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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Myliobatidae: [ 57 ] records


aquila, Raia Stephan [C. F.] 1779:19 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Synonym of Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2010:64 [ref. 30995]). Current status: Synonym of Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758). Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

aquila, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:232 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic [original: "in Mari Mediterraneo"]; localities include Aquitaine, France, Bay of Biscay, Northeastern Atlantic; Genoa, Rome and Naples, Italy; Lesbos, Greece; Syria, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Originally based at least on 25 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:72 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:100 [ref. 30349] as Raja corpore glabro, aculeo longo serrato in cauda pinnata; Rondelet 1554:338 [ref. 30354] as Secunda pastinacæ species, Gesner Salviani 1558:146 [ref. 30229] as Raia aquila, Jonston 1649:Pl. 9 (fig. 8) [ref. 30579] as Aquilla, Willughby 1686:64 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:23 [ref. 30231] as Aquila. See Last & Stevens 1994:455 [ref. 23873] and McEachran & Carvalho 2003:582 [ref. 26985]. •Valid as Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:74 [ref. 7167], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:206 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1986:133 [ref. 5648], McEachran & Séret 1990:68 [ref. 19318], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Compagno et al. 1991:108 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:97 [ref. 25472], Santos et al. 1997:17 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:24 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:34 [ref. 24106], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:27 [ref. 26753], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:86 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30213], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:15 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Weigmann 2016:150 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1428 [ref. 34545], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:715 [ref. 35016]). Current status: Valid as Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758). Myliobatidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal to South Africa, straying to southern North Sea; southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa to Kenya and western Mascarenes. Habitat: marine.

asperrimus, Myliobatis Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2754 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Panama. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 11895. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:11 [ref. 12291]. Author is C. H. Gilbert. Holotype figured in Gilbert & Starks 1904, Pl. 3 [ref. 1639]. •Valid as Pteromylaeus asperrimus (Gilbert 1898) -- (McEachran & Notarbartolo-di-Sciara in Fischer et al. 1995:768 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:57 [ref. 22793], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:125 [ref. 24023], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34398]). •Valid as Aetomylaeus asperrimus (Gilbert 1898) -- (White et al. 2015:x [ref. 33897], Weigmann 2016:149 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:708 [ref. 35016], Ehemann et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Aetomylaeus asperrimus (Gilbert 1898). Myliobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Panama, Galapagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

australis, Myliobatis Macleay [W.] 1881:380 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16256-001 [ex MAMU F41] (3). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Myliobatis australis Macleay 1881 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:49 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:24 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:185 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:453 [ref. 23873], Kuiter 1997:24 [ref. 25488], Compagno & Last 1999:1518 [ref. 24637], Johnson 1999:718 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:208 [ref. 29002], Gomon 2008:142 [ref. 30616]). •Synonym of Myliobatis tenuicaudatus Hector 1877 -- (Weigmann 2016:151 [ref. 34211], White & Last 2016:724 [ref. 35016]). Current status: Synonym of Myliobatis tenuicaudatus Hector 1877. Myliobatidae. Distribution: Australia and New Zealand (if valid). Habitat: marine.

biloba, Raja Rafinesque [C. S.] 1817:453 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 1; ref. 18585] Not available, name only; from Sw. shore of Long Island, New York, U.S.A. Myliobatidae.

bispinosus, Myliobatis Storer [D. H.] 1842:53 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 1 (1841-1844); ref. 18828] Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype: MCZ 89509 (tail and part of jaws; missing). Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

bonaparti, Myliobatis Duméril [A. H. A.] 1865:635 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 1; ref. 1150] Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea; Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic. Possible syntypes: MNHN 0000-2356 (1) Algeria, A-8715 (1) Canary Is. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:90 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:24 [ref. 9312]. Based on Myliobatis episcopus Valenciennes, Myliobatis bovina Geoffroy St. Hilaire and Myliobatis aquila of Bonaparte. •Synonym of Pteromylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:75 [ref. 7167], McEachran & Séret 1990:69 [ref. 19318]). •Synonym of Aetomylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (White et al. 2015:x [ref. 33897]). Current status: Synonym of Aetomylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Myliobatidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bovina, Myliobatis Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 26 (fig. 1) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Off Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:33 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Pteromylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:74 [ref. 7167], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:206 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1986:133 [ref. 5648], McEachran & Séret 1990:69 [ref. 19318], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:97 [ref. 25472], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:27 [ref. 26753], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:87 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2007:21 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:15 [ref. 36649], Séret 2016:1429 [ref. 34545]). •Valid of Aetomylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (White et al. 2015:[15] [ref. 33897], Weigmann 2016:149 [ref. 34211] with authorship as Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:709 [ref. 35016]). Current status: Valid as Aetomylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Myliobatidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Spain south to South Africa; southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa north to Mozambique. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caeruleofasciatus, Aetomylaeus White [W. T.], Last [P. R.] & Baje [L.] 2015:[5], Figs. 2-5a, 6-7, 11-12 [Ichthyological Research v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 33897] Bay south of Eagle Point anchorage, Western Australia, 16°14.73'S, 124°23.71'E, depth 10-15 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 6629-01. Paratypes: CSIRO, KFRS, QM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Aetomylaeus caeruleofasciatus White, Last & Baje 2015 - (Weigmann 2016:149 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:710 [ref. 35016], White & Ko'ou 2018:65 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Aetomylaeus caeruleofasciatus White, Last & Baje 2015. Myliobatidae. Distribution: Northern Australia and southern New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

californicus, Myliobatis Gill [T. N.] 1865:137 [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 8 (art. 13); ref. 1712] Tomales Bay, California, U.S.A. No types known. Replacement name for Rhinoptera vespertilio Girard 1856, secondarily preoccupied in Myliobatis by Myliobatis vespertilio Bleeker 1852. Myliobatis is feminine in gender. •Valid as Myliobatis californicus Gill 1865 -- (Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:56 [ref. 22793], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34398]). •Valid as Myliobatis californica Gill 1865 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:57 [ref. 9277], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], McEachran & Notarbartolo-di-Sciara in Fischer et al. 1995:767 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:127 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:282 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Weigmann 2016:150 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae as californicus, White & Last 2016:716 [ref. 35016] as californicus, Kells et al. 2016:86 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Myliobatis californica Gill 1865. Myliobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cervus, Myliobatis Smith [J. L. B.] 1935:169, Fig. 1 [Records of the Albany Museum Grahamstown v. 4; ref. 4066] Knysna, Cape Province, South Africa. Syntypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] [ex AMG] (2, not found). •Synonym of Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1986:133 [ref. 5648], Compagno et al. 1991:108 [ref. 21083]). Current status: Synonym of Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758). Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

chilensis, Myliobatis Philippi [R. A.] 1892:6, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile. Primera seccion, Zoología No. 3; ref. 22759] Quinteros, Chile. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. On p. 7 of German edition (Philippi 1893 [ref. 14560]). •Valid as Myliobatis chilensis Philippi 1892 [date often given as 1893] -- (Pequeño 1975:157 [ref. 23128], Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:74 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:151 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:717 [ref. 35016]). Current status: Valid as Myliobatis chilensis Philippi 1892. Myliobatidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Peru to Chile. Habitat: marine.

columbus, Raja Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 109 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy. Also not available from Ninni 1872:30 [ref. 17995] where Chiereghini manuscript is quoted but name not treated as valid. Myliobatidae.

cornifera, Myliobates nieuhofi var. Annandale [N.] 1909:52, Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 126] Bay of Bengal, Balasore, Orissa Coast, India. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1909.7.12.35-36 (2); ZSI F2285/1 (1), F2286/1 (1). •Synonym of Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (White et al. 2015:[10] [ref. 33897]). Current status: Synonym of Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Myliobatidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cornuta, Myliobatis Günther [A.] 1870:490 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1862.11.1.74. Based on literature citations and specimen. •Synonym of Myliobatis tobijei Bleeker 1854 -- (White et al. 2015:533 [ref. 33767]). Current status: Synonym of Myliobatis tobijei Bleeker 1854. Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

cyclura, Myliobatis van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:316 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar I Deel (no. 20); ref. 4513] Not available, no distinguishing features, from Java (see Alfred 1961:82 [ref. 20553], Kottelat 1987:369 [ref. 5962]). Also in van Hasselt 1824:90 [ref. 5104]. Myliobatidae.

encenadae, Rhinoptera Smith [R.] 1886:220 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 563); ref. 18640] Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 37966 (dry teeth). Described from a jaw. Myliobatis is feminine. •Synonym of Myliobatis californica Gill 1865 -- (Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:56 [ref. 22793] as californicus, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34398] as ensenadae). Current status: Synonym of Myliobatis californica Gill 1865. Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

episcopus, Myliobates Valenciennes [A.] 1844:98, Pl. 24 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands; Algiers, Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2356 (1) Algeria, MNHN A-8715 (1, stuffed head and jaws only) Canary Is. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:90 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:24 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Pteromylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:75 [ref. 7167], McEachran & Séret 1990:69 [ref. 19318]). •Synonym of Aetomylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Current status: Synonym of Aetomylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Myliobatidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

episcopus, Myliobatis Ninni [A. P.] (ex Chiereghini) 1872:31 [Rivista critica delle specie dei pesci adriatici descritti nell'opera manoscritta dell'Ab. Stefano Chiereghini di Chioggia.; ref. 17995] Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Chiereghini manuscript name Raja episcopus and description quoted by Ninni and treated as a valid species Myliobatis episcopus; but recognized by him as preoccupied (and objectively invalid) by Myliobates episcopus Valenciennes 1844. Current status: Synonym of Myliobatis. Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Raja Shaw [G.] 1804:286, Pl. 143 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] No locality. Based on Willoughby 1781 and Russell Pl. 7. •Synonym of Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (White et al. 2015:[10] [ref. 33897]). Current status: Synonym of Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Myliobatidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

filicaudatus, Raia (Aetobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Myliobatidae.

forsteri, Raia (Aetobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Myliobatidae.

freminvillii, Myliobatis Lesueur [C. A.] 1824:111 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 17520] Howland's Bay, Rhode Island, U.S.A. No types known. The original spelling freminvillii is the correct original spelling, but the spelling freminvillei is used based on prevailing usage. •Valid as Myliobatis freminvillei Lesueur 1824 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:43 [ref. 23100], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Boschung 1992:27 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:203 [ref. 23827], Murdy et al. 1997:50 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:190 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:198 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:93 [ref. 24909], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808] as freiminvillei, Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27192] as freminvillii, McEachran & Carvalho 2003:581 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807] as freminvillei, Aguiar et al. 2004:1 [ref. 27571] as freminvillii, Ruocco et al. 2012:872 [ref. 32313] as freminvillii, Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:151 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:718 [ref. 35016], Nión et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35565] as freminvillii). Current status: Valid as Myliobatis freminvillei Lesueur 1824. Myliobatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) to Argentina. Habitat: brackish, marine.

goodei, Myliobatis Garman [S.] 1885:39 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 482); ref. 14445] Central America. Syntypes: USNM 9524 (1), 9529 (1). •Valid as Myliobatis goodei Garman 1885 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:43 [ref. 23100], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Cervigón 1992:203 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:56 [ref. 22793], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:93 [ref. 24909], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:52 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:582 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807], Aguiar et al. 2004:1 [ref. 27571], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Ruocco et al. 2012:872 [ref. 32313], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:151 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, Petry et al. 2016:299 [ref. 34966], White & Last 2016:719 [ref. 35016], Nión et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Myliobatis goodei Garman 1885. Myliobatidae. Distribution: South Carolina (U.S.A.) to Patagonia (Argentina). Habitat: marine.

hamatus, Raia (Aetobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Myliobatidae.

hamlyni, Myliobatis Ogilby [J. D.] 1911:40 [Annals of the Queensland Museum No. 10; ref. 3290] Moreton Island, Queensland, Australia, 27°2'S, 152°28'E. Holotype (unique): QM I.1567. Locality may be Cape Moreton, Australia. •Valid as Myliobatis hamlyni Ogilby 1911 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:49 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:454 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Last 1999:1519 [ref. 24637], Johnson 1999:718 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:208 [ref. 29002], White et al. 2015:523 [ref. 33767], Weigmann 2016:151 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:720 [ref. 35016]). Current status: Valid as Myliobatis hamlyni Ogilby 1911. Myliobatidae. Distribution: Japan to Australia. Habitat: marine.

huletti, Aetomylus Smith [J. L. B.] 1953:513, Fig. 77a [The sea fishes of southern Africa. Revised enlarged edition; ref. 19760] Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (not found). •Possible synonym of Pteromylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Compagno 1986:133 [ref. 5648]). •Possible synonym of Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:vii [ref. 21953]). Current status: Synonym of Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Myliobatidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

jussieui, Myliobatis Cuvier [G.] 1829:401 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Brazil. Holotype (unique): ?MNHN 0000-3476 (dry). Brief description and citation to "Juss. Ac. des Sc., 1721, pl. iv, f. 12" [Jussieu, Mém. Ac. Sci. Paris 1721 (1723): Pl. 4, fig. 12]. Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

lobatus, Raia (Aetobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Myliobatidae.

longirostris, Myliobatis Applegate [S. P.] & Fitch [J. E.] 1964:189, Figs. 1-3 [California Fish and Game v. 50 (no. 3); ref. 1044] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): LACM 3622. •Valid as Myliobatis longirostris Applegate & Fitch 1964 -- (McEachran & Notarbartolo-di-Sciara in Fischer et al. 1995:768 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:56 [ref. 22793], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:74 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:151 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:721 [ref. 35016], Ehemann et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Myliobatis longirostris Applegate & Fitch 1964. Myliobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

macrocephala, Raia Richardson [J.] (ex Parkinson) 1843:30 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science v. 12 (12th meeting [1842]); ref. 12502] Not available, name mentioned in the synonymy of Myliobates nieuhofii (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Also appeared in Richardson 1846:198 [ref. 3742]; also unavailable. Myliobatidae.

maculatus, Myliobatus Gray [J. E.] 1834:no page number, Pl. 101 [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] Penang, Malaysia. No types known. Published about 1 Oct. 1834. •Valid as Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray 1834) -- (Randall 1995:48 [ref. 22896], Chen et al. 1997:10 [ref. 26476] dated 1832, Myers 1999:40 [ref. 23965], Morón et al. 1999:150 [ref. 24253], Compagno & Last 1999:1516 [ref. 24637], Vossoughi & Vosoughi 1999:302 [ref. 25467], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:104 [ref. 25191], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Compagno et al. 2005:78 [ref. 29145], Last el al. 2010:24636 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:348 [ref. 31242], Ebert et al. 2013:366 [ref. 33045], White et al. 2015:[15] [ref. 33897], Weigmann 2016:149 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:711 [ref. 35016]). Current status: Valid as Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray 1834). Myliobatidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

margravii, Myliobatis Billberg [G. J.] 1833:51 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Swedish west coast. No types known. •Nomen nudum -- (Kullander 2016:112 [ref. 34147]). Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

milvus, Myliobatis Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1841:178 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Red Sea; Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2338 to 2339 (1 dry, 2 dry), 0000-3480 (1 dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:90 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:24 [ref. 9312]. Authorship changed to Valenciennes 1841 -- Jones et al. 2015:570 [ref. 34086]. •Questionably valid as Aetomylaeus milvus (Valenciennes 1841) -- (Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Aetomylaeus milvus (Valenciennes 1841) -- (Dor 1984:21 [ref. 29757] as Aetomylus, Goren & Dor 1994:6 [ref. 25356], Compagno & Last 1999:1517 [ref. 24637], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:54 [ref. 27735], Compagno et al. 2005:78 [ref. 29145], Ebert et al. 2013:366 [ref. 33045], White et al. 2015:[15] [ref. 33897], Psomadakis et al. 2015:106 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:150 [ref. 34211] with authorship as Müller & Henle, White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae with authorship as Müller & Henle, White & Last 2016:712 [ref. 35016] with authorship as Müller & Henle). Current status: Valid as Aetomylaeus milvus (Valenciennes 1841). Myliobatidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan and India east to Philippines, north to Taiwan (probably confined to Western Indian Ocean on ref. 33045). Persian Gulf to India (needs investigation [ref. 35016]). Habitat: marine.

niehofii, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Niehof in Willughby) 1801:364 (579) [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Muara Angke fish market, Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Neotype: CSIRO H 4426-13. Spelled nichofii in text but corrected in corrigenda (p. 579) to niehofi. Since authors consistently used the spelling nichofii, that spelling apparently can be continued under the Code. Spelled nieuhofii by Müller & Henle 1841:177 [ref. 3069]. Neotype designated by White et al. 2015:xx [ref. 33897]. Based on a drawing by Johan Nieuhof (1618-1672); reproduced in Willughby 1686: Appendix Pl. 10, fig. 3 [ref. 30164]. Named in honor of J. Nieuhof, so name should read nieuhofi. •Valid as Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider 1801) [see Remarks] -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1979:305 [ref. 23127], Kyushin et al. 1982:26 [ref. 19754], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:16 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:28 [ref. 25477], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:52 [ref. 20764], Last & Stevens 1994:450 [ref. 23873], Randall 1995:49 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:48 [ref. 23977], Compagno & Last 1999:1517 [ref. 24637], Vossoughi & Vosoughi 1999:302 [ref. 25467], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:184 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:184 [ref. 26001], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Compagno et al. 2005:78 [ref. 29145], Allen et al. 2006:206 [ref. 29002], Last el al. 2010:248 [ref. 32461], Weigmann 2011:277 [ref. 32424], Allen & Erdmann 2012:66 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:83 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013:21 [ref. 32988], Larson et al. 2013:22 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:367 [ref. 33045], White et al. 2015:[10] [ref. 33897], Psomadakis et al. 2015:106 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:150 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:713 [ref. 35016], Ali et al. 2018:305 [ref. 36183], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178]). Current status: Valid as Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Myliobatidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman east to Philippines, north to Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

noctula, Myliobatis Bonaparte [C. L.] 1833:fasc. 2, punt. 11, Pl. 159 [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 516] Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 409-413 (5), ANSP 16950 (1, dry skin, missing), Bonaparte no. 217. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:74 [ref. 7167], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:27 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:15 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758). Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

obtusirostris, Raia Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:12 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Genus should have been Raja. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Raia obtusirostris Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Graells 1887:186 [ref. 30438]. •In the synonymy of Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758). Myliobatidae.

obtusirostris, Raia Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Graells 1887:186 [Revista de los Progresos de las Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 30438] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Genus should have been Raja. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:12 [ref. 17319], possibly an unpublished work. •In the synonymy of Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus 1758). Myliobatidae.

obtusus, Raia (Aetobatis) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Myliobatidae.

oculeus, Myliobates Richardson [J.] 1846:198 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Sea of China; Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:297, Pl. 11c [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Aetomylaeus milvus (Valenciennes 1841). Current status: Synonym of Aetomylaeus milvus (Valenciennes 1841). Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

peruvianus, Myliobatis Garman [S.] 1913:430, Pls. 36 (4-6), 55 (8), 73 (2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Callao, Peru. Holotype (unique): MCZ 636-S. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xliv-xlv [ref. 23119]. Plate 55 is mislabeled with regard to name and page. •Valid as Myliobatis peruvianus Garman 1913 -- (Pequeño 1975:158 [ref. 23128], Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:78 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589] as peruanus, McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Weigmann 2016:151 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:722 [ref. 35016]). Current status: Valid as Myliobatis peruvianus Garman 1913. Myliobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Peru to Chile. Habitat: marine.

quadriloba, Raja Lesueur [C. A.] 1817:44 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 1, no. 3) (1 July); ref. 17511] Egg Harbor, New Jersey, U.S.A. No types known. Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Aetobatus Teng [H.-T.] 1962:252, Fig. 71 [Classification and distribution of the Chondrichthyes of Taiwan; ref. 12623] Keelung, northern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): TFRI 2820. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432]. •Likely the same as Aetobatus vespertilio (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:452 [ref. 23873]). •Synonym of Aetomylaeus vespertilio (Bleeker 1852) -- (Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:54 [ref. 27735], Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432], Ebert et al. 2013:367 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:150 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Aetomylaeus vespertilio (Bleeker 1852). Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

rhombus, Myliobatis Basilewsky [S.] 1855:250 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Mare orientali et meridiano, northern China. Holotype or syntypes: ZIN 5747 (1). •Questionably valid as Myliobatis rhombus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589]). Current status: Uncertain as Myliobatis rhombus Basilewsky 1855. Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

rhombus, Raia Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:390 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:319, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Myliobates aquila (L.) [Raja aquila Linnaeus 1758]. Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

ridens, Myliobatis Ruocco [N. L.], Lucifora [L. O.], Díaz de Astarloa [J. M.], Mabragaña [E.] & Delpiani [S. M.] 2012:866, Fig. 1, 2, 5, 7A, 8 [Zoological Studies v. 51 (no. 6); ref. 32313] Bahía Samborombón, San Clemente del Tuyu, Argentina. Holotype: UNMDP 511. Paratypes: Many at MNHN, UNMDP. •Valid as Myliobatis ridens Ruocco, Lucifora, Díaz de Astarloa, Mabragaña & Delpiani 2012 -- (White 2014:149 [ref. 33490], Weigmann 2016:151 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, Petry et al. 2016:299 [ref. 34966], White & Last 2016:723 [ref. 35016], Nión et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Myliobatis ridens Ruocco, Lucifora, Díaz de Astarloa, Mabragaña & Delpiani 2012. Myliobatidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: southern Brazil to Uruguay. Habitat: marine.

sinensis, Raia (Aetobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Myliobatidae.

smithii, Rhinoptera Gray [J. E.] 1851:132 [List of the specimens of fish in the collection of the British Museum.; ref. 4939] Not available, no distinguishing features provided; a stuffed specimen from Antarctic seas. Myliobatidae.

tenuicaudatus, Myliobatis Hector [J.] 1877:468, Pl. 10 [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 9 (art. 62); ref. 14244] Wellington Harbor, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Mobula diabola (Shaw 1804) -- (authors). •Possibly the same as Myliobatis australis Macleay 1881 -- (Last & Stevens 1994:454 [ref. 23873]). •Valid as Myliobatis tenuicaudatus Hector 1877 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:29 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Duffy 2015:204 [ref. 34217], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Weigmann 2016:151 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:724 [ref. 35016], Hoschke et al. 2019:153 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Myliobatis tenuicaudatus Hector 1877. Myliobatidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern Australia east to New Zealand and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

tobijei, Myliobatis Bleeker [P.] 1854:425 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 13964] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7461 (largest of 2). Also in Bleeker 1855:130 [ref. 357]. Based on literature and 1 specimen. •Also see Last & Stevens 1994:455 [ref. 23873]. •Valid as Myliobatis tobijei Bleeker 1854 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:16 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:73, 311 [ref. 8057], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Cheng & Zhou 1997:57 [ref. 26385] dated 1857, Senou & Masuda 1998:7 [ref. 24388], Compagno & Last 1999:1519 [ref. 24637], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:185 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:185 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:73, 486 [ref. 26218], Compagno et al. 2005:79 [ref. 29145] as cf. tobijei, Yamashita et al. 2012:137 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:367 [ref. 33045], Parin et al. 2014:40 [ref. 33547], White et al. 2015:532 [ref. 33767], Dyldin 2015:76 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:151 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:725 [ref. 35016], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:173 [ref. 35920]). Current status: Valid as Myliobatis tobijei Bleeker 1854. Myliobatidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tombazii, Indomanta Whitley [G. P.] 1936:11 [Australian Museum Magazine v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 4688] About 2.5 miles west of Cape Mouze, 20 miles from Karachi, Pakistan, bottom at 20 fathoms depth. Holotype (unique): not saved. Based on Dicerobatis eregoodoo of Tombazi 1934:227, Pl. [ref. 22259]. Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

truncata, Rhinoptera van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1852:89 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Not available, name in synonymy (East Indies). Myliobatidae.

typica, Trycera Koch [H.] in Döderlein 1884:242 [Elasmobranchi, Bonap. (Continuazione). Batoidei v. 3; ref. 5073] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in synonymy of Rhinoptera marginata; from Trieste. Myliobatidae.

vespertilio, Myliobatis Bleeker [P.] 1852:85 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 12); ref. 333] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ?RMNH 7460. •Valid as Aetomylaeus vespertilio (Bleeker 1852) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:451 [ref. 23873], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:vii [ref. 21953], Anderson et al. 1998:21 [ref. 23611], Compagno & Last 1999:1518 [ref. 24637], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:54 [ref. 27735], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:87 [ref. 28072] as Aetomyleus, Randall 2005:22 [ref. 28239], Compagno et al. 2005:79 [ref. 29145], Allen et al. 2006:207 [ref. 29002], Last el al. 2010:250 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:348 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011: 21 [ref. 31432], Larson et al. 2013:22 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:367 [ref. 33045], Bineesh et al. 2014:1269 [ref. 33218], White et al. 2015:[15] [ref. 33897], Weigmann 2016:150 [ref. 34211], White & Naylor 2016:437 [ref. 34575] in Myliobatidae, White & Last 2016:714 [ref. 35016], White et al. 2017:278 [ref. 35860], Golani & Fricke 2018:17 [ref. 36273], White & Ko'ou 2018:66 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Aetomylaeus vespertilio (Bleeker 1852). Myliobatidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and India east to southern China, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

vespertilio, Rhinoptera Girard [C. F.] 1856:137 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 8; ref. 1809] Tomales Bay, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Myliobatis vespertilio Bleeker 1852 when in Myliobatis; replaced by Myliobatis californicus Gill 1865. Current status: Synonym of Myliobatis californica Gill 1865. Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Raia (Aetobatis) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Myliobatidae.

vultur, Myliobatis Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:179 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1953.8.10.17. Myliobatidae. Habitat: marine.