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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Mullidae: [ 214 ] records


africanus, Mullus argentinae Vasil'eva [E. D.] 2011:23, Figs. 1a-b, 2a [Journal of Ichthyology v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 31221] Eastern Atlantic, coast of Africa, 22°35'5"N, 16°59'5"W. Paratypes: ZMMU R-9266 (1), R-11456 (1), R-14855 (1). •Synonym of Mullus argentinae Hubbs & Marini 1933, but a valid subspecies africanus Vasil'eva 2011 as described -- (Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972] needing confirmation). Current status: Synonym of Mullus argentinae Hubbs & Marini 1933. Mullidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic [subspecies africanus]. Habitat: marine.

alessandrini, Megalepis Bianconi [G. G.] 1857:100 [Rendiconto delle Sessioni dell'Accademia delle Scienze dell'Instituto dei Bologna 1856-1857; ref. 17950] Mozambique. No types known. Also appeared as new in Bianconi 1854:247, Piscium pl. 4 [ref. 295] and Bianconi 1857:453 [ref. 26453] with figure; earliest not researched. •Synonym of Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846 -- (Kottelat 2013:362 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

americanus, Mullus Devincenzi [G. J.] 1933:5, Fig. [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Serie 2) v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 16419] Punta del Este a mediados, Uruguay. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: MHNM CI 1810-1811 (2). Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:7 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. Based on literature sources and specimens. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

andrewsii, Parupeneus Regan [C. T.] 1909:403, Pl. 65 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 2) (art. 3) (for 6 Apr. 1909); ref. 14412] Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1909.3.4.17. •Synonym of Parupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:19 [ref. 23973]). •Synonym of Parupeneus trifasciatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall & Myers 2002:432 [ref. 26607]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus trifasciatus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

angulatus, Parupeneus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [E.] 2009:41, Figs. 3C, 4 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin v. 10; ref. 30542] Southwest of Denis Island, 3°54'S,55°49'E, Seychelles Bank, depth 57 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 82215. Paratypes: BPBM 31309 (1). Second author is E. Heemstra. •Valid as Parupeneus angulatus Randall & Heemstra 2009 -- (Uiblein et al. 2017:558 [ref. 35672]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus angulatus Randall & Heemstra 2009. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

arge, Upeneus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:187 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50667. Paratypes: AMNH 2299 (1); ANSP 24227 (1); BPBM 1704 (1); CAS orig. 1500 (1, not found); FMNH 3954 (1); IU 9817 (1); MCZ 28907 (1); CAS-SU 7477 (1), 23290 (4); USFC 2726 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:129 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:84 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Upeneus arge Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Lachner 1960:4 [ref. 23973], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:163 [ref. 6441], Myers 1999:161 [ref. 23965], Randall 2001:3195 [ref. 26109], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Myers & Donaldson 2003:629 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:300 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:392 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:268 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Upeneus taeniopterus Cuvier 1829 -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:41 [ref. 13251], Fricke 1999:319 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:52 [ref. 30763]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus taeniopterus Cuvier 1829. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

argentinae, Mullus Hubbs [C. L.] & Marini [T. L.] 1933:347 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 11 (no. 39); ref. 16494] Port of Quequén, Argentina. Holotype: UMMZ 95474. Paratypes: MCZ 10999 (1), USNM 77379 (2). Based on literature and specimens. •Valid as Mullus argentinae Hubbs & Marini 1933 -- (Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:228 [ref. 14235], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:118 [ref. 25942], Kim 2002:61 [ref. 26347], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808] as argentinus, Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Vasil'eva 2011:23 [ref. 31221] with subspecies, Costa et al. 2015:1061 [ref. 37495], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Mullus argentinae Hubbs & Marini 1933. Mullidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: southern Brazil south to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

arimuag, Upeneus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:430 [152] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 152 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing under species allocated by Thiollière to Upeneus luteus, from Woodlark I., South Pacific. Mullidae.

armatoides, Pennon Whitley [G. P.] 1955:50, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1953-54; ref. 4724] Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.3006. Paratypes: AMS IB.2980 (1), IB.2989 (1), IB.3025 (1), I.26855-002 [ex IB.3195] (1). •Synonym of Upeneus sundaicus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1273 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus sundaicus (Bleeker 1855). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

armatus, Mulloides De Vis [C. W.] 1884:458 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4898] Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.122 (in 2 pieces). •Incertae sedis in Mullidae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1274 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Uiblein et al. 2020:146 [ref. 37659]). Current status: Synonym of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

arnoldorum, Mullus Curtiss [A.] 1938:50 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon west of mouth of Vaitapiha River, Tautira township, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

asymmetricus, Upeneus Lachner [E. A.] 1954:511, Pl. 13 (fig. B) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 103 (no. 3330); ref. 10031] Pandanon Island, east of Cebu, Philippines, Albatross. Holotype: USNM 154659. Paratypes: USNM 154660-61 (2, 1). •Valid as Upeneus asymmetricus Lachner 1954 -- (Hureau 1973:404 [ref. 7197], Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:163 [ref. 29757], Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:881 [ref. 13676], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:10 [ref. 12819], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Randall 2001:3180 [ref. 26109], Hoese & Bray 2006:1271 [ref. 29000], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:38 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:588 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Yamashita et al. 2011:54 [ref. 31639], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Lisher 2013:94 [ref. 32906], Larson et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32988], Uiblein & Gledhill 2014:11 [ref. 33614], Uiblein & White 2015:56 [ref. 33856], Uiblein et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35570], Ali et al. 2018:334 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:104 [ref. 36273], Moore et al. 2020:110 [ref. 37357]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus asymmetricus Lachner 1954. Mullidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines, south to Kimberley (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

atherinoides, Upeneus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:526 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-3512. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:7 [ref. 20735]. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

atrocingulatus, Upeneus Kner [R.] in Steindachner & Kner 1870:443 [23] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4250] Savai'i Island, Samoa. Syntypes: BMNH 1869.11.12.61 (1); NMW [ex MGH 2109]. On p. 23 of separate. •Synonym of Parupeneus trifasciatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:22 [ref. 23973]). •Synonym of Parupeneus multifasciatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Randall 2004:43 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:298 [ref. 28239]). •Synonym of Parupeneus barberinoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Randall 2007:265 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus barberinoides (Bleeker 1852). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

aurantiacus, Pseudupeneus Seale [A.] 1906:48, Fig. 14 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tubuai, Austral Islands [Tubuai Islands], French Polynesia. Holotype (unique): BPBM 758. •Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:29 [ref. 23973], Randall 2004:22 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

aurantius, Parupeneus Fourmanoir [P.] 1966:961, Fig. 3 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 37 (no. 6, 1965); ref. 1355] Nha-Trang market, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1965-0255. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:6 [ref. 20735]. •Synonym of Parupeneus biaculeatus (Richardson 1846) -- (Randall 2004:14 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus biaculeatus (Richardson 1846). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

auratus, Mulloides Fourmanoir [P.] & Crosnier [A.] 1964:15, Fig. 9 [Cahiers O. R. S. T. O. M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Série Océanographie No. 6 (1963); ref. 5568] Anjouan, Comoro Islands. Syntypes: IRSMNB (many) probably lost. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:12 [ref. 20735]. •Synonym of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801). Current status: Synonym of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

auratus, Mullus barbatus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:280 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. (stomach content). Holotype (unique): USNM 30828. •Valid as Mullus auratus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:380 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:190 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:393 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:152 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:147 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:364 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:317 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:272 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Kim 2002:61 [ref. 26347], Randall 2003:1657 [ref. 27098], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:450 [ref. 28815], Vasil'eva 2011:20 [ref. 31221], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Bos 2014:757 [ref. 33588]). Current status: Valid as Mullus auratus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

aureovittatus, Mullus Shaw [G.] 1803:618 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian ocean. No types known. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

auriflamma, Mullus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:30, x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P49343 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:66 [ref. 9588]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 4 [ref. 20847]. Forsskål's auriflamma was placed on the Official Index in Opinion 846. •Valid as Mulloidichthys auriflamma (Forsskål 1775) -- (Lachner 1960:42 [ref. 23973], Chen et al. 1997:108 [ref. 26476], Fricke et al. 2009:68 [ref. 30213]). •Synonym of Parupeneus macronema (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:11 [ref. 23973]). •Wrongly In the synonymy of Mulloidichthys vanicolensis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Randall 2005:293 [ref. 28239]). •In the synonymy of Parupeneus forsskali (Fourmanoir & Guézé 1976) -- (Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:162 [ref. 29757], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:6 [ref. 12819], Randall 2004:28 [ref. 28086], Fricke 2008:43 [ref. 30182], Golani & Fricke 2018:103 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus forsskali (Fourmanoir & Guézé 1976). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

australiae, Upeneus Kim [B.-J.] & Nakaya [K.] 2002:128, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 49 (no. 2); ref. 26150] 2.5 kilometers west of Island Head, Queensland, 22°19.73'-22°19.76'S, 150°38.03'E-150°38.35'E, depth 6 meters. Holotype: AMS I.34384-012. Paratypes: AMS 24350-001 (2), I.34384-004 (7), I.34396--011 (1), I.34398-062 (2); NTM S.10803-018 (1). •Valid as Upeneus australiae Kim & Nakaya 2002 -- (Randall & Kulbicki 2006:299 [ref. 28802], Hoese & Bray 2006:1271 [ref. 29000], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:38 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:588 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:647 [ref. 31501], Yamashita et al. 2011:54 [ref. 31639], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Lisher 2013:91 [ref. 32906], Uiblein & Gledhill 2014:12 [ref. 33614], Uiblein & White 2015:51 [ref. 33856], Uiblein et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35570], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626], Uiblein et al. 2019:192 [ref. 37008]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus australiae Kim & Nakaya 2002. Mullidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

ayliffe, Mulloidichthys Uiblein [F.] 2011:56, Figs. 2-3, Pls. 1-2 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 13; ref. 31259] Sodwana Bay, Mellow Yellow Reef, 27°31.863'S, 32°42.48'E, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 12-19 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 86367. Paratypes: BPBM 17620 (1), 36010 (2), 36024 (6), 41008 (1); SAIAB 13907 (2), 18055 (1), 18057 (2), 86368 (2). Plus non-type specimens from Sri Lanka. The name is used as a noun; for Mr. N. Ayliffe. •Valid as Mulloidichthys ayliffe Uiblein 2011 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:503 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706], Koeda et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35369], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:500 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Mulloidichthys ayliffe Uiblein 2011. Mullidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: South Africa, East Africa and Oman to Socotra and Seychelles; Sri Lanka east to Myanmar and Andaman Islands. Habitat: marine.

balteatus, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:484 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Cuba. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:14-15 [ref. 20735]. •Synonym of Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier 1829). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

bandi, Mullus Shaw [G.] 1803:615 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on Bandi goolvinda Russell 1803, v. 2:42, Pl. 158. •Synonym of Upeneus vittatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Lachner 1954:516 [ref. 10031], Lachner 1960:5 [ref. 23973], Randall & Kulbicki 2006:306 [ref. 28802], Kottelat 2013:362 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus vittatus (Forsskål 1775). Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barbatus, Mullus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:299 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea; northern Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.14 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin), ?LS 3 (right half-skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:222 [ref. 13434], Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:248 [ref. 20707], Wheeler 1985:62 [ref. 20705]. •Valid as Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Hureau 1973:402 [ref. 7197], Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:878 [ref. 13676], Ben-Tuvia 1990:827 [ref. 17305], Coad 1995:28 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:86 [ref. 25304], Arruda 1997:88 [ref. 24952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:751 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:122 [ref. 23588], Apostolidis et al. 2001:902 [ref. 25470], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:101 [ref. 26753], Kim 2002:61 [ref. 26347], Parin 2003:S14 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:46 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:90 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:111 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:51 [ref. 36649], Vasil'eva 2011:18 [ref. 31221], Vasil'eva 2012:485 [ref. 32476], Parin et al. 2014:374 [ref. 33547], Golani in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2658 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:166 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:277 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:78 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:39 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758. Mullidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Senegal, including Azores and Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barberinoides, Upeneus Bleeker [P.] 1852:263 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Wahai, northern Ceram, Indonesia. Syntypes: (8) RMNH 5740 (1), 25406 [ex 5740] (some of 8). Original as barberinoïdes. •Valid as Parupeneus barberinoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Lachner 1960:12 [ref. 23973], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:209 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:204 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:190 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:209 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:159 [ref. 23965], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:874 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:281 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3184 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:874 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830] dating to Lacepède 1801, Myers & Donaldson 2003:629 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:110 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:294 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1266 [ref. 29000], Motomura et al. 2010:128 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:504 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:95 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:174 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus barberinoides (Bleeker 1852). Mullidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Caroline Islands and Samoa, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

barberinus, Mullus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:383, 406, Pl. 13 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:12 [ref. 20735]. Based on description and drawing in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:311 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Mullus barberinus Cuvier 1829 is apparentlly not an original description -- contra Hoese & Bray 2006:1267 [ref. 29000]. •Valid as Parupeneus barberinus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:16 [ref. 23973], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441], Ben-Tuvia 1986:611 [ref. 5641], Winterbottom et al. 1989:40 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:209 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 20996], Randall 1995:239 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:380 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:140 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:110 [ref. 26476] dated to 1802, Kuiter 1997:190 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:209 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:159 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:310 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:875 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:281 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:146 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Kim & Amaoka 2001:45 [ref. 25244], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3185 [ref. 26109], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:177 [ref. 26753], Kim 2002:63 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:875 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:629 [ref. 27495] dated 1802, Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:110 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:262 [ref. 28072], Randall 2004:12 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:294 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:389 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Bray 2006:1266 [ref. 29000], Fricke et al. 2009:68 [ref. 30213], Imamura in Imamura et al. 2009:173 [ref. 31157], Randall & Heemstra 2009:41 [ref. 30542], Motomura et al. 2010:128 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:505 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706], Bos 2014:752 [ref. 33550] as Parapeneus, Fricke et al. 2014:95 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:161 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:225 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:22 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:174 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:501 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus barberinus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Line, Marquesas and Gambier islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

belaque, Upeneoides Fowler [H. W.] 1918:40, Fig. 16 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 70; ref. 1396] Philippines. Holotype: ANSP 47512. Paratypes: ANSP 47513-17 (5, in jar with holotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:129 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lachner 1954:513 [ref. 10031], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bensasi, Mullus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:30, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Bay of Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 4683. Paralectotypes: ?RMNH 4682 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:43 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Upeneus bensasi (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Lachner 1954:509 [ref. 10031], Kyushin et al. 1982:143 [ref. 19754], Sheiko 1983:18 [ref. 37041], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:163 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:515, 691 [ref. 8056], Paulin et al. 1989:191 [ref. 24556], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:288 [ref. 24014], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:383 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:108 [ref. 26476] dated 1844, Cheng & Zhou 1997:314 [ref. 26385] dated 1842, Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24670], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:38 [ref. 27712] with author as Schlegel). •Synonym of Upeneus japonicus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Randall et al. 1993:302 [ref. 21647], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:150 [ref. 25480], Parin 2003:S14 [ref. 28536], Hoese & Bray 2006:1272 [ref. 29000], Motomura et al. 2012:13 [ref. 32116], Uiblein & Lisher 2013:94 [ref. 32906], Parin et al. 2014:375 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus japonicus (Houttuyn 1782). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

biaculeatus, Upeneus Richardson [J.] (ex Gray) 1846:219 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton [Guangzhou], China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1968.3.11.10 or 11 (dry half skins). Type information: Whitehead 1970:214 [ref. 11606]. Apparently the smaller specimen (about 170 mm SL) is probably the holotype based on note in bottle by J. E. Randall. •Valid as Parupeneus biaculeatus (Richardson 1846) -- (Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:146 [ref. 25480], Randall 2001:3180 [ref. 26109], Randall 2004:14 [ref. 28086], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:191 [ref. 36460], Sonoyama et al. 2020:76 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus biaculeatus (Richardson 1846). Mullidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam and southern China to southern Sea of Japan. Habitat: marine.

bifasciatus, Mullus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:383, 404, Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality stated. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:12 [ref. 20735]. Based on Commerson manuscript and drawing. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:312 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Parupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:19 [ref. 23973], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441], Ben-Tuvia 1986:611 [ref. 5641], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:40 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:210 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:240 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:380 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:192 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:210 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:160 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:311 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:875 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:281 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3186 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:63 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:875 [ref. 26193], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:111 [ref. 27510]). •Synonym of Parupeneus trifasciatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall & Myers 2002:433 [ref. 26607], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:262 [ref. 28072], Randall 2004:55 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:295 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:264 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus trifasciatus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

bilineatus, Upeneus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:525 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4064. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:7 [ref. 20735]. •Status uncertain -- (Mundy 2005:387 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Upeneus suslphureus Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall & Kulbicki 2006:305 [ref. 28802], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bimaculatus, Parupeneus trifasciatus var. Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1938:314 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 16 (pt 3); ref. 17147] Market of Jakarta (said to be from the Straits of Macasar), Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Described as a "new colour variety"; apparently treated as infrasubspecific by Hardenberg but perhaps qualifies as a subspecies (Art. 45.6 of the Code). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

bitaeniatus, Upeneus Bennett [E. T.] 1831:59 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 16795] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Upeneus vittatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Lachner 1954:516 [ref. 10031], Lachner 1960:5 [ref. 23973], Fricke 1999:319 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:362 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus vittatus (Forsskål 1775). Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bivittatus, Upeneus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:520 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Coromandel, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-3816 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:7 [ref. 20735]. •Synonym of Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lachner 1954:513 [ref. 10031], Randall & Kulbicki 2006:305 [ref. 28802], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brandesii, Upeneus Bleeker [P.] 1851:236 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 331] Banda Neira, Banda Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5744. •Synonym of Parupeneus pleurostigma (Bennett 1831) -- (Lachner 1960:26 [ref. 23973], Randall 2004:47 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus pleurostigma (Bennett 1831). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleus, Upeneoides Day [F.] 1868:194 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 1); ref. 1076] Madras, India. Syntypes: BMNH 1975.9.30.20 (1), ZSI 405 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Upeneus vittatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Lachner 1954:516 [ref. 10031], Lachner 1960:5 [ref. 23973], Kottelat 2013:362 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus vittatus (Forsskål 1775). Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

calophthalmus, Labrus Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1842:211 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand. Appeared first as Solander name in synonymy of Upeneus vlamingii. See Hutchins 1990:491 [ref. 15762] for remarks on type locality. •Synonym of Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801), subspecies porosus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Hutchins 1990:491 [ref. 15762]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

caninus, Upeneus Gilbert [C. H.] 1900:165, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 2; ref. 1630] Pernambuco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 7751. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291]. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

capracaroli, Mullus Curtiss [A.] 1938:51 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

carmineus, Pseudomulloides Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Mullidae p. 4 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) MNRJ 1656 (1). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:402 [ref. 12732] as holotype. On p. 346 when continuously paginated. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

caucasica, Mullus barbatus ponticus natio Essipov [V. K.] 1927:137 [French p. 146] [Reports of the Scientific Station of Fisheries in Kertch v. 1 (nos 2-3); ref. 15847] Batumi, Black Sea. No types at ZIN. Not available, infrasubspecific; from Batumi, Black Sea. Mullidae.

caudalis, Upeneus sundaicus var. Popta [C. M. L.] 1921:206 [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 6 (art. 15); ref. 15325] Tiworo, Muna, Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): SMF 6601. •Synonym of Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846 -- (Kottelat 2013:362 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caudofasciatus, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Gledhill [D. C.] in Uiblein, Gledhill, Pavlov, Hoang & Shaheen 2019:168, Figs. 7A-C [Zootaxa 4683 (no. 2); ref. 37008] Great Barrier Reef, north of Rockingham Bay, Queensland, northeast Australia, 17°38.57'S, 146°22.79'E, depth 26 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 6717-02. Paratypes: AMS, CSIRO, QM. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Upeneus caudofasciatus Uiblein & Gledhill 2019. Current status: Valid as Upeneus caudofasciatus Uiblein & Gledhill 2019. Mullidae. Distribution: Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, northeast Australia, southwest Pacific. Habitat: marine.

chryserydros, Mullus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:384, 406 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (?): MNHN A-3502. Non-types: ZMB 608 [ex MNHN] (1) Mauritius. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:13 [ref. 20735] but with no type. Based on Commerson manuscript. Mullus chryserythrus is a misspelling. Upeneus chryserythrus Günther 1873 [ref. 14186] is based on this and other refs. •Valid as Parupeneus chryserydros (Lacepède 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:172 [ref. 19756], Chen et al. 1997:112 [ref. 26476] dated 1802). •Synonym of Pseudupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:162 [ref. 29757], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:5 [ref. 12819]). •Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:29 [ref. 23973], Randall et al. 1990:210 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:240 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:313 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Randall 2001:3188 [ref. 26109], Randall 2004:22 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:296 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:390 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:336 [ref. 28867], Hoese & Bray 2006:1268 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:263 [ref. 30952], Golani & Fricke 2018:102 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

chryserythrus, Upeneus Günther [A.] 1873:60, Pl. 45 (fig. a) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14186] Tahiti, Polynesia. No types known. Based on literature sources and specimen. •Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall 2004:22 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysonemus, Pseudupeneus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:186 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Hilo, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50666. Paratypes: AMNH 2298 (1); ANSP 24226 (1); BPBM 1703 (1); CAS 1499 (1, missing, number wrong), 58518 [ex IU 10448] (1), 58520 (1); FMNH 3955 (1); MCZ 28906 (1); CAS-SU 6086 (4), 7476 (2); ?USFC 2724-25 (1, 1); USNM 50676 (1), 126548-49 (4, 1), 164656-57 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:129 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:71 [ref. 12367] as 2 paratypes. •Valid as Parupeneus chrysonemus (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Lachner 1960:15 [ref. 23973], Randall & Myers 1993:74 [ref. 21000], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Randall 2004:15 [ref. 28086], Mundy 2005:389 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:262 [ref. 30952], Uiblein & Causse 2013:343 [ref. 32719]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus chrysonemus (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Mullidae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

chrysopleuron, Mullus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:29, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Japan. No types known. Type information: Boeseman 1947:43 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Parupeneus chrysopleuron (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Kim et al. 1999:2 [ref. 24394], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:877 [ref. 25182], Kim & Amaoka 2001:45 [ref. 25244], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:877 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:350, 621 [ref. 26218], Randall 2004:16 [ref. 28086], Hoese & Bray 2006:1267 [ref. 29000], Randall & King 2009:34 [ref. 30538], Allen & Erdmann 2012:505 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2017:161 [ref. 35490], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626], Psomadakis et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:76 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus chrysopleuron (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Mullidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar east to Indonesia, north to southern Sea of Japan, south to Geographe Bay (Western Australia) and Northern Territory (Australia). Habitat: marine.

ciliata, Sciaena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:308, 311 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5700 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:10 [ref. 20735], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:32 [ref. 6382]. Based on a specimen donated from RMNH to MNHN. •Valid as Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall et al. 1990:210 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:204 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Randall et al. 1997:210 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:160 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:313 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:877 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:282 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:147 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Sakai et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25693], Randall 2001:3187 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:877 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:350, 622 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:629 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624] dated 1801, Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:263 [ref. 28072], Randall 2004:17 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:295 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:297 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1267 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:267 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:68 [ref. 30213], Randall & Heemstra 2009:41 [ref. 30542], Motomura et al. 2010:129 [ref. 31256], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988] dated 1801, Motomura et al. 2015:24 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:8 [ref. 35354], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2018:225 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:22 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:87 [ref. 37020], Sonoyama et al. 2020:76 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802). Mullidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Pitcairn, north to southern Sea of Japan, south to western Australia, Jervis Bay (A.C.T., Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

cinnabarinus, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:475 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-1696. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:7 [ref. 20735]. •Valid as Pseudupeneus cinnabarinus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:162 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Parupeneus cinnabarinus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1986:611 [ref. 5641], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:41 [ref. 13251]). •Synonym of Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:7 [ref. 12819], Randall et al. 1990:211 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:240 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:192 [ref. 23922], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Randall 2001:3189 [ref. 26109], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:263 [ref. 28072], Randall 2004:30 [ref. 28086], Hoese & Bray 2006:1268 [ref. 29000], Bogorodsky et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31559], Larson et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Bos 2014:752 [ref. 33550] as Parapeneus, Uiblein et al. 2017:548 [ref. 35672]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

clarki, Atahua Phillipps [W. J.] 1941:244, Fig. 5 [Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 71 (pt 3); ref. 3467] Napier, Hawke Bay, New Zealand. Holotype: NMNZ P.802. Type catalog: Hardy 1990:10 [ref. 18942]. •Synonym of Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801), subspecies porosus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Hutchins 1990:492 [ref. 15762]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

crassilabris, Upeneus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:523 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-3504. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:7 [ref. 20735]. •Synonym of Parupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall 2001:3186 [ref. 26109]). •Valid as Parupeneus crassilabris (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Lachner 1960:34 [ref. 23973], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Randall 2004:21 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:295 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:298 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1268 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:264 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:505 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:95 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:174 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus crassilabris (Valenciennes 1831). Mullidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Caroline Islands and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

crosnieri, Upeneus Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1967:52, Fig. I/c [Cahiers O. R. S. T. O. M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Série Océanographie v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 7890] Nosy Mitsio, Pracel Shoal, western Madagascar, depth 45 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1965-0017. Paratypes: (2) IRSMNB (probably lost). •Valid as Upeneus crosiersi Fourmanoir & Guézé 1967 -- (Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150]). • Probable synonym of Upeneus guttatus (Day 1868) -- (Randall & Kulbicki 2006:301 [ref. 28802]). •Synonym of Upeneus guttatus (Day 1868) -- (Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:42 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:647 [ref. 31501], Motomura et al. 2012:8 [ref. 32116]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus guttatus (Day 1868). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

cyclostomus, Mullus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:383, 404, Pl. 14 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] [No locality stated] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Neotype: MNHN A-5702 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:5 [ref. 20735]. Neotype designated by Bauchot et al. 1985:5 [ref. 20735]. Based on description and illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Pseudupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:162 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:29 [ref. 23973], Kyushin et al. 1977:170 [ref. 19756], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441], Ben-Tuvia 1986:612 [ref. 5641], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:5 [ref. 12819], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:41 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:210 [ref. 15987], Randall & Myers 1993:74 [ref. 21000], Kuiter 1993:203 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:240 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:381 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:192 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:210 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:160 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:313 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:876 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:282 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3188 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:63 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:876 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:629 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Randall 2004:22 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:296 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:390 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Bray 2006:1268 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:263 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:68 [ref. 30213], Imamura in Imamura et al. 2009:174 [ref. 31157], Randall & Heemstra 2009:41 [ref. 30542], Motomura et al. 2010:129 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:506 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:95 [ref. 33932], Randall 2014:61 [ref. 33292], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:283 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:225 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:102 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:87 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:174 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian and Line islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), central New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

cyprinoides, Upeneus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:526 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9569 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:8 [ref. 20735]. •Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke 1999:313 [ref. 24106], Randall 2004:17 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

davidaromi, Upeneus Golani [D.] 2001:112, Fig. 1a, 2a, 3, 4 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 47; ref. 25530] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 300 meters. Holotype: HUJ 14130. Paratypes: FMNH 108780 (1); HUJ 10520 (2), 11394 (1), 11670-71 (5, 1), 11760 (1), 12242 (1), 13253 (1), 13601-02 (1, 4), 13666 (1), 13713 (1); MNHN 2000-1157 (1); RMNH 33910 (1); USNM 361629 (1). Type catalog: Golani 2006:28 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Upeneus davidaromi Golani 2001 -- (Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:40 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Causse 2013:137 [ref. 32719], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[5] 243 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:103 [ref. 36273], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus davidaromi Golani 2001. Mullidae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

dentatus, Upeneus Gill [T. N.] 1862:256 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 3699 (3). •Valid as Mulloides dentatus (Gill 1862) -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:136 [ref. 23101], Randall et al. 1990:209 [ref. 15987], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:425 [ref. 24023]). •Valid as Mulloidichthys dentatus (Gill 1862) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:222 [ref. 9277], Stepien et al. 1994:44 [ref. 21179], Allen & Robertson 1994:174 [ref. 22193], Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1300 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:239 [ref. 22896], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:297 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:136 [ref. 25640], Kim 2002:62 [ref. 26347], Randall 2003:1656 [ref. 27098], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:293 [ref. 28239], Béarez & Séret 2009:148 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Uiblein 2011:55 [ref. 31259], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:446 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35369], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248] as cf. dentatus, González-Murcia et al. 2019:305 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Mulloidichthys dentatus (Gill 1862). Mullidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

diagonalis, Parupeneus Randall [J. E.] 2004:25, Fig. 5; Pl. IVB [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 36; ref. 28086] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 1965-0047. Paratypes: BPBM 20218 (1), MNHN 1967-0548 (1). •Valid as Parupeneus diagonalis Randall 2004 -- (Fricke et al. 2009:69 [ref. 30213], Randall & Heemstra 2009:41 [ref. 30542], Koeda & Ho 2018:288 [ref. 36175]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus diagonalis Randall 2004. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Réunion and Mauritius (western Mascarenes endemic). Habitat: marine.

dispilurus, Mullus Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:41, Pl. 5 (fig. 4, mislabeled fig. 3) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.3.9.82 (1, skin). •Questionably a synonym of Parupeneus pleurotaenia (Playfair 1867) -- (Lachner 1960:10 [ref. 23973]). •Synonym of Parupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall 1995:242 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:318 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

doriae, Upeneoides Günther [A.] 1869:445 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 3 (no. 18) (art. 55); ref. 18191] Bender Abassi, Persian Gulf. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1869.3.4.36 (1), MSNG 13056 (11), ZMB 7056 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1959:4 [ref. 31669], Tortonese 1963:336 [ref. 10350]. •Valid as Upeneus doriae (Günther 1869) -- (Randall 1995:243 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:193 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:42 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Ali et al. 2018:335 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:88 [ref. 37020], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus doriae (Günther 1869). Mullidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Mullus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:30, Pl. 11 (fig. 3) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 4702. Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:44 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Parupeneus dubius (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Myers 1993:74 [ref. 21000], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347]). •Synonym of Parupeneus chrysopleuron (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall 2004:16 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus chrysopleuron (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

erythraeus, Mullus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1881:101 [1] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 5; ref. 18664] Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN 0000-4075. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:5 [ref. 20735]. On p. 1 of separate. •Unidentifiable -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:164 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Bauchot et al. 1985:5 [ref. 20735]). Current status: Synonym of Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus 1758. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

erythrinus, Mulloides Klunzinger [C. B.] 1884:50 [Die Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 2625] Red Sea. New name for Mulloides ruber Klunzinger 1870. •Synonym of Mulloides vanicolensis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:161 [ref. 29757], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:3 [ref. 12819]). •Synonym of Mulloidichthys vanicolensis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Randall 2001:3183 [ref. 26109], Mundy 2005:389 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Mulloidichthys vanicolensis (Valenciennes 1831). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

erythrinus, Mullus van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1857:46 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing under Upeneus sulphureus. Also appeared in Bleeker 1875:5 [ref. 17105]. Mullidae.

eutaeniatus, Pseudupeneus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:170, Fig. 21 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1451] Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71368. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:129 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall 2004:18 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

farnis, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Peristiwady [T.] in Uiblein, Gledhill & Peristiwady 2017:297, Figs. 1A, 1B [Zootaxa 4318 (no. 2); ref. 35570] Indonesia, northeastern Sulawesi, Bitung fish market. Holotype: LBRC-F 001450. Paratypes: LBRC-F. •Valid as Upeneus farnis Uiblein & Peristiwady 2017. Current status: Valid as Upeneus farnis Uiblein & Peristiwady 2017. Mullidae. Distribution: Sulawesi, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

fascialatus, Upeneoides Day [F.] 1868:151 [3] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 1); ref. 14070] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Day specimens or possible syntypes: AMS B.8186 (1), ZMB uncat. (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:297 [ref. 25110]. On p. 3 of separate. •Synonym of Upeneus moluccensis (Bleeker 1855) -- (Lachner 1954:514 [ref. 10031], Hureau 1973:403 [ref. 7197]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus moluccensis (Bleeker 1855). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

filamentosus, Upeneus Macleay [W.] 1883:264 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 17587] Hood Bay, Papua New Guinea. Lectotype: AMS I.13403 [?I.13405]. Lectotype selected by Whitley 1929:93 [ref. 4667]. For information on types see Randall 2004:13 [ref. 28086]. •Valid as Parupeneus filamentosus (Macleay 1883) -- (Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347]). •Synonym of Parupeneus barberinus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall 2004:12 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus barberinus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

filifer, Pennon Whitley [G. P.] 1941:33, Fig. 22 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 1); ref. 4701] Off Cape Gloucester, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.12541. Paratypes: QM I.1560 (1). Whitley regarded Upenoides filifer Ogilby 1910 as not published, but it was in fact published and should date to Ogilby 1910. Pennon filifer Whitley regarded as in error, but genus is accepted with type species dating to Ogilby 1910; if species is regarded as available, then types are as given below. •Valid as Upeneus filifer (Whitley 1941) -- (Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282]). •Synonym of Upeneus filifer (Ogilby 1910) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1272 [ref. 29000] with genus as Penon). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus filifer (Ogilby 1910). Mullidae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

filifer, Upeneoides Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:95 [On some new fishes from the Queensland coast; ref. 3289] Off Cape Glouster, southern Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: (12) AMS I.12541 (1), QM I.1560 (1). For remarks on types see Imamura & Hoese 2020:[8] [ref. 37793]. •Valid as Upeneus filifer (Ogilby 1910) -- (Randall 2001:3180 [ref. 26109], Randall & Kulbicki 2006:300 [ref. 28802], Hoese & Bray 2006:1272 [ref. 29000], Hoese & Bray 2006:1272 [ref. 29000], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:38 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:588 [ref. 31346], Bos 2014:755 [ref. 33588]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus filifer (Ogilby 1910). Mullidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Australia, Coral Sea and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

flammeus, Mulloides Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:186 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Kailua, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50665 (missing in 1980). Paratypes: AMNH 2297 (1), ANSP 24225 (1, missing), BPBM 1702 (1, missing), FMNH [old no. 3953] (1, missing), IU 9815 (1, missing), MCZ (1, never received), CAS-SU 7475 (1, missing), USFC 2723 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:129 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:58 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Mulloidichthys pflugeri (Steindachner 1900) -- (Mundy 2005:388 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Mulloidichthys pfluegeri (Steindachner 1900). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

flavicaudus, Mulloidichthys flavolineatus Fernandez-Silva [I.] & Randall [J. E.] in Fernandez-Silva, Randall, Golani & Bogorodsky 2016:141, Figs. 4, 7-10, 13-14 [ZooKeys No. 605; ref. 34548] Sudan, Sanganeb Atoll, Red Sea, 19°39'N, 37°14'E. Holotype: SMF 35486 [ex SMF 24824]. Paratypes: BPBM, CAS, HUJ, SMF, USNM. Plus additional non-type material. •Synonym of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801), but a valid subspecies flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall 2016 -- (Uiblein et al. 2020:148 [ref. 37659]). •Valid as Mulloidichthys flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall 2016 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:102 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Mulloidichthys flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall 2016. Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden and Socotra. Habitat: marine.

flavolineatus, Mullus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:384, 406 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Mauritius, East Coast, Oyster Bay, Indian Ocean, 19°43'S, 63°21'E. Neotype: BPBM 21035. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:13 [ref. 20735]. Originally spelled flavolineatus on p. 384, but flavo lineatus on p. 406. Based on Commerson manuscript. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:309 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Neotype designated by Fernandez-Silva et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34548]. •Valid as Mulloides flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:161 [ref. 29757], Ben-Tuvia 1986:610 [ref. 5641], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:3 [ref. 12819], Winterbottom et al. 1989:40 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:208 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:44 [ref. 25356], Myers 1999:159 [ref. 23965], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268]). •Valid as Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441], Kuiter 1993:201 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:239 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:140 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:191 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:208 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:307 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:874 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:280 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Sakai et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25693], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3181 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:62 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:874 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:109 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:261 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:292 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:388 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Bray 2006:1265 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:260 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:68 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:128 [ref. 31256], Uiblein 2011:59 [ref. 31259], Allen & Erdmann 2012:504 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706], Bos 2014:752 [ref. 33550], Fricke et al. 2014:94 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:282 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35333] as flavolineatus flavolineatus, Koeda et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35369], Fricke et al. 2018:224 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:22 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:87 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:174 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:501 [ref. 37272], Uiblein et al. 2020:148 [ref. 37659] as flavolineatus flavolineatus). Current status: Valid as Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) at 36°S, Lord Howe Island, northern New Zealand and Rapa. Red Sea records based on Mulloidichthys flavicaudus [ref. 34548]. Habitat: marine.

flavovittatus, Upeneus Poey [F.] 1853:[224, 227], Pl. 17 [as Pl. 20] (fig. 4) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 21819 (1), 21821 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:204 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 21819 as holotype. Originally flavo-vittatus, correction mandatory. Name dates from plate: Oct. 1852; text published May 1853. •Synonym of Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:271 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier 1829). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

floros, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Gouws [G.] in Uiblein, Gouws, Lisher & Malauene 2020:526, Figs. 1A-C, 2 [Zootaxa 4834 (no. 4); ref. 37717] Two-Mile Reef, Sodwana Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, 27°30.735'S, 32°41.224'E, depth 19 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 204583. Paratypes: SAIAB. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Upeneus floros Uiblein & Gouws 2020. Current status: Valid as Upeneus floros Uiblein & Gouws 2020. Mullidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Park Rynie (south of Durban), South Africa to Angoche, north Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

forsskali, Pseudupeneus Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1976:45, Fig. [Travaux et Documents de l'O.R.S.T.O.M. No. 47; ref. 19711] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype: ZMUC P49343. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:14 [ref. 20735]. Replacement name for Mullus auriflamma Forsskål 1775; Forsskål's auriflamma was placed on the Official Index in Opinion 846. •Valid as Pseudupeneus forsskali Fourmanoir & Guézé 1976 -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:162 [ref. 29757], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:6 [ref. 12819]). •Valid as Parupeneus forsskali (Fourmanoir & Guézé 1976) -- (Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Randall 2004:28 [ref. 28086], Fricke et al. 2007:91 [ref. 29533], Randall & Heemstra 2009:41 [ref. 30542], Psomadakis et al. 2012:17 [ref. 33457], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:426 [ref. 33460], DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Chartosia & Michailidis 2016:1 [ref. 34794], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:102 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Bariche & Fricke 2020:131 [ref. 37515]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus forsskali (Fourmanoir & Guézé 1976). Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden to Socotra; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

francisi, Upeneus Randall [J. E.] & Guézé [P.] 1992:23, Figs. 1-3 [Cybium v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 16329] Duncombe Bay, Norfolk Island, 29°05'S, 167°59'E, depth 18 meters. Holotype: BPBM 34256. Paratypes: AMS IB.5364 (1); BPBM 34254 (4), 34592 (5); CAS 76110 (1); MNHN 1990-0133 (1); NMNZ P.6142 (1), P.27184 (1); NSMT-P 34740 (1); USNM 317286 (1). •Valid as Upeneus francisi Randall & Guézé 1992 -- (Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:38 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:588 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Yamashita et al. 2011:54 [ref. 31639], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Lisher 2013:94 [ref. 32906], Uiblein & Gledhill 2014:11 [ref. 33614], Bos 2014:755 [ref. 33588], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:114 [ref. 36167], Stewart 2015:1294 [ref. 34196], Uiblein & White 2015:64 [ref. 33856], Uiblein et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35570]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus francisi Randall & Guézé 1992. Mullidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Norfolk Island, New Zealand and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

fraserorum, Parupeneus Randall [J. E.] & King [D. R.] 2009:32, Fig. 1, 2(A), 3-6 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin v. 10; ref. 30538] Reef off Pumula (Near Hibberdene), 30°35.40'S, 30°38.110'E, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 57 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 81385. Paratypes: BPBM 40931 (1), SAIAB 81386 (1). Plus non-types at SAIAB and photographed specimens. •Valid as Parupeneus fraserorum Randall & King 2009 -- (Randall & Heemstra 2009:40 [ref. 30542], Uiblein et al. 2017:558 [ref. 35672], Fricke et al. 2018:226 [ref. 35805], Uiblein et al. 2018:237 [ref. 36192]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus fraserorum Randall & King 2009. Mullidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: southern Mozambique, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and southeastern Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

fraterculus, Upeneus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:524 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Mahé, Seychelles. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1625. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:8 [ref. 20735]. •Valid as Parupeneus fraterculus (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Chen et al. 1997:110 [ref. 26476], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315]). •Synonym of Parupeneus pleurotaenia (Playfair 1867) -- (Lachner 1960:10 [ref. 23973]). •Synonym of Parupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall 1995:242 [ref. 22896]). •Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall et al. 1990:210 [ref. 15987], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:147 [ref. 25480], Randall 2001:3187 [ref. 26109], Randall 2004:17 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:295 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1267 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscatus, Mullus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:35, Pl. 8 (fig. 3) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:27 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Hureau 1973:402 [ref. 7197]). •Synonym of Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies -- (Vasil'eva 2011:28 [22] [ref. 31221], Parin et al. 2014:374 [ref. 33547]). •Synonym of Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:827 [ref. 17305], Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus 1758. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fuscus, Mullus Risso [A.] 1827:386 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus 1758 -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). •Synonym of Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies fuscus Risso 1927. Current status: Synonym of Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus 1758. Mullidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea [subspecies fuscus]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grandisquamis, Upeneus Gill [T. N.] 1863:168 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] Western coast of Central America. Syntypes: USNM 4949 (1) (lost), 4950 (1) (lost). Type catalog: Smith 2018:81 [ref. 36061]. •Valid as Pseudupeneus grandisquamis (Gill 1863) -- (Fitch 1980:123 [ref. 11576], Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:174 [ref. 22193], Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1300 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:427 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:294 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:123 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:136 [ref. 25640], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1645 [ref. 25634], Kim 2002:63 [ref. 26347], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:446 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:252 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:305 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Pseudupeneus grandisquamis (Gill 1863). Mullidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

grandoculis, Upeneus cinnaborinus Borodin [N. A.] 1932:84 [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 3); ref. 16361] Bora Bora, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): VMM 789 (now at AMNH). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

griseofrenatus, Upeneus Kner [R.] 1868:27 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 58 (nos 1-2); ref. 6074] Kandavu Island, Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): NMW 61291. Appeared in more detail in Kner 1868:305 [13 of separate], Pl. 3 (fig. 7) [ref. 2646]. •Synonym of Parupeneus indicus (Shaw 1803) -- (Lachner 1960:13 [ref. 23973], Randall 2004:32 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:297 [ref. 28239], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus indicus (Shaw 1803). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

gubal, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] in Uiblein, Gledhill, Pavlov, Hoang & Shaheen 2019:172, Fig. 7D [Zootaxa 4683 (no. 2); ref. 37008] North of Gubal Island, Strait of Gubal, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, western Indian Ocean, 27°49'59"N, 33°43'1"E, depth 70 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 2011-1515. •Valid as Upeneus gubal Uiblein 2019 -- (Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus gubal Uiblein 2019. Mullidae. Distribution: Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Upeneoides Day [F.] 1868:938 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3) (art. 7); ref. 21114] Madras, India. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS I.25 (1, syntype) Madras; BMNH 1868.5.14.11 (1), 1975.9.30.19 (1) Madras; ZSI 2912 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:297 [ref. 25110]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Upeneus bensasi (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Lachner 1954:509 [ref. 10031]). •Valid as Upeneus guttatus (Day 1868) -- (Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Randall & Kulbicki 2006:301 [ref. 28802], Randall & Kulbicki 2006:301 [ref. 28802], Kimura in Imamura et al. 2009:175 [ref. 31157], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:42 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:647 [ref. 31501], Yamashita et al. 2011:54 [ref. 31639], Motomura et al. 2012:7 [ref. 32116], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Lisher 2013:92 [ref. 32906], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:426 [ref. 33460], Uiblein & Gledhill 2014:14 [ref. 33614], Bos 2014:755 [ref. 33588], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[18] 1038 [ref. 33992], Uiblein & White 2015:51 [ref. 33856], Psomadakis et al. 2015:285 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:162 [ref. 35490], Uiblein et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35570], Fricke et al. 2018:227 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:103 [ref. 36273], Uiblein et al. 2019:192 [ref. 37008], Psomadakis et al. 2020:504 [ref. 37272], Uiblein et al. 2020:530 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus guttatus (Day 1868). Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (south Mozambique) and Madagascar east to Philippines, north Australia and New Caledonia, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

heemstra, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Gouws [G.] 2014:667, Figs. 4-8 [Marine Biology Research v. 10 (no. 7); ref. 33216] Kipini, 2°38'S, 40°28"E, Kenya, depth 12 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 119042. Paratypes: SAIAB (19). Plus non-types. •Valid as Upeneus heemstra Uiblein & Gouws 2014 -- (Bogorodsky et al. 2014:427 [ref. 33460], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[18] 1038 [ref. 33992], Psomadakis et al. 2015:286 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:227 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:103 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus heemstra Uiblein & Gouws 2014. Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles and Madagascar to India and Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

heptacantha, Sciaena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:308, 311 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated [probably Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5438 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:11 [ref. 20735], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:32 [ref. 6382]. Based on a specimen donated from RMNH to MNHN. •Valid as Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:7 [ref. 12819], Randall et al. 1990:211 [ref. 15987], Baranes & Golani 1993:310 [ref. 22372], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:240 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:381 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:192 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:192 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:211 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:160 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:315 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:876 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:282 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Kim & Amaoka 2001:45 [ref. 25244], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3189 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:63 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:876 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:629 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:111 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624] dated 1801, Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:263 [ref. 28072], Randall 2004:30 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:297 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1268 [ref. 29000], Fricke et al. 2009:69 [ref. 30213], Randall & Heemstra 2009:40 [ref. 30542], Randall & King 2009:34 [ref. 30538], Satapoomin in Imamura et al. 2009:174 [ref. 31157], Bogorodsky et al. 2011:54 [ref. 31559], Allen & Erdmann 2012:506 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:157 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:95 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:283 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:161 [ref. 35490], Uiblein et al. 2017:548 [ref. 35672], Fricke et al. 2018:226 [ref. 35805], Uiblein et al. 2018:241 [ref. 36192], Golani & Fricke 2018:103 [ref. 36273], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:191 [ref. 36460], Arndt & Fricke 2019:22 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:88 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:175 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626], Psomadakis et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:77 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Sea of Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Lizard Island (Queensland, Australia), Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

heterospinus, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Pavlov [D. A.] in Uiblein, Gledhill, Pavlov, Hoang & Shaheen 2019:180, Figs. 9-10 [Zootaxa 4683 (no. 2); ref. 37008] North of Hon Tre, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa province, south-central Vietnam, South China Sea, western Pacific, 12°13'21"N, 109°18'30"E. Holotype: VNMN-I 2015. Paratypes: CSIRO, HIFIRE, MNHN, VNMN, ZMUC, ZMUO. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Upeneus heterospinus Uiblein & Pavlov 2019. Current status: Valid as Upeneus heterospinus Uiblein & Pavlov 2019. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

hispanicus, Mullus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:621 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. •Synonym of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

immaculatus, Upeneus Bennett [E. T.] 1831:60 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 16795] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:314 [ref. 24106], Randall 2004:22 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

inayatae, Parupeneus Uiblein [F.] & Fahmi [no initials] in Uiblein, Hoang, Alama, Causse, Chacate, Fahmi & Matiku 2018:233, Figs. 1A-C [Cybium v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 36192] Fish market, southeast Lombok, Tanjung Luar, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MZB 24565. •Valid as Parupeneus inayatae Uiblein & Fahmi 2018. Current status: Valid as Parupeneus inayatae Uiblein & Fahmi 2018. Mullidae. Distribution: Lombok, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Mullus Shaw [G.] 1803:614 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Visgapatam [Vishakhapatnam], India. No types known. Based on the 'Rahtee goolvinda' of Russell 1803, v. 2:42, Pl. 157. •Mention -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:164 [ref. 29757] as Upeneus indicus). •Valid as Upeneus indicus (Shaw 1803) -- (Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Parupeneus indicus (Shaw 1803) -- (Lachner 1960:13 [ref. 23973], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441], Ben-Tuvia 1986:612 [ref. 5641], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:211 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:241 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:382 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:111 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:190 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:211 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:160 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:315 [ref. 24106], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:875 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:283 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:147 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:263 [ref. 27511], Shimizu 2001:32 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3190 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:875 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:111 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:262 [ref. 28072], Randall 2004:32 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:297 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:124 [ref. 28745], Hoese & Bray 2006:1269 [ref. 29000], Fricke et al. 2009:69 [ref. 30213], Randall & Heemstra 2009:40 [ref. 30542], Motomura et al. 2010:129 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:507 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989], Bos 2014:752 [ref. 33550] as Parapeneus, Fricke et al. 2014:95 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:284 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:162 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:226 [ref. 35805], Tafzilmeriam in Kimura et al. 2018:192 [ref. 36460], Arndt & Fricke 2019:22 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:175 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:503 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus indicus (Shaw 1803). Mullidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall and Austral islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2010:43, Pls. 1, 3 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 11; ref. 30763] Cochin, western India [from local fishermen]. Holotype: BPBM 27524. Paratypes: BPBM 40987 (1). •Valid as Upeneus indicus Uiblein & Heemstra 2010 -- (Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Bos 2014:756 [ref. 33588], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[8] 1028 [ref. 33992], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus indicus Uiblein & Heemstra 2010. Mullidae. Distribution: Southwest India. Habitat: marine.

insularis, Parupeneus Randall [J. E.] & Myers [R. F.] 2002:433, Figs. 5-8, 11 [Zoological Studies v. 41 (no. 4); ref. 26607] Moku Manu, western side off cave, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, depth 18.5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 6455. Paratypes: AMS I.40985-001 (2); ASIZP 60950 (1); BPBM 7089 (6), 8988 (1), 15307 (2), 17058 (2), 17148 (1), 25685 (1), 28794 (1); CAS 59044 (1), 59046 (1), 59049 (1), 59054 (3); MNHN 1975-1063 (1); NSMT-P 61976 (2); ROM 72665 (1); CAS-SU 8929 (4), 50094 (1); USNM 367312 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Parupeneus insularis Randall & Myers 2002 -- (Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Randall 2004:34 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:295 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:298 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:390 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:264 [ref. 30952], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus insularis Randall & Myers 2002. Mullidae. Distribution: Western and Central Pacific: Ogasawara Islands, Mariana Islands, Minami Tori Shima, Marshall Islands, Samoa, Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands, Cook Islands, French Polynesia to Ducie (Pitcairn Group). Habitat: marine.

ischyrus, Pseudupeneus Snyder [J. O.] 1907:90, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 32 (no. 1513); ref. 15177] Tokyo, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 9790. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Parupeneus pleurotaenia (Playfair 1867) -- (Lachner 1960:10 [ref. 23973]). •Valid as Pseudupeneus ischyrus Snyder 1907 -- (Randall 2007:267 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall 2004:18 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

itoui, Upeneus Yamashita [M.], Golani [D.] & Motomura [H.] 2011:48, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 3107; ref. 31639] East of Sakinoyama, Kataura, Kasasa, Minamisatsuma, Kagoshima, Japan, 31°25′44″N, 130°11′49″E, depth 27 meters. Holotype: NSMT 102554 [ex KAUM 21091]. Paratypes: many at AMS, CSIRO, KAUM, MNHN, MUFS, URM and USNM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Upeneus itoui Yamashita, Golani & Motomura 2011 -- (Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Lisher 2013:94 [ref. 32906], Uiblein & Gledhill 2014:11 [ref. 33614], Uiblein & White 2015:51 [ref. 33856], Uiblein et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35570]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus itoui Yamashita, Golani & Motomura 2011. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Japan. Habitat: marine.

jansenii, Upeneus Bleeker [P.] 1856:44 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?NMV 45915 (1), RMNH 5748 (2). •Valid as Parupeneus jansenii (Bleeker 1856) -- (Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Randall 2001:3180 [ref. 26109], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Randall 2004:35 [ref. 28086], Randall & King 2009:34 [ref. 30538], Allen & Erdmann 2012:507 [ref. 31980], Uiblein et al. 2017:546 [ref. 35672], Uiblein et al. 2018:245 [ref. 36192], Psomadakis et al. 2020:503 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus jansenii (Bleeker 1856). Mullidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: Myanmar and Indonesia east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, north to Shikoku Island (Japan), south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Mullus Houttuyn [M.] 1782:334 [Verhandelingen der Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, Haarlem v. 20 (pt 2); ref. 2220] Off Futo Harbor, East coast of Izu Peninsula, Honshu, Japan, depth 15 meters. Neotype: NSMT-P 45177. Neotype designated by Randall et al. 1993:304 [ref. 21647]; original type locality off Nagasaki, Japan. See Boeseman 1995:3 [ref. 21811] for additional comments. •Valid as Upeneus japonicus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Randall et al. 1993 [ref. 21647], Nakabo 2000:873 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:149 [ref. 25480], Shinohara et al. 2000:179 [ref. 25987], Shimizu 2001:31 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25995], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Nakabo 2002:873 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:350, 622 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:435 [ref. 28370], Hoese & Bray 2006:1272 [ref. 29000], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:38 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:588 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Yamashita et al. 2011:54 [ref. 31639], Motomura et al. 2012:8 [ref. 32116], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Larson et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32988], Bos 2014:756 [ref. 33588], Uiblein & Gledhill 2014:15 [ref. 33614], Parin et al. 2014:375 [ref. 33547], Uiblein & White 2015:51 [ref. 33856], Motomura et al. 2017:162 [ref. 35490], Uiblein et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35570], Ali et al. 2018:335 [ref. 36183], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:192 [ref. 36460], Sonoyama et al. 2020:77 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus japonicus (Houttuyn 1782). Mullidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia east to Philippines, north to South Korea, Peter the Great Bay (Russia) and Japan. Habitat: marine.

jeffi, Pseudupeneus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:19 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3286] Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Parupeneus spilurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Randall 2004:53 [ref. 28086], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:336 [ref. 28867], Hoese & Bray 2006:1270 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus spilurus (Bleeker 1854). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

kneri, Parupeneus Bleeker [P.] 1872:142 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 431] Hong Kong. Appeared as "Parupeneus Kneri Blkr = Parupeneus barbarinoides Blkr? Kner. -- Hab. Hongkong." This refers to Bleeker's descriptions under the name P. barbarinoides and is regarded as available. •Synonym of Parupeneus biaculeatus (Richardson 1846) -- (Randall 2004:14 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus biaculeatus (Richardson 1846). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

koehleri, Mullus Curtiss [A.] 1938:51 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

kuiskuiana, Upeneoides Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:22 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 48 (1. Abth.); ref. 4247] Not available, name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Upeneoides tragula (Richardson 1846); from Kagoshima, Japan. •In the synonymy of Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846 -- (Lachner 1954:522 [ref. 10031], Kottelat 2013:362 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846. Mullidae.

latamii, Mullus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:[78], Pl. 18 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Australia. No types known. Appears as latamii on Pl. 18 but as "Mullus surmuletus Var. b. Lineatus. tab. 18" on p. 78. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

lateristriga, Mullus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:463 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] No locality. Syntypes: MNHN A-5435 (2, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:6 [ref. 20735]. Misspelled lateristriata by Valenciennes 1836. Apparently an unneeded new name for Mullus macronemus Lacepède 1801. •Synonym of Pseudupeneus macronema (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:163 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Parupeneus macronemus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:11 [ref. 23973], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:8 [ref. 12819], Fricke 1999:314 [ref. 24106], Randall 2004:38 [ref. 28086], Koeda & Ho 2018:286 [ref. 36175], Golani & Fricke 2018:103 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus macronemus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Mullus surmuletus var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:78, [Pl. 18] [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Probably Sydney, Australia. No types known. Name used on Pl. 18 is Mullus latamii. See Hutchins 1990:488-489 [ref. 15762] for remarks on type locality. •Valid as Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1986:590 [ref. 6314], Paulin et al. 1989:192 [ref. 24556], Hutchins 1990:488 [ref. 15762], Kuiter 1993:205 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:605 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:194 [ref. 25488], Randall 2001:3180 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:62 [ref. 26347], Hoese & Bray 2006:1270 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:591 [ref. 30616], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:114 [ref. 36167]). Current status: Valid as Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Mullidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southeastern Australia. Kermadec Islands records are based on U. porosus (Cuvier 1829). Habitat: marine.

lombok, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & White [W. T.] 2015:53, Fig. 1a [Zootaxa 3980 (no. 1); ref. 33856] Lombok, Indonesia, 8°48'S, 116°33'E, depth 54-60 meters. Holotype: NTM S.11341-002. Paratypes: NTM. •Valid as Upeneus lombok Uiblein & White 2015 -- (Uiblein et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35570], Fricke et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus lombok Uiblein & White 2015. Mullidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Lombok (Indonesia); New Ireland (Papua New Guinea). Habitat: marine.

louise, Parupeneus Randall [J. E.] 2004:36, Fig. 8; Pl. VIB [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 36; ref. 28086] Kaukura Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, depth 200 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 31692. •Valid as Parupeneus louise Randall 2004 -- (Uiblein & Causse 2013:343 [ref. 32719]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus louise Randall 2004. Mullidae. Distribution: Tuamotu Archipelago and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

luteus, Upeneus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:521 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9565. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:8 [ref. 20735]. Also appeared in Griffith & Smith 1834:Pl. 11 (fig. 4) (opp. p. 130) [ref. 1908]. •Valid as Parupeneus luteus (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Lachner 1960:15 [ref. 23973]). •Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall et al. 1990:210 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:240 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:314 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Randall 2001:3188 [ref. 26109], Randall 2004:22 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:296 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:263 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

luzonius, Upeneus Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1907:25, Fig. 9 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 606) (for 1906); ref. 2498] Cavite, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: CAS-SU 9244 (not USNM 53067). Paratypes: CAS-SU 20101 (2), USNM 53067 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:80 [ref. 12291]. Holotype was not deposited at USNM as indicated in Jordan & Seale [ref. 2489] but was retained at SU. Seven specimens were mentioned in original description. •Appears to be a synonym of Upeneus sundaicus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall 1995:242 [ref. 22896], Randall 2001:3198 [ref. 26109]). •Valid as Upeneus luzonius Jordan & Seale 1907 -- (Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:39 [ref. 27712], Hoese & Bray 2006:1272 [ref. 29000], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:38 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:588 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:63 [ref. 32282], Larson et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32988], Uiblein & Gouws 2014:658 [ref. 33216], Uiblein & White 2015:52 [ref. 33856], Uiblein et al. 2019:192 [ref. 37008]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus luzonius Jordan & Seale 1907. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

macronemus, Mullus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:383, 404, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality stated [Indo-West Pacific]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5435. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:13 [ref. 20735] with no type. Spelled macronema on p. 383. Based on illustration and description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist); underlying specimen is the type even though not seen by Lacepède. •Valid as Pseudupeneus macronema (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:163 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Parupeneus macronema (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:11 [ref. 23973], Kyushin et al. 1977:174 [ref. 19756], Ben-Tuvia 1986:612 [ref. 5641], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:8 [ref. 12819], Winterbottom et al. 1989:41 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:241 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:140 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:192 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:315 [ref. 24106], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Randall 2001:3191 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945] as Macronema, Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:262 [ref. 28072], Randall 2004:38 [ref. 28086], Mundy 2005:391 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2009:69 [ref. 30213], Imamura in Imamura et al. 2009:174 [ref. 31157], Randall & Heemstra 2009:41 [ref. 30542], Allen & Erdmann 2012:507 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706], Randall 2014:61 [ref. 33292], Psomadakis et al. 2015:284 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:226 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:103 [ref. 36273], Koeda & Ho 2018:286 [ref. 36175], Arndt & Fricke 2019:22 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:88 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:503 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus macronemus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Indonesia and Philippines, north to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Mulloides Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Mullidae p. 3 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 1567. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:402 [ref. 12732]. On p. 345 when continuously paginated. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Mullus Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Klein) 1792:619 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Brazil. No types known. Based on the 'Mullus barbatus, totus sanguineus' of Klein 1749:22, pl. 6, fig. 3 [ref. 30141], which was based on Piso 'hist. nat. indiae 60' and 'Mullus' of Markgraf von Liebstadt 1648:156 [ref. 30347]. Regarded as forgotten name, not to replace Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch 1793), but Mullus maculatus Walbaum 1792 perhaps is available and valid. •Synonym of Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch 1793) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). •Perhaps valid as Pseudupeneus maculatus (Walbaum 1792). Current status: Synonym of Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch 1793). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Mullus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:95, Pl. 348 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Brazil. No types known. On p. 79 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch 1793) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:190 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:147 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:364 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:318 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:587 [ref. 16204], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:272 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:163 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Kim 2002:63 [ref. 26347], Collette et al. 2003:111 [ref. 26784], Randall 2003:1658 [ref. 27098], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:451 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:58 [ref. 33341], Bos 2014:752 [ref. 33550], Pinheiro et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Spier et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch 1793). Mullidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

major, Mullus Costa [O. G.] 1846:Mullus p. 2 [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] [Napoli] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Based, in part, on Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus. Published 25 July 1846. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

malabaricus, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:467 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Malabar, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0537. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:8 [ref. 20735]. •Synonym of Parupeneus indicus (Shaw 1803) -- (Lachner 1960:13 [ref. 23973], Randall 2004:32 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:297 [ref. 28239], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus indicus (Shaw 1803). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

maneae, Mullus Curtiss [A.] 1938:53 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

manilensis, Mullus Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:133 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines. No types known. Apparently an overlooked available name; but unplaceable according to J. Randall, pers. Comm., 2/04. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

margarethae, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2010:44, Pls. 1, 3 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 11; ref. 30763] Off Beira, Mozambique, southwest Indian Ocean, 35°78.60'S, 19°93.61'E, depth 47 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 82217. Paratypes: SAIAB 82209 (1), 82814 (2), 82817 (5); USNM 396092 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Upeneus margarethae Uiblein & Heemstra 2010 -- (Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:592 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:63 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Gouws 2014:660 [ref. 33216], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:427 [ref. 33460], Bos 2014:756 [ref. 33588], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[18] 1038 [ref. 33992], Uiblein & White 2015:52 [ref. 33856], Fricke et al. 2018:228 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:104 [ref. 36273], Uiblein et al. 2019:154 [ref. 37008], Psomadakis et al. 2020:505 [ref. 37272], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus margarethae Uiblein & Heemstra 2010. Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Sri Lanka, Thailand and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

margaritatus, Parupeneus Randall [J. E.] & Guézé [P.] 1984:12, Pl. 1 (figs. A-C) [Cybium v. 8 (no. 4); ref. 12315] Bahrain fish market, Persian Gulf. Holotype: BPBM 29573. Paratypes: AMS 1.24445-001 (1); BMNH 1887.11.11.125-127 (3), 1889.4.15.26-27 (2), 1903.5.14.14-16 (3), 1904.5.25.45 (3), 1984.3.29.1 (1), 1984.5.16.1-2 (2), 1984.5.16.151-155 (5); BPBM 21220 (1), 29406 (2), 29410 (9), 29574 (3); CAS 54838 (1); HUJ 11388 (1); MCZ 60804 (1); MNHN 1983-677 (3), 1984-457 (1), A.3517 (1); NSMT-P 23030 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 20063 (1); USNM 147994 (8), 265814 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:6 [ref. 20735], Golani 2006:28 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Parupeneus margaritatus Randall & Guézé 1984 -- (Randall 1995:241 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:192 [ref. 23922], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Randall 2004:41 [ref. 28086], Randall & Heemstra 2009:41 [ref. 30542], Psomadakis et al. 2015:284 [ref. 34104], Eagderi et al. 2019:88 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus margaritatus Randall & Guézé 1984. Mullidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

martinicus, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:483 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-3404. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:8 [ref. 20735]. •Valid as Mulloides martinicus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:828 [ref. 17305], Randall et al. 1990:209 [ref. 15987], Afonso et al. 1999:75 [ref. 25466] with author as Bleeker 1849). •Valid as Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:383 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:190 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:642 [ref. 9166], Boschung 1992:147 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:363 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:316 [ref. 24474], Stepien et al. 1994:44 [ref. 21179], Allen & Robertson 1994:174 [ref. 22193], Randall 1995:239 [ref. 22896], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:271 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:136 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1645 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Kim 2002:62 [ref. 26347], Collette et al. 2003:111 [ref. 26784], Randall 2003:1656 [ref. 27098], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:293 [ref. 28239], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:449 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:35 [ref. 30263], Uiblein 2011:55 [ref. 31259], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:57 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Bos 2014:752 [ref. 33550], Pinheiro et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34324], Golani in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2657 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Koeda et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35369], Brown et al. 2019:175 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier 1829). Mullidae. Distribution: Western and eastern Atlantic islands; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena Island. Habitat: marine.

mascareinsis, Upeneus Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1967:50, Fig. I/b [Cahiers O. R. S. T. O. M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Série Océanographie v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 7890] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 1965-0072. Paratypes: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:8 [ref. 20735]. •Valid as Upeneus mascareinsis Fourmanoir & Guézé 1967 -- (Fricke 1999:319 [ref. 24106], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:46 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Causse 2013:137 [ref. 32719], Bos 2014:756 [ref. 33588], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[18] 1038 [ref. 33992], Fricke et al. 2018:228 [ref. 35805], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus mascareinsis Fourmanoir & Guézé 1967. Mullidae. Distribution: East Africa (Mozambique), Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes), southwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

mauritianus, Upeneus Bennett [E. T.] 1831:59 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 16795] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. •Unidentifiable -- (Fricke 1999:307 [ref. 24106]). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

megalops, Pseudupeneus Tanaka [S.] 1917:8 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29 (no. 339); ref. 4329] Fish market in Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: ZUMT 7256 (1), 7257 (1, missing), 7258 (1), 7259 (1, described), 7260 (1) Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

microps, Mullus (Upeneus) Bliss [R.] 1883:49 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 6024. •Synonym of Parupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:311 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall 2004:22 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

mimicus, Mulloidichthys Randall [J. E.] & Guézé [P.] 1980:605, Pl. 1 (fig. B) [Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Série 4: Section A: Zoologie, Biologie et Écologie Animales v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 8671] West side of Sentinelle de l'Est, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, South Pacific, depth 15 meters. Holotype: BPBM 12638. Paratypes: BPBM 4079 (1), 7738 (6), 11901 (1), 12135 (1); CAS 44204 (1); MNHN 1966-0715 (1), 1974-0078 (1); USNM 220029 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:5 [ref. 20735]. •Valid as Mulloidichthys mimicus Randall & Guézé 1980 -- (Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Randall 2001:3180 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:62 [ref. 26347], Randall 2005:292 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:261 [ref. 30952], Uiblein 2011:64 [ref. 31259], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35369]). Current status: Valid as Mulloidichthys mimicus Randall & Guézé 1980. Mullidae. Distribution: South Pacific Islands; Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

minor, Mullus Costa [O. G.] 1846:Mullus p. 5 [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] [Napoli] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Published 25 July 1846. Based on various literature sources. •Synonym of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

minys, Parupeneus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [E.] 2009:45, Figs. 5-6 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin v. 10; ref. 30542] Poivre Atoll, 5°44'S, 53°20'E, Amirantes, Seychelles. Holotype: BPBM 35553. Paratypes: BPBM 27693 (1), 40948 (1); MNHN 2008-2473 (1); SAIAB 81381 (1); USNM 395007 (1) Second author is E. Heemstra. •Valid as Parupeneus minys Randall & Heemstra 2009 -- (Uiblein et al. 2017:558 [ref. 35672]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus minys Randall & Heemstra 2009. Mullidae. Distribution: Seychelles, Mozambique and India. Habitat: marine.

moana, Pseudupeneus Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:274 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51737. Paratypes: MCZ 36011 [ex USNM 51737] (1), CAS-SU 8676 (5), USNM 125468 [ex USFC 1650] (4), USNM 373290 [ex. USNM 51737] (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Parupeneus trifasciatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:22 [ref. 23973]). •Synonym of Parupeneus multifasciatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Randall 2004:43 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:298 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:391 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:265 [ref. 30952], Shibuya & Motomura 2020:[7] [ref. 37501]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus multifasciatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

modestini, Mullus Curtiss [A.] 1938:52 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

moffitti, Parupeneus Randall [J. E.] & Myers [R. F.] 1993:70, Fig. 1 [Micronesica v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 21000] Off the southwestern side of Orote Peninsula, Guam, Mariana Islands, 13°26'N, 144°38'E, western Pacific, depth 120 meters. Holotype: BPBM 34930. Paratypes: BPBM 35051 (1), USNM 321084 (1). •Valid as Parupeneus moffitti Randall & Myers 1993 -- (Randall 2001:3180 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], as moffiti, Randall 2004:42 [ref. 28086], Uiblein & Causse 2013:343 [ref. 32719]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus moffitti Randall & Myers 1993. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Mariana Islands. Habitat: marine.

moiavan, Upeneus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:431 [153] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 153 of reprint. Originally as moïavan. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing under species allocated by Thiollière to Upeneus barberinus; Woodlark I., South Pacific. •In the synonymy of Parupeneus barberinus (Lacepède 1801). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus barberinus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae.

moluccensis, Upeneoides Bleeker [P.] 1855:409 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5722 (poor condition). •Valid as Upeneus moluccensis (Bleeker 1855) -- (Lachner 1954:514 [ref. 10031], Lachner 1960:4 [ref. 23973], Hureau 1973:403 [ref. 7197], Kyushin et al. 1982:141 [ref. 19754], Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:164 [ref. 29757], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:163 [ref. 6441], Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:882 [ref. 13676], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:11 [ref. 12819], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:229 [ref. 24016], Baranes & Golani 1993:310 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:383 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:109 [ref. 26476], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:873 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:145 [ref. 25480], Apostolidis et al. 2001:902 [ref. 25470], Golani 2001:111 [ref. 25530], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3196 [ref. 26109], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:102 [ref. 26753], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Nakabo 2002:873 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:39 [ref. 27712], Golani 2005:47 [ref. 37112], Randall & Kulbicki 2006:301 [ref. 28802], Hoese & Bray 2006:1272 [ref. 29000], Fricke et al. 2007:91 [ref. 29533], Imamura in Imamura et al. 2009:176 [ref. 31157], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:47 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Allen & Erdmann 2012:509 [ref. 31980], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Larson et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:427 [ref. 33460], Bos 2014:756 [ref. 33588], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[18] 1038 [ref. 33992], Uiblein & White 2015:52 [ref. 33856], Psomadakis et al. 2015:286 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:163 [ref. 35490], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:228 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:104 [ref. 36273], Artüz & Fricke 2019:54 [ref. 36581], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:133 [ref. 37515], Psomadakis et al. 2020:505 [ref. 37272], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus moluccensis (Bleeker 1855). Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Réunion east to Caroline Islands and New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia); eastern Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Marmara (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

mouthami, Upeneus Randall [J. E.] & Kulbicki [M.] 2006:302, Fig. 6 [Zoological Studies v. 45 (no. 3); ref. 28802] Chesterfield Bank, 20°59'48"S, 158°47'18"E, Coral Sea. Holotype: BPBM 33858. Paratypes: AMS I.43340-001 (1); BPBM 33855 (1), 39467 (1); MNHN 2004-1571 (1); NSMT P 68933 (1); USNM 378143 (1). •Valid as Upeneus mouthami Randall & Kulbicki 2006 -- (Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:38 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:588 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:63 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Gouws 2014:660 [ref. 33216], Uiblein et al. 2019:185 [ref. 37008]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus mouthami Randall & Kulbicki 2006. Mullidae. Distribution: West-central Pacific: Chesterfield Bank, Coral Sea, Vanuatu and Spiritu Santo Islands. Habitat: marine.

multifasciatus, Mullus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:330, Pl. 59 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-3492. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:6 [ref. 20735]. •Valid as Parupeneus multifasciatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Lachner 1960:12 [ref. 23973], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477] with author as Bleeker, Randall et al. 1990:211 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:131 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:203 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:190 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:211 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:160 [ref. 23965], Randall in Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:875 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:283 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:148 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3192 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:875 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:629 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:112 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Randall 2004:42 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:298 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:391 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Bray 2006:1269 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:265 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:130 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:508 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:96 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:8 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:162 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36673], Shibuya & Motomura 2020:[7] [ref. 37501], Sonoyama et al. 2020:77 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus multifasciatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Mullidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas and Cocos Keeling Islands and Andaman Sea east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Sea of Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

nansen, Parupeneus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [E.] 2009:47, Figs. 7-8 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin v. 10; ref. 30542] Mozambique, 24°33.7'S, 35°15.6'E to 24°32.3'S, 35°15.6'E, depth 50-51 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 81389. Paratypes: BPBM 40949 (1), SAIAB 81683 (1), USNM 395047 (1). Non types: BPBM 31276 (7). •Valid as Parupeneus nansen Randall & Heemstra 2009 -- (Uiblein et al. 2017:558 [ref. 35672], Uiblein et al. 2018:249 [ref. 36192]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus nansen Randall & Heemstra 2009. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique, Tanzania and Somalia. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Upeneus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1909:229 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 3, no. 5); ref. 1650] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 10002. •Synonym of Parupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall 2004:52 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

niebuhri, Upeneus Guézé [P.] 1976:596 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 40 (no. 3-4); ref. 7337] Gulf of Suez, 28°54'29"N, 32°29' to 32°45'E, Red Sea, depth 62 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1977-0174. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:8 [ref. 20735]. •Synonym of Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846 -- (Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:13 [ref. 12819]). •Valid as Upeneus niebuhri (Guézé 1976) -- (Kottelat 2013:362 [ref. 32989], Uiblein & Gouws 2014:668 [ref. 33216], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[5] 243 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:104 [ref. 36273], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus niebuhri Guézé 1976. Mullidae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

nigromarginatus, Upeneus Bos [A. R.] 2014:753, Figs. 3-5 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 62; ref. 33588] Panabo City, fish market, 7°18'23'N, 125°41'01"E, Philippines. Holotype: RMNH.PISC.37991. Paratypes: RMNH.PISC 36422 (1), 36423 (1), 32464 (1), 37992 (1). •Valid as Upeneus nigromarginatus Bos 2014 -- (Uiblein & White 2015:52 [ref. 33856]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus nigromarginatus Bos 2014. Mullidae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

notospilus, Parupeneus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1884:51, Pl. 5 (fig. 3) [Die Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 2625] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMNS 3545 (6). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:14 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:49 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Pseudupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:163 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Parupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall 2004:52 [ref. 28086], Golani & Fricke 2018:103 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

oligospilus, Upeneus Lachner [E. A.] 1954:525, Pl. 14 (fig. D) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 103 (no. 3330); ref. 10031] Tarut Bay, Persian Gulf. Holotype: USNM 153988. Paratypes: USNM 147995 (11). •Synonym of Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846 -- (Randall 1995:243 [ref. 22896] or at best a subspecies, Carpenter et al. 1997:193 [ref. 23922], Randall 2001:3199 [ref. 26109], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Randall & Kulbicki 2006:305 [ref. 28802], Kottelat 2013:362 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Upeneus oligospilus Lachner 1954 -- (Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:48 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:63 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Gouws 2014:670 [ref. 33216], Jawad et al. 2018:116 [ref. 36262], Eagderi et al. 2019:88 [ref. 37020], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus oligospilus Lachner 1954. Mullidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

orientalis, Pseudupeneus Fowler [H. W.] 1933:294, Fig. 23 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 12; ref. 1414] Cook Bay, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): USNM 65639. •Valid as Pseudupeneus orientalis Fowler 1933 -- (Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Parupeneus orientalis (Fowler 1933) -- (Lachner 1960:11 [ref. 23973], Randall 2004:45 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus orientalis (Fowler 1933). Mullidae. Distribution: Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

oxycephalus, Upeneus Bleeker [P.] 1856:45 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5736 [or 5436]. Paralectotypes: RMNH 25411 [ex 5736] (1). Lectotype designation not researched; listed by Randall 2004:23 [ref. 28086]. •Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:29 [ref. 23973], Fricke 1999:314 [ref. 24106], Randall 2004:22 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

panticapaeensis, Mullus barbus ponticus natio Essipov [V. K.] 1927:137 [French p. 146] [Reports of the Scientific Station of Fisheries in Kertch v. 1 (nos 2-3); ref. 15847] Not available, infrasubspecific; from the Black Sea. Mullidae.

parvus, Upeneus Poey [F.] 1852:[226, 227], Pl. 17 [as Pl. 20] (fig. 3) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Cuba. No types known. Name dates from plate on Oct. 1852; text published May 1853. •Valid as Upeneus parvus Poey 1852 -- (Lachner 1954:528 [ref. 10031], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:381 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:190 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:147 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:364 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:320 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Randall 2003:1659 [ref. 27098], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:452 [ref. 28815], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:38 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:588 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Bos 2014:756 [ref. 33588], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[18] 1038 [ref. 33992]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus parvus Poey 1852. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pfluegeri, Mulloides Steindachner [F.] 1900:174 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 37 (no. 16) (for 21 June 1900); ref. 20498] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): UMB 156 [RK UMB 4532]. Type catalog: Wahlert 1955:324 [ref. 21527]. Species later illustrated and described in detail in Steindachner 1900:485 Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [ref. 14892]; on p. 3 of separate. •Valid as Mulloidichthys pfluegeri (Steindachner 1900) -- (Lachner 1960:40 [ref. 23973] as pflugeri, Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441] as pflugeri, Myers 1999:159 [ref. 23965] as pflugeri, Fricke 1999:309 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122] as pflugeri, Nakabo 2000:874 [ref. 25182] as pflugeri, Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Randall 2001:3182 [ref. 26109] as pflugeri, Kim 2002:62 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:874 [ref. 26193] as pflugeri, Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830] as pflugeri, Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:293 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:388 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2009:68 [ref. 30213], Randall 2007:261 [ref. 30952], Uiblein 2011:62 [ref. 31259], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35333] as pflugeri, Koeda et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35369] as pflugeri). Current status: Valid as Mulloidichthys pfluegeri (Steindachner 1900). Mullidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mascarenes; eastern Indonesia east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands (southern Japan), south to Tonga. Habitat: marine.

philippinus, Upeneoides Fowler [H. W.] 1918:37, Fig. 15 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 70; ref. 1396] Philippines. Holotype: ANSP 47508. Paratypes: ANSP 47509-11 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:129 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Upeneus vittatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Lachner 1954:516 [ref. 10031], Lachner 1960:5 [ref. 23973], Kottelat 2013:362 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus vittatus (Forsskål 1775). Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

phillipsi, Upeneus Fowler [H. W.] 1918:5, Pl. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan v. 56; ref. 15210] Corson's Inlet, Cape May County, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 47448. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:129 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Mullus auratus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. •Valid as Mullus phillipsi (Fowler 1918) -- (Kim 2002:61 [ref. 26347]). Current status: Valid as Mullus phillipsi (Fowler 1918). Mullidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pinnivittatus, Mulloides Steindachner [F.] 1870:624 [2] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4218] Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: (2) NMW On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lachner 1954:513 [ref. 10031], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pleurospilos, Upeneus Bleeker [P.] 1853:110 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 16900] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (4) RMNH 5743 (1), 25005 (1). •Valid as Parupeneus pleurospilos (Bleeker 1853) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:137 [ref. 19754], Chen et al. 1997:111 [ref. 26476] as pleurospilus). •Synonym of Pseudupeneus cinnabarinus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:162 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:7 [ref. 12819], Randall et al. 1990:211 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:240 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:192 [ref. 23922] as pleurospilus, Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Randall 2001:3189 [ref. 26109], Randall 2004:30 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:297 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:336 [ref. 28867], Hoese & Bray 2006:1268 [ref. 29000], Bogorodsky et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31559], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989], Uiblein et al. 2017:548 [ref. 35672], Fricke et al. 2018:226 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:103 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

pleurostigma, Upeneus Bennett [E. T.] 1831:59 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 16795] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1861.8.14.32. •Valid as Parupeneus pleurostigma (Bennett 1831) -- (Lachner 1960:26 [ref. 23973], Kyushin et al. 1982:138 [ref. 19754], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441], Ben-Tuvia 1986:612 [ref. 5641], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:41 [ref. 13251] as pleurostigmus, Randall et al. 1990:212 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:131 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:202 [ref. 23929], Randall 1995:242 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:382 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:111 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:212 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:160 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:317 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:876 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:284 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:149 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3193 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:876 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:629 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576] dated 1830, Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Randall 2004:47 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:299 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:392 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Bray 2006:1269 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:266 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:69 [ref. 30213], Imamura in Imamura et al. 2009:175 [ref. 31157], Randall & Heemstra 2009:39 [ref. 30542], Allen & Erdmann 2012:508 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:96 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Francis & Duffy 2015:483 [ref. 36161], Stewart 2015:1291 [ref. 34196], Koeda et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:227 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:504 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus pleurostigma (Bennett 1831). Mullidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes; Myanmar and Andaman Sea east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island, northern New Zealand, Kermadec Islands, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

pleurotaenia, Mullus Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:41, Pl. 5 (fig. 3 [mislabeled 4]) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.3.9.85 (skin, in jar). •Valid as Parupeneus pleurotaenia (Playfair 1867) -- (Lachner 1960:10 [ref. 23973], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall et al. 1990:210 [ref. 15987], Randall 2001:3187 [ref. 26109], Randall 2004:18 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:295 [ref. 28239], Eagderi et al. 2019:87 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

ponticus, Mullus barbatus Essipov [V. K.] 1927:137 [French p. 146] [Reports of the Scientific Station of Fisheries in Kertch v. 1 (nos 2-3); ref. 15847] District of Kerch and Anapa, northeastern Black Sea, Russia. Syntypes: (many) none at ZIN. •Synonym of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Hureau 1973:402 [ref. 7197], Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:878 [ref. 13676], Kim 2002:61 [ref. 26347], Parin 2003:S14 [ref. 28536], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:179 [ref. 28369], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Parin et al. 2014:374 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758. Mullidae. Distribution: Subspecies occurs in the Black Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pori, Upeneus Ben-Tuvia [A.] & Golani [D.] 1989:105, Figs. 1-2 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 17643] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: HUJ 13622 [not 13627]. Paratypes: AMS I.28042-001 (1); BMNH 1977.12.20.19-21 (3); BPBM 33505 (1); CAS 66225 (1); FMNH 98293 (1); HUJ 6614 (3), 8540 (2), 12358 (1), 13517 (2), 13623 (2), 13639 (2); MNHN 1989-0537 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 28958 (1); USNM 303539 (1). Type catalog: Golani 2006:28 [ref. 28840] with holotype as 13627. •Valid as Upeneus pori Ben-Tuvia & Golani 1989 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:243 [ref. 22896], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Golani 2001:111 [ref. 25530], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:103 [ref. 26753], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Golani 2005:47 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:91 [ref. 29533], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:49 [ref. 30763], Zenetos et al. 2010:414 [ref. 31201], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Yamashita et al. 2011:54 [ref. 31639], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Lisher 2013:93 [ref. 32906], Bos 2014:756 [ref. 33588], Uiblein & Gledhill 2014:11 [ref. 33614], Uiblein & White 2015:51 [ref. 33856], Uiblein et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35570], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:229 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:104 [ref. 36273], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:133 [ref. 37515], Uiblein et al. 2020:537 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus pori Ben-Tuvia & Golani 1989. Mullidae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea and Madagascar; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

porosus, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:455 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Bay of Islands area, New Zealand. Syntypes: MNHN A-3466 (1), A-3468 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:8-9 [ref. 20735] with a holotype and paratype. See Hutchins 1990:491 [ref. 15762] for remarks on type locality. •Synonym of Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1986:592 [ref. 6314]). •Synonym of Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801), but a valid subspecies -- (Hutchins 1990:488 [ref. 15762]). •Valid as Upeneichthys porosus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kim 2002:62 [ref. 26347], Stewart 2015:1293 [ref. 34196]). Current status: Valid as Upeneichthys porosus (Cuvier 1829). Mullidae. Distribution: New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

porphyreus, Pseudupeneus Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:454, Fig. 22 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50705. Paratypes: (17). •Valid as Pseudupeneus porphyreus Jenkins 1903 -- (Kuiter 1993:204 [ref. 23929], Myers 1999:160 [ref. 23965]). •Valid as Parupeneus porphyreus (Jenkins 1903) -- (Lachner 1960:15 [ref. 23973], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Randall 2004:48 [ref. 28086], Mundy 2005:392 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:266 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus porphyreus (Jenkins 1903). Mullidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

posteli, Parupeneus Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1967:47, Fig. I/a [Cahiers O. R. S. T. O. M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Série Océanographie v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 7890] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 150-250 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1965-0056. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 615 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:7 [ref. 20735]. •Valid as Parupeneus posteli Fourmanoir & Guézé 1967 -- (Fricke 1999:317 [ref. 24106], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347] dated to 1976, Randall 2004:49 [ref. 28086], Fricke et al. 2009:69 [ref. 30213], Randall & Heemstra 2009:41 [ref. 30542], Uiblein & Causse 2013:343 [ref. 32719]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus posteli Fourmanoir & Guézé 1967. Mullidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Réunion (western Mascarenes endemic). Habitat: marine.

prayensis, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:485 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Port Praya, Cape Verde Islands, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-1925. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:9 [ref. 20735]. •Valid as Pseudupeneus prayensis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Hureau 1973:403 [ref. 7197], Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:880 [ref. 13676], Ben-Tuvia 1990:828 [ref. 17305], Afonso et al. 1999:75 [ref. 25466], Apostolidis et al. 2001:902 [ref. 25470], Kim 2002:63 [ref. 26347], Mercader 2002:235 [ref. 26558], Wirtz et al. 2007:36 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Bos 2014:752 [ref. 33550], Golani in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2660 [ref. 34618], Almeida & Alves 2019:271 [ref. 37509], Bariche & Fricke 2020:132 [ref. 37515]). Current status: Valid as Pseudupeneus prayensis (Cuvier 1829). Mullidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Angola, offshore islands including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

preorbitalis, Upeneus Smith [R.] & Swain [J.] 1882:132 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 272); ref. 14298] Johnston Island, Pacific. Holotype (unique): USNM 29662. •Synonym of Mulloidichthys samoensis (Günther 1874) -- (Lachner 1960:40 [ref. 23973]). •Synonym of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Mundy 2005:388 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

procerigena, Parupeneus Kim [B.-J.] & Amaoka [K.] 2001:45, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 25244] Saya de Malha Bank, western Indian Ocean, 10°22'S, 61°41'E, depth 92 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 82088. Paratypes: AMS I.40281-001 (1); HUMZ 72364 (1), 73179 (1), 73707 (1), 74033 (1, stained & dissected), 74034 (1), 74100-01 (1, 1), 81705 (1); NSMT-P 59647 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 62026 (1); USNM 361628 (1). •Valid as Parupeneus procerigena Kim & Amaoka 2001 -- (Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Randall 2004:50 [ref. 28086], Randall & Heemstra 2009:40 [ref. 30542], Uiblein et al. 2017:558 [ref. 35672], Uiblein et al. 2018:250 [ref. 36192]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus procerigena Kim & Amaoka 2001. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Nazareth Bank and Mauritius (Cargados Carajos Bank), Seychelles and Saya de Malha Bank. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:482 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN A-3195 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:9 [ref. 20735]. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

quadrilineatus, Upeneus Cheng [C.-T.] & Wang [C.-X.] in Chu, Chan & Chen 1963:344, Fig. 260 [Ichthyofauna of the East China Sea; ref. 18002] Ta Chen Island, Zhejiang Province, China. Holotype: ASIO 60-3617. Paratypes: ASIO 60-3614 (1), 3615 (1), 3616 (1), 3618 (1). •Valid as Upeneus quadrilineatus Cheng & Wang 1963 -- (Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:163 [ref. 6441], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:873 [ref. 25182], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Randall 2001:3180 [ref. 26109], Nakabo 2002:873 [ref. 26193], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:38 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:588 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:63 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[18] 1038 [ref. 33992], Uiblein & White 2015:64 [ref. 33856]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus quadrilineatus Cheng & Wang 1963. Mullidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

queketti, Upeneus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:163 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1927.12.6.36 [ex SAM] (1), SAM 9976 (1). •Synonym of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (R. Fricke pers. commun. 02/20). Current status: Synonym of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

radiatus, Mullus Shaw [G.] 1803:618 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian Seas. No types known. •Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall 2004:22 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2011:589, Figs. 1-2 [Scientia Marina v. 75 (no. 3); ref. 31346] Off southern Kuwait, 29°00'N, 48°25'E, Kuwait, Persian Gulf, depth 15-20 meters. Holotype: BPBM 33180. Paratypes: BPBM 21201 (6), ZMUC P49161 (1). •Valid as Upeneus randalli Uiblein & Heemstra 2011 -- (Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:63 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Gouws 2014:660 [ref. 33216], Eagderi et al. 2019:89 [ref. 37020], Uiblein et al. 2019:188 [ref. 37008], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus randalli Uiblein & Heemstra 2011. Mullidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Habitat: marine.

rathbuni, Upeneus Evermann [B. W.] & Jenkins [O. P.] 1891:158, Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 846); ref. 14499] Guaymas Bay, Sonora, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 43241. •Apparently a synonym of Mulloidichthys dentatus (Gill 1862). Current status: Uncertain as Mulloidichthys dentatus (Gill 1862). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

roseus, Upenoides Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:11 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Probably a synonym of Upeneus moluccensis (Bleeker 1855) -- (J. Randall, pers. Comm. 2/04). •Incertae sedis in Mullidae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1274 [ref. 29000]). •Probably a synonym of Upeneus moluccensis (Bleeker 1845) -- (Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Upeneus moluccensis (Bleeker 1855). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Mulloides Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:743 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Red Sea. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1873.8.1.6 [ex MGH] (1) [Tahiti]; MNH 78711 (2); SMNS 24575 (skull, not found, probably lost), SMNS 2061 (2), ZIN 2523 (1), ZMB 7982 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:14 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:49 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Mulloides vanicolensis Valenciennes 1831 -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:161 [ref. 29757], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:3 [ref. 12819]). •Synonym of Mulloidichthys vanicolensis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:102 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Mulloidichthys vanicolensis (Valenciennes 1831). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Mullus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:382, 385 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea and Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:13 [ref. 20735]. •Synonym of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Hureau 1973:402 [ref. 7197], Ben-Tuvia 1990:827 [ref. 17305]). Current status: Synonym of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ruber, Mullus Shaw [G.] 1803:611 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Mediterranean Sea, [northern seas] northeastern Atlantic Ocean. No types known. Unneeded new name for Mullus barbatus Linnaeus; also objectively invalid; preoccupied by Mullus ruber Lacepède 1801. •Synonym of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rubescens, Mullus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:384, 406 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Neotype: MNHN 1965-0058. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:6 [ref. 20735]. Neotype designated by Maugé & Guézé 1984:500 [ref. 21551]. Originally described from Îsle de France (Mauritius). •Valid as Pseudupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:163 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Parupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1986:612 [ref. 5641], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:9 [ref. 12819], Suzuki & Uno 1992:3 [ref. 24139], Baranes & Golani 1993:310 [ref. 22372], Kuiter 1993:204 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:242 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:318 [ref. 24106], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Choi et al. 2003:350, 622 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:263 [ref. 28072], Randall 2004:52 [ref. 28086], Fricke et al. 2009:69 [ref. 30213], Randall & Heemstra 2009:41 [ref. 30542], Psomadakis et al. 2015:285 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:227 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:103 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Mossel Bay (South Africa), Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

rubriniger, Upeneoides De Vis [C. W.] 1884:458 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4898] No locality; probably southern Australia and not Tully River, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.3092. See Hutchins 1990:491 [ref. 15762] for remarks on type locality. •Synonym of Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1986:592 [ref. 6314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1270 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801), subspecies vlamingii (Cuvier 1829) -- (Hutchins 1990:491 [ref. 15762]). •Synonym of Upeneichthys vlamingii (Cuvier 1829) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

russelii, Mullus Cuvier [G.] 1829:157 (footnote 2) [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:15 [ref. 20735]. As, "M. russelii. N., Russell, II, 157." As Upeneus russelii in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:465 [ref. 4879]. Named for Russell (mispelled as Russel), here not considered as an inadvertent error, but spelling russellii retained due to prevailing usage. Spelled russellii in Bleeker 1849:62 [ref. 318] and Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989]. •Synonym of Parupeneus indicus (Shaw 1803) -- (Lachner 1960:13 [ref. 23973], Randall 2004:32 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:297 [ref. 28239], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus indicus (Shaw 1803). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

saffordi, Upeneus Seale [A.] 1901:72 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Agaña, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: ANSP 77578 (1), BPBM 80 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:129 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Myers & Donaldson 2003:629 [ref. 27495], Randall 2004:22 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

saiab, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Lisher [M.] 2013:86, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 3717 (no. 1); ref. 32906] Angoche, Nampula province, 16°̊2.75'S, 40°̊20.26'E, Mozambique, depth 29-40 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 188298. Paratypes: SAIAB 188299 (5). •Valid as Upeneus saiab Uiblein & Lisher 2013 -- (Uiblein & Gledhill 2014:11 [ref. 33614], Uiblein & White 2015:51 [ref. 33856], Uiblein et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35570], Uiblein et al. 2020:549 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus saiab Uiblein & Lisher 2013. Mullidae. Distribution: Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

samoensis, Mulloides Günther [A.] 1874:57, Pl. 43 (fig. B) [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. BMNH 1873.4.3.134. •Valid as Mulloidichthys samoensis (Günther 1874) -- (Lachner 1960:40 [ref. 23973]). •Synonym of Mulloides flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:161 [ref. 29757], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:3 [ref. 12819], Randall et al. 1990:208 [ref. 15987]). •Synonym of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall 1995:239 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:191 [ref. 23922], Randall 2001:3181 [ref. 26109], Randall 2005:292 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:388 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:336 [ref. 28867], Randall 2007:260 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

sanctaehelenae, Upeneus Bauchot [M.-L.] 1967:19, Fig. 1; Pl. 3A [Atlantide Report No. 9; ref. 8008] Saint Helena Island, South Atlantic. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P49301. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:66 [ref. 9588]. Originally as Upeneus sanctae-helenae. •Locality questioned; probably a synonym of Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829 -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:671 [ref. 9166], Brown et al. 2019:184 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Uncertain as Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scarpellonis, Mullus Curtiss [A.] 1938:52 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

semifasciatus, Upeneus Macleay [W.] 1883:263 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 17587] Hood Bay, Papua New Guinea. Syntypes: AMS I.13404 (1), I.13407 (1). •Synonym of Parupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:19 [ref. 23973]). •Synonym of Parupeneus crassilabris (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Randall & Myers 2002:432 [ref. 26607]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus crassilabris (Valenciennes 1831). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

seychellensis, Pseudupeneus Smith [J. L. B.] & Smith [M. M.] 1963:22, Pl. 88 (fig. B) [The fishes of Seychelles; ref. 5319] Mahé, Seychelles. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 32. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (not researched). Described in more detail by Smith 1963:36 [ref. 32120]. •Synonym of Parupeneus cinnabarinus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1986:611 [ref. 5641]). •Synonym of Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall 2004:30 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:297 [ref. 28239], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Parupeneus seychellensis (Smith & Smith 1963) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2009:40 [ref. 30542], Uiblein et al. 2017:558 [ref. 35672]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus seychellensis (Smith & Smith 1963). Mullidae. Distribution: Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

seychellensis, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2011:641, Fig. 1 [Marine Biology Research v. 7 (no. 7); ref. 31501] Seychelles Bank, 5°24'25.2"S, 56°25'43.8"E, Seychelles, depth 60 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 96980. Paratypes: SAIAB 84280 (15). Listed as in press in ref. 31346: 587, 594, to appear in Uiblein & Heemstra 2011. Not available from ref. 31346, no description. •Valid as Upeneus seychellensis Uiblein & Heemstra 2011 -- (Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Lisher 2013:93 [ref. 32906], Uiblein & Gledhill 2014:11 [ref. 33614], Uiblein & White 2015:51 [ref. 33856], Uiblein et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35570], Uiblein et al. 2020:549 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus seychellensis Uiblein & Heemstra 2011. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Seychelles Bank. Habitat: marine.

signatus, Upeneus Günther [A.] 1867:59 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 20 (no. 115); ref. 1988] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.17.29-31 (3). •Valid as Parupeneus signatus (Günther 1867) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Paulin et al. 1989:192 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:204 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:190 [ref. 25488]). •Synonym of Parupeneus spilurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Randall et al. 1990:212 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Randall 2001:3194 [ref. 26109], Randall 2004:53 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:299 [ref. 28239] with question, Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:336 [ref. 28867], Hoese & Bray 2006:1270 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus spilurus (Bleeker 1854). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

spilurus, Upeneus Bleeker [P.] 1854:395 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 13964] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5742. Also in Bleeker 1854:68, Pl. 2 (fig. 2). •Synonym of Pseudupeneus rubescens (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:163 [ref. 29757], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:9 [ref. 12819]). •Valid as Parupeneus spilurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:212 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:204 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:212 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:877 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:284 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3194 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:64 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:877 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:350, 622 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Randall 2004:53 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:299 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1270 [ref. 29000], Motomura et al. 2010:130 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:508 [ref. 31980], Parin et al. 2014:374 [ref. 33547], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:114 [ref. 36167], Motomura et al. 2015:24 [ref. 34709], Stewart 2015:1292 [ref. 34196], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626], Sonoyama et al. 2020:77 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus spilurus (Bleeker 1854). Mullidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Philippines, north to southern Sea of Japan, south to Geographe Bay (Western Australia), New South Wales (Australia), northern New Zealand and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

spottocaudalis, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Gledhill [D. C.] in Uiblein, Gledhill & Peristiwady 2017:298, Figs. 1E, 1F, 1G [Zootaxa 4318 (no. 2); ref. 35570] Australia, Queensland, Torres Strait, east of Cape York Peninsula, Blackwood Channel, 11°43.8'S, 143°43.8'E, depth 24 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 3436-05. Paratypes: AMS, CSIRO, QM. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Upeneus spottocaudalis Uiblein & Gledhill 2017 -- (Fricke et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus spottocaudalis Uiblein & Gledhill 2017. Mullidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: southern Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

stenopsis, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & McGrouther [M. A.] 2012:63, Fig. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 3550; ref. 32282] Coral Sea, off Raine Island, 11° 35'S, 144° 02'E, Queensland, Australia, depth 270-275 meters. Holotype: AMS I.20918-017. Paratypes: AMS I.21628-001 (1); MNHN 1984-0802 (1), 2012-0212 (1). Plus one non-type specimen. •Valid as Upeneus stenopsis Uiblein & McGrouther 2012 -- (Uiblein & Causse 2013:339 [ref. 32719], Larson et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32988], Uiblein & White 2015:52 [ref. 33856], Motomura et al. 2017:163 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus stenopsis Uiblein & McGrouther 2012. Mullidae. Distribution: Australia and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

stotti, Upeneichthys Hutchins [J. B.] 1990:484, Fig. 1 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 14 (pt 4); ref. 15762] Rottnest Island, Western Australia, 31°58'S, 115°34'E, depth 33 meters. Holotype: WAM P.28939-003. Paratypes: AMS I.28972-001 (1); BPBM 33911 (2); WAM P.5504-001 (1), P.5594-001 (1), P.5783-001 (1), P.20883-001 (1), P.20890-001 (1), P.22067-001 (2), P.27219-026 (1), P.27960-011 (2), P.28614-001 (11, 1 c&s), P.28939-002 (5). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:27 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:29 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Upeneichthys stotti Hutchins 1990 -- (Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Kim 2002:62 [ref. 26347], Hoese & Bray 2006:1271 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:591 [ref. 30616], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Upeneichthys stotti Hutchins 1990. Mullidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

suahelicus, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2010:50, Pls. 2, 3 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 11; ref. 30763] Off Malindi, Kenya, 3°07'S, 40°11'W. Holotype: SAIAB 13948. Paratypes: SAIAB 11478 (1), 55589 (1), 74521 (3), 76122 (2), 81957 (1), 82805 (1), 82816 (1), 82820 (1); USNM 396113 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Upeneus suahelicus Uiblein & Heemstra 2010 -- (Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[10] 1030 [ref. 33992], Fricke et al. 2018:229 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:104 [ref. 36273], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus suahelicus Uiblein & Heemstra 2010. Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East (Kenya) and South Africa to Madagascar and Mauritius. Habitat: marine.

subvittatus, Mullus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:30 [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Japan [Nagasaki]. Lectotype (?): RMNH 4700b (135-mm TL specimen). Paralectotypes (?): RMNH 4700a (1, 113-mm TL). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:44 [ref. 12876], but regarded as an invalid lectotype designation by Golani 2001:118 [ref. 25530]. •Synonym of Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lachner 1954:513 [ref. 10031]). •Valid as Upeneus subvittatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:163 [ref. 6441], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:12 [ref. 12819], Baranes & Golani 1993:310 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:872 [ref. 25182], Golani 2001:111 [ref. 25530], Randall 2001:3180 [ref. 26109], Nakabo 2002:872 [ref. 26193], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:588 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Causse 2013:339 [ref. 32719], Uiblein & White 2015:52 [ref. 33856], Motomura et al. 2017:163 [ref. 35490], Golani & Fricke 2018:103 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus subvittatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Mullidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Philippines, north to southern Japan. [Red Sea records based on U. davidaromi.] Habitat: marine.

sufflavus, Parupeneus Whitley [G. P.] 1941:31, Fig. 21 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 1); ref. 4701] Holbourne Island, off Port Denison, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.294. •Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall 2004:18 [ref. 28086], Hoese & Bray 2006:1267 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

sulphureus, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:450 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN A-3458 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:9 [ref. 20735]. Spelled sulfureus by Kner 1865:67 [ref. 2638]. •Valid as Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lachner 1954:513 [ref. 10031], Lachner 1960:4 [ref. 23973], Kyushin et al. 1982:140 [ref. 19754], Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:164 [ref. 29757], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:163 [ref. 6441], Ben-Tuvia 1986:613 [ref. 5641], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:12 [ref. 12819], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:867 [ref. 20764], Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:243 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:385 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:109 [ref. 26476], Fricke 1999:319 [ref. 24106], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:250 [ref. 24754], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:873 [ref. 25182], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:264 [ref. 27511], Golani 2001:111 [ref. 25530], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3197 [ref. 26109], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Nakabo 2002:873 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:350, 622 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:112 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:39 [ref. 27712], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:300 [ref. 28239], Randall & Kulbicki 2006:304 [ref. 28802], Hoese & Bray 2006:1273 [ref. 29000], Fricke et al. 2009:70 [ref. 30213], Imamura in Imamura et al. 2009:176 [ref. 31157], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:51 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Allen & Erdmann 2012:509 [ref. 31980], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:63 [ref. 32282], Larson et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:158 [ref. 34464], Bos 2014:756 [ref. 33588], Fricke et al. 2014:96 [ref. 33932], Uiblein & White 2015:52 [ref. 33856], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[18] 1038 [ref. 33992], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:65 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:286 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:164 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:229 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:104 [ref. 36273], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:193 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:262 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:89 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:505 [ref. 37272], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier 1829. Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Philippines and Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sundaicus, Upeneoides Bleeker [P.] 1855:411 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5735 (some of 6). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1880.4.21.98 (1), NMV A908 (2). Based on Upeneoides vittatus of Bleeker (not of Cuvier). •Doubtful status -- (Lachner 1954:507 [ref. 10031]). •Valid as Upeneus sundaicus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:142 [ref. 19754], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Randall 1995:242 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:386 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:193 [ref. 23922], Krupp et al. 2000:331 [ref. 25117], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3198 [ref. 26109], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Hoese & Bray 2006:1273 [ref. 29000], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:52 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Allen & Erdmann 2012:510 [ref. 31980], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:63 [ref. 32282], Larson et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:158 [ref. 34464], Uiblein & Gouws 2014:660 [ref. 33216], Tafzilmeriam in Kimura et al. 2015:66 [ref. 34319], Uiblein & White 2015:52 [ref. 33856], Motomura et al. 2017:164 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:335 [ref. 36183], Tafzilmeriam in Kimura et al. 2018:193 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:89 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:506 [ref. 37272], Uiblein et al. 2020:549 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus sundaicus (Bleeker 1855). Mullidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius and Persian Gulf east to Papua New Guinea, north to northern Vietnam and Philippines, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

supravittatus, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2010:53, Pls. 2, 3 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 11; ref. 30763] Colombo, Slave Island Market, Kelani River drainage, 6°55'55"N, 79°50'52"E, Sri Lanka. Holotype: NRM 51635. Paratypes: BPBM 200504 (3); NRM 18877 (1), 24606 (6); USNM 267679 (5), 396114 (6). •Valid as Upeneus supravittatus Uiblein & Heemstra 2010 -- (Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[13] 1033 [ref. 33992], Psomadakis et al. 2015:287 [ref. 34104], Psomadakis et al. 2020:506 [ref. 37272], Uiblein et al. 2020:550 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus supravittatus Uiblein & Heemstra 2010. Mullidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman east to Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

surmuletus, Mullus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:300 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea; Cornwall, England. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:42 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Hureau 1973:402 [ref. 7197], Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:879 [ref. 13676], Ben-Tuvia 1990:827 [ref. 17305], Santos et al. 1997:93 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:88 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25466] with question, Fricke 1999:41 [ref. 24101], Apostolidis et al. 2001:902 [ref. 25470], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:102 [ref. 26753], Kim 2002:61 [ref. 26347], Parin 2003:S14 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:46 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:90 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:111 [ref. 30517], Fricke 2008:43 [ref. 30182], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:51 [ref. 36649], Vasil'eva 2011:20 [ref. 31221], Vasil'eva 2012:485 [ref. 32476], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Bos 2014:752 [ref. 33550], Parin et al. 2014:374 [ref. 33547], Golani in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2659 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:165 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:277 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:78 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:39 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus 1758. Mullidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Senegal, including Azores and Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taeniatus, Upeneus Kner [R.] 1865:71 [Fische Frigatte "Novara" v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2638] Hong Kong. F. Syntypes: (?3) ?NMW 59346 (3), 73676 (2); ZMH H465 [ex MGH 5910] (1). Type catalog: Ladiges 1958:170 [ref. 19182], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:409 [ref. 21161]. Also appeared in Kner 1868:305 [ref. 2646]. •Synonym of Parupeneus biaculeatus (Richardson 1846) -- (Randall 2004:14 [ref. 28086]). •Synonym of Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall 2004:17 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus biaculeatus (Richardson 1846). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

taeniopterus, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:451 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Surviving syntype: MNHN 0000-9568 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:9 [ref. 20735] with MNHN 0000-9568 as holotype. Based on (at least) two syntype specimens. •Status uncertain -- (Lachner 1954:507 [ref. 10031]). •Valid as Upeneus taeniopterus Cuvier 1829 -- (Nakabo 2000:872 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:872 [ref. 26193], Randall 2005:300 [ref. 28239], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:54 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:63 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Gouws 2014:660 [ref. 33216], Fricke et al. 2018:229 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36673], Uiblein et al. 2020:549 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus taeniopterus Cuvier 1829. Mullidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Mozambique), Aldabra and Madagascar east to Solomon and Hawaiian islands, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

tetraspilus, Upeneus Günther [A.] 1864:148 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Pacific coast of Panama. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.340-341 (2). •Synonym of Pseudupeneus grandisquamis (Gill 1863) -- (Kim 2002:63 [ref. 26347]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudupeneus grandisquamis (Gill 1863). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

theresae, Mullus Curtiss [A.] 1938:48 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

tokisensis, Upeneoides Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:22 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 48 (1. Abth.); ref. 4247] Tokyo Bay, Japan; Kochi, Japan; Tango, Japan. Syntypes: (several) NMW, ?ZMB 12063 (1). Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 20490]. Type information (ZMB) from Amaoka & Fujii 1999:162 [ref. 26515]. •Synonym of Ueneus bensasi (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Lachner 1954:509 [ref. 10031]). •Synonym of Upeneus japonicus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Randall et al. 1993:302 [ref. 21647]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus japonicus (Houttuyn 1782). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

torres, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Gledhill [D. C.] 2014:3, Figs. 1A & B [Marine Biology Research v. 11 (no. 5); ref. 33614] Queensland, Torres Strait, north of Dalrymple Island, 9°19.70'S, 143°15.09'E, Australia. Holotype: CSIRO H 7202-02. Paratypes: AMS, CSIRO, NMV. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Upeneus torres Uiblein & Gledhill 2014 -- (Uiblein & White 2015:51 [ref. 33856], Uiblein et al. 2017:296 [ref. 35570]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus torres Uiblein & Gledhill 2014. Mullidae. Distribution: Australia & Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

tragula, Upeneus Richardson [J.] 1846:220 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton [Guangzhou], China. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1968.3.11.12 (1, left half skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:214 [ref. 11606]. The latin word tragula (= spear, javelin) is a noun and does not decline; the spelling is correct as tragula, regardless of generic assignment. •Valid as Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846 -- (Lachner 1954:522 [ref. 10031], Lachner 1960:4 [ref. 23973], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:163 [ref. 6441], Ben-Tuvia 1986:613 [ref. 5641], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:13 [ref. 12819], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:41 [ref. 13251] as tragulus, Randall et al. 1990:212 [ref. 15987], Suzuki & Uno 1992:3 [ref. 24139], Kuiter 1993:202 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:243 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:387 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:193 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:109 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:194 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:212 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:161 [ref. 23965], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:872 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:285 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:150 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:265 [ref. 27511], Golani 2001:111 [ref. 25530], Sakai et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25693], Shimizu 2001:31 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3199 [ref. 26109], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Nakabo 2002:872 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:113 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:300 [ref. 28239], Randall & Kulbicki 2006:305 [ref. 28802], Hoese & Bray 2006:1273 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:591 [ref. 30616], Satapoomin in Imamura et al. 2009:176 [ref. 31157], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:52 [ref. 30763], Motomura et al. 2010:130 [ref. 31256], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Yamashita et al. 2011:54 [ref. 31639], Allen & Erdmann 2012:510 [ref. 31980], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:63 [ref. 32282], Larson et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:159 [ref. 34464], Uiblein & Gouws 2014:670 [ref. 33216], Bos 2014:757 [ref. 33588], Fricke et al. 2014:96 [ref. 33932], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[18] 1038 [ref. 33992], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2015:66 [ref. 34319], Uiblein & White 2015:52 [ref. 33856], Miesen et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34492], Motomura et al. 2017:165 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:335 [ref. 36183], Gökoglu 2018:57 [ref. 37179], Golani & Fricke 2018:104 [ref. 36273], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:194 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:89 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626], Uiblein et al. 2019:192 [ref. 37008], Psomadakis et al. 2020:506 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:77 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846. Mullidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to southern Sea of Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) and New Caledonia. Former Red Sea records are now assigned to U. niebuhri Guézé 1976. Habitat: brackish, marine.

trifasciatus, Mullus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:383, 404, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality stated (is probably Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, or Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean). No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:14 [ref. 20735]. Based on description and drawing in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:312 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Technically trifasciatus has priority over bifasciatus according to Fricke 1999:312 [ref. 24106] based on Günther 1859 as first reviser. •Synonym of Parupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall et al. 1990:210 [ref. 15987], Fricke 1999:311 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Randall 2001:3186 [ref. 26109], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:262 [ref. 28072]). •Valid as Parupeneus trifasciatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:22 [ref. 23973], Kyushin et al. 1982:136 [ref. 19754], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:165 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:112 [ref. 26476] dated 1802, Randall & Myers 2002:433 [ref. 26607], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Randall 2004:55 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:295 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:298 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:264 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:69 [ref. 30213], Imamura in Imamura et al. 2009:175 [ref. 31157], Randall & Heemstra 2009:39 [ref. 30542], Motomura et al. 2010:130 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:509 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706], Psomadakis et al. 2015:285 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:227 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:22 [ref. 36883], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:504 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Parupeneus trifasciatus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to western Indonesia and to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

vanicolensis, Upeneus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:521 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN A-3520 (2), A-3521 (2), B-2352 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:9 [ref. 20735]. •Valid as Mulloides vanicolensis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:161 [ref. 29757], Ben-Tuvia 1986:611 [ref. 5641], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:3 [ref. 12819], Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:191 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:40 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:209 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:44 [ref. 25356], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268]). •Valid as Mulloidichthys vanicolensis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Lachner 1960:44 [ref. 23973], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:164 [ref. 6441], Kuiter 1993:201 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Stepien et al. 1994:44 [ref. 21179], Randall 1995:239 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:140 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:194 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:209 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:25 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:159 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:309 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:874 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:280 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:104 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3183 [ref. 26109], Kim 2002:62 [ref. 26347], Nakabo 2002:874 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Randall 2003:1656 [ref. 27098], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:629 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:110 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:121 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:261 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:293 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:388 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Bray 2006:1265 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:262 [ref. 30952], Imamura in Imamura et al. 2009:173 [ref. 31157], Uiblein 2011:63 [ref. 31259], Allen & Erdmann 2012:504 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32988], Bos 2014:752 [ref. 33550], Fricke et al. 2014:95 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:114 [ref. 36167], Psomadakis et al. 2015:283 [ref. 34104], Stewart 2015:1290 [ref. 34196], Koeda et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35369], Fricke et al. 2018:224 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:102 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:116 [ref. 36262], Arndt & Fricke 2019:22 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:174 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:501 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Mulloidichthys vanicolensis (Valenciennes 1831). Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe, Norfolk, New Caledonia, Kermadec Islands, Tonga and Gambier Islands. Habitat: marine.

vanuatu, Upeneus Uiblein [F.] & Causse [R.] 2013:337, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa 3666 (no. 3); ref. 32719] Vanuatu, South Pacific. Espiritu Santo Island, 11°07'"01'S, 166°52"50"E, depth 282-321 meters. Holotype: MNHN 0001-3361. Paratype: MNHN 2002-0028 (1), 2002-0103 (2), 2008-1331 (1). •Valid as Upeneus vanuatu Uiblein & Causse 2013. Current status: Valid as Upeneus vanuatu Uiblein & Causse 2013. Mullidae. Distribution: Vanuatu, South Pacific. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Upeneoides Bleeker [P.] 1849:64 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Kagoshima, Japan; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5720. Paralectotypes: RMNH 25408 or 25498 (some out of 11), SMNS 10617 (2). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:17 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:49 [ref. 29864] as 25498. Originally as Upeneoïdes. •Synonym of Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846 -- (Lachner 1954:522 [ref. 10031], Randall & Kulbicki 2006:305 [ref. 28802], Kottelat 2013:362 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Upeneus tragula Richardson 1846. Mullidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

velifer, Upeneus Smith [R.] & Swain [J.] 1882:130 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 272); ref. 14298] Johnston Island, Pacific. Holotype (unique): USNM 26822. •Synonym of Parupeneus multifasciatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Lachner 1960:12 [ref. 23973], Randall 2004:43 [ref. 28086], Mundy 2005:391 [ref. 28379], Shibuya & Motomura 2020:[7] [ref. 37501]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus multifasciatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

vete, Mullus Curtiss [A.] 1938:49 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

vittatus, Mullus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:31, x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Red Sea, probably off Eritrea [original locality Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea]. Neotype: SMF 1185. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:66 [ref. 9588], Fricke 2008:43 [ref. 30182]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 4 [ref. 20847] as ZMUC P49344 (dry skin). The true holotype is lost according to Randall 1974, and P49344 is not this species. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:43 [ref. 30182]. Neotype selected by Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:56-57 [ref. 30763]. •Valid as Upeneus vittatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Lachner 1954:516 [ref. 10031], Lachner 1960:5 [ref. 23973], Kyushin et al. 1982:139 [ref. 19754], Dor & Ben-Tuvia in Dor 1984:164 [ref. 29757], Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984:163 [ref. 6441], Ben-Tuvia 1986:613 [ref. 5641], Ben-Tuvia & Kissil 1988:13 [ref. 12819], Allen & Swainston 1988:90 [ref. 25477], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:229 [ref. 24016], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:288 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:45 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:387 [ref. 27969] with Lacepède as author, Allen 1997:142 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:193 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:110 [ref. 26476], Myers 1999:161 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:319 [ref. 24106], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:250 [ref. 24754], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:872 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:285 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:266 [ref. 27511], Golani 2001:111 [ref. 25530], Sakai et al. 2001:101 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3200 [ref. 26109], Kim & Nakaya 2002:130 [ref. 26150], Nakabo 2002:872 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:629 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:113 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:39 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:301 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:393 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:125 [ref. 28745], Randall & Kulbicki 2006:306 [ref. 28802], Hoese & Bray 2006:1274 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:268 [ref. 30952], Fricke 2008:43 [ref. 30182], Fricke et al. 2009:70 [ref. 30213], Uiblein & Heemstra 2010:56 [ref. 30763], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:587 [ref. 31346], Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:639 [ref. 31501], Allen & Erdmann 2012:511 [ref. 31980], Uiblein & McGrouther 2012:62 [ref. 32282], Uiblein & Causse 2013:339 [ref. 32719], Larson et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:362 [ref. 32989], Bos 2014:757 [ref. 33588], Uiblein & White 2015:52 [ref. 33856], Uiblein & Gouws 2015:[13] 1033 [ref. 33992], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:287 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:165 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:335 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:229 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:104 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:22 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:89 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:177 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:507 [ref. 37272], Uiblein et al. 2020:551 [ref. 37717]). Current status: Valid as Upeneus vittatus (Forsskål 1775). Mullidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vlamingii, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:452, Pl. 71 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] King George Sound, Western Australia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9566 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:9 [ref. 20735]. See Hutchins 1990:491 [ref. 15762] for remarks on type locality. •Synonym of Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1986:591 [ref. 6314]). •Synonym of Upeneichthys lineatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801), but a valid subspecies -- (Hutchins 1990:488 [ref. 15762]). •Valid as Upeneichthys vlamingii (Cuvier 1829) -- (Kuiter 1993:205 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:604 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:192 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Kim 2002:62 [ref. 26347], Hoese & Bray 2006:1271 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:592 [ref. 30616], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Upeneichthys vlamingii (Cuvier 1829). Mullidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

waigiensis, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:466 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Waigeo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9564. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:9 [ref. 20735]. •Synonym of Parupeneus indicus (Shaw 1803) -- (Lachner 1960:13 [ref. 23973], Randall 2004:32 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:297 [ref. 28239], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus indicus (Shaw 1803). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

williamsi, Parupeneus Shibuya [S.] & Motomura [H.] 2020:[2], Figs. 1-2, 6a, 6c [Ichthyological Research First Online; ref. 37501] Middle point of west coast of Moho Tani Island, Marquesas Islands, 09°58'18"S, 138°50'31"W, depth 6 -18 meters. Holotype: USNM 412095. Paratypes: KAUM-I, USNM. •Valid as Parupeneus williamsi Shibuya & Motomura 2020. Current status: Valid as Parupeneus williamsi Shibuya & Motomura 2020. Mullidae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands, Central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

xanthogrammus, Upeneus Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:553 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Harbor of La Paz, Baja California, Mexico, Gulf of California. Syntypes: CAS-SU 330 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:80 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Upeneus xanthogrammus Gilbert 1892 -- (Uiblein & Heemstra 2011:588 [ref. 31346] with validity questioned). • Questionable a synonym of Mulloidichthys dentatus (Gill 1862) -- (Uiblein & Gouws 2014:665 [ref. 33216]). Current status: Synonym of Mulloidichthys dentatus (Gill 1862). Mullidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific (if valid). Habitat: marine.

xanthopurpureus, Pseudupeneus Fourmanoir [P.] 1957:69, Fig. 51 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 1; ref. 11992] Berafia Island, Mozambique Channel, depth 80 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSM. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:14 [ref. 20735]. •Synonym of Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall 2004:30 [ref. 28086], Randall 2005:297 [ref. 28239], Kottelat 2013:361 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:226 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

xanthospilurus, Parupeneus Bleeker [P.] 1875:37 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 15 (art. 3); ref. 17105] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5749. •Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Lachner 1960:29 [ref. 23973], Randall 2004:22 [ref. 28086]). Current status: Synonym of Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède 1801). Mullidae. Habitat: marine.

zeylonicus, Upeneus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:459 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-3518. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1985:10 [ref. 20735]. Mullidae. Habitat: marine.