther [A.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:136, Pl. 19 (fig. 2) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.3.9.435 (right half skin), 1867.3.9.436 (stuffed). Novem protectum -- see Parenti 2002:312 [ref. 26661]. •Valid as Cantherhines fronticinctus (Günther 1867) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:360 [ref. 6441], Hutchins 1986:884 [ref. 5673], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:67 [ref. 13251], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:124 [ref. 20996], Lindberg et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:540 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:285 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:591 [ref. 24106], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1405 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:459 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3938 [ref. 26316] dated 1866, Nakabo 2002:1405 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:445 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:633 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1884 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:480 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:118 [ref. 30213], Randall 2011:12 [ref. 31468], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1072 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Motomura et al. 2017:232 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:380 [ref. 35805], Psomadakis et al. 2020:612 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Cantherhines fronticinctus (Günther 1867). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to northwestern Australia, throughout East Indian region. Habitat: marine.

fuliginosus, Monacanthus Macleay [W.] 1883:596 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 4); ref. 17586] New Guinea. Syntypes: AMS I.16421-001 [ex MAMU F1084] (2). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:209 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscosinus, Eubalichthys Hutchins [J. B.] 1977:33, Fig. 9 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 2283] 30 kilometers north west of Koks Island, 24°45'S, 113°09'E, Western Australia, depth 76-82 meters. Holotype: WAM P.25580-001. Paratypes: AMS I.19167-001 (1 or 2); BMNH 1976.8.23.3 (1); CSIRO C 1447 (1); WAM P.25579-002 (2). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:44 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:52 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Eubalichthys caeruleoguttatus Hutchins 1977 -- (Allen et al. 2006:1886 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Eubalichthys caeruleoguttatus Hutchins 1977. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Monacanthus (Aluteres) Fischer [J. G.] 1885:75, Pl. 2 (fig. 6) [Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten v. 2; ref. 18083] Cameroon. Holotype (unique): ZMH H189 [ex ZMH 3943]. Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:167 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:409 [ref. 21161]. Lectotype selected by Ladiges et al. 1958:167 [ref. 19181]. •Synonym of Aluterus heudelotii Hollard 1855 -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:67 [ref. 19549], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1061 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus heudelotii Hollard 1855. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

galii, Pseudomonacanthus Waite [E. R.] 1905:79, Pl. 16 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 4562] Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.13259-001. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:52 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Meuschenia galii (Waite 1905) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Kuiter 1993:403 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:883 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:396 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1889 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:836 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Meuschenia galii (Waite 1905). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

gallinula, Monacanthus Valenciennes [A.] 1843:95 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN B-2003 (2, dry) Canary Is. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:521 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887] •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispidus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1065 [ref. 19527], Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887]). •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

garretti, Paramonacanthus Fowler [H. W.] 1928:459, Fig. 78 [Memoirs of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. No. 10; ref. 5596] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MCZ 11808. •Valid as Thamnaconus garretti (Fowler 1928) -- (Mundy 2005:530 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:481 [ref. 30952], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus garretti (Fowler 1928). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

geographicus, Balistes Cuvier [G.] 1816:v. 4, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Indian seas. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2002. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:289 [ref. 28887]. Pls. 9 and 10 were published in v. 4 of this series. •Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1891 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

geographicus, Balistes Péron [F.] in Bleeker 1851:17 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 11); ref. 16836] Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:522 [ref. 21538] with Péron's specimen as MNHN B.2002; see Beaunier et al. 2009:289 [ref. 28887]. Not available, name mentioned in the synonymy of Monacanthus geographicus. Monacanthidae.

geographicus, Monacanthus van Hasselt [J. C.] (ex Peron) 1823:317 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar I Deel (no. 20); ref. 4513] Not available, name only from Java (see Alfred 1961:82 [ref. 20553]). Also in van Hasselt 1824:91 [ref. 5104]. Monacanthidae.

grandisquamis, Cantheschenia Hutchins [J. B.] 1977:17, Fig. 6 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 2283] One Tree Island, Capricorn Group, 23°30'S, 152°05'E, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, depth 29 meters. Holotype: AMS I.15684-045. Description based primarily on the holotype, but also from photographs of two other living specimens. •Valid as Cantheschenia grandisquamis Hutchins 1977 -- (Randall et al. 1990:462 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:399 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:398 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:462 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:3939 [ref. 26316], Allen et al. 2006:1885 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:828 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Cantheschenia grandisquamis Hutchins 1977. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Australia and Lord Howe Islands. Habitat: marine.

granulata, Balistes Shaw [G.] in White 1790:295, Pl. 39 [Journal of a voyage to New South Wales; ref. 4654] New South Wales, Australia. No types known. Authorship according to Sherborn 1891:535 [ref. 32516]. •Valid as Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283] with author as Shaw, Kuiter 1993:401 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:890 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3946 [ref. 26316] with author as Shaw, Allen et al. 2006:1898 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:840 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern Queensland to Western Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

granulosus, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:34 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian seas. Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.191 [Gronovius coll.] (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:245-246 [ref. 13434]. •Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434]). Current status: Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

gunnii, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1870:247 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1849.11.2.5. •Valid as Eubalichthys gunnii (Günther 1870) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Hutchins 1987:51 [ref. 17677], Kuiter 1993:409 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:875 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:394 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1887 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:831 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Eubalichthys gunnii (Günther 1870). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Australia: Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. Habitat: marine.

guntheri, Monacanthus Macleay [W.] 1881:314 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Port Phillip; Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia; Tasmania. Syntypes: AMS I.16425-001 (?) ?= MAMU F1161 (2). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:210 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Penicipelta vittiger (Castelnau 1873) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283]). •Synonym of Acanthaluteres vittiger (Castelnau 1873) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1880 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthaluteres vittiger (Castelnau 1873). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

guntheriana, Alutera Poey [F.] 1863:184 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 18561] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:65 [ref. 19549] as Alutera, Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1062 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

guttulatus, Monacanthus Macleay [W.] 1878:37, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 2868] King George Sound, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): MAMU F1092. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:209 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Bigener brownii (Richardson 1846) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283]). •Synonym of Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson 1846) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1879 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson 1846). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

hajam, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1851:18, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 11); ref. 16836] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1867.11.28.140. •Valid as Acreichthys hajam (Bleeker 1851) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:1409 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1409 [ref. 26193], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Acreichthys hajam (Bleeker 1851). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

halli, Oxymonacanthus Marshall [N. B.] 1952:244, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology v. 1 (no. 8); ref. 12782] Sanafir Island, Straits of Tiran, Saudi Arabia, northern Red Sea. Holotype: BMNH 1951.1.16.689. Paratypes: BMNH 1951.1.16.690 (1). •Valid as Oxymonacanthus halli Marshall 1952 -- (Dor 1984:279 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Myers 1999:285 [ref. 23965], Randall 2005:635 [ref. 28239], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], DiBattista et al. 2015:20 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:179 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Oxymonacanthus halli Marshall 1952. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

helleri, Monacanthus Steindachner [F.] 1867:712 [12], Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 55 (1. Abth.); ref. 6393] China. Holotype (unique): NMW 9522. Species not included in earlier abstract [ref. 21724]. On p. 12 of separate. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

heudelotii, Aluterus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1855:13 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 4; ref. 19529] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1947. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:527 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:286 [ref. 28887] •Valid as Alutera heudelotii Hollard 1855 -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:66 [ref. 19549], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221] as heudelotti). •Valid as Aluterus heudelotii Hollard 1855 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:472 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:300 [ref. 23100] as heudeloti, Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1061 [ref. 19527], Boschung 1992:179 [ref. 23239] as heudeloti, Cervigón 1992:359 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:93 [ref. 24489] as heudeloti, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:508 [ref. 24550] as heudeloti, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:348 [ref. 25013], Matsuura 2003:1978 [ref. 27119], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:903 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3058 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Aluterus heudelotii Hollard 1855. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hippocrepis, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:212 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Mauritius [in error, probably southern Australia]. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2015. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:525 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:290 [ref. 28887]. •Valid as Meuschenia hippocrepis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Kuiter 1993:401 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:885 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:394 [ref. 25488], Fricke 1999:590 [ref. 24106], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1889 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:836 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Meuschenia hippocrepis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

hispidus, Balistes Linnaeus [C.] (ex Seba) 1766:405 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolinas, U.S.A. No types known (but see Wheeler 1985). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:73 [ref. 20705]. Genera ending in lepis are feminine, so spelling of the adjective [= rough or hairy] should be hispida. Based on 'Balistes varius dorso monocantho' of Seba 1759:106, pl. 34, fig. 2 [ref. 18716]. •Valid as Monacanthus hispidus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:301 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:565 [ref. 25518], Boschung 1992:181 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1996:103 [ref. 24489], Murdy et al. 1997:263 [ref. 23144]). •Valid as Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766) (often seen as hispidus) -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:71 [ref. 19549], Tortonese 1973:643 [ref. 7192], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:468 [ref. 14275], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1339 [ref. 13677], McAllister 1990:226 [ref. 14674], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1065 [ref. 19527], Cervigón 1992:360 [ref. 23827], Azevedo & Heemstra 1995:7 [ref. 22269], Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204] in Stenophanolepis, Santos et al. 1997:114 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:122 [ref. 24952], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:505 [ref. 24550], Afonso et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25466], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:351 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:146 [ref. 27639], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:596 [ref. 26158], Matsuura 2003:1979 [ref. 27119], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:911 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:42 [ref. 30263], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265] as hispidus, Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503] as hispidus, Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Costa et al. 2015:1061 [ref. 37495] as hispidus, Pinheiro et al. 2015:35 [ref. 34324], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3062 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Carneiro et al. 2019:226 [ref. 37250] as hispidus, Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico; eastern Atlantic: including Azores and Madeira. Habitat: marine.

histrix, Monocanthus (Trichoderma) Swainson [W.] 1839:328 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Original genus should have been Monacanthus. Based on Gray, Ind. Zool. -- which is Gray 1830-35 [ref. 1878]. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

holbroocki, Aluterus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1855:7 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 4; ref. 19529] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1952. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:527 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:288 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1062 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

homopterus, Monacanthus Cope [E. D.] 1871:477 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] "Said to be Australia" [Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 779. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. •Questionably a synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1835) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283]). •Synonym of Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:22 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

horae, Paramonacanthus Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1941:196, Fig. 8 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 8 (no. 45); ref. 1494] Eastern coast, Madras Presidency, India. Holotype: BMNH 1888.11.6.85. Paratypes: BMNH 1888.11.6.86 (1). Additional material: BMNH 1888.11.6.84 (1), ZSI (1 + 1). The spelling horae is acceptable; early workers almost certainly Latinized the name first, and then added an 'e' (Art. 31.1.1) [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012] -- we suggest using horae when the species is treated as valid. •Synonym of Paramonacanthus tricuspis (Hollard 1854) -- (Randall 1995:397 [ref. 22896], Hutchins 1997:50 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus tricuspis (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

houttuyni, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1854:533 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5965] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Based on literature and a specimen. •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

howensis, Monacanthus Ogilby [J. D.] 1889:73 [Memoirs of the Australian Museum, Sydney No. 2 (art. no. 3); ref. 18489] Between main island and the Admiralty Islets, Lord Howe Island, depth about 10 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1566. •Synonym of Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283] as dumerili, Lindberg et al. 1997:94 [ref. 23547], Randall 2011:9 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

hypargyreus, Monacanthus Cope [E. D.] 1871:477 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] "Supposed to be from Australia." Syntypes: ANSP 786-787 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Thamnaconus hypargyreus (Cope 1871) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283], Shimizu & Hatooka 1997:6 [ref. 24377], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:193 [ref. 23219], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1408 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3947 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1408 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2005:444 [ref. 28370], Allen et al. 2006:1899 [ref. 29098], Larson et al. 2013:234 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:229 [ref. 34464], Shinohara et al. 2014:278 [ref. 33330], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1723 [ref. 34322], Motomura et al. 2017:234 [ref. 35490], Sonoyama et al. 2020:129 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus hypargyreus (Cope 1871). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

hystrix, Monacanthus Burton [E.] 1835:121 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1834 (pt. 2) (no. 23) (for 11 Nov. 1834); ref. 17294] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Amanses scopas (Cuvier 1829) -- (Fricke 1999:590 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Amanses scopas (Cuvier 1829). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

hystrix, Monacanthus (Amanses) Gray [J. E.] 1835:no page number, Pl. 98 (fig. 1) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] Published about 20 Feb. 1835. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

inornatus, Monacanthus van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:317 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar I Deel (no. 20); ref. 4513] Not available, name only (see Alfred 1961:83 [ref. 20553], Kottelat 1987:369 [ref. 5962]). Also in van Hasselt 1824:91 [ref. 5104]. Monacanthidae.

insignis, Stephanolepis Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1940:527, Fig. 3 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 5 (no. 30); ref. 17233] Sacco São Francisca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: BMNH 1923.7.30.349-350 (larger of 2). Paratypes: (8) BMNH 1923.7.30.349-350 (smaller of 2), 1936.8.6.38 (1); MCZ (2). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

irroratus, Monacanthus Poey [F.] 1860:330 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:22 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

isogramma, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1857:367 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 16868] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.205 [not 206] (1), RMNH 7296 (larger of 2). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus sulcatus (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1997:47 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus sulcatus (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

jacksonianus, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:209 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Sydney, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): Not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]. •Valid as Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins1977:54 [ref. 2283], Kuiter 1993:410 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:871 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:402 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3934 [ref. 26316], Allen et al. 2006:1882 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:827 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: southern half of Australia to Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia). Former Red Sea records are now assigned to Brachaluteres fahaqa Clark & Gohar 1953. Habitat: marine.

janthinosoma, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1854:504 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 344] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.140 (1, 87 mm TL). •Valid as Pervagor janthinosoma (Bleeker 1854) -- (Hutchins 1986:20 [ref. 19371], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:68 [ref. 13251] with question, Randall et al. 1990:465 [ref. 15987], Francis & Randall 1993:133 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:398 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:465 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:286 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:595 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1410 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:461 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:277 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3943 [ref. 26316], Hutchins 2002:213 [ref. 26078], Nakabo 2002:1410 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:223 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:637 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1895 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:119 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:236 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1077 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:196 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:381 [ref. 35805], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Pervagor janthinosoma (Bleeker 1854). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Caroline Islands (Micronesia) and Tonga, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Seal Rocks (New South Wales, Australia), Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Balistes Tilesius [W. G. von] 1809:212, Pl. 13 [Mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 2 (art. 20); ref. 4406] Japan. No types known. •Valid as Paramonacanthus japonicus (Tilesius 1809) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:464 [ref. 15987], Matsuura & Ikeda 1993:3 [ref. 24332], Matsuura & Tachikawa 1994:138 [ref. 21905], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:616 [ref. 27969], Hutchins 1997:26 [ref. 23117], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:189 [ref. 23219], Lindberg et al. 1997:79 [ref. 23547], Randall et al. 1997:464 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:286 [ref. 23965], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1412 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:460 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Shinohara et al. 2000:183 [ref. 25987], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:105 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:3942 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1412 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:448, 693 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830] dated 1801, Allen et al. 2006:1894 [ref. 29098], Motomura et al. 2010:235 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1075 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus japonicus (Tilesius 1809). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific (now Japan only). Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:466 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated [Japan]. •Synonym of Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Gill & Hutchins 2002:107 [ref. 26079]) Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

johnstonensis, Pervagor melanocephalus Woods [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1966:87, Fig. 153 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 3; ref. 5366] Johnston Island, Pacific, reef along northern side of atoll. Holotype: USNM 140670. Paratypes: USNM 140671 (3). •Synonym of Pervagor aspricaudus (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1986:18 [ref. 19371], Randall 2007:480 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Pervagor aspricaudus (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

kibikib, Moancanthus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:491 [213] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. Original genus should have been Monacanthus. On p. 213 of reprint. •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

kleinii, Balistes Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1472 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Indian seas. •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2002:311 [ref. 26661]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

knerii, Monacanthus (Paramonacanthus) Steindachner [F.] 1867:591 [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 55 (pts 4-5); ref. 4213] China (erroneous, should be southern Australia). Holotype (unique): NMW 63809 (1). •Synonym of Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1997:6 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

komuki, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1853:13, Fig. 1 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 16922] Kaminoseki Island, Japan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: MNHN 0000-2018 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:522 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:303 [ref. 28887]. Appeared in Bleeker 1853:55 [ref. 340] without distinguishing features. •Synonym of Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

laevicaudatus, Monacanthus (Acanthaluteres) Duncker [G.] & Mohr [E.] 1929:77, Fig. 6 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Staatsinstitut und Zoologischen Museum in Hamburg. v. 44; ref. 15892] East of Long Island, New Guinea. Lectotype: ZMH H147 [ex 16493 in part]. Paralectotypes: ZMH H148 [ex 16493] (6). Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:167 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:409 [ref. 21161]. Lectotype selected by Ladiges et al. 1958:167 [ref. 19181]. •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] 1795:82, Pl. 414 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] America; Indian Ocean. Syntypes: ZMB 4174 (1) America, 4178 (1) America, 5916 (1, right skin) Indian Ocean. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:100 [ref. 24282]. Spelled loevis on plate; first reviser not researched, laevis herein accepted. On p. 65 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381] with laevis on plate caption. •Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

lamouroux, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:208, Pl. 47 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Caroline Islands, westrern Pacific. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Non-type: MNHN B-1777 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:516-517 [ref. 21538] with MNHN B.1777 as paratype and as lamourouxii, Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Current status: Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

lemniscatus, Balistes Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1804:211 [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 12515] Australia. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Meuschenia trachylepis (Günther 1870) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283]). •Incertae sedis in Monacanthidae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1900 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Meuschenia trachylepis (Günther 1870). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

lesueurii, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:56 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Port Western, Victoria, Australia. Holotype: MNHN A-4563 (poor condition, dry). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:525 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887] •Questionably a synonym of Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1889 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

lineoguttatus, Monacanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:352 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 2; ref. 18301] Port Western [Westernport], Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8479. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:524 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887] Originally as lineo-guttatus. •Synonym of Bigener brownii (Richardson 1846) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283]). •Synonym of Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson 1846) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1879 [ref. 29098], Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson 1846). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

lineolatus, Monacanthus Richardson [J.] 1846:201 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Coasts of Hong Kong. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

liturosus, Balistes Shaw [G.] 1804:405 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas; Tahiti. No types known. •Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

longicaudus, Cantherhines Hutchins [J. B.] & Randall [J. E.] 1982:179, Fig. 3 [Pacific Science v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 5372] Popote Bay, Papara, Tahiti, Society Islands, depth 60 feet. Holotype: BPBM 7197. Paratypes: USNM 223717 (1). •Valid as Cantherhines longicaudus Hutchins & Randall 1982 -- (Myers 1999:285 [ref. 23965], Hutchins 2001:3934 [ref. 26316], Randall 2005:634 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:480 [ref. 30952], Randall 2011:13 [ref. 31468], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Cantherhines longicaudus Hutchins & Randall 1982. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific: Cook Islands, New Caledonia and Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

longipinnis, Amanses (Cantherines) Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1941:198, Fig. 9 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 8 (no. 45); ref. 1494] Lord Howe Island. Holotype: AMS I.4150. Paratypes: AMS IA.683 (1). Additional material: AMS (2). •Valid as Cantherines longipinnis (Fraser-Brunner 1941) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23547]). •Valid as Cantheschenia longipinnis (Fraser-Brunner 1941) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:133 [ref. 20996], Gomon et al. 1994:872 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1885 [ref. 29098], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Cantheschenia longipinnis (Fraser-Brunner 1941). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Australia. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:460 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. Nomen oblitum; name cannot be used based on article 23.9.1; based on Seba 1759 -- see Parenti 2002:312 [ref. 26661]. •Synonym of Oxymonacanthus longirostris (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti 2002:311 [ref. 26661]). Current status: Synonym of Oxymonacanthus longirostris (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Balistes hispidus var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Seba) 1801:464 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality stated [Indonesia]. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:593 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Nomen protectum -- see Parenti 2002:312 [ref. 26661]. Based on 'Seb. III. t. 24. f. 19'. •Valid as Oxymonacanthus longirostris (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:361 [ref. 6441], Hutchins 1986:884 [ref. 5673], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:68 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:463 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:125 [ref. 20996], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:183 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:402 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:463 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:285 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:592 [ref. 24106], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1403 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:460 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3941 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1403 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:635 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1892 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:118 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:331 [ref. 31171], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1074 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:233 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:196 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:380 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:328 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:612 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Oxymonacanthus longirostris (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia, Lord Howe Island and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

lowei, Paramonacanthus Hutchins [J. B.] 1997:30, Figs. 2d, 2f, 18-19 [Records of the Western Australian Museum Suppl. No. 54; ref. 23117] Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia, depth 36-41 meters. Holotype: QM I.21319. Paratypes: AMS E.1424 (1), E.1963 (1), E.1964 (1), E.2813 (2), I.11127 (1), I.22674-001 (2); BPBM 33836-40 (2, 2, 3, 1, 1), I.21842-43 (1, 1); WAM P.29775-001 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:52 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Paramonacanthus lowei Hutchins 1997 -- (Hutchins 2001:3942 [ref. 26316], Allen et al. 2006:1894 [ref. 29098], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus lowei Hutchins 1997. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

maccullochi, Chaetodermis Waite [E. R.] 1905:81, Pl. 17 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 4562] Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.13260-001. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:44 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Chaetoderma penicilligera (Cuvier 1816) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283] dated 1817). •Synonym of Chaetodermis penicilligerus (Cuvier 1816) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1885 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Chaetodermis penicilligerus (Cuvier 1816). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

macracanthus, Alutarius Bleeker [P.] 1851:22, Pl. 3 (fig. 7) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 11); ref. 16836] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1867.11.28.151 (1), in RMNH 7305 (1). •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1062 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

macrocerus, Monacanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] in Guichenot 1853:184 [Sagra, R. de la, Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l'Ile de Cuba; ref. 18164] Cuba and Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN B-1964 (1) Bahia. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:522-523 [ref. 21538] dated to 1854 with MNHN B.1964 as holotype from Bahia; Beaunier et al. 2009:300 [ref. 28887]. Also in Hollard 1854:327 [ref. 18301]. Appeared as above with citation to Hollard [manuscript] and to Parra citation taken from Hollard; original localities therefore are Cuba and Bahia. •Valid as Cantherhines macrocerus (Hollard 1853) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:300 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:359 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:98 [ref. 24489], Lindberg et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23547], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:349 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1647 [ref. 25634], Collette et al. 2003:127 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Matsuura 2003:1979 [ref. 27119], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27192] dated 1855, Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:907 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Randall 2011:14 [ref. 31468], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:87 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:187 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:35 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Cantherhines macrocerus (Hollard 1853). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Sao Paulo (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; southern-central Atlantic: Saint Paul's Rocks and Ascension Island; eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

macrolepis, Monacanthus Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1941:189, Fig. 4 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 8 (no. 45); ref. 1494] New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: BMNH 1870.12.27.20. Paratypes: ?BMNH (skins). •Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1891 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

macrurus, Monacanthus Macleay [W.] 1881:330 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16424-001 [ex MAMU F1098]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:210 [ref. 19518]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Monacanthus macrurus Bleeker 1856. •Synonym of Alutera scripta (Osbeck 1765) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1881 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

macrurus, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1856:226 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 354] Nias Island, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: (4) BMNH 1867.11.28.146 (1), NMV 46256 (1), RMNH 7487 (1). •Valid as Cantherhines macrurus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:354 [ref. 27969] with authorship as Jordan & Seale). •Valid as Pseudomonacanthus macrurus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Kyushin et al. 1982:286 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:280 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:400 [ref. 25488], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:3945 [ref. 26316], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830] dated 1856, Yoshigou et al. 2009:59 [ref. 30576], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1079 [ref. 31980], Yoshida et al. 2013:2209 [ref. 34464], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2015:103 [ref. 34319]). Current status: Valid as Pseudomonacanthus macrurus (Bleeker 1856). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Japan and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

maculicauda, Monacanthus Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:64 [Catalogue of the fishes of New South Wales, with their principal synonyms; ref. 13268] Replacement name for Monacanthus macrurus Macleay 1881, preoccupied by Monacanthus macrurus Bleeker 1856. •Synonym of Alutera scripta (Osbeck 1765) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1881 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

maculosus, Aleuteres Richardson [J.] 1840:28 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1840 (pt 8, no. 87); ref. 3733] Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia. No types known. Also described in Richardson 1844:170 [ref. 20295]. Original genus should have been Aluterus. •Synonym of Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1880 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

marcgravii, Monacanthus Billberg [G. J.] 1833:53 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] No locality stated. No types known. Based on "Acaramuca [sic] Marcgr.", i.e., the Acaramucu of Markgraf von Liebstadt 1648:163 [ref. 30347]; see Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147] as Marcgravus. •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros(Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

margaritifer, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:80 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] South Australia. Syntypes: NMV 51866 (1). Apparently a replacement name for Monacanthus perulifer Castelnau 1872. •Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1898 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

marginalis, Pervagor Hutchins [J. B.] 1986:23, Pl. 2A [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 12; ref. 19371] West side of Sentinelle de l'Est, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, depth 23 meters. Holotype: BPBM 12749. Paratypes: AMS I.22015-029 (1); BPBM 7727 (1), 12568 (1), 12823 (1), 27055 (1); WAM P.28361-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:52 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Pervagor marginalis Hutchins 1986 -- (Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Randall 2005:637 [ref. 28239], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Pervagor marginalis Hutchins 1986. Monacanthidae. Distribution: South central Pacific: Marquesas and Line islands. Habitat: marine.

marshallensis, Pervagor melanocephalus Woods [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1966:83, Fig. 152 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 3; ref. 5366] Ocean reef, Erik Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. Holotype: USNM 140737. Paratypes: USNM 140730-36 (5, 1, 1, 1, 2, now 3, 3), 140738-52 (4, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 8, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 3), 141311 (1), 202541 (1), 268091 (1); UW uncat. (1). •Synonym of Pervagor alternans (Ogilby 1899) -- (Hutchins 1986:15 [ref. 19371]). Current status: Synonym of Pervagor alternans (Ogilby 1899). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

massachusettensis, Monocanthus Storer [D. H.] 1839:520 [174] [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 2 (nos 3-4) (art. 12); ref. 4278] Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 174 of separate publication. Original genus should have been Monacanthus. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

matsuurai, Paramonacanthus Hutchins [J. B.] 1997:34, Fig. 20 [Records of the Western Australian Museum Suppl. No. 54; ref. 23117] Miyanohama Beach, Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, Japan (washed ashore). Holotype: NSMT-P 35285. Paratypes: NSMT-P 35094 (1), 35148 (1). •Valid as Paramonacanthus matsuurai Hutchins 1997 -- (Nakabo 2000:1412 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1412 [ref. 26193], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus matsuurai Hutchins 1997. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Ogasawara Islands. Habitat: marine.

maximowiczi, Monacanthus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1896:9 [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 2151] Hakodate, Oshima Subprefecture, Hokkaidō, Japan, Tsuruga Strait, western North Pacific. Holotype (unique): ZIN 10258. •Synonym of Thamnaconus modestus (Günther 1877) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:87 [ref. 23547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:201 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Thamnaconus modestus (Günther 1877). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

maynardi, Cantherines Ogilby [J. D.] 1916:114 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 28; ref. 15124] Cowan Cowan, Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.2643. •Synonym of Pseudomonacanthus peroni (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1897 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudomonacanthus peroni (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

megalourus, Monacanthus Richardson [J.] 1843:5, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Icones piscium, or plates of rare fishes; ref. 6537] 180 miles farther to the southward of Houtman Abrolhos, Indian Ocean, Western Australia. No types known. •Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283] as megaluris, Allen et al. 2006:1891 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

melanistius, Monacanthus Regan [C. T.] 1908:252, Pl. 31 (fig. 4) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Near Farquhar Atoll, Indian Ocean, surface. Syntypes: BMNH 1908.3.23.191-193 [or 291-293] (3). •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

melanocephalus, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1853:95 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16911] Lawajong, Solor Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7304 (1 of 7, 73 mm SL). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.342 (1), NMV 46365 (1). See Hutchins 1986:26-27 [ref. 19371] for type information. •Valid as Stephanolepis melanocephalus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Dor 1984:281 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Pervagor melanocephalus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:360 [ref. 6441], Hutchins 1986:26 [ref. 19371], Hutchins 1986:886 [ref. 5673], Winterbottom et al. 1989:68 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:465 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:465 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:286 [ref. 23965], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1410 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:461 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3944 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1410 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:637 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1896 [ref. 29098], Motomura et al. 2010:236 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1077 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:196 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Pervagor melanocephalus (Bleeker 1853). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: east Indian region, to Marshall Islands, Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Island, south to Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

melanoides, Pseudomonacanthus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:94 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3287] Cape Moreton, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1581 [ex AFAQ]. •Valid as Cantherines melanoides (Ogilby 1908) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23547]). •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1884 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

melanoproctes, Monacanthus Boulenger [G. A.] 1889:242, Pl. 28 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1889 (pt 2); ref. 14491] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1889.14.15.66-70 (5?). •Valid as Thamnaconus melanoproctes (Boulenger 1889) -- (Randall 1995:398 [ref. 22896], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:3935 [ref. 26316], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus melanoproctes (Boulenger 1889). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

melanuropterus, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1853:781 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 335] Kema, northern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.148. •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

melas, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1876:402 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 17 (no. 101) (art. 43); ref. 2007] Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1875.11.12.3. •Synonym of Eubalichthys gunnii (Günther 1870) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1887 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Eubalichthys gunnii (Günther 1870). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

meulenii, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:461 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] In mari indico. No types known. Based on Houttuyn 1765 and Müller 1774. Nomen oblitum -- see Parenti 2002:313 [ref. 26661]; name cannot be used. Not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority (according to ICZN Art. 23.9) in favor of Cantherhines fronticinctus (Günther 1867). See also Balistes mulleri Sonnini (ex Walbaum) 1803. •Senior synonym of Cantherhines fronticinctus (Günther 1867) -- (Parenti 2002:312 [ref. 26661]). •In the synonymy of Cantherhines fronticinctus (Günther 1867). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines fronticinctus (Günther 1867). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

microlepidotus, Amanses Gray [J. E.] 1859:49 China. Still researching original description. From manuscript, Catalog of Plectognathoid Fish in the British Museum. •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

microlepidotus, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1865:27 [8] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 17043] On p. 8 of separate. Not available, museum name mentioned in the synonymy of Liomonacanthus pardalis. Monacanthidae.

minutus, Rudarius Tyler [J. C.] 1970:274, Figs. 1-7 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 122 (no. 5); ref. 7788] Off western tip of southern edge of eastern half of Endeavour Reef, off northern Queensland, Australia, depth 35-50 feet. Holotype: ANSP 109786. Paratypes: ANSP 109788 (1, c&s), USNM 205024 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Rudarius minutus Tyler 1970 -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Randall et al. 1990:466 [ref. 15987], Lindberg et al. 1997:83 [ref. 23547], Randall et al. 1997:466 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:286 [ref. 23965], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3946 [ref. 26316], Hutchins 2002:213 [ref. 26078], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1897 [ref. 29098], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1080 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:196 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Rudarius minutus Tyler 1970. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indonesia east to Palau and New Guinea, north to Sabah (Malaysia), south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

modestoides, Cantherines Barnard [K. H.] 1927:78 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 20 (no. 115) (art. 8); ref. 193] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 12834. •Valid as Thamnaconus modestoides (Barnard 1927) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:361 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:629, 744 [ref. 8056], Hutchins 1986:887 [ref. 5673], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:69 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Suzuki & Hosokawa 1997:3 [ref. 24370], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:192 [ref. 23219], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:238 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:589 [ref. 24106], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1407 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3947 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1407 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2005:444 [ref. 28370], Allen et al. 2006:1899 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:119 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2018:382 [ref. 35805], Eagderi et al. 2019:136 [ref. 37020], Sonoyama et al. 2020:129 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus modestoides (Barnard 1927). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Indonesia, north to central Japan, south to northwestern Australia. Former Red Sea records are now assigned to T. erythraeensis Bauchot & Maugé 1978. Habitat: marine.

modestus, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1877:446 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] Inland Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.383. Also described as new as Monocanthus modestus in Günther 1880:73 [ref. 2011]. •Valid as Navodon modestus (Günther 1877) -- (Wang et al. 2001:332 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Thamnaconus modestus (Günther 1877) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:360 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:629, 744 [ref. 8056], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:617 [ref. 27969], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1407 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2000:184 [ref. 25987], Kolpakov & Barabanshchikov 2001:423 [ref. 25413], Shimizu 2001:46 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:1407 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:448, 694 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S33 [ref. 28536], Shinohara et al. 2005:444 [ref. 28370], Motomura et al. 2010:236 [ref. 31256], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Parin et al. 2014:551 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:201 [ref. 35257], Sonoyama et al. 2020:129 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus modestus (Günther 1877). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China to Korea and Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

monoceros, Balistes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:327 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Asia; America. Syntypes: NRM 40 (1) ? West Indies, ?NRM LP 8 (1). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:73 [ref. 20705], Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:273-274 [ref. 20707]. •Valid as Alutera monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:65 [ref. 19549], Kyushin et al. 1977:358 [ref. 19756], Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Kyushin et al. 1982:285 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:278 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:614 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:183 [ref. 26476] with author as Osbeck and date 1757, Cheng & Zhou 1997:472 [ref. 26385] with author and date as Osbeck 1757, Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221]). •Valid as Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:470 [ref. 14275], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:361 [ref. 6441], Hutchins 1986:883 [ref. 5673], Robins & Ray 1986:300 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:669 [ref. 9166], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:243 [ref. 24556], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1061 [ref. 19527], Randall et al. 1990:461 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:179 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:359 [ref. 23827], Kuiter 1993:408 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Bussing & Lavenberg in Fischer et al. 1995:1280 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:395 [ref. 22896], Cervigón 1996:94 [ref. 24489], Quéro & Laborde 1996:107 [ref. 22307], Santos et al. 1997:114 [ref. 23531] as monocerus, Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:638 [ref. 24023], Lindberg et al. 1997:71 [ref. 23547], Carpenter et al. 1997:237 [ref. 23922], Arruda 1997:122 [ref. 24952] as monocerus, Kuiter 1997:400 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:461 [ref. 25919], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:135 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:284 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:349 [ref. 25013], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1404 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:274 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3936 [ref. 26316], Camargo & Isaac 2001:146 [ref. 27639], Nakabo 2002:1404 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:448, 692 [ref. 26218], Freitas & Biscoito 2002:4 [ref. 27802], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Matsuura 2003:1972 [ref. 27119], Matsuura 2003:1978 [ref. 27119], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27192], Parin 2003:S33 [ref. 28536], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:632 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:527 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:131 [ref. 28745], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:904 [ref. 28815], Allen et al. 2006:1881 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:477 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:118 [ref. 30213] as Aluteres monoceros, McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957] as monocerus, Motomura et al. 2010:234 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1070 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:233 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:227 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:433 [ref. 33460], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Parin et al. 2014:550 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2014:195 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:334 [ref. 34104], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1718 [ref. 34322], Pinheiro et al. 2015:34 [ref. 34324], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3061 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565], Motomura et al. 2017:231 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:379 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:178 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:122 [ref. 36262], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:305 [ref. 36460], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Brown et al. 2019:183 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:226 [ref. 37250], Eagderi et al. 2019:135 [ref. 37020], Guabiroba et al. 2020:701 [ref. 37571], Psomadakis et al. 2020:610 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:127 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas (including Red Sea, Persian Gulf, South China Sea, Sea of Japan). Habitat: marine.

mosaicus, Monacanthus Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:5 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 18604] Off Shark Reef, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS B.9754-55 (2). •Valid as Eubalichthys mosaicus (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Kuiter 1993:410 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:876 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:392 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3940 [ref. 26316], Allen et al. 2006:1887 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:831 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Eubalichthys mosaicus (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Australia: southern Queensland to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

mulleri, Balistes Sonnini [C. S.] (ex Walbaum) 1803:303 [Histoire naturelle générale et paticulière des poissons 4; ref. 30464] In mari indico. No types known. Unneeded replacement name for Balistes meulenii Walbaum 1792. Not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority (according to ICZN Art. 23.9) in favor of Cantherhines fronticinctus (Günther 1867). •In the synonymy of Cantherhines fronticinctus (Günther 1867). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines fronticinctus (Günther 1867). Monacanthidae.

multilineatus, Pseudomonacanthus Tanaka [S.] 1918:478, Pl. 132 (fig. 373) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 27; ref. 14911] Tokyo fish market, probably from Sagami Sea or off Boshu, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 8193 (lost). •Valid as Cantherhines multilineatus (Tanaka 1918) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:356 [ref. 19756], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:360 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23547], Nakabo 2000:1405 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1405 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2005:444 [ref. 28370], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). •Valid as Thamnaconus multilineatus (Tanaka 1918) -- (Randall 2007:481 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2017:234 [ref. 35490], Psomadakis et al. 2020:613 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus multilineatus (Tanaka 1918). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar east to Indonesia, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

multimaculatus, Pseudomonacanthus Regan [C. T.] 1903:298, Pl. 25 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1902, v. 2 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 4 Nov. 1902); ref. 14413] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1877.12.10.2. •Synonym of Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854) -- (Randall 2011:9 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

multiradiatus, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1870:248 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] South Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1863.1.15.7 (stuffed). •Synonym of Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Gomon et al. 1994:883 [ref. 22532], Allen et al. 2006:1889 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

mylii, Balistes Bory de Saint-Vincent [J. B. G. M.] 1822:169 (v. 2, ASA-CAC) [Dictionnaire Classique d'Histoire Naturelle; ref. 3853] Shark Bay, Western Australia. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]. Spelled milii on plate (which was published at a later date). Figured in v. 17, 1831:Pl. 115 (fig. 2). •Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1891 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

nasicornis, Alutera Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:293, Pl. 131 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] No locality stated [Nagasaki, Japan]. Holotype (unique): RMNH 4111. Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:210 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Aluterus nasicornis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Hutchins 1986:886 [ref. 5673], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:190 [ref. 23219]). •Valid as Pseudaluteres nasicornis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Hutchins 2001:3944 [ref. 26316] dated 1846, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Allen et al. 2006:1896 [ref. 29098]). •Valid as Pseudalutarius nasicornis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Kyushin et al. 1982:287 [ref. 19754], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:361 [ref. 6441], Kuiter 1993:408 [ref. 23929], Lindberg et al. 1997:74 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:286 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:595 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1403 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:461 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1403 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:448, 693 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830] with genus as Pseudaluterius, date as 1950, Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:638 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2009:119 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1078 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:196 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:381 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pseudalutarius nasicornis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Monacanthidae. Distribution: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

nasutus, Monocanthus (Cantherines) Swainson [W.] 1839:327 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Frey. Zool. p. 214 -- which is Quoy & Gairmard 1824-25 [ref. 3574]. Unneeded new name for Balistes sandwichiensis Quoy & Gaimard 1824. Original genus should have been Monacanthus. •Objective synonym of Balistes sandwichiensis Quoy & Gaimard 1824. •Synonym of Cantherhines sandwichiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Mundy 2005:528 [ref. 28379], Randall 2011:24 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines sandwichiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Monacanthus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1911:48 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 14790] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Holotype (unique): SAM 10628. •Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Hutchins 1986:884 [ref. 5673], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Monacanthus Agassiz [L.] 1874:no p., Pl. 4 [Pisces Celebes. Icones Piscium.; ref. 15837] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MHNN 2276 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:150 [ref. 21784]. Plate with name, no description. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

nematophorus, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1870:241 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] China or Borneo (erroneous, is probably East Africa). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.16.163. •Valid as Paramonacanthus nematophorus (Günther 1870) -- (Hutchins 1997:36 [ref. 23117] with remark on locality, Hutchins 2002:218 [ref. 26078], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Golani & Fricke 2018:179 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus nematophorus (Günther 1870). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

nemurus, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1851:20, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 11); ref. 16836] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) ?BMNH 1867.11.28.145 (1), RMNH 7302 (1). •Valid as Paramonacanthus nemurus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:617 [ref. 27969]). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus choirocephalus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Hutchins 1997:19 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus choirocephalus (Bleeker 1851). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Balistes monoceros var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:463 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Indian Ocean near Coromandel, India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5906 (left skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:100 [ref. 24282]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Balistes niger Bloch 1786. •Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765) -- (Paepke 1999:100 [ref. 24282]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Monacanthus Macleay [W.] 1883:596 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 4); ref. 17586] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16422-001 [ex MAMU F1087]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:209 [ref. 19518]. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

nigrolineatus, Stephanolepis Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:415 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 32 (no. 3); ref. 2102] Reef at Bungau, Sulu Province, Philippines. Syntypes: BSMP (2) presumed destroyed. •Valid as Pervagor nigrolineatus (Herre 1927) -- (Hutchins 1986:28 [ref. 19371], Matsuura & Sunobe 1990 [ref. 16022], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:286 [ref. 23965], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1410 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3944 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1410 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:223 [ref. 27510], Allen et al. 2006:1896 [ref. 29098], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1078 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:196 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:328 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Pervagor nigrolineatus (Herre 1927). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Palau and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

nigromaculosus, Cantherines Tanaka [S.] 1912:144, Pls. 38 (145), 39 (148), 40 (155) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 8; ref. 14901] Tokyo market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 3340 (lost). Description concluded in v. 9 (p. 15) [ref. 6034]. •Synonym of Thamnaconus modestus (Günther 1877) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:87 [ref. 23547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:201 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Thamnaconus modestus (Günther 1877). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

nipponensis, Monacanthus (Stephanolepis) Kamohara [T.] 1939:624, Fig. 1 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 51; ref. 21040] Off Mimase, near Kochi, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: BSKU (destroyed in 1945). Paratypes: BSKU (1, destroyed). Type catalog: Kamohara 1961:6 [ref. 19282]. •Valid as Paramonacanthus nipponensis (Kamohara 1939) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Matsuura & Ikeda 1993:2 [ref. 24332], Lindberg et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23547]). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829) -- (Hutchins 1997:43 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

nitens, Monacanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:364, Pl. 14 (fig. 4 = fig. 12) [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 2; ref. 18301] Tongatapu, Tonga Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2050. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887]. •Valid as Pervagor nitens (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283]). •Questionably a synonym of Pervagor janthinosoma (Bleeker 1854) -- (Hutchins 1986:20 [ref. 19371]). •Synonym of Pervagor janthinosoma (Bleeker 1854) -- (Hutchins 2002:213 [ref. 26078], Allen et al. 2006:1895 [ref. 29098], Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Pervagor janthinosoma (Bleeker 1854). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

notonectianus, Monacanthus filicauda Whitley [G. P.] 1931:330, Fig. [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] Washed ashore at Coogee Beach, near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.1815. •Synonym of Paramonacanthus filicauda (Günther 1880) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1893 [ref. 29098]). •Synonym of Arotrolepis filicauda (Günther 1880). Current status: Synonym of Arotrolepis filicauda (Günther 1880). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

nukuhiva, Cantherhines Randall [J. E.] 2011:15, Plate IIIA [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 40; ref. 31468] Nuku Hiva, Taiohae Bay, Marquesas Islands, depth 1-2 meters. Holotype: BPBM 12477. Paratypes: BPBM 11919 (1), 12559 (1), 38678 (1); CAS-SU 24536 (1); USNM 399280 (1); WAM P.33334-001 (1). •Valid as Cantherhines nukuhiva Randall 2011 -- (Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Cantherhines nukuhiva Randall 2011. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago (? a stray). Habitat: marine.

obliteratus, Alutarius Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1335 [353] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Syntypes: (4) BMNH 1860.3.19.515 (1, left half skin). On p. 353 of separate. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

oblongus, Monacanthus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:291, Pl. 130 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 4133b. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1845.6.22.309 (1, stuffed); RMNH 1670-1676 (7, stuffed), 4133a (1), 4133c (1), 4138 (1); ZMB 4155 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:330 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:210 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Stephanolepis oblongus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Dor 1984:281 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356]). •Hutchins 1997:26 [ref. 23117] was unaware of a lectotype designation for Monacanthus oblongus and his assignment of that species as a synonym of Paramonacanthus japonicus should be reviewed. •Synonym of Paramonacanthus japonicus (Tilesius 1809) -- (Randall et al. 1990:464 [ref. 15987], Lindberg et al. 1997:79 [ref. 23547], Allen et al. 2006:1894 [ref. 29098]). •Valid as Paramonacanthus oblongus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Kyushin et al. 1982:282 [ref. 19754], Carpenter et al. 1997:237 [ref. 23922], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Gill & Hutchins 2002:107 [ref. 26079], Randall 2005:636 [ref. 28239], Larson et al. 2013:234 [ref. 32988], Larson et al. 2013:234 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Sonoyama et al. 2020:128 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus oblongus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles east to northern Australia, north to central Japan. Habitat: marine.

obscurus, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:51 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Swan River, Western Australia. Appeared as, "I have given, by mistake, the name of Brunneus to two species of this genus in the Proceedings. I propose altering the one from Swan River into Obscurus." •Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1898 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

obsoletus, Monacanthus Poey [F.] 2000:818, Pl. 463 (fig. 1) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Monacanthidae.

occidentalis, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1870:237 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; West Indies. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1847.5.14.40 (1) Puerto Cabello, BMNH uncat. (skin, not found). Based on literature citations and specimens. •Synonym of Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill 1818) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1066 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill 1818). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

ocheticus, Stephanolepis Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1940:529, Fig. 5 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 5 (no. 30); ref. 17233] Suez Canal, Ismailia, Egypt. Holotype: BMNH 1970.3.3.2. Paratypes: BMNH 1925.9.19.146-147 (2). Plus additional material: BMNH (6), MNHN (1). •Synonym of Stephanolepis diaspros Fraser-Brunner 1940 -- (Tortonese 1973:643 [ref. 7192], Dor 1984:280 [ref. 29757], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1338 [ref. 13677], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:156 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:64 [ref. 37112]). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis diaspros Fraser-Brunner 1940. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

oculatus, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1870:235 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Port Lincoln, South Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2020.5.12.1. •Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins1977:54 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1883 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

oppositus, Monacantus Poey [F.] 1860:331 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. Misspelled oppositns on p. 331; spelled oppositus in conspectus (p. 361) and index (p. 436), and errata (p. 442), which were published in June 1861; oppositns regarded as a misprint. •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispidus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1065 [ref. 19527], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754]). •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

ornatus, Balistes Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:131 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] New Guinea. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:298 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

otisensis, Paramonacanthus oblongus Whitley [G. P.] 1931:332, Pl. 27 (fig. 2) [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS E.1412. •Synonym of Paramonacanthus oblongus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283]). •Valid as Paramonacanthus otisensis Whitley 1931 -- (Kuiter 1993:399 [ref. 23929], Hutchins 1997:40 [ref. 23117], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3943 [ref. 26316], Allen et al. 2006:1894 [ref. 29098], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:307 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus otisensis Whitley 1931. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: northern Vietnam; Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

ovalis, Weerutta Scott [T. D.] 1962:310, Fig. [The marine and fresh water fishes of South Australia; ref. 6608] Off Dangerous Reef, South Australia. Holotype: SAMA F3057. Paratypes or non-types: (4). Type catalog: Glover 1976:175 [ref. 19449]. •Synonym of Eubalichthys mosaicus (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Gomon et al. 1994:877 [ref. 22532], Allen et al. 2006:1887 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Eubalichthys mosaicus (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

paragaudatus, Aleuteres Richardson [J.] 1840:28 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1840 (pt 8, no. 87); ref. 3733] Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia, southwestern Pacific, ca. 43°09'S, 147°51'E. Syntypes: BMNH 1856.9.19.1336 (1). Also described in Richardson 1844:172 [ref. 20295]. Original genus should have been Aluterus. •Synonym of Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1880 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Monacanthus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:57, Pl. 15 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] El-Tor, Sinai coast, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 2957. •Valid as Cantherhines [sometimes as Cantherines] pardalis (Rüppell 1837) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Dor 1984:279 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:360 [ref. 6441], Hutchins 1986:884 [ref. 5673], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:67 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:462 [ref. 15987], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527], Kuiter 1993:399 [ref. 23929] in Cantherhinus, Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:396 [ref. 22896], Lindberg et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:462 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:285 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:592 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1405 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:275 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3939 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1405 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:222 [ref. 27510], Parin 2003:S33 [ref. 28536], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:445 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:634 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1884 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:479 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:118 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:330 [ref. 31171], Motomura et al. 2010:235 [ref. 31256], Randall 2011:19 [ref. 31468], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1073 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Parin et al. 2014:551 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2014:196 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:380 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:179 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:327 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:612 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell 1837). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marquesas Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia, New Caledonia, Lord Howe and Rapa islands. Habitat: marine.

pareva, Aluteres Lesson [R. P.] 1831:106 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Bay of Matavai, Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:526 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527], Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

parika, Monacanthus Taylor [R.] 1870:625 [Te Ika a Maui; or, New Zealand and its inhabitants; ref. 20786] Not available, name only; from New Zealand. Monacanthidae.

parraianus, Monacanthus Poey [F.] 1863:185 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 18561] Cuba. No types known. Based on the 'Lija colorada' of Parra 1787:49, Pl. 23 [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Cantherhines macrocerus (Hollard 1853) -- (Randall 2011:14 [ref. 31468] dated 1854). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines macrocerus (Hollard 1853). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

paschalis, Pseudomonacanthus Regan [C. T.] 1913:372, Pl. 60 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 3); ref. 3652] Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1913.12.7.12. •Valid as Thamnaconus paschalis (Regan 1913) -- (Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus paschalis (Regan 1913). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island and southern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pauciradiatus, Tantalisor Whitley [G. P.] 1947:147 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 4708] Cape Peron, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.1641. •Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1898 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

paxmani, Colurodontis Hutchins [J. B.] 1977:22, Fig. 7 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 2283] Shark Bay, 25°30'S, 113°30'E, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.15454-001. Paratypes: AMS IB.316 (1); BMNH 1976.8.23.4 (1); QM I.1935 (5); USNM 216435 (1); WAM P.14871-001 (1), P.15455-001 (1), P.23242-001 to P.23252-001 (11), P.24124-001 to P.24125-001 (1, 1), P.24126-001 to P.24127-001 (1, 1), P.25568-001 to 25571-001 (2, 8, 1, 1), P.25572-001 (1), P.25573-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:44 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Colurodontis paxmani Hutchins 1977 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3940 [ref. 26316], Allen et al. 2006:1886 [ref. 29098], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Colurodontis paxmani Hutchins 1977. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

penicilligerus, Balistes Cuvier [G.] 1816:no page number, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) in v. 4 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Australia seas. Syntypes: MNHN B-2026 (6 in register, now 5). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:521 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:290 [ref. 28887]. Spelled pennicilligerus on plate; that spelling suppressed, on Official Index (Opinion 764). •Valid as Chaetoderma [sic] penicilligera (Cuvier 1816) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:463 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:389 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:181 [ref. 26476] dated 1817, Randall et al. 1997:463 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:3939 [ref. 26316] dated 1817). •Valid as Chaetodermis penicilligerus (Cuvier 1816) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:281 [ref. 19754], Matsuura in M/asuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:615 [ref. 27969], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1408 [ref. 25182] as penicilligera, Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847] as penicilligera, Nakabo 2002:1408 [ref. 26193] as penicilligera, Choi et al. 2003:448, 693 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830] as penicilligera, Allen et al. 2006:1885 [ref. 29098], Motomura et al. 2010:235 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1073 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:233 [ref. 32988] as penicilligera, Yoshida et al. 2013:228 [ref. 34464], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2015:102 [ref. 34319], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Sonoyama et al. 2020:128 [ref. 37637] as penicilligera). Current status: Valid as Chaetodermis penicilligerus (Cuvier 1816). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia east to Philippines, north to central Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

penicularius, Thamnaconus Fourmanoir [P.] in Roux-Estève & Fourmanoir 1955:202, Fig. 2 [Annales de l'Institut Océanographique, Monaco (Nouvelle Série) v. 30 (art. 7); ref. 5324] Abu Latt, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1952-0295. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:523 [ref. 21538] with ref. 12271, Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]. Also appeared as new in Fourmanoir 1955:230, Fig. 18 [ref. 12271] with Comoro Is. locality; earliest not established but ref. 5324 dates to 5 January. •Synonym of Amanses scopas (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor 1984:279 [ref. 29757], Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Amanses scopas (Cuvier 1829). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

peroni, Monacanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:356, Pl. 13 (fig. 4 = fig. 8) [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 2; ref. 18301] Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2020. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:524 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887] •Valid as Pseudomonacanthus peroni (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:466 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:400 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:466 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3945 [ref. 26316], Hutchins 2002:213 [ref. 26078], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:224 [ref. 27510], Allen et al. 2006:1897 [ref. 29098], Larson et al. 2013:234 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Pseudomonacanthus peroni (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

peronii, Monocanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1878:247 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 761] Original genus should have been Monacanthus. Not an original description but a subsequent use of Monacanthus peroni Hollard 1854; specimen from Hobson's Bay, Australia. Monacanthidae.

personatus, Aluteres Lesson [R. P.] 1831:105 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): Not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:526 [ref. 21538] with MNHN 0869 as holotype, Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527], Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

perulifer, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:245 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia. Syntypes: NMV 51866 (1). •Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1898 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

picturata, Alutera Poey [F.] 1863:183 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 18561] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

piraaca, Monacanthus Kner [R.] 1867:396 [Reise der öesterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18426] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. No types known. Originally as pira-aca. •Synonym of Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill 1818) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1066 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill 1818). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

platifrons, Monocanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:341 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 2; ref. 18301] King George Sound, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2018. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:525 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:300 [ref. 28887]. Original genus should have been Monacanthus. •Synonym of Nelusetta ayraud (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283] as ayraudi, Allen et al. 2006:1891 [ref. 29098] as ayraudi). Current status: Synonym of Nelusetta ayraud (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

plumbea, Davidia de Lema [T.] & de Oliveira [M. F. T.] 1975:3, Figs. 1-6 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRGS (Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul) No. 7; ref. 9273] Rio Grande do Sul at Tramandaí, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 7423. Paratypes: MCN 2162-2163 (2). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

poljakowi, Monacanthus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1896:8 [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 2151] Yokohama, Japan. Syntypes: ZIN 10140 (2). •Synonym of Thamnaconus modestus (Günther 1877) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:86 [ref. 23547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:201 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Thamnaconus modestus (Günther 1877). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

prasinus, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:205 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): Not at MNHN. Non-types: MNHN A-4562 (1), B-2053 (1). Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:301 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1889 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

pricei, Stephanolepis Snyder [J. O.] 1904:534, Pl. 12 (fig. 22) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Vicinity of Kauai Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 286-399 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 50882. •Synonym of Pervagor spilosoma (Lay & Bennett 1839) -- (Hutchins 1986:32 [ref. 19371], Mundy 2005:529 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Pervagor spilosoma (Lay & Bennett 1839). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

prionurus, Alutarius Bleeker [P.] 1851:260 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 331] Bandaneira, Banda Islands, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2). •Valid as Paraluteres prionurus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:361 [ref. 6441], Hutchins 1986:885 [ref. 5673], Winterbottom et al. 1989:68 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:464 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:398 [ref. 23929], Randall 1995:396 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:240, 242 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:402 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:464 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:285 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:593 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1403 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:460 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3941 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1403 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:445 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:635 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1892 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:119 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:235 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1074 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:233 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:196 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:113 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:381 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Paraluteres prionurus (Bleeker 1851). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Great Barrier Reef (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

proboscideum, Monacanthum Ranzani [C.] 1842:8 [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 3606] Brazil. •Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

prognathus, Monacanthus Poey [F.] 2000:816, Pl. 459 (fig. 1) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Monacanthidae.

pullus, Monacanthus Ranzani [C.] 1842:4, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-3) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 3606] Brazilian seas. Holotype (unique): MZUB 973. •Valid as Amanses pullus (Ranzani 1842) -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:73 [ref. 19549]). •Valid as Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:301 [ref. 23100], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Boschung 1992:180 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:359 [ref. 23827], Randall 1995:396 [ref. 22896], Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204], Cervigón 1996:100 [ref. 24489], Lindberg et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23547] in Cantharines, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:350 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:81 [ref. 25466] in Cantherines, Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1647 [ref. 25634], Collette et al. 2003:127 [ref. 26784], Matsuura 2003:1975 [ref. 27119], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:634 [ref. 28239], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:908 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:42 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:479 [ref. 30952], Randall 2011:22 [ref. 31468], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:87 [ref. 33341], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Pinheiro et al. 2015:35 [ref. 34324], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:169 [ref. 36561], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3060 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic from Massachusetts (U.S.A.) to Brazil; eastern Atlantic: west Africa. Invasive at Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Alutera Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:137, Pl. 76 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1062 [ref. 19527], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3059 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Balistes Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:130 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Dampier Archipelago. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:298 [ref. 28887]. •Status uncertain -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:298 [ref. 28887]). Monacanthidae.

punctatus, Monacanthus Poey [F.] 1868:437 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Randall 2011:22 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

punctulatus, Pseudomonacanthus Regan [C. T.] 1903:298, Pl. 25 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1902, v. 2 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 4 Nov. 1902); ref. 14413] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1881.10.18.2. •Synonym of Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854) -- (Randall 2011:9 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

pusillus, Monacanthus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:34 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 3488. Appeared first as name in synonymy, validated by Günther 1870:229 [ref. 1995]. •Valid as Pseudomonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829) -- (Dor 1984:280 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829) -- (Hutchins 1997:43 [ref. 23117], Fricke 1999:594 [ref. 24106], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1412 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3943 [ref. 26316] dated 1828, Nakabo 2002:1412 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830] dated 1828, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:446 [ref. 28072], Allen et al. 2006:1894 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:119 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1076 [ref. 31980], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:433 [ref. 33460], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Motomura et al. 2017:233 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:381 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:179 [ref. 36273], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:307 [ref. 36460], Psomadakis et al. 2020:613 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and South Africa east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

quadrispinis, Eubalichthys Hutchins [J. B.] 1977:37, Fig. 10 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 2283] 80 kilometers off Cape Wiles, 34°57'S, 135°41'E, South Australia, depth 135 meters. Holotype: AMS E.987. Paratypes: CSIRO C 1447 (1). •Valid as Eubalichthys quadrispinis Hutchins 1977 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:878 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1888 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:833 [ref. 30658]). Current status: Valid as Eubalichthys quadrispinis Hutchins 1977. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Australia: South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

quadrispinosus, Monacanthus Poey [F.] 2000:816, Pl. 459 (fig. 2) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Monacanthidae.

radiatus, Monacanthus Popta [C. M. L.] 1900:126, Fig. [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 22 (nos 1-2); ref. 14738] Malay Archipelago. Holotype: RMNH 6826. •Valid as Acreichthys radiatus (Popta 1900) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:360 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:460 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Nakabo 2000:1409 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3934 [ref. 26316], Hutchins 2002:213 [ref. 26078], Nakabo 2002:1409 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1880 [ref. 29098], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1069 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:194 [ref. 33932], Moore et al. 2020:110 [ref. 37357]). Current status: Valid as Acreichthys radiatus (Popta 1900). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Central Indonesia east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Kimberley (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Pervagor Hutchins [J. B.] 1986:30, Pl. 2 D-E [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 12; ref. 19371] Off Djibouti, Masakali Island, Gulf of Tadjoura, Gulf of Aden, Northwestern Indian Ocean, depth 8-10 meters. Holotype: BPBM 21540. Paratypes: BPBM 13374 (1); USNM 263153-54 (1, 1); WAM P.28357-001 (1), P.28358-001 (1 c&s). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:52 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Pervagor randalli Hutchins 1986 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[17] 255 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:180 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pervagor randalli Hutchins 1986. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

rapanui, Amanses de Buen [F.] 1963:66 [Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepción v. 35/36 (1960-61); ref. 4325] Hanga Piko, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 4 meters. Holotype: EBMC 141. Paratypes: CIZ (3); EBMC 87 (1), 215 (1). •Valid as Cantherhines rapanui (de Buen 1963) -- (Caldwell & Randall 1967:857 [ref. 27840], Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125] as Cantherines, Randall 2005:633 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:480 [ref. 30952], Randall 2011:23 [ref. 31468], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Cantherhines rapanui (de Buen 1963). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

rectifrons, Stephanolepis Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1940:531, Fig. 6 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 5 (no. 30); ref. 17233] Inyack, Delagoa Bay, southeastern Africa. Holotype: BMNH 1920.12.6.27. Paratypes: MCZ (1). Additional material: BMNH (2 skins). •Synonym of Stephanolepis auratus (Castelnau 1861) -- (Hutchins 1986:886 [ref. 5673]). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis auratus (Castelnau 1861). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

retrospinis, Stephanolepis Fowler [H. W.] 1943:90 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 14 (pt 2); ref. 1441] Cebu Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 108467. •Questionably a synonym of Paramonacanthus choirocephalus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Hutchins 1997:19 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Uncertain as Paramonacanthus choirocephalus (Bleeker 1851). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

rhinoceros, Aluterus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] (ex Cuvier) 1855:19, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 4; ref. 19529] Mer des Indes. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2031. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:527 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:287 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Pseudalutarius nasicornis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:287 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudalutarius nasicornis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

ronaldi, Monacanthus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:12, Pl. 12 (fig. 31) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Off western coast of Central America, 10°25'N, 80°15'W. Holotype: ANSP 68302 [not 68301]. Paratypes: ANSP 68303 (1), 68304 (1, missing) [not 68302-303]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

rubricauda, Monacanthus Bliss [R.] 1883:62 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 5904. •Synonym of Pervagor aspricaudus (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1986:18 [ref. 19371], Fricke 1999:594 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Pervagor aspricaudus (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

rudis, Monacanthus Richardson [J.] 1840:27 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1840 (pt 8, no. 87); ref. 3733] Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia, southwestern Pacific, ca. 43°09'S, 147°51'E. Holotype (?): BMNH 2009.3.9.4 (stuffed and mounted). Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:303 [ref. 28887]. Also described in Richardson 1844:166 [ref. 20295]. •Synonym of Meuschenia australis (Donovan 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1888 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Meuschenia australis (Donovan 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

ruppellii, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:97, Pl. 47 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1960. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:523 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]. Originally spelled ruppelii and spelled ruppellii in index (p. 111). Kullander 2016:95 [ref. 34436] selected ruppellii as the correct spelling. •Synonym of Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1064 [ref. 19527], Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887], Randall 2011:22 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani 1842). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

sandwichiensis, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:214 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1959. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:523 [ref. 21538] with holotype and paratype, Beaunier et al. 2009:291 [ref. 28887]. •Valid as Cantherhines sandwichiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Randall 1995:396 [ref. 22896], Lindberg et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23547] as Cantharines, Randall 2005:634 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:528 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:479 [ref. 30952], Randall 2011:24 [ref. 31468], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Cantherhines sandwichiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands, Cook Islands, Rapa and the Pitcairn Islands. Habitat: marine.

santijoanni, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1878:246 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 761] Hobson's Bay, Australia. No types known. Original as santi joanni. •Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790) -- (Hutchins 1977:57 [ref. 2283] with species as saintijoanni, Allen et al. 2006:1898 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Scobinichthys granulatus (Shaw 1790). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

sarothrura, Monacanthus van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:317 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar I Deel (no. 20); ref. 4513] Available name, based on Seba, 1758, III, p. 63, pl. 24, fig. 18 and Gronovius, 1763, p. 52, No. 191, pl. 6, fig. 5 (see Alfred 1961:83, Pl. 4 [ref. 20553], Kottelat 1987:369 [ref. 5962]). Also in van Hasselt 1824:91 [ref. 5104] as sarorhurus. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

scaber, Balistes Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:477 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Pacific [is Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand]. No types known. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Valid as Parika scaber (Forster 1801) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Paulin et al. 1989:243 [ref. 24556], Matsuura in Amaoka et al. 1990:331 [ref. 16024], Paulin & Roberts 1992:115 [ref. 24625], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Meuschenia scaber (Forster 1801) -- (Kuiter 1993:405 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:885 [ref. 22532], Allen et al. 2006:1890 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:837 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1720 [ref. 34322]). Current status: Valid as Meuschenia scaber (Forster 1801). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Australia, New Zealand, Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

scabrosus, Balistes Richardson [J.] (ex Solander) 1846:65 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Near Motuaro, New Zealand. No types known. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

scanleni, Pervagor Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:221, Fig. 3 [South African Journal of Science v. 53 (no. 8); ref. 12171] Port Alfred, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 330. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 850-852 (1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Pervagor janthinosoma (Bleeker 1854) -- (Hutchins 1986:20 [ref. 19371]). •Synonym of Pervagor melanocephalus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Hutchins 1986:886 [ref. 5673]). Current status: Synonym of Pervagor melanocephalus (Bleeker 1853). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

schoepfii, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:461 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated [New York, U.S.A.]. No types known. Based on 'Balistes' in Schöpf 1788:186 [ref. 18700]. •Valid as Alutera schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:66 [ref. 19549], McAllister 1990:225 [ref. 14674] as scoepfi). •Valid as Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792) [sometimes seen as schoepfi] -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:471 [ref. 14275], Smith 1986:459 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:300 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:562 [ref. 25518] as schoepfi, Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1062 [ref. 19527], Boschung 1992:180 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:359 [ref. 23827], Murdy et al. 1997:265 [ref. 23144], Cervigón 1996:95 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221] as shoepfii, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:507 [ref. 24550] as schoepfi, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:349 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754] as schoepfi, Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:592 [ref. 26158] as schoepfi, Matsuura 2003:1974 [ref. 27119], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27192] as schoepfi, Smith et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27621] as schoepi, Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:905 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:86 [ref. 33341], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Pinheiro et al. 2015:34 [ref. 34324], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3059 [ref. 34618], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum 1792). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada) and Bermuda south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

scopas, Balistes Cuvier [G.] 1829:373 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] [No locality stated] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:298 [ref. 28887]. Available from footnote, based on Lacepède 1798, Pl. 17 (fig. 3). •Valid as Amanses scopas (Cuvier 1829) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Dor 1984:278 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:360 [ref. 6441], Hutchins 1986:883 [ref. 5673], Randall et al. 1990:461 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Lindberg et al. 1997:69 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:461 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:284 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:590 [ref. 24106], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1406 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:459 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3937 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1406 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:222 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:632 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1882 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:118 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:330 [ref. 31171], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1070 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:195 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:380 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:179 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:327 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:611 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Amanses scopas (Cuvier 1829). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

scriptus, Balistes Osbeck [P.] 1765:145 [Reise nach Ostindien und China; ref. 3311] South China Sea, off Vietnam, between Pulo Condor and Hainan, south of 'Piedra Blanca' [western Pacific]. No types known. Osbeck referred to 'Catesby 27' but also had collected a specimen. •Valid as Alutera scripta (Osbeck 1765) -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:66 [ref. 19549], Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Dor 1984:278 [ref. 29757], McAllister 1990:225 [ref. 14674], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:614 [ref. 27969], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268]). •Valid as Aluteres scriptus (Osbeck 1765) -- (Wirtz et al. 2007:42 [ref. 30263], Fricke et al. 2009:118 [ref. 30213]). •Valid as Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:284 [ref. 19754], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:361 [ref. 6441], Hutchins 1986:883 [ref. 5673], Robins & Ray 1986:300 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:669 [ref. 9166], Allen & Swainston 1988:152 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:563 [ref. 25518], Winterbottom et al. 1989:67 [ref. 13251], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527], Randall et al. 1990:461 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:180 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:359 [ref. 23827], Kuiter 1993:408 [ref. 23929], Allen & Robertson 1994:297 [ref. 22193], Bussing & Lavenberg in Fischer et al. 1995:1280 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:395 [ref. 22896], Cervigón 1996:96 [ref. 24489], Murdy et al. 1997:264 [ref. 23144], Pequeño 1997:84 [ref. 23536] as scripta, Lindberg et al. 1997:73 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:242 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:223 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:637 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:400 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:461 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:284 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:590 [ref. 24106] in Aluteres, Francis et al. 1999:577 [ref. 24249], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:507 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:349 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:81 [ref. 25466], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1404 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:458 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:275 [ref. 25480], Thomson et al. 2000:270 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1647 [ref. 25634], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3936 [ref. 26316], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:594 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:1404 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:448, 692 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Collette et al. 2003:127 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Matsuura 2003:1978 [ref. 27119], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27192], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:222 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576], Smith et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27621], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Freitas & Biscoito 2002:2 [ref. 27802], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:632 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:528 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:906 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Allen et al. 2006:1881 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:478 [ref. 30952], Matsuura 2009:330 [ref. 31171], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:234 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1070 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:233 [ref. 32988], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:87 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:195 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:334 [ref. 34104], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1719 [ref. 34322], Pinheiro et al. 2015:34 [ref. 34324], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3061 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565], Motomura et al. 2017:231 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:379 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:178 [ref. 36273], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:306 [ref. 36460], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Arndt & Fricke 2019:21 [ref. 36883], Brown et al. 2019:183 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:226 [ref. 37250], Fricke et al. 2019:326 [ref. 36673], Kumar et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36793], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:610 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:127 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas (including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, South China Sea, Sea of Japan). Habitat: marine.

sebae, Monacanthus Billberg [G. J.] 1833:52 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Carolinas, U.S.A. No types known. Based on the Balistes hispidus of Gmelin 1789:1463 [ref. 18139], allegedly different from Balistes hispidus Linnaeus 1758 according to Billberg 1833; see Kullander 2016:113 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispidus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Kullander 2016:113 [ref. 34147]). •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

septemclassiensis, Stephanolepis (Pervagor) Barton [O.] 1945:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 1303; ref. 13078] Tanamerah Bay, 50 miles west of Hollandia, New Guinea. Holotype: AMNH 16520. Paratypes: AMNH 16521 (1). •Synonym of Pervagor nigrolineatus (Herre 1927) -- (Hutchins 1986:28 [ref. 19371]). Current status: Synonym of Pervagor nigrolineatus (Herre 1927). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

septentrionalis, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1874:158 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 13 (no. 74) (art. 23); ref. 14189] Chefoo, Shantung Province, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1874.1.16.52-53 (3). •Valid as Navodon septentrionalis (Günther 1874) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:471 [ref. 26385]). •Valid as Thamnaconus septentrionalis (Günther 1874) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:361 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:90 [ref. 23547], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus septentrionalis (Günther 1874). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific. Habitat: marine.

serrasquamosus, Monacanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:345 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 2; ref. 18301] Bay of Islands, Pacific. Holotype (unique): ?MNHN. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

serraticornis, Balistes Fréminville [C. P. P.] 1813:249, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique, Paris. v. 3 (no. 67); ref. 18094] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:298 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1061 [ref. 19527], Beaunier et al. 2009:298 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

setifer, Monacanthus Bennett [E. T.] 1831:112 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 16791] No locality. No types known. •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispidus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1339 [ref. 13677], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1065 [ref. 19527]). •Valid as Monacanthus setifer Bennett 1831 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:301 [ref. 23100], Robins et al. 1991:69 [ref. 14237], Boschung 1992:181 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1996:104 [ref. 24489], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:278 [ref. 25480]). •Valid as Stephanolepis setifer (Bennett 1831) -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:72 [ref. 19549], Cervigón 1992:360 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:505 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:351 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Matsuura 2003:1977 [ref. 27119], Smith et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:912 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Carneiro et al. 2019:227 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Stephanolepis setifer (Bennett 1831). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

setifer, Monocanthus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:337, Pl. 59 (fig. 194) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York harbor, New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): Cabinet of the Lyceum (whereabouts unknown). Preoccupied by Stephanolepis setifer (Bennett 1831). Original genus should have been Monacanthus. •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

setosus, Monacanthus Waite [E. R.] 1899:91, Pl. 16 [Memoirs of the Australian Museum, Sydney v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 4557] Off Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia, depth 63-75 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS I.4023. •Synonym of Parika scaber (Forster 1801) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283]). •Synonym of Meuschenia scaber (Forster 1801) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1890 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Meuschenia scaber (Forster 1801). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

sinensis, Balistes Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1470 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] China. Emendation of or new name for Balistes chinensis Osbeck 1765. •Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765). Current status: Synonym of Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

skottowei, Meuschenia Whitley [G. P.] 1934:161 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 2); ref. 4681] Long Reef, Collaroy, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.5698. •Synonym of Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Gomon et al. 1994:883 [ref. 22532], Allen et al. 2006:1889 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

spilomelanurus, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:217 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1973. Non-types: MNHN B-1972 (1), B-1976 (1), B-1978 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:524 [ref. 21538] with MNHN B.1973 as holotype, plus 3 paratypes, Beaunier et al. 2009:291 [ref. 28887]. •Valid as Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Kuiter 1993:406 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:869 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:398 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1880 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:825 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spilonotus, Monacanthus Cope [E. D.] 1871:476 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Gulf of Mexico. Syntypes: (3, not found). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispidus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1065 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis hispida (Linnaeus 1766). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

spilosoma, Monacanthus Lay [G. T.] & Bennett [E. T.] 1839:70, Pl. 22 (fig. 1) [The zoology of Captain Beechey's voyage; ref. 2730] Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1862.8.15.12 [ex Royal Coll. Surgeons]. •Valid as Pervagor spilosoma (Lay & Bennett 1839) -- (Hutchins 1986:32 [ref. 19371], Mundy 2005:529 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:480 [ref. 30952], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Pervagor spilosoma (Lay & Bennett 1839). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

spinosissimus, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:211, Pl. 45 (figs. 3 and 8) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2028. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:291 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Chaetoderma penicilligera (Cuvier 1817) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283] dated 1816). •Synonym of Chaetodermis penicilligerus (Cuvier 1816) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1885 [ref. 29098]). •Synonym of Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:291 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Chaetodermis penicilligerus (Cuvier 1816). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

stratus, Monacanthus Poey [F.] 1860:329 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Cantherhines macrocerus (Hollard 1853) -- (Randall 2011:14 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines macrocerus (Hollard 1853). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Amanses Kotthaus [A.] 1979:33, Fig. 483 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 28; ref. 8818] Southwest of Socotra, Arabian Sea, 11°33.9'N, 52°54'E, Meteor station 102, depth 337-175 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 5976. Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:421 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Thamnaconus striatus (Kotthaus 1779) -- (Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Allen et al. 2006:1899 [ref. 29098], Larson et al. 2013:234 [ref. 32988], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus striatus (Kotthaus 1979). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sulcatus, Monacanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:363, Pl. 14 (fig. 3 = fig. 11) [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 2; ref. 18301] Macao. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1418. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:521 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]. •Valid as Arotrolepis sulcatus (Hollard 1854) -- (Chen et al. 1997:182 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Paramonacanthus sulcatus (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Hutchins 1997:47 [ref. 23117], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:276 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:3935 [ref. 26316], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1076 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus sulcatus (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Distribution: South China Sea, Java Sea and Gulf of Thailand. Habitat: marine.

talpa, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:467 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): Type lost. •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2002:313 [ref. 26661]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

talpinna, Balistes Bory de Saint-Vincent [J. B. G. M.] 1822:169 (v. 2, ASA-CAC) [Dictionnaire Classique d'Histoire Naturelle; ref. 3853] Shark Bay, Western Australia. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:298-299 [ref. 28887]. Figured in v. 17, 1831:Pl. 115 (fig. 1). •Status uncertain -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:299 [ref. 28887]). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

taylori, Brachaluteres Woods [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1966:97, Fig. 154 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 3; ref. 5366] Lagoon 2 miles west of Bush Island, Rongelap Atoll, western Pacific, depth 120 feet. Holotype (unique): USNM 140643. •Valid as Brachaluteres taylori Woods 1966 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:243 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Myers 1999:284 [ref. 23965], Hutchins 2001:3938 [ref. 26316], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1883 [ref. 29098], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1071 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Brachaluteres taylori Woods 1966. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea to Marshall Islands and Australia. Habitat: marine.

tessellatus, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1880:54, Pl. 23 (fig. B) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Philippines, Challenger station 204, depth 115 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.390 [or 395]. •Synonym of Thamnaconus modestus (Günther 1877) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:88 [ref. 23547]). •Valid as Thamnaconus tessellatus (Günther 1880) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:361 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:631, 745 [ref. 8056], Matsuura & Tachikawa 1994:139 [ref. 21905], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:193 [ref. 23219], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1408 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3947 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1408 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:448, 694 [ref. 26218] as tesselatus, Allen et al. 2006:1900 [ref. 29098], Larson et al. 2013:235 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576], Motomura et al. 2017:234 [ref. 35490], Park et al. 2017:278 [ref. 36313]). Current status: Valid as Thamnaconus tessellatus (Günther 1880). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tiki, Cantherhines Randall [J. E.] 1964:350, Fig. 12 [Copeia 1964 (no. 2); ref. 3148] Cook Bay, Easter Island, 27°05'S, 109°20'W, southeastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): USNM 65578. •Valid as Cantherhines tiki Randall 1964 -- (Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125] and Lindberg et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23547] as Cantherines). •Synonym of Cantherhines rapanui (de Buen 1963) -- (Caldwell & Randall 1967:857 [ref. 27840], Randall 2011:23 [ref. 31468]). Current status: Synonym of Cantherhines rapanui (de Buen 1963). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

tomentosus, Balistes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:328 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America [in error]. No types known. •Valid as Acreichthys tomentosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:360 [ref. 6441], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:284 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1409 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:319 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:3936 [ref. 26316], Nakabo 2002:1409 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:221 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:632 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1881 [ref. 29098], Matsuura 2009:329 [ref. 31171], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1069 [ref. 31980]. Larson et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:194 [ref. 33932], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2015:101 [ref. 34319], Fricke et al. 2019:326 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:610 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Acreichthys tomentosus (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Sri Lanka and Myanmar east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

trachyderma, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1860:70, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 1); ref. 374] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7308. •Synonym of Paramonacanthus japonicus (Tilesius 1809) -- (Hutchins 1997:26 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus japonicus (Tilesius 1809). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

trachylepis, Monacanthus Günther [A.] 1870:248 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.5.25.8 (stuffed). •Valid as Meuschenia trachylepis (Günther 1870) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283], Kuiter 1993:404 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:396 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Allen et al. 2006:1890 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:833 [ref. 30658]). Current status: Valid as Meuschenia trachylepis (Günther 1870). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

trichurus, Monacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1853:125 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 16900] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes (5) and/or Bleeker specimens: ?BMNH 1867.11.28.141 and 143 (2); ?MNHN 0000-3020 (1) Ambon; SMNS 10615 (2, not found in 1990). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:522 [ref. 21538], Fricke 1991:17 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:48 [ref. 29864], Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Acreichthys tomentosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Acreichthys tomentosus (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

tricuspis, Monocanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:351, Pl. 13 (fig 3 = fig. 7) [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 2; ref. 18301] Indian sea ["Mer des Indes"]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4135. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:520 [ref. 21538] wrongly with holotype and paratype; Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]. Original genus should have been Monacanthus. •Valid as Paramonacanthus tricuspis (Hollard 1854) -- (Hutchins 1997:50 [ref. 23117], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1076 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Psomadakis et al. 2020:613 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Paramonacanthus tricuspis (Hollard 1854). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: India, Myanmar east to Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. Habitat: marine.

trossulus, Aleuterius Richardson [J.] 1846:68, Pl. 40 (fig. 5-6) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Western Australia. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. Correct spelling for genus is Aluterus. •Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins1977:54 [ref. 2283], Gomon et al. 1994:872 [ref. 22532], Allen et al. 2006:1883 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

tuckeri, Monacanthus Bean [T. H.] 1906:33 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 19; ref. 15640] The Flatts, Bermuda. Lectotype: FMNH 5183. Paralectotypes: FMNH 5184 (1), 5186 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:58 [ref. 12367]. Lectotype selected by Grey 1947:168 [ref. 12302]. •Valid as Monacanthus tuckeri Bean 1906 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:302 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:360 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:105 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:350 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:127 [ref. 26784], Matsuura 2003:1979 [ref. 27119], Smith et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:910 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:87 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Monacanthus tuckeri Bean 1906. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

tweediei, Pseudomonacanthus Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1940:66, Pl. 22 [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 16; ref. 17235] Singapore. Syntypes: (2) [or (5)] BMNH (missing). Additional material (6). •Valid as Pseudomonacanthus tweediei Fraser-Bruner 1940 -- (Matsuura 2014:13 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Pseudomonacanthus tweediei Fraser-Brunner 1940. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Singapore. Habitat: marine.

ulvarum, Brachaluteres Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1902:271, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1287); ref. 2457] Misaki, Japan. Syntypes: CAS-SU 7128 (2). Additional material: (numerous). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:144 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Brachaluteres ulvarum Jordan & Fowler 1902 -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:361 [ref. 6441], Akagawa et al. 1995:397 [ref. 22338], Nakabo 2000:1404 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1404 [ref. 26193], Motomura et al. 2010:235 [ref. 31256], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Brachaluteres ulvarum Jordan & Fowler 1902. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

umgazi, Laputa Smith [J. L. B.] 1949:402, Fig. 1138 [The sea fishes of southern Africa; ref. 5846] Umgazi River mouth, Transkei, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 308. •Synonym of Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829) -- (Hutchins 1997:43 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Balistes monoceros var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:463 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. Unexplained replacement name for Balistes kleinii Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus 1758). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

unicornu, Balistes Richardson [J.] 1843:29 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science v. 12 (12th meeting [1842]); ref. 12502] Not available, Solander name mentioned in passing under account of Monacanthus scaber. Monacanthidae.

unicornus, Balistes Basilewsky [S.] 1855:263 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Shantung, China. Holotype or syntypes: ZIN 5612 (1). •Questionably a synonym of Thamnaconus modestus (Günther 1877) -- (Parin 2003:S33 [ref. 28536] as unicornu, Parin et al. 2014:551 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Uncertain as Thamnaconus modestus (Günther 1877). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

variabilis, Aleuterius Richardson [J.] 1846:67, Pl. 53 (figs. 1-7) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] King George Sound, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1846.8.16.1 (stuffed). Correct spelling for genus is Aluterus. •Synonym of Meuschenia hippocrepis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:55 [ref. 2283], Allen et al. 2006:1889 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Meuschenia hippocrepis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

varius, Monacanthus Ranzani [C.] 1842:6, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-3) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 3606] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 970. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

velutina, Lalmohania Hutchins [J. B.] 1994:570, Figs. 1-3 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 16 (pt 4); ref. 21436] Kilakkarai, about 9°16'N, 78°48'E, Gulf of Mannar, India (purchased from market). Holotype: BPBM 20617. Paratypes: BPBM 35756 (2), Central Mar. Fish. Res. Inst., Cochin, uncat. [?=FMRI] (2), WAM P.30671-001 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:52 [ref. 30117] with locality as Kilakkari.. •Valid as Lalmohania velutina Hutchins 1994 -- (Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Lalmohania velutina Hutchins 1994. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern India. Habitat: marine.

velutinus, Aleuteres Jenyns [L.] 1842:157 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] King George Sound, Western Australia. Syntypes: (2) UMZC [Darwin no. 1380 and 1392] (2). Original genus should have been Aluterus. •Synonym of Nelusetta ayraud (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283] as ayraudi, Allen et al. 2006:1891 [ref. 29098] as ayraud). Current status: Synonym of Nelusetta ayraud (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

venosus, Aluterus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1855:14, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 4; ref. 19529] New Ireland Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1970. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:287 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck 1765) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1063 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Tetraodon scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Current status: Synonym of Tetraodon scriptus (Osbeck 1765). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

ventralis, Alutera Longley [W. H.] 1935:89 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book No. 34; ref. 13714] Channel west of White Shoals, Tortugas, Florida, Gulf of Mexico. Holotype: USNM 109177. Paratypes: USNM 109178 (1). •Synonym of Aluterus heudelotii Hollard 1855 -- (Berry & Vogele 1961:67 [ref. 19549], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1061 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Aluterus heudelotii Hollard 1855. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

venusta, Meuschenia Hutchins [J. B.] 1977:45, Fig. 12 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 2283] Shark Bay, 25°30'S, 115°39'E, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.14881-001. Paratypes: CSIRO C 2284 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:52 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Meuschenia venusta Hutchins 1977 -- (Kuiter 1993:405 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:886 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:394 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1890 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:837 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:12 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Meuschenia venusta Hutchins 1977. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: New South Wales to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

verecundus, Cantherines Jordan [E. K.] 1925:40, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 66 (no. 2570); ref. 2544] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 87420. Paratypes: (8) CUMV (1); CAS-SU 8465 (2), 23373 (5); USNM 151556 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:144 [ref. 12291]. Original genus should have been Cantherhines. Spelled verecunda in caption to Pl. 2. •Valid as Cantherhines verecundus Jordan 1925 -- (Myers 1999:285 [ref. 23965], Randall 2005:633 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:529 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:480 [ref. 30952], Randall 2011:25 [ref. 31468], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Cantherhines verecundus Jordan 1925. Monacanthidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

virgulatus, Rudarius Nalbant [T. T.] & Mayer [R. F.] 1975:240, Pl. 3 (figs. 10-13) [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 16; ref. 17766] Kunduchi, near Mbudya Island, Tanzania, depth 18 meters. Holotype (unique): MGAB 362. •Synonym of Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829) -- (Hutchins 1997:43 [ref. 23117]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus pusillus (Rüppell 1829). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

vittatus, Monacanthus Richardson [J.] (ex Solander) 1846:66 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] King George Sound, Western Australia. No types known. Based on description by Solander and (unpublished) illustration by Gen. Neill. •Synonym of Nelusetta ayraud (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283] as ayraudi, Allen et al. 2006:1891 [ref. 29098] as ayraudi). Current status: Synonym of Nelusetta ayraud (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

vittiger, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:81 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Adelaide, South Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2051. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:523-524 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]. •Valid as Penicipelta vittiger (Castelnau 1873) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283]). •Valid as Acanthaluteres vittiger (Castelnau 1873) -- (Kuiter 1993:407 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:870 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:398 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1880 [ref. 29098], Hutchins 2008:825 [ref. 30658], Matsuura 2014:11 [ref. 33576], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Acanthaluteres vittiger (Castelnau 1873). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern Australia. Habitat: marine.

weberi, Stephanolepis Fowler [H. W.] & Steinitz [H.] 1956:287, Fig. 33 [not 32] [Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel v. 5B (no. 3-4); ref. 1478] Haifa, Israel, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): ANSP 72148. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Stephanolepis diaspros Fraser-Brunner 1940 -- (Tortonese 1973:643 [ref. 7192], Golani 2005:64 [ref. 37112]). Current status: Synonym of Stephanolepis diaspros Fraser-Brunner 1940. Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

whitleyi, Paramonacanthus Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1941:194, Fig. 7 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 8 (no. 45); ref. 1494] Between Cape Jaubert and Wallah, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.4136. Paratypes: AMS IA.4137-38 (2). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus oblongus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Hutchins 1977:56 [ref. 2283]). •Synonym of Paramonacanthus choirocephalus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Hutchins 1997:19 [ref. 23117], Allen et al. 2006:1893 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Paramonacanthus choirocephalus (Bleeker 1851). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

wolfei, Brachaluteres Scott [E. O. G.] 1969:39, Fig. 2 [Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania v. 103; ref. 7844] Mid-western end of Schouten Passage in line between Weatherhead Point and Supply Rock, eastern Tasmania, Australia, depth 10 fathoms. Holotype: Fish. Div., Dept. of Agr., Tasmania (55.2 mm TL). Paratypes: (1) Fish. Div., Dept. of Agr., Tasmania (32.8 mm TL) •Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Hutchins1977:54 [ref. 2283], Gomon et al. 1994:872 [ref. 22532], Allen et al. 2006:1883 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

xanthopterus, Thamnaconus Xu [C.-G.] & Zhan [H.-X.] in Xu 1988:312, Fig. 248 [The deep water fishes of the east China Sea 1988; ref. 22210] China. Syntypes: ECSFRI (Shanghai) SH75-0424 (1) estuary of Yangtze R., SH75-057 4 (1) off Fuding (Fujian), SH80D-0734 (1) East China Sea. In English on pp. 313-314. •Valid as Navodon xanopterus (Xu & Zhan 1988) -- (Chen et al. 1997:183 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Meuschenia xanthopterus (Xu & Zhan 1988). Current status: Valid as Meuschenia xanthopterus (Xu & Zhan 1988). Monacanthidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific off China and Japan. Habitat: marine.

yagoi, Monacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1878:245 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 761] St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia, Australia. Syntypes: MNHN B-2021 (2). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:525 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Bigener brownii (Richardson 1846) -- (Hutchins 1977:54 [ref. 2283]). •Synonym of Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson 1846) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1879 [ref. 29098], Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson 1846). Monacanthidae. Habitat: marine.