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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Nemacheilidae: [ 927 ] records


abdolii, Paraschistura Freyhof [J.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Esmaeili [H. R.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2015:19, Figs. 19-23 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 33865] Kerman Province, Pol River at road between Rayen and Jiroft, Lut Basin, 29°21'06"N, 57°29'09"E, Iran. Holotype: ZM-CBSU J3904. Paratypes: ZM-CBSU J3095 (31), FSJF 2230 (32). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Paraschistura abdolii Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015 -- (Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015:299 [ref. 34027], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:887 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:70 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:49 [ref. 36089], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:579 [ref. 36833], Eagderi et al. 2019:265 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura abdolii Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kol, Hamun-e Jaz Murian and Sirjan basins, Kerman, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

abrishamchiani, Paracobitis Mousavi-Sabet [H.], Vatandoust [S.], Geiger [M. F.] & Freyhof [J.] 2019:377, Figs. 3-8 [Zootaxa 4545 (no. 3); ref. 36466] Tributary of Babol River, upstream of Lafour reservoir, near Galeshkola, Mazandaran province, Iran, 36°12'33"N, 52°46'16"E. Holotype: VMFC PCAB-H. Paratypes: VMFC. Plus additional non-type material. Name after father and son Abrishamchian, so species name emended to abrishamchianorum (ICZN Art. 31.1.2). •Valid as Paracobitis abrishamchianorum Mousavi-Sabet, Vatandoust, Geiger & Freyhof 2019. Current status: Valid as Paracobitis abrishamchianorum Mousavi-Sabet, Vatandoust, Geiger & Freyhof 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tajan, Siah, Talar, Babol, Haraz and Kashpal Rivers, southern Caspian Sea basin, northern Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

absumbra, Physoschistura Endruweit [M.] 2017:379, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4263 (no. 2); ref. 35305] Nangunhe River, Banlao town, Cangyuan City, Lincang Prefecture, Yunnan province, China, 23°10.932'N, 98°56.575'E, elevation 523 meters. Holotype: KIZ 2014006018. Paratypes: KIZ, ZFMK. •Valid as Physoschistura absumbra Endruweit 2017 -- (Das & Darshan 2017:412 [ref. 35638]). Current status: Valid as Physoschistura absumbra Endruweit 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Salween basin, Yunnan province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

abutwebi, Paracanthocobitis Singer [R. A.] & Page [L. M.] 2015:382, Fig. 8 [Copeia v. 103 (no 2); ref. 33823] Meghna basin, Sylhet, Rangapani Khal (creek), 6.4 km NNW Jaintiapur on Sylhet-Shillong Highway, Bangladesh, 25.14N, 92.056E. Holotype: UMMZ 249907. Paratypes: NIFI, UF, UMMZ. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Paracanthocobitis abutwebi Singer & Page 2015. Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis abutwebi Singer & Page 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Meghna River, Bangladesh. Habitat: freshwater.

abyssinicus, Nemachilus Boulenger [G. A.] 1902:437 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 10 (no. 60) (art. 59); ref. 14852] Bahardar, Lake Tsana, Ethiopia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1902.12.13.435. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemachilus abyssinicus Boulenger 1902 -- (Roberts 1984:343 [ref. 6182], Poll & Gosse 1995:95 [ref. 24781], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:458 [ref. 23187] but generic placement uncertain). •Valid as Afronemacheilus abyssinicus (Boulenger 1902) dated in error as 1901 -- (Prokofiev 2009:881 [ref. 30604], Kottelat 2012:76 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev & Golubtsov 2013:3 [ref. 32805], Prokofiev 2017:230 [ref. 35630]). Current status: Valid as Afronemacheilus abyssinicus (Boulenger 1902). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lake Tana and Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Habitat: freshwater.

acridorsalis, Oreonectes Lan [J.] in Lan, Gan, Wu & Juan 2013:(68) 252, Figs. 50-51 [Science Press, Beijing; ref. 32910] Cave in Brama town (The Hongshui River), Tian'e County, 24.9°N, 107.2°E, Guangxi, China, elevation 286 meters. Holotype: CLJH 04100608. Paratypes: CLJH 04100607, 94100609, 04100610, 12020001 (1 spec. ea.). •Valid as Oreonectes acridorsalis Lan 2013 -- (Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Liu et al. 2019:404 [ref. 36573]). •Valid as Troglonectes acridorsalis (Lan 2013) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Troglonectes acridorsalis (Lan 2013). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hongshuihe River system, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

acuticephala, Paracobitis Zhou [W.] & He [J.-C.] 1993:5 [English p. 9], Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 14 (no. 1); ref. 21971] Haixihai near Niujie, Eryuan County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: MZYU 784141. Paratypes: (7); one at KIZ 784141. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:350 [ref. 32939]. Species sometimes dated to 1992. •Valid as Paracobitis acuticephala Zhou & He 1993 -- (Min et al. 2010:202 [ref. 30726] as acuticephalus). •Valid as Homatula acuticephala (Zhou & He 1993) -- (Hu & Zhang 2010:52 [ref. 30780], Gu & Zhang 2012:xx [ref. 31632], Min et al. 2012:313 [ref. 32341], Min et al. 2012:81 [ref. 32392], Kottelat 2012:83 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:128 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2018:565 [ref. 35763], Li et al. 2019:346 [ref. 37175]). Current status: Valid as Homatula acuticephala (Zhou & He 1993). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Haixi Lake, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

acuticephalus, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1929:328, Pl. 14 (figs. 5-6) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 31 (pt 4); ref. 15899] Hwe-gna-sang River, Pazi Township, Monglong subdivision, Hsipaw State, northern Shan States, Myanmar. Holotype: ZSI F6675/1. Paratypes: ZSI (4). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:121 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:363 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus acuticephalus Hora 1929 -- (Menon 1987:132 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:468 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura acuticephalus (Hora 1929) -- (Kottelat 1990:97 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Ou et al. 2011:197 [ref. 31692]). •Valid as Schistura acuticephala (Horp 1929) -- (Kottelat 2012:104 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:574 [ref. 32971], Kottelat 2013:204 [ref. 32989], Shangningam et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33318], Endruweit 2014:360 [ref. 33494] questioning generic placement, Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[5] [ref. 33603]). Current status: Valid as Schistura acuticephala (Hora 1929). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myanmar, India. Habitat: freshwater.

adelaideae, Paracanthocobitis Singer [R. A.] & Page [L. M.] 2015:384, Fig. 9 [Copeia v. 103 (no 2); ref. 33823] Irrawaddy basin, Kha Wan, Kha Wan stream, Myanmar, 25.086N, 96.97E. Holotype: USNM 378387. Paratypes: UF, USNM. •Valid as Paracanthocobitis adelaideae Singer & Page 2015 -- (Bleher 2018:186 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis adelaideae Singer & Page 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

afasciata, Schistura Mirza [M. R.] & Bănărescu [P. M.] in Mirza, Nalbant & Bănărescu 1981:119, Figs. 35-39 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 5390] Havelian on the Dor River, northern Pakistan. Holotype (unique): ISBB 3368. •Synonym of Nemacheilus arifi (Mirza & Bănărescu 1981) -- (Menon 1987:68 [ref. 14149] but as Noemacheilus arafi, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:470 [ref. 20764] as arafi). •Valid as Schistura afasciata Mirza & Bănărescu 1981 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187], Kullander et al. 1999:153 [ref. 23689], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:13 [ref. 27265], Kottelat 2012:104 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura afasciata Mirza & Bănărescu 1981. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

afghana, Nemachilus griffithii var. Hora [S. L.] 1935:799, Fig. 4c [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 37 (pt 4); ref. 13887] Chahiltran Stream, tributary of Kabul River, West Kabul City, Afghanistan. Holotype: ZSI F11525/1. Paratypes: ZSI F11526/1 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:122 [ref. 20743], Menon 1987:206 [ref. 14149]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus griffithii Günther 1868 -- (Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Triplophysa griffithii (Günther 1868) -- (Menon 1987:204 [ref. 14149], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:511 [ref. 20764]). •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa marmorata (Heckel 1838) -- (Kullander et al. 1999:139 [ref. 23689], Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Uncertain as Triplophysa marmorata (Heckel 1838). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

afrenatus, Nemachilus frenatus Battalgil [F.] 1941:183 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 6 (nos 1-2); ref. 13194] Small creek at Diyarbakir, tributary of the Tigris River, Turkey. No types known. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus frenatus (Heckel 1843), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus frenatus (Heckel 1843), but a valid subspecies afrenatus (Battagil 1941 [or 1942]) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Freyhof et al. 2012:308 [ref. 31752]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus frenatus (Heckel 1843) -- (Kottelat 2012:96 [ref. 32367], Freyhof et al. 2017:557 [ref. 35290]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus frenatus (Heckel 1843). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ahmeti, Seminemacheilus Sungur [S.], Jalili [P.], Eagderi [S.] & Çiçek [E.] 2018:467, Figs. 1-4, 5b, 6b, 7b [FishTaxa v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 35977] Sultan Marshes near Yeşilova Village, Kızılırmak Basin, Kayseri Province, Turkey, 38°12'05.26"N, 35°13'19.76"E. Holotype: NHVUIC 2017-06-17. Paratypes: IMNRFI-UT, NHVUIC. •Valid as Seminemacheilus ahmeti Sungur, Jalili, Eagderi & Çiçek 2018 -- (Çiçek et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36267], Çiçek 2020:75 [ref. 37402], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644], Yoğurtçuoğlu et al. 2020:485 [ref. 37604]). Current status: Valid as Seminemacheilus ahmeti Sungur, Jalili, Eagderi & Çiçek 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Sultan Marshes, Kızılırmak Basin, Kayseri Province, central Anatolia (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

aizawlensis, Schistura Lalramliana [no initials] 2012:98, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 23 (no. 2); ref. 32294] Mizoram, Muthi River, a tributary of Tuirial River in vicinity of Zembawk, Aizawl, l3°44'54"N, 62°45'27, India. Holotype: PUCMF 11026. Paratypes: PUCMF. Awaiting original. •Valid as Schistura aizawlensis Lalramliana 2012 -- (Kottelat 2012:105 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25 [ref. 32804], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Solo et al. 2014:258 [ref. 33517], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628], Khynrian & Sen 2014:14 [ref. 33853]). Current status: Valid as Schistura aizawlensis Lalramliana 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mizoram, northeastern India. Habitat: freshwater.

ajmonis, Nemachilus Di Caporiacco [L.] 1933:342, Fig. [Monitore Zoologico Italiano v. 44 (11-12); ref. 21832] Sonamarg and Baltal, Sind River Valley, Kashmir, elevation 2800 meters. Syntypes: (2) MZUF 5558 (1). Type catalog: Vanni 1991:221 [ref. 20099]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa kashmirensis (Hora 1922) -- (Kullander et al. 1999:143 [ref. 23689]). • Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990] as stoliczkae). •Questionably a synonym of Indotriplophys yasinensis (Alcock 1898) -- (Kottelat 2012:86 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Uncertain as Triplophysa yasinensis (Alcock 1898). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

akhtari, Nemachilus Lakshmanan [M. A. V.] 1950:219, Fig. 1 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 47 (pt 2); ref. 12811] Helmand River, Afghanistan. Holotype: ZSI F244/2. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:121 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Status uncertain, possibly a synonym of Nemacheilus griffithii (Günther 1868) -- (see Coad 1981:13 [ref. 22348] and Coad 1995:21, 22 [ref. 23608]). •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Zhu 1989:114 [ref. 17744] as stoliczae, Wu & Wu 1992:212 [ref. 21205] as stoliczkae). •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061] as stoliczkae, Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990] as stoliczkae). ▐ Questionably valid as Triplophysa akhtari (Lakshmanan 1950) -- (Kottelat 2012:122 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa akhtari (Lakshmanan 1950). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Afghanistan (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

alasanicus, Nemacheilus angorae Elanidze [R. F.] 1983 [Ichthyofauna of Georgia [Eurasia]; ref. 31784] Upper reaches of Alazani River at Alvani village, left bank tributary of the Kura River, Georgia (Eurasia). No types known. Without author; authorship attributed to the book author as this is the only taxon in the book without an author. Original description not seen. •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:308 [ref. 31752]). •Synonym of Oxymoemacheilus lenkoranensis (Abdurakhmanov 1962) -- (Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391] but may be a different species, Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus bergi (Gratzianov 1907) -- (Çiçek et al. 2018:233 [ref. 36249]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus bergi (Gratzianov 1907). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

albirostris, Schistura Chen [X.-Y.] & Neely [D. A.] 2012:222, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 3586; ref. 32332] Longchuanjiang near Shuang Zhu Yuang village, approximately 3 km upstream of Qiao Tou village, Jie Tou township, Tengchong County, Yunnan, China, 25°30'11"N, 98°39'15", elevation 1573 meters. Holotype: KIZ 20060415122. Paratypes: CAS 224427 (1), 224631 (12); KIZ 2006041523 (1), Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Schistura albirostris Chen & Neely 2012 -- (Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25 [ref. 32804], Kottelat 2013:204 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34477], Endruweit 2017:399 [ref. 35191]). Current status: Valid as Schistura albirostris Chen & Neely 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Irrawaddy River drainage, Yunnan Provice, China. Habitat: freshwater.

albisella, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2017:692, Figs. 1-6 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 65; ref. 35677] Houay Hok, a small creek entering Nam Ngiep, about 3.5 km south of Ban Soppouan on road to Ban Sopyouak, Nam Ngiep drainage, Khon District, Saysomboune Province, Laos, 18°44'57"N, 103°25'28"E, elevation 261 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2768.031. Paratypes: CMK, ZRC. •Valid as Schistura albisella Kottelat 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura albisella Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Ngiep drainage, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

alboguttata, Schistura Cao [L.] & Zhang [E] 2018:127, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4471 (no. 1); ref. 36108] Leli-He, flowing into the You-Jiang of the upper Pearl River basin at Leli Town, Tianlin County, Guangxi Province, South China, about 24°17'44" N, 106°13'33" E, elevation 310 meters. Holotype: IHB 2008050102. Paratypes: IHB. •Valid as Schistura alboguttata Cao & Zhang 2018. Current status: Valid as Schistura alboguttata Cao & Zhang 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

alepidotus, Nemacheilus Mirza [M. R.] & Bănărescu [P. M.] in Mirza, Bănărescu & Nalbant 1970:55, Fig. 10 [Biologia (Lahore) v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 7761] Madyan River, Swat drainage, Pakistan. Holotype: IBTS 1356. Paratypes: Banarescu priv. coll. (orig. 2 + 2 + 4 + 3 + 4); BMNH 1977.7.5.2 (1); IBTS 1944 (1), 1233 (1); Mirza priv. coll. (1); ZMA 114463-64 (1, 1). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus alepidotus Mirza & Bănărescu 1970 -- (Coad 1981:13 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Nemacheilus pakistanicus Mirza & Bănărescu 1969 -- (Menon 1987:44 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:493 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura alepidota (Mirza & Bănărescu 1970) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:14 [ref. 27265]). •Valid as Paraschistura alepidota (Mirza & Bănărescu 1970) -- (Prokofiev 2009:892 [ref. 30604], Kottelat 2012:101 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura alepidota (Mirza & Bănărescu 1970). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

alexandrae, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2001:203, Figs. 19-24 [Zoosystematica Rossica v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 26613] Sichuan, China [possibly Dadu He River, eastern of Kangding (ca. 30°N, 102°E), Min River basin]. Holotype: ZIN 16335. Paratypes: ZIN 16335a (4). •Valid as Triplophysa alexandrae Prokofiev 2001 -- (Prokofiev 2006:Engl. 580 [ref. 28811], Kottelat 2012:122 [ref. 32367], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa alexandrae Prokofiev 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

aliensis, Nemachilus Wu [Y.-F.] & Zhu [S.-Q.] 1979:29, Fig. 9 [Fishes of Ali, Tibet 1979; ref. 8391] Xiang-quan River and Shi-quan River, Indus River system, Tibet, China. Syntypes: NPIB 74.201-244 (44), 74.255 (1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa aliensis (Wu & Zhu 1979) -- (Zhu 1989:116 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:236 [ref. 21205], Zhang et al. 1995:61 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:118 [ref. 25213], He et al. 2008:47 [ref. 29558], Kottelat 2012:123 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa aliensis (Wu & Zhu 1979). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tibet, China. Habitat: freshwater.

aligera, Malihkaia Kottelat [M.] 2017:85, Figs. 1-5 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 65; ref. 35308] Mali Hka River, about 9 km upstream of Kang Mu Lon, Kachin state, Myanmar, 27°25'54"N, 97°27'56"E, elevation 402 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2766.051. Paratypes: CMK, ZRC. •Valid as Malihkaia aligera Kottelat 2017. Current status: Valid as Malihkaia aligera Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mali Hka River, Kachin state, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

alta, Schistura Nalbant [T. T.] & Bianco [P. G.] 1998:118, Fig. 21 [Italian Journal of Zoology v. 65, Suppl.; ref. 23810] Helmand river drainage, northeast of Girisk, Kajkai, Afghanistan. Holotype: ZMC P 27115. Paratypes: ISBB uncat. (1), ZMC P 27116 (1). •Valid as Schistura alta Nalbant & Bianco 1998 -- (Kottelat 2012:105 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Paraschistura alta (Nalbant & Bianco 1998) -- (Freyhof et al. 2015:46 [ref. 33865], Esmaeili et al. 2017:70 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:50 [ref. 36089], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:581 [ref. 36833], Eagderi et al. 2019:265 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura alta (Nalbant & Bianco 1998). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Helmand River basin, Afghanistan and Sistan-and-Baluchestan Provinces, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

altayensis, Barbatula Zhu [S.-Q.] 1992:241 [246], Figs. 1-2 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 21064] Kelang He River, trib of the Ertix River, near Altay City, 47°52'N, 88°06'E, Xinjiang, China. Holotype: NIGlAS 888006. Paratypes: NIGLAS 888001-05 (5), 888007 (1), 888009 (1). English description on p. 246. •Valid as Orthrias altayensis (Zhu 1992) -- (Prokofiev 2003:726 [ref. 27494], Prokofiev 2007:14 [ref. 30343]). •Valid as Barbatula altayensis Zhu 1992 -- (Zhu 1995:108 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2006:88 [ref. 28831], Cao et al. 2012:236 [ref. 32335], Kottelat 2012:77 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065], Zhang et al. 2016:127 [ref. 34477], Prokofiev 2016:396 [ref. 34693], Prokofiev 2018:273 [ref. 35878] as cf. altayensis). Current status: Valid as Barbatula altayensis Zhu 1992. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

alticeps, Nemachilus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:28, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Fontes Zaidam [Tsaidam or Quaidam] oriental, China. Lectotype: ZIN 7852. Paralectotypes: ZIN 7255 (12, 1 c&s) and 7852 (now 3); BMNH 1891.10.7.32 [ex ZIN 7255] (1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Prokofiev 2006:Engl. 599 [ref. 28811] •Questionably the same as Triplophysa cakaensis Cao & Zhu 1988 -- (Zhu 1989:120 [ref. 17744]). •Valid as Triplophysa alticeps (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:124 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:261 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:119 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2006:598 [ref. 28811], Prokofiev 2006:255 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2010:907 [ref. 31096], Zhang et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34477], Feng et al. 2020:468 [ref. 37576]). •Valid as Qinghaichthys alticeps (Herzentstein 1888) -- (Kottelat 2012:103 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa alticeps (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Quaidam and Quighai drainages, China. Habitat: freshwater.

alticrista, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:98, Figs. 68-69 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Amphoe Khum Huan, Tambon Muang Bon, Huei Nong Heng, Mae La Ka, Mae Hong Son Province, Salween basin, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27472 [now ZRC 38469] [ex NIFI 2059]. Paratypes: NIFI 2059 (2), plus additional non-type material. Type catalog: Neumann 2011:240 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Schistura alticrista Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Freyhof & Serov 2001:158 [ref. 25364], Vishwanath & Shanta 2004:140 [ref. 27862], Zhou & Kottelat 2005:20 [ref. 28350], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:5 [ref. 31362], Kottelat 2012:105 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:204 [ref. 32989], Bohlen et al. 2014:24 [ref. 33197]). Current status: Valid as Schistura alticrista Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Salween River basin, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

altipedunculatus, Noemacheilus Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1968:337, Pl. 1 (fig. 10); Figs. 7-8 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 65; ref. 6554] Mandurli, northern Canara, Kati River drainage, 15°05'N, 74°25'E, northern Karnataka, India. Holotype: ZMH H3618. Paratypes: ZMH H3619 (3). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus denisoni Day 1867 -- (Menon 1987:93 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:477 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura altipedunculata (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1968) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187] as altipedunculatus, Kottelat 2012:105 [ref. 32367], Sudasinghe 2017:107 [ref. 35539]). Current status: Valid as Schistura altipedunculata (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1968). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Karnataka, India. Habitat: freshwater.

altipinnis, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2003:63 [English p. 67], Fig. 25 [Estestvennye i Tekhnicheskie Nauki [Natural and Technical Sciences / Естественные и технические науки]. No. 1; ref. 28070] Eastern Quaidam area, China. Holotype: ZIN 12492. Paratypes: ZIN 12492a (5), 12493 (2), 12587 (7). •Valid as Triplophysa altipinnis Prokofiev 2003 -- (Kottelat 2012:123 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa altipinnis Prokofiev 2003. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Eastern Quaidam area, China. Habitat: freshwater.

altus, Yunnanilus Kottelat [M.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1988:72, Fig. 6 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 23 (nos 1-2); ref. 13392] Stream Xiangshuiho at Haijiashao, 25°40'N, 103°57'E, Zhanyi County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 774630. Paratypes: KIZ 77625-29 (5), 77631-43 (13), 77650-58 (9), 77660-66 (7), 77690-96 (7). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Yunnanilus altus Kottelat & Chu 1988 -- (Yang & Chen 1995:23 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:107 [ref. 25213], Chen et al. 2012:62 [ref. 31907], Kottelat 2012:134 [ref. 32367], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32910], Du et al. 2015:253 [ref. 34050], Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus altus Kottelat & Chu 1988. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

aluensis, Triplophysa Li [Z.-X.] & Zhu [Z.-G.] 2000:396 [Engl. 398], Fig. 1 [Journal of Yunnan University (Natural Science) v. 22 (no. 5) [2000]; ref. 27938] Underground stream, Alu limestone caves in Luxi County, 24°33'N, 103°45'E, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype (unique): HRS 20000620001. •Valid as Triplophysa aluensis Li & Zhu 2000 -- (Chen & Yang 2005:604 [ref. 28119], Li et al. 2008:676 [ref. 29925], Chen et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30169], Zheng 2009:225 [ref. 30217], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096] as aluuensis, Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2012:170 [ref. 31483], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:645 [ref. 32193], Kottelat 2012:123 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34477], Yang et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34677], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:844 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa aluensis Li & Zhu 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanpan River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

amplizona, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:54, Fig. 24 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam tha at Ban Finho, about 14 kilometers north of Luang Nam Tha, 21°04'44"N, 101°24'09"E, Louangnamtha Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45321. Paratypes: CMK 14266 (5), 14283 (7); LARRI uncat. (3); NRM 44888 (3); ZRC 45322 (3). •Valid as Schistura amplizona Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:101 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:105 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:204 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2016:599 [ref. 34743]). Current status: Valid as Schistura amplizona Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos and China. Habitat: freshwater.

amudarjensis, Nemachilus Rass [T. S.] 1929:253, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 83 (nos 9/10) (art. 8); ref. 16055] Amu-Darya River at Termez, Uzbekistan; Tschardschui, Turkestan. Syntypes: (20) ZIN 22042 (2), 20715 (2), 20732 (2); ZMMU P-2554 (14). Type catalog: Svetovidova 1978:258 [ref. 9011], Vasil'eva et al. 2001:25 [ref. 25714]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus amudarjensis Rass 1929 -- (Berg 1949:881 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1981:13 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Dzihunia amudarjensis (Rass 1929) -- (Prokofiev 2001:210 [ref. 26612], Prokofiev 2003:57 [ref. 28098], Prokofiev 2009:891 [ref. 30604], Kottelat 2012:82 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2017:265 [ref. 35630], Prokofiev 2017:265 [ref. 35630]). Current status: Valid as Dzihunia amudarjensis (Rass 1929). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Turkestan. Habitat: freshwater.

analis, Yunnanilus Yang [J.-X.] in Wu 1990:19, Fig. 14 [The fishes of Yunnan; ref. 20984] Xingyün Lake, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 01402 [KIZ 1960000625]. Paratype: KIZ. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Yunnanilus analis Yang 1990 -- (Yang 1991:199 [ref. 13585], Zhu 1995:106 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2012:134 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus analis Yang 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

anambarensis, Noemacheilus Mirza [M. R.] & Bănărescu [P. M.] in Mirza, Bănărescu & Nalbant 1970:51, Figs. 4-5 [Biologia (Lahore) v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 7761] Anambar River at Loralai, eastern Baluchistan, Pakistan. Holotype: IBTS 1364. Paratypes: IBTS 1942 (4), IBTS 1942 (1), Mirza priv. coll. (orig. 4), ZMA 114459 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:31 [ref. 19236], Menon 1987:68 [ref. 14149]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus baluchiorum Zugmayer 1912 -- (Menon 1987:65 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:471 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Schistura balachiorum [sic] (Zugmayer 1912), but at least subspecifically distinct -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Schistura anambarensis (Mirza & Bănărescu 1970) -- (Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:14 [ref. 27265], Kottelat 2012:105 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura anambarensis (Mirza & Bănărescu 1970). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

anatolica, Oxynemacheilus Erk'akan [F.], Özeren [S. C.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 2008:117, Figs. 4-6 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 29859] Input of Karamanli Dam Lake, Burdur, southwestern Turkey. Holotype: HUIC-AKD-13. Paratypes: HUIC-AKD (14 pecimens). Original genus should have been Oxynoemacheilus. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus anatolicus Erk'akan, Özeren & Nalbant 2008 -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Erk'akan 2012:97 [ref. 32281], Kottelat 2012:95 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:244 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus anatolicus Erk'akan, Özeren & Nalbant 2008. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Karataş Gölü tributaries, Burdur Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

andrewi, Schistura Solo [B.], Lalramliana [no initials], Lalronunga [S.] & Lalnuntluanga [no initials] 2014:254, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 3860 (no. 3); ref. 33517] Mizoram, Mat River, tributary of Kaladan River, 23°20'04'N, 92°50'01'E, India. Holotype: PUCMF 14001. Paratypes: PUCMF 14002 (8), MZUBM/F. 14000-140003 (3). •Valid as Schistura andrewi Solo, Lalramliana, Lalronunga & Lalnuntluanga 2014. Current status: Valid as Schistura andrewi Solo, Lalramliana, Lalronunga & Lalnuntluanga 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mat River, Mizoram, India. Habitat: freshwater.

andrewsi, Lefua Fowler [H. W.] 1922:1 [American Museum Novitates No. 38; ref. 15339] Shing Lung Shan, eastern Tombs [now Hebei, Zunhua, ,40°11'N, 117°58'E], Hopeh Province, China. Holotype: AMNH 7974. Paratypes: AMNH 7990 (1). •Synonym of Lefua costata (Kessler 1876) -- (Berg 1949:887 [ref. 20661], Zhu 1989:21 [ref. 17744], Vasil'eva 1998:96 [ref. 23591], Choi et al. 2003:178 [ref. 26218], Kottelat 2006:55 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Lefua costata (Kessler 1876). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

angeli, Nemacheilus Fang [P.-W.] 1941:256 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 13173] Correct is Qingyijiang, China. Holotype: MNHN 0000-6287. Paratypes: MNHN B-2639 [ex MNHN 0000-6287] (10). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:99 [ref. 19574] as syntypes. See Kottelat 2012:123 [ref. 32367] for locality information. •Valid as Triplophysa angeli (Fang 1941) -- (Zhu 1989:105 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:192 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:78 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:117 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:75 [ref. 23556], Wu & Wang 2009:382 [ref. 30911], Zheng et al. 2010:[8] [ref. 30841], Guo et al. 2012:912 [ref. 32350], Kottelat 2012:123 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665], Zhang et al. 2019:377 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa angeli (Fang 1941). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

anglicana, Nemacheilus barbatulus forma Bǎcescu-Meşter [L.] 1967:369 [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 7; ref. 7940] Not available, infrasubspecific (a form after 1960); from Cambridge River, England. •In the synonymy of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). Nemacheilidae.

angorae, Nemacheilus Steindachner [F.] 1897:693 [9], Pl. 4 (fig. 4a-c) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 64; ref. 14691] Tabakane-Sir and Tschibuk-Tschai, Turkey. Syntypes: (16) NMW. Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752] •Valid as Orthrias angorae (Steindachner 1897) -- (Bănărescu et al. 1978:256 [ref. 9016], Erk'akan & Kuru 1986:160 [ref. 21167]). •Valid as Nemacheilus angorae Steindachner 1897 -- (Berg 1949:873 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:21 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Gabrielyan 2001:28 [ref. 25867], Fricke et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Barbatula angorae (Steindachner 1897) -- (Stoumboudi et al. 2006:143 [ref. 28767], Erk'akan et al. 2007:75 [ref. 29026], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:167 [ref. 31251]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604] with subspecies, Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Erk'akan 2012:97 [ref. 32281], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:882 [ref. 34062], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2016:103 [ref. 34789], Freyhof 2016:94 [ref. 34815], Esmaeili et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35254], Sungur et al. 2017:379 [ref. 35750], Çiçek et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2019:16 [ref. 36528], Turan et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36540], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644], Yogurtçuoglu et al. 2020:[14] [ref. 37627]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: western and central Anatolian Black Sea basin (Marmara, Susurluk, Sakarya and Kızılırmak River basins) (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

anguilla, Nemachilus Annandale [N.] 1919:127, Pls. 1 (fig. 3), 3 (fig. 1) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 16 (pt 1); ref. 15202] Yenna River at Medha, Satara District, Maharashtra (Mumbai Presidency), India. Holotype: ZSI, Kolkatta, F9692/1. Paratypes: ZSI uncat. (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:121 [ref. 20743], Menon 1987:156 [ref. 14149]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:363 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus anguilla Annandale 1919 -- (Menon 1987:154 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:469 [ref. 20764], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:435 [ref. 23187], Menon 1999:183 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Yadav 2000:41 [ref. 25661], Yadav 2003:16 [ref. 27711], Arunachalam & Muralidharan 2007:2724 [ref. 29138], Arunachalam & Muralidharan 2009:148 [ref. 30462], Bleher 2018:160 [ref. 36647]). •Valid as 'Nemacheilus' anguilla Annandale 1919 -- (Kottelat 2012:90 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus anguilla Annandale 1919. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, Maharashtra and Karnataka, India. Habitat: freshwater.

anguillioides, Paracobitis Zhu [S.-Q.] & Wang [S.-H.] 1985:210 [218], Figs. 1-4 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 8120] Longtan spring, near Yousuo, 26°1.204'N, 100°3.206'E [not 26°N, 99°50'E], Eryuan County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NIGLAS 820134 (now INB 820134). Paratypes: (19). English description on p. 218. New latitude and longitude is from Rui Min via R. Winterbottom, 7/25/2011. •Valid as Paracobitis anguillioides Zhu & Wang 1985 -- (Zhu 1989:34 [ref. 17744], Zhou & He 1993:5 [ref. 21971], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:444 [ref. 23187] with uncertain genus placement, Zhu 1995:109 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:50 [ref. 23556], Min et al. 2010:202 [ref. 30726]). •Valid as Homatula anguilloides (Zhu & Wang 1985) -- (Hu & Zhang 2010:52 [ref. 30780], Gu & Zhang 2012:597 [ref. 31632], Min et al. 2012:313 [ref. 32341], Min et al. 2012:81 [ref. 32392], Kottelat 2012:83 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:128 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2018:565 [ref. 35763], Li et al. 2019:346 [ref. 37175]). Current status: Valid as Homatula anguillioides (Zhu & Wang 1985). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Mekong River drainage, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

anophthalmus, Oreonectes Zheng [P.-S.] in Zheng 1981:162, Fig. 134 [Freshwater fishes of Guangxi Province 1981; ref. 23151] Qifeng Mountain, Xiahuan Village, Wuming, Guangxi, China. Holotype: ASIZB 60294 [ex 77001]. Paratypes: ASIZB. Type catalog: Zhang 1996:500 [ref. 24036], Ye et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33808]. Also appeared in Zhou 1985:378 [ref. 26008] as new with author as Zheng. •Valid as Oreonectes anophthalmus Zheng 1981 -- (Zhu & Cao 1987:327 [ref. 14139], Zheng et al. 1989:47 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1989:25 [ref. 17744], Lan et al. 1995:367 [ref. 23184], Zhu 1995:107 [ref. 25213], Yue & Chen 1998:196 [ref. 26415], Romero & Paulson 2001:21 [ref. 26040], Proudlove 2006:89 [ref. 28992], Zhang et al. 2006:614 [ref. 29423], Du et al. 2008:27 [ref. 29544], Huang et al. 2009:445 [ref. 30323], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2011:211 [ref. 31282], Tang et al. 2011:489 [ref. 31595], Kottelat 2012:346 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:94 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:110 [ref. 34891], Lan et al. 2013:87 [ref. 32910], Ye et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33808], Zhang et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34477], Deng et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34511], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Huang et al. 2019:118 [ref. 37137]). Current status: Valid as Oreonectes anophthalmus Zheng 1981. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave systems of Qifeng Mountain, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

anshuiensis, Triplophysa Wu [T.-J.], Wei [M.-L.], Lan [J.-H.] & Du [L.-N.] 2018:69, Figs. 1, 3 [ZooKeys No. 744; ref. 35850] Cave in Anshui Village, Lingyun County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, 24.3632N, 106.7412E, elevation 719 meters. Holotype: KIZ 2012005747. Paratype: KIZ. •Valid as Triplophysa anshuiensis Wu, Wei, Lan & Du 2018 -- (Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971], Huang et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36689]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa anshuiensis Wu, Wei, Lan & Du 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hongshui River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

antennata, Schistura Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:140, Figs. 8-10 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] Stream at Son Kim, 18°24.25'N, 105°11.10'E, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 27934. Paratypes: CMK 16673 (3), ZFMK 27953-41 (7). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:112 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Schistura antennata Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:105 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:204 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:72 [ref. 35486], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura antennata Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Song Lam basin, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

anteridorsalis, Homatula Li [X.], Che [X.-J.] & Zhou [W.] 2019:337, Figs. 2A, 6-7A [Zootaxa 4711 (no. 2); ref. 37175] Bingmen Village, Lujiang Town, Longyang District, Baoshan City, Yunnan, China, 25°4'11.23"N, 98°49'57.77"E. Holotype: SWFC 1610006. Paratypes: SWFC. Misspelled in fig. 6 as anteriordorsalis. •Valid as Homatula anteridorsalis Li, Che & Zhou 2019. Current status: Valid as Homatula anteridorsalis Li, Che & Zhou 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Salween River basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

anterodorsalis, Triplophysa (Triplophysa) Zhu [S.-Q.] & Cao [W.-X.] in Zhu 1989:106 (English p. 136), Fig. 73 [The loaches of the subfamily Nemacheilinae in China (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).; ref. 17744] Tributary of the Jinshajiang River, Huidongxian County, Sichuan, China. Holotype: HIASW 60viii0084. Paratypes: HIASW 60viii0062-66 (5), 60viii0075 (1), 60viii0077-83 (7). •Valid as Triplophysa anterodorsalis Zhu & Cao 1989 -- (Ding 1994:79 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:117 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:76 [ref. 23556], Li et al. 2008:677 [ref. 29925], Kottelat 2012:123 [ref. 32367], Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966], Bashir et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34447], Zhang et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665], Zhang et al. 2019:378 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa anterodorsalis Zhu & Cao 1989. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

aquaecaeruleae, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2001:195, Figs. 1-6 [Zoosystematica Rossica v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 26613] Ba-tshu [Ba Qu?] River, tributary of Blue River [= Chang Jiang] (env. of Yushu), Qinghai, northwestern China (ca. 33°N, 92°E or 97°E). Holotype: ZIN 12494. Paratypes: ZIN 12494a (3). •Valid as Triplophysa aquaecaeruleae Prokofiev 2001 -- (Prokofiev 2006:258 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], He et al. 2008:47 [ref. 29558], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:123 [ref. 32367], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa aquaecaeruleae Prokofiev 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

aramis, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:54, Fig. 25 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Houay Chik, about 2 kilometers east of Muang Mai, 21°10'26"N, 102°44'06"E, Phongsali Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45323. Paratypes: CMK 14148 (10), LARRI uncat. (2), NRM 44910 (2), ZRC 45324 (2). •Valid as Schistura aramis Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:101 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:105 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:204 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura aramis Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

araxensis, Orthrias angorae Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Bănărescu, Nalbant & Balik 1978:259, Fig. 2; Pl. 20 (figs. 1-4) [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 75; ref. 9016] Kandili Karassu, upper Karassu drainage, Euphrates-Tigris basin, eastern Turkey. Holotype: ZMH 4827. Paratypes: ISBB 2617-18 (2, 3); ZMH 4826 (5), 5951 (4). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413 [ref. 21161]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus angorae Steindachner 1897, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Erk'akan & Kuru 1986:160 [ref. 21167], Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Orthrias araxensis Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978 -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:111 [ref. 23810], Fricke et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Barbatula araxensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978) -- (Erk'akan et al. 2007:78 [ref. 29026]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus araxensis Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:95 [ref. 32367], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:883 [ref. 34062], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Freyhof 2016:94 [ref. 34815], Esmaeili et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35254], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Çiçek et al. 2018:240 [ref. 36249], Çiçek et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36267], Turan et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36540], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus araxensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: upper Euphrates [Firat Nehri] (Persian Gulf tributary), Erzurum Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

aredvii, Paraschistura Freyhof [J.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Esmaeili [H. R.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2015:25, Figs. 24-28 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 33865] Fars Province, Sarab-e Bahram spring at Sarab-e Bahram, a tributary of Fahlian River, 30°02'48"N, 51°33'34"E, Iran. Holotype: ZM-CBSU J2959. Paratypes: ZM-CBSU J2960 (27). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Paraschistura aredvii Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015 -- (Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015:299 [ref. 34027], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:887 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:70 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:50 [ref. 36089], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:581 [ref. 36833], Eagderi et al. 2019:265 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura aredvii Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Zohreh River drainage, Fars and Khouzestan, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

arenata, Cobitis Valenciennes [A.] in Jacquemont 1838:no p., Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Voyage dans l'Inde pendant les années 1828 à 1832; ref. 17872] India. Holotype: MNHN 0000-3811. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:96 [ref. 19574]. Plate probably dates to 1838, Britz et al. 2017:540 [ref. 35498]. •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:28 [ref. 14137], Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989], Grant 2008:14 [ref. 33823] as a subgenus Paracanthocobitis (Hamilton 1822)). •Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Singer & Page 2015:386 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

arenicolus, Nemacheilus Kottelat [M.] 1998:65, Figs. 102, 106 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 23436] Nam Xot in Ban Nam Xot, 17°53'20"N, 105°05'10"E, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 41790. Paratypes: CMK 12528 (7), 12553 (14), 12662 (13), 12804 (27); NRM 36705 (5); ZRC 41791 (5). •Valid as Nemacheilus arenicolus Kottelat 1998 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:137 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:100 [ref. 25780], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:204 [ref. 31485], Kottelat 2012:90 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:200 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus arenicolus Kottelat 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Theun endemic, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

argentata, Cobites (Acoura) Swainson [W.] 1839:310 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Brahamputra River at Goalpara, India. No types known. Based on Ham. 358. No 10 -- which is Hamilton 1822:358, "10th Species.-- Cobitis turio." Unneeded substitute for Cobitis turio Hamilton 1822. •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:28 [ref. 14137], Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Singer & Page 2015:386 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

argyrogramma, Cobitis Heckel [J. J.] 1847:239, Pl. 18 (fig. 3) [Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 2068] Aleppo, Syria. Syntypes: NMW 48541 (8), 59913 (4). •Synonym of Nemacheilus tigris (Heckel 1843) -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:23 [ref. 23608]). •Synonym or Orthrias tigris (Heckel 1843) -- (Fricke et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29533]). •Synonym of Barbatula tigris (Heckel 1843) -- (based on status of Barbatula). •Valid as Barbatula argyrogrammus (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 2010:206 [ref. 36620]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus argyrogrammus (Heckel 1847) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]) or a synonym or subspecies of Paracobitis tigris (Heckel 1843) -- (Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus argyrogramma (Heckel 1847) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:201 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307, 308 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:95 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:39, 49 [ref. 33140], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Freyhof 2016:99 [ref. 34815], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:388 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:63 [ref. 35254], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Esmaeili et al. 2018:43 [ref. 36089], Turan et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36540], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus argyrogramma (Heckel 1847). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: Euphrates and Tigris river basins (Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

arifi, Schistura Mirza [M. R.] & Bănărescu [P. M.] in Mirza, Nalbant & Bănărescu 1981:113, Figs. 16-20 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 5390] Zhob City on Zhob River, Baluchistan, Pakistan. Holotype: ISBB 3775. Paratypes: ISBB 3376 (1), ZMA 116442 (1), Mirza priv. coll. (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:35 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Nemacheilus arifi (Mirza & Bănărescu 1981) -- (Menon 1987:68 [ref. 14149] as Neomacheilus arafi, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:470 [ref. 20764] as arafi). •Valid as Schistura arifi Mirza & Bănărescu 1981 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Kottelat 2012:105 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura arifi Mirza & Bănărescu 1981. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

arnoldii, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2006:237, Figs. 1-37 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 86 (no. 2); ref. 29061] Stream connecting lakes Ayrag-Nuur and Khirgis-Nuur, Kobdo (= Chovd-Gol) River system, western Mongolia. Holotype: ZIN 39054. Paratypes: ZIN 39054a (3, 1 c&s). •Valid as Triplophysa arnoldii Prokofiev 2006 -- (Kottelat 2012:123 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa arnoldii Prokofiev 2006. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Chovd-Gol River basin, western Mongolia. Habitat: freshwater.

arsaniasus, Oxynoemacheilus Freyhof [J.], Kaya [C.], Turan [D.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2019:44, Figs. 12-14 [Zootaxa 4612 (no. 1); ref. 36739] Stream Kaynarca at Tepe, Muş Province, Turkey. Holotype: FFR 15530. Paratypes: FFR, FSJF. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus arsaniasus Freyhof, Kaya, Turan & Geiger 2019 -- (Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus arsaniasus Freyhof, Kaya, Turan & Geiger 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Murat and upper Karasu (Bitlis) River drainages, upper Euphrates basin (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

arunachalensis, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:129, Pl. 16 (fig. 10) [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Riwa River at Manpong [Nampong], Arunachal Pradesh, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F572. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F73 (2). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Noemacheilus arunachalensis Datta & Barman 1984, replaced by Schistura tirapensis Kottelat 1990 and by Noemacheilus dattai Menon 1999. See Das 2003:365 [ref. 27706]. •Treated as valid as Nemacheilus arunachalensis Menon 1987 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:470 [ref. 20764], Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Schistura tirapensis Kottelat 1990 -- (Kottelat 2012:120 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura tirapensis Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

assamensis, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:179 [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Pagladia River, Assam, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F578. Paratypes: ? SRS/ZSI F (1). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:366 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus labeosus Kottelat 1982 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:487 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Nemacheilus assamensis Menon 1987 -- (Menon 1999:187 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Neonoemacheilus assamensis (Menon 1987) -- (Arunkumar 2000:45 [ref. 25660], Vishwanath & Laisram 2001:202 [ref. 25886], Kottelat 2012:93 [ref. 32367], Khynrian & Sen 2014:10 [ref. 33853], Bleher 2018:180 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Neonoemacheilus assamensis (Menon 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Brahmaputra basin, India. Habitat: freshwater.

athos, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:55, Fig. 26 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Houay Houn, about 3 kilometers upstream of Ban Houay Lek, in gorges, about 20°32'32"N, 102°40'51"E, Louangphabang Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45325. Paratypes: CMK 14021 (21), 14095 (9); LARRI uncat. (8); NRM 44889 (8); ZRC 45326 (8). •Valid as Schistura athos Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:101 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:204 [ref. 32989], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura athos Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos and Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

atili, Oxynoemacheilus Erk'akan [F.] 2012:99, Fig. 3-4 [Research Journal of Biological Sciences v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 32281] Eflatun pinari-Beysehir Lake, 37°49'30.95"N, 31°40'29.08"E, Turkey. Holotype: HUIC uncat. Paratypes: HUIC (33). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus atili Erk'akan 2012 -- (Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36267], Bayçelebi et al. 2020:145 [ref. 37381], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus atili Erk'akan 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Beyşehir Gölü and Beyşehir Gölü tributaries (Isparta and Konya provinces) (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

atra, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1998:69, Figs. 107, 108 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 23436] Upper Nam Theun, 17°59'31"N, 105°27'49"E, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 41792. Paratypes: CMK 12529 (1), 12629 (1), 12645 (2); DFV uncat. (1); NRM 36706 (1). •Valid as Schistura atra Kottelat 1998 -- (Kottelat 2001:104 [ref. 25780], Kangrang et al. 2012:75 [ref. 32324], Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:204 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:704 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura atra Kottelat 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Theun watershed, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

atrakensis, Paracobitis Esmaeili [H. R.], Mousavi-Sabet [H.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Vatandoust [S.] & Freyhof [J.] 2014:238 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 33625] Atrak and Bidvaz River, northeastern Iran. Holotype. From a listing. •Valid as Paracobitis atrakensis Esmaeili, Mousavi-Sabet, Sayyadzadeh, Vatandoust & Freyhof 2014 -- (Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:340 [ref. 33744], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:885 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:47 [ref. 36089], Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2019:386 [ref. 36466]). Current status: Valid as Paracobitis atrakensis Esmaeili, Mousavi-Sabet, Sayyadzadeh, Vatandoust & Freyhof 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Caspian Sea and Kavir basins, northeastern Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

atriceps, Noemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1945:312, Fig. 66 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 188; ref. 4056] Menam Kon, tributary of Menam Nan, at Ban Khana, northern Thailand. Holotype: USNM 117750. Paratypes: USNM 117746 (orig. 70, now 54). Type catalog: Vilasri et al. 2018:57 [ref. 36451]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Sectoria atriceps (Smith 1945) -- (Kottelat 1990:230 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:445 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:18 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2000:64 [ref. 25040], Kottelat 2012:120 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:212 [ref. 32989], Vilasri et al. 2018:57 [ref. 36451]). Current status: Valid as Sectoria atriceps (Smith 1945). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

attalicus, Seminemacheilus Yoğurtçuoğlu [B.], Kaya [C.], Geiger [M. F.] & Freyhof [J.] 2020:488, Figs. 9-11, 18 [Zootaxa 4802 (no. 3); ref. 37604] Spring Kırkgöz, Antalya Province, Turkey, 37.1097, 30.5807. Holotype: FFR 15566. Paratypes: FFR, FSJF. •Valid as Seminemacheilus attalicus Yoğurtçuoğlu, Kaya, Geiger & Freyhof 2020. Current status: Valid as Seminemacheilus attalicus Yoğurtçuoğlu, Kaya, Geiger & Freyhof 2020. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kırkgöz drainage, Antalya Province, southern Anatolia, Turkey. Habitat: freshwater.

aurantiaca, Schistura Plongsesthee [R.], Page [L. M.] & Beamish [W.] 2011:170, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 31357] Kwai Noi River system, Khayeng River at Route 3272 bridge, 14°39'35"N, 98°32'01"E, Mae Khlong basin, Thong Pha Phum, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Holotype: UF 178532. Paratypes: Many at UF, NIFI, USNM, ZRC. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Schistura aurantiaca Plongsesthee, Page & Beamish 2011 -- (Page et al. 2012:327 [ref. 32342], Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Plongsesthee et al. 2013:178 [ref. 33012], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura aurantiaca Plongsesthee, Page & Beamish 2011. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kwai Noi River system, Mae Khlong basin, western Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

aureus, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1872:184 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 41 (pt 2, nos 1-4); ref. 14133] Narmada River, Jabbalpúr [Jabbalpúr], India. Lectotype: BMNH 1889.2.1.1590. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1889.2.1.1587-1588 (3), ZSI F2574 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:156 [ref. 23762]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus mooreh (Sykes 1839) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:490 [ref. 20764] as moreh, Menon 1999:181 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus moreh). •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:28 [ref. 14137]). •Synonym of Acanthocobitis mooreh (Sykes 1839) -- (Kottelat 2012:76 [ref. 32678]). •Valid as Acanthocobitis aurea (Day 1872), but a valid subgenus Paracanthocobitis Grant 2008. •Valid as Paracanthocobitis aurea (Day 1872) -- (Singer & Page 2015:385 [ref. 33823], Bleher 2018:188 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis aurea (Day 1872). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Himalaya Foothills, northern India. Habitat: freshwater.

bachmaensis, Schistura Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:143, Figs. 11-13 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] Stream Suoi Voi at Thua Luu, 55 kilometers south of Hue, 16°14.58'N, 107°59.39'E, Thua Thien Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 27942. Paratypes: CMK 16674 (1), ZFMK 27943 (1). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:112 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Schistura bachmaensis Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura bachmaensis Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thua Tien province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

bacmeensis, Micronemacheilus Nguyen [V. H.] & Vo [V. B.] in Nguyen 2005:562, Fig. 10 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 2; ref. 29730] Creek Minh Son, Bac Me, Hà Giang Province, Vietnam. Neotype: RIA 1 N.01.25.001. "Paraneotype": RIA 1 N,01.25.001 (1). Genus spelled Micronoemacheilus in caption to figure 10. •Doubtfully as a synonym of Traccatichthys taeniatus (Pellegrin & Chevey 1936) -- (Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Traccatichthys bacmeensis (Nguyen & Vo 2005) -- (Du et al.2012:304 [ref. 32340], Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:152 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Valid as Traccatichthys bacmeensis (Nguyen & Vo 2005). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper reaches of Gam River, Bac Me County, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

badamensis, Nemachilus kuschakewitschi Turdakov [F. A.] 1948:56 [Trudy Kirgizskogo Pedagogicheskogo Instituta v. 1 (no. 1) for 1946; ref. 21173] Badam River at Shyumkent, tributary of Arys' River, Kazakhstan. Syntypes: ZMMU P-3709 (14), P-3710 (1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:25-26 [ref. 25714]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Original species heading misspelled as Nemachilus kushakewitschl badameusis. Appeared first in Turdakov 1941 [ref. 13188] without mention of scientific name. •Synonym of Nemacheilus kuschakewitschi Herzenstein 1890. •Synonym of Iskandaria kuschakewitschi (Herzenstein 1890), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:889 [ref. 30604], Prokofiev 2017:262 [ref. 35630]). •Synonym of Iskandaria kuschakewitschi (Herzenstein 1890) -- (Kottelat 2012:86 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Iskandaria kuschakewitschi (Herzenstein 1890). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

baenzigeri, Noemacheilus Kottelat [M.] 1983:151, Figs. 1-2 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 90 (no. 1); ref. 8321] Mae Nam Taeng at Mae Taeng, 19°07'N, 98°56'E, Chiengmai Province, Thailand. Holotype: MHNG 2081.32. Paratypes: CMK 3173 (1), MHNG 2081.33 (1). Type catalog: Weber 1998:6 [ref. 23532]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus baenzigeri (Kottelat 1983) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:435 [ref. 23187] as baezingeri). •Valid as Tuberoschistura baenzigeri (Kottelat 1983) -- (Kottelat 1990:233 [ref. 14137], Doi 1997:18 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2012:134 [ref. 32367] Kottelat 2013:214 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Tuberoschistura baenzigeri (Kottelat 1983). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

bahaii, Turcinoemacheilus Esmaeili [H. R.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Özuluğ [M.], Geiger [M. F.] & Freyhof [J.] 2014:259, Figs. 3-6, 7a [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 3) [for 2013]; ref. 33241] Esfahan province, Zayandeh River between Azadegan and Qalee Shahrokh, 32°40'54"N, 50°27'47"E, Iran. Holotype: ZM-CBSU 7193B. Paratypes: FSJF, ZM-CBSU. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Turcinoemacheilus bahaii Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Özuluğ, Geiger & Freyhof 2014 -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:889 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35254], Prokofiev 2017:255 [ref. 35630], Esmaeili et al. 2018:53 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Turcinoemacheilus bahaii Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Özuluğ, Geiger & Freyhof 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Zayandeh River basin, Esfahan, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

bailianensis, Yunnanilus Yang [J.] in Lan, Gan, Wu & Juan 2013:(51) 251, Figs. 36-37 [Science Press, Beijing; ref. 32910] Bailian Cave (the Liu River), Liuzhou City, 24.2°N, 109.4°E, Guangxi, China, elevation 111 meters. Holotype: CLJH 12030089. Paratypes: CLJH 12930088, 12030090, 12030092, 12030094, 12030095 (1 spec. ea.). •Valid as Yunnanilus bailianensis Yang 2013 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus bailianensis Yang 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Bailian Cave, Liuzhou City, China. Habitat: freshwater.

bairdi, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:55, Fig. 27 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Mekong mainstream at Ban Hang Khone below Khone Falls, Champasak Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45327. Paratypes: CMK 15902 (4), LARRI uncat. (1). •Valid as Schistura bairdi Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:104 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura bairdi Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

bajiangensis, Yunnanilus Li [W.-X.] 2004:94, Fig. 2 [Journal of Jishou University (Natural Science Edition) v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 28170] Heilongton Reservoir, ca. 24°46'N, 103°16'E, Shilin County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: HRS 9504001. Paratypes: HRS 9504002-04 (3), 9804004-09 (6). Spelled two ways, apparently bajiangensis is correct (appearing this way in the Chinese abstract and at the beginning of the article). •Valid as Yunnanilus bajiangensis Li 2004 (Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Chen et al. 2012:62 [ref. 31907], Kottelat 2012:134 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32910], Du et al. 2015:254 [ref. 34050] as bajingensis, Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus bajiangensis Li 2004. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

balteatus, Nemacheilus Rendahl [H.] 1948:42, Figs. 20-23 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 40 A (no. 7); ref. 19694] Melwedaung, Tenasserim, Myanmar. Holotype: NRM 14741. Paratypes: NRM 10741 (orig. 19, now 17), ZMA 119971 (1), ZSM [ex NRM] (2). •Synonym of Nemacheilus cincticauda (Blyth 1860) -- (Menon 1987:123 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:475 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura balteata (Rendahl 1948) -- (Kottelat 1990:102 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:174 [ref. 31357], Page et al. 2012:327 [ref. 32342], Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25 [ref. 32804], Plongsesthee et al. 2013:171 [ref. 33012], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366]). Current status: Valid as Schistura balteata (Rendahl 1948). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myanmar and Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

baluchiorum, Nemachilus Zugmayer [E.] 1912:599 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 10 (no. 60); ref. 14897] Panjgur, Baluchistan, Pakistan. Syntypes: (13) NMW 19851 (1), ZSM [old collection] (12) lost in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:267 [ref. 28925]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus baluchiorum Zugmayer 1912 -- (Coad 1981:13 [ref. 22348] and Menon 1987:65 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:471 [ref. 20764], Coad 1996:5 [ref. 23831]). •Questionably valid or possibly a synonym of Nemacheilus bampurensis Nikolskii 1899 -- (Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608]). •Synonym of Schistura bampurensis (Nikolskii 1900) -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:118 [ref. 23810]). •Valid as Schistura baluchiorum (Zugmayer 1912) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187] as balachiorum, Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:14 [ref. 27265] as balochiorum, Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367]). •Mention -- (Prokofiev 2009:892 [ref. 30604]). •Synonym of Paraschistura bampurensis (Nikolskii 1900) -- (Esmaeili et al. 2017:71 [ref. 35254]). Current status: Synonym of Paraschistura bampurensis (Nikolskii 1900). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

bampurensis, Nemacheilus Nikolskii [A. M.] 1900:414 [40] [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 4; ref. 14731] Kjagur and Kashin [Kaekin] rivers, Bampur River near Bazman, Iran. Syntypes: ZIN 11698-99 (6+, 4). On p. 40 of separate. •Valid as Nemacheilus bampurensis Nikolskii 1900 -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:6 [ref. 23831], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869]). •Valid as Schistura bampurensis (Nikolskii 1900) -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:118 [ref. 23810]). •Valid as Paraschistura bampurensis (Nikolskii 1900) -- (Prokofiev 2009:892 [ref. 30604], Esmaeili et al. 2010:373 [ref. 33391], Kottelat 2012:101 [ref. 32367] as bampurenris, Vatandoust & Eagderi 2015:182 [ref. 33819], Freyhof et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33865], Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015:299 [ref. 34027], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:887 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2015:122 [ref. 35030], Esmaeili et al. 2017:71 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:50 [ref. 36089], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:581 [ref. 36833], Eagderi et al. 2019:265 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura bampurensis (Nikolskii 1900). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Bampur River basin, Sistan and Baluchestan provinces, Iran and Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

banar, Nemacheilus Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:135, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] Middle River Pako about 50 kilometers north of Kontum, 14°39.60'N, 107°46.98'E, Kontum Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 28588. Paratypes: CMK 16009 (5); ZFMK 26274-78 (5), 26322-24 (3), 26528-89 (60 or 61?), 26590 (1), 26591-92 (2), 28647 (1). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:111 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Nemacheilus banar Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:90 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:200 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus banar Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

banarescui, Orthrias brandti Delmastro [G. B.] 1982:53, Fig. 1 [Rivista Piemontese di Storia Naturale No. 3; ref. 8988] Devrekani creek near Devrekani, Anatolia, Turkey. Holotype: MCSNC. Paratypes: ISBB (4), IZA 8171 (4), MCSNC (80), MSNVR (4), MRSNT (4). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus brandtii (Kessler 1877), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus banarascui (Delmastro 1982) -- (Stoumboudi et al. 2006:143 [ref. 28767], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Erk'akan 2012:97 [ref. 32281], Kottelat 2012:95 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36267], Turan et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36540], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644], Yogurtçuoglu et al. 2020:[14] [ref. 37627]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus banarescui (Delmastro 1982). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Black Sea tributaries, Kastamonu Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

bannaensis, Schistura Chen [Z.-M.], Yang [J.-X.] & Qi [W.-L.] 2005:147, Fig. 1 [Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 28288] Nanla River basin, Mengla County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype (unique): KIZ 200107. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Schistura bannaensis Chen, Yang & Qi 2005 -- (Zheng et al. 2012:66 [ref. 32070], Chen & Neely 2012:226 [ref. 32332], Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2016:599 [ref. 34743]). Current status: Valid as Schistura bannaensis Chen, Yang & Qi 2005. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanla [Nanlahe] River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

baotianensis, Triplophysa Li [C.-Q.], Li [R.], Liu [T.] & Li [W.-X.] in Li, Liu, Li & Li 2018:60, Figs. 1a-b [Journal of Jishou University (Natural Science Edition) v. 39 (no. 4); ref. 36072] Cave, Baotian Town, Pan County, Guizhou Province, China, 25°24'17.16"N, 104°44'40.37"E, 531 m altitude. Holotype: HRA 20170206003. Paratypes: HRA 2017020601 (1), 20170206002 (1), 20170206004 (1), 20170206005 (1). •Valid as Triplophysa baotianensis Li, Li, Liu & Li 2018. Current status: Valid as Triplophysa baotianensis Li, Li, Liu & Li 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanpanjiang River system, Guizhou Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

barapaniensis, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:131, Pls. 4 (figs. 5-7), 12 (fig. 5) [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Barapani, Meghalaya (Brahmaputra basin), India. Holotype: V/ERS 3063. Paratypes: (3) V/ERS 3066 and ISBB 3594. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Replacement name for Physoschistura elongata Sen & Nalbant 1982, secondarily preoccupied by Aborichthys elongatus Hora 1921 when both are in Nemacheilus. •Wrongly as a synonym of Nemacheilus elongatus (Sen & Nalbant 1981) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:479 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Nemacheilus barapaniensis Menon 1987 -- (Menon 1999:168 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Lokeshor & Wishwanath 2012:102 [ref. 32325]). •Synonym of Physoschistura elongata Sen & Nalbant 1982 on the basis of Art. 59.4 -- (Kottelat et al. 2007:39 [ref. 28942]). •Synonym of Schistura elongata (Sen & Nalbant 1982) -- (H. Bleher personal communication 7/14/2017). Current status: Synonym of Schistura elongata (Sen & Nalbant 1982). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

barbatula, Cobitis Linnaeus [C.] 1758:303 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Fresh waters of Europe and Asia. Syntypes: NRM 68 (1 or 3). Probably 3 syntypes with no geographic origin, Norén et al. 2018:64 [ref. 35742]. •Valid as Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:868 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Lelek 1987:256 [ref. 22962] as Noemacheilus, Chereshnev 1996:601 [ref. 24659] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:449 [ref. 23187], Prokofiev 2003:726 [ref. 27494], Soric 2000:61 [ref. 28770]). •Valid as Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) and subspecies barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Prokofiev 2007:15 [ref. 30343]). •Valid as Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:743 [ref. 24702], Vasil'eva 1998:94 [ref. 23591], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:45 [ref. 26178], Hanel 2003:55 [ref. 27894], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:112 [ref. 28183], Economidis 2005:67 [ref. 28213], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:172 [ref. 28369], Hanel & Lusk 2005:290 [ref. 28804], Fricke et al. 2007:50 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:329 [ref. 29996], Kottelat 2012:77 [ref. 32367], Parin et al. 2014:102 [ref. 33547], Barbieri et al. 2015:75 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Norén et al. 2018:59 [ref. 35742], Tutman et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35876], Ćaleta et al. 2019:149 [ref. 37026], Gauliard et al. 2019:175 [ref. 36787], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:251 [ref. 37108]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Northern and eastern Europe and western Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

barbatus, Oreonectes Gan [X.] in Lan, Gan, Wu & Juan 2013:(72) 252, Figs. 53-54 [Science Press, Beijing; ref. 32910] Cave in Lihu Town, (the Dagou River), Nandan County, Guangxi, China 25.2°N, 107.7°E, elevation 484 meters. CLJH 200908003. Paratypes: CLJH 0908002, 09080341, 09080344, 11100411, 12030112 (7 spec.) •Valid as Oreonectes barbatus Gan 2013 -- (Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Liu et al. 2019:404 [ref. 36573]). •Valid as Troglonectes barbatus (Gan 2013) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Troglonectes barbatus (Gan 2013). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Liujiang River system, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

bashanensis, Triplophysa Xu [T.-Q.] & Wang [K.-F.] 2009:381 [English 384], Figs. 2-6 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 34 (no. 2); ref. 30911] Bashan River, Huangjiabian, Loufand Village, Dahe Town, Xixiang County, 32°35'N, 107°27'E, Shaanxi Province, China, elevation 712 meters. Holotype: SIZ 0608008. Paratypes: (47) ASIZB [now NZMC] 179823 out of SIZ 06080010-07, 0608009, SIZ 6-X-001 - 6-X-039. Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:68 [ref. 33808]. Appeared as Triplophysa longchiensis in the English summary and as bashanensis in the Chinese text; apparently left in the abstract by mistake -- a lapsus. The name in the Chinese text is regarded as correct. •Valid as Triplophysa bashanensis Xu & Wang 2009 -- (Kottelat 2012:123 [ref. 32367], Ye et al. 2015:68 [ref. 33808], Zhang et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa bashanensis Xu & Wang 2009. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Shaanxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

basharensis, Paracobitis Freyhof [J.], Esmaeili [H. R.], Sayyadzadeh [G.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2014:23, Figs. 13-14 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 33505] Bashar River at Dehno, 30°38.42.6"N, 51°37'14.26"E, Iranian Tigris catchment, Iran. Holotype: CM-CBSU J2920. Paratypes: CM-CBSU J2919. •Valid as Paracobitis basharensis Freyhof, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh & Geiger 2014 -- (Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:340 [ref. 33744], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:885 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:47 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Paracobitis basharensis Freyhof, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh & Geiger 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tigris River basin, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

beavani, Nemachilus Günther [A.] 1868:350 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Kossye River, Uttar Pradesh, India. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.5.12.35. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus beavani Günther 1868 -- (Shrestha 1978:37 [ref. 15970] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1987:84 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:168 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Ataur Rahman 1989:148 [ref. 24860] as Nemachilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:472 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:546 [ref. 23778], Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura beavani (Günther 1868) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Ataur Rahman 2003:167 [ref. 31338], Kottelat et al. 2007:40 [ref. 28942], Shrestha 2008:131 [ref. 29923], Conway et al. 2011:1746 [ref. 31594], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:262 [ref. 32337], Kottelat 2012:1065 [ref. 32367], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Khynrian & Sen 2014:14 [ref. 33853], Bleher 2018:206 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura beavani (Günther 1868). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Himalaya Foothills, Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

beipanjiangensis, Yunnanilus Li [W.-X.], Mao [W.-N.] & Sun [R.-F.] in Li, Mao, Sun & Lu 1994:370 [English p. 373], Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 19 (no. 3); ref. 22582] Xintun, 26.02°N, 104.01°E, Zhanyi County, Beipanjiang River system, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: Fish. Adm. Centre, Qujing Region, Yunnan 9107016. Paratypes: Fish. Adm. Centre, Qujing Region, Yunnan 9107017 (1, allotype), 9107018-50 (32). •Valid as Yunnanilus beipanjiangensis Li, Mao & Sun 1994 -- (Li et al. 1999:4 [ref. 23880], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], An et al. 2009:633 [ref. 30709], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Kottelat 2012:134 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus beipanjiangensis Li, Mao & Sun 1994. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

bella, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:104, Figs. 72-73 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Mae Nam Fang, 35 kilometers south of Fang on road to Chiang Mai, Mekong basin, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27473 [now ZRC 38465]. Paratypes: USNM 295769 (10), 295776 (3, c&s). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:240 [ref. 31652] Holotype now at ZRC. •Valid as Schistura bella Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Vishwanath & Nebeshwar 2004:328 [ref. 28011], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2010:324 [ref. 30687], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:176 [ref. 31357], Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2014:222 [ref. 33238], Kottelat 2017:402 [ref. 35532]). •Valid as Mustura bella (Kottelat 1990) -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Mustura bella (Kottelat 1990). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mae Nam Kok, Mekong River basin, northern Thailand and Nam Ma basin, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

bellibarus, Nemachilus Tchang [T.-L.], Yueh [T.-H.] & Hwang [H.-C.] 1963:625, Figs. 4-7 [Acta Zoologica Sinica v. 15 (no. 4); ref. 5591] Tso-Hwui-La, upper Nyang-Chu, southern Tibet, China. Holotype (unique): ASIZB [now NZMC] 43173 [ex TS-409]. Type catalog: Zhang 1996:500 [ref. 24036], Ye et al. 2015:59 [ref. 33808]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Triplophysa brevicauda (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:107 [ref. 17744], Zhang et al. 2019:381 [ref. 36699]). •Synonym of Triplophysa microps (Steindachner 1866) -- (Wu & Wu 1992:196 [ref. 21205]). •Valid as Triplophysa bellibarus (Tchang, Yueh & Hwang 1963) -- (Kottelat 2012:123 [ref. 32367], Ye et al. 2015:59 [ref. 33808]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa bellibarus (Tchang, Yueh & Hwang 1963). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

berezowskii, Nemachilus Günther [A.] 1896:217 [19], Pl. 2 (fig. C) [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk 1896, v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 2019] Hui-hsien [now Hui County of Gansu Province], upper Chang Jiang [Yangtze River] drainage, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. On p. 19 of separate. •Synonym of Paracobitis variegatus (Dabry de Thiersant 1874) -- (Zhu 1989:32 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:140 [ref. 21205], Yang & Chen 1994:60 [ref. 28152], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:49 [ref. 23556]). •Synonym of Homatula variegata (Dabry de Thiersant 1874) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:444 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Homatula berezowskii (Günther 1896) -- (Hu & Zhang 2010:56, 57 [ref. 30780], Gu & Zhang 2012:597 [ref. 31632], Kottelat 2012:83 [ref. 32367], Li et al. 2019:346 [ref. 37175]). Current status: Valid as Homatula berezowskii (Günther 1896). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yangtze River drainage, China. Habitat: freshwater.

bergamensis, Barbatula Erk'akan [F.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Özeren [S. C.] 2007:71, Fig. 3 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 29026] Bergama, Kozak (Madra) Creek, 39°40'N, 27°28'E, Turkey. Holotype: HUIC KE-1. Paratypes: HUIC KE-1 (16). •Valid as Barbatula bergamensis Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007 -- (Erk'akan et al. 2008:115 [ref. 29859]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus bergamensis (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus theophilii (Stoumboudi, Kottelat & Barbieri 2006) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:99 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus theophilii Stoumboudi, Kottelat & Barbieri 2006. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Turkey. Habitat: freshwater.

bergi, Nemacheilus Gratzianov [V. I.] 1907:163, 167 [Trudy Otdela Ichtiologii Imperatorskago Russkago Obshchestva Akklimatizacii Zivotnych' i Rastenii. v. 4; ref. 1871] Akstapha [Akstafa] River, right tributary of Kura River, Azerbaijan. Syntypes: (2) ZMMU (not found in 2002). Based on Berg 1899:30 [ref. 20663]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus angorae Steindachner 1897 -- (Coad 1995:21 [ref. 23608], Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:308 [ref. 31752]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus bergi (Gratzianov 1907) -- (Çiçek et al. 2018:233 [ref. 36249], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus bergi (Gratzianov 1907). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Eurasia: Caspian Sea basin, Azerbaijan and possibly Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

bergianus, Nemachilus Derjavin [A. N.] 1934:109, Fig. 8 [Trudy Azerbaidzhanskogo otdela Zakavkazskogo filiala Akademii Nauk SSSR, Sektor Zoologii v. 7; ref. 19591] Kisum village, Shah-rud River, Safid Rud basin, Iran. Holotype (unique): ZIN 25433. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus bergianus Derjavin 1934 -- (Berg 1949:873 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869]). •Questionably valid or questionably a synonym of Nemacheilus angorae Steindachner 1897 -- (Coad 1995:21, 22 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Orthrias bergianus (Derzhavin 1934) -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:111 [ref. 23810]). •Valid as Barbatula bergianus (Derzhavin 1934) -- (based on status of Barbatula). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus brandtii (Kessler 1877), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus bergianus (Derjavin 1934) -- (Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:95 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33140], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:883 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2016:105 [ref. 34789], Freyhof 2016:99 [ref. 34815], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2016:247 [ref. 34976], Freyhof & Abdullah 2017:84 [ref. 35169], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:379 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:64 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:552 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Eagderi et al. 2018:458 [ref. 35940], Esmaeili et al. 2018:43 [ref. 36089], Çiçek et al. 2018:240 [ref. 36249], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644], Kuljanishvili et al. 2020:[6] [ref. 37535]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus bergianus (Derjavin 1934). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Eurasia: Caspian Sea, Urmia and Namak Lake basins. Habitat: freshwater.

bertini, Nemacheilus Fang [P.-W.] 1941:253 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 13173] High valleys of Mongolia, China. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3800 (1), B-2640 [ex MNHN 0000-3800] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:99 [ref. 19574] as syntypes. •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Zhu 1989:114 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:212 [ref. 21205] as stoliczkae). • Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990] as stoliczkae). •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa retropinnis (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa retropinnis (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

bhimachari, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1937:13, Fig. 5 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 39 (pt 1); ref. 15279] Thunga River at Shimoga, Karnataka, southern India. Holotype: ZSI F12178/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:122 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:363 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus striatus Day 1867 -- (Menon 1987:113 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:505 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:180 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid species, genus uncertain -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:445 [ref. 23187]). •Synonym of Longischistura striatus (Day 1867). •Valid as Schistura bhimachari (Hora 1937) -- (Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Sudasinghe 2017:108 [ref. 35539]). Current status: Valid as Schistura bhimachari (Hora 1937). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

bilturio, Cobitis Hamilton [F.] 1822:358, 395 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Brahmaputra River at Gualpara [Goalpara], Assam, India. No types known. Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367] as first reviser gives preference to turbio over bilturio. Information on type locality see Britz 2019:46 [ref. 37532]. Hamilton's original, unpublished illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 226 [ref. 37532]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1987:141 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:180 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:28 [ref. 14137], Ataur Rahman 2003:164 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:198 [ref. 32989], Grant 2008:14 [ref. 33826] but as a subgenus Paracanthocobitis). •Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Singer & Page 2015:386 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

bimucronata, Cobitis McClelland [J.] 1839:304, 435, Pl. 51 (fig. 4) [Asiatic Researches v. 19 (pt 2); ref. 2923] Northeastern Bengal. Based on Hamilton manuscript drawings from Northeastern India (Menon 1987:141 [ref. 14149]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1987:141 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:180 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:28 [ref. 14137], Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:198 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Singer & Page 2015:386 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

binotatus, Nemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1933:61, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Journal of the Siam Society, Natural History Supplement v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 4051] Mekhan, tributary of Meping, southwest of Doi Sutep, northern Thailand. Holotype: KUMF 0167. Paratypes: KUMF 0168 (1). Type catalog: Monkolprasit 1969:6 [ref. 23217]. •Valid as Nemacheilus binotatus Smith 1933 -- (Kottelat 1990:46 [ref. 14137], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Freyhof & Serov 2001:137 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2012:90 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:200 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus binotatus Smith 1933. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

blackiana, Nemacheilus barbatulus forma Bǎcescu-Meşter [L.] 1967:369 [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 7; ref. 7940] Regarded as infrasubspecific by Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952]. Not available, infrasubspecific; from Black Beck River, England. •In the synonymy of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). Nemacheilidae.

bleekeri, Nemachilus Sauvage [H.-E.] & Dabry de Thiersant [P.] 1874:15 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 6) v. 1 (art. 5); ref. 15665] Yenkiatsoun, southern Shen Si, China. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7890 (1), B-2642 [ex MNHN 0000-7890] (7). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:98 [ref. 19574]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Precise location of Yenkiatsoun unknown (He et al. 2008:49 [ref. 29558]). See also Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367] for locality information. •Valid as Triplophysa bleekeri (Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant 1874) -- (Zhu 1989:108 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:189 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:81 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:117 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:78 [ref. 23556], Tang et al. 2001:14 [ref. 25373], Chen & Yang 2005:606 [ref. 28119], He et al. 2008:50 [ref. 29558] as status uncertain, Wu & Wang 2009:382 [ref. 30911], Zheng et al. 2010:[3] [ref. 30841], He et al. 2012:279 [ref. 32339], Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367], Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966], Bashir et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34447], Zhang et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34477] with authorship as Sauvage & Dabry, Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665], Zhang et al. 2019:380 [ref. 36699] with author as Dabry de Thiersant). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa bleekeri (Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant 1874). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

blythii, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1870:552 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 3) (art. 3) (for 25 Nov. 1869); ref. 1077] No locality [?Myanmar or India]. Syntypes: (2) ZSI A.960 (1, lost). Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Species inquirendae et incertae sedis in Nemacheilidae -- (Kottelat 2012:74 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:198 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Nemacheilus blythii Day 1870. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

bolavenensis, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:56, Fig. 28 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Huay Makchan-Gnai (Xe Nam Noy basin), south of Ban Taot, at turnoff to Xe Nam Noy Project, on road from pakse to Attapu, 15°04'14"N, 106°32'33"E, Champasak Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45328. Paratypes: CMK 15520 (17), LARRI uncat. (5), NRM 44890 (5), ZRC 45329 (5). •Valid as Schistura bolavenensis Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:104 [ref. 25780], Ou et al. 2011:199 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:355 [ref. 35511]). Current status: Valid as Schistura bolavenensis Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Bolaven Plateau, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

bombifrons, Nemachilus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:67, Pls. 2, 4 [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Aksu darja, Tschertschen darja, Chotan River, Dol and Sampula. Kariensee Mts., Nija Oasis. Lectotype: ZIN 7359. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1891.10.7.34-35 [ex ZIN] (1, 1); ZIN 7292 (2), 7341-45 (1, 1, 1, 3, 5), 7359 (6+), 7378 (1); plus 7362 (5) and 7365 (6+) are types of subspecies incipiens from Kariensee Mts. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Prokofiev 2002:471 [ref. 26268]. •Valid as Triplophysa bombifrons (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:96 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:183 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:116 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Prokofiev 2002:471 [ref. 26268], Prokofiev 2006:255 [ref. 29061], Li et al. 2007:47 [ref. 29309], Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096], Zhang et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Tarimichthys bombifrons (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa bombifrons (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Karakurum Mountains, China. Habitat: freshwater.

botia, Cobitis Hamilton [F.] 1822:350, 394 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Northeastern Bengal [Brahmapatra Riber, Goalpara, India on Hora 1929]. Neotype: BMNH 1889.2.1.1562. Neotype designated by Singer & Page 2015:388 [ref. 33823]. Information on type locality (originally Gualpara, Assam, India) see Britz 2019:46 [ref. 37532]. Hamilton's original, unpublished illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 216 [ref. 37532]. •Valid as Nemacheilus botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Shrestha 1978:37 [ref. 15970] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1987:141 [ref. 14149] as Noemachelius, Ataur Rahman 1989:145 [ref. 24860] as Nemachilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:472 [ref. 20764], Singh & Yazdani 1993:199 [ref. 24022] as Noemacheilus, Sen 1995:546 [ref. 23778], Zacharias et al. 1996:40 [ref. 25526], Sen 1999:197 [ref. 24750] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:180 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus, Yadav 2003:16 [ref. 27711]). •Valid as Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:28 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:433 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Kullander et al. 1999:153 [ref. 23689], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2000:356 [ref. 25207], Vishwanath & Laisram 2001:200 [ref. 25886], Rafique et al. 2003:97 [ref. 27173], Mirza 2003:13 [ref. 27265], Ataur Rahman 2003:164 [ref. 31338], Shrestha 2008:129 [ref. 29923], Conway et al. 2011:1746 [ref. 31594], Kottelat 2012:50 [ref. 31992], Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367], Ahmed et al. 2013:286 [ref. 32872], Gurung et al. 2013:4883 [ref. 32969], Kottelat 2013:198 [ref. 32989], Khynrian & Sen 2014:8 [ref. 33853], Zhang et al. 2016:127 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822), but a valid subgenus Paracanthocobitis (Hamilton 1822) -- (Grant 2008:14 [ref. 33826]). •Valid as Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Singer & Page 2015:386 [ref. 33823], Bleher 2018:190 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand and Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

boutanensis, Cobitis McClelland [J.] 1842:586 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 2 (no. 8); ref. 2926] Bolan Pass, Afghanistan [now Bhutan]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.775. •Valid as Cobitis boutanensis McClelland 1842 -- (Coad 1981:13 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Nemacheilus boutanensis (McClelland 1842) -- (Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Paracobitis boutanensis (McClelland 1842) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:443 [ref. 23187], Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604], Kottelat 2012:99 [ref. 32367], Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:340 [ref. 33744]). •Valid as Aborichthys boutanensis (McClelland 1842) -- (Thoni & Hard 2015:291 [ref. 33918] with authorship as McClelland and Griffith, Bleher 2018:118 [ref. 36647], Kosygin et al. 2019:74 [ref. 36729], Shangningam et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37201]). Current status: Valid as Aborichthys boutanensis (McClelland 1842). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Brahmaputra basin, Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh, India. Habitat: freshwater.

brachypterus, Nemachilus robustus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:40, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Gansu Province, China. Syntypes: ZIN 7320 (2). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa brachyptera (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096] with comment, Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa brachyptera (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

brahui, Nemachilus Zugmayer [E.] 1912:598 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 10 (no. 60); ref. 14897] Kelat, Baluchistan, Pakistan. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (24) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:267 [ref. 28925]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus brahui Zugmayer 1912 -- (Coad 1981:13 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus, Coad 1996:6 [ref. 23831]). •Synonym of Triplophysa griffithii (Günther 1868) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:511 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Triplophysa brahui (Zugmayer 1912) -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:116 [ref. 23810], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:16 [ref. 27265], Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa brahui (Zugmayer 1912). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Afghanistan and Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

brandtii, Nemachilus Kessler [K. F.] 1877:174, Pl. 6 (fig. 23) [The Aralo-Caspian Expedition; ref. 2597] Upper Kura River at Tbilis, Georgia, Eurasia. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1897.7.5.39 [ex ZIN] (1) Tiflis, ZIN 2923 (4, lost in 1924). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus brandtii Kessler 1877 -- (Berg 1949:876 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus brandti, Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608] as brandti, Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869] as brandti). •Valid as Orthrias brandtii (Kessler 1877) -- (Bănărescu et al. 1978:260 [ref. 9016] as brandti, Nalbant & Bianco 1998:111 [ref. 23810] as brandti, Fricke et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Barbatula brandtii (Kessler 1877) -- (Erk'akan et al. 2007:78 [ref. 29026]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus brandtii (Kessler 1877) -- (Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:168 [ref. 31251], Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kamangar et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33140], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:883 [ref. 34062], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2016:105 [ref. 34789], Freyhof 2016:94 [ref. 34815], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34976], Esmaeili et al. 2017:64 [ref. 35254], Eagderi et al. 2018:458 [ref. 35940], Esmaeili et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36089], Çiçek et al. 2018:240 [ref. 36249], Turan et al. 2019:[10] [ref. 36540], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644], Kaya et al. 2020:339 [ref. 37582], Kuljanishvili et al. 2020:[6] [ref. 37535]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus brandtii (Kessler 1877). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Eurasia: Kura and Aras River drainages, Caspian Sea basin (Georgia, Turkey and Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

brevibarba, Triplophysa Ding [R.-H.] 1993:249 (English p. 251), Figs. 5-8 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 21972] Mianning County, 28°34'N, 102°10'E, Sichuan, China, elevation 2000 meters. Holotype: MSINR 900264. Paratypes: IHASW 85038 (1); MSINR 850384 (1, allotype), 900254-263 (10). Subjectively invalid; apparently secondarily preoccupied in Triplophysa by Nemachilus yarkandensis brevibarbus Herzenstein 1888 as treated by Wu & Wu 1992:257 [ref. 21205]. Replaced by Triplophysia dingi Prokofiev 2010, but Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367] disagrees saying an unneeded replacement name. •Wrongly considered valid as Triplophysa brevibarba Ding 1993 -- (Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613]). •Valid as Triplophysa brevibarba Ding 1993 -- (He et al. 2012:278 [ref. 32339], Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367], Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966], Zhang et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa brevibarba Ding 1993. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

brevibarbus, Nemachilus yarkandensis Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:78, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Aksu darja, Nija Oasis, Tschertschen darja, Dol and Sampulu. Syntypes: ZIN 7287 (1), 7298 (4), 7346 (2, lost), 7398 (3), 7361 (3). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Triplophysa yarkandensis (Day 1877) -- (Wu & Wu 1992:257 [ref. 21205]). •Synonym of Hedinichthys yarkandensis (Day 1877) -- (Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:83 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Hedinichthys yarkandensis (Day 1877). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

brevicauda, Nemachilus stoliczkae Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:23, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Dabsun Gobi, Mongolia or China. Lectotype: ZIN 7370. Paralectotypes: ZIN 7370a (5). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Prokofiev 2007:16? [Engl. 12] [ref. 28990]. •Valid as Triplophysa brevicauda (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:107 [ref. 17744], Ding 1994:80 [ref. 21531], Zhang et al. 1995:55 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:117 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:77 [ref. 23556], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Prokofiev 2007:16 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061], Zheng et al. 2010:[3] [ref. 30841], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989], Li et al. 2015:423 [ref. 33642], Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966], Zhang et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665], Zhang et al. 2019:381 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa brevicauda (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, China and ? Mongolia. Habitat: freshwater.

breviceps, Noemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1945:308, Fig. 63 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 188; ref. 4056] Menam Mao, tributary of Menam Fang, Mekong basin, northern Thailand. Holotype (unique): USNM 117751. Type catalog: Vilasri et al. 2018:57 [ref. 36451]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Schistura breviceps (Smith 1945) -- (Kottelat 1990:108 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2016:599 [ref. 34743], Vilasri et al. 2018:57 [ref. 36451]). Current status: Valid as Schistura breviceps (Smith 1945). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand to Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

brevis, Nemachilus Boulenger [G. A.] 1893:203 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 12 (no. 69); ref. 14522] Inlé Lake, Fort Stedman, southern Shan States, Myanmar, elevation 3000 feet. Lectotype: BMNH 1893.6.30.83. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1893.6.30.84-85 (2). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Kottelat & Chu 1988:79 [ref. 13392]. •Valid as Nemacheilus brevis Boulenger 1893 -- (Menon 1987:181 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:473 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Yunnanilus brevis (Boulenger 1893) -- (Kottelat 1990:239 [ref. 14137], Doi 1997:18 [ref. 22832], An et al. 2009:632 [ref. 30709], Chen et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31907]). •Valid as Petruichthys brevis (Boulenger 1893) -- (Kottelat 2012:102 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:203 [ref. 32989], Kano et al. 2016:9 [ref. 34887]). Current status: Valid as Petruichthys brevis (Boulenger 1893). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

brunneanus, Nemachilus Annandale [N.] 1918:44, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 14; ref. 127] Inlé Lake, Myanmar. Holotype: ZSI F9406/1. Paratypes: BMNH 1920.1.20.2-7 (6), MSNG 29804 [ex ZSI] (1), ZSI. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:363 [ref. 27706] with type locality as Yawnghwe Valley. •Valid as Nemacheilus brunneanus Annandale 1918 -- (Menon 1987:136 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:474 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Physoschistura brunneana (Annandale 1918) -- (Kottelat 1990:78 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:446 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Chen et al. 2011:180 [ref. 31359], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:6 [ref. 31362], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:9 [ref. 32001], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:230 [ref. 32098], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:102 [ref. 32325], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:249 [ref. 32336], Kottelat 2012:102 [ref. 32367], Suvarnaraksha 2013:245 [ref. 32981], Kottelat 2013:203 [ref. 32989], Lalramliana et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34795], Tamang & Sinha 2016:287 [ref. 34804], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:412 [ref. 35638]). Current status: Valid as Physoschistura brunneana (Annandale 1918). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Inlé Lake, Salween basin, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

bucculentus, Noemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1945:326, Fig. 74 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 188; ref. 4056] Huey Nam Puat at Ban Nam Puat, Laos. Holotype: USNM 107942. Paratypes: USNM 107896 (1), 107945 (1). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Schistura bucculenta (Smith 1945) -- (Zhu 1989:43 [ref. 17744], Kottelat 1990:112 [ref. 14137], Zhu 1995:110 [ref. 25213], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Chen 1999:304 [ref. 24925], Kottelat 2001:104 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Schistura bucculenta (Smith 1945). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos and China. Habitat: freshwater.

bureschi, Nemachilus Drensky [P.] 1928:160, Fig. 1 [Izvestija na Carskite Prirodonaucni Instituti va Sofija = Mitteilungen aus den Königlichen Naturwissenschaftlichen Instituten in Sofia, Bulgraien = Bulletin des Institutions Royales d'Histoire Naturelle à Sofia, Bulgarie v. 1; ref. 15891] Bezirk Radomir and a tributary of the Struma River in Bezirk Küstendil and Dupniza, Bulgaria. Syntypes: NMNHS (2). Original genus should have been Nemacheilus •Synonym of Orthrias brandtii (Kessler 1877), but a valid subspecies -- (Bănărescu et al. 1978:261 [ref. 9016], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:449 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Barbatula bureschi (Drensky 1928) -- (Kottelat 1997:94 [ref. 22952], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:172 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:50 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus bureschi (Drensky 1928) -- (Stoumboudi et al. 2006:143 [ref. 28767], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:333 [ref. 29996], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:95 [ref. 32367], Barbieri et al. 2015:75 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Esmaeili et al. 2017:63 [ref. 35254], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus bureschi (Drensky 1928). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Eurasia: Aegean Sea watershed (Macedonia, Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

cakaensis, Triplophysa Cao [W.-X.] & Zhu [S.-Q.] 1988:201 (English p. 204), Figs. 1-3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 17647] Stream (Cakayanhu Lake drainage) near Caka town, Ulanxian County, 36°N, 98°E, Qinghai, China. Holotype: IHASW 561X0034. Paratypes: IHASW 561X0031-0033 (3), 561X0035-0060 (26). •Valid as Triplophysa cakaensis Cao & Zhu 1988 -- (Zhu 1989:120 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:227 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:118 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34477], Feng et al. 2020:468 [ref. 37576]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa cakaensis Cao & Zhu 1988. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

callichromus, Noemacheilus Zhu [S.-Q.] & Wang [S.-H.] 1985:214 [220], Figs. 13-17 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 8120] Babianjiang River, 24°20'N, 100°10'E, Jingdong County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NIGLAS 810233. Paratypes: IHB F1969/44112-13 (2), NIGLAS (orig. 19). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. English description on p. 220. •Valid as Schistura callichromus (Zhu & Wang 1985) -- (Zhu 1989:53 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:111 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2001:47 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Endruweit 2014:153 [ref. 33205]). •Valid as Schistura callichroma Zhu & Eang 1985 -- (Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:88, 92 [ref. 32798], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2015:65 [ref. 33868], Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477], Endruweit 2017:591 [ref. 35662]). Current status: Valid as Schistura callichroma (Zhu & Wang 1985). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

callidora, Schistura Bohlen [J.] & Šlechtová [V.] 2011:2, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 31362] Mouth of Nam Paw at confluence with Myitnge River at Hsipaw city, 22°37'24"N, 97°18'12"E, Shan State, Myanmar. Holotype: ZRC 52037. Paratypes: CMK 21899 (1), IAPG A3909=3910 (2), ZRC 52038 (4). •Valid as Schistura callidora Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011 -- (Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:4 [ref. 32463], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Bohlen et al. 2014:24 [ref. 33197], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2014:222 [ref. 33238]). Current status: Valid as Schistura callidora Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myit Nge River drainage, Irrawaddy River basin, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

cambodgiensis, Tuberoschistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:237, Figs. 178 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] A northern tributary of Grand Lac, at "Point Khmer" on road from Siem Reap to Kompong Thom, Stung Chikreng, Cambodia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1988-0099. •Valid as Tuberoschistura cambodgiensis Kottelat 1990 -- (Rainboth 1996:131 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:18 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2012:134 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:214 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2013:214 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Tuberoschistura cambodgiensis Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

canicula, Paracanthocobitis Singer [R. A.] & Page [L. M.] 2015:389, Fig. 13 [Copeia v. 103 (no 2); ref. 33823] Mekong basin, O Kap at ford on Highway 197, 7 km S of Sasane River, trib. of Mekong River, Cambodia, 13.872N, 107.297E. Holotype: UMMZ 234617. Paratype: ZRC. •Valid as Paracanthocobitis canicula Singer & Page 2015. Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis canicula Singer & Page 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mekong basin, Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

caohaiensis, Yunnanilus Ding [R.-H.] 1992:489 [491], Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 17 (no. 4); ref. 22049] Caohai Lake, Weining County, 26°49'-26°53'N, 104°12'-104°18'E, Guizhou, China, elevation 2172 meters. Holotype: MSINR 900077. Paratypes: (350) IHASW 900053; MSINR 900052 (1, allotype), 90005-51, 900054-76, 900078-117. On p. 491 in English. •Valid as Yunnanilus caohaiensis Ding 1992 -- (Zhu 1995:548 [ref. 25213], Li et al. 2000:351 [ref. 26012], Chen et al. 2012:62 [ref. 31907], Kottelat 2012:134 [ref. 32367], Du et al. 2015:254 [ref. 34050], Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus caohaiensis Ding 1992. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Caohai Lake, Guizhou Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

carbonaria, Schistura Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:145, Figs. 14-16 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] Stream Khe Vinh An at Nam Dong village about 40 kilometers south of Hue, 16°11.58'N, 107°43.76'E, Thua Thien Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 26593. Paratypes: CMK 16015 (4); ZFMK 26594-653 (60), 26654-64 (11), 26665-69 (5), Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:112 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Schistura carbonaria Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura carbonaria Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thua Thien province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

carletoni, Nemacheilus Fowler [H. W.] 1924:68, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 76; ref. 15446] Kooloo [= Kulu] Valley, India. Holotype: MCZ 18748. •Valid as Nemacheilus carletoni Fowler 1924 -- (Menon 1987:55 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:475 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:169 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura carletoni (Fowler 1924) -- (Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Khynrian & Sen 2014:15 [ref. 33853], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517]). Current status: Valid as Schistura carletoni (Fowler 1924). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Assam, Sikkim and Himachal Pradesh, India. Habitat: freshwater.

cataracta, Aborichthys Arunachalam [M.], Raja [M.], Punniyam [M.] & Mayden [R. L.] 2014:34, Figs. 1-2 [Species v. 7 (no. 18); ref. 33198] Arunachal Pradesh, stream joining with Ranga River, Hong Village, Upper Subanshri District, 27°32'766"N, 93°51'57E, India. Holotype: MSUMNH 2. Paratypes: CMA 15 (2), MSUMNH 57 (6), ZSI/SRS F8575 (1). •Valid as Aborichthys cataracta Arunachalam, Raja, Punniyam & Mayden 2014 -- (Raghavan et al. 2014:741 [ref. 34574], Bleher 2018:120 [ref. 36647], Kosygin et al. 2019:75 [ref. 36729], Shangningam et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37201]). Current status: Valid as Aborichthys cataracta Arunachalam, Raja, Punniyam & Mayden 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Ranga River drainage, upper Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Habitat: freshwater.

cataracta, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1998:70, Figs. 109-110 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 23436] Nam Theun, waterfall at 18°01'40"N, 104°58'54"E, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 41793. Paratypes: CMK 12254 (58), 14356 (5); DFV uncat. (10); NRM 36707 (8); ZRC 41794 (8). •Valid as Schistura cataracta Kottelat 1998 -- (Kottelat 2001:104 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:704 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura cataracta Kottelat 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Theun watershed, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

caucasicus, Nemachilus barbatulus var. Berg [L. S.] 1898:67 [26] [Izvestija Kavkazskago Muzeja = Mitteilungen des Kaukasischen Museums = Bulletin du Musée du Caucase v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 20653] Argun River, Terek River basin, Russia. Syntypes: (many). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. On p. 26 of Russian issue. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Berg 1949:872 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Lelek 1987:256 [ref. 22962] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Reshetnikov et al. 1997:743 [ref. 24702], Vasil'eva 1998:95 [ref. 23591], Gabrielyan 2001:28 [ref. 25867], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:167 [ref. 31251], Kottelat 2012:77 [ref. 32367] with question, Parin et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33547] with question). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

caudofurca, Barbatula Mai [D. Y.] 1978:233, Fig. 106 [Identification of the fresh-water fishes of North Viet Nam v. 1; ref. 13511] Nâm-Công (Mã River), northern Vietnam. Syntypes: DVZUT. •Valid as Schistura caudofurca (Mai 1978) -- (Kottelat 2001:47 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2001:104 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25 [ref. 32804], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:153 [ref. 33205], Endruweit 2015:65 [ref. 33868], Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura caudofurca (Mai 1978). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Vietnam and China. Habitat: freshwater.

celata, Mustura Kottelat [M.] 2018:297, Figs. 11-18 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 28 (no. 4) [IEF-1080]; ref. 36206] Nan Mon Chaung [stream], about 2 km upstream of Nan Mon village [also Nan Mun or Nam Mun village], Lake Indawgyi basin, Kachin State, Myanmar, 24°59'05"N, 96°20'44"E. Holotype: MHNG 2772.057. Paratypes: CMK, ZRC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Mustura celata Kottelat 2018. Current status: Valid as Mustura celata Kottelat 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lake Indawgyi and Irrawaddy River basins, northern Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

cemali, Oxynoemacheilus Turan [D.], Kaya [C.], Kalayci [G.], Bayçelebi [E.] & Aksu [I.] 2019:[2], Figs.1-4 [Journal of Fish Biology v.94 (no. 3); ref. 36540] Stream Yaglı, about 2 km southeast of lncesu, Erzurum Province, Turkey, 40°18'30.49"N, 41°00'24.36"E. Holotype: FFR 15504. Paratypes: FFR. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus cemali Turan, Kaya, Kalayci, Bayçelebi & Aksu 2019 -- (Kuljanishvili et al. 2020:[6] [ref. 37535], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus cemali Turan, Kaya, Kalayci, Bayçelebi & Aksu 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Eurasia: Çoruh and upper Yesilırmak River drainages, Black Sea basin (Turkey and probably Georgia). Habitat: freshwater.

ceyhanensis, Schistura Erk'akan [F.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Özeren [S. C.] 2007:80, Fig. 10 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 29026] Yalak Village, Elbistan, Kahramanmaras Province, 38°39'N, 36°37'E, Turkey. Holotype: HUIC CEY-1. Paratypes: HUIC CEY-1 (3). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus ceyhanensis (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:95 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644], Kaya et al. 2020:289 [ref. 37622]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus ceyhanensis (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Ceyhan River basin (Mediterranean tributary), Kahramanmaraş Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

chandagaitensis, Triplophysa gundriseri Prokofiev [A. M.] 2002:S55, Fig. 4a [Journal of Ichthyology v. 42 (suppl. 1); ref. 27462] Chandagaity River in the village of Chandagaity (Tuva Republic, Russia), 50°44'N, 92°08'E. Holotype: ZISP 52199. Paratypes: ZISP 52200 (7). Additional material: (2, osteol. prep.). For remarks on systematics see Kottelat 2006:55 [ref. 28831]. •Synonym of Triplophysa gundriseri Prokofiev 2002 but a valid subspecies as described. •Valid as Triplophysa chandagaitensis Prokofiev 2002 -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:116 [ref. 28183]). •Synonym of Triplophysa gundriseri Prokofiev 2002 -- (Kottelat 2006:55 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa chandagaitensis Prokofiev 2002. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Chandagaity River, Tuva Republic, Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

change, Homatula Endruweit [M.] 2015:66, Figs. 1, 3-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 33868] Yunnan, Puer Prefecture, Jiangcheng County, hill stream close to Yiwanshui village, a tributary to Mengyejiang River, Black River, Red River basin, 22°35.759'N, 101°45.488'E, China, elevation 953 meters. Holotype: KIZ 2012004205. Paratypes: KIZ, ZFMK, ZRC. •Valid as Homatula change Endruweit 2015 -- (Endruweit et al. 2018:565 [ref. 35763], Li et al. 2019:346 [ref. 37175]). Current status: Valid as Homatula change Endruweit 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Black River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

chapaensis, Nemacheilus Rendahl [H.] 1944:35, Fig. 18 [Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps-och Vitterhets-Samhälles Handlingar (Ser. 6 B) v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 3705] Sapa, Láo Chi Province, Vietnam. Holotype: NHMG. •Valid as Barbatula chapaensis (Rendahl 1944) -- (Mai 1978:237 [ref. 13511]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus fasciolatus (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Zhu & Cao 1987:327 [ref. 14139] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Schistura fasciolata (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Zhu 1989:47 [ref. 17744]). •Valid as Schistura chapaensis (Rendahl 1944) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Kottelat 2001:47 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura chapaensis (Rendahl 1944). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Láo Chi Province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

chhimtuipuiensis, Physoschistura Lalramliana [no initials], Lalhlimpuia [D. V.], Solo [B.] & Vanramliana [no initials] 2016:193, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4173 (no. 2); ref. 34795] Ngengpui River, a tributary of Kaladan River, in the vicinity of Khawmawi, Lunglei district, Mizoram, India, 22°31'18"N, 92°46'27"E. Holotype: PUCMF 14062. Paratypes: PUCMF. •Valid as Physoschistura chhimtuipuiensis Lalramliana, Lalhlimpuia, Solo & Vanramliana 2016 -- (Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:412 [ref. 35638], Bleher 2018:201 [ref. 36647]). •Valid as Mustura chhimtuipuiensis (Lalramliana, Lalhlimpuia, Solo & Vanramliana 2016) -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Mustura chhimtuipuiensis (Lalramliana, Lalhlimpuia, Solo & Vanramliana 2016). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kaladan River drainage, Mizoram, India. Habitat: freshwater.

chindwinensis, Physoschistura Lokeshwor [Y.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2012:231, Figs. 1-4 [Ichthyological Research v. 59 (no. 3); ref. 32098] Lokchao [as Loakchao on p. 232] River at Moreh, 24°15'03"N, 94°17'59"E, Chindwin basin, Manipur, India, elevation 212 meters. Holotype: MUMF 11077. Paratypes: MUMF 11074-076 [?075] (given as 2), 11076-084 (6), 11085-086 (2), 11087-089 (3); SZI FF 4603/3 (3). •Valid as Physoschistura chindwinensis Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012 -- (Lokeshor & Wishwanath 2012:102 [ref. 32325], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:101 [ref. 32325], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:253 [ref. 32336], Kottelat 2012:102 [ref. 32367], Suvarnaraksha 2013:246 [ref. 32981], Kottelat 2013:203 [ref. 32989], Khynrian & Sen 2014:12 [ref. 33853], Lalramliana et al. 2016:198 [ref. 34795], Tamang & Sinha 2016:287 [ref. 34804], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:410 [ref. 35638], Bleher 2018:200 [ref. 36647]). •Valid as Mustura chindwinensis (Lokeswor & Vishwanath 2012) -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Mustura chindwinensis (Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lokchao River, Chindwin basin, Manipur, India. Habitat: freshwater.

chindwinicus, Nemacheilus Tilak [R.] & Husain [A.] 1990:51, Figs. 1-5 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 66 (no. 1); ref. 20185] Brahmaputra basin, Lanjha stream, Manipur, India. Holotype (unique): NRS/ZSI F613. •Valid as Nemacheilus chindwinicus Tilak & Husain 1990 -- (Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura chindwinica (Tilak & Husain 1990) -- (Vishwanath & Nebeshwar 2004:326 [ref. 28011], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011:1518 [ref. 31183], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:261 [ref. 32337], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor et al. 2013:587 [ref. 32764], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:574 [ref. 32971], Khynrian & Sen 2014:15 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33318], Solo et al. 2014:258 [ref. 33517], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[5] [ref. 33603], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628], Bleher 2018:208 [ref. 36647], Choudhury et al. 2019:50 [ref. 36483]). Current status: Valid as Schistura chindwinica (Tilak & Husain 1990). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Brahmaputra River system, Manipur, India. Habitat: freshwater.

chlorosoma, Cobitis McClelland [J.] 1839:305, 437, Pl. 52 (fig. 3) [Asiatic Researches v. 19 (pt 2); ref. 2923] Upper Assam, India. No types known. •Questionably a senior synonym of Acanthocobitis zonalternans (Blyth 1860) -- (Kottelat 2012:76 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Singer et al. 2017:105 [ref. 35606]). •Valid as Paracanthocobitis chlorosoma (McClelland 1839) -- (Bleher 2018:197 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

chomanicus, Oxynoemacheilus Kamangar [B. B.], Prokofiev [A. M.], Ghaderi [E.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 2014:46, Fig. 5 [Zootaxa 3755 (no. 1); ref. 33140] Baneh River, (Korhe-Pazi sta. 8), Baneh, Kurdistan, Iran, 36°01'03"N, 45°55'20"E. Holotype: FCFUK 176. Paratypes: FCFUK 177-209 (33), ZMUU 23066 (4). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus chomanicus Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalbant 2014 -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:883 [ref. 34062], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2016:105 [ref. 34789], Freyhof 2016:94 [ref. 34815], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34976], Freyhof & Abdullah 2017:84 [ref. 35169], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:379 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:64 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:559 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Esmaeili et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36089], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus chomanicus Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalbant 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: Tigris River basin (Turkey, Iraq, Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

chondrostoma, Nemachilus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:36, Pl. 3 (fig. 7) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Bajan gol River, Mongolia or China. Holotype: ZIN 7219. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa chondrostoma (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:126 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:262 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:119 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34477], Feng et al. 2020:468 [ref. 37576]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa chondrostoma (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

choprai, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1934:310, Fig. 9 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 36 (pt 3); ref. 18309] Lutkuh River, near Hot Springs, Chitral Valley, Pakistan. Holotype: ZSI F11301/1. Paratypes: BMNH 1932.8.2.1-6 [6] possible, presented by Hora 1932 from type locality. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:363 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Berg 1949:864 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Status uncertain -- (Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348]). •Valid as Triplophysa choprai (Hora 1934) -- (Menon 1987:200 [ref. 14149], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:510 [ref. 20764], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Mirza 2003:16 [ref. 27265], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096], Prokofiev 2017 [ref. 31096], Usharamalakshmi et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36315]). •Valid as Indotriplophysa choprai (Hora 1934) -- (Kottelat 2012:85 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa choprai (Hora 1934). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan and Kashmir. Habitat: freshwater.

choresmi, Nemachilus amudarjensis Berg [L. S.] 1932:149, Fig. 2 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 98 (nos 5/6); ref. 16357] Amu-Darya River delta, Uzbekistan. Syntypes: ZIN 23866-68 (1, 1, 1), 23898 (2). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Prokofiev 2001:210 [ref. 26612] lists ZIN 23866 as holotype (as ZISP #s). •Synonym of Nemacheilus amudarjensis Rass 1929, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Berg 1949:882 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, see Coad 1981:13 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Dzihunia amudarjensis (Rass 1929) -- (Prokofiev 2001:210 [ref. 26612], Prokofiev 2009:891 [ref. 30604], Kottelat 2012:82 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Dzihunia amudarjensis (Rass 1929). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

chryseus, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1873:529 [The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology v. 11; ref. 17368] Bowany River, Neilgherries, India. Syntypes: (3) AMS B.7489 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:156 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:296 [ref. 25110]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus denisoni Day 1867 -- (Menon 1987:93 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:171 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Schistura denisoni (Day 1867) -- (Kottelat 2012:108 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura denisoni (Day 1867). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

chrysicristinae, Schistura Nalbant [T. T.] 1998:372, Fig. 1 [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" No. 40; ref. 26011] Batman River, a tributary of upper Tigris at Catalköprü, about 18 kilometers east from Silvan, Turkey. Holotype: ISBB uncat. Paratypes: ISBB uncat. (2), MGAB (1). •Valid as Schistura chrysicristinae Nalbant 1998 -- (Fricke et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29533], Kottelat 2012:101 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Schistura chrysicristinae Nalbant 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: upper Tigris River [Dicle Nehri] basin (Persian Gulf tributary), Diyarbakιr Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

chrysolaimos, Cobitis Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:27, Pl. 521 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3961 [ex RMHH]. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2972 [ex RMNH] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:96 [ref. 19574]. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1984:241 [ref. 5292]. •Valid as Nemacheilus chrysolaimos (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Roberts 1993:25 [ref. 21799], Kottelat et al. 1993:54 [ref. 23448], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:187 [ref. 25685], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2009:124 [ref. 30124], Kottelat 2012:90 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:200 [ref. 32989], Hubert et al. 2019:10 [ref. 36547]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus chrysolaimos (Valenciennes 1846). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Java, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

chui, Yunnanilus Yang [J.-X.] 1991:199, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 13585] Fuxian Lake, Haikou, 24°29'N, 102°56'E, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 893095. Paratypes: KIZ 893088-94 (7), 893096-132 (37). •Valid as Yunnanilus chui Yang 1991 -- (Yang & Chen 1995:11 [ref. 23555], An et al. 2009:635 [ref. 30709], Kottelat 2012:134 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus chui Yang 1991. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

chulabhornae, Physoschistura Suvarnaraksha [A.] 2013:237, Figs. 1-3, 4-5 [Zootaxa 3736 (no. 3); ref. 32981] Huay Maetalanoi, Ban Maetala, T. Maedaed, Maechaen District, near a village, 18°55'35.43"N, 98°22'45.63"E, tributary of Ping River, northern Chaophraya River basin, Naechaem District, Chiangmai Province, Thailand. Holotype: MARNM 3998. Paratypes: MARNM 3999 (36), NIFI 04836 (3), UF 185354 (3). •Valid as Physoschistura chulabhornae Suvarnaraksha 2013 -- (Lalramliana et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34795], Tamang & Sinha 2016:287 [ref. 34804], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:410 [ref. 35638]). •Possibly in Mustura -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Physoschistura chulabhornae Suvarnaraksha 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Maechaem River, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

ciceki, Oxynoemacheilus Sungur [S.], Jalili [P.] & Eagderi [S.] 2017:376, Figs. 1-5 [Iranian Journal of Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 35750] Sultan Marsh, Kayseri Province, Turkey, 38°23'23.53"N, 35°21'54.52"E. Holotype: NHVUIC 2017-03-15-h. Paratypes: IMNRF-UT, NHVUIC. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus ciceki Sungur, Jalili & Eagderi 2017 -- (Çiçek et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus ciceki Sungur, Jalili & Eagderi 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Sultan Marsh, Kayseri Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

cilicicus, Oxynoemacheilus Kaya [C.], Turan [D.], Bayçelebi [E.], Kalayci [G.] & Freyhof [J.] 2020:289, Figs. 2-5 [Zootaxa 4808 (no. 2); ref. 37622] Irrigation canal 6 km southeast of Silifke, Mersin Province, Turkey, 36.3465, 33.9806. Holotype: FFR 15579. Paratypes: FFR 15560 (18); FSJF 4098 (5). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus cilicicus Kaya, Turan, Bayçelebi, Kalayci & Freyhof 2020. Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus cilicicus Kaya, Turan, Bayçelebi, Kalayci & Freyhof 2020. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lower Göksu, Seyhan and Ceyhan River basins, southern Anatolia, Turkey. Habitat: freshwater.

cincticauda, Cobitis Blyth [E.] 1860:172 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 477] Huey Jawang, Salween basin, in Tha Song Yang District, Tak Province, Thailand. Neotype: ZSM 27474 [ex ZRC 38458 and NIFI 2060]. Type catalog: Neumann 2011:239 [ref. 31652]. Holotype at ZSI lost; neotype designated by Kottelat 1990:118 [ref. 14137]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Valid as Nemacheilus cincticauda (Blyth 1961) -- (Menon 1987:123 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:475 [ref. 20764], Sen 1999:198 [ref. 24750] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura cincticauda (Blyth 1860) -- (Kottelat 1990:115 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187] as cicticauda, Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:173 [ref. 31357], Ou et al. 2011:197 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Plongsesthee et al. 2013:178 [ref. 33012], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:358 [ref. 33494], Khynrian & Sen 2014:15 [ref. 33853]). Current status: Valid as Schistura cincticauda (Blyth 1860). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Northeastern India, Myanmar and Thailand, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

cinerea, Cobites (Acoura) Swainson [W.] 1839:310 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Kosia River, India. No types known. Based on Ham. 359. No 12 -- which is Hamilton 1822:359, "12th Species.-- Cobitis corica." Unneeded new name for Nemacheilus corica (Hamilton 1822). •Objective synonym of Nemacheilus corica (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1987:89 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:169 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of 'Nemacheilus' corica (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2012:90 [rfef. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Nemacheilus corica (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cinica, Barbatula Erk'akan [F.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Özeren [S. C.] 2007:73, Fig. 4 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 29026] Road of Kütahya to Denizli, Cin Stream, 39°40'N, 29°30'E, Turkey. Holotype: HUIC BM-3. Paratypes: HUIC BM-3 (23). •Valid as Barbatula cinica Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007 -- (Erk'akan et al. 2008:117 [ref. 29859]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus cinicus (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Erk'akan 2012:97 [ref. 32281], Kottelat 2012:96 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus cinicus (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Aegean Sea tributary, Kütahya Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

clatrata, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:56, Fig. 29 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Houay Cha Ngao, an east side tributary of Xe Kong, entering it about 8 kilometers upriver of Muang Kaleum, 15°46'08"N, 106°45'54"E, Xekong Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45330. Paratypes: CMK 15800 (31), LARRI uncat. (8), NRM 44911 (8), ZRC 45331 (8). •Valid as Schistura clatrata Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:104 [ref. 25780], Ou et al. 2011:199 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:72 [ref. 35486], Kottelat 2017:356 [ref. 35511]). Current status: Valid as Schistura clatrata Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Bolaven Plateau, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

cleopatra, Nemacheilus Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:138, Figs. 5-7 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] River Sol near Plao Ganong, about 60 kilometers south of Pleiku, 13°31.82'N, 108°18.63'E, Gia Lai Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 27155. Paratypes: CMK 16023 (3), ZFMK 26056-81 (25). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:112 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Nemacheilus cleopatra Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:90 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:200 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus cleopatra Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

cobdonensis, Nemacheilus Gundriser [A. N.] 1973:253, Fig. 4 [ ref. 28184] Tuva, Lakes Khintiktig-Khol and Ak-Khol Khos and River Mogen-Buren, basin of River Kobdo, Russia. Syntypes: probably lost. Original not yet examined. •Valid as Triplophysa cobdonensis (Gundriser 1973) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:116 [ref. 28183]). •Questionably a synonym of Barbatula compressirostris (Warpachowski 1897) -- (Kottelat 2006:51 [ref. 28831]). •Questionably valid as Barbatula cobdonensis (Gundriser 1973) -- (Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2015:460 [ref. 34065], Prokofiev 2016:401 [ref. 34693], Dyldin et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Uncertain as Barbatula cobdonensis (Gundriser 1973). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: North Asia: Upper Chovd River drainage (Russia). Habitat: freshwater.

coccinocola, Homatula Endruweit [M.], Min [R.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2018:558, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4375 (no. 4); ref. 35763] Tengtiaojiang River, Red River basin, Jiache town, Honghe City, Yunnan Province, China, 23°17'27.4"N, 102°11'19.1"E, elevation 1220 meters. Holotype: KIZ 2011002847. Paratypes: KIZ. •Valid as Homatula coccinocola Endruweit, Min & Yang 2018 -- (Li et al. 2019:346 [ref. 37175]). Current status: Valid as Homatula coccinocola Endruweit, Min & Yang 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Red River basin, Yunnan Province , China. Habitat: freshwater.

colossa, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2017:342, Figs. 2-6 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 65; ref. 35511] Xe Pian at dam site, near Ban Nongphanouan, Bolaven Plateau, Champasak Province, Laos, 15°03'28"N, 106°31'29"E, elevation 757 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2767.084. Paratypes: CMK, ZRC. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Schistura colossa Kottelat 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura colossa Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Bolaven Plateau, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

compressirostris, Nemachilus Warpachowski [N. A.] 1897:270, Pl. 11 (figs. 1-3) [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 2; ref. 4515] Lakes in northwestern Mongolia [possibly an error, probably a lake in the vicinity of Kosh-Agach]. Lectotype: ZIN 11298 (158 mm). Paralectotypes: ZIN 11298 (1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. For remarks on systematics see Kottelat 2006:51 [ref. 28831]. Lectotype selected by Prokofiev 2016:392 [ref. 34693]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:869 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Vasil'eva 1998:95 [ref. 23591], Sideleva 2001:54 [ref. 26181], Sideleva 2003:11 [ref. 27815], Prokofiev 2016:392 [ref. 34693] with doubt). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Prokofiev 2007:17 [ref. 30343]). •Valid as Barbatula compressirostris (Warpachowski 1897) -- (Kottelat 2006:51 [ref. 28831], Cao et al. 2012:236 [ref. 32335], Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367] with question, Prokofiev 2015:460 [ref. 34065] with question, Prokofiev 2018:273 [ref. 35878]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

conilobus, Barbatula Prokofiev [A. M.] 2016:657, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a, 4, 5a [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 56 (no. 6); ref. 35025] Bogd River, a tributary of the Zavkhan River near Uliastai village, Mongolia, 47°43'59.2"N, 96°49'08.9"E, elevation 1749 meters. Holotype: ZMMU 23813. Paratypes: ZMMU. Plus additional non-type specimens. •Valid as Barbatula conilobus Prokofiev 2016 -- (Prokofiev 2018:273 [ref. 35878]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula conilobus Prokofiev 2016. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Zavkhan River drainage, Mongolia. Habitat: freshwater.

conipterus, Nemachilus Turdakov [F. A.] 1954:117 [Trudy Institut zoologii i parazitologii, Kirgizskii filial Akademii nauk SSSR v. 1; ref. 26732] Ters & Talas rivers, Kyrgyzstan. Syntypes: 25 (Ters River), 9 (Talas River); whereabouts unknown. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa coniptera (Turdakov 1954) -- (Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2006:256 [ref. 29061] as a valid species and subspecies, Prokofiev 2010:907 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2017:202 [ref. 35630] as a valid species and subspecies). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa coniptera (Turdakov 1954). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Talas River basin, Kyrgyzstan [subspecies coniptera]. Habitat: freshwater.

conirostris, Nemachilus Zhu [S.-Q.] 1982:104 [110], Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 8388] Lancang River, Jinghong County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NPIB 780464. Paratypes: NPIB uncat. (9). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. English description on p. 110. •Valid as Schistura conirostris (Zhu 1982) -- (Zhu 1989:40 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:109 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Schistura conirostris (Zhu 1982). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

conjungens, Nemachilus labiatus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:84, Pl. 4 (fig. 5) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Chorgos River, tributary of Ili River, China. Syntypes: ZIN 7843 (1), 7850 (2). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus labiatus (Kessler 1874) -- (Berg 1949:858 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Labiatophysa labiata (Kessler 1874) -- (Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367]). •Synonym of Triplophysa labiata (Kessler 1874) -- (Prokofiev 2004:185 [ref. 27939]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa labiata (Kessler 1874). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

coreanus, Elxis Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1905:201, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 28 (no. 1391); ref. 2530] Gensan, Korea. Holotype: USNM 45243 (mixed with paratypes). Paratypes: MCZ 35960 [ex USNM 45243] (2), CAS-SU 8661 [not 8061] (77), USNM 45241-42 (249, 50), 45243 (now 11, including holotype), 45245 (1), 45248-49 (8, 14). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:39 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Lefua costata (Kessler 1876) -- (Berg 1949:887 [ref. 20661], Kim 1997:560 [ref. 24032], Vasil'eva 1998:96 [ref. 23591], Kottelat 2006:55 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Lefua costata (Kessler 1876). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

corica, Cobitis Hamilton [F.] 1822:359, 395 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Mainayi, Kosi River, India. No types known. Information on type locality see Britz 2019:46 [ref. 37532]. Hamilton's original, unpublished illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 227 [ref. 37532]. •Valid as Schistura corica (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 2003:166 [ref. 31338], Kullander et al. 1999:153 [ref. 23689], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:89,90 [ref. 32798], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:574 [ref. 32971], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[5] [ref. 33603]). •Valid as Nemacheilus corica (Hamilton 1822) -- (Shrestha 1978:37 [ref. 15970] as Noemacheilus, Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1987:89 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:169 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Ataur Rahman 1989:147 [ref. 24860] as Nemachilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:476 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:547 [ref. 23778], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:435 [ref. 23187], Husain & Tilak 1998:134 [ref. 24919], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220] as Noemacheilus, Mirza 2000:356 [ref. 25207], Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus, Mirza 2003:13 [ref. 27265], Shrestha 2008:129 [ref. 29923], Conway et al. 2011:1746 [ref. 31594], Khynrian & Sen 2014:10 [ref. 33853], Bleher 2018:162 [ref. 36647]). •Valid as 'Nemacheilus" corica (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2012:90 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus corica (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Himalaya Foothills, Nepal, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Habitat: freshwater.

coruscans, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:57, Fig. 30 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Houay Sala Yai, a tributary of Nam San, 18°35'17"N, 103°05'00"E, Saisomboun Special Zone, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45332. Paratypes: CMK 13355 (59), LARRI uncat. (10), NRM 44891 (10), ZRC 45333 (10). •Valid as Schistura coruscans Kottelat 2000 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:145, 150 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:105 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25 [ref. 32804] as corruscans, Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:704 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura coruscans Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Ngiep watershed, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

costata, Diplophysa Kessler [K. F.] 1876:29, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 2595] Hu-lun [Dalai-Nor, Dalai-nor] Lake at 43°N [43°18'N, 116°39'E], Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, China, elevation 4200 feet. Holotype (unique): ZIN 2477. For remarks on sysematics see Kottelat 2006:55 [ref. 28831]. •Valid as Lefua costata (Kessler 1876) -- (Berg 1949:887 [ref. 20661], Wang 1984:81 [ref. 22951], Zhu 1989:20 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:107 [ref. 25213], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:48 [ref. 22798], Cheng & Zhou 1997:195 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:285 [ref. 24032], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:743 [ref. 24702], Vasil'eva 1998:96 [ref. 23591], Kim et al. 2000:224 [ref. 25434], Pietsch et al. 2001:140 [ref. 25688], Wang et al. 2001:167 [ref. 26566], Kim & Park 2002:197 [ref. 25913], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:45 [ref. 26178], Choi et al. 2003:178, 518 [ref. 26218], Jang et al. 2003:119 [ref. 27681], Naseka & Bogutskaya 2004:284 [ref. 27838], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:115 [ref. 28183], Mihara et al. 2005:157 [ref. 28201], Kottelat 2006:55 [ref. 28831], Ocock et al. 2006:29 [ref. 28933], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:340 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:129 [ref. 34477], Hosoya et al. 2018:199 [ref. 36197]). Current status: Valid as Lefua costata (Kessler 1876). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Amur River drainage, China, Russia, Korea and Mongolia, introduced in central Japan. Habitat: freshwater.

crabro, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:57, Fig. 31 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Ngiap, Bolikhamsai Province, Laos. Holotype (unique): ZRC 45334. •Valid as Schistura crabro Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:105 [ref. 25780], Vidthayanon 2003:310 [ref. 27398], Chen et al. 2005:148 [ref. 28288], Zheng et al. 2012:66 [ref. 32070], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:704 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura crabro Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Xan watershed, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

crassa, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2017:700, Figs. 16-20 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 65; ref. 35677] Nam Pouan [Nam Phouan], upstream of Ban Soppouan, about 300 m upstream of confluence with Nam Ngiep, Khon District, Saysomboune Province, Laos, 18°46'57"N, 103°25'58"E, elevation 244 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2768.033. Paratypes: CMK, ZRC. •Valid as Schistura crassa Kottelat 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura crassa Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Ngiep drainage, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

crassicauda, Nemachilus stoliczkae Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:23, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Bajanjol River [Bajan gol River], Tsaidam [Quaidam], Quinghai Province, China. Holotype (unique): ZIN 7221. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. The name stoliczkae is a misspelling of stoliczkai [originally stolickai Steindachner 1866 but amended for letter "c" with diacritical mark]. •Synonym of Triplophysa leptosoma (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:110 [ref. 17744], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:79 [ref. 23556], Zhang et al. 2019:386 [ref. 36699]). •Valid as Triplophysa crassicauda (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2007:20? [Engl. 16] [ref. 28990]). •Valid as Indotriplophysa crassicauda (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:85 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa crassicauda (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Bajan-gol River, Quaidam, China. Habitat: freshwater.

crassilabris, Triplophysa Ding [R.-H.] 1994:92 [English p. 610], Fig. 56 [The fishes of Sichuan, China; ref. 21531] Xia Man Lake, Sichuan, China, elevation 3400 meters. Holotype: MSINR 830757. Paratypes: MSINR 8715-17 (3), 8743-47 (5), 8753 (1), 85053 (1). •Valid as Triplophysa crassilabris Ding 1994 -- (Chen et al. 2004:507 [ref. 28065], Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665], Feng et al. 2020:468 [ref. 37576]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa crassilabris Ding 1994. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

crassipedunculatus, Oreias Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1976:189, Pls. 1 (4), 2 (7); Figs. 9-12 [Nymphaea v. 4; ref. 7353] Chatung, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype (unique): USNM 94731. •Synonym of Oreias dabrayi Sauvage 1874 -- (Wu & Wu 1992:147 [ref. 21205]). •Synonym of Claea dabryi (Sauvage 1874) -- (Kottelat 2012:81 [ref. 32367]). •Synonym of Schistura dabryi (Sauvage 1874) -- (Zhu 1989:55 [ref. 17744] subspecies dabryi, Zhou & Cui 1993:82 [ref. 20830], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:58 [ref. 23556]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura dabryi (Sauvage 1874). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cristatus, Nemacheilus Berg [L. S.] 1898:19 [5], Fig. [Dnevn. Zool. Otdel. Obsh. Zool. Mus. v. 2 (no. 7); ref. 14676] Tedzhen River near Ashgabat [Askhabad], Turkmenistan. Syntypes: (many) ISBR 996 (2), ZIN 11055 (1), ZMMU P-2555 (59). On p. 5 of separate. •Valid as Nemacheilus cristatus Berg 1898 -- (Berg 1949:886 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus, Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Coad & Abdoli 2000:56 [ref. 25296]) •Valid as Schistura cristata (Berg 1898) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:442 [ref. 23187], Nalbant & Bianco 1998:118 [ref. 23810], Nalbant 1998:373 [ref. 26011]). •Valid as Metaschistura cristata (Berg 1898) -- (Prokofiev 2009:893 [ref. 30604], Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391], Prokofiev 2017:270 [ref. 35630]). •Valid as Paraschistura cristata (Berg 1898) -- (Freyhof et al. 2015:10 [ref. 33865], Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015:299 [ref. 34027], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:887 [ref. 34062], Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:2 [ref. 34063], Azimi et al. 2015:290 [ref. 35410], Esmaeili et al. 2017:71 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:50 [ref. 36089], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:581 [ref. 36833], Eagderi et al. 2019:265 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura cristata (Berg 1898). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hari River basin, Iran, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. Habitat: freshwater.

crocotula, Schistura Plongsesthee [R.], Kottelat [M.] & Beamish [F. W. H.] 2013:172, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 2); ref. 33012] Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, Bansapan, Khanan River, Thailand. Holotype: NIFI 4676. Paratypes: BMNH 2012.10.4.1-4 (4); CMK 21984 (6), 21985 (7), 16458 (2); NIFI 4677 (2),4678 (1); ZRC 53549 (4). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Schistura crocotula Plongsesthee, Kottelat & Beamish 2013. Current status: Valid as Schistura crocotula Plongsesthee, Kottelat & Beamish 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Khanan River, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, southern Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

cruciatus, Nemacheilus Rendahl [H.] 1944:37, Figs. 19-22 [Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps-och Vitterhets-Samhälles Handlingar (Ser. 6 B) v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 3705] Thua Luu, 50 kilometers south of Hué, Vietnam. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (15 other specimens). •Valid as Micronemacheilus cruciatus (Rendahl 1944) -- (Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832] as curciatus, Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:437 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Yunnanilus cruciatus (Rendahl 1944) -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:189 [ref. 25364], Du et al. 2012:304 [ref. 32340]). •Valid as Micronemacheilus cruciatus (Randahl 1944) -- (Kottelat 2012:89 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:200 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Micronemacheilus cruciatus (Rendahl 1944). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

cryptoclathrata, Homatula Li [X.], Che [X.-J.] & Zhou [W.] 2019:340, Figs. 2B, 4A, 5B, 7B, 9 [Zootaxa 4711 (no. 2); ref. 37175] Manging Village, Gengga Town, Changning County, Baoshan City, Yunnan, China, 24°19'42.65"N, 99°32'15.39"E. Holotype: SWFC 1002001. Paratypes: SWFC. •Valid as Homatula cryptoclathrata Li, Che & Zhou 2019. Current status: Valid as Homatula cryptoclathrata Li, Che & Zhou 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Salween River basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

cryptofasciata, Schistura Chen [X.-Y.], Kong [D.-P.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2005:28, Figs. 2-3 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28352] Nanting River, 23°58'N, 99°39'E, tributary to Salween River, Great Snow Mountain Township, Yongde County, incang Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, elevation 690 meters. Holotype: KIZ 20026453. Paratypes: KIZ 20026449, 54-55, and 57 (4), 20026336, 37, and 39 (3); ZRC (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939].as crytofasciata. •Valid as Schistura cryptofasciata Chen, Kong & Yang 2005 -- (Zheng et al. 2012:63 [ref. 32070], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:60 [ref. 33202], Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477], Endruweit 2017:399 [ref. 35191], Endruweit 2017:591 [ref. 35662]). Current status: Valid as Schistura cryptofasciata Chen, Kong & Yang 2005. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanting River drainage, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

cueljuensis, Nemachilus Anikin [V. P.] 1905:6 [Description of new fish species from Asia; ref. 15920] Mouth of Kuelyu River, Tarim River basin, Xinjiang Province, China. Syntypes: (3). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Originally as cuëljuensis. •Questionably a synonym of Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Berg 1949:862 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus stoliczkai). • Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866), subspecies retropinnis (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061] as stoliczkae). •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkas (Steindachner 1866) -- (Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990] as stoliczkae). •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa dorsonotatus (Kessler 1879) -- (Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Uncertain as Triplophysa dorsonotatus (Kessler 1879). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cuneicephalus, Barbatula Shaw [T.-H.] & Tchang [T.-L.] 1931:81, Fig. 10 [Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, Peiping (Zoological Series) v. 2 (no. 5); ref. 16334] San-kai-tien, near Beijing [Peiping], China. Holotype (unique): ZMFMIB (now ASIZB) 6237. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:871 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Valid as Triplophysa cuneicephala (Shaw & Tchang 1931) -- (Zhu 1989:77 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:113 [ref. 25213], Wang et al. 2001:171 [ref. 26566], Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa cuneicephala (Shaw & Tchang 1931). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

curtistigma, Schistura Mirza [M. R.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Mirza, Nalbant & Bănărescu 1981:114, Figs. 21-25 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 5390] Bannu on the Kurram River, NW Frontier Province, Pakistan. Holotype: ISBB 3776. Paratypes: ISBB 3377 (1), 3389 (1); ZMA 116443 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:35 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus arifi (Mirza & Bănărescu 1981) -- (Menon 1987:68 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus arafi, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:470 [ref. 20764] as arafi). •Valid as Schistura curtistigma Mirza & Nalbant 1981 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2000:356 [ref. 25207], Mirza 2003:14 [ref. 27265], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura curtistigma Mirza & Nalbant 1981. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

cyri, Nemacheilus tigris Berg [L. S.] 1910:170 [Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 15; ref. 19593] Upper reaches of the Kura River (Göle depression), near Okam village, Ardahan Province, Turkey. Syntypes: (several) ZIN 13291 (6+), 16885 (2). Also in Berg 1910:128 [ref. 14429], earliest not researched. •Synonym of Nemacheilus tigris (Heckel 1843), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Berg 1949:878 [ref. 20661] as nemachilus, Coad 1995:23 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Orthrias cyri (Berg 1910) -- (Fricke et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Barbatula cyri (Berg 1910) -- (authors). •Synonym of Paracobitis tigris (Heckel 1843), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus cyri (Berg 1910) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:96 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Esmaeili et al. 2017:63 [ref. 35254], Çiçek et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36267], Eagderi et al. 2018:458 [ref. 35940], Çiçek et al. 2018:240 [ref. 36249], Turan et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 36540], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644], Kaya et al. 2020:339 [ref. 37582]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus cyri (Berg 1910). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Kura Nehri basin (Caspian Sea tributary), Ardahan Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

dabryi, Oreias Sauvage [H.-E.] 1874:334 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 2 [1874]; ref. 3873] Yao-Tchy, Tibet, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6276. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:99 [ref. 19574]. The genus Oreias is preoccupied; replaced by Claea Kottelat 2011. See Kottelat 2012:80 [ref. 32367] for locality information. •Valid as Oreias dabryi Sauvage 1874 -- (Ding 1994:60 [ref. 21531], Wu & Wu 1992:147 [ref. 21205], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:57 [ref. 23556], Tang et al. 2001:14 [ref. 25373], Chen et al. 2006:54 [ref. 29058], Nguyen et al. 2010:50 [ref. 32127]). •Valid as Claea dabryi (Sauvage 1874) -- (Kottelat 2011:384 [ref. 31197], Kottelat 2012:81 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Schistura dabryi (Sauvage 1874) -- (Zhu 1989:55 [ref. 17744] with subspecies, Zhou & Cui 1993:82 [ref. 20830], Zhu 1995:111 [ref. 25213], Liao et al. 1997:4 [ref. 28159], Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:371 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Schistura dabryi (Sauvage 1874). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

dalaica, Diplophysa Kessler [K. F.] 1876:24, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 2595] Hu-lun [Dalai-Nor] Lake, China, elevation 4200 feet. Syntypes: ZIN 2473-74 (1, 1). •Valid as Triplophysa dalaica (Kessler 1876) -- (Zhu 1989:82 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:114 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:67 [ref. 23556], Wang et al. 2001:169 [ref. 26566], Li et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29309], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa dalaica (Kessler 1876). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

dalatensis, Schistura Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:150, Figs. 19-21 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] Stream running into River Dai Tan, about 30 kilometers south of Da Lat, 11°46.64'N, 108°19.28'E, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 23906. Paratypes: CMK 15999 (8); ZFMK 23641-52 (12), 23759-61 (3). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:112 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Schistura dalatensis Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:356 [ref. 35511], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura dalatensis Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

daochengensis, Triplophysa Wu [Y.-Y.], Sun [Z.-Y.] & Guo [Y.-S.] 2016:291, Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 37 (no. 5); ref. 34665] Daocheng River, at Shengmu Village, Daocheng County, Sichuan Province, China, 29°02'55"N, 101°30'45"S, altitude 3,540 meters. Holotype: CWNU 201406001. Paratypes: CWNU, IHB, KIZ. •Valid as Triplophysa daochengensis Wu, Sun & Guo 2016 -- (Zhang et al. 2019:382 [ref. 36699], Feng et al. 2020:468 [ref. 37576]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa daochengensis Wu, Sun & Guo 2016. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Daocheng River drainage, upper Yangtze River basin, Sichuan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

daqiaoensis, Triplophysa Ding [R.-H.] 1993:247 (English p. 251), Figs. 1-4 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 21972] Daqiao, Mianning County, 28°41'N, 102°12'E, Sichuan, China, elevation 2020 meters. Holotype: MSINR 900267. Paratypes: IHASW 900288 (1); MSINR 900268-69 (1, 1), 900270 (1, allotype), 900271-287 (17), 900289-321 (33). •Valid as Triplophysa daqiaoensis Ding 1993 -- (Zhu 1995:548 [ref. 25213], He et al. 2012:279 [ref. 32339], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367], Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966], Zhang et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665], Zhang et al. 2019:383 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa daqiaoensis Ding 1993. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

daqikongensis, Oreonectes Deng [H.-Q.], Wen [H.], Xiao [N.] & Zhou [J.] 2016:49, Fig. 1 [ZooKeys No. 637; ref. 34936] Subterranean river of the Daqikong area, Libo County, Guizhou province, China, 25°17'05.1"N, 107°44'54.3"E, elevation 488 meters. Holotype: CNGZNU 20110128001. Paratypes: CNGZNU. •Valid as Oreonectes daqikongensis Deng, Wen, Xiao & Zhou 2016 -- (Liu et al. 2019:404 [ref. 36573]). •Valid as Troglonectes daqikongensis (Deng, Wen, Xiao & Zhou 2106) -- (Huang et al. 2019:117 [ref. 37137]). Current status: Valid as Troglonectes daqikongensis (Deng, Wen, Xiao & Zhou 2016). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Liujiang River system, Guizhou province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

dattai, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1999:170 [Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper No. 175; ref. 24904] Riwa River at Manpong [Nampong], Arunachal Pradesh, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F572. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F73 (2). Unneeded replacement name for Noemacheilus arunachalensis Menon 1987, preoccupied by Noemacheilus arunachalensis Datta & Barman 1984. Replaced earlier by Kottelat 1990. •Objective synonym of Schistura tirapensis Kottelat 1990 -- (Kottelat 2012:120 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura tirapensis Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

daubentoni, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:118, Figs. 85-86 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Bridge on Prek Preas at kilometer 369 of road from Saigon to Stung Treng, near Ph Khsang Hong, 13°09'N, 106°09'E, Cambodia. Holotype: MNHN 1988-0088. Paratypes: CMK 5877 (3), MNHN 1988-0089 (6). •Valid as Schistura daubentoni Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Rainboth 1996:129 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 1998:73 [ref. 23436], Kottelat 2001:105 [ref. 25780], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:173 [ref. 31357], Ou et al. 2011:193 [ref. 31692], Zheng et al. 2012:66 [ref. 32070], Chen & Neely 2012:226 [ref. 32332], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366]). Current status: Valid as Schistura daubentoni Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos and Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

dayi, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1935:57 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 37 (pt 1); ref. 13886] Near Raniganj, Chota-Nagpur and Northwest Provinces, India. Syntypes: BMNH 1889.2.1.1967-1699 (3). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. A new name for Nemachilus savona of Day 1878. •Synonym of Nemacheilus denisoni Day 1867, but a valid subspecies -- (Menon 1987:99 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:478 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:170 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura dayi (Hora 1935) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187]), Bleher 2018:210 [ref. 36647]. Current status: Valid as Schistura dayi (Hora 1935). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India and Bangladesh. Habitat: freshwater.

deansmarti, Schistura Vidthayanon [C.] & Kottelat [M.] 2003:168, Fig. 6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 26859] Tham [= cave] Phra Sai Ngam, about 200 meters from entrance, Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, Phitsanulok Province, Thailand, 16°37'22"N, 100°39'47"E. Holotype: NIFI 3152. Paratypes: CMK 17295 (2), NIFI 3154 (6). •Valid as Schistura deansmarti Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003 -- (Proudlove 2006:100 [ref. 28992], Kottelat 2012:341 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:108 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura deansmarti Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

defectiva, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:58, Fig. 32 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Ngum at Ban Phianglouang, 19°31'21"N, 103°03'58"E, Xiangkhouang Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45335. Paratypes: CMK 15215 (60), LARRI uncat. (10), NRM 44908 (10), ZRC 45336 (10). •Valid as Schistura defectiva Kottelat 2000 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:145 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:105 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:108 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:89 [ref. 32798], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:704 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura defectiva Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Ngiep watershed, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

deignani, Noemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1945:320, Fig. 70 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 188; ref. 4056] Mountain brooks on Kao Sabap, near Chantabun, southeastern Thailand. Holotype: USNM 107946. Paratypes: USNM 107943 (14, now 6), 217585 [ex 107943] (8). Type catalog: Vilasri et al. 2018:58 [ref. 36451]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Schistura deignani (Smith 1945) -- (Chen 1999:304 [ref. 24925] as degnani). •Synonym of Schistura kohchangensis (Smith 1933) -- (Kottelat 1990:138 [ref. 14137], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Vilasri et al. 2018:58 [ref. 36451]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura kohchangensis (Smith 1933). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

delvarii, Paraschistura Mousavi-Sabet [H.] & Eagderi [S.] 2015:299, Figs. 2-5 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 65 (no. 3); ref. 34027] Upstream of Mond River, Persian Gulf basin, Fars province, Iran, 29°40'22"N, 52°08'57"E. Holotype: VMFC PSD1-H. Paratypes: GUIC, VMFC. •Valid as Paraschistura delvarii Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015 -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:888 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:71 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:50 [ref. 36089], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2018:42 [ref. 36026], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:582 [ref. 36833], Eagderi et al. 2019:265 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura delvarii Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mond River drainage, Persian Gulf basin, Fars, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

denisoni, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1867:287 [7] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 2) (art. 5); ref. 14043] Bowany River, base of Nilgiris, India [Bhavani River, Cauvery River system, southern Western Ghats]. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.7507 (1, non-type); BMNH 1867.7.24.29 (1); NMW 48406 (1); RMNH 8759 [?= 2661] (1); ZIN 8283 (5); ZMB 10800 (1); ZSI 2682 (1, lost), A.962 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:156 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:296 [ref. 25110]. On p. 7 of separate. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Valid as Schistura denisoni subspecies denisoni (Day 1867) -- (Sreekantha et al. 2006:2216 [ref. 28597]). •Valid as Nemacheilus denisoni Day 1867, subspecies denisoni -- (Menon 1999:170 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Raju Thomas et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26359]). •Valid as Nemacheilus denisoni Day 1867 -- (Menon 1987:93 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:476 [ref. 20764], Indra 1991:240 [ref. 24005] as Noemacheilus, Rema Devi 1992:357 [ref. 24007] as Noemacheilus, Singh & Yazdani 1993:199 [ref. 24022] as Noemacheilus, Easa & Shaji 1996:305 [ref. 24977] as Noemacheilus, Manimekalan 1998:439 [ref. 24989] as Noemacheilus, Rema Devi & Raghunathan 1999:155 [ref. 24759] as Noemacheilus, Yadav 2003:17 [ref. 27711], Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005:77 [ref. 28530] as denisonii, Arunkumar & Manimekalan 2018:1739 [ref. 36172], Bleher 2018:164 [ref. 36647] as denisonii). •Valid as Schistura denisoni (Day 1867) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187] as denisonii, Kottelat 2012:108 [ref. 32367], Sudasinghe 2017:108 [ref. 35539], Sudasinghe 2018:491 [ref. 35942]). Current status: Valid as Schistura denisoni (Day 1867). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

desmotes, Nemacheilus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:107, Fig. 59 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Chieng Mai, northern Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 60082. Paratypes: ANSP 60083 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Schistura thai (Fowler 1934) -- (Zhu 1989:46 [ref. 17744]). •Valid as Schistura desmotes (Fowler 1934) -- (Kottelat 1990:120 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2000:66 [ref. 25040], Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003:172 [ref. 26859], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:174 [ref. 31357], Page et al. 2012:327 [ref. 32342], Kottelat 2012:108 [ref. 32367], Singer & Page 2012:351 [ref. 32390], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura desmotes (Fowler 1934). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mae Ping and Mae Khlong basins, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

deterrai, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1936:311, Pl. 12 (figs. 5-6) [Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences v. 10 (art. 17); ref. 10431] Man Lagoon, Kashmir, Ladakh, India. Syntypes: ZSI F12200/1 (6). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:122 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus deterrai Hora 1936 -- (Tilak 1990:144 [ref. 23720] as Noemacheilus, Kundu 2000:96 [ref. 25663]). •Synonym of Triplophysa gracilis (Day 1876) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:511 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Triplophysa stewarti (Hora 1922) -- (Zhu 1989:98 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:168 [ref. 21205]). •See Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990]. •Probably the same as Triplophysa gracilis (Day 1877) -- (Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa gracilis (Day 1877). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

devdevi, Noemacheilus Hora [S. L.] 1935:54, Pl. 3 (figs. 5-6) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 37 (pt 1); ref. 13886] Eastern Himalayas; small streams below Darjeeling and Sikkim, India. Holotype: ZSI F11752/1. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:363 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus devdevi Hora 1935 -- (Menon 1987:59 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:478 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:547 [ref. 23778], Menon 1999:172 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Kundu 2000:96 [ref. 25663], Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662] as Neomacheilus). •Valid as Schistura devdevi (Hora 1935) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Conway et al. 2011:1747 [ref. 31594], Kottelat 2012:108 [ref. 32367], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[5] [ref. 33603], Khynrian & Sen 2014:16 [ref. 33853], Bleher 2018:212 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura devdevi (Hora 1935). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Eastern Himalayas, India and Nepal. Habitat: freshwater.

dgebuadzei, Orthrias Prokofiev [A. M.] 2003:730, Fig. 2 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 43 (no. 6); ref. 27494] Zag River basin of Baidrag-River, central Mongolia. Holotype: ZIN 52051. Paratypes: ZIN 52052 (18), 52052/1 (5), 52052/2 (3), 52052/3 (1). •Valid as Orthrias dgebuadzei Prokofiev 2003 -- (Prokofiev 2007:77 [ref. 30343], Cao et al. 2012:236 [ref. 32335]). •Valid as Barbatula dgebuadzei (Prokofiev 2003) -- (Kottelat 2006:52 [ref. 28831], Ocock et al. 2006:28 [ref. 28933], Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065], Prokofiev 2016:396 [ref. 34693], Prokofiev 2018:273 [ref. 35878]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula dgebuadzei (Prokofiev 2003). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Baidrag-Gol River drainage, Gobi Lakes Valley, Mongolia. Habitat: freshwater.

dianchiensis, Sphaerophysa Cao [W.-X.] & Zhu [S.-Q.] 1988:405, Figs. 1-4 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 14140] Dianchi Lake, near Kunming City, China. Holotype: IHASW 63V888. Paratypes: IHASW 50IV049 (1). •Valid as Sphaerophysa dianchiensis Cao & Zhu 1988 -- (Zhu 1989:134 [ref. 17744], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:458 [ref. 23187] as diachiensis, Zhu 1995:120 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:46 [ref. 23556], Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:368 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Sphaerophysa dianchiensis Cao & Zhu 1988. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

dikrongensis, Physoschistura Lokeshwor [Y.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2012:250, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 3586; ref. 32336] Arunachal Pradesh: from Dikarong river at Doimukh (Brahmaputra basin); 27°08'19"N, 93°44'51"E, India, elevation 120 meters. Holotype: MUMF 11091/3. Paratypes: MUMF 11090/2 (2), 11091/4 (4); ZSI FF 423 (2). •Valid as Physoschistura dikrongensis Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012 -- (Suvarnaraksha 2013:245 [ref. 32981], Khynrian & Sen 2014:13 [ref. 33853], Lalramliana et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34795], Tamang & Sinha 2016:287 [ref. 34804], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:410 [ref. 35638], Bleher 2018:201 [ref. 36647]). •Valid as Mustura dikrongensis (Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012) -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Mustura dikrongensis (Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Habitat: freshwater.

diminuta, Schistura Ou [C.], Montaña [C. G.], Winemiller [K. O.] & Conway [K. W.] 2011:194, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 3) [for Sept.]; ref. 31692] Mekong River drainage, lower Sekong River in Siem Pang district, 14°07'11.88"N, 106°23'11.36"E, Stung Treng province, Cambodia. Holotype: ZRC 53105. Paratypes: IFReDI uncat. (1), TCWC 14766.01 (2 c&s), ZRC 53106 (1). •Valid as Schistura diminuta Ou, Montaña, Winemiller & Conway 2011 -- (Kottelat 2012:108 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:60 [ref. 33202]). Current status: Valid as Schistura diminuta Ou, Montaña, Winemiller & Conway 2011. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Sekong River, Mekong River drainage, Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

dingi, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2010:895 (footnote) [Journal of Ichthyology v. 50 (no. 10); ref. 31096] Mianning County, 28°34'N, 102°10'E, Sichuan, China, elevation 2000 meters. Holotype (unique): MSINR 900264. Paratypes: IHASW 85038 (1); MSINR 850384 (1, allotype), 900254-263 (10). Unneeded replacement name for Triplophysa brevibarba Ding 1993, not preoccupied by Triplophysa yarkandensis brevibarbus Herzenstein 1888 (see Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367]). •Synonym of Triplophysa brevibarba Ding 1993 -- (Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367], Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa brevibarba Ding 1993. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

discoloris, Yunnanilus Zhou [W.] & He [J.-C.] 1989:381 [384], Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 17742] White Dragon spring, 24°52'N, 102°48'E, Chenggong County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: MZYU 875001. Paratypes: KIZ 1983000938-943 (111); MZYU 875002 (1). English description on p. 384. Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367] gives a different latitude and longitude. •Valid as Yunnanilus discoloris Zhou & He 1989 -- (Zhu 1995:106 [ref. 25213], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], An et al. 2009:633 [ref. 30709], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374], Zhang et al. 2019:358 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus discoloris Zhou & He 1989. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

disparizona, Homatula Min [R.], Yang [J.-X.] & Chen [X.-Y.] 2013:351, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 23 (no. 4) (for 2012); ref. 32529] Panlong River (Red River drainage), Wenshan City, Xichou County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 2012000623. Paratypes: KIZ 2012000622, 0624-0634 (12), 2012001859-1865 (7). •Valid as Homatula disparizona Min, Yang & Chen 2013 (Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2015:70 [ref. 33868], Endruweit et al. 2018:565 [ref. 35763], Yang et al. 2017:1141 [ref. 35923], Li et al. 2019:346 [ref. 37175]). Current status: Valid as Homatula disparizona Min, Yang & Chen 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Panlong River, Red River drainage, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

disparizona, Schistura Zhou [W.] & Kottelat [M.] 2005:17, Figs. 1-2 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28350] Cangyuan, Nangun River (a Salween River tributary), 0.5 kilometers to Manglai on road from Banhong to Mangku, 23°16.49'N, 99°04.34'E, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: SWFC 0203035. Paratypes: SWFC 0203036-41 (6), 0203044-54 (11), 0203067 (1), 9503001-03 (3)9902140 (1); ZMK 18395 (2). •Valid as Schistura disparizona Zhou & Kottelat 2005 -- (Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:5 [ref. 31362], Zheng et al. 2012:63 [ref. 32070], Kottelat 2012:108 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477], Endruweit 2017:399 [ref. 35191], Endruweit 2017:149 [ref. 35362]). Current status: Valid as Schistura disparizona Zhou & Kottelat 2005. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: River Nangun, tributary of Salween, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

dixoni, Nemachilus Fowler [H. W.] 1899:181 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 51; ref. 17572] Tan Lan Ho River, tributary of Shan Lan Ho River, about 30 miles northeast of Lama-Miau or Dolon-nor, Pechili Province, China. Holotype (unique): ANSP 16393. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Lefua costata (Kessler 1876) -- (Berg 1949:887 [ref. 20661], Zhu 1989:21 [ref. 17744], Vasil'eva 1998:96 [ref. 23591], Kottelat 2006:55 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Lefua costata (Kessler 1876). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

djaggasteensis, Nemacheilus Rendahl [H.] 1922:1 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 15 (no. 4); ref. 15377] Djaggaste [Liu-Tai], Mongolia. Syntypes: NRM 10338 (18), 18946 (1), 20338 (1), 27321 (5); MNHN 1933-0116 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:98 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Triplophysa dalaica (Kessler 1876) -- (Zhu 1989:82 [ref. 17744], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:67 [ref. 23556], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa dalaica (Kessler 1876). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

dongganensis, Triplophysa Yang [J.] in Lan, Gan, Wu & Juan 2013:(139) 257, Figs. 107-108 [Science Press, Beijing; ref. 32910] Donggan Village, Chuanshan Counuty, Guangxi, China, 25.1°N, 107.9°E, elevation 488 meters. Holotype: CLJH 12070255. Paratypes: CLJH 1070256-12070260 (5). •Valid as Triplophysa dongganensis Yang 2013 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34477], Liu et al. 2017:843 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971], Chen & Peng 2019:381 [ref. 36537], Huang et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36689]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa dongganensis Yang 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

donglanensis, Oreonectes Wu [T.-J.] in Lan, Gan, Wu & Juan 2013:(83) 253, Figs. 59-60 [Science Press, Beijing; ref. 32910] Simeng Town (the Hongshui River), Dunglan County, Guangxi, China, 24.2°N, 107.2°E Holotype (unique): CLJH 2010010051. •Valid as Oreonectes donglanensis Wu 2013 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34477], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Liu et al. 2019:404 [ref. 36573]). Current status: Valid as Oreonectes donglanensis Wu 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave systems of the Hongshuihe River system, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

doonensis, Noemacheilus Tilak [R.] & Husain [A.] 1977:133, Fig. 1 [Science and Culture v. 43 (no. 3); ref. 7290] Small stream near village of Kandholi, on way to Doonga District, Dehra Dun, Uttar Pradesh, India. Holotype: ZSI/NRS/V-1090. Paratypes: ZSI/NRS/V-1091 (45), V-1092 (84) Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:366 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus doonensis Tilak & Husain 1977 -- (Menon 1987:57 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:479 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:172 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura doonensis (Tilak & Husain 1977) -- (Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Bleher 2018:214 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura doonensis (Tilak & Husain 1977). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Ganges basin, Uttar Pradesh, India. Habitat: freshwater.

dori, Orthrias Goren [M.] & Bănărescu [P. M.] in Bănărescu, Nalbant & Goren 1982:12, Figs. 9-13 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 31 (nos 1-2); ref. 174] Northern Malqoah [Nahal Malkoah], Bet-She'an Valley, Israel, about 32°25'N, 35°30'E, Jordan River system. Holotype: TAU 8278 [= SMNHTAU]. Paratypes: TAU [= SMNHTAU] 8270 and ISBB 3186 (6), TAU [= SMNHTAU] 7063 (25). •Synonym of Nemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Krupp & Schneider 1989:380 [ref. 13651]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus dori Goren & Bănărescu 1982 -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:309 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:97 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsalis, Cobitis Kessler [K. F.] 1872:67 [23], Pl. 11 (figs. 34-35) [Izvestiia Imperatorskago Obschchestva Liubitelei Estestvozaniia, Antropologii i Etnografii v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 14134] Yany-Kurgan, Syr Darya River, Tajikistan. Syntypes: (8) ZIN 2079 (2). Type catalog: Svetovidova 1978:262 [ref. 9011] with ZISP 2079 as holotype. On p. 23 of separate. •Valid as Nemachilus dorsalis (Kessler 1872) -- (Berg 1949:858 [ref. 20661], Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler 1872) -- (Zhu 1989:85 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:155 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:115 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2002:S45 [ref. 27462], Prokofiev 2006:256 [ref. 29061], Li et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29309], Prokofiev 2010:907 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2016:203 [ref. 34459], Zhang et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler 1872). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Xinjiang, China. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsaloides, Nemachilus strauchi Turdakov [F. A.] 1947:155 [Trudy Biol. Inst. Kirgizskogo Filiala Akad. Nauch v. 1; ref. 21177] Tyupsky Bay, Issyk-kul Lake, Kyrgyzstan. Syntypes: (28). Original not seen. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus strauchii (Kessler 1874), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Berg 1949:1328 [ref. 20662] as Nemachilus strauchi). •Synonym of Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler 1874) -- (Kottelat 2006:89 [ref. 28831]). •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa ulacholica (Anikin 1905) -- (Prokofiev 2006:258 [ref. 29061]). •Synonym of Triplophysa ulocholica (Anikin 1905) -- (Kottelat 2012:132 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa ulacholica (Anikin 1905). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsizona, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1998:73, Figs. 112-113 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 23436] Nam Phao, about 10 kilometers upriver of Ban Nape, Laos, about 18°22'N, 105°08'E. Holotype: ZRC 41795. Paratypes: CMK 12502 (13), 12678 (44), 12686 (10), 12756 (3); DFV uncat. (6); NRM 36708 (5); ZRC 41796 (5). Species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Schistura dorsizona Kottelat 1998 -- (Kottelat 2001:105 [ref. 25780], Vidthayanon 2003:310 [ref. 27398], Ou et al. 2011:199 [ref. 31692], Zheng et al. 2012:66 [ref. 32070], Chen & Neely 2012:226 [ref. 32332], Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25, 28 [ref. 32804], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Bohlen et al. 2014:24 [ref. 33197], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura dorsizona Kottelat 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Theun and Mekong basin, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsonotatus, Nemachilus Kessler [K. F.] 1879:309 [Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 25; ref. 2598] Kungès River, Ili River basin, Kazahkstan, elevation 4000 feet. Lectotype: ZIN 4175. Paralectotypes (3): ZIN 4175a (1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Also in Kessler 1879:276 [ref. 14266]. Lectotype selected by Prokofiev 2007:10? [Engl. 6] [ref. 28990]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Berg 1949:862 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Wu & Wu 1992:212 [ref. 21205] as stoliczkae, Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:80 [ref. 23556] as stoliczkae, Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613]). •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2007:13? [Engl. 9] [ref. 28990]). •Valid as Triplophysa dorsonotatus (Kessler 1879) -- (Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa dorsonotatus (Kessler 1879). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Ili River basin, Kazakhstan and northwest China. Habitat: freshwater.

drassensis, Noemacheilus Tilak [R.] 1990:136, Fig. 1 [Records of the Zoological Survey of India v. 87 (no. 1-4); ref. 23720] Stream near Drass, Ladakh, India. Holotype: NRS/ZSI 1206. Paratypes: NRS/ZSI 1207 (7). Paper possibly not published until 1997 -- see Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367]. •Valid as Triplophysa drassensis (Tilak 1990) -- (Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa drassensis (Tilak 1990). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

dsapchynensis, Barbatula Prokofiev [A. M.] 2016:661, Figs. 2b, 3b, 5b, 6 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 56 (no. 6); ref. 35025] Bogd River, tributary of Zavkhan River near Uliastai village, Mongolia, 47°43'59.2"N, 96°49'08.9"E, elevation 1749 meters. Holotype: ZMMU 23816. Paratypes: ZMMU. Plus additional non-type specimens. Valid as Barbatula dsapchynensis Prokofiev 2016 -- (Prokofiev 2018:273 [ref. 35878]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula dsapchynensis Prokofiev 2016. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Zavkhan River drainage, Mongolia. Habitat: freshwater.

duanensis, Oreonectes Lan [J.] in Lan, Gan, Wu & Juan 2013:(76) 253, Figs, 56-57 [Science Press, Beijing; ref. 32910] Cheng Jian Tiwn, Du'an County, Guangxi, China, 23.9°N, 102.2E, elevation 272 meters,. Holotype: CLJH 2011090302. Paratypes: CLJH 1109031, 04100602, 04100603, 04100605, 04100606 (1 spec. ea.), •Valid as Oreonectes duanensis Lan 2013 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34477], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Liu et al. 2019:404 [ref. 36573]). Current status: Valid as Oreonectes duanensis Lan 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave systems of the Hongshuihe River system, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

dubia, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:123, Figs. 89-90 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Nam Mae Kham Mi, near Ban Mae Krating, road from Nan to Phrae, kilometer 66, 18°22'N, 100°25'E, Phrae Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27475 [now ZRC 38474]. Paratypes: KIZ uncat. (2); CMK 4346 (6), 4348 (5), 4846 (1), 4944 (10), 5002 (13), 5271 (14), 5889 (1); KUMF uncat. (2); NIFI 2183 (2); ROM 51140 (4). Plus additional non-type material. Type catalog: Neumann 2011:240 [ref. 31652]. Holotype now at ZRC. •Valid as Schistura dubia Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003:172 [ref. 26859], Vishwanath & Shanta Kumar 2006:212 [ref. 28652], Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Suvarnaraksha 2015:168 [ref. 33813]). Current status: Valid as Schistura dubia Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Phrae Province, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

dunckeri, Nemachilus Ahl [E.] 1922:30 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1922 (no. 1-2); ref. 15335] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMB 20546. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:91 [ref. 21847]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Possibly valid -- (Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:186 [ref. 25685]). •Synomym of Nemacheilus pfeifferae (Bleeker 1853) -- (Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Nemacheilus pfeifrerae (Bleeker 1853). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

dursunavsari, Seminemacheilus Çiçek [E.] 2020:69, Figs. 2-6 [Iranian Journal of Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 37402] Input of Alanözü Dam Lake, Goksu River drainage, Eastern Mediterranean basin, Konya province, Turkey, 37°07'48.8"N, 32°42'19.3"E. Holotype: NUIC-1811. Paratypes: NUIC-1812 (20). Original description failed to mention explicitly the location where the types are deposited [ICZN Art. 16.4.2], but it was recognizable by indication, and address provided on title page. Corrected version appeared in May 2020. Formally corrected by Çiçek 2020:101 [ref. 37611]. If not yet available from corrected version (May 2020), then available from erratum dated 27 June 2020. We temporarily treat this taxon as valid, but a decision by ICZN may be required. •In the synonymy of Seminemacheilus tubae Yoğurtçuoğlu, Kaya, Geiger & Freyhof 2020 -- (Yoğurtçuoğlu et al. 2020:498 [ref. 37604]). •Valid as Seminemacheilus dursunavsari Çiçek 2020 -- (Çiçek 2020:101 [ref. 37611], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Seminemacheilus dursunavsari Çiçek 2020. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Goksu River drainage and Lake Beysehir watersheds (Turkey).

echigonia, Lefua Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1907:263, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1570); ref. 10643] Nagaoka, Echigo, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 20164. Paratypes: USNM (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:39 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Lefua costata (Kessler 1876), but a valid subspecies -- (Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:400 [ref. 25598]). •Valid as Lefua echigonia Jordan & Richardson 1907 -- (Okada 1961:546 [ref. 6363], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:59 [ref. 6441], Watanabe 1998:263 [ref. 23491], Nakabo 2000:277 [ref. 25086], Matsuura et al. 2000:168 [ref. 26000], Nakabo 2002:277 [ref. 26001], Mihara et al. 2005:157 [ref. 28201], Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367], Hosoya et al. 2018:199 [ref. 36197], Ito et al. 2019:485 [ref. 36659]). Current status: Valid as Lefua echigonia Jordan & Richardson 1907. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Honshu Island, Japan. Habitat: freshwater.

edsinica, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2003:66 [English p. 67], Fig. 29 [Estestvennye i Tekhnicheskie Nauki [Natural and Technical Sciences / Естественные и технические науки]. No. 1; ref. 28070] Edsin-River drainage, Hexi-Alashan region, northern China. Holotype (unique): ZIN 17294. •Valid as Triplophysa edsinica Prokofiev 2003 -- (Prokofiev 2006:255 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096]). •Valid as Tarimichthys edsinicus (Prokofiev 2003) -- (Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa edsinica Prokofiev 2003. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Edsin River, Hexi-Alashan region, northern China. Habitat: freshwater.

ekmekciae, Seminemacheilus Yoğurtçuoğlu [B.], Kaya [C.], Geiger [M. F.] & Freyhof [J.] 2020:491, Figs. 12-14, 18 [Zootaxa 4802 (no. 3); ref. 37604] Stream Insuyu in Pınarbaşı village at Cihanbeyli, Konya Province, Turkey, 38.7336, 32.7054. Holotype: FFR 15567. Paratypes: FFR, FSJF. •Valid as Seminemacheilus ekmekciae Yoğurtçuoğlu, Kaya, Geiger & Freyhof 2020. Current status: Valid as Seminemacheilus ekmekciae Yoğurtçuoğlu, Kaya, Geiger & Freyhof 2020. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lake Tuz basin, Konya, Turkey. Habitat: freshwater.

elakatis, Yunnanilus pleurotaenia Cao [W.-X.] & Zhu [S.-Q.] in Zheng et al. 1989:43 [Engl. p. 409], Fig. 21 [Fishes of the Zhujiang River; ref. 21202] Yiliang County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: IHASW 64-V-036. Paratypes: IHASW 64-V-28 to 35 (8), 64-V-38 to 46 (9); 63200 (1), 635162-63 (2), 6305194 (1). Authors are W.-X. Cao and S.-Q. Zhu. •Valid as Yunnanilus elakatis Cao & Zhu 1989 -- (Zhu 1989:17 [ref. 17744], Yang 1991:199 [ref. 13585], Zhu 1995:106 [ref. 25213], Zhu et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30145], Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus elakatis Cao & Zhu 1989. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Cobitis Kessler [K. F.] 1874:43 [Izvestiia Imperatorskago Obschchestva Liubitelei Estestvozaniia, Antropologii i Etnografii v. 11; ref. 2596] Salar River near Taschkent [Tashkent], Uzbekistan. Syntypes: ZMMU P-2542 (1), P-8002 (3); ZIN 10931 (1, not found in 1996). Type catalog: Svetovidova 1978:259 [ref. 9011], Vasil'eva et al. 2001:28[ref. 25714] as stoliczkai. •Questionably a synonym of Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Berg 1949:862 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990] as stoliczkae). •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866), but a valid subspecies elegens -- (Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2007:13? [Engl. p. 9] [ref. 28990]). •Questionably valid as Triplophysa elegans (Kessler 1874) -- (Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Uncertain as Triplophysa elegans (Kessler 1874). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

elegantissimus, Nemacheilus Chin [P. K.] & Samat [A.] 1992:26, Figs. 2, 5-6 [[The] Malayan Nature Journal v. 46 (pt 1); ref. 21366] Forest stream of Sungai Payau in shallow pools, Danum Valley, Sabah, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype: FMNH 100749. Paratypes: FMNH 100750 (5); FRCL(T) 0010 (6); UKMS/OS 2099-2101 (3), 2103-2110 (8); ZSH/CMK 7937 (1). The listing of Nemacheilus ornatissimus by Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832] was intended as this species. •Valid as Nemacheilus elegantissimus Chin & Samat 1992 -- (Martin-Smith & Tan 1998:587 [ref. 23647], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010:45 [ref. 30914], Kottelat 2012:90 [rfef. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus elegantissimus Chin & Samat 1992. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

elongata, Physoschistura Sen [N.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Singh, Sen, Bănărescu & Nalbant 1982:210, Figs. 17-20 [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 23 (for 1981); ref. 4030] Barapani, near Shillong, Meghalaya (Brahmaputra basin), India. Holotype: V/ERS 3063. Paratypes: (3) V/ERS 3066 and ISBB 3594. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Aborichthys elongatus Hora 1921 when both are placed in Noemacheilus by Menon 1987 [ref. 14149]; replaced by Noemacheilus barapaniensis Menon 1987. See Das 2003:353 [ref. 27706] with date as 1981. See Kottelat et al. 2007:39 [ref. 28942] for reinstatement of elongatus. •Valid as Nemacheilus elongatus (Sen & Nalbant 1982) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:479 [ref. 20764], Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Physoschistura elongata Sen & Nalbant 1982 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:446 [ref. 23187], Sen 1995:548 [ref. 23778], Kottelat et al. 2007:39 [ref. 28942], Shrestha 2008:135 [ref. 29923], Chen et al. 2011:180 [ref. 31359], Conway et al. 2011:[11] [ref. 31594], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:230 [ref. 32098], Kottelat 2012:102 [ref. 32367], Khynrian & Sen 2014:12 [ref. 33853], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:412 [ref. 35638]). •Valid as Schistura elongata (Sen & Nalbant 1982) -- (Lokeshwor et al. 2012:9 [ref. 32001] tentative, Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[5] [ref. 33603], Bleher 2018:216 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Physoschistura elongata Sen & Nalbant 1982. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Brahmaputra basin, India, Bhutan and Nepal. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Aborichthys Hora [S. L.] 1921:735, Fig. [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 22 (pt 5, no. 33); ref. 2203] Reang River, Darjiling [Darjeeling] District, India, Himalayas, elevation 2000 feet. Syntypes: ZSI F 10087/1 (3). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:119 [ref. 20743]. See Das 2003:351 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus elongatus (Hora 1921) -- (Menon 1987:184 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:187 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Aborichthys elongatus Hora 1921 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:457 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:543[ref. 23778], Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662], Kottelat et al. 2007:39 [ref. 28942], Sen 2009:13 [ref. 30554], Kottelat 2012:74 [ref. 32367], Kosygin 2012:49 [ref. 32937], Khynrian & Sen 2014:5 [ref. 33853], Arunachalam et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33198], Bleher 2018:122 [ref. 36647], Kosygin et al. 2019:74 [ref. 36729], Shangningam et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37201]). Current status: Valid as Aborichthys elongatus Hora 1921. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Brahmaputra basin, Meghalaya, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Nemachilus kungessanus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:44, Pl. 5 (fig. 3) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Nomochun gol [Nemachun-gol], Mongolia or China. Syntypes: ZIN 7386 (2). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. First revision apparently Zhu 1989:84 selecting orientalis over elongatus. •Synonym of Triplophysa orientalis (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:84 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:172 [ref. 21205], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:68 [ref. 23556], Prokofiev 2006:256 [ref. 29061], Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2016:204 [ref. 34459]). •Not treated in Zhang et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34477]. Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa orientalis (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Oreonectes Tang [L.], Zhao [Y.-H.] & Zhang [C.-G.] 2012:484, Figs. 2-3 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 93 (no. 4); ref. 31595] Donglei Cave in Mulun Township, Huanjiang County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Holotype: ASIZB [now NZMC] 189288. Paratypes: ASIZB [now NZMC] 189289 (1), SCAU 20100106 (1). Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:65 [ref. 33808]. •Valid as Oreonectes elongatus Tang, Zhao & Zhang 2012 -- (Kottelat 2012:94 [ref. 32367] with genus in question, Kottelat 2012:347 [ref. 32232], Ye et al. 2015:65 [ref. 33808], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Liu et al. 2019:404 [ref. 36573]). •Valid as Troglonectes elongatus (Tang, Zhao & Zhang 2012) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Troglonectes elongatus (Tang, Zhao & Zhang 2012). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Longjiang River system, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

elsae, Oxynoemacheilus Eagderi [S.], Jalili [P.] & Çiçek [E.] 2018:454, Figs. 1-4 [FishTaxa v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 35940] Zarineh River, near Shahin-Dej city, Lake Urmia basin, west Azerbaijan Province, Iran, 36°37'40"N, 46°43'30"E. Holotype: IMNRF-UT-1404-H. Paratypes: IMNRF-UT. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus elsae Eagderi, Jalili & Çiçek 2018 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus elsae Eagderi, Jalili & Çiçek 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lake Urmia basin, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

emuensis, Barbatula Chen [H.], Zhang [H.], Chen [Y.-X.] & Freyhof [J.] 2019:19, Figs. 19-22 [Zootaxa 4565 (no. 1); ref. 36569] Zhu’Erduo River near Emu, upper Mudan River flowing into Songhua River of the middle Heilongjiang River drainage, Jilin Province, China, 43°75′N, 128°15′E. Holotype: HU 1608142. Paratypes: HU. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Barbatula emuensis Chen, Zhang, Chen & Freyhof 2019. Current status: Valid as Barbatula emuensis Chen, Zhang, Chen & Freyhof 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Zhu’Erduo, Erdaobai, Hun and Pushi River drainages, northern China (and possibly North Korea). Habitat: freshwater.

ephelis, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:59, Fig. 33 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Houay Sala Yai, a tributary of Nam San, 18°35'17"N, 103°05'00"E, Saisomboun Special zone, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45337. Paratypes: CMK 13356 (32), LARRI uncat. (8), NRM 44892 (8), ZRC 45338 (8). •Valid as Schistura ephelis Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:105 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:88, 91 [ref. 32798], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura ephelis Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

epixenos, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2017:45, Figs. 2-6 [Zootaxa 4300 (no. 1); ref. 35502] Nam Kathang Gnai on edge of Nakai Plateau, near Ban Khon Keng, Xe Bangfai drainage, Khammouan Province, Laos, 17°37'06''N, 105°17'51''E. Holotype: MHNG 2767.086. Paratypes: CMK. •Valid as Schistura epixenos Kottelat 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura epixenos Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nakai Plateau, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

ercisianus, Orthrias angorae Erk'akan [F.] & Kuru [M.] 1986:161, Fig. 1a [Doga Turk Biyoloji Dergisi. v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 21167] Ercis stream, Lake Van basin, Turkey. Holotype: HUIC. Paratypes: HUIC (4+9+3). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus ercisianus (Erk'akan & Kuru 1986) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:96 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33140], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Çiçek et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36267], Şen et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36474], Turan et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 36540], Freyhof et al. 2019:34 [ref. 36739], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus ercisianus (Erk'akan & Kuru 1986). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Lake Van basin endemic, Van Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

erdali, Barbatula Erk'akan [F.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Özeren [S. C.] 2007:78, Fig. 8 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 29026] Murat River-Agri, 39°40'N, 43°44'E, Turkey. Holotype: HUIC F12. Paratypes: HUIC F12 (7). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus erdali (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kamangar et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33140], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:379 [ref. 35216], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Çiçek et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36267], Turan et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 36540]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus bergianus (Derjavin 1934) -- (Freyhof et al. 2019:33 [ref. 36739]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus bergianus (Derjavin 1934). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

eregliensis, Orthrias angorae Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Bănărescu, Nalbant & Balik 1978:258, Fig. 1 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 75; ref. 9016] Eregli, southwestern central Turkey. Holotype: ZMH 1921. Paratypes: ZMH 5637 (4). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413 [ref. 21161]. •Synonym of Orthrias angorae (Steindachner 1897), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Erk'akan & Kuru 1986:160 [ref. 21167]). •Valid as Barbatula eregliensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978) -- (Erk'akan et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29026]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus angorae Steindachner 1897 -- (Fricke et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29533]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus eregliensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978) -- (Stoumboudi et al. 2006:143 [ref. 28767], Erk'akan et al. 2008:117 [ref. 29859] as Oxynemacheilus, Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Erk'akan 2012:97 [ref. 32281], Kottelat 2012:96 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus eregliensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Central Anatolian lake tributaries (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

erhaiensis, Paracobitis Zhu [S.-Q.] & Cao [W.-X.] 1988:95 [100], Figs. 1-2 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 17743] Wase, eastern bank of Erhai Lake, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: IHASW 64-VI-0012. Paratypes: IHASW 64-VI-0001 to 11 (11), 64-VI-0013 to 15 (3), 64-VI-0775 to 77 (3), 64-VI-0779 (1). English description on p. 100. •Valid as Paracobitis erhaiensis Zhu & Cao 1988 -- (Zhu 1989:36 [ref. 17744], Zhou & He 1993:5 [ref. 21971], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:444 [ref. 23187] with uncertain genus placement, Zhu 1995:109 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:51 [ref. 23556], Min et al. 2010:202 [ref. 30726]). •Valid as Homatula erhaiensis (Zhu & Cao 1988) -- (Hu & Zhang 2010:52 [ref. 30780], Gu & Zhang 2012:xx [ref. 31632], Min et al. 2012:313 [ref. 32341], Kottelat 2012:83 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:128 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Homatula anguillioides (Zhu & Wang 1985) -- (Endruweit et al. 2018:564 [ref. 35763]). Current status: Synonym of Homatula anguillioides (Zhu & Wang 1985). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

erythraea, Triplophysa Liu [Z.-X.] & Huang [T.-F] in Huang, Zhang, Huang, Wu, Gong, Zhang, Peng & Liu 2019:331, Figs. 2-3 [Zoological Research v. 40 (no. 4); ref. 36689] Dalong Cave, Huayuan County, Hunan, central south China, 28°16'25.11"N, 109°28'57.18"E, elevation 563 meters. Holotype: HY 18022802. Paratypes: HY. •Valid as Triplophysa erythraea Liu & Huang 2019. Current status: Valid as Triplophysa erythraea Liu & Huang 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Dalong Cave, Hunan, central south China. Habitat: freshwater.

erythrinna, Nemacheilus barbatulus aberr. Berg [L. S.] 1933:550 [Les poissons des eaux douces de l'U.R.S.S. Part 2; ref. 279] Original not seen. Infrasubspecific, not available. •In the synonymy of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). Nemacheilidae.

eugeniae, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2002:473, Fig. 5 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 42 (no. 4); ref. 26268] Hi-Chu, Kam Valley, China. Holotype (unique): ZIN 12575. •Valid as Triplophysa eugeniae Prokofiev 2002 -- (Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096]). •Valid as Indotriplophysa eugeniae (Prokofiev 2001) -- (Kottelat 2012:85 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa eugeniae Prokofiev 2002. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

euphraticus, Noemacheilus insignis Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1964:175, Pl. 7 (figs. 11-12) [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 61; ref. 217] Euphrates (Firat Nehri) Basin, Malatya, eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Holotype: ZMH 1889. Paratypes: ZMH H1890 (36). Also 10 additional non-type specimens in ZMH. Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:158 [ref. 22013]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Orthrias insignis (Heckel 1847), but a valid subspecies euphratica (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964) -- (Bănărescu et al. 1978:264 [ref. 9016]). •Valid as Nemacheilus euphraticus Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964 -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:110 [ref. 23810]). •Valid as Orthrias euphraticus (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964) -- (Nalbant 1998:371 [ref. 26011], Fricke et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Barbatula euphratica (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964) -- (authors). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1847), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus argyrogramma (Heckel 1847) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:308 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:95 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:39 [ref. 33140]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus euphraticus (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964) -- (Freyhof 2016:99 [ref. 34815], Freyhof & Abdullah 2017:84 [ref. 35169], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:385 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:64 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:552 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Esmaeili et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36089], Turan et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 36540], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus euphraticus (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: Euphrates River and Tigris River drainages (Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

evezardi, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1872:182 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 41 (pt 2, nos 1-4); ref. 14133] Pune [Púna or Poona], India [18°28'N, 73°48'E]. Holotype (unique): ZSI 2678 (lost). Original as Evezardi. Often dated to 1878 [ref. 4887]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Valid as Nemacheilus evezardi Day 1872 -- (Menon 1987:191 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:480 [ref. 20764], Zacharias et al. 1996:41 [ref. 25526], Menon 1999:188 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Yadav 2000:41 [ref. 25661] as everardi, Romero & Paulson 2001:20 [ref. 26040], Raju Thomas et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26359], Yadav 2003:17 [ref. 27711]). •Valid as Oreonectes evezardi (Day 1872) -- (Singh & Yazdani 1993:199 [ref. 24022], Rema Devi et al. 2002:127 [ref. 26361]). •Valid as Indoreonectes evezardi (Day 1872) -- (Kottelat 1990:55 [ref. 16763], Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005:77 [ref. 28530], Proudlove 2006:102 [ref. 28992], Kottelat 2012:85 [ref. 32367], Bleher 2018:134 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Indoreonectes evezardi (Day 1872). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Northern Western Ghats, Maharashtra, India. Habitat: freshwater.

evreni, Schistura Erk'akan [F.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Özeren [S. C.] 2007:82, Fig. 12 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 29026] Tekir Stream, Göksu Basin, 38°39'N, 36°37'E, Turkey. Holotype: SEY-3. Paratypes: HUIC CEY-1 (2). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus evreni (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:96 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644], Kaya et al. 2020:289 [ref. 37622]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus evreni (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Ceyhan River basin (Mediterranean tributary), Kayseri Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

farsicus, Orthrias Nalbant [T. T.] & Bianco [P. G.] 1998:111, Fig. 6 [Italian Journal of Zoology v. 65, Suppl.; ref. 23810] River Kor near Persepolis, Iran. Holotype: IZA 7823. Paratypes: ISBB 3442 (7), 3446 (7), 3451 (7); IZA 7824-26 (64, 61, 31), 7845 (7). •Valid as Barbatula farsica (Nalbant & Bianco 1998) -- (based on status of Barbatula). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus farsicus (Nalbant & Bianco 1998) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus persa (Heckel 1847) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:309 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367], Freyhof 2016:100 [ref. 34815], Esmaeili et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35254], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2018:45 [ref. 36026]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus persa (Heckel 1847). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

farwelli, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1935:799 [16], Pl. 1 (fig. 2); Fig. 4d [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 37 (pt 4); ref. 13887] Helmand River, Afghanistan. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11515/1. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:364 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus farwelli Hora 1935 -- (Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus, Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Triplophysa farwelli (Hora 1935) -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:116 [ref. 23810], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa farwelli (Hora 1935). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Afghanistan. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciata, Cobitis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:25 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Bogor, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2798. Type information: Roberts 1993:26 [ref. 21799]. •Valid as Homaloptera fasciatus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Roberts 1993:26 [ref. 21799]). •Valid as Nemacheilus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:54 [ref. 23448], Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:186 [ref. 25685], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:204 [ref. 31485], Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:200 [ref. 32989], Hubert et al. 2019:10 [ref. 36547]) Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1846). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Java, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciata, Schistura Lokeshwor [Y.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2011:1515, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of Threatened Taxa v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 31183] Barak River at western side of Maram Hill, Senapati District, Manipur, India, 25°23'24.66"N, 94°04'09.25"E. Holotype: MUMF 11010. Paratypes: MUMF 11001-11019 (18), 11020-11021 (2). •Valid as Schistura fasciata Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011 -- (Lokeshwor et al. 2012:262 [ref. 32337], Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:4 [ref. 32463], Lokeshwor et al. 2013:587 [ref. 32764], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:55 [ref. 32801], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971], Shangningam et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33318], Khynrian & Sen 2014:16 [ref. 33853], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[5] [ref. 33603], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628], Bleher 2018:218 [ref. 36647], Choudhury et al. 2019:50 [ref. 36483]). Current status: Valid as Schistura fasciata Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Brahmaputra River system, Manipur, India. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Noemacheilus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:26 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Manuscript name mentioned in passing, species named Cobitis fasciata by Valenciennes 1846. Nemacheilidae.

fasciatus, Noemacheilus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in van Hasselt 1823:133 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar II Deel (no. 35); ref. 5963] Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Regarded as not available, no distingushing features (from Buitenzorg, Java) -- (see Alfred 1961:85 [ref. 20553], Kottelat 1987:371 [ref. 5962]). Also in van Hasselt 1824:376 [ref. 5964]. •In the synonymy of Nemacheilus chrysolaimos (Valenciennes 1846) and Nemacheilus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Roberts 1993:25-26 [ref. 21799]). •Treated as valid as Nemacheilus fasciatus (Kuhl & van Hasselt 1823) -- (Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832]). Nemacheilidae.

fascimaculata, Schistura Mirza [M. R.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Mirza, Nalbant & Bănărescu 1981:121, Figs. 41-45 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 5390] Hangu, Kohat District on the Kohat Toi River, Pakistan. Holotype: ISBB 3371. Paratypes: ISBB 3372 (1), ZMA 116445 (2), Mirza priv. coll. (orig. 5). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:36 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Nemacheilus fascimaculatus (Mirza & Nalbant 1981) -- (Menon 1987:72 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:481 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura fascimaculata Mirza & Nalbant 1981 -- (Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:14 [ref. 27265], Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura fascimaculata Mirza & Nalbant 1981. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciolata, Homaloptera Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:339, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa [= Nada Town], Hainan Island, China. Holotype: AMNH 8365. Paratypes: (several) AMNH 10296 (3, 1 c&s), 10307 (1), 10316 (1). •Valid as Nemacheilus fasciolatus (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Mai 1978:232 [ref. 13511] as Noemacheilus, Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:150 [ref. 26639], Zhu & Cao 1987:327 [ref. 14139], Zheng et al. 1989:50 [ref. 21202], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:242 [ref. 23876]). •Valid as Schistura fasciolata (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Zhu 1989:47 [ref. 17744], Ding 1994:57 [ref. 21531], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Zhu 1995:110 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:54 [ref. 23556], Chen 1999:304 [ref. 24925], Freyhof & Serov 2001:154 [ref. 25364], Tang et al. 2001:14 [ref. 25373], Kottelat 2001:47 [ref. 25482] as cf. fasciolata, Kottelat & Leisher 2012:240 [ref. 32277] as cf. fasciolata, Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477], Endruweit 2017:149 [ref. 35362], Cao & Zhang 2018:134 [ref. 36108], Zhang et al. 2019:369 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Schistura fasciolata (Nichols & Pope 1927). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hainan Island, China. Habitat: freshwater.

fedtschenkoae, Nemachilus Nikolskii [A. M.] 1903:93 [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 8; ref. 15036] Murgab River, Tajikistan. Holotype (unique): ZIN 12710. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Berg 1949:862 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061] as stoliczkai, Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990] as stoliczkae). •Synonym of Triplophysa uranoscopus (Kessler 1872) -- (Kottelat 2012:132 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa uranoscopus (Kessler 1872). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fengshanensis, Triplophysa Lan [J.] in Lan, Gan, Wu & Juan 2013:(135) 256, Figs. 104-105 [Science Press, Beijing; ref. 32910] Lintong Town, Fengshan County, Guangxi, China, 24.8°N, 107.0°, elevation 850 meters. Holotype: CLJH 201011056. Paratypes: CLJH 20101110507, 2011120701, 2011120703 (4 spec.). •Valid as Triplophysa fengshanensis Lan 2013 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34477], Liu et al. 2017:844 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971], Chen & Peng 2019:381 [ref. 36537], Huang et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36689]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa fengshanensis Lan 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

ferruginea, Schistura Lokeshwor [Y.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2013:50, Figs. 1-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 32801] Rivulet of Barak River at Don Bosco College campus, Maram, Manipur, India, 25°24'34.09"N, 94°06'25.66"E. Holotype: MUMF 11112. Paratypes: MUMF. •Valid as Schistura ferruginea Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013 -- (Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517]). •Possibly valid as Rhyacoschistura ferruginea (Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013) -- (Kottelat 2019:168 [ref. 36743]). Current status: Valid as Schistura ferruginea Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Brahmaputra River basin, Manipur, northeast India. Habitat: freshwater.

finis, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:59, Fig. 34 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Kan, a small creek making the border between Laos and Vietnam at Ban Xayden, 19°28'19"N, 104°05'04"E, Xiangkhouang Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45339. Paratypes: CMK 15271 (8), LARRI uncat. (8), NRM 44912 (8), ZRC 45340 (8). •Valid as Schistura finis Kottelat 2000 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:153 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:48 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2001:107 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura finis Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

flavicorpus, Triplophysa Yang [J.-X.], Chen [Y.-R.] & Lan [J.-H.] 2004:113, Figs. 3-4 [Guangxi Aquatic Product Science and Technology 2004 (no. 3); ref. 28066] Hongshui River system, Du'An [Duan] County, Guangxi Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 99050004. Paratypes: KIZ 99050003 (1), 00110551-54 (4), 00120610 (1), 00120614 (1), 00120621 (1), 00120624 (1) Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939] as 9950004. Proofed from electronic translation to English. •Valid as Triplophysa flavicorpus Yang, Chen & Lan 2004 -- (Chen & Chen 2007:111 [ref. 29350] as flacicorpus, Chen et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30169], Zheng 2009:225 [ref. 30217], Yang et al. 2012:170 [ref. 31483], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193], Ren et al. 2012:191 [ref. 32330], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34477], Li et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa flavicorpus Yang, Chen & Lan 2004. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hongshui [Hongshuihe] River drainage of Red River system and Pearl River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

flavus, Nemacheilus Berg [L. S.] 1905:193, Pl. 6 (figs. 3-5) [Izviestii Turkestanskago otdiela Russkago geograficheskago obschchestva v. 4; ref. 15338] Lower Amu Darya River and Upper Syr Darya River, Turkmenistan. Lectotype: ZIN 13282. Paralectotypes: MLSU 297 (1); ZIN 10306 (2), 13282-83 (10, 2). Lectotype established in caption to Fig. 625 in Berg 1949:880 [ref. 20661] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Nemacheilus oxianus Kessler 1877 -- (Berg 1949:879 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of 'Oxynoemacheilus' oxianus (Kessler 1877) -- (Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus oxianus (Kessler 1877). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

forkicaudalis, Yunnanilus Li [W.-X.] in Li, Wu, Xu, Gao, Chen, Wu & Wang 1999:4 [English p. 7], Fig. 2 [Sichuan Journal of Zoology v. 18 (no. 1); ref. 23880] Heilongtan, Lunan, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: HRAS 6509047. Paratypes: HRAS 6509046 (1), 6509048-49 (2). Spelled foreicaudalis on Li p. 4; simultaneous synonym of Yunnunilus macrositanus Li 1999 (Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367]). •Questionably the same as Yunnanilus macrositanus Li 1999 -- (Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Yunnanilus forkicaudalis Li 1999 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:138 [ref. 36374]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus forkicaudalis Li 1999. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

fowleri, Barbatula toni Nichols [J. T.] 1925:3 [American Museum Novitates No. 171; ref. 3178] Eastern Tombs, Chihli, Hopeh [Hebei] Province, China. Now: Zunhua, 40°11'N, 117°58'E, China. Holotype: AMNH 8409. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:869 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies nuda (Bleeker 1868) -- (Zhu 1989:30 [ref. 17744]). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Vasil'eva 1998:96 [ref. 23591]). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Prokofiev 2007:17 [ref. 30343]). •Synonym of Barbatula nuda (Bleeker 1869) with question -- (Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367]). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Kottelat 2006:53 [ref. 28831], Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065]). •Synonym of Barbatula pechiliensis (Fowler 1899) -- (Chen et al. 2019:15 [ref. 36569]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula pechiliensis (Fowler 1899). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fowleri, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1987 [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fowlerianus, Noemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1945:306 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 188; ref. 4056] Mepoon [Me poon, = Mae Phun], central Thailand. Lectotype: ANSP 108189. Paralectotypes: ANSP 69962-66 (4); USNM 119700 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Smith designated as holotype ANSP 69961, but it was not separated from other specimens (see Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621]). Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1990:207 [ref. 14137]. •Valid as Schistura fowleriana (Smith 1945) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187]). •Synonym of Schistura sexcauda (Fowler 1937) -- (Kottelat 1990:204 [ref. 14137], Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura sexcauda (Fowler 1937). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

frenata, Cobitis Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1086 [96] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Tigris River, Mosul, Iraq. Syntypes: NMW 48552 (5), NRM 15477 (1). Illustrated by Heckel 1843, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [ref. 2067]. On p. 96 of separate [ref. 2067]. •Valid as Nemacheilus frenatus (Heckel 1843) -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869]). •Valid as Orthrias frenatus (Heckel 1843) -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:112 [ref. 23810], Fricke et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Barbatula frenata (Heckel 1843) -- (Coad 2010:207 [ref. 36620]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus frenatus (Heckel 1843) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:96 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33140], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:883 [ref. 34062], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2016:105 [ref. 34789], Freyhof 2016:94 [ref. 34815], Freyhof & Abdullah 2017:86 [ref. 35169], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:379 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:559 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Esmaeili et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36089], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus frenatus (Heckel 1843). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: Tigris River basin (Turkey, Iraq, Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

freyhofi, Oxynoemacheilus Jouladeh-Roudbar [A.], Eagderi [S.] & Hosseinpour [T.] 2016:95, Figs. 1-7 [FishTaxa v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 34789] Roudbar River, tributary of Bakhtiyari River, near Kazem Abad village, Lorstan province, Iran, 33°08'17.8"N, 49°40'43.9"E. Holotype: IMNRF-UT-1036-1. Paratypes: IMNRF-UT. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus freyhofi Jouladeh-Roudbar, Eagderi & Hosseinpour 2016 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:45 [ref. 36089] with question). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus euphraticus (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964)-- (Freyhof 2016:99 [ref. 34815], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:385 [ref. 35216]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus euphraticus (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fuerstenbergii, Cobitis Fitzinger [L. J. F. J.] in Heckel & Kner 1857:301 [Die Süsswasserfische der Österreichischen Monarchie; ref. 2078] Not available, no distinguishing features, as fürstenbergii in synonymy of Cobitis barbatula. •In the synonymy of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). Nemacheilidae.

furcatus, Oreias Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1976:188, Pls. 1 (2-3), 2 (6, 8); Figs. 5-8 [Nymphaea v. 4; ref. 7353] Tsao Po, near Kuan-shien, Szechwan, China. Holotype: USNM 130128. Paratypes: FMNH 51143 (4). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:63 [ref. 12367]. The genus Oreias is apparently preoccupied. •Synonym of Oreias dabryi Sauvage 1874 -- (Wu & Wu 1992:147 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:60 [ref. 21531], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:58 [ref. 23556]). •Synonym of Claea dabryi (Sauvage 1874) -- (Kottelat 2012:81 [ref. 32367]). •Synonym of Schistura dabryi (Sauvage 1874) -- (Zhu 1989:55 [ref. 17744], Zhou & Cui 1993:82 [ref. 20830]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura dabryi (Sauvage 1874). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

furcocaudalis, Oreonectes Zhu [S.-Q.] & Cao [W.-X.] 1987:326 [331], Figs. 5-6 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 14139] Outlet of subterranean water near Rongshui County town, ca. 25°04'N, 109°13'E, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Holotype: IHASW 83V331. Paratypes: IHASW 83V326 (1), 83V330 (1). English description on p. 331. •Valid as Oreonectes furcocaudalis Zhu & Cao 1987 -- (Zhu 1989:24 [ref. 17744], Lan et al. 1995:367 [ref. 23184], Zhu 1995:107 [ref. 25213], Zhang et al. 2006:614 [ref. 29423], Du et al. 2008:28 [ref. 29544] Huang et al. 2009:445 [ref. 30323], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31282], Tang et al. 2012:489 [ref. 31595], Kottelat 2012:347 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:94 [ref. 32367] with genus in question, Ma & Zhao 2012:110 [ref. 34891], Lan et al. 2013:253 [ref. 32910], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Liu et al. 2019:404 [ref. 36573]). •Valid as Troglonectes furcocaudalis (Zhu & Cao 1987) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34477], Huang et al. 2019:117 [ref. 37137]). Current status: Valid as Troglonectes furcocaudalis (Zhu & Cao 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Liujiang River system, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

furstenbergii, Cobitis Bonaparte [C. L.] 1846:26 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano 7a Adunanza, Napoli, Part 2; ref. 519] Name only, not available. •In the synonymy of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2012:77 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). Nemacheilidae.

furva, Triplophysa Zhu [S.-Q.] 1992:242 [246], Figs. 3-6 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 21064] Ürümqi River, near the Hongyanchi Reservoir, Ürümqi City, 43°47'N, 87°37'E, Xinjiang Uygur, Autonomous Region, China. Holotype: NIGLAS 880943. Paratypes: NIGLAS 880919-42 (24). English description on p. 246. •Valid as Triplophysa furva Zhu 1992 -- (Zhu 1995:114 [ref. 25213], Li et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29309], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa furva Zhu 1992. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Autonomous Region, China. Habitat: freshwater.

fusinotata, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:60, Fig. 35 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Vi at ford downriver (1.5 kilometers NW) of Ban Kasang-Kan, 15°17'55"N, 106°54'10"E, Xekong Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45341. Paratypes: CMK 15577 (4), 15615 (14), 15745 (4); LARRI uncat. (2); ZRC 45342 (2). •Valid as Schistura fusinotata Kottelat 2000 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:168 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:107 [ref. 25780], Ou et al. 2011:199 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25 [ref. 32804], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366]). Current status: Valid as Schistura fusinotata Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

fuxianensis, Triplophysa Yang [J.-X.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1990:377 [383], Fig. 2 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 15 (no. 3); ref. 16188] Lake Fuxian [Fuxianhu], 24°32'N, 103°55'E, Nanpan basin, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 873126. Paratypes: KIZ 873125 (1), 873127-28 (2), 8611025-29 (5). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. English description on p. 383. •Valid as Triplophysa fuxianensis Yang & Chu 1990 -- (Yang 1991:200 [ref. 13585], Lan et al. 1995:369 [ref. 23184], Yang & Chen 1995:26 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:119 [ref. 25213], Chen et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30169], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa fuxianensis Yang & Chu 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lake Fuzian, upper Pearl River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

galilaea, Cobitis Günther [A.] 1864:493 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 3); ref. 13931] Lake Tiberias [Galilée], Israel. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1863.11.3.8. •Valid as Nemacheilus galilaeus (Günther 1864) -- (Krupp & Schneider 1989:379 [ref. 13651]). •Valid as Nun galilaeus (Günther 1864) -- (Bănărescu et al. 1982:23 [ref. 174], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:446 [ref. 23187], Prokofiev 2009:885 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus galilaeus (Günther 1864) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:96 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Nun galilaea (Günther 1864) -- (Prokofiev 2017:252 [ref. 35630]). Current status: Valid as Nun galilaeus (Günther 1864). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hulwh Lake, Jordan River basin, Israel. Habitat: freshwater.

gangeticus, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:82, Pl. 12 (fig. 6) [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Alaknanda River (Ganges River basin) at Srinagar, Garhwal, Uttar Pradesh, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F582. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F583 (40). See Das 2003:366 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus gangeticus Menon 1987 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:481 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:172 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura gangetica (Menon 1990) -- (Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Bleher 2018:220 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura gangetica (Menon 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Ganges basin, India. Habitat: freshwater.

ganheensis, Yunnanilus An [L.], Liu [B.-S.] & Li [W.-X.] 2009:635 [English p. 638], Fig. 11 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 30709] Ganhe, 25°30'N, 103°40'E, Xundan County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: HRAS 920217004. Paratypes: HRAS 920217003 (1). •Valid as Yunnanilus ganheensis An, Liu & Li 2009 -- (Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:360 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus ganheensis An, Liu & Li 2009. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, Xundan County, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

garoensis, Aborichthys Hora [S. L.] 1925:233, Figs. 1-4 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 27; ref. 15546] Tura, Garo Hills, Meghalaya, Assam, India, elevation 1200-1500 ft. Holotype: ZSI F10669/1. Syntypes: ZSI F10669/1 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:119 [ref. 20743], Menon 1987:188 [ref. 14149]. See Das 2003:352 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus garoensis (Hora 1925) -- (Menon 1987:186 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Aborichthys garoensis Hora 1925 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:458 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:544 [ref. 23778], Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662], Sen 2009:13 [ref. 30554], Kottelat 2012:74 [ref. 32367]. Gurung et al. 2013:4883 [ref. 32969] dated 1913, Kosygin 2012:49 [ref. 32937], Khynrian & Sen 2014:6 [ref. 33853], Bleher 2018:124 [ref. 36647], Kosygin et al. 2019:74 [ref. 36729], Shangningam et al. 2019:369 [ref. 37201]). Current status: Valid as Aborichthys garoensis Hora 1925. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Brahmaputra basin, northeastern India, Bhutan and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

geisleri, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:127, Figs. 91-92 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Nam Mae Taeng at Ban Mae Ta Man, 19°12'N, 98°53'E, Chiang Mai Province, Mae Nam Ping basin, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 38475 [now ZRC 27476]. Paratypes: CAS 62553 (4); KIZ uncat. (3); CMK 4007 (14), 4067 (3), 4074 (6), 4276 (4), 4943 (1), 5183 (6), 5206 (12), 5850 (1), 5852 (3); KUMF uncat. (3); MHNG 2081.34 (1), 2157.47 (2); NIFI 2180 (4); NIG uncat. (3); USNM 295778 (1). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:240 [ref. 31652] Holotype now at ZRC. •Valid as Schistura geisleri Kottelat 1990 -- (Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003:172 [ref. 26859], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2010:319 [ref. 30687], Chen & Neely 2012:226 [ref. 32332], Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:89 [ref. 32798], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:60 [ref. 33202]). •Possibly in Mustura -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Schistura geisleri Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

gejiuensis, Noemacheilus Chu [S.-L.] & Chen [Y.-R.] 1979:285 [English p. 287], Fig. 1 [Acta Zoologica Sinica v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 8838] 400 meters deep, in underground river at Gejiu City, Bajianjing 4 kilometers from Qiafang, 23°16'N, 103°09'E, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 7803001. Paratypes: KIZ 7803003-08 [KIZ 1978000983] (7). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. Genus spelling of original genus is Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus gejiuensis Chu & Chen 1979 -- (Yue & Chen 1998:198 [ref. 26415]). •Valid as Schistura gejiuensis (Chu & Chen 1979) -- (Zhu 1989:57 [ref. 17744]). •Valid as Triplophysa gejiuensis (Chu & Chen 1979) -- (Chen et al. 1992:19 [ref. 20028], Zhou & Cui 1993:83 [ref. 20830], Zhu 1995:120 [ref. 25213], Zhou & Cui 1997:178 [ref. 23279], Romero & Paulson 2001:22 [ref. 26040], Kottelat 2004:190 [ref. 27801], Chen & Yang 2005:604 [ref. 28119], Proudlove 2006:90 [ref. 28992], Li et al. 2008:676 [ref. 29925], Chen et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30169], Zheng 2009:225 [ref. 30217], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096] as geijuensis, Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2011:569 [ref. 31447], Yang et al. 2012:170 [ref. 31483], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:645 [ref. 32193], Wu et al. 2012:878 [ref. 32311], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:256, 257 [ref. 32910], Kottelat 2013:214 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34477], Yang et al. 2016:299 [ref. 34677], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:844 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971], Huang et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36689]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa gejiuensis (Chu & Chen 1979). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanpan River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

genilepis, Paranemachilus Zhu [S.-Q.] 1983:311 [313], Figs. 1-4 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 6667] Subterranean river of Changping (ca. 22°42'N, 107°53'E), Fusui County, southern Guangxi, China. Holotype: ASIZB [now NZMC] 60382 [ex 790002]. Paratypes: ASIZB [now NZMC] 60383-96 out of 790003-09 (7), 790009-20 (12); NIGLAS 790001 (1), 790008 (1). Type catalog: Zhang 1996:500 [ref. 24036], Ye et al. 2015:67 [ref. 33808]. English description on p. 313. •Valid as Paranemachilus genilepis Zhu 1983 -- (Zhu & Cao 1987:324 [ref. 14139], Zheng et al. 1989:39 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1989:10 [ref. 17744], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:456 [ref. 23187], Zhu 1995:105 [ref. 25213], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493] in genus Paranemacheilus, Kottelat 2012:100 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Lan et al. 2013:24 [ref. 32910], Ye et al. 2015:67 [ref. 33808], Zhang et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Paranemachilus genilepis Zhu 1983. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

germencica, Barbatula Erk'akan [F.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Özeren [S. C.] 2007:70, Fig. 2 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 29026] Aydin, Germencik, 15th kilometer, 37°38'N, 27°18'E, Turkey. Holotype: HUIC BM-1. Paratypes: HUIC BM-1 (7). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus germencicus (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Erk'akan 2012:97 [ref. 32281], Kottelat 2012:96 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:148 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus germencicus (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Büyük Menderes River (Aegean Sea tributary), Aydιn Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

gerzeensis, Triplophysa Cao [W.-X.] & Zhu [S.-Q.] 1988:202 (English p. 204), Figs. 4-5 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 17647] Stream (Chaco Lake drainage) near Gerze County, China, 32°N, 84°E, elevation 4370 meters. Holotype: IHASW 76IV0200. Paratypes: IHASW 76IV166-190 (25), 76IV201-203 (3). •Synonym of Triplophysa microps (Steindachner 1866) -- (Wu & Wu 1992:196 [ref. 21205] as genzeensis). •Valid as Triplophysa gerzeensis Cao & Zhu 1988 -- (Zhu 1989:123 [ref. 17744], Zhang et al. 1995:67 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:119 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa gerzeensis Cao & Zhu 1988. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

ghazniensis, Noemacheilus Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1966:162, Fig. 7; Pl. 20 (figs. 4-5) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 129; ref. 218] Ghazni River at Ghazni [33°33'N, 68°26'E], tributary of Ab-i-Istadah Lake, Helmand drainage, Afghanistan. Holotype: BMNH 1944.4.1.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1944.4.1.2-6 (5). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus ghazniensis Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966 -- (Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus, Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Paracobitis ghazniensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:443 [ref. 23187], Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604], Kottelat 2012:99 [ref. 32367], Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:340 [ref. 33744]). Current status: Valid as Paracobitis ghazniensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Afghanistan. Habitat: freshwater.

gibba, Barbatula Cao [L.], Causse [R.] & Zhang [E] 2012:244, Figs. 1C [Zootaxa No. 3586; ref. 32335] Dali-Nur Lake in Hexigten Banner, Inner Mongolia, China. Holotype: IHB 76X2566. Paratypes: IHB 76X2552-4, 76X2558-9, 76X2562, 76X2564, 76X2567-8, 76X2574, 76X2576, 76X2584-5 (total 13). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065]). •Valid as Barbatula gibba Cao, Causse & Zhang 2012 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:127 [ref. 34477], Chen et al. 2019:10 [ref. 36569]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula gibba Cao, Causse & Zhang 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Dali-Nur Lake, Inner Mongolia, China. Habitat: freshwater.

gibbosa, Cobitis McClelland [J.] 1839:304, 436, Pl. 52 (fig. 7b) [Asiatic Researches v. 19 (pt 2); ref. 2923] Brahmaputra River [at Goalpara], India. Unneeded replacement name for Cobitis turio Hamilton 1822. •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:28 [ref. 14137], Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:198 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Singer & Page 2015:386 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

gibbusnazus, Nemacheilus brandtii Elanidze [R. F.] 1983 [Ichthyofauna of Georgia [Eurasia]; ref. 31784] Upper reaches of Alazani River at Alvani Village, Left bank tributary of Kura River basin, Georgia [Eurasia]. Without author; authorship attributed to the book author. Original description not seen. Possibly described in an earlier paper -- Coad, 2012, Freshwater Fishes of Iran, online database. •Might be a synonym of Oxynoemacheilus brandtii (Kessler 1877) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:308 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:95 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2018:233 [ref. 36249]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus brandtii (Kessler 1877). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

globiceps, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:60, Fig. 36 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Unnamed forest creek tributary to Nam Talan, at about kilometer 60 on road from Oudomxai to Luang Nam Tha, about 3 kilometers south of Ban Nateuy, 20°59'56"N, 101°39'47"E, Louangnamtha Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45343. Paratypes: CMK 14231 (3), LARRI uncat. (1). •Valid as Schistura globiceps Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:107 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura globiceps Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

golubtsovi, Orthrias Prokofiev [A. M.] 2003:727 or 698, Fig. 1 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 43 (no. 6); ref. 27494] Chedi-Tei River, about 60 km wes of Magur-Aksk, Kobdo River drainage, Tuva Republic, Mongolia. Holotype: ZIN 52251. Paratypes: ZIN 52252 (15), 52252/1-4 (5), 52253 ( 1); ZMMGY 20413 (5). •Questionably a synonym of Barbatula compressirostris (Warpachowski 1897) -- (Kottelat 2006:51 [ref. 28831]). •Valid as Orthrias golubtsovi Prokofiev 2003 -- (Prokofiev 2007:68 [ref. 30343]). •Valid as Barbatula golubtsovi (Prokofiev 2003) -- (Cao et al. 2012:236 [ref. 32335], Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065], Prokofiev 2016:396 [ref. 34693], Prokofiev 2018:273 [ref. 35878]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula golubtsovi (Prokofiev 2003). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Chovd River drainage, Mongolia and Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1877:798 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1876 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 5 Dec. 1876); ref. 14207] Basgo, on headwaters of the Indus River, Pakistan. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: BMNH 1889.2.1.1726 (1), NMW 48413 (1), ZSI 1469 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:157 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Triplophysa microps (Steindachner 1866) -- (Zhu 1989:121 [ref. 17744] as glacilis, Wu & Wu 1992:196 [ref. 21205] as glacilis). •See Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990]. •Valid as Triplophysa gracilis (Day 1877) -- (Menon 1987:202 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:510 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:189 [ref. 24904], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367], Usharamalakshmi et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36315]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa gracilis (Day 1877). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan and Kashmir, India. Habitat: freshwater.

grahami, Nemachilus Regan [C. T.] 1906:333 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 17 (no. 99) (art. 43); ref. 15706] Yunnan Fu, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1905.10.28.16-17 (2). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa grahami (Regan 1906) -- (Zhu 1989:127 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:194 [ref. 21205], Yang & Chen 1995:28 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:119 [ref. 25213], Zhou & Cui 1997:178 [ref. 23279], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:82 [ref. 23556], Tang et al. 2001:14 [ref. 25373], Kottelat 2013:214 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:385 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa grahami (Regan 1906). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

greenei, Schistura Endruweit [M.] 2017:395, Figs. 1, 2 [Zootaxa 4243 (no. 2); ref. 35191] Nanbanhe River, Nangunhe River drainage, upper Salween, Cangyuan City, Lincang Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, 23°18.543'N, 98°57.322'E, elevation 1056 meters. Holotype: KIZ 2014006034. Paratypes: KIZ, ZFMK-ICH. •Valid as Schistura greenei Endruweit 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura greenei Endruweit 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nangunhe River drainage, upper Salween basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

griffithii, Nemachilus Günther [A.] 1868:360 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Correct: Arghandab, near Kandahr, Afghanistan. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.93-94 (2). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus griffithii Günther 1868 -- (Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus griffithi, Coad 1995:21, 22 [ref. 23608] as Noemacheilus griffithi). •Valid as Triplophysa griffithii (Günther 1868) -- (Menon 1987:204 [ref. 14149] as griffithi, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:511 [ref. 20764] as griffithi, Nalbant & Bianco 1998:116 [ref. 23810] as griffithi, Prokofiev 2001:195 [ref. 26613] as griffithi, Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa griffithii (Günther 1868). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Afghanistan. Habitat: freshwater.

grummorum, Hedinichthys Prokofiev [A. M.] 2010:897, Figs. 26-28, 30, 32-33 [Journal of Ichthyology v. 50 (no. 10); ref. 31096] Oasis Lemjin, Xingjiang-Uyghurs Autonomous Region, China. Holotype: ZIN 9237. Paratypes: ZIN 9237a (8). •Valid as Hedinichthys grummorum Prokofiev 2010 -- (Kottelat 2012:82 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Hedinichthys grummorum Prokofiev 2010. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

guananensis, Oreonectes Yang [Q.], Wei [M.-L.], Lan [J.-H.] & Yang [Q.] 2011:272, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of Guangxi Normal University 2011 (no. 1); ref. 31464] Cave in Guan'an village, Changmei town, Huanjiang County, Guangxi Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 2010003067. Paratypes: GXIF 100060021, 24, 27, 28b (4); KIZ 2010003068-72 (5). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Oreonectes guananensis Yang, Wei, Lan & Yang 2011 -- (Tang et al. 2012:489 [ref. 31595], Kottelat 2012:346 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:94 [ref. 32367], Lan et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34477], Deng et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34511], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Huang et al. 2019:118 [ref. 37137]). Current status: Valid as Oreonectes guananensis Yang, Wei, Lan & Yang 2011. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave systems in Huanjiang County, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

guentheri, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1867:285 [5] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 2) (art. 5); ref. 14043] Rapids on the slopes of the Neilgherry hills, India. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.7488 (1); BMNH 1867.7.24.28 (1); NMW 48412 (1); RMNH 2666 (1); ZSI 2578 (1), A.959 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:157 [ref. 23762]. On p. 5 of separate. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Valid as Nemacheilus guentheri Day 1867 -- (Menon 1987:161 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:482 [ref. 20764], Arun et al. 1996:103 [ref. 24725] as Noemacheilus, Zacharias & Minimol 1999:289 [ref. 24212] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:184 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Raju Thomas et al. 2000:444 [ref. 25319] as Noemacheilus, Yadav 2000:41 [ref. 25661], Raju Thomas et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26359], Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005:77 [ref. 28530], Arunkumar & Manimekalan 2018:1739 [ref. 36172]). •Valid as Mesonoemacheilus guentheri (Day 1867) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:447 [ref. 23187], Rema Devi & Indra 2002:334 [ref. 26591], Shaji 2002:219 [ref. 27556], Kottelat 2012:88 [ref. 32367], Anoop et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35652], Bleher 2018:140 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Mesonoemacheilus guentheri (Day 1867). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nilgiri Hills, southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

guilinensis, Oreonectes Huang [J.-Q.], Yang [J.], Wu [Z.-Q.] & Zhao [Y.-H.] 2019:112, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 96 (no. 1); ref. 37137] Tributary of Lijiang River, Pearl River basin, Xingping, Yangshuo County, Guilin City, Guangxi, China, 24°53'30.77"N, 110°33'45.62"E. Holotype: ASIZB 208002. Paratypes: ASIZB. •Valid as Oreonectes guilinensis Huang, Yang, Wu & Zhao 2019. Current status: Valid as Oreonectes guilinensis Huang, Yang, Wu & Zhao 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave systems of the Lijiang River, Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

guizhouensis, Triplophysa Wu [W.-J.], He [A.-Y.], Yang [J.-X.] & Du [L.-N.] 2018:90, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 93 (no. 1); ref. 35971] Small river in Baijin Village, Baijin County, Huishui City, Guizhou Province, China, 26°59'32"N, 106°48'25"E. Holotype: KIZ 2017000346. Paratypes: KIZ. •Valid as Triplophysa guizhouensis Wu, He, Yang & Du 2018. Current status: Valid as Triplophysa guizhouensis Wu, He, Yang & Du 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mengjiang River drainage, Hongshui River basin, Guizhou, China. Habitat: freshwater.

gundriseri, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2002:S47 [Journal of Ichthyology v. 42 (suppl. 1); ref. 27462] Tes-Khem River, 25 kilometers northwest of Erzin (Tuva Reublic, Russia), 50°27"N, 95°01'E. Neotype: ZISP 52053. Replacement name for Nemacheilus dorsalis humilis Gundriser 1962, preoccupied. Neotype designated for humilis Gundriser by Prokofiev 2002:S49 [ref. 27462]. •Valid as Triplophysa gundriseri Prokofiev 2002 -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:116 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2006:55 [ref. 28831], Ocock et al. 2006:29 [ref. 28933], Prokofiev 2006:256 [ref. 29061] with subspecies, Prokofiev 2010:907 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2016:203 [ref. 34459]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa gundriseri Prokofiev 2002. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Northwestern Mongolia. Habitat: freshwater.

gyndes, Oxynoemacheilus Freyhof [J.] & Abdullah [Y. S.] 2017:74, Figs. 1-5 [Zootaxa 4238 (no. 1); ref. 35169] Stream Zalm south of Taparezina, Iraq, 35°18'23"N, 45°58'14"E. Holotype: ZFMK 103019. Paratypes: FSJF. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus gyndes Freyhof & Abdullah 2017 -- (Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:379 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:63 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:552 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus gyndes Freyhof & Abdullah 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Sirwan drainage, Tigris basin, Kurdistan, Iraq and Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

haarlovi, Noemacheilus lindbergi Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1966:176, Figs. 14-15; Pl. 21 (fig. 6) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 129; ref. 218] Pirzada, west of Kandahar, Helmand drainage, Afghanistan. Holotype: ZMUC P27111 [orig. 2811]. Paratypes: ZMUC P27112-13 [orig. 2812-2813] (2). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:49 [ref. 9588]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus lindbergi Bănărescu & Mirza 1965, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608]). •Synonym of Schistura lingbergi (Bănărescu & Mirza 1965). •Synonym of Paraschistura lindbergi Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966 -- (Kottelat 2012:101 [32367]). Current status: Synonym of Paraschistura kessleri (Günther 1889). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

hafezi, Turcinoemacheilus Golzarianpour [K.], Abdoli [A.], Patimar [R.] & Freyhof [J.] 2013:43, Figs. 1-6, 8 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 32802] Stream at Joneqon, tributary of Kohrang River, Iran, 32°05'22"N, 50°39'48"E. Holotype: ZFMK 48841. Paratypes: FSJF, ZFMK. •Valid as Turcinoemacheilus hafezi Golzarianpour, Abdoli, Patimar & Freyhof 2013 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33241], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:889 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095] as Turcionemacheilus hafezi, Esmaeili et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35254], Prokofiev 2017:255 [ref. 35630], Esmaeili et al. 2018:53 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Turcinoemacheilus hafezi Golzarianpour, Abdoli, Patimar & Freyhof 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Karoun and Dez drainages, Tigris River basin, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

hagiangensis, Paracobitis Nguyen [V. H.] 2005:565, Fig. 12 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 2; ref. 29730] Lô River, Hà Giang, Vietnam. Holotype: NCNTTS I, Bac Ninh (lost). Paratypes: (1) lost. Types at RIA 1 [= NCNTTSI] are lost according to Endruweit 2014:144, 152 [ref. 33205]. •Valid as Schistura hagiangensis (Nguyen 2005) -- (Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989] with question). •Synonym of Schistura caudofurca (Mai 1978) -- (Endruweit 2014:153 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura caudofurca (Mai 1978). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lo River, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

hagiangensis, Sinogastromyzon Nguyen [V. H.] 2005:608, Fig. 37 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 2; ref. 29730] Town of Hà Giang, Hà Giang Province, lo River, Vietnam. Holotype: NCNTTS I. Paratypes: (2). •Questionably valid as Sinogastromyzon hagiangensis Nguyen 2005 -- (Kottelat 2012:55 [ref. 32367]). •Questionably valid as Schistura hagiangensis (Nguyen 2005) -- (Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:190 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Schistura hagiangensis (Nguyen 2005). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Small rivers and creeks of the Lô river system in Hà Giang, Hà Giang Province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

hamwii, Nemacheilus Krupp [F.] & Schneider [W.] 1991:24, Figs. 1-5 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 71 (nos 1/3); ref. 18977] Nahr Afrin in Afrin, Syria, 36°31'N, 36°52'E. Holotype: SMF 17398. Paratypes: SMF 23463-65 (22, 2, 5), 23468 (11), plus non-type material. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus hamwii (Krupp & Schneider 1991) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:97 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:43, 47 [ref. 33140], Çiçek et al. 2016:116 [ref. 35152], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:379 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:63 [ref. 35254], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644], Kaya et al. 2020:289 [ref. 37622]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus hamwii (Krupp & Schneider 1991). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: Orontes River basin (Syria and Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

hanae, Oxynoemacheilus Freyhof [J.] & Abdullah [Y. S.] 2017:79, Figs. 6-10 [Zootaxa 4238 (no. 1); ref. 35169] Stream Zalm south of Taparezina, Iraq, 35°18'23"N, 45°58'14"E. Holotype: ZFMK 103020. Paratypes: FSJF. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus hanae Freyhof & Abdullah 2017 -- (Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:379 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:63 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:552 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus hanae Freyhof & Abdullah 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Sirwan drainage, Tigris basin, Kurdistan, Iraq and Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

harkishorei, Physoschistura Das [D. N.] & Darshan [A.] 2017:404, Figs. 1-6, 9a,b [Zootaxa 4337 (no. 3); ref. 35638] Dibang River, Brahmaputra basin, Lower Dibang Valley district, Arunachal Pradesh state, India, 28°09'59"N, 95°43'55"E. Holotype: RGUMF 290. Paratypes: RGUMF. •Valid as Physoschistura harkishorei Das & Darshan 2017 -- (Bleher 2018:201 [ref. 36647]). •Valid as Mustura harkishorei (Das & Darshan 2017) -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Mustura harkishorei (Das & Darshan 2017). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Dibang and Lohit Rivers, Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Habitat: freshwater.

harnaiensis, Noemacheilus Mirza [M. R.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Mirza, Bănărescu & Nalbant 1969:89, Pl. 2 (figs. 4-6) [Pakistan Journal of Zoology v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 7836] Harnai, Kaman-Beji River drainage, Baluchistan, Pakistan. Holotype: IBTS 2006. Paratypes: IBTS 1365 (now 4 or 3), 2231 (now 5 or 4); ZMA 114460 (1); ZMH 5965 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:31 [ref. 19236], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413 [ref. 21161]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus baluchiorum (Zugmayer 1912) -- (Menon 1987:65 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:471 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Schistura baluchiorum (Zugmayer 1912), but at least subspecifically distinct -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187] as balachiorum). •Valid as Schistura harnaiensis (Mirza & Nalbant 1969) -- (Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:14 [ref. 27265], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura harnaiensis (Mirza & Nalbant 1969). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

hazaraensis, Noemacheilus griffithi Omer [T.] & Mirza [M. R.] 1975:203, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Biologia (Lahore) v. 21 (no. 2); ref. 7454] Ilyasi Masjid springs, Hazara District, Pakistan. Holotype: GCM F 12. Paratypes: (7) ZMA 115953 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:31 [ref. 19236]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa hazaraensis (Omer & Mirza 1975) -- (Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:16 [ref. 27265]). •Synonym of Triplophysa griffithii (Günther 1868) -- (Menon 1987:204 [ref. 14149] as griffithi, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:511 [ref. 20764] as griffithi, Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa griffithii (Günther 1868). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

hazarensis, Oxynoemacheilus Freyhof [J.] & Özuluğ [M.] 2017:379, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa 4247 (no. 4); ref. 35216] North-eastern shore of Lake Hazar, Elazığ province, Turkey, 38°28.398'N, 39°18.093'E. Holotype: IUSHM 2017-1171. Paratypes: FSJF, IUSHM. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus hazarensis Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017 -- (Freyhof et al. 2017:552 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Çiçek et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36267], Freyhof et al. 2019:37 [ref. 36739], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus hazarensis Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Lake Hazar basin endemic, upper Tigris basin (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

herrei, Mesonoemacheilus Nalbant [T. T.] & Bănărescu [P. M.] in Singh, Sen, Bănărescu & Nalbant 1982:203, Figs. 1-6 [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 23 (for 1981); ref. 4030] Valparai, Anamallai Hills, Kerala State, India. Holotype: CAS-SU 41307. Paratypes: (24) CAS-SU 68346-47 (1, 17), ISBB 2983, BMNH 1977.7.5.1 (1), USNM 227404 (1), ZSI Uncat. •Synonym of Nemacheilus guentheri Day 1867 -- (Menon 1987:161 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:482 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:184 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Mesonoemacheilus guentheri (Day 1867) -- (Shaji 2002:219 [ref. 27556] with question). •Valid as Mesonoemacheilus herrei Nalbant & Bănărescu 1982 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:447 [ref. 23187], Rema Devi & Indra 2002:334 [ref. 26591], Kottelat 2012:88 [ref. 32367], Anoop et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35652], Bleher 2018:142 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Mesonoemacheilus herrei Nalbant & Bănărescu 1982. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, Kerala, southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

herzensteini, Diplophysa labiata Berg [L. S.] 1909:10 [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 14; ref. 14362] Charyn [Tscharyn] River, tributary of the Ili River, Kazakhstan. Lectotype: ZIN 14530. Paralectotypes: ZIN 14530 (9). Lectotype selected by Prokofiev 2004:191 [ref. 27939]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus labiatus (Kessler 1874) -- (Berg 1949:858 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Valid as Labiatophysa hersensteini (Berg 1909) -- (Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Triplophysa herzensteini (Berg 1909) -- (Prokofiev 2004:191 [ref. 27939], Prokofiev 2006:Engl. 580 [ref. 28811], Prokofiev 2006:255 [ref. 29061], Cao & Zhang 2008:40 [ref. 29966]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa herzensteini (Berg 1909). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tscharyn River, Kazakhstan. Habitat: freshwater.

heterognathos, Schistura Chen [Y.-F.] 1999:301, Figs. 1-4 [Zoological Research v. 20 (no. 4); ref. 24925] Nanla River, Mekong River system, Nazhao, 21°40'55'N, 101°35'20"E, about 25 kilometers from Mengla County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: IHASW 8810240. Paratypes: IHASW 8810241-42 (1, 1), 8810150-53 (1, 1, 1, 1). •Valid as Sectoria heterognathos (Chen 1999) -- (Kottelat 2001:119 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:120 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Schistura heterognathos Chen 1999 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Sectoria heterognathos (Chen 1999). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

hexiensis, Nemachilus dorsonotatus Zhao [T.-Q.] & Wang [X.-T.] 1988:113 [English p. 119], Fig. 2 [Journal of Lanzhou University Natural Science v. 24 (no. 4); ref. 17739] Ruoshui River and Shiyang River, China. Syntypes: (28, 27 listed) Dept. Biol., Lanzhou Univ. 77-0940? (1), 0946 (1), 0953 (1), 0955 (1), 80-0344 (1), 0357 (1), 0362 (1), 0373 (1), 0375 (1), 0383 (1), 0386 (1), 0390 (1), 0394 (1), 0406 (1), 0420 (1), 0435 (1), 0461 (1), 0468 (1), 0563 (1), 0803 (1), 1192-95 (4), 1197-98 (2), 1135 (1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa hexiensis (Zhao & Wang 1988) -- (Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613] as texiensis). •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkae (Steindachner 1866) subspecies retropinnis (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061]). •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990] as stoliczkae). •Possible synonym of Triplophysa rossoperegrinatorum Prokofiev 2001 -- (Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096]). •Valid as Triplophysa hexiensis (Zhao & Wang 1988) -- (Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa hexiensis (Zhao & Wang 1988). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

heyangensis, Triplophysa Zhu [S.-Q.] 1992:244 [247], Figs. 7-10 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 21064] A stream of the Huanghe River near Hanshutaucun Village, 35°11'N, 110°05'E, Heyangxian County, Shaanxi Province, China. Holotype: NIGLAS 820027. Paratypes: NIGLIS 820028-31 (4). English description on p. 247. •Valid as Triplophysa heyangensis Zhu 1992 -- (Zhu 1995:114 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa heyangensis Zhu 1992. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

hialmari, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2001:198, Figs. 7-12 [Zoosystematica Rossica v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 26613] Ba-tshu [Ba Qu?] River, tributary of Blue River [= Chang Jiang] (near Yushu), Qinghai, northwestern China (ca. 33°N, 92°E). Holotype: ZIN 26245. Paratypes: ZIN 26245a (1). •Valid as Triplophysa hialmari Prokofiev 2001 -- (Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa hialmari Prokofiev 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

himachalensis, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:76, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Himachal Pradesh, Kangra, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F566. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F567 (2). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Spelled hemachalensis on plate caption, index (2 times), and table of contents; himachalensis on text pages 41 and 76 (4 times). The spelling himachalensis is used here to correspond with the type locality of the species: Himachal Pradesh. See Das 2003:366 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus himachalensis Menon 1987 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:483 [ref. 20764], Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura himachalensis (Menon 1987) -- (Shrestha 2008:131 [ref. 29923], Conway et al. 2011:1747 [ref. 31594], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:262 [ref. 32337], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura himachalensis (Menon 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nepal and India. Habitat: freshwater.

himalaya, Turcinoemacheilus Conway [K. W.], Edds [D. R.], Shrestha [J.] & Mayden [R. L.] 2011:1748, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 79 (no. 7); ref. 31594] Indrawati River at Melamchi Township, 27°49'42.5"N, 85°34'37.1"E, Sindhypalchok District, Bagmati Zone, Nepal. Holotype: KU 40558. Paratypes: KU 40278 (1), 40279 (1), 40280 (2, c&s), 40281 (4), 40282 (1), 40557 (14, 2 c&s), 40568 (11, 1 c&s); OSUS 15621 (4), 15908 (4), 16314 (26), 16325 (7), 16744 (25), 17197 (32). •Valid as Turcinoemacheilus himalaya Conway, Edds, Shrestha & Mayden 2011 -- (Kottelat 2012:134 [ref. 32367], Golzarianpour et al. 2013:47 [ref. 32802], Prokofiev 2017:255 [ref. 35630]). Current status: Valid as Turcinoemacheilus himalaya Conway, Edds, Shrestha & Mayden 2011. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Koshi and Gandaki River basins, Nepal. Habitat: freshwater.

hingi, Homaloptera Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1934:287 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 10988] A mountain torrent at Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong, elevation about 1000 feet. Holotype: CAS-SU 29086. Paratypes: (40) FMNH 46927 (4), Hong Kong Univ. (1 or more), Lingnan Nat. Hist. Surv. and Museum (1 or more), FESC (now at PRFRI) (1 or more), CAS-SU 16112 (22). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:39 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:47 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Barbatula hingi (Herre 1934) -- (Mai 1978:235 [ref. 13511]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus fasciolatus (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Zhu & Cao 1987:327 [ref. 14139] with genus as Noemacheilus, Ye in Pan et al. 1991:242 [ref. 23876]). •Synonym of Schistura fasciolata (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Zhu 1989:47 [ref. 17744]). •Valid as Schistura hingi (Herre 1934) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Freyhof & Serov 2001:153 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:154 [ref. 33205], Endruweit 2017:149 [ref. 35362], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841], Cao & Zhang 2018:134 [ref. 36108]). Current status: Valid as Schistura hingi (Herre 1934). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Jinxiu, Guangxi, China and Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

hircanica, Paracobitis Mousavi-Sabet [H.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Esmaeili [H. R.], Eagderi [S.], Patimar [R.] & Freyhof [J.] 2015:340, Figs. 2-6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 4); ref. 33774] Golestan province, Zarrin-Gol stream, a tributary of Gordan River, 36°50'39"N, 54°58'24"E, Iran. Holotype: ZM-CBSU J3246. Paratypes: FSJF, GUIC, TUIC, ZM-CBSU. •Valid as Paracobitis hircanica Mousavi-Sabet, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili, Eagderi, Patimar & Freyhof 2015 -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:885 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:48 [ref. 36089], Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2019:386 [ref. 36466]). Current status: Valid as Paracobitis hircanica Mousavi-Sabet, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili, Eagderi, Patimar & Freyhof 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Southern Caspian Sea basin, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

hispanica, Nemacheilus barbatulus Lelek [A.] 1987:256 [The freshwater fishes of Europe. Threatened fishes of Europe v. 9; ref. 22962] Nervion River at Durango and Tajo River, Spain. Syntypes: MGAB (11). Available by reference to infrasubspecific hispanica Bǎcescu-Meşter 1967, with Bǎcescu-Meşter specimens becoming the types. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Lelek 1987:256 [ref. 22962] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Barbatula quignardi (Bǎcescu-Meşter 1967) -- (Gauliard et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36787]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula quignardi (Bǎcescu-Meşter 1967). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

hispanica, Nemacheilus barbatulus forma Bǎcescu-Meşter [L.] 1967:369 [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 7; ref. 7940] Not available, infrasubspecific (forma after 1960); from Nervion R. at Durango and Tajo River, Spain. See Nemacheilus barbatulus hispanica Lelek 1987. •In the synonymy of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2012:79 [ref. 32367]). •In the synonymy of Barbatula quignardi (Bǎcescu-Meşter 1967) -- (Gauliard et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36787]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula quignardi (Bǎcescu-Meşter 1967). Nemacheilidae.

hoai, Oreias Nguyen [V. H.] 2005:568, Fig. 14 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 2; ref. 29730] Creek Nâm Ngam, Núa Ngam, Dien Bien, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): NCNTTS I (lost). See account of genus Oreias for name change to Claea. Type lost -- Endruweit 2014:152 [ref. 33205]. •Valid as Claea hoai Nguyen 2005 -- (Nguyen et al. 2010:50 [ref. 32127]). •Valid as Schistura hoai (Nguyen 2005) -- (Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989] with question, Endruweit 2014:152 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Valid as Schistura hoai (Nguyen 2005). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Dien Bien Province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

hoffmanni, Lefua Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1932:429 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 11 (no. 3); ref. 10975] Kwangtung Province, China. Holotype: CAS-SU 25727. Paratypes: (11) CAS-SU 25728-30 (1, 1, 1), 68899 (3); BMNH 1933.3.11.859 (1); UMMZ 100623 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:40 [ref. 12291]. Generic assignment uncertain. •Synonym of Oreonectes platycephalus Günther 1868 -- (Zheng et al. 1989:46 [ref. 21202]). •Valid as Lefua hoffmanni Herre 1932 -- (Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Lefua hoffmanni Herre 1932. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

horai, Nemachilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1952:227, Pl. 7 (figs. 1-3) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 49 (pt 2, June 1951); ref. 12708] Bener Khand, south of Kangra, Kangra Valley, Punjab, India. Holotype: ZSI F637/2. Paratypes: ZSI F638/2 (8). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:122 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:364 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus horai Menon 1952 -- (Menon 1987:74 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:483 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:172 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura horai (Menon 1952) -- (Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:14 [ref. 27265], Shrestha 2008:132 [ref. 29923], Conway et al. 2011:1747 [ref. 31594], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:262 [ref. 32337], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor et al. 2013:587 [ref. 32764]). Current status: Valid as Schistura horai (Menon 1952). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan, Nepal and India. Habitat: freshwater.

hormuzensis, Paraschistura Freyhof [J.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Esmaeili [H. R.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2015:28, Figs 29-33 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 33865] Hormozgan Province, Rudan River at Abnama bridge, a tributary of Minab River, 27°28'24"N, 57°15'14"E, Iran. Holotype: ZM-CBSU J3168. Paratypes: FSJF 2217 (40), ZM-CBSU J3169 (77). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Paraschistura hormuzensis Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015 -- (Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015:299 [ref. 34027], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:888 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:71 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:51 [ref. 36089], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:582 [ref. 36833], Eagderi et al. 2019:266 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura hormuzensis Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Makran River basin, Hormozgan, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

hsutschouensis, Nemacheilus Rendahl [H.] 1933:41 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 25 A (pt. 2) (no. 11); ref. 3704] Hsutschou, Etsin Gol [Kansu], trib of Ruo Shui River, China. Syntypes: NRM 10206 (1), 12339 (7). •Synonym of Triplophysa robusta (Kessler 1876) -- (Wu & Wu 1992:190 [ref. 21205]). •Valid as Triplophysa hsutschouensis (Rendahl 1933) -- (Zhu 1989:104 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:117 [ref. 25213], Chen et al. 2004:507 [ref. 28065], Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367], Li et al. 2015:423 [ref. 33642], Zhang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa hsutschouensis (Rendahl 1933). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yellow River system, China. Habitat: freshwater.

huanglongensis, Triplophysa Gao [?] in Anonymous 1992:83, Fig. 3-87 [Fish fauna of Shaanxi; ref. 32436] Shaanxi, Huang Long County, Baima village, upper reaches of Ju He, China. Holotype: Fisheries Institute of Shaanx Province. •Valid as Triplophysa huanglongensis Gao 1992 -- (Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa huanglongensis Gao 1992. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

huanjiangensis, Triplophysa Yang [J.], Wu [T.-J.] & Lan [J.-H.] 2011:567, Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 32 (no. 5); ref. 31447] 25°06'02.6"N, 108°00'01"E, Huanjiang County, Guangxi, China. Holotype: GIF 07040316. Paratypes: GIF 07040314 (1), 07040319 (1); GTEU, 07040308 (1), 07040311 (1). •Valid as Triplophysa huanjiangensis Yang, Wu & Lan 2011 -- (Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Wu et al. 2012:879 [ref. 32311], Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34477], Liu et al. 2017:843 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971], Chen & Peng 2019:381 [ref. 36537], Huang et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36689]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa huanjiangensis Yang, Wu & Lan 2011. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

huapingensis, Nemacheilus obscurus Wu [Y.-F.] & Wu [C.-Z.] in Wu & Wu 1992:145 [The fishes of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau; ref. 21205] Huaping County, Jinshajiang basin, Yunnan Province, China. Syntypes: (3) NAIB. •Synonym of Nemacheilus obscurus (Smith 1945) but a valid subspecies as described -- (Zhang et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Schistura huapingensis (Wu & Wu 1992) -- (Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Schistura huapingensis (Wu & Wu 1992). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

huapingensis, Triplophysa Zheng [L.-P.], Yang [J.-X.] & Chen [X.-Y.] 2012:832, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 80 (no. 4); ref. 31820] Hongshuihe River drainage, Huaping town, Leye County, Guangxi, China. Holotype: KIZ 2008007607. Paratypes: KIZ 2008007606 (1), 2008007608-7610 (3). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Triplophysa huapingensis Zheng, Yang & Chen 2012 -- (Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Lan et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34477], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:843 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Chen & Peng 2019:381 [ref. 36537]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa huapingensis Zheng, Yang & Chen 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hongshuihe River drainage, Upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

humilis, Nemacheilus dorsalis Gundriser [A. N.] 1962:253, Fig. 4 [Ucenye Zapiski, Tomskij Ordena Trudovogo Krasnogo Znameni Gosudarstvennyj Universitet Imeni V. V. Kujbyseva. [Ученые Записки, Томский Государственный Университет имени В. В. Куйьышева ] No. 44; ref. 27463] Tes-Khem River, 25 kilometers northwest of Erzin (Tuva Republic, Russia), 50°27"N, 95°01'E. Neotype: ZISP 52053. Neotype designated by Prokofiev 2002:S49 [ref. 27462]. Preoccupied, replaced by Nemacheilus gundriseri Prokofiev 2002. •In the synonymy of Triplophysa gundriseri Prokofiev 2002 -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:116 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2006:55 [ref. 28831], Prokofiev 2006:256 [ref. 29061], Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa gundriseri Prokofiev 2002. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

humilis, Nemachilus Lin [S.-Y.] 1932:515 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 2781] Yunkiang, Kweichow, China. Holotype: SYSU K107. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Schistura humilis (Lin 1932) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus fasciolatus (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Zhu & Cao 1987:327 [ref. 14139] with genus as Noemacheilus, Zhu 1989:47 [ref. 17744]), •Synonym of Schistura fasciolatus (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Kottelat 2012:109 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura fasciolata (Nichols & Pope 1927). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

huongensis, Schistura Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:155, Figs. 24-26 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] Stream Khe Vinh An at Nam Dong village, about 40 kilometers south of Hue, 16°11.58'N, 107°43.76'E, Thua Thien Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 26810. Paratypes: CMK 16014 (4); ZFMK 26670-72 (3), 26811-26826 (16), 26827-26848 (22), 38460-78 (19). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:112 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Schistura huongensis Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura huongensis Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thua Thien province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

hutchinsoni, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1936:314, Pl. 12 (figs. 1-2); Figs. 6-7 [Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences v. 10 (art. 17); ref. 10431] West of Mugleb; pond between Durbuk and Tangtse; Tsar Tso; Pool isolated from river at Lukung, Kashmir, India. Syntypes: ZSI F 12201/1 (1), F 12202/1 (3), F 12203/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:122 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:364 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Noemacheilus hutchinsoni Hora 1936 -- (Tilak 1990:144 [ref. 23720]). •Synonym of Triplophysa stewarti (Hora 1922) -- (Zhu 1989:98 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:168 [ref. 21205]). •Synonym of Triplophysa yasinensis (Alcock 1898) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:515 [ref. 20764], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990]). •See Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096]. •Synonym of Indotriplophysa yasinensis (Alcock 1898) -- (Kottelat 2012:86 [ref. 32367] with question). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa yasinensis (Alcock 1898). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

hutjertjuensis, Nemacheilus (Triplophysa) Rendahl [H.] 1933:28 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 25 A (pt. 2) (no. 11); ref. 3704] Hutjertju Gol, Mongolia. Syntypes: (12) NRM 10202 (orig. 12, now 10), MNHN 1933-0118 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:98-99 [ref. 19574]. •Valid as Noemacheilus hutjertjuensis (Rendahl 1933) -- (Tilak 1990:144 [ref. 23720] as hutjertjuonsis). •Synonym of Triplophysa orientalis (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2016:206 [ref. 34459] but a valid subspecies as described). •Valid as Triplophysa hutjertjuensis (Rendahl 1933) -- (Zhu 1989:81 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:171 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:114 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2002:S47 [ref. 27462], Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa hutjertjuensis (Rendahl 1933). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Inner Mongolia and China. Habitat: freshwater.

hwanghoensis, Triplophysa orientalis Prokofiev [A. M.] 2016:205, Figs. 1h-j [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 34459] Fl. Chwan-che, pr. Gomi, upper reaches of the Huang He (Hwang-ho) River, China. Holotype: ZIN 7232. Paratypes: ZIN. Plus additional non-type material. •Synonym of Triplophysa orientalis (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2016:205 [ref. 34459] but a valid subspecies as described). •Not treated in Zhang et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34477]. Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa orientalis (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Huang He (Hwang-ho) River, China. Habitat: freshwater.

hyalinus, Heminoemacheilus Lan [J.-H.], Yang [J.-X.] & Chen [Y.-R.] 1996:111, Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 23183] Underground stream at Bao'an town, ca. 24°07'N, 107°51'E, Du'an County, Guangxi Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 9409005. Paratypes: KIZ 9409001-004 (4), 9409006 (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Heminoemacheilus hyalinus Lan, Yang & Chen 1996 -- (Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Kottelat 2012:83 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:110 [ref. 34891], Lan et al. 2013:33 [ref. 32910], Zhu & Zhu 2014:18 [ref. 33692], Zhang et al. 2016:128 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Heminoemacheilus hyalinus Lan, Yang & Chen 1996. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Du'an County, Hongshui River system of Red River system, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

hypsiura, Schistura Bohlen [J.], Šlechtová [V.] & Udomritthiruj [K.] 2014:21, Figs. 1-4 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 62; ref. 33197] Rakhine State, Kyeinthali Chaung at Ka La Byin, about 17°56'N, 94°30'E, Myanmar. Holotype: ZRC 53186. Paratypes: CMK 21983 (4), IAPG A4154-58 (5), ZRC 53187 (25, 2 specimens c&s). •Valid as Schistura hypsiura Bohlen, Šlechtová & Udomritthiruj 2014 -- (Bohlen & Šlechtová 2014:221 [ref. 32238]). Current status: Valid as Schistura hypsiura Bohlen, Šlechtová & Udomritthiruj 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

ilamensis, Paraschistura Vatandoust [S.] & Eagderi [S.] 2015:178, Figs. 1-5 [International Journal of Aquatic Biology v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 33819] Ilam Province, Spring at Siahgav, Tigris River drainage, Iran, 33°51'54"N, 47°42'02"E. Holotype: VMFC PS13-H. Paratypes: VMFC. •Valid as Paraschistura ilamensis Vatandoust & Eagderi 2015 -- (Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015:299 [ref. 34027], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:888 [ref. 34062], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:582 [ref. 36833], Eagderi et al. 2019:266 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura ilamensis Vatandoust & Eagderi 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tigris River basin, Ilam and Khuzestan, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

ilan, Nemachilus amudarjensis Turdakov [F. A.] 1936:210 [Trudy Uzbekskogo Universiteta v. 7; ref. 21172] Kara-Darya River, tributary of Zeravshan River, below Samarkand near kishlak Dagbit, Samarkandskaya Obl., Uzbekistan. Lectotype: ZISP 30501. Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:25 [ref. 25714]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Prokofiev 2001:212 [ref. 26612] lists a holotype as ZISP 30501, but that is incorrect -- see Prokofiev 2009:891 [ref. 30604]. Prokofiev 2009:891, footnote, indicates that ZIN 30501 should be considered the lectotype. •Valid as Dzihunia ilan (Turdakov 1936) -- (Prokofiev 2001:212 [ref. 26612], Prokofiev 2003:57 [ref. 28098], Prokofiev 2009:891 [ref. 30604], Prokofiev 2017:266 [ref. 35630]). Current status: Valid as Dzihunia ilan (Turdakov 1936). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Uzbekistan. Habitat: freshwater.

imitator, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:61, Fig. 37 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Xe Namnoy, rapids about 1 kilometer upriver of Tad Feak waterfall, 15°14'09"N, 106°44'55"E, Xekong Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45344. Paratypes: CMK 15704 (3), 15777 (1), 15841 (5); LARRI uncat. (2); NRM 44893 (2); ZRC 45345 (2). •Valid as Schistura imitator Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:107 [ref. 25780], Ou et al. 2011:199 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura imitator Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

implicata, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:62, Fig. 38 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Poun at confluence with Nam Xang, downstream of Ban San, 20°19'25"N, 104°31'36"E, Houaphan Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45346. Paratypes: CMK 15460 (17), LARRI uncat. (5), NRM 44913 (5), ZRC 45347 (5). •Valid as Schistura implicata Kottelat 2000 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:158 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:107 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura implicata Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Houapan province, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

incerta, Barbatula (Homatula) Nichols [J. T.] 1931:458, Fig. 2 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 10 (no. 4); ref. 16312] Lung T'au Shaan, Tso Tsz Hoh, Kwangtung, China. Holotype (unique): AMNH 9690 [ex Lingnan Univ. P-80]. •Valid as Barbatula incerta Nichols 1931 -- (Mai 1978:236 [ref. 13511]). •Valid as Nemacheilus incertus (Nichols 1931) -- (Zhu & Cao 1987:327 [ref. 14139] as Noemacheilus, Ye in Pan et al. 1991:244 [ref. 23876], Tang et al. 2001:14 [ref. 25373] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Nemacheilus fasciolatus (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Zheng et al. 1989:50 [ref. 21202] as inserta). •Valid as Schistura incerta (Nichols 1931) -- (Zhu 1989:42 [ref. 17744], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Zhu 1995:109 [ref. 25213], Liao et al. 1997:4 [ref. 28159], Kottelat 2001:48 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34477], Endruweit 2017:149 [ref. 35362], Cao & Zhang 2018:134 [ref. 36108]). Current status: Valid as Schistura incerta (Nichols 1931). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yangtze River and Pearl River basins, China. Habitat: freshwater.

incipiens, Nemachilus bombifrons Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:73 [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Dol and Sampula, Karienses Mts., China. Lectotype: ZIN 7365/1. Paralectotypes: ZIN 7362 (5), 7365 (now 5). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Prokofiev 2002:470 [ref. 26268]. •Valid as Triplophysa incipiens (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2002:470 [ref. 26268], Prokofiev 2006:255 [ref. 29061], Li et al. 2007:47 [ref. 29309], Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096]). •Valid as Tarimichthys incipiens (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa incipiens (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Northern slopes of Karakurum Mountains, China. Habitat: freshwater.

indawgyiana, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2017:2, Figs. 1-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 28 (no. 1); ref. 35482] Unnamed creek entering Nam Mun Chaung (stream) from west, about 5.5 km upstream of Nam Mun (village), Lake Indawgyi basin, Kachin State, Myanmar, 24°57'31"N, 96°20'01"E, elevation 254 meters. Holotype: MNNG 2760.092. Paratypes: CMK. •Valid as Schistura indawgyiana Kottelat 2017 -- (Choudhury et al. 2019:190 [ref. 37121]). Current status: Valid as Schistura indawgyiana Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lake Indawgyi basin, Kachin, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

inglisi, Nemachilus rupecola var. Hora [S. L.] 1935:58, Pl. 3 (figs. 9-10) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 37 (pt 1); ref. 13886] Rivers below Darjiling [Darjeeing] and in Sikkim, eastern Himalayas. Holotype: ZSI F11755/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:124 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus rupecola (McClelland 1838), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Shrestha 1978:38 [ref. 15970] as Nemachilus rupicola). •Synonym of Nemacheilus multifasciatus Day 1878 -- (Menon 1987:52 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:490 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:175 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura inglisi Hora 1935 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Gurung et al. 2013:4483 [ref. 32969]). •Valid as Nemachilus inglisi Hora 1935 -- (Kundu 2000:96 [ref. 25663]). •Synonym of Schistura rupecula McClelland 1838, but a valid subspecies -- (Conway et al. 2011:1747 [ref. 31594]). •Synonym of Schistura repecula McClelland 1828 -- (Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura rupecula McClelland 1838. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India, Bhutan and Nepal. Habitat: freshwater.

insignis, Cobitis Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1087 [97] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Damascus, Syria. Syntypes: NMW (4, not found), SMF 166 [ex NMW] (2, poor condition). Illustrated by Heckel 1843, Pl. 12 (fig. 3) [ref. 2067]. On p. 97 of separate [ref. 2067]. •Valid as Nemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Krupp & Schneider 1989:380 [ref. 13651], Coad 1991:24 [ref. 15702], Hamidan 2004:389 [ref. 37679], Fricke et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604] with subspecies, Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307, 309 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:97 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:37 [ref. 33140], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: Turkey, Syria, Israel and Jordan. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedia, Diplophysa Kessler [K. F.] 1876:28, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 2595] Hu-lun [Dalai-Nor] Lake, China, elevation 4200 feet. Holotype (unique): ZIN 2476. •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula, subspecies nuda (Bleeker 1865) -- (Zhu 1989:29 [ref. 17744]). •Valid as Triplophysa intermedia (Kessler 1876) -- (Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa intermedia (Kessler 1876). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

iphipaniensis, Aborichthys Kosygin [L.], Gurumayum [S. D.], Singh [P.] & Chowdhury [B. R.] 2019:70, Fig. 1-3 [Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology v. 39 (no. 2); ref. 36729] Iphipani River at Roing, Lower Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India, 28°10'44"N, 95°50'08"E, elevation 418 meters. Holotype: ZSI FF 8002. Paratypes: ZSI/V/APRC/P-1659 (3). •Valid as Aborichthys iphipaniensis Kosygin, Gurumayum, Singh & Chowdhury 2019 -- (Shangningam et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37201]). Current status: Valid as Aborichthys iphipaniensis Kosygin, Gurumayum, Singh & Chowdhury 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Iphipani River drainage, upper Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Habitat: freshwater.

iranica, Paracobitis Nalbant [T. T.] & Bianco [P. G.] 1998:114, Figs. 13 A-D [Italian Journal of Zoology v. 65, Suppl.; ref. 23810] River Qom near the town of Qom, Iran. Holotype: IZA 7831. Paratypes: ISBB uncat. (4), IZA 7832 (5). •Valid as Paracobitis iranica Nalbant & Bianco 1998 -- (Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604], Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391], Kottelat 2012:100 [ref. 32367], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:885 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095]). •Synonym of Paracobitis malapterura (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Freyhof et al. 2014:16 [ref. 33505], Esmaeili et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35254]). Current status: Synonym of Paracobitis malapterura (Valenciennes 1846). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

irregularis, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:62, Fig. 39 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Khan at Muang Hian, 20°05'18"N, 103°22'09"E, Xiangkhouang Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45348. Paratypes: CMK 15490 (2). •Valid as Schistura irregularis Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:107 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura irregularis Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

isostigma, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1998:76, Figs. 114-115 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 23436] Nam Leuk, about 1 kilometer downstream of confluence with Nam Ngang, Laos, 18°22'03"N, 103°06'03"E. Holotype: ZRC 41797. Paratypes: CMK 12392 (1); 13275 (6); DFV uncat. (2); NRM 36709 (2); ZRC 41798 (2). •Valid as Schistura isostigma Kottelat 1998 -- (Kottelat 2001:109 [ref. 25780], Ou et al. 2011:199 [ref. 31692], Chen & Neely 2012:226 [ref. 32332], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:89, 91 [ref. 32798], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). •Possibly in Mustura -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Schistura isostigma Kottelat 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Xe Bangfai and Mekong basin, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

ispartensis, Seminemacheilus Erk'akan [F.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Özeren [S. C.] 2007:76, Fig. 7 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 29026] Isparta Creek, Eğirdir-Isparta Road, 1st railway pass, 37°38'N, 30°31'E [not correct], Turkey. Holotype: HUIC AD-1. •Valid as Seminemacheilus ispartensis Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007 -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:207 [ref. 31693], Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36267], Sungur et al. 2018:472 [ref. 35977], Çiçek 2020:75 [ref. 37402], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644]Yoğurtçuoğlu et al. 2020:484 [ref. 37604]). Current status: Valid as Seminemacheilus ispartensis Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Lakes Eğirdir and Salda basins, Isparta Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

israeliticus, Orthrias Goren [M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Bănărescu, Nalbant & Goren 1982:19, Figs. 19-23 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 31 (nos 1-2); ref. 174] Ein Rewaya, Bet-She'an Valley, Israel, 32°28'N, 35°28'E, Jordan River system. Holotype: TAU 3073 [= SMNHTAU]. Paratypes: ISBB 3670 (1); TAU [= SMNHTAU] 8293-94 (1, 1). •Synonym of Nemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Krupp & Schneider 1989:380 [ref. 13651]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus israeliticus (Goren & Nalbant 1982) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]), •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:309 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:97 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

jaklesii, Cobitis Bleeker [P.] 1852:604 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 334] Pajacombo, Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7055. Paralectotypes: RMNH 8949 (2). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1866.5.2.60 (1). Lectotype selected by Alfred 1961:33 [ref. 20552]. •Mention, status still not clear -- (Tan & Kottelat 2009:52, 56 [ref. 30261]). •Possibly valid, in Nemacheilus -- (Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:186 [ref. 25685], Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Nemacheilus jaklesii (Bleeker 1852). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

jarutanini, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:49, Pl. 1 (fig. 1); Figs. 1-2 [Mémoires de Biospéologie v. 17; ref. 16763] Underground stream, Tham Ba Dan, Amphoe Sri Sawat, about 14°02'N, 94°32'E, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27171 [now ZRC 38479] [ex CMK 5991]. Paratypes: MSNVR 1363 (1), NIFI uncat. (4), CMK 5991 (orig. 16), ZMH 7968 (2) not in original. Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413 [ref. 21161], Neumann 2011:240 [ref. 31652]. Holotype now at ZRC. •Valid as Schistura jarutanini Kottelat 1990 -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:21 [ref. 26040], Trajano et al. 2002:170 [ref. 26082], Vidthayanon & Jaruthanin 2002:19 [ref. 26523], Proudlove 2006:97 [ref. 28992], Kottelat 2012:341 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura jarutanini Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

jianchuanensis, Triplophysa Zheng [L.-P.], Du [L.-N.], Chen [X.-Y.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2010:29, Fig. 1 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 89 (no. 1); ref. 30841] Jiangkou spring, Lancangjiang River basin, Jianchuan County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, 26°31'22.6"N, 99°57'30.4"E. Holotype: KIZ 2008004424. Paratypes: KIZ 2008004415-23 (9). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Triplophysa jianchuanensis Zheng, Du, Chen & Yang 2010 -- (Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa jianchuanensis Zheng, Du, Chen & Yang 2010. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lancangjiang [Mekong] River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

jiarongensis, Triplophysa Lin [Y.], Li [C.] & Song [J.-K.] 2012:641, Figs. 1-10 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 32193] Shuijingwan Cave, 25°28'N, 108°06'E, Jiarong Town, Libo County, Guizhou Province, China. Holotype: SOU 10111801. Paratypes: SOU 10111802 (1), 10111803 (1). •Valid as Triplophysa jiarongensis Lin, Li & Song 2012 -- (Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34477], Liu et al. 2017:844 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2018:62 [ref. 36072], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971]). •Valid as Oreonectes jiarongensis (Lin, Li & Song 2012) -- (Liu et al. 2019:401 [ref. 36573], Zhou 2019:2 [ref. 36911]). •Valid as Troglonectes jiarongensis (Lin, Li & Song 2012) -- (Huang et al. 2019:117 [ref. 37137]). Current status: Valid as Troglonectes jiarongensis (Lin, Li & Song 2012). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave system of the Liujiang River basin, northern Guizhou Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

jinxiensis, Yunnanilus Zhu [Y.], Du [L.-N.] & Chen [X.-Y.] in Zhu, Du, Chen & Yang 2009:196, Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 30 (no. 2); ref. 30145] Ludong village, Pearl River drainage, Jingxi county, Guangxi, China. Holotype: KIZ 0800018 [KIZ 2008008627]. Paratypes: KIZ. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. The original spelling is consistently jinxiensis, but species was from Jingxi county. •Valid as Yunnanilus jinxiensis Zhu, Du & Chen 2009 -- (Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493] as jingxiensis, Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Lan et al. 2013:47 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34477] with authorship as Zhu, Du, Chen & Yang, Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus jinxiensis Zhu, Du & Chen 2009. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pearl River drainage, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

jiuchiensis, Yunnanilus Du [L.-N.], Hou [M.], Chen [X.-Y.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2018:138, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4532 (no. 1); ref. 36374] Tuojiang River, Jiuchi County, Pengzhou City, Sichuan Province, China, 30.9876°N, 104.0484°E. Holotype: KIZ 2018000002. Paratypes: KIZ. •Valid as Yunnanilus jiuchiensis Du, Hou, Chen & Yang 2018. Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus jiuchiensis Du, Hou, Chen & Yang 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tuojiang River drainage, Yangzte River basin, Sichuan Province, China, Habitat: freshwater.

jordanicus, Noemacheilus angorae Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1966:329, Fig. 1; Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 63; ref. 8005] Wadi Kufrinja, east shore of Jordan, about 1.5 kilometers before river mouth, 32°16'N, 35°34'E. Holotype: ZMH H2738. Paratypes: ZMH H2739 (orig. 16, now 14), 2740-41 (9, 5). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus angorae Steindachner 1897, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Goren 1974:94 [ref. 7502] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Orthrias jordanicus (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966) -- (Bănărescu et al. 1982:4 [ref. 174]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Krupp & Schneider 1989:380 [ref. 13651]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus jordanicus (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Synonym of Oxynemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:309 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:97 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

kaffa, Afronemacheilus Prokofiev [A. M.] & Golubtsov [A. S.] 2013:8, Figs. 2d-f, 3c-e, 4d-f, 5, 6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 32805] Anja river, tributary of the Gojeb river, Omo-Turkana basin, Ethiopia, 7°27'N 36°23'E. Holotype: ZIN 55200. Paratypes: ZMMU 21895 (1); 21896 (1), 21897 (1), 21898 (9); ZIN 52708 (1), 52710 (xx), 55198 (8), 55199 (1, c&s); SAIAB uncat. (3). Nomen nudum in [ref. 31096]. •Valid as Afronemacheilus kaffa Prokofiev & Golubtsov 2013 -- (Prokofiev 2017:241 [ref. 35630]). Current status: Valid as Afronemacheilus kaffa Prokofiev & Golubtsov 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Oma-Turkana basin, Ethiopia, Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

kafirnigani, Nemachilus dorsalis Turdakov [F. A.] 1948:58 [Trudy Kirgizskogo Pedagogicheskogo Instituta v. 1 (no. 1) for 1946; ref. 21173] Kafirnigan River, tributary Of Amu-Daya River, near Stalinabad [Dyushanbe], Tadzhikistan. Syntypes: ZMMU P-3647 (1), P-3651 (3). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:27-28 [ref. 25714]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa kafirnigani (Turdakov 1948) -- (Prokofiev 2006:256 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2010:908 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa kafirnigani (Turdakov 1948). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tributaries of the Syr-Darya River, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Habitat: freshwater.

kailashi, Aborichthys Shangningam [B.], Kosygin [L.], Sinha [B.] & Gurumayum [S. D.] 2019:362, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 29 (no. 4) IEF-1123; ref. 37201] Pange River at Arolenching, Ziro, Brahmaputra basin, Lower Subansiri District, Arunachal Pradesh, India, 27°29'16"N, 93°51'95"E, elevation 1,600 meters. Holotype: ZSI FF 8310. Paratypes: APFS/ZSI/P 786 (4), ZSI FF 5821 (1). •Valid as Aborichthys kailashi Shangningam, Kosygin, Sinha & Gurumayum 2019. Current status: Valid as Aborichthys kailashi Shangningam, Kosygin, Sinha & Gurumayum 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pange River drainage, upper Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Habitat: freshwater.

kaimurensis, Nemacheilus Husain [A.] & Tilak [R.] 1998:131, Figs. 1-4 [Indian Journal of Forestry v. 21 (no. 2); ref. 24919] Kanhar stream, near village of Kota, Chopan, District Sonbhadra, Uttar Pradesh, India. Holotype: NRS/ZSI/F 1543. Paratypes: NRS/ZSI/F 1544 (33). •Valid as "Nemacheilus" kaimurensis Husain & Tilak 1998 -- (Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Bleher 2018:166 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus kaimurensis Husain & Tilak 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Middle Ganges River basin, India. Habitat: freshwater.

kampucheensis, Schistura Bohlen [J.], Petrtýl [M.], Chaloupková [P.] & Borin [C.] 2016:354, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 4) (for Mar. 2016); ref. 34366] Stream Ta Da Ou Bey, Tek Chhou drainage, Kampot, Cambodia, 10°41.173'N, 104°06.948'E. Holotype: ZRC 54439. Paratypes: CMK, IAPG, NMP, ZFMK, ZRC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Schistura kampucheensis Bohlen, Petrtýl, Chaloupková & Borin 2016. Current status: Valid as Schistura kampucheensis Bohlen, Petrtýl, Chaloupková & Borin 2016. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mekong River basin, northern and southern Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

kangjupkhulensis, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1921:202, Pl. 10 (figs. 4-4a) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 22 (pt 3, no. 19); ref. 2202] Hill streams of the Manipur Valley, Yaribuk, Manipur, India. Holotype: ZSI F10060/1. Paratypes: MCSNG 17115 (2), ZSI F10061/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:122 [ref. 20743], Menon 1987:117 [ref. 14149]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. The spelling kangjupkhulensis is correct. See Das 2003:364 [ref. 27706] but spelled kanjuphulensis. •Valid as Nemacheilus kangjupkhulensis Hora 1921 -- (Menon 1987:115 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:484 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:173 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura kangjupkhulensis (Hora 1921) -- (Kottelat 1990:131 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187] as kanjupkhulensis, Vishwanath & Laisram 2001:204 [ref. 25886] as kanjupkhulensis, Vishwanath & Shanta Kumar 2006:210 [ref. 28652] as kangjupkhulensis, Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011:1514 [ref. 31183], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011:1514 [ref. 31183], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:175 [ref. 31357], Ou et al. 2011:197 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:4 [ref. 32463] as kanjupkhulensis, Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927] as kanjupkhulensis, Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971] as kanjupkhulensis, Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989], Khynrian & Sen 2014:17 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33318], Solo et al. 2014:258 [ref. 33517], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[5] [ref. 33603] as kanjupkhulensis, Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628]). Current status: Valid as Schistura kangjupkhulensis (Hora 1921). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Northeastern India and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

kangrae, Nemachilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1952:229, Pl. 7 (figs. 4-5) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 49 (pt 2, June 1951); ref. 12708] Kangra Valley, Baijnath, Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Holotype: ZSI F639/2. Paratypes: ZSI F640/2 (3). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:122 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:364 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus montanus (McClelland 1838) -- (Menon 1987:78 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:489 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:174 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Paraschistura montana (McClelland 1838). •Valid as Schistura kangrae (Menon 1952) -- (Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367] dated 1951). Current status: Valid as Schistura kangrae (Menon 1952). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

kapuasensis, Noemacheilus Kottelat [M.] 1984:244, Figs. 3b, 11, 16, 17 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 5292] Kapuas, rocky channel in main stream of Sungai Pinoh, Nangu Saian, 45 kilometers south of Nangapinoh, Borneo, 0°43'S, 111°38'E. Holotype: MZB 4004. Paratypes: CAS 47378 (20); CMK 3188 (2, c&s); FMNH 68180-82 (65, 1, 273), 68184 (35); MZB 4005 (6); SMF 17014 (31). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus kapuasensis Kottelat 1984 -- (Roberts 1989:107 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:55 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:236 [ref. 23210], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:186 [ref. 25685], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:156 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:188 [ref. 28285], Tan & Kottelat 2009:52 [ref. 30261] as cf. kapuasensis, Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010:45 [ref. 30914], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:204 [ref. 31485], Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus kapuasensis Kottelat 1984. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

karabanowi, Barbatula Prokofiev [A. M.] 2018:269, Figs. 3-4 [Zootaxa 4407 (no. 2); ref. 35878] Bayan-Ölgii aimag, headwaters of the Bulgan River, Mongolia, 47°04'46.4"N, 91°02'36.1"E. Holotype: ZMMU 23829. Paratypes: ZMMU. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Barbatula karabanowi Prokofiev 2018:267 [ref. 35878] Current status: Valid as Barbatula karabanowi Prokofiev 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Bulgan River drainage, Mongolia. Habitat: freshwater.

karunensis, Oxynoemacheilus Freyhof [J.] 2016:94, Figs. 1-5 [Zootaxa 4175 (no. 1); ref. 34815] Gamasiab River at Do Ab, Hamadan province, Iran, 34°22'20.76"N, 47°55'00.1"E. Holotype: ZFMK-ICH 102205. Paratypes: FSJF, SMF. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus karunensis Freyhof 2016 -- (Freyhof & Abdullah 2017:86 [ref. 35169], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:379 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:552 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Esmaeili et al. 2018:45 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus karunensis Freyhof 2016. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Jarrahi and Karun rivers, Tigris River basin, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

kashmirensis, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1922:76 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 24; ref. 15348] Verinag, Kukarnag and a small stream flowing from the Kashmir waterworks reservoir to the trout farm at Harwan, India. Syntypes: ZSI F10122/1 (1) Harwan, Kashmir; ZSI F10121/1 (9) Kulkarnag Spring, Kashmir. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:123 [ref. 20743], Menon 1987:219 [ref. 14149]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:364 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Triplophysa yasinensis (Alcock 1898) -- (Menon 1987:217 [ref. 14149], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:515 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:192 [ref. 24904], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990]). •See Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096]. •Valid as Triplophysa kashmirensis (Hora 1922) -- (Kullander et al. 1999:143 [ref. 23689], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:16 [ref. 27265], Bashir et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34447], Usharamalakshmi et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36315]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa kashmirensis (Hora 1922). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan and Kashmir. Habitat: freshwater.

kaynaki, Oxynemacheilus Erk'akan [F.], Özeren [S. C.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 2008:115, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 29859] Goksu River, Nurhak, Elbistan, Firat basin, 37°53'22.82''N, 37°22'19.99''E, Turkey. Holotype: HUIC-F-20. Paratypes: HUCI-F-20 (14). Original genus should have been Oxynoemacheilus. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus kaynaki Erk'akan, Özeren & Nalbant 2008 -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:97 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:43, 48 [ref. 33140], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:389 [ref. 35216], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Çiçek et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36267], Turan et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 36540], Freyhof et al. 2019:39 [ref. 36739], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus kaynaki Erk'akan, Özeren & Nalbant 2008. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: upper Göksu River drainage, upper Euphrates River [Firat Nehri] basin, Kahramanmaraş Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

kaysonei, Schistura Vidthayanon [C.] & Jaruthanin [K.] 2002:18, Fig. 1 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 26523] Phu Tham Nam, Ban (village) Don Yom in Khammouan karst, between lat. 18°45'N, 104°45'E and 18°30'N, 105°00'E, Laos. Holotype: NIFI 3131. Paratypes: NIFI 3132 (3). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Schistura kaysonei Vidthayanon & Jaruthanin 2002 -- (Kottelat 2004:190 [ref. 27801], Proudlove 2006:98 [ref. 28992], Kottelat & Steiner 2010:313 [ref. 31189], Kottelat & Steiner 2011:313 [ref. 31189], Kottelat 2012:341 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502]). Current status: Valid as Schistura kaysonei Vidthayanon & Jaruthanin 2002. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Khammouan karst, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

kaznakowi, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2004:195, Figs. 54-75 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 83 (no. 2); ref. 27939] "Tuguryuk River valley" (= Nom-Gol River flowing down from the extreme eastern escarps of Tien-Shan Mountains and disappearing in the sands of the Nomin-Gobi Desert, about 42°N, 96°E, Xinijang [sic]-Uighur Autonomous Region, China). Holotype: ZIN 12485. Paratypes: ZIN 12485 (7, 1 c&s). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Triplophysa kaznakowi Prokofiev 2004 -- (Prokofiev 2006:Engl. 580 [ref. 28811], Prokofiev 2006:255 [ref. 29061], Cao & Zhang 2008:40 [ref. 29966], Prokofiev 2010:907 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa kaznakowi Prokofiev 2004. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tuguryuk River valley, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China. Habitat: freshwater.

kempi, Aborichthys Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1913:245, Pl. 7 (figs. 1, 1a-b) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 8 (pt 3); ref. 819] Egar stream between Renging and Rotung, Dihang River near Yembung, and Sirpo River near Renging, Abor Hills, India. Syntypes: ZSI F7721/1-7723/1 (3), and 7778/1-7779/1, 7878/1-7879/1, 8297/1-8298/1 (9) Egar stream; 7725/1-7727/1 (3) Sirpo R.; 7769/1-7770/1 (2) Dihang R. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:119 [ref. 20743], Menon 1987:190 [ref. 14149]. •Valid as Nemacheilus kempi (Chaudhuri 1913) -- (Menon 1987:188 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus kepi). •Valid as Nemacheilus kempi (Chaudhuri 1913) -- (Menon 1999:188 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Aborichthys boutanensis (McClelland 1842) -- (Thoni & Hart 2015:291 [ref. 33918] with authorship as McClelland & Griffith, Kosygin et al. 2019:74 [ref. 36729]). •Valid as Aborichthys kempi Chaudhuri 1913 -- (Zhu 1989:59 [ref. 17744], Kottelat 1990:24 [ref. 14137], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:458 [ref. 20764], Zhang et al. 1995:46 [ref. 22734], Sen 1995:544 [ref. 23778], Zhu 1995:111 [ref. 25213], Kullander et al. 2000:331 [ref. 25075], Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662], Sen 2009:13 [ref. 30554], Kottelat 2012:74 [ref. 32367], Kosygin 2012:49 [ref. 32937], Kottelat 2013:198 [ref. 32989], Khynrian & Sen 2014:6 [ref. 33853], Khynrian & Sen 2014:6 [ref. 33853], Arunachalam et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33198], Zhang et al. 2016:127 [ref. 34477], Shangningam et al. 2019:370 [ref. 37201]). Current status: Valid as Aborichthys kempi Chaudhuri 1913. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mountain streams in Abor Hills, India. Habitat: freshwater.

kengtungensis, Nemacheilus Fowler [H. W.] 1936:509, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87 (for 1935); ref. 13693] Laun We (Loi Mwe, 21°10'N, 99°45'E), Keng Tung, Mekong basin, Myanmar, elevation 5600 feet. Holotype: ANSP 64157. Paratypes: ANSP 64158 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Schistura kengtungensis (Fowler 1936) -- (Kottelat 1990:133 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Rainboth 1996:129 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2000:58 [ref. 25040], Kottelat 2001:109 [ref. 25780], Chen et al. 2005:27 [ref. 28352], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:176 [ref. 31357], Ou et al. 2011:193 [ref. 31692], Zheng et al. 2012:63 [ref. 32070], Kottelat 2012:110 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366], Zhang et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2016:599 [ref. 34743]). Current status: Valid as Schistura kengtungensis (Fowler 1936). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myanmar, Thailand and Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

kentritensis, Oxynoemacheilus Freyhof [J.], Kaya [C.] & Turan [D.] 2017:552, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4258 (no. 6); ref. 35290] Stream Kesan about 1 km south of Güntepe, Bitlis province, Turkey, 38°21'24''N, 42°37'39''E. Holotype: FFR 01566. Paratypes: FFR, FSJF. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus kentritensis Freyhof, Kaya & Turan 2017 -- (Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343] as kentritesensis, Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus kentritensis Freyhof, Kaya & Turan 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: upper Tigris River basin (Turkey, Iraq and Syria). Habitat: freshwater.

keralensis, Oreonectes (Indoreonectes) Rita [S. D.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Rita, Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978:186, Figure 1 [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 19; ref. 3758] Tributary of Periyar River, Pampadampara, Kerala, India. Holotype: ISBB 2925. Paratypes: ISBB 2934 (2), MGAB 237 (1), ZSI (3). Additional material: USNM 227405 (1), 268633 (1). •Valid as Nemacheilus keralensis (Rita & Nalbant 1978) -- (Menon 1987:193 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:484 [ref. 20764], Raju Thomas et al. 1999:200 [ref. 24210], Menon 1999:189 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Raju Thomas et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26359], Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005:77 [ref. 28530]). •Valid as Oreonectes keralensis Rita & Nalbant 1978 -- (Rema Devi et al. 2002:127 [ref. 26361]). •Valid as Indoreonectes keralensis (Rita & Nalbant 1978) -- (Kottelat 2012:85 [ref. 32367], Bleher 2018:136 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Indoreonectes keralensis (Rita & Nalbant 1978). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Habitat: freshwater.

kermanensis, Paraschistura Sayyadzadeh [G.], Teimori [A.] & Esmaeili [H. R.] 2019:574, FIgs. 3-8 [Zootaxa 4638 (no. 4); ref. 36833] Bidkhoon River at Hanjam village, Kerman province, Iran, 29°39'51.2"N, 56°30"52.3"E. Holotype: ZM-CBSU H2442. Paratypes: ZM-CBSU H2443 (20). •Valid as Paraschistura kermanensis Sayyadzadeh, Teimori & Esmaeili 2019. Current status: Valid as Paraschistura kermanensis Sayyadzadeh, Teimori & Esmaeili 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Bidkhoon River drainage, Kerman-Naein basin, Kerman, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

kermanshahensis, Noemacheilus Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1966:151, Figs. 1-2; Pl. 19 (fig. 2) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 129; ref. 218] Kermanshah in the drainage of the Karun River, tributary of lower Tigris, western Iran. Holotype: ZMUC P2787. Paratypes: ZMUC P2788-2794 (7). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:49 [ref. 9588]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Date sometimes 1967. •Valid as Nemacheilus kermanshahensis Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966 -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869]). •Valid as Orthrias kermanshahensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966) -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:110 [ref. 23810]). •Valid as Barbatula kermanshahensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966) -- (based on status of Barbatula). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus kermanshahensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:97 [ref. 32367], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:884 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095]). •Valid as Sasanidus kermanshahensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966) -- (Freyhof et al. 2016:71 [ref. 34414], Freyhof 2016:94 [ref. 34815], Esmaeili et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:52 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Sasanidus kermanshahensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Karkheh and Dez River drainages, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

kessleri, Nemachilus Günther [A.] 1889:109 [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 5 (pt 3) (art. 3); ref. 18207] Nushki, Pishin Lora River basin, Afghanistan [today Pakistan]. Syntypes: (8) BMNH 1886.9.21.177-180 (4), ZSI 11487-90 (now 3). Type information: Talwar 1977:65 [ref. 21523]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus kessleri Günther 1889 -- (Berg 1949:877 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1987:61 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:485 [ref. 20764], Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:6 [ref. 23831], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Coad & Abdoli 2000:56 [ref. 25296]). •Valid as Schistura kessleri (Günther 1889) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:14 [ref. 27265]). •Valid as Paraschistura kessleri (Günther 1889) -- (Prokofiev 2009:892 [ref. 30604] with subspecies, Esmaeili et al. 2010:373 [ref. 33391], Vatandoust & Eagderi 2015:182 [ref. 33819], Freyhof et al. 2015:12 [ref. 33865], Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015:299 [ref. 34027], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:888 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2015:122 [ref. 35030], Esmaeili et al. 2017:71 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:51 [ref. 36089], Eagderi et al. 2019:266 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura kessleri (Günther 1889). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mashkid River basin, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

khamtanhi, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:63, Fig. 40 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Houay Pao, a west side tributary of Xe Kong, entering it about 16 kilometers upriver of Muang Kaleum, 15°50'17"N, 106°45'40"E, Xekong Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45349. Paratypes: CMK 15652 (71), 15820 (18); LARRI uncat. (6); NRM 44894 (6); ZRC 45350 (6). •Valid as Schistura khamtanhi Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:109 [ref. 25780], Ou et al. 2011:199 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura khamtanhi Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

khugae, Schistura Vishwanath [W.] & Shanta [K.] 2004:330 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 15 (no. 4); ref. 27996] Khuga River, Churachandpur District, Manipur, India. Holotype: MUMF 5013. Paratypes: MUMF 5001-5008 (8), 5009-5014 (6). Replacement name for Schistura macrocephalus Vishwanath & Shanta 2004, preoccupied by Schistura macrocephalus Kottelat 2000. •Valid as Schistura khugae Vishwanath & Shanta 2004 -- (Vishwanath & Shanta Kumar 2006:210 [ref. 28652], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011:1514 [ref. 31183], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:4 [ref. 32463], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971], Kottelat 2013:207 [ref. 32989], Khynrian & Sen 2014:17 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33318], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[5] [ref. 33603], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628]). Current status: Valid as Schistura khugae Vishwanath & Shanta 2004. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Manipur and Nagaland, India. Habitat: freshwater.

kiabii, Oxynoemacheilus Golzarianpour [K.], Abdoli [A.] & Freyhof [J.] 2011:202, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 3) [for Sept.]; ref. 31693] Stream Dehnoo, 3 km west of Nahavand on road from Nahavand to Sarab-e-Gamasiab, 34°10'N, 48°24'E, Hamadan Province, Iran. Holotype: ZFMK 41847. Paratypes: FCKG 8658 (8), 8659 (7); FSJF 3003 (7), 3004 (2). Plus additional not-type material. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus kiabii Golzarianpour, Abdoli & Freyhof 2011 -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:97 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33140], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:884 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2016:105 [ref. 34789], Freyhof 2016:94 [ref. 34815], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34976], Freyhof & Abdullah 2017:86 [ref. 35169], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:379 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:552 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Esmaeili et al. 2018:45 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus kiabii Golzarianpour, Abdoli & Freyhof 2011. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Karkheh River drainage, Tigris River basin, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

kirinensis, Barbatula toni Tchang [T.-L.] 1932:115, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, Peiping (Zoological Series) v. 3 (no. 8); ref. 16401] Kirin, Jilin Province, northeastern China. Holotype: ZMFMIB (now ASIZB) 7931. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:870 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies nuda (Bleeker 1868) -- (Zhu 1989:30 [ref. 17744]). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Vasil'eva 1998:96 [ref. 23591]). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Prokofiev 2007:17 [ref. 30343]). •Synonym of Barbatula nuda (Bleeker 1964) -- (Kottelat 2012:79 [ref. 32367] with question). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Kottelat 2006:53 [ref. 28831], Cao et al. 2012:241 [ref. 32335], Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065]). •Valid as Barbatula kirinensis Tchang 1932 -- (Chen et al. 2019:12 [ref. 36569]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula kirinensis Tchang 1932. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Jingpo Lake, Tumen River and Zhu'Erduo River, northern China. Habitat: freshwater.

kloetzliae, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:63, Fig. 41 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Mengla market, Mengla County, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NRM 33199. Paratypes: CMK 14312 (1). •Valid as Schistura kloetzliae Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:109 [ref. 25780], Vidthayanon 2003:310 [ref. 27398], Endruweit 2011:573 [ref. 31621], Zheng et al. 2012:66 [ref. 32070], Chen & Neely 2012:226 [ref. 32332], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013: 89, 92 [ref. 32798], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:60 [ref. 33202], Zhang et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2016:599 [ref. 34743], Endruweit 2017:399 [ref. 35191]). Current status: Valid as Schistura kloetzliae Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

klydonion, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2017:349, Figs. 13-17 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 65; ref. 35511] Houay Xoy, a tributary of Xe Namnoy, Bolaven Plateau, Champasak Province, Laos, 14°52'41"N, 106°34'49"E, elevation 790 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2767.085. Paratypes: CMK, ZRC. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Schistura klydonion Kottelat 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura klydonion Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Xe Namnoy drainage, Bolaven Plateau, southern Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

kodaguensis, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:108, Pl. 16 (fig. 11) [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Kotu Hola, near Merkara, Karnataka, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F565. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F565(A). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:366 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus kodaguensis Menon 1987 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:486 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:173 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Bleher 2018:168 [ref. 36647]). •Valid as Schistura kodaguensis (Menon 1987) -- (Sreekantha et al. 2006:2216 [ref. 28597], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Sudasinghe 2017:108 [ref. 35539]). Current status: Valid as Schistura kodaguensis (Menon 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

kohatensis, Schistura Mirza [M. R.] & Bănărescu [P. M.] in Mirza, Nalbant & Bănărescu 1981:123, Figs. 46-50 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 5390] Hangu, Kohat District, on the Kohat Toi River, right tributary of Indus River, Pakistan. Holotype: ISBB 3373. Paratypes: ISBB 3374 (1), ZMA 116446 (2), Mirza priv. coll. (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:36 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Nemacheilus kohatensis (Mirza & Bănărescu 1981) -- (Menon 1987:71 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:486 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura kohatensis Mirza & Bănărescu 1981 -- (Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:14 [ref. 27265], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura kohatensis Mirza & Bănărescu 1981. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

kohchangensis, Nemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1933:56, Pl. 1 (fig. 2); Fig. 2 [Journal of the Siam Society, Natural History Supplement v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 4051] Waterfall stream on Koh Chang, Gulf of Thailand. Holotype (unique): KUMF 0169. Type catalog: Monkolprasit 1969:6 [ref. 23217]. •Valid as Schistura kohchangensis (Smith 1933) -- (Kottelat 1990:138 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Rainboth 1996:129 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:176 [ref. 31357], Ou et al. 2011:193 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366]). Current status: Valid as Schistura kohchangensis (Smith 1933). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

kokshaalensis, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2010:896 [Journal of Ichthyology v. 50 (no. 10); ref. 31096] Appeared as nomen nudum, mentioned prematurely; publication to follow. •Not available, no description; awaiting publication in an available way. •Listed as a Nomen nudum -- (Kottelat 2012:85 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa kokshaalensis Prokofiev 2017. Nemacheilidae.

kokshaalensis, Triplophysa (Indotriplophysa) Prokofiev [A. M.] 2017:175, Fig. 37 [ ref. 35630] Taushkan-Darya, Sinkiang, China. Holotype (unique): ZIN 9458. •Valid as Triplophysa (Indotriplophysa) kokshaalensis Prokofiev 2017. Current status: Valid as Triplophysa kokshaalensis Prokofiev 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Taushkan-Darya, Sinkiang, west China. Habitat: freshwater.

koladynensis, Schistura Lokeshwor [Y.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2012 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 23 (no. 2); ref. 32296] Mizoram, Lawntlai District, Koladyne River at Kolchaw, 22°23'45"N, 92°55'56"E, India. Holotype: MUMF 11048. Awaiting original. •Valid as Schistura koladynensis Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012 -- (Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Bohlen et al. 2014:26 [ref. 33197], Khynrian & Sen 2014:17 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33318], Solo et al. 2014:258 [ref. 33517], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[5] 317 [ref. 33603], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628], Choudhury et al. 2019:50 [ref. 36483]). Current status: Valid as Schistura koladynensis Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Koladyne River basin, Mizoram, India. Habitat: freshwater.

kongphengi, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1998:77, Figs. 116-117 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 23436] Upper Nam Theun, 17°59'31"N, 105°27'49"E, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 41799. Paratypes: CMK 12705 (19), 12758 (5), 12771 (31), 12792 (4); DFV uncat. (4); NRM 36710 (8); ZRC 41800 (8). •Valid as Schistura kongphengi Kottelat 1998 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:159 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:109 [ref. 25780], Ou et al. 2011:199 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura kongphengi Kottelat 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Theun and Mekong basin, Laos and Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

kontumensis, Schistura Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:160, Figs. 29-31 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] Stream Iasia, about 25 kilometers west of Kontum, 14°23.63'N, 107°48.64'E, Kontum Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 26687. Paratypes: ZFMK 26688-747 (60), ZSM 28869 (12). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:113 [ref. 31087], Neumann 2011:241 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Schistura kontumensis Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura kontumensis Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kontum province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

kosswigi, Orthrias angorae Erk'akan [F.] & Kuru [M.] 1986:160, Fig. 1a [Doga Turk Biyoloji Dergisi. v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 21167] Yildiz çayi, Yildizeli, Sivas, Turkey. Holotype: HUIC. Paratypes: HUIC (9). •Apparently valid in Barbatula -- (Stoumboudi et al. 2006:143 [ref. 28767]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus kosswigi (Erk'akan & Kuru 1986) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Erk'akan 2012:97 [ref. 32281], Kottelat 2012:97 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Sungur et al. 2017:379 [ref. 35750], Çiçek et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36267], Turan et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 36540]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus seyhanensis (Bănărescu 1968) -- (Sungur 2020:[1] [ref. 37465]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus seyhanensis (Bănărescu 1968). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Turkey: Kızılırmak River basin (Black Sea tributary), Sivas Province [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

kosswigi, Turcinoemacheilus Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1964:178, Pl. 8 (fig. 14) [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 61; ref. 217] Kapozik Kadun, Hakkari [37°34'40"N, 43°44'10"E], Tigris (Dicle Nehri basin), Turkey. Holotype: ZMH H1884. Paratypes: ZMH H1885 (6). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:159 [ref. 22013]. •Valid as Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964 -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:457 [ref. 23187], Coad 1995:23 [ref. 23608], Nalbant & Bianco 1998:114 [ref. 23810], Nalbant 1998:371 [ref. 26011], Fricke et al. 2007:53 [ref. 29533], Golzarianpour et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30504], Esmaeili et al. 2010:373 [ref. 33391], Conway et al. 2011:1756 [ref. 31594], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:201 [ref. 31693] with genus as Turcinemacheilus, Kottelat 2012:134 [ref. 32367], Golzarianpour et al. 2013:47 [ref. 32802], Kamangar et al. 2014:49 [ref. 33140], Esmaeili et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33241], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:889 [ref. 34062], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Esmaeili et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35254], Prokofiev 2017:255 [ref. 35630], Esmaeili et al. 2018:53 [ref. 36089], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: upper Euphrates and Tigris watersheds (Turkey, Iraq, Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

kottelati, Schistura Ho [A. T.], Hoang [N. T.] & Ngo [X. Y.] 2018:142, Figs. 1-5 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 66; ref. 35841] Pool in Hung Dang valley of Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park, Xuan Trach commune, Bo Trach district, Quang Binh province, Vietnam, 17°37'12"N, 106°04'01"E, elevation 83 meters. Holotype: BMVU 1101. Paratypes: BMVU, ZRC. •Valid as Schistura kottelati Ho, Hoang & Ngo 2018. Current status: Valid as Schistura kottelati Ho, Hoang & Ngo 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hung Dang valley, Quang Binh province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

kuiperi, Nemachilus de Beaufort [L. F.] 1939:190, Fig. 1 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 17 (pt 3); ref. 17180] Belitung Island, Indonesia. Lectotype: ZMA 112889. Paralectotypes: ZMA 102145 (21). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:31 [ref. 19236]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1984:255 [ref. 5292]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus selangoricus Duncker 1904 -- (Kottelat 1990:68 [ref. 14137], Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Nemacheilus selangoricus Duncker 1904. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

kullmanni, Triplophysa Bănărescu [P. M.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Ladiges [W.] 1975:40, Fig. [Zeitschrift de Kölner Zoos v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 7408] Ab-e-Nawar spring, source of a salt lake, which dries up in the summer, central Afghanistan, elevation 3100 meters. Holotype: ZMH H4778. Paratypes: ZMH H4779 and 4780 (4). . Also appeared as new in Banarescu & Nalbant 1975:246 [ref. 22920] published in Nov., ref. 7408 published before Nov. •Valid as Nemacheilus kullmanni (Bănărescu, Nalbant & Ladiges 1975) -- (Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Triplophysa kullmanni Bănărescu, Nalbant & Ladiges 1975 -- (Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa kullmanni Bănărescu, Nalbant & Ladiges 1975. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Afghanistan. Habitat: freshwater.

kungessana, Diplophysa Kessler [K. F.] 1879:286 [Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 25; ref. 2598] Kungès River, Ili basin, Kazakhstan, elevation 4000 feet. Holotype (unique): ZIN 4176. Also in Kessler 1879:238 [ref. 14266]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus dorsalis (Kessler 1872) -- (Berg 1949:858 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler 1872) -- (Zhu 1989:85 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:155 [ref. 21205]). •Valid as Triplophysa kungessana (Kessler 1879) -- (Prokofiev 2006:256 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2010:907 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2016:203 [ref. 34459]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa kungessana (Kessler 1879). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Ili River basin, Kazakhstan. Habitat: freshwater.

kurdistanicus, Oxynoemacheilus Kamangar [B. B.], Prokofiev [A. M.], Ghaderi [E.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 2014:38, Fig. 3 [Zootaxa 3755 (no. 1); ref. 33140] Choman River (Tajaban, sta. 6) Baneh, Kurdistan, Iran, 35°56'53"N, 45°41'40"E. Holotype: FCFUK 146. Paratypes: FCFUK 146-170 (35), ZMUU 23084 (4). Plus non-type specimens. •Possibly a synonym of Oxynoemacheilus euphraticus (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964) -- (Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:388 [ref. 35216]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalbant 2014 -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:884 [ref. 34062], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2016:105 [ref. 34789], Freyhof 2016:100 [ref. 34815], Freyhof & Abdullah 2017:86 [ref. 35169], Esmaeili et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:552 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Esmaeili et al. 2018:45 [ref. 36089], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalbant 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: Tigris River drainage (Turkey and Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

kuschakewitschi, Nemacheilus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1890:139 [61] [Mélanges Biologiques, tirés du Bulletin physico-mathématique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 13; ref. 18286] Margelan and Andizhan, Syr-Darya River basin, Uzbekistan. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1891.10.7.72 (2), ZIN 4561 (6+), 8744-45 (6, 6). Type catalog: Svetovidova 1978:262 [ref. 9011]. On p. 61 in Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Pétersb. (n. s.) v. 2:49-65. •Valid as Nemacheilus kuschakewitschi Herzenstein 1890 -- (Berg 1949:880 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Iskandaria kuschakewitschi (Herzenstein 1890) -- (Prokofiev 2009:889 [ref. 30604] with subspecies, Kottelat 2012:86 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2017:262 [ref. 35630]). Current status: Valid as Iskandaria kuschakewitschi (Herzenstein 1890). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Uzbekistan. Habitat: freshwater.

labeosus, Noemacheilus Kottelat [M.] 1982:169, Figs. 1-3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 8460] Salween River at Mae Sahm Leap, Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand, 17°59'N, 97°44'E. Holotype: USNM 230060. Paratypes: CMK 3171-3172 (2), NIFI unnumbered A (2), NIFI unnumbered B (1), USNM 230061 (13). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus labeosus Kottelat 1982 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:487 [ref. 20764], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Neonoemacheilus labeosus (Kottelat 1982) -- (Kottelat 1990:68 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:436 [ref. 23187], Arunkumar 2000:45 [ref. 25660], Kottelat 2012:93 [ref. 32367], Khynrian & Sen 2014:11 [ref. 33853], Bleher 2018:182 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Neonoemacheilus labeosus (Kottelat 1982). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Salween River basin, northeastern India, Myanmar and Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

labiata, Diplophysa Kessler [K. F.] 1874:59, Pl. 8 (fig. 40) [Izvestiia Imperatorskago Obschchestva Liubitelei Estestvozaniia, Antropologii i Etnografii v. 11; ref. 2596] Urdjar River, tributary to Lake Alakul, Kyrguzstan. Syntypes: ZIN 2321 (4). •Valid as Nemacheilus labiatus (Kessler 1874) -- (Berg 1949:857 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Valid as Barbatula labiata (Kessler 1874) -- (Zhu 1989:28 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:138 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:108 [ref. 25213]). •Valid as Triplophysa labiata (Kessler 1874) -- (Prokofiev 2004:185 [ref. 27939], Prokofiev 2006:255 [ref. 29061], Cao & Zhang 2008:40 [ref. 29966], Prokofiev 2010:907 [ref. 31096], Zhang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa labiata (Kessler 1874). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China and Kazakhstan, introduced in Uzbekistan. Habitat: freshwater.

lactogeneus, Nemacheilus Roberts [T. R.] 1989:107, Fig. 82 [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences No. 14; ref. 6439] Kapuas mainstream 58 kilometers northeast of Sintang and 1 kilometer downstream from Sebruang, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 3542. Paratypes: CAS 49355 (1). •Valid as Nemacheilus lactogeneus Roberts 1989 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:55 [ref. 23448], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:435 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:186 [ref. 25685], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:156 [ref. 28284]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus longipinnis Alh 1922 -- (Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Nemacheilus longipinnis Ahl 1922. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Indonesia (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

lacusnigri, Nemachilus stoliczkai var. Berg [L. S.] 1928:25, Pl. 1 [Pamirskaia eksoeditsiia 1928 g.: trudy eksoeditsii v. 8; ref. 16472] Karakul Lake and tributary, Pamir Plateau, Tajikistan. Syntypes: (6 + juveniles) ZIN 26367-69 (6+, 6+, 6+). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Originally as lacus-nigri. •Synonym of Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Berg 1949:864 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Valid as Triplophysa lacusnigri (Berg 1928) -- (Prokofiev 2001:198 [ref. 26613], Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa lacusnigri (Berg 1928). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pamir Plateau, Tajikistan. Habitat: freshwater.

lacustris, Triplophysa Yang [J.-X.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1990:380 [383], Fig. 3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 15 (no. 3); ref. 16188] Lake Xinyun [Xingyunha], 24°20'N, 102°45'E, Nanpan River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 0.1399. Paratypes: KIZ 0.01394-96 (3), 0.01400-01 (2), 0.01404 (1), 0.01411-13 (3). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939] as 01394 without a holotype. English description on p. 383. •Valid as Triplophysa lacustris Yang & Chu 1990 -- (Lan et al. 1995:370 [ref. 23184], Yang & Chen 1995:29 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:119 [ref. 25213], Chen et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30169], Zheng 2009:225 [ref. 30217], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193], Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa lacustris Yang & Chu 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lake Xinyun, upper Pearl River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

ladacensis, Nemachilus Günther [A.] 1868:356 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Ladakh, India. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.789. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa ladacensis (Günther 1868) -- (Menon 1987:206 [ref. 14149], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:512 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:190 [ref. 24904], Li et al. 2007:47 [ref. 29309]). •Synonym of Indotriplophysa tenuicauda (Steindachner 1866) -- (Kottelat 2012:85 [ref. 32367] with question). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa tenuicauda (Steindachner 1866). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India and Tibet (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

langpingensis, Triplophysa Yang [J.] in Lan, Gan, Wu & Juan 2013:(131) 256, Figs. 101-102 [Science Press, Beijing; ref. 32910] Langping Town, Tianlin County, Guangxi, China, 24.6°N. 106.3°E, elevation 830 meters. Holotype: CLJH 12120309. Paratypes: CLJH 10120601, 2011090398, 201110402, 201110403, 201110404, 12120310 (1 spec. ea.). •Valid as Triplophysa langpingensis Yang 2013 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34477], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:843 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971], Chen & Peng 2019:382 [ref. 36537]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa langpingensis Yang 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Pearl River basin, Tianlin County, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

larketensis, Schistura Choudhury [H.], Mukhim [D. K. B.], Basumatary [S.], Warbah [D. P.] & Sarma [D.] 2017:90, Figs. 1-3, 6 [Zootaxa 4353 (no. 1); ref. 35681] Krem Khung about 1.5 km from Larket village, East Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya, India, 25°23ʹ22ʺN, 92°34ʹ49ʺ E, elevation 880 meters. Holotype: GUMF 0261. Paratypes: GUMF, ZSI. •Valid as Schistura larketensis Choudhury, Mukhim, Basumatary, Warbah & Sarma 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura larketensis Choudhury, Mukhim, Basumatary, Warbah & Sarma 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Krem Khung, Brahmaputra River basin, Meghalaya, India. Habitat: freshwater.

larreci, Rhyacoschistura Kottelat [M.] 2019:159, Figs. 1-7 [Zootaxa 4612 (no. 2); ref. 36743] Houay Plong at bridge 4 km South of Ban Houy Chouang, itself 33 km from Hongsa on road to Xayaburi, Xayaburi Province, Laos, 19°32'20.1"N, 101°29'49.5"E, elevation 528 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2727.011. Paratypes: CMK, ZRC. •Valid as Rhyacoschistura larreci Kottelat 2019. Current status: Valid as Rhyacoschistura larreci Kottelat 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Houng drainage, Mekong River basin, Xayaburi Province, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

laterimaculata, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:141, Figs. 103-104 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Kuan Giewlom, Chayaphum Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZRC 38470 [ex ZSM 27477]. Paratypes: CMK 5899 (1), NIFI 2061 (4). •Questionably a synonym of Schistura nicholsi (Smith 1933) -- (Kottelat 2001:111 [ref. 25780]). •Valid as Schistura laterimaculata Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Rainboth 1996:130 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:173 [ref. 31357], Ou et al. 2011:193 [ref. 31692] as laterimaculatus, Kottelat 2012:114 [ref. 32367] with question, Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502]). •Tentatively synonymized with Schistura nicolsi (Smith 1933) by Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:89 [ref. 32798] as nicolsi. Current status: Valid as Schistura laterimaculata Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

laterimaculata, Triplophysa Li [J.-L.], Liu [N.-F.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2007:48, Fig. 2 [Zootaxa No. 1605; ref. 29309] Kezile River, tributary of Tarim River, about 39°N, 76°E, Huangdi Town, Shufu County, Kashigar City, Xinjiang, northwestern China, elevation 1441 meters. Holotype: KIZ 200408220489. Paratypes: KIZ 200408220470, 0488, 0493, 0496, 0991-0994 (1 ea., 8 specimens). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Triplophysa laterimaculata Li, Liu & Yang 2007 -- (Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa laterimaculata Li, Liu & Yang 2007. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kezile River, tributary of Tarim River, northwestern China. Habitat: freshwater.

laterivittatus, Noemacheilus Zhu [S.-Q.] & Wang [S.-H.] 1985:213 [219], Figs. 9-12 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 8120] Babianjiang River, 24°20'N, 100°10'E, Jingdong County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NIGLAS 810205. Paratypes: IHB F1969-44110-11 (2), NIGLAS (orig. 19). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. English description on p. 219. •Valid as Schistura laterivittata (Zhu & Wang 1985) -- (Zhu 1989:44 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:110 [ref. 25213]). •Synonym of Schistura caudofurca (Mai 1978) -- (Kottelat 2001:47 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2012:107 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:205 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2015:65 [ref. 33868], Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura caudofurca (Mai 1978). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

laticeps, Triplophysa Zhou [W.] & Cui [G.-H.] 1997:179, Figs. 2-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 23279] Luzhijiang, a tributary of the Yuanjiang River basin, near Lufeng City, 25°15'N, 102°03'E, Yunnan Province, China, elevation 1600 meters. Holotype: KIZ 914077. Paratypes: KIZ 914068 (1), 914071-072 (2), 914075-076 (2), 914078 (1), 914083 (1), 914085 (1), 914088-092 (5), 914094-097 (4), 914099 (1), 914101 (1), 914103-104 (2). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Triplophysa laticeps Zhou & Cui 1997 -- (Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:214 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa laticeps Zhou & Cui 1997. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

latidens, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:64, Fig. 42 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Xe Pon, between rapids upstream and downstream of Ban Fuang, 16°37'06"N, 106°33'30"E, Savannakhet Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45351. Paratypes: CMK 13741 (3), LARRI uncat. (1), ZRC 45352 (1). •Valid as Schistura latidens Kottelat 2000 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:172 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:109 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502]). Current status: Valid as Schistura latidens Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Xe Banghiang watershed, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

latifasciatus, Noemacheilus Zhu [S.-Q.] & Wang [S.-H.] 1985:211 [219], Figs. 5-6 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 8120] Nanqiao River, tributary of the Lancangjiang River, 24°N, 100°E, Yunxian County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NIGLAS. 810367. Paratypes: NIGLAS (14). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. English description on p. 219. •Valid as Schistura latifasciata (Zhu & Wang 1985) -- (Zhu 1989:50 [ref. 17744], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:55 [ref. 23556], Chen et al. 2005:148 [ref. 28288], Zheng et al. 2012:63 [ref. 32070], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:60 [ref. 33202], Zhang et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2016:599 [ref. 34743], Endruweit 2017:591 [ref. 35662]). Current status: Valid as Schistura latifasciata (Zhu & Wang 1985). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

laxiclathra, Homatula Gu [J.-H.] & Zhang [E] 2012:592, Fig. 1a, 4a [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 94 (no. 4); ref. 31632] Wei River, Yellow River drainage, Zhouzhi County, Shaanxi Province, China. Holotype: IHB 73V10738. Paratypes: 11 lots, 21 specimens at IHB. •Valid as Homatula laxiclathra Gu & Zhang 2012 -- (Min et al. 2012:313 [ref. 32341], Kottelat 2012:83 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:128 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Homatula laxiclathra Gu & Zhang 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yellow River drainage, Shaanxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

lendlii, Nemachilus Hankó [B.] 1925:155, Pl. 3 (fig. 9) [Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici v. 21 (for 29 Dec. 1924); ref. 2035] Eski-Chehir [= Eskişehir], western Anatolia, Turkey. Syntypes: (10, lost). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus lendlii Hankó 1925 -- (Berg 1949:879 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus lendi). •Valid as Seminemacheilus lendlii (Hankó 1925) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:449 [ref. 23187] as lendli, Fricke et al. 2007:53 [ref. 29533] as lendli, Erk'akan et al. 2007:70 [ref. 29026] as lendli, Prokofiev 2009:881 [ref. 30604] as lendli and dated 1924, Golzarianpour et al. 2011:201 [ref. 31693], Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36267], Sungur et al. 2018:472 [ref. 35977], Çiçek 2020:75 [ref. 37402], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644], Yoğurtçuoğlu et al. 2020:481 [ref. 37604]). Current status: Valid as Seminemacheilus lendlii (Hankó 1925). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: upper Sakarya River basin and endorheic Lakes Akşehir and Eber basins, western Anatolia (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

lenkoranensis, Nemacheilus angorae Abdurakhmanov [Y. A.] 1962:285, Fig. 50 [Freshwater fishes off Azerbaijan; ref. 21165] Lenkoran, Azerbaijan. No types known. •Synonym of Nemacheilus angorae Steindachner 1897, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus lenkoranensis (Abdurakhmanov 1962) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367], Esmaeili et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:46 [ref. 36089], Kuljanishvili et al. 2020:[6] [ref. 37535]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus bergi (Gratzianov 1907) -- (Çiçek et al. 2018:233 [ref. 36249]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus bergi (Gratzianov 1907). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

leontinae, Nemachilus Lortet [L.] 1883:171, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Lyon v. 3; ref. 14341] Lake Tiberias [Galilée], Israel. Lectotype: MGHN 3665 (64 mm SL, poor condition). Paralectotypes: MGHN 3655 (1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Krupp & Schneider 1989:383 [ref. 13651]. •Synonym of Orthrias panthera (Heckel 1843) -- (Bănărescu et al. 1982:14 [ref. 174]). •Valid as Nemacheilus leontinae Lortet 1883 -- (Krupp & Schneider 1989:383 [ref. 13651]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus panthera (Heckel 1843) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus leontinae (Lortet 1883) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33140]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus leontinae (Lortet 1883). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Israel. Habitat: freshwater.

leoparda, Barbatula Gauliard [C.], Dettai [A.], Persat [H.], Keith [P.] & Denys [G. P. J.] 2019:171, Figs. 1A-B, 2A, 3 [Cybium v. 43 (no. 2); ref. 36787] Têt River at Nefiach, Departement Pyrénées-Orientales, France, 42.697N, 2.663E. Holotype: MNHN 2018-0228. Paratypes: MNHN. •Valid as Barbatula leoparda Gauliard, Dettai, Persat, Keith & Denys 2019. Current status: Valid as Barbatula leoparda Gauliard, Dettai, Persat, Keith & Denys 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Têt and Tech Rivers, Pyrénées-Orientales, southern France. Habitat: freshwater.

leopardus, Cobitis Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1089 [99] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Barada River, Damascus, Syria. Holotype (unique): NMW 48559. On p. 99 of separate [ref. 2067]. First reviser Heckel 1848:241 gives precedence to panthera over leopardus. •Synonym of Orthrias panthera (Heckel 1843) -- (Bănărescu et al. 1982:14 [ref. 174]). •In the synonymy of Barbatula panthera (Heckel 1843) -- (based on status of Barbatula). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus panthera (Heckel 1843) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33140]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus panthera (Heckel 1843). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

lepidocaulis, Schistura kessleri Mirza [M. R.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Mirza, Nalbant & Bănărescu 1981:110, Figs. 9-13 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 5390] Parachinar, basin of the Kurram River, Pakistan. Holotype: ISBB 3366. Paratypes: ISBB 3367 (1), ZMA 116441 (2), Mirza priv. coll. (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:36 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus prashari Hora 1933 -- (Menon 1987:64 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:496 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Schistura kessleri (Günther 1889), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Mirza 2000:356 [ref. 25207]). •Valid as Schistura lepidocaulus Mirza & Nalbant 1981 -- (Mirza 2003:14 [ref. 27265]). •Synonym of Paraschistura kessleri (Günther 1889), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:892 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Paraschistura lepidocaudus (Mirza & Nalbant 1981) -- (Kottelat 2012:101 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura lepidocaulis (Mirza & Nalbant 1981). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

leptosoma, Nemachilus stoliczkae Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:23, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Schuga River, China. Holotype (unique): ZIN 7261. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Indotriplophysa leptosoma (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Kottelat 2012:86 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Triplophysa leptosoma (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:110 [ref. 17744], Ding 1994:84 [ref. 21531], Zhang et al. 1995:60 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:117 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:79 [ref. 23556], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Prokofiev 2007:18? [Engl. 14] [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061], Zheng et al. 2010:[8] [ref. 30841], Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096], He et al. 2012:278 [ref. 32339], Li et al. 2015:423 [ref. 33642] as leptosome and leptosoma, Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966], Zhang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665], Zhang et al. 2019:386 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa leptosoma (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, Tibet, China. Habitat: freshwater.

leukensis, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:64, not Fig. 44 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Leuk at dam site, 18°26'15"N, 102°56'48"E, Vientiane Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45353. Paratypes: CMK 13315 (90), LARRI uncat. (15), NRM 44895 (15), ZRC 45354 (15). •Valid as Schistura leukensis Kottelat 2000 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:168 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:109 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2005:65 [ref. 28212] with replacement figure for the holotype, orig. Fig. 44 not this species, Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura leukensis Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Mang drainage, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

lewangensis, Triplophysa Yan [Y.-L.] 2017 Cave, Lewang Town, Wangmo County, Guizhou Province, China. Name used in an unavailable Ph. D. dissertation. Current status: Unknown. Nemacheilidae.

lhasae, Nemachilus Regan [C. T.] 1905:301 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 87) (art. 34); ref. 15380] Lhasa, Tibet. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.2.8.16. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Berg 1949:862 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Valid as Triplophysa lhasae (Regan 1905) -- (Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613]). •Synonym of Triplophysa stenura (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:117 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:238 [ref. 21205], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:81 [ref. 23556], Prokofiev 2006:258 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990] as lhasse, Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367] with question). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa stenura (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

liaoyangensis, Barbatula Chen [H.], Zhang [H.], Chen [Y.-X.] & Freyhof [J.] 2019:22, Figs. 23-25 [Zootaxa 4565 (no. 1); ref. 36569] Taizi River east of Xiaobeihezhen, Liao River drainage, Liaoning Province, China, 41°36′N, 122°85′E. Holotype: HU 1608150. Paratypes: FSJF, HU. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Barbatula liaoyangensis Chen, Zhang, Chen & Freyhof 2019. Current status: Valid as Barbatula liaoyangensis Chen, Zhang, Chen & Freyhof 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Taizi River, Liao River drainage, northern China. Habitat: freshwater.

lihuensis, Triplophysa Wu [T.-J.], Yang [J.] & Lan [J.-H.] 2012:875, Figs. 1-3 [Zoological Studies v. 51 (no. 6); ref. 32311] A cave in Renguang Vill., Lihu Town, Nandan Co., Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China; 25°09'45.5"N, 107°43'4.5"E. Holotype: KIZ 2010003082. Paratypes: KIZ 2010003083-4, 09110323, and 09110327 (4). •Valid as Triplophysa lihuensis Wu, Yang & Lan 2012 -- (Lan et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32910], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:256, 257 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34477], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:843 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971], Huang et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36689]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa lihuensis Wu, Yang & Lan 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

lindbergi, Noemacheilus Bănărescu [P. M.] & Mirza [M. R.] 1965:265, Figs. 1-4 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 46 (no. 4); ref. 9194] Rivulet connected to drainage of the Farah River, Siaw, between Farah and Dilaram, Afghanistan, elevation 780 meters. Holotype: HUJ 1572 (lost). Paratypes: IBTS 1240 1-3 (3), 1360 (1), 1536 1-3 (3); SMF 7880-83 (4). Type catalog: Golani 2006:23 [ref. 28840] with holotype lost. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus prashari Hora 1933 -- (Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Nemacheilus lindbergi Bănărescu & Mirza 1965 -- (Menon 1987 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:486 [ref. 20764], Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:6 [ref. 23831]). •Valid as Schistura lindbergi (Bănărescu & Mirza 1965) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187], Nalbant & Bianco 1998:116 [ref. 23810], Mirza 2003:15 [ref. 27265]). •Synonym of Paraschistura kessleri (Günther 1889), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:892 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Paraschistura lindbergi (Bănărescu & Mirza 1965) -- (Kottelat 2012:101 [ref. 32367], Freyhof et al. 2015:46 [ref. 33865]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura lindbergi (Bănărescu & Mirza 1965). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

lineatus, Oreias Nguyen [V. H.] 2005:567, Fig. 13 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 2; ref. 29730] Creek Nâm Ngam, Núa Ngam, Dien Bien, Vietnam. Holotype: NCNTTS I, Bac Ninh (lost). Paratypes: (1) lost. See account of genus Oreias for name change to Claea. Types lost -- Endruweit 2014:152 [ref. 33205]. •Valid as Oreias lineatus Nguyen 2005 -- (Nguyen et al. 2010:50 [ref. 32127]). •Synonym of Schistura melarancia Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:152 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura melarancia Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Dien Bien, Vietnam (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

lingyunensis, Schistura Liao [J.-W.], Wang [D.-H.] & Luo [Z.-F.] 1997:4, Fig. 1 [Acta Academiae Medicinae Zunyi v. 20 (nos 2-3); ref. 28159] Guancang village, ca. 24°25'N, 106°30'E, Lingyun County, Guangxi, China. Holotype: IHB 92vi003. Paratypes: IHB 92vi001-002 (2), 92vi004-008 (5). Types are deposited at Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Department of Biology, Zunyi Medical College. •Valid as Schistura lingyunensis Liao, Wang & Luo 1997 -- (Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891] with authors as Liao & Luo, Zhang et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Triplophysa lingyunensis (Liao, Wang & Luo 1997) -- (Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Lan et al. 2013:104 [ref. 32910], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32910], Liu et al. 2017:843 [ref. 35125], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa lingyunensis (Liao, Wang & Luo 1997). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

linjiangensis, Barbatula Chen [H.], Zhang [H.], Chen [Y.-X.] & Freyhof [J.] 2019:25, Figs. 26-28 [Zootaxa 4565 (no. 1); ref. 36569] Yalu River south-west of Linjiang City, Jilin Province, China, 41°79′N, 126°89′E Holotype: HU 1608016. Paratypes: HU. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Barbatula linjiangensis Chen, Zhang, Chen & Freyhof 2019. Current status: Valid as Barbatula linjiangensis Chen, Zhang, Chen & Freyhof 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yalu River drainage, northern China (and possibly North Korea). Habitat: freshwater.

linypha, Paracanthocobitis Singer [R. A.] & Page [L. M.] 2015:390, Fig. 14 [Copeia v. 103 (no 2); ref. 33823] Kha Wan, Kha Wan stream, Myanmar, 25.086N, 96.97E. Holotype: USNM 410754. Paratypes: CAS, NIFI, UF, USNM, ZRC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Paracanthocobitis linypha Singer & Page 2015. Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis linypha Singer & Page 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Irrawaddy and Sittang basins, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

lixianensis, Triplophysa He [C.-L.], Song [Z.-B.] & Zhang [E] 2008:42, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 1739; ref. 29558] Zagunao River, a tributary on the western bank of the Min Jiang of the upper Chang Jiang [Yangtze River] drainage, at Jiujiapeng village, 31°33'N, 102°52'E, Lixian County, Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China, elevation 2450 meters. Holotype: SCUM 200707177008. Paratypes: IHASW 20070717009 (1), 20060715001-4 (4); SCUM 20070717001-02 (2), 20070717003 (1), 20070717004-07 (4). •Valid as Triplophysa lixianensis He, Song & Zhang 2008 -- (Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa lixianensis He, Song & Zhang 2008. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

liyaiensis, Schistura Lokeshwor [Y.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2014:[2] 314, Figs. 1-5 [Ichthyological Research v. 62 (no. 3); ref. 33603] Barak River in the vicinity of Liyai village (Barak-Surma-Meghna basin), Senapati District, Manipur, India, 25°28'24.83"N, 94°15'55.60"E, elevation 1468 meters. Holotype: MUMF 11145. Paratypes: MUMF 11146 (1), 11147 (1). •Valid as Schistura liyaiensis Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014. Current status: Valid as Schistura liyaiensis Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Barak River, Manipur, India. Habitat: freshwater.

lokalayensis, Kayahschistura Kottelat [M.] & Grego [J.] 2020:180, Figs. 1-4 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. No. 35; ref. 37411] Lokalay Loku Gu cave (also Myaug a San cave), Han Li village, Maw Thi Do commune, Hpruso District, Kayah State, Myanmar, 19.39115°N, 97.02287°E. Holotype (unique): MHNG 2782.033. •Valid as Kayahschistura lokalayensis Kottelat & Grego 2020. Current status: Valid as Kayahschistura lokalayensis Kottelat & Grego 2020. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Caves in the Karen Hills, Kayah State, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

longchiensis, Triplophysa Xu [T.-Q.] & Wang [K.-F.] 2009 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 34 (no. 2); ref. 30911] See account of Triplophysa bashanensis Xu & Wang 2009. Appeared as Triplophysa longchiensis in the abstract and as bashanensis in the text; apparently left in the abstract by mistake -- a lapsus; not available. •In the synonymy of Triplophysa bashanensis Xu & Wang 2009 -- (Kottelat 2012:123 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa bashanensis Xu & Wang 2009. Nemacheilidae.

longianalis, Nemachilus Ren [M.] & Wu [Y.] 1982:82 (English p. 86), Fig. 2 [Acta Zoologica Sinica v. 28 (no. 1); ref. 8426] Nam Cuo Lake, northeastern Tibet, China. Holotype: Heilongjiang Fish. Res. Inst, Harbin 80-1669. Paratypes: (19) NPIB and Heil. Fish. Res. Inst, Harbin 80-1588 to 1592 (5), 80-1594 (1), 80-1597 (1), 80-1599 (1), 80-1602 (1), 80-1668 to 1571 (4), 80-1687 to 1689 (3), 80-1693 (1), 80-7651 (1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Triplophysa stewarti (Hora 1922) -- (Zhu 1989:98 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:168 [ref. 21205], Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa stewarti (Hora 1922). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

longianguis, Triplophysa Wu [Y.-F.] & Wu [C.-Z.] 1984:327 [329], Figs. 1-5 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 8195] Lake Sumn Cuo, Jigzhi County, Qinghai Province, China. Holotype: NPIB 8370294. Paratypes: NPIB uncat. (3). English description on p. 329. •Valid as Triplophysa longianguis Wu & Wu 1984 -- (Zhu 1989:111 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:228 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:118 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa longianguis Wu & Wu 1984. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

longibarbatus, Paracobitis Chen [Y.-R.], Yang [J.-X.], Sket [B.] & Aljancic [G.] 1998:59 [English p. 62], Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 23721] In a cave, 13 kilometers northeast of Libo, about 25°15'N, 108°00'E, Libo County, Guizhou, China, elevation about 500 meters. Holotype: KIZ 953001[1995000636]. Paratypes: KIZ 953003 (2). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. Two nomena nuda liboensis are mentioned by Du et al. 2008:33 [ref. 29544] and Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522] as 'synonyms' of this species. The specific epithet is an adjective. •Valid as Paracobitis longibarbatus Chen, Yang, Sket & Aljancic 1998 -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:21 [ref. 26040], Proudlove 2006:104 [ref. 28992], Ran et al. 2006:82 [ref. 28951], Li et al. 2006:1 [ref. 29056]). •Mention -- (Hu & Zhang 2010:56 [ref. 30780]). •Valid as Triplophysa longibarbata (Chen, Yang, Sket & Aljancic 1998) -- (Du et al. 2008:33 [ref. 29544], Zheng 2009:[5] [ref. 30217], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522] as longibarbatus, Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493] as longibarbatus, Yang et al. 2011:569 [ref. 31447] as longoibarbatus, Yang et al. 2012:170 [ref. 31483] as longibarbatus, Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:645 [ref. 32193], Wu et al. 2012:879 [ref. 32311] as longibarbatus, Kottelat 2012:127 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891] as longibarbatus, Yang in Lan et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32910] once as longibarbatus, Zhang et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34477], Liu et al. 2017:844 [ref. 35125], Wu et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35850], Li et al. 2018:62 [ref. 36072] as longibarbatus, Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971], Huang et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36689] as longibarbatus). •Valid as Oreonectes longibarbatus (Chen, Yang, Sket & Aljancic 1998) -- (Zhou 2019:2 [ref. 36911]). Current status: Valid as Oreonectes longibarbatus (Chen, Yang, Sket & Aljancic 1998). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave systems of the Liujiang River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Guizhou Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

longibarbatus, Yunnanilus Gan [X.], Chen [X.-Y.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2007:322, Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 28 (no. 3); ref. 29409] Hongshui River drainage in Gaoling Township, Du-An county, Guangxi, China. Holotype: KIZ 2003050255. Paratypes: KIZ 2003050248-54 (7), 20030256-60 (5). •Valid as Yunnanilus longibarbatus Gan, Chen & Yang 2007 -- (Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Chen et al. 2012:62 [ref. 31907], Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Lan et al. 2013:44 [ref. 32910], Du et al. 2015:254 [ref. 34050], Zhang et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus longibarbatus Gan, Chen & Yang 2007. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hongshui River drainage, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

longibarbus, Nemachilus yarkandensis Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:78, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Niaji Oasis, Dol and Sampula, upper Tarim River, China. Syntypes: ZIN 7298 (4, lost), 7361 (3), 7375 (1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Triplophysa yarkandensis (Day 1877) -- (Wu & Wu 1992:257 [ref. 21205]). •Synonym of Hedinichthys yarkandensis (Day 1877) -- (Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:83 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa yarkandensis (Day 1877). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

longibulla, Yunnanilus Yang [J.-X.] 1990:21, Fig. 16 [The fishes of Yunnan; ref. 20984] Cheng-hai, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 818500 [KIZ 1981002383]. Paratypes: KIZ (10). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Yunnanilus longibulla Yang 1990 -- (Zhu 1995:106 [ref. 25213], Zhu et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30145], Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374], Zhang et al. 2019:357 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus longibulla Yang 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

longicauda, Cobitis Kessler [K. F.] 1872:65 [21], Pl. 11 (figs. 30-31) [Izvestiia Imperatorskago Obschchestva Liubitelei Estestvozaniia, Antropologii i Etnografii v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 14134] Ak-Darya River, Uzbekistan. Holotype (unique): ZISP 2628. Type catalog: Svetovidova 1978:262 [ref. 9011] but ZISP 2686 is not the holotype. On p. 21 of separate. Genus name misprinted Cobitls for Cobitis. •Synonym of Nemacheilus malapterurus (Valenciennes 1846), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1949:884 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, see Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348]). •Valid as Nemacheilus longicaudus (Kessler 1872) -- (Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Coad & Abdoli 2000:56 [ref. 25296]). •May be a subspecies or synonym of Nemacheilus malapterus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Paracobitis longicauda (Kessler 1872) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:443 [ref. 23187], Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604], Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391], Freyhof et al. 2014:16 [ref. 33505], Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:340 [ref. 33744], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:885 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:48 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Paracobitis longicauda (Kessler 1872). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Uzbekistan, Hari River drainage (Iran) and adjacent areas. Habitat: freshwater.

longidorsalis, Paracobitis variegatus Yang [J.-X.], Chen [Y.-R.] & Kottelat [M.] 1994:63, Figs. 2B, 3 [Zoological Research v. 15, Supplement; ref. 28152] Jiuxiang, 25°06'N, 103°24'E, Yiliang County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 874048. Paratypes: CMK 5871 (? 1 or 4 or 5); KIZ 874042-43 (2), 874045-47 (3), 874050 (1), 874198-216 (19). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Synonym of Paracobitis variegatus (Dabry de Thiersant 1874) but a valid subspecies as described -- (Chen et al. 1998:60 [ref. 23721], Min et al. 2010:202 [ref. 30726]). •Synonym of Homatula variegata (Dabry de Thiersat 1874) -- (Hu & Zhang 2010:59 [ref. 30780]). •Valid as Homatula longidorsalis (Yang, Chen & Kottelat 1994) -- (Gu & Zhang 2012:597 [ref. 31632], Min et al. 2012:80 [ref. 32392], Kottelat 2012:83 [ref. 32367], Endruweit et al. 2018:565 [ref. 35763], Li et al. 2019:347 [ref. 37175]). Current status: Valid as Homatula longidorsalis (Yang, Chen & Kottelat 1994). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanpanjiang River basin, Pearl River drainage, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

longidorsalis, Yunnanilus Li [W.-X.], Tao [J.-N.] & Lu [Z.-M.] in Li, Tao, Mao & Lu 2000:350 [Engl. p. 353], Figs. 4-6 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 26012] A'gang, ca.25°05'N, 104°08'N, Nanpan River system, Luoping County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: 9411001. Paratype:ASIZB [now NZMC] 73118 [ex 9211003]; 9204006 (1), 9506001-07 (7). Type specimens deposited in Reservoir of Heilongtan, Yunnan, and ASIZB [now NZMC]. Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:71 [ref. 33808]. •Valid as Eonemachilus longidorsalis (Li, Toa & Lu 2000) -- (Kottelat 2012:82 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Yunnanilus longidorsalis Li, Tao & Lu 2000 -- (Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Chen et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31907], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Ye et al. 2015:71 [ref. 33808], Du et al. 2015:254 [ref. 34050], Zhang et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus longidorsalis Li, Tao & Lu 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

longimanus, Cobitis Dybowski [B. N.] in Sinitzyn 1900:49 [Varshavskogo Uchebnogo Okruga; ref. 22999] Author is B. I. Dybowski. Apparently no description, not available; Onon R.; Warsaw Univ. No. 2773. •Nomina nuda in Cobitis -- (Kottelat 2012:23 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Uncertain as Cobitis longimanus Dybowski 1900. Nemacheilidae.

longipectoralis, Nemachilus Popta [C. M. L.] 1905:182 [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 25 (no. 4) (art. 15); ref. 3549] Upper Mahakam River, Kalimantan Timur, Borneo, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7641. Paralectotypes: RMNH 27350 [ex 7641] (2). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1984:239. •Valid as Nemacheilus longipectoralis Popta 1905 -- (Roberts 1989:108 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:55 [ref. 23448], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832] as longipectralis, Hadiaty & Kottelat 2009:124 [ref. 30124], Tan & Kottelat 2009:56 [ref. 30261], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010:45 [ref. 30914], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:204 [ref. 31485], Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus longipectoralis Popta 1905. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Sabah and Kalimantan Timur, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

longipectoralis, Protonemacheilus Yang [J.-X.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1990:110 (English p. 114), Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 16187] Luxi County, Yunnan Province, China, 24°30'N, 98°37'E. Holotype: KIZ 8310110. Paratypes: KIZ 8310106 (1), 8310108 (1), 8310189 (1), 8310111 (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939] with deletions. Genus misspelled once as Protenemacheilus. •Valid as Protonemacheilus longipectoralis Yang & Chu 1990 -- (Zhu 1995:105 [ref. 25213], Kottelat et al. 2012:103 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:203 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Protonemacheilus longipectoralis Yang & Chu 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

longipectoralis, Triplophysa Zheng [L.-P.], Du [L.-N.], Chen [X.-Y.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2009:[1], Figs. 1-2 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 85 (no. 3); ref. 30217] Cave in Xunle town, Liujiang River basin, Huanjiang County, Hechi City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomos Region, China. Holotype: KIZ 2001004573. Paratypes: (5) ASIZB [now NZMC] 177636 [ex 2001004577] (1) out of KIZ 2001004574-76 (3), 2001004578-79 (2), but 177636 may not be a paratype. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939], Ye et al. 2015:69 [ref. 33808]. In an electronic publication. •Valid as Triplophysa longipectoralis Zheng, Du, Chen & Yang 2009 -- (Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2012:170 [ref. 31483], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193], Ren et al. 2012:191 [ref. 32330], Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367], Lan et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32910], Ye et al. 2015:69 [ref. 33808], Zhang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34477], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:843 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa longipectoralis Zheng, Du, Chen & Yang 2009. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Liujiang River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

longipinnis, Acanthocobitis Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1861:712 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1861; ref. 3451] Ganges River, India. Holotype: ZMB 4795. •Synonym of Nemacheilus botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1987:141 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:180 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (authors). •Status uncertain -- (Kottelat 2012:51 [ref. 31992], Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:198 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Acanthocobitis pavonacea (McClelland 1839) -- (Grant 2007:3 [ref. 29366], Singer & Page 2015:380 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthocobitis pavonacea (McClelland 1839). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

longipinnis, Ilamnemacheilus Coad [B. W.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 2005:304, Figs. 1, 3 [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 48; ref. 28672] Meymeh River (formerly tributary of Tigris River), Tigris-Euphrates drainage, 17 kilometers west of Dehloran City, about 21 kilometers east of Iraqi border, 32°45'30"N, 47°05'30"E, Iran. Holotype (unique): CMNFI 1979-0366 (ex NMC 79-966). •Valid as Ilamnemacheilus longipinnis Coad & Nalbant 2005 -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:201 [ref. 31693], Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391], Kottelat 2012:85 [ref. 32367], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:882 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus longipinnis (Coad & Nalbant 2005) -- (Freyhof et al. 2016:76 [ref. 34414], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2016:105 [ref. 34789], Freyhof 2016:100 [ref. 34815], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34976], Freyhof & Abdullah 2017:87 [ref. 35169], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:379 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:552 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2017:[3] 230 [ref. 36413], Esmaeili et al. 2018:46 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus longipinnis (Coad & Nalbant 2005). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Meymeh River drainage, Tigris River basin, Ilam and Khuzestan provinces, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

longipinnis, Nemachilus Ahl [E.] 1922:31 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1922 (no. 1-2); ref. 15335] Central Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMB 20547. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:91 [ref. 21847]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Potentially a junior secondary homonym of Acanthobitis longipinnis Peters 1861 if treated in Nemacheilus. See Kottelat (2013) for localitu data. •Valid as Nemacheilus longipinnis Ahl 1922 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:55 [ref. 23448], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:186 [ref. 25685], Tan & Kottelat 2009:52 [ref. 30261], Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus longipinnis Ahl 1922. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

longistriatus, Nemacheilus Kottelat [M.] 1990:51, Figs. 26-27 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Mekong River mainstream between Chiang Khan, 17°50'N, 101°45'E, to 70 kilometers downstream by road, Loei Province, Thailand. Holotype: CAS 62547. Paratypes: CAS 62548 (4), CMK 5402 (4), USNM 295768 (1). •Valid as Nemacheilus longistriatus Kottelat 1990 -- (Rainboth 1996:127 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 1998:69 [ref. 23436], Freyhof & Serov 2001:137 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:100 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus longistriatus Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mekong basin, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

longliensis, Triplophysa Ren [Q.], Yang [J.-X.] & Chen [X.-Y.] 2012:188, Fig. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 3586; ref. 32330] Yudonghe River (26°14′53.87″N, 106°52′59.51″E), a tributary of Hongshuihe River (upper reach of Pearl River), at Baisheng Village, Longli County, Guizhou Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 2010002988. Paratypes: KIZ 2010002987 and 2010002989 (2), 20100084-87 (4). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Triplophysa longliensis Ren, Yang & Chen 2012 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34477], Li et al. 2018:62 [ref. 36072], Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa longliensis Ren, Yang & Chen 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pearl River basin, Guizhou Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

longus, Nemachilus Zhu [S.-Q.] 1982:105 [110], Fig. 2 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 8388] Tributary of the Nujiang River, Lushui County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NPIB 785032. Paratypes: NPIB uncat. (8). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. English description on p. 110. •Valid as Schistura longa (Zhu 1982) -- (Zhu 1989:51 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:111 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:56 [ref. 23556], Vishwanath & Nebeshwar 2004:328 [ref. 28011], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:176 [ref. 31357], Zheng et al. 2012:63 [ref. 32070], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2016:599 [ref. 34743], Endruweit 2017:399 [ref. 35191]). Current status: Valid as Schistura longa (Zhu 1982). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nujiang River basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

lucidorsum, Pteronemacheilus Bohlen [J.] & Šlechtová [V.] 2011:6, Figs. 4-6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 31362] Stream Nam Paw west of Hsipaw city, 22°37'37"N, 97°17'19"E, Shan State, Myanmar. Holotype: ZRC 52039. Paratypes: CMK 21900 (6), IAPG A3911-3915 (5), ZRC 52040 (26). Plus one specimen photographed (Fig. 4) but not preserved. •Valid as Pteronemacheilus lucidorsum Bohlen & Slechtová 2011 -- (Suvarnaraksha 2012:135 [ref. 32327], Kottelat et al. 2012:103 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:203 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Pteronemacheilus lucidorsum Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Paw stream at Hsipaw, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

lunanensis, Nemacheilus Li [S.] & Xia [?] 1987 Still researching. •Valid as Nemacheilus lunanensis Li & Xia 1987. Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus lunanensis Li & Xia 1987. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

luochengensis, Oreonectes Yang [J.], Wu [T.-J.], Wei [R.-F.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2011:209, Figs. 1-2 [Zoological Research v. 32 (no. 2); ref. 31282] Cave, approximately 2 km from Tianhe Town, Luocheng, Guangxi Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 2010003073. Paratypes: KIZ 2010003074-77 (4), 08090054-55 (2), 08090064 (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Oreonectes luochengensis Yang, Wu, Wei & Yang 2011 -- (Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Tang et al. 2012:489 [ref. 31595], Lan et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34477], Deng et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34511], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Huang et al. 2019:118 [ref. 37137]). Current status: Valid as Oreonectes luochengensis Yang, Wu, Wei & Yang 2011. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave system in Luocheng, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

luochengensis, Triplophysa Li [J.], Lan [J.-H.], Chen [X. Y.] & Du [L.-N.] 2017:2, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 91 (no. 4); ref. 35551] Jicheng Village, Luocheng County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, 24°47'55.65"N, 108°44'40.27"E, elevation 232 meters. Holotype: KIZ 2014005967. Paratypes: KIZ, PRFRI. •Valid as Triplophysa luochengensis Li, Lan, Chen & Du 2017 -- (Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa luochengensis Li, Lan, Chen & Du 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hongshui River drainage, Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

macedonicus, Orthrias brandti Sorić [V. M.] 1999:83, Fig. 1 [Ichthyologia v. 31 (no. 1); ref. 28225] Doŝnica Brook, near Demir Kapija, Vardar River System, Republic of Macedonia. Holotype (unique): BIK uncat. •Synonym of Barbatula bureschi (Drensky 1928) -- (Economidis 2005:67 [ref. 28213]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus bureschi (Drensky 1928) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:306 [ref. 31752] as bureschii, Kottelat 2012:95 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus bureschi (Drensky 1928). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

machensis, Noemacheilus horai Mirza [M. R.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Mirza, Bănărescu & Nalbant 1970:54, Figs. 7-9 [Biologia (Lahore) v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 7761] Mach River, tributary of Bolan River, Pakistan. Holotype: IBTS 1538. Paratypes: IBTS 1943 (4), ISBB 3452 (1), Mirza coll. (5), Banarescu coll. (5), ZMA 114461 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:31 [ref. 19236], Menon 1987:68 [ref. 14149]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus baluchiorum Zugmayer 1912 -- (Menon 1987:65 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:471 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Schistura balachiorum (Zugmayer 1912) but at least subspecifically distinct -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Schistura machensis (Mirza & Nalbant 1970) -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:118 [ref. 23810], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:15 [ref. 27265], Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura machensis (Mirza & Nalbant 1970). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

mackenziei, Nemachilus Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1910:183 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 5 (pt 3); ref. 14433] Northern India (several localities). Syntypes: (11) ZSI F2017/1 (1), 4170-4171 (2), 4172/1-4173/1 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:123 [ref. 20743], Menon 1987:144 [ref. 14149]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1987:141 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:472 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:181 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:28 [ref. 14137]). •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:198 [ref. 32989], Grant 2008:14 [ref. 33826] but as a subgenus Paracanthocobitis). •Valid as Paracanthocobitis mackenziei (Chaudhuri 1910) -- (Singer & Page 2015:390 [ref. 33823], Bleher 2018:192 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis mackenziei (Chaudhuri 1910). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Northern India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

macmahoni, Nemachilus Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1910:341 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 14432] Affluents of Helmand River, Iran. Holotype: ZSI F1221/1 [or 1222/1]. Possible types: ZIN 24413 [ex ZSI](1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:120 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus malapterurus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Berg 1949:883 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1981:15 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus, Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608] with question). •Questionably a synonym of Nemacheilus rhadinaeus Regan 1906 -- (Coad 1995:23 [ref. 23608]). •Synonym of Paracobitis rhadinaeus (Regan 1906) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:443 [ref. 23187], Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604] with question, Kottelat 2012:100 [ref. 32367], Freyhof et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33505], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:886 [ref. 34062]). •Synonym of Paracobitis rhadinaea (Regan 1906). Current status: Synonym of Paracobitis rhadinaea (Regan 1906). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrocephala, Triplophysa Yang [Y.], Wu [T.-J.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2012:170, Figs. 1-3 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 31483] Renguang village, 25°10'15"N, 107°43'50"E, Lihu Town, Nandan County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Holotype: KIZ 2010003078. Paratypes: GIF 04100629 (1), 04100630 (1), 04100632 (1); KIZ 20010003079 (1), 2010003080 (1), 2010003081 (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:353 [ref. 32939]. Appeared first electronically in 2011, dates to 2012. •Valid as Triplophysa macrocephala Yang, Wu & Yang 2012 -- (Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820] dated 2012, Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193] with authorship Yang & Wu, Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367], Lan et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32910], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34477], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:844 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa macrocephala Yang, Wu & Yang 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Karst cave in Renguang village, Hongshuihe River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

macrocephalus, Schistura Vishwanath [W.] & Shanta [K.] 2004:138, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 101 (pt 1); ref. 27862] Khuga River, Churachandpur District, Manipur, India. Holotype: MUMF 5013. Paratypes: MUMF 5001-5008 (8), 5009-5014 (6). Preoccupied by Schistura macrocephalus Kottelat 2000; replaced by Schistura khugae Vishwanath & Shanta 2004. •Objective synonym of Schistura khugae Vishwanath & Shanta 2004 -- (Kottelat 2012:111 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura khugae Vishwanath & Shanta 2004. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrocephalus, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:65, Fig. 45 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Youan at ford south of Ban Muang Mon, 21°19'28"N, 101°10'19"E, Louangnamtha Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45355. Paratypes: CMK 14339 (11), LARRI uncat. (3), NRM 33217 (12), ZRC 45356 (3). •Valid as Schistura macrocephalus Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:111 [ref. 25780], Endruweit 2011:573 [ref. 31621], Kottelat 2012:112 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2016:599 [ref. 34743]). Current status: Valid as Schistura macrocephalus Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China and Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

macrogaster, Yunnanilus Kottelat [M.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1988:81, Fig. 17 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 23 (nos 1-2); ref. 13392] Tatantze [Datangzi], 24°52'N, 104°18'E, Luoping County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 806062 [KIZ 1980004273]. Paratypes: KIZ. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Yunnanilus macrogaster Kottelat & Chu 1988 -- (Zhu 1995:106 [ref. 25213], Zhu et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30145], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Zhang et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus macrogaster Kottelat & Chu 1988. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Oreonectes Huang [A.-M.], Du [L.-N.], Chen [X.-Y.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2009:446, Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 30 (no. 4); ref. 30323] Pearl River drainage, Maonan County, Huanjiang City, Guangxi, China. Holotype: KIZ 2008008131. Paratypes: KIZ 2008007294-7300 (7), 2008008130 (1), 2008008132 (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936] state as holotype CLJH 91065. •Valid as Oreonectes macrolepis Huang, Du, Chen & Yang 2009 -- (Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31282], Tang et al. 2012:489 [ref. 31595], Kottelat 2012:346 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:347 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:94 [ref. 32367] with genus in question, Ma & Zhao 2012:110 [ref. 34891] with authors as Huang, Chen & Yang, Lan et al. 2013:64 [ref. 32910], Lan et al. 2013:253 [ref. 32910], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Liu et al. 2019:404 [ref. 36573]). •Valid as Troglonectes macrolepis (Huang, Du, Chen & Yang 2009) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Troglonectes macrolepis (Huang, Du, Chen & Yang 2009). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Liujiang River system, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Schistura Mirza [M. R.] & Bănărescu [P. M.] in Mirza, Nalbant & Bănărescu 1981:116, Figs. 27-31 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 5390] Racki Munh, Dere Ghazi Khan District, Pakistan. Holotype: ISBB 3778. Paratypes: ISBB 3867 (1), ZMA 116444 (1), Mirza priv. coll. (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:36 [ref. 19236] as macrolepsis. •Synonym of Nemacheilus arifi (Mirza & Bănărescu 1981) -- (Menon 1987:68 [ref. 14149] but as Noemacheilus arafi, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:470 [ref. 20764] as arafi). •Synonym of Schistura arafi Mirza & Bănărescu 1981, but may be a valid subspecies -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Schistura macrolepis Mirza & Bănărescu 1981 -- (Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:15 [ref. 27265], Kottelat 2012:112 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura macrolepis Mirza & Bănărescu 1981. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Yunnanilus Li [W.-X.], Tao [J.-N.] & Mao [W.-N.] in Li, Tao, Mao & Lu 2000:349 [Engl. p. 353], Figs. 1-3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 26012] Exit of subterranean stream, Xuetian village, 24°53N, 104°18'E, Nanpan River system, Luoping County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: 9307001. Paratypes: ASIZB [now NZMC] 73117 [ex 93070003]; 9307002 (1), 9509001-06 (6). Type specimens deposited in Reservoir of Heilongtan, Yunnan, and ASIZB [now NZMC]. Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:72 [ref. 33808]. •Synonym of Yunnanilus paludosus Kottelat & Chu 1988 -- (Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Ye et al. 2015:72 [ref. 33808]). •Valid as Yunnanilus macrolepis Li, Tao & Mao 2000 -- (Zhu et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30145], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Zhang et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:138 [ref. 36374]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus macrolepis Li, Tao & Mao 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

macromaculata, Triplophysa Yang [J.-X.] in Wu 1990:58, Fig. 53 [The fishes of Yunnan; ref. 20984] Yiliang, Yunnan Province, Nanpan River basin, China. Holotype: KIZ 874021. Paratypes: KIZ 874022 (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:353 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Triplophysa macromaculata Yang 1990 -- (Lan et al. 1995:369 [ref. 23184], Zhu 1995:117 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2001:195 [ref. 26613], Li et al. 2008:677 [ref. 29925], Chen et al. 2009:86 [ref. 30169], Zheng 2009:[5] [ref. 30217] as macromaculatus, Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193], Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa macromaculata Yang 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanpan River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalma, Triplophysa Zhu [S.-Q.] & Guo [Q.-Z.] 1985:323 [325], Fig. 2 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 6100] Goujie, Nanpanjiang River drainage, 27°30'N, 104°E, Yiliang County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NIGLAS 810019. Paratypes: NIGLAS (3). English description on p. 325. •Valid as Triplophysa macrophthalma Zhu & Guo 1985 -- (Zhu 1989:128 [ref. 17744], Yang & Chen 1995:27 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:119 [ref. 25213], He et al. 2008:47 [ref. 29558], Chen et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30169], Zheng 2009:[5] [ref. 30217], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Guizhou Province, China, Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa macrophthalma Zhu & Guo 1985. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanpan River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

macropterus, Nemachilus yarkandensis Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:79 [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Ssa tschsheu, Mumin Stadt. Syntypes: ZIN 7260 (6+), 7844-47 (6+, 5, 6, 1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Triplophysa yarkandensis (Day 1877) -- (Wu & Wu 1992:257 [ref. 21205]). •Synonym of Triplophysa yarkandensis (Day 1877), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Zhu 1989:131 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:120 [ref. 25213], Zhang et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Hedinichthys macropterus (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096] but probably a subspecies of yarkandensis). •Valid as Hedinichthys macropterus (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Kottelat 2012:82 [ref. 32367]), Current status: Valid as Hedinichthys macropterus (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Khesi basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

macrositanus, Yunnanilus Li [W.-X.] in Li, Wu, Xu, Gao, Chen, Wu & Wang 1999:4 [English p. 6], Fig. 1 [Sichuan Journal of Zoology v. 18 (no. 1); ref. 23880] Heilongtan, 24°45'42"N, 103°15'29"E, Lunan, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: HRAS 6502041. Paratypes: HRAS 6502042 (1). Spelled macrositanus, macroistanus and macroistanus; Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367] selected macrositanus. •Valid as Yunnanilus macrositanus Li 1999 -- (Zhu et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30145] as macroistainus, An et al. 2009:6367 [ref. 30709] as macroistainus, Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34477] as macroistanus, Du et al. 2018:138 [ref. 36374]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus macrositanus Li 1999. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

macrotaenia, Nemacheilus Yang [J.-X.] in Wu 1990:36, Fig. 30 [The fishes of Yunnan; ref. 20984] Nan-Qi River, Ping-Bian Xian, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 8540217. Paratypes: KIZ 8540219 (1), 8540226-34 (9). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Schistura macrotaenia (Yang 1990) -- (Zhu 1995:110 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2012:112 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:153 [ref. 33205], Zhang et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Schistura macrotaenia (Yang 1990). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

maculiceps, Nemacheilus Roberts [T. R.] 1989:108, Fig. 83 [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences No. 14; ref. 6439] Rocky channel in mainstream of Sungai Pinoh, 37 kilometers south of Nanga Pinoh, Borneo, West Kalimantan (Kalimantan Barat), Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 3543. Paratypes: BMNH 1982.3.29.135 (1); CAS 49356-57 (2, 3); MZB 3544-45 (1, 1); RMNH 28878 (1); USNM 230269 (3). •Valid as Schistura maculiceps (Roberts 1989) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:57 [ref. 23448], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:436, 438 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2010:319 [ref. 30687], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010:45 [ref. 30914], Kottelat 2012:112 [ref. 32367] as 'Schistura', Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:88, 92 [ref. 32798], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989] as 'Schistura', Plongsesthee et al. 2013:171 [ref. 33012]). Current status: Valid as Schistura maculiceps (Roberts 1989). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: West Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

maculosa, Schistura Lalronunga [S.], Lalnuntluanga [no initials] & Lalramliana [no initials] 2013:584, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 3718 (no. 6); ref. 32927] Mizoram, Pharsih River, a tributary of Tuivai River (Barak drainage) in the vicinity of Kawlbem, Champhai District, 23°51'58"N, 93°17'20"E, India. Holotype: ZSI FF 4973. Paratypes: MZUBM/F.130021-130023 (3); PUCMF 13011 (4), 13012 (2); ZSI FF 4974 (3). •Valid as Schistura maculosa Lalronunga, Lalnuntluanga & Lalramliana 2013 -- (Solo et al. 2014:258 [ref. 33517]). •Possibly valid as Rhyacoschistura maculosa (Lalronunga, Lalnuntluanga & Lalramliana 2013) -- (Kottelat 2019:168 [ref. 36743]). Current status: Valid as Schistura maculosa Lalronunga, Lalnuntluanga & Lalramliana 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pharsih River and Tuivai Rivers, Mizoram, India. Habitat: freshwater.

madhavai, Schistura Sudasinghe [H.] 2017:98, Figs. 1, 2, 3A, 4A, 5 [Zootaxa 4311 (no. 1); ref. 35539] Walawe River basin, Suriyakanda, Sri Lanka, 6°27'02"N, 80°37'01"E, elevation 1000 meters. Holotype: NMSL 2017.02.01. Paratypes: DZ, NMSL. •Valid as Schistura madhavai Sudasinghe 2017 -- (Sudasinghe 2018:491 [ref. 35942]). Current status: Valid as Schistura madhavai Sudasinghe 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Walawe River basin and Morningside Forest Reserve, Suriyakanda, Sri Lanka. Habitat: freshwater.

maejotigrina, Schistura Suvarnaraksha [A.] 2012:132, Fig. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 3586; ref. 32327] Mae Abb, 18°17'55.2''N, 98°10'29.9''E, tributary of Ping River, Maechaem River system, northern Chao Phraya River basin, Maechaem District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, elevation 822 meters. Holotype: MARNM 002435. Paratypes: MARNM 002436 (39), NIFI 04551 (5), UF 183767 (5). •Valid as Schistura maejotigrina Suvarnaraksha 2012 -- (Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Suvarnaraksha 2015:168 [ref. 33813]). •Probably valid as Rhyacoschistura maejotigrina (Suvarnaraksha 2012) -- (Kottelat 2019:168 [ref. 36743]). Current status: Valid as Rhyacoschistura maejotigrina (Suvarnaraksha 2012). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

maekhlongensis, Paracanthocobitis Singer [R. A.] & Page [L. M.] 2015:392, Figs. 6, 16 [Copeia v. 103 (no 2); ref. 33823] Kanchanaburi Province, Thong Pha Phum, Ban Rai, NW Huai Khayeng, close to SW side of reservoir, off road 327, Thailand, 14°41'25"N, 98°31'16"E. Holotype: NIFI 4853. Paratypes: UF, UMMZ. •Valid as Paracanthocobitis maekhlongensis Singer & Page 2015. Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis maekhlongensis Singer & Page 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mae Khlong River basin, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

maepaiensis, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:143, Figs. 105-106 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Nam Mae Cha at Ban Pha Bong, 19°12'N, 97°59'E, 12 kilometers south of Mae Hong son, Mae Hong Son Province, Salween basin, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27479 [now ZRC 38476] [ex NIFI 2064]. Paratypes: CMK 4050 (4), 4243 (3), 4381 (6), 5848 (1); NIFI 852 (1), 866 (5), 870 (2), 873 (1), 880 (1), 1449 (1); USNM 288472 (6). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:241 [ref. 31652]. Holotype now at ZRC. •Valid as Schistura maepaiensis Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:176 [ref. 31357], Kottelat 2012:112 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2014:222 [ref. 33238]). •Valid as Mustura maepaiensis (Kottelat 1990) -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Mustura maepaiensis (Kottelat 1990). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

magnifluvis, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:146, Figs. 107-108 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Mekong River main stream between Chiang Khan, 17°50'N, 101°45'E, to 70 kilometers downstream by road, Loei Province, Thailand. Holotype: CAS 62549. Paratypes: CAS 62550 (1), CMK 5401 (2). •Valid as Schistura magnifluvis Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Rainboth 1996:130 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Freyhof & Serov 2001:152 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:111 [ref. 25780], Ou et al. 2011:193 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:112 [ref. 32367], Suvarnaraksha 2015:168 [ref. 33813], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502]). Current status: Valid as Schistura magnifluvis Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mekong River, Cambodia and Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

mahnerti, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:151, Figs. 110-112 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] 20 kilometers north of Mae Sariang, Mae Hong Son Province, Salween basin, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27478 [now ZRC 38477] [ex NIFI]. Paratypes: CMK 4377 (4), 4385-86 (3, 2); NIFI 851 (5), 855 (1), 858 (4), 860 to 862 (5, 2, 1), 864 -865 (15, 8), 868 (13), 875-876 (2, 8), 879 (5), 885-886 (30, 10), 1442-43 (6, 4); USNM 288462 (6). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:241 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Schistura mahnerti Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003:172 [ref. 26859], Vidthayanon 2003:309 [ref. 27398], Vishwanath & Nebeshwar 2004:328 [ref. 28011], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2010:324 [ref. 30687], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:174 [ref. 31357], Kangrang et al. 2012:76 [ref. 32324], Page et al. 2012:327 [ref. 32342], Singer & Page 2012:351 [ref. 32390], Kottelat 2012:112 [ref. 32367], Ng & Pethiyagoda 2013:161 [ref. 33011], Plongsesthee et al. 2013:171 [ref. 33012], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2014:222 [ref. 33238]). Current status: Valid as Schistura mahnerti Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

makranensis, Paraschistura Eagderi [S.], Mousavi-Sabet [H.] & Freyhof [J.] 2019:261, Figs. 2-8 [Zootaxa 4668 (no. 2); ref. 36967] Jegin River at Jegin, Hormuzgan province, Iran, 26°09'43.1"N, 57°53'30.0"E. Holotype: IMNRF-UT-1093-16. Paratypes: FSJF, IMNRF-UT, VMFC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Paraschistura makranensis Eagderi, Mousavi-Sabet & Freyhof 2019. Current status: Valid as Paraschistura makranensis Eagderi, Mousavi-Sabet & Freyhof 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Jegin River drainage, Hormuzgan province, Iran Habitat: freshwater.

malaisei, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:154, Fig. 113 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Putao, Myanmar. Holotype: NRM 25083. Paratypes: NRM 24083 (3). Plus other material. •Valid as Schistura malaisei Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:175 [ref. 31357], Ou et al. 2011:197 [ref. 31692], Chen and Neely 2012:226 [ref. 32332], Kottelat 2012:112 [ref. 32367], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:358 [ref. 33494], Suvarnaraksha 2015:168 [ref. 33813], Zhang et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34477] as malaise). Current status: Valid as Schistura malaisei Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myanmar and China. Habitat: freshwater.

malapterura, Cobitis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:88, Pl. 523 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] "Sent from Syria" [Iran]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3962 (1), B-3070 [ex MNHN 0000-3962] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:96 [ref. 19574]. The genus Paracobitis is feminine, so the correct species spelling is probably malapterura. Discussion of type locality (Iran) and restricted distribution see Freyhof et al. 2014:17 [ref. 33505]. •Valid as Nemacheilus malapterurus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Berg 1949:883 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus, Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:22 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869]). •Synonym of Paracobitis longicauda (Kessler 1872) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:443 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Paracobitis malapterura (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:443 [ref. 23187], Fricke et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29533], Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604], Coad 2010:209 [ref. 36620], Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391], Freyhof et al. 2012:306 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:100 [ref. 32367], Freyhof et al. 2014:16 [ref. 33505], Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:340 [ref. 33744], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:885 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:48 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Paracobitis malapterura (Valenciennes 1846). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lake Namak basin and eastern Kavir basin, Iran; Iraq. Habitat: freshwater.

mandalayensis, Nemacheilus rubidpinnis Rendahl [H.] 1948:21 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 40 A (no. 7); ref. 19694] Mandalay, Myanmar. Holotype: NRM 13179. Paratypes: NRM 10744-45 (1, 2). •Synonym of Nemacheilus rubidipinnis (Blyth 1860) -- (Menon 1987:152 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:499 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:29 [ref. 14137]). •Valid as Acanthocobitis mandalayensis (Rendahl 1948) -- (Kottelat 2012:45 [ref. 31992], Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Paracanthocobitis mandalayensis (Rendahl 1948) -- (Singer & Page 2015:392 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis mandalayensis (Rendahl 1948). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myanmar and Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

manipurensis, Nemachilus Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1912:443, Pls. 40 (4, 4a-b), 41 (1, 1a-b) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 7 (pt 5); ref. 14837] Chindwin basins of Nagaland and Assam, India. Syntypes: ZSI (3). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus manipurensis Chaudhuri 1912 -- (Menon 1987:121 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:488 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:174 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura manipurensis (Chaudhuri 1912) -- (Kottelat 1990:156 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:442 [ref. 23187], Vishwanath & Laisram 2001:207 [ref. 25886], Vishwanath & Shanta Kumar 2006:210 [ref. 28652], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011:1514 [ref. 31183], Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:4 [ref. 32463], Lokeshwor et al. 2013:587 [ref. 32764], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:55 [ref. 32801], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971], Kottelat 2013:208 [ref. 32989], Khynrian & Sen 2014:18 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33318], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[6] [ref. 33603]). •Possibly valid as Rhyacoschistura manipurensis (Chaudhuri 1912) -- (Kottelat 2019:168 [ref. 36743]). Current status: Valid as Schistura manipurensis (Chaudhuri 1912). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

maolanensis, Paracobitis Li [W.-X.], Ran [J.-C.] & Chen [H.-M.] 2006:2, Fig. 1 [Journal of Zhanjiang Ocean University v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 29056] Cave Maolan in Libo County, 25°25'04"N, 107°52'E [25°23'N, 108°04'E], Guizhou Province, China. Holotype (unique): HRS 050103001. •Valid as Paracobitis maolanensis Li, Ran & Chen 2006 -- (Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Gan 2013:252 [ref. 32910]). •Mention -- (Hu & Zhang 2010:56 [ref. 30780]). •Tentatively in Triplophysa -- (Yang et al. 2011:570 [ref. 31447]). •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa longibarbata (Chen, Yang, Sket & Aljancic 1998) -- (Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Homatula maolanensis (Li, Ran & Chen 2006) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:128 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Triplophysa maolanensis (Li, Ran & Chen 2006) -- (Liu et al. 2017:843 [ref. 35125], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971]) Current status: Valid as Triplophysa maolanensis (Li, Ran & Chen 2006). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Pearl River basin, Guizhou Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

marang, Nemacheilus Hadiaty [R. K.] & Kottelat [M.] 2010:41, Figs. 2-4 [Zootaxa No. 2557; ref. 30914] Tepian village, Sungai Marang, 1°42.47'N, 117°45.55'E, Bengalon drainage, Kabupaten Kutai Timur, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 13301. Paratypes: ANSP 187007 (1); BMNH 2006.3.20.2 (2);CMK 18809 (2), 20314 (2); MZB 13321 (4); UF 165708 (2); USNM 388745 (2); ZRC 50729 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Nemacheilus marang Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010 -- (Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus marang Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Marang and Jelai rivers, Jelai drainage (into the Sungai Bengalon), East Kalimantan. Habitat: freshwater.

markakulensis, Nemacheilus barbatulus Menshikov [M. I.] 1939:141, Fig. [Ucenye zapiski / Permskij Ordena Trudovogo Krasnogo Znameni Gosudarstvennyj Universitet Imeni A. M. Gor'kogo, Ministerstvo Vyssego i Srednego Special'nogo Obrazovanija RSFSR. v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 21170] Lake Marka-kul', Irtysh basin, Kazakhstan. Syntypes: ZIN 26864 (6). Author also seen as Men'shikov. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:872 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Kottelat 2006:53 [ref. 28831]). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Prokofiev 2007:17 [ref. 30343]). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (authors). •Valid as Barbatula markakulensis (Menshikov 1939) -- (Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367] with question, Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065], Prokofiev 2016:396 [ref. 34693] as makakulensis, Prokofiev 2018:273 [ref. 35878]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula markakulensis (Menshikov 1939). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Markakul Lake, Kazakhstan. Habitat: freshwater.

markehenensis, Nemachilus pseudoscleropterus Zhu [S.-Q.] & Wu [Y.-F.] 1981:223 [English p. 224], Fig. 4 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 8523] Marke He (Baiyu, jigzhi Xian), Qinghai Province, China. Holotype: NPIB 71005. Paratypes: NPIB 71001 (1), 71003-04 (1, 1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa markehenensis (Zhu & Wu 1981) -- (Zhu 1989:91 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:166 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:76 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:115 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:72 [ref. 23556], Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367], Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966], Zhang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa markehenensis (Zhu & Wu 1981). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

marmorata, Cobitis Heckel [J. J.] 1838:76, Pl. 12 (figs. 1-2) [Fische aus Caschmir; ref. 2063] Kashmir lakes. Syntypes: NMW 48561 (3). •Valid as Triplophysa marmorata (Heckel 1838) -- (Menon 1987:208 [ref. 14149], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:512 [ref. 20764], Kullander et al. 1999:139 [ref. 23689], Menon 1999:190 [ref. 24904], Mirza 2003:16 [ref. 27265], Prokofiev 2010:908 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367], Bashir et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34447], Usharamalakshmi et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36315]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa marmorata (Heckel 1838). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan and Kashmir. Habitat: freshwater.

marmorata, Paracanthocobitis Singer [R. A.], Pfeiffer [J. M.] & Page [L. M.] 2017:103, Fig. 11 [Zootaxa 4324 (no. 1); ref. 35606] Barak drainage, Assam, India, 24.799N, 93.782E. Holotype: ZMA 119972. Paratypes: UF, ZMA. •Valid as Paracanthocobitis marmorata Singer, Pfeiffer & Page 2017 -- (Arunkumar & Moyon 2019:107 [ref. 36799]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis marmorata Singer, Pfeiffer & Page 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Barak River drainage, Assam, India. Habitat: freshwater.

masyae, Nemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1933:58, Fig. 3; Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Siam Society, Natural History Supplement v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 4051] Ban Ta Yai, Tadi stream, Nakhon Sritamarat, Peninsular Thailand. Holotype: KUMF 714. Paratypes: USNM 109720 (2). Originally as masyae; named for a man. The spelling masyae is acceptable; early workers almost certainly Latinized the name first, and then added an 'e' (Art. 31.1.1) [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012] -- we now suggest using masyae. •Valid as Nemacheilus masyae Smith 1933 -- (Kottelat 1990:55 [ref. 14137], Rainboth 1996:128 [ref. 22772], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:435 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Ng & Tan 1999:356 [ref. 24159], Freyhof & Serov 2001:137 [ref. 25364], Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:186 [ref. 25685], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:204 [ref. 31485], Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989], Page et al. 2020:401 [ref. 37540]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus masyae Smith 1933. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mae Klong, Chao Phraya and Mekong River basins, and coastal streams of peninsular Thailand and Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

mediterraneus, Barbatula Erk'akan [F.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Özeren [S. C.] 2007:74, Fig. 5 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 29026] Eğirdir, Çandir, Aksu Stream, 37°38'N, 30°31'E, Turkey. Holotype: HUIC AAKD-2a. HUIC AKD-2a (7), AKD-3 (27). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus mediterraneus (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Erk'akan 2012:97 [ref. 32281], Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus mediterraneus (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Eğirdir Gölü tributary, Burdur Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

megalodon, Schistura Endruweit [M.] 2014:354, Figs. 1-6 [Zoological Research v. 35 (no. 5); ref. 33494] Erganyahe River, Irrawaddy basin, close to Erganya village, Yunnan, China, 24°36'N, 97°36'E, elevation 1323 meters. Holotype: KIZ 2014001456. Paratypes: KIZ 2014001457 (3), 2014001458 (1). •Valid as Schistura megalodon Endruweit 2014. Current status: Valid as Schistura megalodon Endruweit 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Erganyahe River, Irrawaddy basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

megastoma, Sectoria Kottelat [M.] 2000:74, Fig. 64 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Market in Mengla, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NRM 33232. Paratypes: CMK 14340 (7); LARRI uncat. (2); NRM 33213 (6), 33215 (5), 44921 (14). •Synonym of Sectoria heterognathos (Chen 1999) -- (Kottelat 2001:119 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:120 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sectoria heterognathos (Chen 1999). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

melarancia, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:65, Fig. 46 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Kouat near Ban Nam Kouat, a tributary of Nam Nga, 20°34'35"N, 102°07'56"E, Oudomxai Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45357. Paratypes: CMK 14024 (5), 14115 (11), 14202 (8); LARRI uncat. (3); NRM 44896 (3); ZRC 45358 (3). •Valid as Schistura melarancia Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:111 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25 [ref. 32804], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura melarancia Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

menanensis, Noemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1945:310, Fig. 65 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 188; ref. 4056] Menam Kon, tributary of Menam Nan, northern Thailand. Holotype: USNM 117753. Paratypes: IBTS [ex USNM] (2), USNM 117752 (orig. 32, now 30, 2 c&s). Type catalog: Vilasri et al. 2018:58 [ref. 36451] Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Species is spelled menanensis in two places, and is regarded as the intended spelling. •Valid as Schistura menanensis (Smith 1945) -- (Kottelat 1990:158 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187] as menamensis, Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989], Suvarnaraksha 2015:168 [ref. 33813], Vilasri et al. 2018:58 [ref. 36451]). Current status: Valid as Schistura menanensis (Smith 1945). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

mengdingensis, Neonoemacheilus Zhu [S.-Q.] & Guo [Z.-Z.] in Zhu 1989:67 (English p. 135), Fig. 46 [The loaches of the subfamily Nemacheilinae in China (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).; ref. 17744] Nanding River, near Mending, Gengmaxian County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 806206. Paratypes: KIZ 806207-11 (5). Spelled mendingensis in English summary on p. 135. •Valid as Neonoemacheilus mengdingensis Zhu & Guo 1989 -- (Zhu 1989:67 [ref. 17744], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:436 [ref. 23187], Zhu 1995:112 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2012:93 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Neonoemacheilus mengdingensis Zhu & Guo 1989. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

menoni, Noemacheilus Zacharias [V. J.] & Minimol [K. C.] 1999:288, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 96 (pt 2); ref. 24212] Periyar River, Malappara, Kerala, India. Holotype: ZSI Calicut V/F/1018. Paratypes: ZSI Calicut V/F/1019 (4); ZSI Madras F.5255 (1). Original genus should have been Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus menoni Zacharias & Minimol 1999 -- (Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005:77 [ref. 28530] as menonii, Bleher 2018:170 [ref. 36647]). •Valid as Mesonoemacheilus menoni (Zacharias & Minimol 1999) -- (Rema Devi & Indra 2002:334 [ref. 26591], Kottelat 2012:88 [ref. 32367] with question, Anoop et al. 2017:124 [ref. 35652]). Current status: Valid as Mesonoemacheilus menoni (Zacharias & Minimol 1999). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Periyar River system, Western Ghats, southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

merga, Cobitis Krynicki [J.] in Nordmann 1840:470 [Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée; ref. 3209] Rivière Podcoumok, près de Paitigorsk [Podkumok ve Pyatigorska, north Caucases]. nurga is a misspelling in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:24 [ref. 1011]. •Valid as Nemacheilus merga Krynicki 1840 -- (Berg 1949:873 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Valid as Orthrias merga (Krynicki 1840) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:449 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Barbatula merga (Krynicki 1840) -- (Reshetnikov et al. 1997:743 [ref. 24702], Vasil'eva 1998:95 [ref. 23591], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:45 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:114 [ref. 28183]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus merga (Krynicki 1840) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:333 [ref. 29996], Prokofiev 2009:881 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367], Kuljanishvili et al. 2020:[6] [ref. 37535]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus merga (Krynicki 1840). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Caspian Sea basin. Habitat: freshwater.

meridionalis, Nemachilus Zhu [S.-Q.] 1982:108 [111], Figs. 5-6 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 8388] Small stream near Menglun, Mengla County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NPIB 780510. Paratypes: NPIB 780510 (1), uncat. (31). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. English description on p. 111. •Valid as Physoschistura meridionalis (Zhu 1982) -- (Kottelat 2001:101 [ref. 25780], Endruweit 2011:573 [ref. 31621]). •Valid as Pteronemacheilus meridionalis (Zhu 1982) -- (Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:6 [ref. 31362], Zheng et al. 2012:63 [ref. 32070], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:230 [ref. 32098], Suvarnaraksha 2013: 236 [ref. 32981], Kottelat 2013:203 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Schistura meridionalis (Zhu 1982) -- (Zhu 1989:41 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:109 [ref. 25213], Zhang et al. 2016:133 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Pteronemacheilus meridionalis (Zhu 1982). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mekong River basin in northern Laos and Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

mesudae, Oxynoemacheilus Erk'akan [F.] 2012:98, Fig. 1-2 [Research Journal of Biological Sciences v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 32281] Büyük Menderes river, Dinar, Civril, Denizli Province, 38°07.366'N, 30°05.723'E, western Turkey. Holotype: HUIC. Paratypes: HUIC (15). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus mesudae Erk'akan 2012 -- (Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus mesudae Erk'akan 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Büyük Menderes River (Aegean Sea tributary), Denizli Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

microlabra, Schistura Mirza [M. R.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Mirza, Nalbant & Bănărescu 1981:126, Figs. 56-60 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 5390] Ali Masjid, Khyber Pass, Kabul River basin, northern Pakistan. Holotype: ISBB 3869. Paratypes: ZMA 116448 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:36 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus pakistanicus Mirza & Bănărescu 1969 -- (Menon 1987:44 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:493 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura microlabra Mirza & Nalbant 1981 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:442 [ref. 23187], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:15 [ref. 27265]). •Valid as Paraschistura microlabra (Mirza & Nalbant 1981) -- (Prokofiev 2009:892 [ref. 30604], Kottelat 2012:101 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura microlabra (Mirza & Nalbant 1981). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

microphthalma, Diplophysa Kessler [K. F.] 1879:308 [Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 25; ref. 2598] Cham River/Chami Depression, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Lectotype: ZIN 4208. Paralectotypes (numerous): ZIN 4207 (3, lost), 4208a (6), 4209 (13, 1 c&s). Also appeared in Kessler 1879:269 [ref. 14266]. •Valid as Barbatula microphthalma (Kessler 1879) -- (Zhu 1989:27 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:137 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:108 [ref. 25213]). •Valid as Labiatophysa microphthalma (Kessler 1879) -- (Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Triplophysa microphthalma (Kessler 1879) -- (Prokofiev 2004:193 [ref. 27939], Prokofiev 2006:255 [ref. 29061], Cao & Zhang 2008:40 [ref. 29966], Prokofiev 2010:907 [ref. 31096], Zhang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa microphthalma (Kessler 1879). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Oases of the Chami Depression, Xinijang Uighur Autonomous Region, China. Habitat: freshwater.

microphthalmus, Oreonectes Du [L.-N.], Chen [X.-Y.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2008:28, Fig. 4 [Zootaxa No. 1729; ref. 29544] Du'an County, 24°15'N, 107°05'E, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Holotype: KIZ 2004009395. Paratypes: KIZ 2004009394 (1), 20040093996-99 (4). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. Also spelled microphthalma; Kottelat 2012:94 [ref. 32367] selected microphthalmus over microphthalma. •Valid as Oreonectes microphthalmus Du, Chen & Yang 2008 -- (Huang et al. 2009:445 [ref. 30323], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31282], Tang et al. 2012:489 [ref. 31595], Kottelat 2012:347 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:94 [ref. 32367] with genus in question, Ma & Zhao 2012:110 [ref. 34891], Lan et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32910], Lan in Lan et al. 2013:253 [ref. 32910], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Liu et al. 2019:404 [ref. 36573]). •Valid as Troglonectes microphthalmus (Du, Chen & Yang 2008) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34477]) Current status: Valid as Troglonectes microphthalmus (Du, Chen & Yang 2008). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Liujiang River system, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

microphthalmus, Schistura dabryi Liao [J.-W.] & Wang [D.-H.] in Liao [J.-W.], Wang [D.-H.] & Luo [Z.-F.] 1997:4, Fig. 2 [Acta Academiae Medicinae Zunyi v. 20 (nos 2-3); ref. 28159] Hawk cave, ca. 26°53'N, 107°02'E, Weng'an County, Guizhou, China. Holotype: IHB 91x005. Paratypes: IHB 91x001-004 (4), 91x006-008 (3). Types are deposted at Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Department of Biology, Zunyi Medical College. •Valid as Triplophysa microphthalma (Liao & Wang 1997)-- (Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367]). •Synonym of Schistura dabryi (Sauvage 1874), but a valid subspecies microphthalmus Liao & Wang 1997 as described -- (Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Zhang et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura dabryi (Sauvage 1874). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Guishou Province, China (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

microphysus, Nemacheilus (Deterophysa) Fang [P.-W.] 1935:753, Fig. 3 [Sinensia v. 6 (no. 6); ref. 17141] Headwaters of Ili River system, northern Zinjiang, China. Holotype: ZMB 10277 (119 mm SL). Paratypes: ZMB 10275 (3), 10277 (5), 22675 (1). •Valid as Triplophysa microphysa (Fang 1935) -- (Zhu 1989:92 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:115 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2002:S46 [ref. 27462], Prokofiev 2006:255 [ref. 29061], Li et al. 2007:47 [ref. 29309], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa microphysa (Fang 1935). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Headwaters of Ili River system, northern Zinjiang, China. Habitat: freshwater.

microps, Cobitis Steindachner [F.] 1866:794, Pl. 13 (fig. 3) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 16; ref. 18789] Lei [Leh] and Phirse-Bach. Manechan in Rupshu, India, elevation about 16000 feet. Syntypes: (10) NMW 48562 (11?). •Valid as Nemacheilus microps (Steindachner 1866) -- (Tilak 1990:138 [ref. 23720] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Triplophysa microps (Steindachner 1866) -- (Menon 1987:210 [ref. 14149], Zhu 1989:121 [ref. 17744], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:513 [ref. 20764], Wu & Wu 1992:196 [ref. 21205], Zhang et al. 1995:65 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:119 [ref. 25213], Menon 1999:190 [ref. 24904], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Mirza 2003:16 [ref. 27265], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2006:256 [ref. 29061], Li et al. 2007:47 [ref. 29309], Zheng et al. 2010:[4] [ref. 30841], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:214 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:140 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa microps (Steindachner 1866). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Indus River: Pakistan, Kashmir, India and China. Habitat: freshwater.

minimus, Turcinoemacheilus Esmaeili [H. R.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Özuluğ [M.], Geiger [M. F.] & Freyhof [J.] 2014:265, Figs. 7b, 9-11 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 3) [for 2013]; ref. 33241] Adıyaman province: Upper Göksu, 5 km northeast of Gölbası, 37°50.22'N, 37°41.09'E, Turkey. Holotype: IUSHM 2013-1050. Paratypes: IUSHM 2013-1051 (5), FSJF 2454 (4). Type catalog: Özuluğ & Saç 2018:47 [ref. 35782]. •Valid as Turcinoemacheilus minimus Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Özuluğ, Geiger & Freyhof 2014 -- (Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Prokofiev 2017:255 [ref. 35630], Çiçek et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Turcinoemacheilus minimus Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Özuluğ, Geiger & Freyhof 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: upper Euphrates River [Firat Nehri] basin (Persian Gulf tributary), Adıyaman Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Nemachilus Li [S.-C.] in Li, Tai, Chang, Ma, Ho & Kao 1966:46 (English p. 55), Fig. 1a [Acta Zoologica Sinica v. 18 (no. 1); ref. 9042] Kalagu Water Reservoir, Pichong, northern Sinkiang, China. Holotype: ASIZB [now NZMC] 52572 [ex NK64-1693]. Paratypes: ASIZB [now NZMC] 52571, 52773-52574 out of 7464-1692, 64-1696, 64-1698; Inst. Bio-Pedology, Sinkiang, Acad. Sinica, Bur. Water Conservancy, Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region, Dept. Biol. Sinkiang Univ. 64-1694-5, 64-1697, 64-1693-1672. Type catalog: Zhang 1996:500 [ref. 24036], Ye et al. 2015:60 [ref. 33808] Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa minuta (Li 1966) -- (Zhu 1989:132 [ref. 17744] in subgenus Hedinichthys and as a valid subgenus, Wu & Wu 1992:259 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:120 [ref. 25213], Zhang et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Hedinichthys minutus (Li 1966) -- (Kottelat 2012:82 [ref. 32367], Ye et al. 2015:60 [ref. 33808]). Current status: Valid as Hedinichthys minuta (Li 1966). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Schistura Vishwanath [W.] & Shanta Kumar [M.] 2006:210, Figs 1, 3B [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 102 (pt 2) [2005]; ref. 28652] Lyei River, Noney, Tamenglong District, Manipur, India. Holotype: ZSI FF3749. Paratypes: MUMF 1001-1003, 1995-1006, 1008-1011 (9); ZSI FF3750 (1). •Valid as Schistura minuta Vishwanath & Shanta Kumar 2006 -- (Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011:1514 [ref. 31183] dated 2005 as minutus, Lokeshwor et al. 2012:262 [ref. 32337] as minutus, Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:5 [ref. 32463], Lokeshwor et al. 2013:587 [ref. 32764], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:55 [ref. 32801], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971], Shangningam et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33318], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[6] [ref. 33603], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628], Khynriam & Sen 2014:18 [ref. 33853]). Current status: Valid as Schistura minuta Vishwanath & Shanta Kumar 2006. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Manipur and Nagaland, India. Habitat: freshwater.

minxianensis, Nemachilus Wang [X.-T.] & Zhu [S. Q.] 1979:129, Fig. 1 [Bulletin Langchou University v. 4; ref. 21174] Upper drainage of Tau-He River, Yellow River system, Gansu Province, China. Syntypes: IHASW 771465 (1), 771372 (1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Triplophysa brachyptera (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096] with question, Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367] with question). •Valid as Barbatula minxianensis (Wang & Zhu 1979) -- (Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065], Prokofiev 2016:396 [ref. 34693], Prokofiev 2018:273 [ref. 35878]). •Valid as Triplophysa minxianensis (Wang & Zhu 1979) -- (Zhu 1989:73 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:152 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:113 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:63 [ref. 23556], Zhang et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa minxianensis (Wang & Zhu 1979). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Taohe River drainage, Yellow River system, China. Habitat: freshwater.

mitrofanovi, Triplophysa coniptera Prokofiev [A. M.] 2017:189, Figs. 44-49 [ ref. 35630] Holotype: ZIN 25566. Paratypes: ZIN. •Synonym of Triplophysa coniptera (Turdakov 1954), but a valid subspecies mitrofanovi as described. Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa coniptera (Turdakov 1954). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

mizoramensis, Schistura Lalramliana [no initials], Lalronunga [S.], Vanramliana [no initials] & Lalthanzara [H.] 2014:206, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 33628] Tuirivang River, tributary of Tuirial River, Barak drainage, Mizoram, northeastern India, 23°32'01"N, 92°45'29"E. Holotype: PUCMF 13021. Paratypes: PUCMF. •Valid as Schistura mizoramensis Lalramliana, Lalronunga, Vanramliana & Lalthanzara 2014 -- (Choudhury et al. 2019:190 [ref. 37121]). Current status: Valid as Schistura mizoramensis Lalramliana, Lalronunga, Vanramliana & Lalthanzara 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tuirivang River drainage, Mizoram, India. Habitat: freshwater.

mobbsi, Schistura Kottelat [M.] & Leisher [C.] 2012:240, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 23 (no. 3); ref. 32277] Thai Nguyen Province, Phuong Hoang Cave, about 32 km from Bac Song (Lang Song Province), probably draining to Cau River, draining to Hai Phong; 21°46'31"N, 106°07'10"E, carst, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MHNG 2732.044. •Valid as Schistura mobbsi Kottelat & Leisher 2012 -- (Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura mobbsi Kottelat & Leisher 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

moeiensis, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:164, Figs. 120-121 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Huei Kite, Tambon Kanei Jiu, Amphoe Mae Sot, Salween basin, Tak Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27480 [now ZRC 38471] [ex NIFI]. Paratypes: CMK 4916 (2), 5527 (1), 5679 (11), 5881 (4), 5883 (3); NIFI 869 (1), 2064-67 (31, 7, 23, 2). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:241 [ref. 31652]. Holotype now at ZRC. •Valid as Schistura moeiensis Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura moeiensis Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

molavii, Paracobitis Freyhof [J.], Esmaeili [H. R.], Sayyadzadeh [G.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2014:25, Figs. 15-18 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 33505] Sulaymaniyah Province, Zalm at Khurmal, 35°18.38'N, 45°58.26'E, Iraq. Holotype: ZFMK 56826. Paratypes: FSJF 3357 (6). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Paracobitis molavii Freyhof, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh & Geiger 2014 -- (Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:341 [ref. 33744], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:886 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:48 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Paracobitis molavii Freyhof, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh & Geiger 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tigris River basin, Iran and Iraq. Habitat: freshwater.

monilis, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1921:19, Fig. [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 22 (pt 1); ref. 15313] Edge of Bhavani River, 10 miles from Mettupalaiyam [Methtupalayam], near base of Nilgiri Hills, India, elevation 1800 feet. Holotype: ZSI F9981/1. Paratypes: ZSI (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:123 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:364 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus monilis Hora 1921 -- (Menon 1987:156 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:488 [ref. 20764], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:435 [ref. 23187], Indra et al. 1992:521 [ref. 24992], Menon 1999:183 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Raju Thomas et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26359], Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005:77 [ref. 28530], Arunachalam & Muralidharan 2007:2724 [ref. 29138], Arunachalam & Muralidharan 2009:148 [ref. 30462], Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367] in "Nemacheilus", Bleher 2018:172 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus monilis Hora 1921. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

monocera, Cobitis McClelland [J.] 1839:305, 438, Pl. 52 (fig. 2) [Asiatic Researches v. 19 (pt 2); ref. 2923] Assam, India. No types known. •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Singer & Page 2015:387 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

montana, Schistura McClelland [J.] 1838:947, Pl. 55 (fig. 1) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 7 (for Nov. 1838); ref. 2924] Mountain streams of Simla, India. Possible syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.118-119 (2). See also McClelland 1839:307, 440, and Pl. 57 (fig. 1) [ref. 2923]. •Valid as Nemacheilus montanus (McClelland 1838) -- (Menon 1987:78 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:489 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:174 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Paraschistura montana (McClelland 1838) -- (Prokofiev 2009:892 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Schistura montana McClelland 1838 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Kullander et al. 1999:153 [ref. 23689], Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Khynrian & Sen 2014:18 [ref. 33853], Freyhof et al. 2016:75 [ref. 34414], Bleher 2018:222 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura montana McClelland 1838. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Himalaya Foothills, Assam, Meghalaya and Himachal Pradesh, India. Habitat: freshwater.

montanus, Cobitis Jerdon [T. C.] 1849:332 [Madras Journal of Literature and Science v. 15 (pt 2); ref. 4902] Coorg [Kodugu, 12°25'N, 75°45'E], southern India. No types known. •Species inquirendae et incertae sedis in Nemacheiludae -- (Kottelat 2012:74 [ref. 32367]). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

mooreh, Cobitis Sykes [W. H.] 1839:162 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1838 (pt 6) (for 27 Nov. 1838); ref. 18720] Deccan [Mota Mola River at Poona], India. No types known. Appeared first as above, then in Sykes 1839:59 [ref. 4306]; more complete treatment in Sykes 1841:366 [ref. 18868]. C. moreh is a misspelling. •Valid as Nemacheilus mooreh (Sykes 1839) -- (Menon 1987:145 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus moreh, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:490 [ref. 20764] as Neomacheilus moreh, Menon 1999:181 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus moreh, Yadav 2000:41 [ref. 25661] as moreh, Yadav 2003:17 [ref. 27711] as moreh). •Questionably a synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:28 [ref. 14137]). •Valid as Acanthocobitis mooreh (Sykes 1839) -- (Kottelat 2012:50 [ref. 31992], Kottelat 2012:76 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Acanthocobitis mooreh (Sykes 1829) but a valid subgenus Paracanthocobitis -- (Grant 2008:16 [ref. 33826]). •Valid as Paracanthocobitis mooreh (Sykes 1839) -- (Singer & Page 2015:394 [ref. 33823], Bleher 2018:194 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis mooreh (Sykes 1839). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Krishna River basin, Peninsular India. Habitat: freshwater.

moquensis, Triplophysa Ding [R.-H.] 1994:69 [English p. 609], Fig. 35 [The fishes of Sichuan, China; ref. 21531] Xia Man Lake, Sichuan, China. Holotype: MSINR 830833. Paratypes: MSINR 830841-44 (4), 830747-65 (19), 830834-39 (6), 840304-11 (8). •Possibly a synonym of Triplophysa obscura Wang 1987 -- (Prokofiev 2016:203 [ref. 34459]). •Valid as Triplophysa moquensis Ding 1994 -- (Li et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29309], Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa moquensis Ding 1994. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

morehensis, Neonoemacheilus Arunkumar [L.] 2000:44, Fig. 1 [Indian Journal of Fisheries v. 47 (no. 1); ref. 25660] Lokchao River at Moreh, Manipur, India. Holotype: MUMF 620/1A. Paratypes: MUMF 620/2A (1). •Questionably valid as Neonoemacheilus morehensis Arunkumar 2000 -- (Kottelat 2012:93 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Neonoemacheilus morehensis Arunkumar 2000 -- (Khynrian & Sen 2014:11 [ref. 33853], Bleher 2018:185 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Neonoemacheilus morehensis Arunkumar 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Manipur, India. Habitat: freshwater.

muefiti, Oxynoemacheilus Freyhof [J.], Kaya [C.], Turan [D.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2019:48, Figs. 15-17 [Zootaxa 4612 (no. 1); ref. 36739] Murat River at Ballıbostan, Ağrı Province, Turkey. Holotype: FFR 15532. Paratypes: FFR 15507 (2). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus muefiti Freyhof, Kaya, Turan & Geiger 2019 -- (Çiçek et al. 2020:245 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus muefiti Freyhof, Kaya, Turan & Geiger 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: upper Murat River drainage and the Eğri, a tributary to Atatürk reservoir (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

mugah, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1869:382 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 2) (art. 3) (for 27 May 1869); ref. 18823] Cossye [Kasai] River, at Midnapore, Orissa, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI A.961 (lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:157 [ref. 23762]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus scaturigina (McClelland 1839) -- (Menon 1987:86 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:178 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Nemacheilus scaturigina (McClelland 1839) base on curent placement of scaturigina. •Synonym of Schistura scaturigina McClelland 1839 -- (Kottelat 2012:120 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura scaturigina McClelland 1839. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

mukambbikaensis, Noemacheilus denisoni Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:101, Fig. [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Kashi stream, Mujambbika [Mukambbika], Karnataka, India. Holotype: SFS/ZSI F568. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F569 (36). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:366 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus denisoni Day 1867 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:477 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Nemacheilus denisoni Day 1867, subspecies mukambbikaensis Menon 1987 -- (Menon 1999:171 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura mukambbikaensis (Menon 1987) -- (Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Sudasinghe 2017:108 [ref. 35539], Bleher 2018:224 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura mukambbikaensis (Menon 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kulur River drainage, Karnataka, India. Habitat: freshwater.

multifasciatus, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1878:617, Pl. 153 (fig. 7) [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Darjeeling and Assam, India. Day specimens or possible syntypes: AMS B.7737 (1), BMNH 1889.2.1.1665-67 (3), ZSI F2677/1 (poor condition), NMW 48428 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:123 [ref. 20743], Whitehead & Talwar 1976:157 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:300 [ref. 25110]. •Valid as Nemacheilus multifasciatus Day 1878 -- (Menon 1987:52 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:490 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:548 [ref. 23778], Menon 1999:175 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura multifasciata (Day 1878) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Vishwanath & Nebeshwar 2004:329 [ref. 28011], Kottelat et al. 2007:40 [ref. 28942], Shrestha 2008:132 [ref. 29923], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011:1518 [ref. 31183], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:176 [ref. 31357], Conway et al. 2011:1747 [ref. 31594], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:262 [ref. 32337], Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:4 [ref. 32463], Lokeshwor et al. 2013:587 [ref. 32764], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:55 [ref. 32801], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Gurung et al. 2013:4483 [ref. 32969], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971], Khynrian & Sen 2014:19 [ref. 33853], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[6] [ref. 33603], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628], Bleher 2018:226 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura multifasciata (Day 1878). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Eastern Himalaya, India, Buthan, Nepal, Myanmar and Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

musa, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2017:696, Figs. 10-13 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 65; ref. 35677] Nam Khai [Nam Mang], immediately upstream of confluence with Nam Ngiep, about 22 km downstream of Ban Pou, 19 km upstream of Ban Soppouan, Nam Ngiep drainage, Saysomboune Province, Laos, 18°53'49"N, 103°28'22"E, elevation 286 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2768.032. Paratypes: CMK, ZRC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Schistura musa Kottelat 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura musa Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Ngiep drainage, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

myrmekia, Nemacheilus Fowler [H. W.] 1935:106, Fig. 32 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 13881] Keng Sok (near Ban Thung Luang, 12°41'N, 99°51'E), southwestern Thailand. Holotype (unique): ANSP 63546. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Schistura desmotes (Fowler 1934) -- (Kottelat 1990:120 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Kottelat 2012:108 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:206 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Schistura myrmekia (Fowler 1935) -- (Singer & Page 2012:347 [ref. 32390]). Current status: Valid as Schistura myrmekia (Fowler 1935). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Southwestern Thailand (holotype only). Habitat: freshwater.

nagaensis, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:117 [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Phodung River, tributary of Tizu River, Brahmaputra basin, Naga Hills, Nagaland, India. Holotype: ZSI/SRS F574. Paratypes: ZSI/SRS F575 (13). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:366 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus nagaensis Menon 1987 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:491 [ref. 20764], Sen 1999:198 [ref. 24750] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:175 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus naganensis, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Questionably a synonym of Schistura kangjupkhulensis (Hora 1921) -- (Kottelat 1990:131 [ref. 14137]). •Valid as Schistura nagaensis (Menon 1987) -- (Vishwanath & Laisram 2001:208 [ref. 25886], Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367] with question, Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:4 [ref. 32463], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989] with question, Khynrian & Sen 2014:19 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33318], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[6] [ref. 33603]). Current status: Valid as Schistura nagaensis (Menon 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland, India. Habitat: freshwater.

nagodiensis, Schistura Sreekantha [no initials], Gururaja [K. V.], Rema Devi [K.], Indra [T. J.] & Ramachandra [T. V.] 2006:2211, Figs. 1-2 [Zoos' Print Journal v. 21 (no. 4); ref. 28597] Sharavathi river, 13°54'40"N, 74°53'49"E, Algod, Shimoga, Karnataka, western Ghats, India. Holotype: ZSI/SRS F-7595. Paratypes: (12) ZSI/SRS F-7596; IISc/CES/WGBIS 3-5-3-5-007. •Valid as Schistura nagodiensis Sreekantha, Gururaja, Rema Devi, Indra & Ramachandra 2006 -- (Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Sudasinghe 2017:108 [ref. 35539]). Current status: Valid as Schistura nagodiensis Sreekantha, Gururaja, Rema Devi, Indra & Ramachandra 2006. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Sharavathi River basin, western Ghats, India. Habitat: freshwater.

nalbanti, Noemacheilus alepidotus Bănărescu [P. M.] & Mirza [M. R.] 1972:121, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Biologia (Lahore) v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 7602] Rawlakot [Rawalabot], Jehlum River basin, Azad Kashmir. Holotype: IBTS 2490. Paratypes: BMNH 1977.7.5.1 (1); BTS 2586 (orig. 15), MNHN 1978-0023 (1), NMW 77262 (1), USNM 218526 (1), ?ZMA 114458 (1), ?ZMA 114722 (2), ZMH 5964 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:31 [ref. 19236], Menon 1987:49 [ref. 14149], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413 [ref. 21161]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus punjabensis Hora 1923 -- (Menon 1987:47 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:497 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:176 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Schistura punjabensis (Hora 1923) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187], Kullander et al. 1999:137 [ref. 23689]). •Valid as Schistura nalbanti (Bănărescu & Mirza 1972) -- (Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220]). •Synonym of Paraschistura punjabensis (Hora 1923) -- (Kottelat et al. 2012:102 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Paraschistura punjabensis (Hora 1923). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan and Kashmir (in valid). Habitat: freshwater.

namboensis, Schistura Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:163, Figs. 32-35 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] Small stream at Ea Nuol, about 20 kilometers northwest of Buon Ma Thuot, 12°41.58'N, 107°57.74'E, Dac Lac Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 24094. Paratypes: ZFMK 24095-177 (83). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:113 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Schistura namboensis Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366], Kottelat 2017:72 [ref. 35486], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura namboensis Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Srepok drainage, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

namiri, Nemacheilus Krupp [F.] & Schneider [W.] 1991:28, Figs. 7-13 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 71 (nos 1/3); ref. 18977] Orontes at Jisr ash-Shughur, Syria, 35°48'N, 36°19'E. Holotype: SMF 17387. Paratypes: SMF 17388 (15), 23448-57 (6, 7, 14, 14, 50, 11, 4, 2, 6, 22), 23458-60 (4, 14, 8), 23461-62 (13, 11); NMC 90-0147 (47); plus non-type material. •Valid as Schistura namiri (Krupp & Schneider 1991) -- (Nalbant 1998:371 [ref. 26011], Erk'akan et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29026]). •Questionably a synonym of or subspecies of Paracobitis tigris (Heckle 1843) -- (Prokofiev 2009:881, 888 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus namiri (Krupp & Schneider 1991) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kamangar et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33140], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644], Kaya et al. 2020:289 [ref. 37622]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus namiri (Krupp & Schneider 1991). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: Orontes River basin (Syria and Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

nandanensis, Triplophysa Lan [J.-H.], Yang [J.-X.] & Chen [Y.-R.] 1995:368 [English 371], Fig. 2 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 20 (no. 3); ref. 23184] Outlet of an underground river (25°18'N, 107°24'E), at Ma-yang Village, Liuzhai Town, Nandan County, Guangxi, China, Hongshuihe River basin. Holotype: KIZ 9110011 [200050001334]. Paratypes: KIZ 9110008-10 (3), 9110012-18 (7). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:353 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Triplophysa nandanensis Lan, Yang & Chen 1995 -- (Prokofiev 2001:195 [ref. 26613], Li et al. 2008:676 [ref. 29925], Chen et al. 2009:86 [ref. 30169], Zheng 2009:[5] [ref. 30217], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2012:170 [ref. 31483], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193] with authorship as Chen et al., Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Lan et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34477], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:844 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971], Chen & Peng 2019:383 [ref. 36537]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa nandanensis Lan, Yang & Chen 1995. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hongshuihe River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

nandingensis, Noemacheilus Zhu [S.-Q.] & Wang [S.-H.] 1985:212 [219], Figs. 7-8 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 8120] Small stream of the Nanding River near Xingfu, 24°30'N, 100°10'E, Yunxian County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NIGLAS 810497. Paratypes: NIGLAS (3). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. English description on p. 219. •Valid as Schistura nandingensis (Zhu & Wang 1985) -- (Zhu 1989:54 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:111 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Schistura nandingensis (Zhu & Wang 1985). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

nanpanjiangensis, Oreias dabryi Zhu [S.-Q.] & Cao [W.-X.] 1988:98 [100], Figs. 7-8 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 17743] Outlet of subterranean waters near Haijiashao, Zhanyixian [Zhanyi] Nanpanjiang River basin, County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NIGLAS 818512. Paratypes: NIGLAS 88180503-04 (2), 821608 (1), 821610 (1). English description on p. 100. See account of genus Oreias for name change to Claea. •Valid as Oreias nanpanjiangensis (Zhu & Cao 1988) -- (Nguyen et al. 2010:50 [ref. 32127]). •Valid as Claea nanpanjiamngensis (Zhu & Cao 1988). •Synonym of Schistura dabryi (Sauvage 1874), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Zhu 1989:56 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:111 [ref. 25213], Liao, Wang & Luo 1997:5 [ref. 28159]). •Valid as Triplophysa nanpanjiangensis (Zhu & Cao 1988) -- (Chen et al. 1992:19 [ref. 20028], Zhou & Cui 1993:86 [ref. 20830], Lan et al. 1995:369 [ref. 23184], Prokofiev 2001:195 [ref. 26613], Proudlove 2006:105 [ref. 28992], Chen et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30169], Zheng 2009:[5] [ref. 30217], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193], Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34477], Yang et al. 2016:299 [ref. 34677] with authors as Cao & Zhu, Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa nanpanjiangensis (Zhu & Cao 1988). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanpan River drainage, Pearl River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

nanpanjiangensis, Paracobitis Min [R.], Chen [X.-Y.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2010:200, Fig. 1 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 87 (no. 3); ref. 30726] Tributary of upper Nanpanjiang River drainage, Niujie River, 24°57'46.9"N, 104°13'09.2"E, at Nanjie village, Luoping County, Qujing City, Yunnan, China. Holotype: KIZ 1994000023. Paratypes: KIZ 194000018-22 (5), 1994000024-37 (14). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Homatula nanpanjiangensis (Min, Chen & Yang 2010) -- (Gu & Zhang 2012:597 [ref. 31632], Min et al. 2012:313 [ref. 32341], Kottelat 2012:83 [ref. 32367], Min et al. 2013:354 [ref. 32529], Zhang et al. 2016:128 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2018:565 [ref. 35763]). Current status: Valid as Homatula nanpanjiangensis (Min, Chen & Yang 2010). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanpanjiang River, Pearl River drainage, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

nanpanjiangensis, Yunnanilus Li [W.-X.], Mao [W.-N.] & Lu [Z.-M.] in Li, Mao, Sun & Lu 1994:371 [English p. 374], Fig. 2 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 19 (no. 3); ref. 22582] A'gang town, Sha'Ao village, 25°05°N, 104°08°E, Luoping County, Nanpanjiang system, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: Fish. Adm. Centre, Qujing Region, Yunnan 9191119. Paratypes: ASIZB [now NZMC] 78386 [ex 9191104], 78387-39 [ex 9191187-89], out of Fish. Adm. Centre, Qujing Region, Yunnan, 9191101-03 (3), 9191105-118 (14), 9191120-223 (104). Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:73 [ref. 33808]. •Valid as Yunnanilus nanpanjiangensis Li, Mao & Lu 1994 -- (Zhu et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30145], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Ye et al. 2015:73 [ref. 33808], Zhang et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus nanpanjiangensis Li, Mao & Lu 1994. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

narinosus, Draconectes Kottelat [M.] 2012:342, Figs. 1-3 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 119 (no. 3); ref. 32232] Ha Long Bay, island Dáo Van Giô, phreatic lake in cave Dông Duc Tiên, 20°50.34"N, 107°16.77'E, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. Holotype: MHNG 2730.080. Paratypes: OBBFUL uncat. (1). •Valid as Draconectes narinosus Kottelat 2012 -- (Kottelat 2012:81 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Draconectes narinosus Kottelat 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave on Dáo Van Giô island, Ha Long Bay, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

nasalis, Diplophysa Kessler [K. F.] 1876:27, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 2595] Dalai-Nor, Lake, Nei Monggol, China, elevation 4200 feet. Holotype (unique): ZIN 2475. •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies nuda (Bleeker 1865) -- (Zhu 1989:29 [ref. 17744]). •Species inquirenda, in Triplophysa or in Barbatula -- (Prokofiev 2004:203 [ref. 27939]). •Valid as Triplophysa nasalis (Kessler 1876) -- (Prokofiev 2010:908 [ref. 31096]). •Species incertae sedia as Labiatophysia nasilis (Kessler 1876) -- (Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Uncertain as Labiatophysa nasalis (Kessler 1876). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

naseeri, Nemacheilus punjabensis Ahmad [N. ud-D.] & Mirza [M. R.] 1963:78, Fig. 3 [Pakistan Journal of Science v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 3863] Madyan stream at Madyan, Swat Valley, Pakistan. Syntypes: (5). •Valid as Nemacheilus naseeri Ahmad & Mirza 1963 -- (Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Nemacheilus prashari Hora 1933 -- (Menon 1987:64 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:496 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Schistura prashari (Hora 1933) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Schistura naseeri (Ahmad & Mirza 1963) -- (Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:15 [ref. 27265]). •Valid as Paraschistura naseeri (Ahman & Mirza 1963) -- (Prokofiev 2009:892 [ref. 30604], Kottelat 2012:101 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura naseeri (Ahmad & Mirza 1963). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

nasifilis, Nemachilus spilopterus var. Pellegrin [J.] 1936:247 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 61; ref. 3415] Song Ko and Song Tan, Annam, Vietnam. Syntypes: BMNH 1936.7.30.3 [ex MNHN] (1) Song Ko R.; MNHN 1936-0021 to 0025 (20, now 19) Song Ko R., 1936-0026 to 0028 (20) Song Tan R. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:99 [ref. 19574]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Schistura nasifilis (Pellegrin 1936) -- (Kottelat 1990:168 [ref. 14137], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 1998:70 [ref. 23436], Freyhof & Serov 2001:168 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989], Suvarnaraksha 2015:169 [ref. 33813]). Current status: Valid as Schistura nasifilis (Pellegrin 1936). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

nasobarbatula, Triplophysa Wang [D.-Z.] & Li [D.-J.] 2001:101, fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 25249] Weng'ang town, ca. 25°14'N, 107°54'E, Libo County, Guizhou Province, China. Holotype: ZMC 840207. Paratypes:ZMC 840198-99 (1, 1); ZMC 840201 (1) in Inst. Hydrobiol., Chinese Acad. Sci. •Valid as Triplophysa nasobarbatula Wang & Li 2001 -- (Li et al. 2008:677 [ref. 29925], Chen et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30169], Zheng 2009:[5] [ref. 30217], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2012:170 [ref. 31483], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193], Ren et al. 2012:191 [ref. 32330], Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Zhang et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34477], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:843 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Li et al. 2018:62 [ref. 36072], Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971], Chen & Peng 2019:383 [ref. 36537]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa nasobarbatula Wang & Li 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Liujiang River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Guizhou Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

naumanni, Paraschistura Freyhof [J.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Esmaeili [H. R.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2015:32, Figs. 34-41 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 33865] Fars Province, Golabi spring, about 35 km west of Darab, a tributary of Kol River, 28°47'15"N, 54°22'19"E, Iran. Holotype: ZM-CBSU J2941. Paratypes: FSJF, ZM-CBSU. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Paraschistura naumanni Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015 -- (Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015:299 [ref. 34027], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:888 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:72 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:51 [ref. 36089], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36026], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:582 [ref. 36833], Eagderi et al. 2019:266 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura naumanni Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mond River system, Hormuz basin, Fars, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

naziri, Nemacheilus Ahmad [N. ud-D.] & Mirza [M. R.] 1963:76, Figs. 1-2 [Pakistan Journal of Science v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 3863] Madyan stream near Madyan, Swat State, Pakistan. Syntypes: (orig. 5) ISSB 1234 (1). Type catalog: Menon 1987:206 [ref. 14149]. •Synonym of Triploph/ysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Zhu 1989:114 [ref. 17744] as stoliczkae, Wu & Wu 1992:212 [ref. 21205] as stoliczkae). •Valid as Triplophysa naziri (Ahmad & Mirza 1963) -- (Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:16 [ref. 27265]). •Synonym of Triplophysa griffithii (Günther 1868) -- (Menon 1987:204 [ref. 14149] as griffithi, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:511 [ref. 20764] as griffithi, Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa griffithii (Günther 1868). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

nebeshwari, Schistura Lokeshwor [Y.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2013:563, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 3731 (no. 4); ref. 32971] Mizoram, Saiha District, from a stream at Phura village near Palak Lake (Koladyne basin); 22°15'32"N, 92°53'32"E, India, elevation 161 meters. Holotype: MUMF 11128. Paratypes: MUMF 11125-11127 (3), 11129 (1), 11130-32 (2). •Valid as Schistura nebeshwari Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013 -- (Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517]). Current status: Valid as Schistura nebeshwari Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Koladyne River basin, Mizoram, India. Habitat: freshwater.

nicholsi, Nemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1933:53, Fig. 1; Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Journal of the Siam Society, Natural History Supplement v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 4051] Pak Jong near Nakon Rajasima, eastern Thailand. Holotype (unique): KUMF 0170. Type catalog: Monkolprasit 1969:6 [ref. 23217]. •Valid as Schistura nicholsi (Smith 1933) -- (Kottelat 1990:169 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Rainboth 1996:130 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 1998:80 [ref. 23436], Kottelat 2000:57, 65 [ref. 25040], Freyhof & Serov 2001:145 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:111 [ref. 25780], Chen et al. 2005:30 [ref. 28352], Ou et al. 2011:193 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:113 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:88, 91 [ref. 32798], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura nicholsi (Smith 1933). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Xe Bangfai and Mekong basin, Laos and Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

nielseni, Schistura Nalbant [T. T.] & Bianco [P. G.] 1998:119, Figs. 22 A-C [Italian Journal of Zoology v. 65, Suppl.; ref. 23810] Bazar River, Iran. Holotype: ZMC P 27109. Paratypes: ISBB uncat (1), ZMC P 2805 (1), 2806 (2), 27110 (1). •Valid as Schistura nielseni Nalbant & Bianco 1998 -- (Nalbant 1998:373 [ref. 26011]). •Valid as Paraschistura nielseni (Nalbant & Bianco 1998) -- (Esmaeili et al. 2010:373 [ref. 33391], Kottelat 2012:101 [ref. 32367], Vatandoust & Eagderi 2015:182 [ref. 33819], Freyhof et al. 2015:15 [ref. 33865], Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015:299 [ref. 34027], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:888 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2017:72 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:51 [ref. 36089], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2018:45 [ref. 36026], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:582 [ref. 36833], Eagderi et al. 2019:266 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura nielseni (Nalbant & Bianco 1998). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Helleh and Mond River basins, Persian Gulf basin, Fars, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

niger, Yunnanilus Kottelat [M.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1988:73, Fig. 8 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 23 (nos 1-2); ref. 13392] Tatantze [Datangzi] village, ca. 24°52'N, 104°18'E, Luoping County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype (unique): KIZ 806075 [1980001275]. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Yunnanilus niger Kottelat & Chu 1988 -- (Yang & Chen 1995:23 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:107 [ref. 25213], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Chen et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31907], Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32910], Du et al. 2015:253 [ref. 34050], Zhang et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus niger Kottelat & Chu 1988. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

nigra, Homatula Li [X.], Che [X.-J.] & Zhou [W.] 2019:341, Figs. 2C, 7C, 10 [Zootaxa 4711 (no. 2); ref. 37175] Xiangshui Village, Gengga Town, Changning County, Baoshan City, Yunnan, China, 24°29'7.26"N, 99°29'39.94"E. Holotype: SWFC 1901005. Paratypes: SWFC. •Valid as Homatula nigra Li, Che & Zhou 2019. Current status: Valid as Homatula nigra Li, Che & Zhou 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Salween River basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrolineata, Paracanthocobitis Singer [R. A.], Pfeiffer [J. M.] & Page [L. M.] 2017:98, Figs. 8-9 [Zootaxa 4324 (no. 1); ref. 35606] Unnamed tributary of Khwae Noi just S of route 323, Mae Khlong drainage, Thong Pha Phum, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand, 14.540N, 98.780E. Holotype: NIFI 5080. Paratypes: ANSP, NIFI, UF, UMMZ, ZRC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Paracanthocobitis nigrolineata Singer, Pfeiffer & Page 2017 -- (Bleher 2018:197 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis nigrolineata Singer, Pfeiffer & Page 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Irrawaddy and Sittang drainages, Myanmar and Mae Khlong drainage, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

nigromaculatus, Nemachilus Regan [C. T.] 1904:192 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 13 (no. 75) (art. 20); ref. 15197] Sea of Tien [Tien Chih] [= Dianchi Lake], Yunnan Fu, China, elevation 6000 feet. Lectotype: BMNH 1904.1.26.38. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1904.1.26.39 (1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Kottelat & Chu 1998:68. •Valid as Yunnanilus nigromaculatus (Regan 1904), subspecies nigromaculatus (Regan 1904) -- (Zheng et al. 1989:44 [ref. 21202], Chen et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31907]). •Valid as Eonemachilus nigromaculatus (Regan 1904) -- (Kottelat 2012:82 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Yunnanilus nigromaculatus (Regan 1904) -- (Zhu 1989:18 [ref. 17744], Yang 1991:199 [ref. 13585], Ding 1992:490 [ref. 22049], Yang & Chen 1995:23 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:106 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:47 [ref. 23556], Li et al. 2000:351 [ref. 26012], Yang 2013:251 [ref. 32910], Du et al. 2015:254 [ref. 34050], Zhang et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:354 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus nigromaculatus (Regan 1904). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Dianchi Lake, Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

nikkonis, Elxis Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1903:768, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 26 (no. 1332); ref. 2461] Chitose in Iburi, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 7848. Paratypes or additional material: CAS-SU 7147 (1), 7485 (8). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:39 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Lefua costata (Kessler 1876), but a valid subspecies -- (Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:401 [ref. 25598], Pietsch et al. 2001:140 [ref. 25688]). •Valid as Lefua nikkonis (Jordan & Fowler 1903) -- (Okada 1961:549 [ref. 6363], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:59 [ref. 6441], Watanabe 1998:263 [ref. 23491], Nakabo 2000:277 [ref. 25086], Matsuura et al. 2000:169 [ref. 26000], Nakabo 2002:277 [ref. 26001], Mihara et al. 2005:157 [ref. 28201], Kottelat 2012:87 [ref. 32367], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:670 [ref. 34853], Hosoya et al. 2018:200 [ref. 36197], Ito et al. 2019:486 [ref. 36659]). Current status: Valid as Lefua nikkonis (Jordan & Fowler 1903). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hokkaido and Sakhalin islands, Japan. Habitat: freshwater.

nilgiriensis, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:106, Pls. 10(figs. 8-9), 11(figs. 1-2) [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Small stream joining outlet stream from Pykara Dam, Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F561. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F562 (19). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:367 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus nilgiriensis Menon 1987 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:492 [ref. 20764], Manimekalan 1998:439 [ref. 24989] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:175 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura nilgiriensis (Menon 1987) -- (Sreekantha et al. 2006:2216 [ref. 28597], Kottelat 2012:114 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25 [ref. 32804], Sudasinghe 2017:108 [ref. 35539], Bleher 2018:225 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura nilgiriensis (Menon 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

ninglangensis, Triplophysa Wu [Y.-F.] & Wu [C.-Z.] 1988:19 [24], Fig. 3 [Acta Biologica Plateau Sinica No. 8; ref. 21206] Ninglang River, Ninglang County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NPIB 8609464. Paratypes: NPIB 804176-83 (8), 8609461-63 (3), 8609465-74 (10), NPIB uncat. (3). English description on p. 24. •Valid as Triplophysa ninglangensis Wu & Wu 1988 -- (Wu & Wu 1992:230 [ref. 21205], Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:387 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa ninglangensis Wu & Wu 1988. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

niulanensis, Yunnanilus Chen [Z.-M.], Yang [J.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2012:58, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 3269; ref. 31907] Yanglinhe River, 25°14'34.0"N, 103°03'53.3"E, upper reaches of Niulanjiang River, in Yanglin Town, Songming County, Yunnan Province, China, elevation 1909 meters. Holotype: KIZ 20060285. Paratypes: KIZ 20060281, -287, 291-293, -297 (6). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Yunnanilus niulanensis Chen, Yang & Yang 2012 -- (Du et al. 2015:253 [ref. 34050], Zhang et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:356 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus niulanensis Chen, Yang & Yang 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

niulanjiangensis, Schistura Chen [L.], Lu [Z.-M.] & Mao [W.-N.] 2006:54, Fig. [Guizhou Agricultral Sciences v. 34 (no. 5); ref. 29058] Niulan River, 25°59'N, 103°36'E, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: YQAMS 9206085. Paratypes: YQAMS 9206076-84 (9), 9206086-113 (27). •Valid as Claea niulanjiangensis (Chen, Lu & Mao 2006) -- (Kottelat 2012:81 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Schistura niulanjiangensis Chen, Lu & Mao 2006 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:373 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Schistura niulanjiangensis Chen, Lu & Mao 2006. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Niulan River drainage, upper Yangtze River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

nomi, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:66, Fig. 47 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Xe Kaman at Muang Xaisettha, 14°48'27"N, 106°55'52"E, Attapu Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45359. Paratypes: CMK 16031 (2). •Valid as Schistura nomi Kottelat 2000 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:185 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:111 [ref. 25780], Ou et al. 2011:199 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:114 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura nomi Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

nordkansuensis, Nemachilus yarkandensis Li [S.-C.] & Chang [S.-Y.] 1974:416 (English p. 419) [Acta Zoologica Sinica v. 20 (no. 4); ref. 7515] Shula-gol River, Shuang-Ta-Bu, Ansi-Hsien, northern Kansu, Gansu Province, China. Holotype: ASIZB [now NZMC] 65950 [ex G65-52]. Paratypes: ASIZB [now NZMC] 65951-52, 65957, 65959-61, 65963-64. Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:62 [ref. 33808]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Triplophysa yarkandensis (Day 1877) -- (Zhu 1989:131 [ref. 17744] in subgenus Hedinichthys and as a valid subspecies as described, Wu & Wu 1992:257 [ref. 21205] as norkansuensis). •Synonym of Hedinichthys macropterus (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:82 [ref. 32367]). •Synonym of Triplophysia yarkandensis subspecies yarkandensis (Day 1877) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Hedinichthys yarkandensis (Day 1877) -- (Ye et al. 2015:62 [ref. 33808]). Current status: Synonym of Hedinichthys yarkandensis (Day 1877). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

notasileum, Schistura Endruweit [M.], Yang [J.-X.] & Liu [S.-W.] 2016:595, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4168 (no. 3); ref. 34743] Jiuzhou town, Yunlong City, Mekong main channel, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, 25°47.980'N, 99°12.018'E, elevation 1320 meters. Holotype: KIZ 2016000361. Paratypes: ASIZB, KIZ. •Valid as Schistura notasileum Endruweit, Yang & Liu 2016 -- (Endruweit 2017:591 [ref. 35662]). Current status: Valid as Schistura notasileum Endruweit, Yang & Liu 2016. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

notostigma, Nemacheilus Bleeker [P.] 1863:254 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 15; ref. 17012] Sri Lanka. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: (3) AMS B.7506 (1). Also appeared in Bleeker 1864:5, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 13925]. •Valid as Nemacheilus notostigma Bleeker 1863 -- (Menon 1987:104 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:492 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura notostigma (Bleeker 1863) -- (Pethiyagoda 1991:144 [ref. 20075], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Kottelat 2012:114 [ref. 32367], Sudasinghe 2017:104 [ref. 35539], Sudasinghe 2018:491 [ref. 35942]). Current status: Valid as Schistura notostigma (Bleeker 1863). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Southwest quadrant of Sri Lanka and some parts of the dry and intermediate zones. Habitat: freshwater.

novemradiata, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:66, Fig. 48 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Luang, about 2 kilometers upstream of Ban Namluang, 21°09'05"N, 101°20'34"E, Louangnamtha Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45360. Paratypes: CMK 14300 (5), LARRI uncat. (2), LARRI uncat. (2). •Valid as Schistura novemradiata Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:111 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:114 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura novemradiata Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

nubigena, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2017:88, Figs. 8-12 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 65; ref. 35308] Mali Hka River, about 9 km upstream of Kang Mu Lon, Kachin state, Myanmar, 27°25'54"N, 97°27'56"E, elevation 402 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2766.052. Paratypes: CMK. •Valid as Schistura nubigena Kottelat 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura nubigena Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mali Hka River, Kachin state, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

nudidorsum, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1998:80, Figs. 119-120 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 23436] Nam Phao at waterfall immediately downriver of border post on road from Lak Sao to Vinh (Vietnam), Laos, 18°23'00"N, 105°09'20"E. Holotype: ZRC 41801. Paratypes: CMK 12503 (32), 12673 (45); DFV uncat. (7); NRM 36711 (8); ZRC 41802 (8). •Valid as Schistura nudidorsum Kottelat 1998 -- (Kottelat 2001:111 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:114 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura nudidorsum Kottelat 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Theun watershed, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

nudus, Nemacheilus Bleeker [P.] 1864:12 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 17027] Mongolia [brought from China]. Apparently Hebei, Chongli county, Siwantse [Xiwanzi], 40°58'25"N, 115°16'22"E, China. [Possibly Daling or Liao Rivers, Liaoning, China] Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1450. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:98 [ref. 19574]. Locality information from Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367]; also a lengthy discussion of status. •Mentioned -- (Ding 1994:78 [ref. 21531]). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies nuda (Bleeker 1864) -- (Zhu 1989:26 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:108 [ref. 25213]). •Valid as Orthrias nudus (Bleeker 1864) -- (Kim 1997:283 [ref. 24032], Kim & Park 2002:195 [ref. 25913]). •Questionably a senior synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Kottelat 2006:53 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:339 [ref. 30085]). •In Barbatula -- (based on status of Barbatula). •Valid as Barbatula nuda (Bleeker 1864) -- (Wang et al. 2001:168 [ref. 26566], Cao et al. 2012:237 [32335], Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065], Zhang et al. 2016:127 [ref. 34477], Prokofiev 2016:396 [ref. 34693], Prokofiev 2018:273 [ref. 35878], Chen et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36569] dated 1865). Current status: Valid as Barbatula nuda (Bleeker 1864). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Liao and Taizi River drainages, northern China. Habitat: freshwater.

nujiangensa, Triplophysa Chen [X.-Y.], Cui [G.-H.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2004:505, Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 25 (no.6); ref. 28065] Main stream of Nu Jiang (Salween) River, Nanjiang Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 20007496. Paratypes:KIZ 20007331, 7335, 7337, 7338, 7342, 7345 (total 6). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:353 [ref. 32939] as najiangensis. •Valid as Triplophysa nujiangensa Chen, Cui & Yang 2004 -- (Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:214 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34477], Feng et al. 2020:468 [ref. 37576]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa nujiangensa Chen, Cui & Yang 2004. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

obeini, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1998:83, Figs. 121-122 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 23436] Nam Phao at waterfall immediately downriver of border post on road from Lak Sao to Vinh (Vietnam), Laos, 18°23'00"N, 105°09'20"E. Holotype: ZRC 41803. Paratypes: CMK 12366 (10), 12672 (13); DFV uncat. (4); NRM 36712 (3); ZRC 41812 (2). •Valid as Schistura obeini Kottelat 1998 -- (Kottelat 2001:113 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:114 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura obeini Kottelat 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Theun watershed, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

obesus, Noemacheilus Vaillant [L. L.] 1902:134, Figs. 39-40 [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 24 (note 1); ref. 4490] Bluu River, Kalimantan Timur, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 7780 (2). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus obesus Vaillant 1902 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:435 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832]). •Valid as Sundoreonectes obesus (Vaillant 1902) -- (Kottelat 1990:52 [ref. 16763], Kottelat et al. 1993:57 [ref. 23448], Doi 1997:18 [ref. 22832], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010:45 [ref. 30914], Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Sundoreonectes obesus (Vaillant 1902). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

obliquofascia, Schistura Lokeshwor [Y.], Barat [A.], Sati [J.], Darshan [A.], Vishwanath [W.] & Mahanta [P. C.] 2012:256, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 3586; ref. 32337] Uttarakhand State, Kalsa River at Chanfi, Ganga basin, 29°22′06″ N, 79°34′44″ E, India. Holotype: MUMF 11058. Paratypes: MUMF 11055, 11059, 11061 (3), 11056, 11057, 11060 (3). •Valid as Schistura obliquofascia Lokeshwor, Barat, Sati, Darshan, Vishwanath & Mahanta 2012 -- (Lonunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Bleher 2018:228 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura obliquofascia Lokeshwor, Barat, Sati, Darshan, Vishwanath & Mahanta 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Gola River drainage, upper Ganges basin, Uttarakhand, India. Habitat: freshwater.

obscura, Cobites (Acoura) Swainson [W.] 1839:310 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Hamilt. p. 357, No. 9 -- which is Hamilton 1822:357 [ref. 2031], Cobitis savona. Genus should have been Cobitis. Unneeded replacement name for Cobitis savona Hamilton 1822. Available on indication to Hamilton according to Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367]. •Objective synonym of Nemacheilus savona (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1987:91 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:177 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Schistura savona (Hamilton 1822) -- ( Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura savona (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

obscura, Triplophysa Wang [X.-T.] in Chen, Xu, Fang, Song & Wang 1987:28 [English p. 243], Fig. 15 [Fishes in Qinling Mountain area.; ref. 21175] Upper Bailungjiang, tributary of Jialingjiang, Diebu Xian, Gansu Province, China. Holotype: Inst. Zool., Shaanxi 822710. Paratypes: IHASW 825806 (1). •Valid as Triplophysa obscura Wang 1987 -- (Zhu 1989:86 [ref. 17744], Ding 1994:71 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:115 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:69 [ref. 23556], Li et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29309], Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2016:203 [ref. 34459], Zhang et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa obscura Wang 1987. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

obscurus, Noemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1945:316, Fig. 68 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 188; ref. 4056] Doi Angka, Mae Nam Ping River basin, northern Thailand. Holotype: MCZ 35520. Paratypes: USNM 118439 (1). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus obscurus Smith 1945 -- (Wu & Wu 1992:145 [ref. 21205], Zhang et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Schistura waltoni (Fowler 1937) -- (Kottelat 1990:222 [ref. 14137], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:177 [ref. 31357], Kottelat 2012:120 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:212 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura waltoni (Fowler 1937). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

obtusirostra, Triplophysa Wu [Y.-F.] & Wu [C.-Z.] 1988:197 [200], Figs. 1-5 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 17736] Lake at the source of the Kar Qu in the sources of the Huanghe River, 38°48'N, 96°24'E, China. Holotype: NPIB 856031. Paratypes: NPIB 856032 (1), 856082-86 (5). English summary on p. 200. •Valid as Triplophysa obtusirostra Wu & Wu 1988 -- (Zhu 1995:117 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa obtusirostra Wu & Wu 1988. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

obtusirostris, Yunnanilus Yang [J.-X.] in Yang & Chen 1995:21 [184], Fig. 6 [The biology and resource utilization of the fishes of Fuxian Lake, Yunnan; ref. 23555] West Dragon Spring, flowing into Fuxian Lake, 24°30'N, 102°53'E, Chengjiang County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 878052 [1987004000]. Paratypes: KIZ 878050 (1), 878053-55 (3), 8711100-02 (3). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. In English on p. 184. •Valid as Yunnanilus obtusirostris Yang 1995 -- (Li et al. 2000:351 [ref. 26012], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Chen et al. 2012:62 [ref. 31907], Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32910], Du et al. 2015:253 [ref. 34050], Zhang et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus obtusirostris Yang 1995. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Fuxian Lake region, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellata, Cobitis McClelland [J.] 1839:304, 436, Pl. 51 (fig. 6) [Asiatic Researches v. 19 (pt 2); ref. 2923] Brahmaputra River [at Goalpara], India. No types known. Unneeded replacement name for Cobitis bilturio Hamilton 1822. •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:28 [ref. 14137], Kottelat 2012:75 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Singer & Page 2015:386 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellata, Schistura McClelland [J.] 1839:441 [Asiatic Researches v. 19 (pt 2); ref. 2923] Upper Assam, India. Types unknown. •Species inquirendae et incertae sedis in Nemacheilidae -- (Kottelat 2012:74 [ref. 32367]). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

oedipus, Noemacheilus Kottelat [M.] 1988:225, Fig. 1 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 40 (no. 4); ref. 13829] Tham Nam Lang [= Nam Lang Cave], 19°31'N, 98°09'E, Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand. Holotype: AMS I.25986-002. Paratypes: AMS I.25986-001 (1). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Schistura oedipus (Kottelat 1988) -- (Kottelat 1990:174 [ref. 14137], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Romero & Paulson 2001:21 [ref. 26040], Trajano et al. 2002:169 [ref. 26082], Vidthayanon & Jaruthanin 2002:19 [ref. 26523], Proudlove 2006:96 [ref. 28992], Kottelat 2012:341 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:114 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura oedipus (Kottelat 1988). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

oligolepis, Paracobitis variegatus Cao [W.-X.] & Zhu [S.-Q.] in Zheng et al. 1989:48 [Engl. p. 410], Fig. 27 [Fishes of the Zhujiang River; ref. 21202] Yangzonghai, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: IHASW 63-V-553. Paratypes: IHASW 63-V-465 (1), 63-V-551 to 552 (1, 1), 63-V-559 (1), 63-V-1077 (1). Authors are W.-X. Cao and S.-Q. Zhu. •Valid species, may be in genus Homatula -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:444 [ref. 23187]). •Synonym of Paracobitis variegatus (Dabry de Thiersant 1874), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Zheng et al. 1989:48 [ref. 21202]). •Valid as Paracobitis oligolepis Cao & Zhu 1989 -- (Zhu 1989:35 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:109 [ref. 25213], Min et al. 2010:202 [ref. 30726]). •Valid as Homatula oligolepis (Cao & Zhu 1989) -- (Hu & Zhang 2010:52 [ref. 30780], Gu & Zhang 2012:597 [ref. 31632], Min et al. 2012:313 [ref. 32341], Kottelat 2012:84 [ref. 32367], Min et al. 2013:354 [ref. 32529], Zhang et al. 2016:128 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2018:565 [ref. 35763], Li et al. 2019:347 [ref. 37175]). Current status: Valid as Homatula oligolepis (Cao & Zhu 1989). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yangzonghai [Yangzong Lake], Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

olivaceus, Nemachilus Boulenger [G. A.] 1894:250 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 13 (no. 75) (art. 26); ref. 535] Bongon, northern Borneo. Lectotype: BMNH 1893.5.30.63. Paralectotype: BMNH 1893.5.30.64-67 (4). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1984:234. •Valid as Nemacheilus olivaceus Boulenger 1894 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:55 [ref. 23448], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Martin-Smith & Tan 1998:587 [ref. 23647], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010:45 [ref. 30914], Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989], Wilkinson & Tan 2018:602 [ref. 36226]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus olivaceus Boulenger 1894. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Northern Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

oreas, Orthrias Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1903:769, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 26 (no. 1332); ref. 2461] Chitose in Iburi, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype (unique): Sapporo Mus. Non-types: BMNH 1905.2.4.134 [from Jordan] (1). •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:869 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies nuda (Bleeker 1868) -- (Zhu 1989:29 [ref. 17744]). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Okada 1961:541 [ref. 6363], Vasil'eva 1998:95 [ref. 23591], Sideleva 2001:54 [ref. 26181], Sideleva 2003:11 [ref. 27815], Kottelat 2006:53 [ref. 28831]). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies oreas (Jordan & Fowler 1903) -- (Prokofiev 2007:15 [ref. 30347]). •Valid as Barbatula oreas (Jordan & Fowler 1903) -- (Kottelat 2012:79 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula oreas (Jordan & Fowler 1903). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hokkaido, Japan, South Korea. Habitat: freshwater.

orientalis, Nemachilus kungessanus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:44, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Tsaidam [Zaidam], Chuan-Che River, Qinghai Province, China. Syntypes: ZIN 7232 (4), 7271 (6+). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa orientalis (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:84 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:172 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:67 [ref. 21531], Zhang et al. 1995:50 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:114 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:68 [ref. 23556], Prokofiev 2002:S47 [ref. 27462], Prokofiev 2006:256 [ref. 29061], Li et al. 2007:47 [ref. 29309], Zheng et al. 2010:[4] [ref. 30841], Prokofiev 2010:907 [ref. 31096], He et al. 2012:278 [ref. 32339], Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989], Li et al.2015:423 [ref. 33642], Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966], Prokofiev 2016:201 [ref. 34459] and Nemacheilus orientalis orientalis p. 203, Zhang et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665], Zhang et al. 2019:388 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa orientalis (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

ornatissimus, Nemacheilus Doi [A.] 1997:16 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 44 (no. 1); ref. 22832] Mispelling of the name used by Chin & Samat 1992 [ref. 21366]. See Nemacheilus elegantissimus. Current status: Synonym of Nemacheilus elegantissimus Chin & Samat 1992. Nemacheilidae.

ornatus, Nemacheilus Kottelat [M.] 1990:61, Figs. 34-35 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Khlong Sok at Ban Khlong Sok, 8°49'N, 98°35'E, Tapi River basin, Surat Thani Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27469 [now ZRC 38466] [ex CMK 5181]. Paratypes: CAS 62552 (6), CMK 5181 (7), NIFI 2182 (6). •Valid as Nemacheilus ornatus Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:435 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Freyhof & Serov 2001:137 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus ornatus Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

orthocauda, Barbatula Mai [D. Y.] 1978:231, Fig. 105 [Identification of the fresh-water fishes of North Viet Nam v. 1; ref. 13511] Northern Vietnam. Holotype (unique): DVZUT. •Valid as Barbatula orthocauda Mai 1978 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:143 [ref. 25364]). •Status uncertain, perhaps based on a damaged specimen of Schistura -- (Kottelat 2001:48 [ref. 25482]). •Valid as Schistura orthocauda (Mai 1978) -- (Kottelat 2012:114 [ref. 32367] with question, Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Schistura orthocauda (Mai 1978). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Vietnam (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

oxiana, Nemacheilus brandtii var. Kessler [K. F.] 1877:177 [The Aralo-Caspian Expedition; ref. 2597] Amu Darya River, Uzbekistan. Holotype (unique): ZIN (not found in 1996). •Valid as Nemacheilus oxianus Kessler 1877 -- (Berg 1949:879 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1981:15 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as 'Oxynoemacheilus' oxiana (Kessler 1877) -- (Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus oxianus (Kessler 1877). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Uzbekistan. Habitat: freshwater.

oxygnathus, Nemachilus Regan [C. T.] 1908:357 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 2 (no. 10); ref. 14350] Yunnan Fu, China. Lectotype: BMNH 1908.2.27.23. Paralectotype: BMNH 1908.2.27.24 (1). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Yang et al. 1994:62 [ref. 28152] mention a lectotype for this species, but evidently no lectotype was designated; they mention syntypes on p. 60. Lectotype selected as BMNH 1908.2.27-24 by Bǎnǎrescu & Nalbant 1974, which is 1908.2.27.23. •Synonym of Paracobitis variegatus (Dabry de Thiersant 1874) -- (Zhu 1989:32 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:140 [ref. 21205], Yang & Chen 1994:59 [ref. 28152], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:49 [ref. 23556]). •Synonym of Homatula variegata (Dabry de Thiersant 1874) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:444 [ref. 23187], Kottelat 2012:84 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2019:364 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Homatula variegata (Dabry de Thiersant 1874). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pachycephalus, Yunnanilus Kottelat [M.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1988:74, Fig. 10 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 23 (nos 1-2); ref. 13392] Stream Weizhangho at Yangliu, 26°38'N, 104°15'E, Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 82100392. Paratypes: KIZ 82100328-40 (13), 82100346-50 (5), 82100352-91 (40), 82100393-410 (18). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Yunnanilus pachycephalus Kottelat & Chu 1988 -- (Yang & Chen 1995:23 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:107 [ref. 25213], Chen et al. 2012:62 [ref. 31907], Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32910] as pachycephalu, Du et al. 2015:253 [ref. 34050], Zhang et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus pachycephalus Kottelat & Chu 1988. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

pakistanicus, Noemacheilus Mirza [M. R.] & Bănărescu [P. M.] in Mirza, Bănărescu & Nalbant 1969:87, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-3) [Pakistan Journal of Zoology v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 7836] Hindubaugh, Zhob River drainage, Pakistan. Paratypes: ZMA 114462 (1), ISBB 2232 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:31-32 [ref. 19236], Menon 1987:46 [ref. 14149]. •Valid as Nemacheilus pakistanicus Mirza & Bănărescu 1969 -- (Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1987:44 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:493 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura pakistanica (Mirza & Bănărescu 1969) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:15 [ref. 27265]) •Valid as Paraschistura pakistanica (Mirza & Bănărescu 1969) -- (Kottelat 2012:101 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura pakistanica (Mirza & Bănărescu 1969). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

pallidus, Nemacheilus Kottelat [M.] 1990:63, Figs. 36-37 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Huai Mae Phlung from Ban Pong (18°42'N, 99°58'E), to 17 kilometers upstream, Mae Nam Yom basin, Lampang Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27470 [now ZRC 38468] [ex CMK 4835]. Paratypes: CMK 4366 (1, c&s), 4835 (7), 5022 (1), 5028 (3), 5678 (14), 5853 (4), 5859 (1); MNHN 1988-0090 (4), 1988-0091 (10); NIFI 1011 (39), 1065 (39), 1611 (8), 1731 (1), 2062 (43), 2166 (4). Plus additional non-type material. Type catalog: Neumann 2011:239 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Nemacheilus pallidus Kottelat 1990 -- (Rainboth 1996:128 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 1998:69 [ref. 23436], Freyhof et al. 2000:95 [ref. 25184], Freyhof & Serov 2001:137 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:100 [ref. 25780], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:204 [ref. 31485], Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus masyae Smith 1933 -- (Page et al. 2020:400 [ref. 37540]). Current status: Synonym of Nemacheilus masyae Smith 1933. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

paludani, Noemacheilus sargadensis Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1966:167, Figs. 9-10; Pl. 21 (figs. 1-2) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 129; ref. 218] Small tributary of Pech River, Kabul River drainage, at Gusalek, northeastern Afghanistan. Holotype: ZMUC P27101 [orig. 2801]. Paratypes: ZMUC P27102-04 [orig. 2802-2804] (3). Type information: Nielsen 1974:49 [ref. 9588]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus sargadensis Nikolskii 1899 -- (Coad 1981:15 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Schistura punjabensis (Hora 1923) -- (Kullander et al. 1999:137 [ref. 23689]). •Questionably the same as Paraschistura punjabensis (Hora 1923) -- (Kottelat 2012:201 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Paraschistura punjabensis (Hora 1923). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

paludosus, Yunnanilus Kottelat [M.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1988:76, Fig. 12 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 23 (nos 1-2); ref. 13392] Tatantze, Datangzi Village, ca 24°52'N, 104°18'E, Luoping County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 806059 [KIZ 1980001276]. Paratypes: KIZ. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Yunnanilus paludosus Kottelat & Chu 1988 -- (Yang 1991:199 [ref. 13585], Zhu 1995:106 [ref. 25213], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Kottelat 2012:135 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Zhang et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus paludosus Kottelat & Chu 1988. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

pambaensis, Noemacheilus denisoni Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:103, Pl. 10 (figs. 5-6) [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Sabarigiri, Kerala, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F563. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F564 (13). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:366 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus denisoni Day 1867 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:477 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus denisoni Day 1867, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Menon 1999:171 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Schistura denisoni (Day 1867), but a valid subspecies pambaensis (Menon 1987) -- (Sreekantha et al. 2006:2216 [ref. 28597]). •Synonym of Schistura denisoni (Day 1867) -- (Kottelat 2012:108 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura denisoni (Day 1867). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pambarensis, Noemacheilus (Mesonoemacheilus) Rema Devi [K.] & Indra [T. J.] 1994:207, Fig. 1 (separate plate) [Records of the Zoological Survey of India v. 94 (nos 2-4); ref. 23719] Pambar River at border of Chinnar Sanctuary, Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Holotype: ZSI/SRS F.4095. Paratypes: ZSI/SRS F.3496 (29). Original genus should have been Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus pambarensis Rema Devi & Indra 1994 -- (Rema Devi et al. 1996:135 [ref. 24021], Raju Thomas et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26359]). •Valid as Mesonoemacheilus pambarensis (Rema Devi & Indra 1994) -- (Rema Devi & Indra 2002:334 [ref. 26591], Shaji 2002:219 [ref. 27556], Kottelat 2012:88 [ref. 32367], Anoop et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35652], Bleher 2018:144 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Mesonoemacheilus pambarensis (Rema Devi & Indra 1994). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, Kerala, southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

pangensis, Aborichthys Shangningam [B.], Kosygin [L.], Sinha [B.] & Gurumayum [S. D.] 2019:364, Figs. 3-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 29 (no. 4) IEF-1123; ref. 37201] Pange River at Arolenching, Ziro, Brahmaputra basin, Lower Subansiri District, Arunachal Pradesh, India, 27°29'16"N, 93°51'95"E, elevation 1,600 meters. Holotype: ZSI FF 8000. Paratypes: ZSI FF 8001 (2). •Valid as Aborichthys pangensis Shangningam, Kosygin, Sinha & Gurumayum 2019. Current status: Valid as Aborichthys pangensis Shangningam, Kosygin, Sinha & Gurumayum 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pange River drainage, upper Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Habitat: freshwater.

panguri, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1936:318, Pl. 12 (figs. 3-4); Figs. 8-9 [Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences v. 10 (art. 17); ref. 10431] Pangur Tso and Tso Nyak [Upper Indus River], Kashmir, India. Syntypes: ZSI F12204/1 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:123 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:364 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus panguri Hora 1936 -- (Tilak 1990:144 [ref. 23720] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Triplophysa stewarti (Hora 1922) -- (Zhu 1989:98 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:168 [ref. 21205], Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Triplophysa panguri (Hora 1936) -- (Usharamalakshmi et al. 2018:1 [ref. 36315]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa panguri (Hora 1936). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Indus River basin, Kashmir, India. Habitat: freshwater.

panthera, Cobitis Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1087 [97] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Damascus, Syria. Syntypes: NMW 48565 (3), NRM 15478 [ex NMW] (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:31-32 [ref. 19236], Menon 1987:46 [ref. 14149]). Illustrated by Heckel 1843, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [ref. 2067]. On p. 97 of separate [ref. 2067]. •Valid as Nemacheilus panthera (Heckel 1843) -- (Goren 1974:94 [ref. 7502] as Noemacheilus, Coad 1991:24 [ref. 15702]). •Valid as Orthrias panthera (Heckel 1843) -- (Bănărescu et al. 1978:264 [ref. 9016], Bănărescu et al. 1982:14 [ref. 174]). •Valid as Barbatula panthera (Heckel 1843) -- (based on status of Barbatula). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus panthera (Heckel 1843) -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus panthera (Heckel 1843). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Syria and Turkey. Habitat: freshwater.

pantherina, Schistura Page [L. M.], Plongsesthee [R.] & Randall [Z. S.] in Page, Plongsesthee, Beamosh, Kangrang, Randall, Singer, et al. 2012:320, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 3586; ref. 32342] Thong Pha Phum, Mae Khlong basin, Mae Nam Kwai Noi system, Kroeng Krawia, on Hwy 323 at km 32, near Prang Phe, 14°58'17"N, 98°38'24"E, Kanchanaburi Prov.,Thailand. Holotype: NIFI 4675. Paratypes: UF 184183 (1). •Valid as Schistura pantherina Page, Plongsesthee & Randall 2012. Current status: Valid as Schistura pantherina Page, Plongsesthee & Randall 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mae Klong basin, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

pantheroides, Orthrias Goren [M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Bănărescu, Nalbant & Goren 1982:16, Fig. 14-18; Pl. 2 (figs. 9-10) [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 31 (nos 1-2); ref. 174] Tanuria Springs, Golan Heights, Israel, 32°58'N, 35°48'E, Jordan River system. Holotype: TAU 8292 [= SMNHTAU]. Paratypes: ISBB 3437 (1), 3438 [ex TAU [= SMNHTAU] 2916] (?1), 3455 (5); SMF 17125 [ex ISBB 3455] (3); TAU [= SMNHTAU] 2916 (?16), 3083 (1), 3250 (1), 8280 (9); USNM 227927 (1). •Synonym of Nemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Krupp & Schneider 1989:380 [ref. 13651]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus pantheroides (Goren & Nalbant 1982) -- (Prokofiev 2009:881 [ref. 30604]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:309 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:97 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

papillos, Nemacheilus Tan [H. H.] & Kottelat [M.] 2009:53, Figs. 40-41 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 30261] Sungai Sentang, near Desa Sukajaya, about 5 kilometers from road (turn-off at about 12 kilometers on road from Bayung Lencir to Jambi), Sumatra Selatan, Sumatra. Holotype: MZB 10994. Paratypes: CMK 13019 (4), ZRC 42398 (15), 43034 (14), 43096 (6), 51760 (1) Name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Nemacheilus papillos Tan & Kottelat 2009 -- (Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:204 [ref. 31485] as papillosus, Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus papillos Tan & Kottelat 2009. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lower Batang Hari drainage and adjacent Sungai Lalang in the Musi drainage, Sumatra. Habitat: freshwater.

papillosa, Modigliania Perugia [A.] 1893:246 [6] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 13; ref. 3434] Toba Lake, Balighe, Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: MSNG 9230 (6) Toba Lake, ZMA 112874 (2). Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:188 [ref. 10343], Nijssen et al. 1982:31 [ref. 19236]. On p. 6 of separate. •Possibly valid, in Nemacheilus -- (Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:186 [ref. 25685], Tan & Kottelat 2009:56 [ref. 30261]). •Questionably valid in 'Nemacheilus' papillosus Perugia 1893 -- (Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367]), questionably valid as Nemacheilus papillosus Perugia 1893 -- (Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Nemacheilus papillosus Perugia 1893. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

papillosolabiata, Diplophysa Kessler [K. F.] 1879:299 [Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 25; ref. 2598] Juldus and Balantaigol rivers, Tarim River system, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Syntypes: ZIN 4191-93 (2, 1, 1). Originally as papilloso-labiata. Also appeared as new in Kessler 1879:257 [ref. 14266]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus strauchii (Kessler 1874) -- (Berg 1949:851 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus strauchi). •Synonym of Triplophysa tenuis (Day 1876) -- (Zhu 1989:95 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:184 [ref. 21205]). •Valid as Triplophysa papillosolabiata (Kessler 1879) -- (Prokofiev 2006:256 [ref. 29061], Li et al. 2007:54 [ref. 29309], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa papillosolabiata (Kessler 1879). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tarim-Yarkland River system, Xinjiang, China. Habitat: freshwater.

pappenheimi, Nemacheilus Fang [P.-W.] 1935:761, Figs. 8-9 [Sinensia v. 6 (no. 6); ref. 17141] Si-ning-fu, China. Holotype: ZMB 16462. Paratypes: ZMB 16463 (1), ?AMB 16464 (1). Holotype designated in caption to Fig. 8. •Valid as Triplophysa pappenheimi (Fang 1935) -- (Zhu 1989:101 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:231 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:85 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:116 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:73 [ref. 23556], Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa pappenheimi (Fang 1935). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yellow River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

papulifera, Schistura Kottelat [M.], Harries [D. R.] & Proudlove [G. S.] 2007:36, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 1393; ref. 28942] Cave of Synrang Pamiang system, Maintia Hills, Krem Umsngat entrance, 25°11'14"N, 92°21'03"E, Meghalaya State, India. Holotype: MHNG 2680.074. Paratypes: CMK 16040 (1). •Valid as Schistura papulifera Kottelat, Harries & Proudlove 2007 -- (Kottelat 2012:346 [ref. 32232], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:260 [ref. 32337], Kottelat 2012:114 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:5 [ref. 32463], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Khynrian & Sen 2014:20 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33318], Choudhury et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35681]). Current status: Valid as Schistura papulifera Kottelat, Harries & Proudlove 2007. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave of Synrang Pamiang system, Meghalaya, India. Habitat: freshwater.

paradoxus, Nemachilus Turdakov [F. A.] 1955:153 [Ucenye Zapiski Biologo Pouvennogo Fakul'teta, Kirgizskij Gosudartvennyj Universitet v. 5; ref. 21483] Karakol River, Talass River basin, Kyrgyzstan. Syntypes: ZMMU P-8797 (1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:26 [ref. 25714]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Original description not translated. •Valid as Triplophysa paradoxa (Turdakov 1955) -- (Prokofiev 2006:256 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2010:908 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa paradoxa (Turdakov 1955). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Talas River basin, Kyrgyzstan. Habitat: freshwater.

paraxena, Schistura Endruweit [M.] 2017:145, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4277 (no. 1); ref. 35362] Changdonghe River, Xi River, Pearl River drainage, Jinxiu City, Laibin Prefecture, Guangxi Province, China, approximately 24°05'N, 110°04'E. Holotype: KIZ 2005010297. Paratypes: KIZ. •Valid as Schistura paraxena Endruweit 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura paraxena Endruweit 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: West River, Pearl River drainage, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

pardalis, Nemachilus Turdakov [F. A.] 1941:219, Fig. 1 [Archives du Musée Zoologique de l'Université de Moscou v. 6; ref. 13188] Dyushambinka River at Dushanbe [Stalinabad], Tadzhikistan. Holotype: ZMMU P-3791. Paratypes: (43). Type catalog: Svetovidova 1978:258 [ref. 9011], Vasil'eva et al. 2001:26 [ref. 25714]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus pardalis Turdakov 1941 -- (Berg 1949:881 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Nemacheilus kuschakewitschi Herzenstein 1890 -- (see Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Iskandaria kuschakewitschi (Herzenstein 1890), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:889 [ref. 30604], Prokofiev 2017:262 [ref. 35630]). •Valid as Iskandaria pardalis (Turdakov 1941) -- (Kottelat 2012:86 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Iskandaria pardalis (Turdakov 1941). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tadshikistan. Habitat: freshwater.

parisiensis, Cobitis barbatula var. De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:534 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] Name only, not available. From Paris, France. •In the synonymy of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2012:77 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). Nemacheilidae.

parva, Heminoemacheilus Zhu [Y.] & Zhu [D.-G.] 2015:18, Fig. 1 [Journal of Guangdong Ocean University 2014 (no. 6) (for Dec. 2014); ref. 33692] Cave, Ande Town, Jingxi County, Guangxi, Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Holotype: 2011006. Paratypes: 2011007-9 (3). •Valid as Heminoemacheilus parva Zhu & Zhu 2015. Current status: Valid as Heminoemacheilus parva Zhu & Zhu 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

parvinae, Oxynoemacheilus Sayyadzadeh [G.], Eagderi [S.] & Esmaeili [H. R.] 2016:238, Figs. 2-10 [Iranian Journal of Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 34976] Javanrud city, at Sharvineh village, Leilehrud (Leileh River), a tributary of Sirvan River drainage, Tigris basin, Kermanshah Province, Iran, 34°49'37.9"N, 46°21'30.0"E. Holotype: ZM-CBSU H1987. Paratypes: ZM-CBSU. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus parvinae Sayyadzadeh, Eagderi & Esmaeili 2016 -- (Freyhof & Abdullah 2017:87 [ref. 35169], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:389 [ref. 35216], Esmaeili et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:552 [ref. 35290], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Esmaeili et al. 2018:46 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus parvinae Sayyadzadeh, Eagderi & Esmaeili 2016. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Sirvan River drainage, Tigris river basin, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

parvus, Triplophysa Chen [?], Li [W.-X.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2009:86, Figs. 2, 3A [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 248 (no. 2); ref. 30169] Jialonghe River, 24°57'N, 103°07'E, between Yangzonghai Lake to the Nanpanjiang River, Yiliang County, Yunnan Province, China, elevatione 1770 meters. Holotype: KIZ 75413007. Paratypes: KIZ 75413001 (1), 750413002 (1), 750413004 (1). Plus 6 non-type specimens in KIZ. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:353 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Triplophysa parvus Chen, Li & Yang 2009 -- (Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa parvus Chen, Li & Yang 2009. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Jialonghe River, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

parvus, Yunnanilus Kottelat [M.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1988:77, Fig. 13 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 23 (nos 1-2); ref. 13392] Nandong cave, 23°39'N, 103°17'E, Kaiyuan City, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 847174 [KIZ 1984001244]. Paratypes: KIZ. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Yunnanilus parvus Kottelat & Chu 1988 -- (Zhu 1995:106 [ref. 25213], Zhu et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30145], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Kottelat 2012:136 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Zhang et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus parvus Kottelat & Chu 1988. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

pasatigris, Paraschistura Freyhof [J.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Esmaeili [H. R.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2015:37, Figs. 42-47 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 33865] Khozestan Province, Bala River (Balarud), at Dezful, a tributary of Dez River, 32°20'14"N, 48°17'14"E, Iran. Holotype: ZM-CBSU J3247. Paratypes: ZM-CBSU J3248 (28). Plus non-type material. Paraschistura ilamensis Vatandoust & Eagderi 2015 has two days priority over P. pasatigris Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015 if these taxa are considered synonymous. •Valid as Paraschistura pasatigris Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2017:72 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:51 [ref. 36089]). •Synonym of Paraschistura ilamensis Vatandoust & Eagderi 2015 -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:888 [ref. 34062], Eagderi et al. 2019:264 [ref. 36967]). Current status: Synonym of Paraschistura ilamensis Vatandoust & Eagderi 2015. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

paucicincta, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:177, Figs. 133-134 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Huai Mae Charno, 4 kilometers south of Amphoe Mae Ramat on road 1085, 16°58'N, 98°34'E, Salween basin, Tak Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27481 [now ZRC 38464] [ex ZMK 4917]. Paratypes: NIFI 2175 (1). Type catqalog: Neumann 2011:242 [ref. 31652]. Holotype now at ZRC. •Valid as Schistura paucicincta Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003:172 [ref. 26859], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:173 [ref. 31357], Ou et al. 2011:197 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:115 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura paucicincta Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

paucifasciatus, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1929:330, Fig. 3; Pl. 15 (figs. 1-2) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 31 (pt 4); ref. 15899] Hwe-gna-sang River, Pazi Township, Monglong subdivision of Hsipaw State, northern Shan States, Myanmar. Holotype: ZSI F 6314/1. Paratypes: BMNH 1930.3.3.4 [ex ZSI] (1) Monglong, ZSI (13). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:123 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:364 [ref. 27706]. Locality is Myanmar -- Heico Bleher email Mar. 2016. •Synonym of Nemacheilus cincticauda (Blyth 1860) -- (Menon 1987:123 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:475 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura paucifasciata (Hora 1929) -- (Kottelat 1990:180 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:174 [ref. 31357], Ou et al. 2011:197 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:115 [ref. 32367], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[6] [ref. 33603], Suvarnaraksha 2015:169 [ref. 33813]). Current status: Valid as Schistura paucifasciata (Hora 1929). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

paucilepis, Barbatula Erk'akan [F.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Özeren [S. C.] 2007:79, Fig. 9 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 29026] Sivas, Mancilik Stream, Gürün, 38°39'N, 37°38'E, Turkey. Holotype: HUIC F2. Paratypes: HUIC F2 (7). •Valid as Paracobitis paucilepis (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007) -- (Prokofiev 2009:881 [ref. 30604], Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus paucilepis (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Freyhof & Özuluğ 2017:389 [ref. 35216], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Çiçek et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36267], Turan et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 36540], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus paucilepis (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: tributaries in Kangal and Gürün, Sivas Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

paucimaculatus, Nemacheilus Bohlen [J.] & Šlechtová [V.] 2011:201, Figs. 1-3 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 59 (no. 2); ref. 31485] Tributary of Segamat River, upstream of Segamat, 2°28'47"N, 103°05'13"E, Johor, Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 52631. Paratypes: CMK 22255 (1), IAPG A1742-1743 (2), ZRC 2063 (35). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Nemacheilus paucimaculatus Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011 -- (Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:520 [ref. 36606] as cf. paucimaculatus). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus paucimaculatus Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Malaya (Malaysia). Habitat: freshwater.

paucireticulata, Schistura Lokeshwor [Y.], Vishwanath [W.] & Kosygin [L.] 2013:582, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 3682 (no. 5); ref. 32764] Mizoram: Aizawl District: Tuirial River near Aizawl (the Barak-Surma-Meghna river system); 23°43′12.49″N, 92°47′59.43″E, India, altitude 175 meters. Holotype: MUMF 11120. Paratypes: MUMF 11121 (1), 11122-23 (2), •Valid as Schistura paucireticulata Lokeshwor, Vishwanath & Kosygin 2013 -- (Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628], Choudhury et al. 2019:50 [ref. 36483]). Current status: Valid as Schistura paucireticulata Lokeshwor, Vishwanath & Kosygin 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Barak-Surma-Meghna drainage system, Mizoram, India. Habitat: freshwater.

pavonacea, Cobitis McClelland [J.] 1839:305, 437, Pl. 52 (fig. 1) [Asiatic Researches v. 19 (pt 2); ref. 2923] Assam, India. Syntypes: ?SMF 68 (1), 9070 (1), 9090-91 (2). •Valid as Nemacheilus pavonaceus (McClelland 1839) -- (Menon 1987:150 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:493 [ref. 20764], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:433 [ref. 23187], Menon 1999:182 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus pavonaceus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Acanthocobitis pavonacea (McClelland 1839) -- (Grant 2007:3 [ref. 29366], Grant 2008:13 [ref. 33826] as a subgenus Paracanthocobitis, Kottelat 2012:51 [ref. 31992], Kottelat 2012:76 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:198 [ref. 32989], Khynrian & Sen 2014:9 [ref. 33853], Singer & Page 2015:380 [ref. 33823], Bleher 2018:132 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Acanthocobitis pavonacea (McClelland 1839). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, India. Habitat: freshwater.

pawensis, Schistura Bohlen [J.] & Šlechtová [V.] 2013:26, Figs. 4-7 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no.1); ref. 32804] Shan state, stream Nam Paw west of Hsipaw city, 22°37'40" N, 97°18'17" E, Myanmar. Holotype: ZRC 53776. Paratypes: IAPG A5901 (1), ZRC 53577 (1). •Valid as Schistura pawensis Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013 -- (Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Shangningam et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33318], Kottelat 2017:6 [ref. 35482], Choudhury et al. 2019:190 [ref. 37121]). Current status: Valid as Schistura pawensis Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Irrawaddy River drainage, Shan State, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

pechiliensis, Nemachilus Fowler [H. W.] 1899:181 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 51; ref. 17572] Tan lan Ho River, tributary of Shan lan Ho River, about 30 miles northeast of Lama-miau or Dolon-nor, Pechili Province, Inner Mongolia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 16394 (missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:869 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Okada 1961:541 [ref. 6363] as pichiliensis, Kottelat 2006:53 [ref. 28831]). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies nuda (Bleeker 1868) -- (Zhu 1989:29 [ref. 17744]). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Prokofiev 2007:17 [ref. 30343]). •Synonym of Barbatula toni fowleri Fowler 1925 -- (Cao et al. 2012:241 [ref. 35335]). •Synonym of Barbatula nuda (Bleeker 1964) -- (Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367] with question). •Possible senior synonym of Barbatula potaninorum (Prokofiev 2007) -- (Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065]). •Valid as Barbatula pechiliensis (Fowler 1899) -- (Chen et al. 2019:15 [ref. 36569]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula pechiliensis (Fowler 1899). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Luan, Hai, Yin and Nu'er River drainages and Dali-Nur Lake, northern China. Habitat: freshwater.

pedaschenkoi, Diplophysa strauchi ulacholica var. Berg [L. S.] 1931:312, Fig. 2 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 96 (nos 11/12); ref. 16258] Apparently not available, infrasubspecific as a variety of a subspecies; from Karasy Bay, Lake Issyk-kul, Kyrgyzstan. Subsequently treated as available -- see Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061]. •In the synonymy of Nemacheilus strauchii (Kessler 1874) -- (Berg 1949:856 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus strauchi). •In the synonymy of Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler 1874) -- (Kottelat 2006:89 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2012:129 [ref. 32367]). •Apparently valid as Triplophysa pedaschenkoi (Berg 1931) -- (Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler 1874). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

peguensis, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1929:320, Pl. 14 (figs. 1-2) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 31 (pt 4); ref. 15899] Pegu Yoma hills, east of the Irrawaddy River, Myanmar. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11057/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:123 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:364 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus peguensis Hora 1929 -- (Menon 1987:178 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:494 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:187 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura peguensis (Hora 1929) -- (Vishwanath & Shanta Kumar 2006:210 [ref. 28652]). •Valid as Neonoemacheilus peguensis (Hora 1929) -- (Kottelat 1990:75 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:436 [ref. 23187], Arunkumar 2000:45 [ref. 25660], Vishwanath & Laisram 2001:203 [ref. 25886], Kottelat 2012:93 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989], Khynrian & Sen 2014:11 [ref. 33853], Bleher 2018:184 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Neonoemacheilus peguensis (Hora 1929). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Manipur, India and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

pellegrini, Nemacheilus Rendahl [H.] 1944:26, Figs. 13-14, 16-17 [Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps-och Vitterhets-Samhälles Handlingar (Ser. 6 B) v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 3705] Thua Luu, 50 kilometers southeast of Hué, Annam, Vietnam. Holotype: NHMG. Paratypes: NHMG 1939-7591 (25). •Synonym of Nemacheilus fasciolatus (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Zhu & Cao 1987:327 [ref. 14139] with genus as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Schistura fasciolata (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Zhu 1989:47 [ref. 17744]). •Valid as Schistura pellegrini (Rendahl 1944) -- (Kottelat 1990:183 [ref. 14137], Rainboth 1996:131 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Ou et al. 2011:197 [ref. 31692]). •Synonym of Schistura spiloptera (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:176 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2012:119 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:212 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura spiloptera (Valenciennes 1846). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Coastal streams in eastern Vietnam (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

periyarensis, Nemacheilus Kurup [B. M.] & Radhakrishnan [K. V.] 2005:75, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 102 (pt 1); ref. 28530] Lake Periyar, Kerala, India. Holotype: ZSI (EGRS) CLT.V/F 13030. Paratypes: School of Industrial Fisheries Museum (2). •Questionably valid as Mesonoemacheilus periyarensis (Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005) -- (Kottelat 2012:89 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Mesonoemacheilus periyarensis (Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005) -- (Anoop et al. 2017:131 [ref. 35652], Bleher 2018:146 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Mesonoemacheilus periyarensis (Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Headwaters of the Periyar River, Kerala, India. Habitat: freshwater.

persa, Cobitis Heckel [J. J.] 1847:266 [Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 2068] Springs at Persepolis, Fars Province, Iran. Holotype (unique): NMW 48567. If persa is a noun, then persa is the correct spelling when in Oxynoemacheilus. •Questionably a synonym of Nemacheilus angorae Steindachner 1897 -- (Coad 1995:21, 22 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Nemacheilus persa (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869]). •Valid as Orthrias persus (Heckel 1847) -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:110 [ref. 23810]). •Valid as Barbatula persa (Heckel 1847). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus persa (Heckel 1947) -- (Prokofiev 2009:881 [ref. 30604] dated 1846 as persus, Esmaeili et al. 2010:372 [ref. 33391] as persus, Freyhof et al. 2012:307, 309 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367], Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015:299 [ref. 34027], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:884 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2016:105 [ref. 34789], Freyhof 2016:100 [ref. 34815], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34976], Esmaeili et al. 2017:66 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:46 [ref. 36089], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2018:45 [ref. 36026]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus persa (Heckel 1847). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mond and Kor River and Lake Maharlu drainages, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

persa, Paracobitis Freyhof [J.], Esmaeili [H. R.], Sayyadzadeh [G.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2014:29, Figs. 19-22 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 33505] Fars Province, Maloosjan spring east of Beiza, Kor basin, 29°52'23"N, 52°27'37"E, Iran. Holotype: CM-CBSU J2659. Paratypes: FSJF 3450 (3); ZM-CBSU J2663-J2671 (9), J2689-J2694 (6). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Paracobitis persa Freyhof, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh & Geiger 2014 -- (Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:341 [ref. 33744], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:886 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:49 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Paracobitis persa Freyhof, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh & Geiger 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kor drainage, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

personata, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:67, Fig. 49 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Houay Sala Yai, a tributary of Nam San, 18°35'17"N, 103°05'00"E, Saisomboun Special Zone, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45362. Paratypes: CMK 13354 (12), LARRI uncat. (4), NRM 44897 (4), ZRC 45363 (4). •Valid as Schistura personata Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:113 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:115 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25 [ref. 32804], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura personata Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Ngum drainage, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

pertica, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:67, Fig. 50 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Ou at confluence with Houay Nam, 3 kilometers east southeast of Muang Khoa, 21°04'10.4"N, 102°31'43.8"E, Phongsali, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45364. Paratypes: CMK 14166 (40), LARRI uncat. (8), NRM 44914 (8), ZRC 45365 (8). •Valid as Schistura pertica Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:113 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:115 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Schistura pertica Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos and China. Habitat: freshwater.

pervagata, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:68, Fig. 51 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Small stream tributary of Nam Hao, 20°31'09"N, 104°21'44"E, Houaphan Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45366. Paratypes: CMK 15368 (12), 15418 (9); LARRI uncat. (5); NRM 44915 (5); ZRC 45367 (5). •Valid as Schistura pervagata Kottelat 2000 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:150, 168 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:48 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2001:113 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:115 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:154 [ref. 33205], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura pervagata Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Houapan province, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

petrubanarescui, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1984:45, Figs. 1-2 [Cybium v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 12845] Netravati River, Dharmasthala, Karnataka State, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F559. Paratypes: ISBB 3746 (1), SRS/ZSI F560 (2). •Valid as Nemacheilus petrubanarescui Menon 1984 -- (Menon 1987:166 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:495 [ref. 20764], Rama Devi 1994:210 [ref. 23719] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:185 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005:77 [ref. 28530]). •Valid as Mesonoemacheilus petrubanarescui (Menon 1984) -- (Shaji 2002:219 [ref. 27556], Kottelat 2012:88 [ref. 32367], Anoop et al. 2017:126 [ref. 35652], Bleher 2018:148 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Mesonoemacheilus petrubanarescui (Menon 1984). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, Kerala, southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

pfeifferi, Cobitis Bleeker [P.] 1853:298 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] Lake Meninju, Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7053. Paralectotypes: (5) RMNH 463 (4). Lectotype selected by Alfred 1961:34 [ref. 20552]. Named for a woman; the name has been emended, so the spelling pfeifferae is appropriate. •Valid as Nemacheilus pfeifferae (Bleeker 1853) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:55 [ref. 23448], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832] as pfeifferi, Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:186 [ref. 25685], Tan & Kottelat 2009:56 [ref. 30261] as pfeifferae, Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus pfeifferae (Bleeker 1853). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

phamhringi, Schistura Shangningam [B.], Lokeshwor [Y.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2014:182, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa 3786 (no. 2); ref. 33318] Manipur, Chandel District: Dutah Stream, tributary of Yu River near Larong Village (Chindwin-Irrawaddy basin), 24°15'3.87"N, 94°14'58.55 "E, India, altitude 283 meters. Holotype: NUMF 11157. Paratypes: MUMF, ZSI. •Valid as Schistura phamhringi Shangningam, Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014 -- (Choudhury et al. 2019:50 [ref. 36483]). Current status: Valid as Schistura phamhringi Shangningam, Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Ya River system, Manipur, India. Habitat: freshwater.

phongthoensis, Paracobitis Nguyen [V. H.] 2005:564, Fig. 11 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 2; ref. 29730] Muong So, Phong Thô (Lai Châu) Province, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): NCNTTS I. Type reported lost -- Endruweit 2014:153 [ref. 33205]. •Valid as Schistura phongthoensis (Nguyen 2005) -- (Kottelat 2012:115 [ref. 32367] with question, Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:154 [ref. 33205], Ho et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Uncertain as Schistura phongthoensis (Nguyen 2005). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam So River, Lai Chau province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

phoxinoides, Barbatula Erk'akan [F.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Özeren [S. C.] 2007:75, Fig. 6 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 29026] Iznik, Bursa Province, 40°41'N, 29°30'E, Turkey. Holotype: HUC MAR-7g. Paratypes: HUIC D12 (10). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus phoxinoides (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007) -- (Prokofiev 2009:881 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Erk'akan 2012:97 [ref. 32281], Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36267]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897) -- (Çiçek et al. 2019:16 [ref. 36528]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

phuketensis, Noemacheilus Klausewitz [W.] 1957:195, Fig. 1; Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 38 (nos 3/4); ref. 12152] Phuket Island, off the west coast of the south peninsula, Thailand. Holotype: SMF 3966. Paratypes: SMF 3967 (1), 4244 (1). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Acanthocobitis zonalternans (Blyth 1860) -- (Kottelat 1990:36 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:433 [ref. 23187] with reservation, Kottelat 2012:51 [ref. 31992], Kottelat 2012:76 [ref. 32367] with question, Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Paracanthocobitis zonalternans (Blyth 1860) -- (Singer & Page 2015:397 [ref. 33823]). •Valid as Paracanthocobitis phuketensis (Klausewitz 1957) -- (Singer et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35606]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis phuketensis (Klausewitz 1957). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Panang Tak drainage, Peninsular Thailand, Phuket Island and river drainages in northern Peninsular Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

pictava, Cobitis barbatula var. De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:534 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] Name only, not available; from France. •In the synonymy of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2012:77 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). Nemacheilidae.

pictilis, Acanthocobitis Kottelat [M.] 2012:45, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 3327; ref. 31992] Stream 'Chon Son' between Kyondaw and Phadaw, about 20 km northwest of Payathouzu (at border with Thailand near Chedi Sam Ong, Three Pagoda Pass), ca. 15°25'N, 98°15'E, Kayin State, Myanmar. Holotype: MHNG 2727.066. Paratypes: CMK 14601 (1), 17249 (2), 17509 (5), 17777 (5), 17967 (2), 18429 (1); MHNG 2727.067 (2); ZRC 53376 (1), 53377 (1). •Valid as Acanthocobitis pictilis Kottelat 2012 -- (Kottelat 2012:76 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Paracanthocobitis pictilis (Kottelat 1012) -- (Singer & Page 2015:394 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis pictilis (Kottelat 2012). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myanmar Habitat: freshwater.

pindus, Barbatula Economidis [P. S.] 2005:67, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 28213] Stream Sarantaporos near village Drosopygi, Aoos drainage, Epiros, Greece. Holotype: LZUT 1977-215a. Paratypes: CMK 13003 (2), 16926 (27), 16931 (2); LZUT 1977-215 (12), 1980-13 (13), 1985-15 (2), 1985-16 (6), 1987-13 (25), 1987-14 (1), 1987-31 (28), 1987-32 (6). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus pindus (Economidis 2005) -- (Stoumboudi et al. 2006:143 [ref. 28767], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:334 [ref. 29996], Prokofiev 2009:881 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:99 [ref. 32367], Barbieri et al. 2015:76 [ref. 35029]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus pindus (Economidis 2005). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Albania and Greece. Habitat: freshwater.

pindus, Orthrias Economidis [P. S.] 1991:26, 42, (fig. 4) [Check list of freshwater fishes of Greece; ref. 23018] Not available; name only, no description. Also appeared in Economidis 1992:49 [ref. 23021]. Later made available by Economidis 2005. •Treated as valid as Barbatula sp. -- (Kottelat 1997:94 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus pindus (Economidis 2005). Nemacheilidae.

pingguoensis, Paranemachilus Gan [X.] in Lan, Gan, Wu & Juan 2013:(28) 251, Figs. 18-19 [Science Press, Beijing; ref. 32910] Guohua Town, Pingguo County, Guangxi, 23.3°N, 107.3°E, China, elevation 274 meters. Holotype: CLJH 10060089. Paratypes: CLJH 10060098, 10060080, 10060093, 10060095, 10060096 (1 spec. ea.) •Valid as Paranemachilus pingguoensis Gan 2013 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Paranemachilus pingguoensis Gan 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pingguo County, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

pironae, Cobitis Nardo [G. D.] 1866:143 [Atti del regio Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Littere ed Arti (Ser. 3) v. 11; ref. 23026] [Basso Friuli] Lower Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy. No types known. Mention as variety of Cobitis barbatula, but name appeared as Cobitis Pironae. No description given but mention that description was to be published by Ninni. •In the synonymy of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2012:77 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). Nemacheilidae.

plagiognathus, Nemachilus dorsonotatus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:33, Pls. 5 (fig. 5), 7 (fig. 2) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Kunges River, elevation 4000 feet, Gansu Province; Lake Koko [Kuku-nor], Quinghai Province, China. Syntypes: ZIN 7252 (1), 4175 (2), 7319 (6+). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. For types localities see Kottelat 2006:89 [ref. 28831]. •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa stolickai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Kottelat 2006:89 [ref. 28831]). •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkae (Steindachner 1866) subspecies retropinnis (Herzenstein 1888). •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990] as stoliczkae). •Valid as Triplophysa plagiognathus (Herzentstein 1888) -- (Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa plagiognathus (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

platiceps, Nemacheilus Kottelat [M.] 1990:66, Figs. 38-40 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Trang Bom, Vietnam. Holotype: NRM 15095 [BJÖ/1935131.5095]. Paratypes: CMK 5857 (1); MNHN 1988-0092 to 0094 (2, 2, 1); NRM 14095 (1). •Valid as Nemacheilus platiceps Kottelat 1990 -- (Rainboth 1996:128 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 1998:69 [ref. 23436], Freyhof et al. 2000:95 [ref. 25184], Freyhof & Serov 2001:137 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:100 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:44 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus platiceps Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Xe Bangfai and Mekong basin. Habitat: freshwater.

platycephalus, Oreonectes Günther [A.] 1868:369 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Small stream near top of Hong Kong Mts., China, elevation 15000 feet. Syntypes: BMNH 1848.7.12.6-7 (2), 1855.3.27.16-18 (3), 1859.9.19.155-173 (19). •Valid as Oreonectes platycephalus Günther 1868 -- (Zhu & Cao 1987:326 [ref. 14139], Zheng et al. 1989:46 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1989:23 [ref. 17744], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:245 [ref. 23876], Lan et al. 1995:367 [ref. 23184], Zhu 1995:107 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2001:46 [ref. 25482], Prokofiev 2005:460 [ref. 28631], Zhang et al. 2006:614 [ref. 29423], Du et al. 2008:29 [ref. 29544], Huang et al. 2009:445 [ref. 30323], Yang et al. 2011:208 [ref. 31282], Tang et al. 2012:489 [ref. 31595], Kottelat 2012:346 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:94 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34477], Deng et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34511], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Huang et al. 2019:118 [ref. 37137]). Current status: Valid as Oreonectes platycephalus Günther 1868. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Guangxi, southern China and northern Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

pleskei, Octonema Herzenstein [S. M.] in Warpachowski & Herzenstein 1888:48, Pl. (fig. 5) [Trudy St.-Peterburgskogo Obscestva Estestvoispytatelej = Travaux de la Société des Naturalistes de St. Pétersbourg. v. 19 (no. 8) (for 1887); ref. 2152] Ilistaya [Lefu] River near Nikolajewka, Khanka Lake basin, Amur River drainage, Russia. Syntypes: BMNH 1891.10.7.73 [ex ZIN] (1), ZIN 7209 (orig. 5, now 4). •Synonym of Lefua costata (Kessler 1876) -- (Berg 1949:887 [ref. 20661], Zhu 1989:20 [ref. 17744], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:48 [ref. 22798], Vasil'eva 1998:96 [ref. 23591]). •Valid as Lefua pleskei (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Naseka & Bogutskaya 2004:284 [ref. 27838] dated 1887, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:115 [ref. 28183] dated 1887, Bogutskaya et al. 2008:340 [ref. 30085] dated 1887, Parin et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33547] dated 1887, Dyldin & Orlov 2016:671 [ref. 34853], Hosoya et al. 2018:199 [ref. 36197]). Current status: Valid as Lefua pleskei (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Russia and Japan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pleurotaenia, Nemacheilus Regan [C. T.] 1904:192 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 13 (no. 75) (art. 20); ref. 15197] Sea of Tien [Tien Chih] [= Dianchi Lake], Yunnan Fu, China, elevation 6000 feet. Lectotype: NMNH 1004.1.26.36. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1904.1.26.37 (1). Lectotype selected by Kottelat & Chu 1988:82. •Valid as Yunnanilus pleurotaenia (Regan 1904) -- (Zhu 1989:15 [ref. 17744], Yang 1991:198 [ref. 13585], Wu & Wu 1992:135 [ref. 21205], Yang & Chen 1995:14 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:106 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:48 [ref. 23556], Zhu et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30145] as pleurotaenis, An et al. 2009:632 [ref. 30709], Chen et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31907], Kottelat 2012:136 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374], Zhang et al. 2019:362 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus pleurotaenia (Regan 1904). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

poculi, Noemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1945:323, Fig. 72 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 188; ref. 4056] Doi Angka, Mae Nam Ping River basin, northern Thailand. Holotype: MCZ 35525. Paratypes: MCZ 35526 (9), 35527 (25 or 24); USNM 118440-41 (2, 6). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Schistura poculi (Smith 1945) -- (Kottelat 1990:186 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2001:113 [ref. 25780], Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003:172 [ref. 26859], Vidthayanon 2003:309 [ref. 27398], Vishwanath & Nebeshwar 2004:328 [ref. 28011], Vishwanath & Nebeshwar Sharma 2005:80 [ref. 28460], Kottelat et al. 2007:40 [ref. 28942], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2010:324 [ref. 30687], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:176 [ref. 31357], Zheng et al. 2012:63 [ref. 32070], Kottelat 2012:115 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477], Endruweit 2017:399 [ref. 35191]). Current status: Valid as Schistura poculi (Smith 1945). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand and China. Habitat: freshwater.

polyfasciata, Triplophysa Ding [R.-H.] in Ding, Fang & Fang 1996:11 [Sichuan Journal of Zoology v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 23186] Stream in upper Minjiang River, Sanjiang Village, Wenchuan County, Sichuan, China. Holotype: SPNRI 910093 [? MSINR]. Paratypes: SPNRI 9100137 (1, allotype), 910095-9100180 (86), 9200146 (1). Name spelled polypfasciata once on p. 11 but eight other times as polyfasciata. •Valid as Triplophysa polyfasciata Ding 1996 -- (Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa polyfasciata Ding 1996. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Min Jiang River, Sichuan Province, southern China. Habitat: freshwater.

polystigmus, Oreonectes Du [L.-N.], Chen [X.-Y.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2008:30, Fig. 7 [Zootaxa No. 1729; ref. 29544] Dabu Village, Guilin City, Guangxi Region, China. Holotype: KIZ 2001060507. Paratypes: KIZ 2001060502-06 (5). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Oreonectes polystigmus Du, Chen & Yang 2008 -- (Huang et al. 2009:445 [ref. 30323], Yang et al. 2011:211 [ref. 31282], Tang et al. 2012:489 [ref. 31595], Kottelat 2012:347 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:94 [ref. 32367], Lan et al. 2013:90 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34477], Deng et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34511], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Huang et al. 2019:118 [ref. 37137]). Current status: Valid as Oreonectes polystigmus Du, Chen & Yang 2008. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave systems in Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

polytaenia, Nemachilus Zhu [S.-Q.] 1982:106 [111], Fig. 3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 8388] Tributary of the Irrawaddy River, Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NPIB 784092. Paratypes: NPIB 84089 (1), uncat. (18). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. English description on p. 111. •Valid as Nemacheilus polytaenia Zhu 1982 -- (Zhu 1989:61 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:111 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:58 [ref. 23556]). •Valid as Schistura polytaenia (Zhu 1982) -- (Chen & Neely 2012:226 [ref. 32332], Kottelat 2012:115 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:359 [ref. 33494], Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Schistura polytaenia (Zhu 1982). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

poonaensis, Nemachilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1950:226, Fig. 1 a [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 47 (pt 2) (for 1949); ref. 2981] Moola-Mootha [Mula-Mutha] River, Kistna draiage, Poona, Mumbai State, India. Holotype: ZSI F242/2. Paratypes: ZSI F243/2 (7). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:124 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:364 [ref. 27706] as poonanensis. •Synonym of Nemacheilus anguilla Annandale 1919 -- (Menon 1987:156 [ref. 14149] as Noemachilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:469 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:183 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Nemacheilus poonaensis Menon 1950 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:435 [ref. 23187]). •Synonym of 'Nemacheilus' poonaensis Annondale 1949 -- (Kottelat 2012:90 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Nemacheilus anguilla Annandale 1919. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

porocephala, Schistura Lokeshwor [Y.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2013:2, Figs. 1-5 [Ichthyological Research v. 60 (no. 2); ref. 32463] Stream of Mat River near Thualthu, Lunglei district, Mizoram, India, 22°46'17"N, 92°56'27"E, elevation 547 meters. Holotype: MUMF 11092. Paratypes: MUMF 11090 (1), 11093-11094 (2), 11098 (1), 11100-11101 (2), 11091 (1), 11099 (1); ZSI FF 4614 (2). •Valid as Schistura porocephala Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013 -- (Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Khynrian & Sen 2014:30 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33318], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[6] 317 [ref. 33603], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628]). •Possibly valid as Rhyacoschistura porocephala (Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013) -- (Kottelat 2019:168 [ref. 36743]). Current status: Valid as Schistura porocephala Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mizoram, India. Habitat: freshwater.

porthos, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:69, Fig. 52 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Tha at Ban Finho, about 14 kilometers north of Luang Nam Tha, 21°04'44"N, 101°24'09"E, Louangnamtha Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45368. Paratypes: CMK 14282 (132), LARRI uncat. (15), NRM 44898 (15), ZRC 45369 (15). •Valid as Schistura porthos Kottelat 2000 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:158 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:115 [ref. 25780], Endruweit 2011:572 [ref. 31621], Kottelat 2012:115 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Endruweit et al. 2016:599 [ref. 34743], Endruweit 2017:149 [ref. 35362]). Current status: Valid as Schistura porthos Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mekong basin: Yunnan, China and Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

posterodorsalus, Paracobitis Li [W.-X.], Ran [J.-C.] & Chen [H.-M.] in Ran, Li & Chen 2006:81 [Guangxi Shifan Daxue Xuebao Ziran Kexue Ban v. 24 (no. 3); ref. 28951] Cave in Nandan County, 25°02'N, 107°36'E [24°59'N, 107°32'E], Guangxi, China. Holotype (unique): Heilong Tan Res. 041005001. Also spelted as posterodarsalus and posterodorsalus, Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367] selecting posterodorsalus. •Tentatively in Triplophysa -- (Yang et al. 2011:570 [ref. 31447]). •Synonym of Triplophysa longibarbata (Chen, Yang, Sket & Aljancic 1998) -- (Kottelat 2012:128 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Paracobitis posterodorsalus Li, Ran & Chen 2006 -- (Li et al. 2006:1 [ref. 29056], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522] but might be a synonym of Triplophysa longibarbatus (Chen, Yang, Sket & Aljancic 1998), Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493] with authors as Ran, Li & Chen, Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891] with authors as Ran, Li & Chen, Lan et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32910]). •Valid as Homatula posterodorsalus (Li, Ram & Chen 2006) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:129 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Triplophysa posterodorsalus (Li, Ran & Chen 2006) -- (Liu et al. 2017:844 [ref. 35125], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971] as posterodarsalus). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa posterodorsalus (Li, Ran & Chen 2006). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

posteroventralis, Barbatula toni Nichols [J. T.] 1925:4 [American Museum Novitates No. 171; ref. 3178] Chin-ssu [tzu], 16 miles southwest of Taiyuan, Shansi Province, China. Holotype: AMNH 8410. Paratypes and/or Nichols specimens: FMNH 14691-93 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:15 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Nemachelus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:869 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Vasil'eva 1998:96 [ref. 23591]). •Synonym of Triplophysa dalaica (Kessler 1876) -- (Zhu 1989:82 [ref. 17744], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:67 [ref. 23556], Kottelat 2012:125 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa dalaica (Kessler 1876). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

potanini, Nemachilus Günther [A.] 1896:218 [20] [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk 1896, v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 2019] Ya River, China. Syntypes: ZISP 10005 (3). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. On p. 20 of separate. •Valid as Paracobitis potanini (Günther 1896) -- (Zhu 1989:37 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:142 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:54 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:109 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:51 [ref. 23556], Tang et al. 2001:14 [ref. 25373], Min et al. 2010:203 [ref. 30726]). •Valid as Homatula potanini (Günther 1896) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:444 [ref. 23187], Hu & Zhang 2010:52 [ref. 30780], Gu & Zhang 2012:597 [ref. 31632], Min et al. 2012:313 [ref. 32341], Min et al. 2012:82 [ref. 32392], Kottelat 2012:84 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:129 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2018:565 [ref. 35763], Li et al. 2019:347 [ref. 37175], Zhang et al. 2019:366 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Homatula potanini (Günther 1896). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

potaninorum, Orthrias Prokofiev [A. M.] 2007:65, Fig. 18 [Morphology, systematics and origin of the stone loach genus Orthrias (Teleostei: Balitoridae: Nemacheilinae); ref. 30343] Fansu, Edzin-Gol, 42°25'20"N, 100°40'07"E, North China. Holotype (unique): ZIN 8121. Locality from Kottelat 2012:79 [ref. 32367]. •Valid as Barbatula potaninorum (Prokofiev 2007) -- (Cao et al. 2012:236 [ref. 32335], Kottelat 2012:79 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065], Prokofiev 2016:396 [ref. 34693], Prokofiev 2018:274 [ref. 35878], Chen et al. 2019:12 [ref. 36569]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula potaninorum (Prokofiev 2007). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Inner Mongolia, northern China. Habitat: freshwater.

prashadi, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1921:203, Pl. 10 (figs. 2, 2a) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 22 (pt 3, no. 19); ref. 2202] Thoubal and Sikmai stream, southern watershed of the Naga Hills, India. Holotype: ZSI F9987/1. Paratypes: ANSP 89744 (1), MCSZG 17113 (2), ZSI F9988/1 (26), plus additional paratypes. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:124 [ref. 20743], Böhlke 1984:64 [ref. 13621], Menon 1987:129 [ref. 14149]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:365 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus prashadi Hora 1921 -- (Menon 1987:127 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:495 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:176 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura prashadi (Hora 1921) -- (Kottelat 1990:191 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011:1514 [ref. 31183], Conway et al. 2011:1747 [ref. 31594] but questioned Nepal, Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:102 [ref. 32325], Kottelat 2012:115 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:88, 92 [ref. 32798], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2014:222 [ref. 33238], Khynrian & Sen 2014:20 [ref. 33853]). •Valid as Physoschistura prashadi (Hora 1921) -- (Suvarnaraksha 2013:246 [ref. 32981], Lalramliana et al. 2016:198 [ref. 34795], Tamang & Sinha 2016:287 [ref. 34804], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:410 [ref. 35638], Bleher 2018:202 [ref. 36647]). •Valid as Mustura prahadi (Hora 1921) -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Mustura prashadi (Hora 1921). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Naga Hills, India. Habitat: freshwater.

prashari, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1933:189, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-2) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 35 (pt 2); ref. 16493] A spring 300 yards north of Kohat City, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Holotype: ZSI F10719/1. Paratypes: ZSI (3). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:365 [ref. 27706]. Some references may refer to Schistura prashadi by mistake; wrongly placed by us. •Valid as Nemacheilus prashari Hora 1933 -- (Coad 1981:14 [ref. 22348] and Menon 1987:64 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:496 [ref. 20764], Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus prashadi, Mirza 2000:356 [ref. 25207], Vishwanath & Laisram 2001:209 [ref. 25886], Vishwanath & Shanta Kumar 2006:210 [ref. 28652]). •Questionably a synonym of Nemacheilus kessleri Günther 1889 -- (Coad 1995:22, 23 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Paraschistura prashari (Hora 1933) -- (Prokofiev 2009:892 [ref. 30604]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura prashari (Hora 1933). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Habitat: freshwater.

pridii, Schistura Vidthayanon [C.] 2003:307, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 4); ref. 27398] Stream Nam Muen, a tributary of river Mae Taeng, upper Chao Phraya basin, Chiangmai Province, Thailand. Holotype: NIFI 2909. Paratypes: CMK 16878 (2); NIFI 2838 (8), 2910 (3), 2911 (22); ZRC 40101 (3). •Valid as Schistura pridii Vidthayanon 2003 -- (Zheng et al. 2012:66 [ref. 32070], Chen & Neely 2012:226 [ref. 32332], Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Suvarnaraksha 2015:169 [ref. 33813], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366]). Current status: Valid as Schistura pridii Vidthayanon 2003. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Chao Phraya drainage, Chiangmai, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

procera, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:69, Fig. 53 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Waterfall Taad Lak Sip Et, kilometer 11 on road from Oudomxai to Nambak, 20°37'01.8"N, 102°00'12.0"E, Nam Phak watershed, Oudomxai Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45370. Paratypes: CMK 14191 (5), LARRI uncat. (5), NRM 44916 (5), ZRC 45371 (5). •Valid as Schistura procera Kottelat 2000 -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:152 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:115 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura procera Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

productus, Nemachilus stoliczkae Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:23, Pl. 1 (fig. 5) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Tributaries of Hwang He [Chuan che] River, China. Holotype (unique): ZIN 7329. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. First reviser selecting leptosoma over productus apparently Zhu 1989:110. •Synonym of Triplophysa leptosoma (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:110 [ref. 17744], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:79 [ref. 23556], Prokofiev 2007:18? [Engl. 14] [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061], Zhang et al. 2019:386 [ref. 36699]). •Synonym of Indotriplophysa leptosoma (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Kottelat 2012:86 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa leptosoma (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

prolixifasciata, Schistura Zheng [L.-P.], Yang [J.-X.] & Chen [X.-Y.] 2012:64, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 23 (no. 1); ref. 32070] Mengnonghe River, a tributary of the Nangunhe River, itself a tributary of the Salween River, at Banlao Village, 23°30'08.9"N, 99°01'42.9"E [coordinates incorrect Endruweit 2017:398], Cangyuan County, Yunnan Province, China, elevation 510 meters. Holotype: KIZ 200504111365. Paratypes: KIZ 200504111366-368 (3). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Schistura prolixifasciata Zheng, Yang & Chen 2012 -- (Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:26, 29 [ref. 32804], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2017:398 [ref. 35191]). Current status: Valid as Schistura prolixifasciata Zheng, Yang & Chen 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mengnonghe River, Salween basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

proudlovei, Eidinemacheilus Freyhof [J.], Abdullah [Y. S.], Ararat [K.], Ibrahim [H.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2016:228, Figs. 2-6, 7A [Zootaxa 4173 (no. 3); ref. 34803] Subterranean waters, Little Zab River, Sulaimani province, ephemeral spring in the Tabeen Gorge at the slope of the northernmost Piramagrun mountain, about 800 m east of the village Kanishok, Iraq, 35°50'3.40"N, 45°6'22.14"E. Holotype: ZFMK-ICH 102318. Paratypes: FSJF. •Valid as Eidinemacheilus proudlovei Freyhof, Abdullah, Ararat, Ibrahim & Geiger 2016. Current status: Valid as Eidinemacheilus proudlovei Freyhof, Abdullah, Ararat, Ibrahim & Geiger 2016. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Iraq. Habitat: freshwater.

pseudobrunneana, Physoschistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:81, Figs. 49-50 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Nam Mae Lao at kilometers 62 and 65 along road from Chiang Mai to Chiang Rai, Chiang Rai Province, Mekong River basin, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27471 [now ZRC 38473] [ex CMK 4037]. Paratypes: KIZ uncat. (2); CMK 4037 (3), 4111 (16); KUMF uncat. (2); NIFI 2174 (2); NIG uncat. (2); USNM 295772 (8). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:240 [ref. 31652]. Genus misspelled Physochistura in main heading on p. 81. •Valid as Physoschistura pseudobrunneana Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:446 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Chen et al. 2011:180 [ref. 31359], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:9 [ref. 31362], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:9 [ref. 32001], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:102 [ref. 32325], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:249 [ref. 32336], Kottelat 2012:103 [ref. 32367], Suvarnaraksha 2013:245 [ref. 32981], Kottelat 2013:203 [ref. 32989], Tamang & Sinha 2016:287 [ref. 34804], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:412 [ref. 35638]). Current status: Valid as Physoschistura pseudobrunneana Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mekong drainage, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

pseudofasciolata, Schistura Zhou [W.] & Cui [G.-H.] 1993:89, Fig. 9 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 20830] Canyu River, tributary of Jinshajiang River, near Huidong town, Huidong, Sichuan Province, China, 26°38'N, 102°34'E. Holotype: KIZ 90110157. Paratypes: KIZ 90110130-156 (27), 90110158-160 (3). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Schistura pseudofasciolata Zhou & Cui 1993 -- (Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Endruweit 2014:152 [ref. 33205], Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2016:599 [ref. 34743], Zhang et al. 2019:374 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Schistura pseudofasciolata Zhou & Cui 1993. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

pseudoscleropterus, Nemachilus Zhu [S.-Q.] & Wu [Y.-F.] 1981:221 [English p. 224], Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 8523] Tributary of Golmud He (Qaidam Pendi), Qinghai Province, China. Holotype: NPIB 75066. Paratypes: NPIB 75046-48 (3), 75067 (1), 75068 (1), 75069-95 (27), 730452-55 (4). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa pseudoscleroptera (Zhu & Wu 1981) -- (Zhu 1989:89 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:158 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:75 [ref. 21531], Zhang et al. 1995:51 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:115 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:71 [ref. 23556], Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa pseudoscleroptera (Zhu & Wu 1981). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

pseudostenura, Triplophysa He [C.-L.], Zhang [E] & Song [Z.-B.] 2012:273, Figs. 1A, 2A & C, 3 [Zootaxa No. 3586; ref. 32339] Yalong River (tributary of upper Yangtze River drainage), at Gala village (31°37’2.76"N, 99°58’2.20"E), Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China, elevation 3350 meters. Holotype: IHB 20070703001. Paratypes: many at IHB. •Valid as Triplophysa pseudostenura He, Zhang & Song 2012 -- (Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989], Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966], Zhang et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665], Zhang et al. 2019:390 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa pseudostenura He, Zhang & Song 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yalong River drainage, upper Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

psittacula, Schistura Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:170, Figs. 37-39 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] Middle River Cam Lo, about 20 kilometers west of Dong Ha, 16°47.00'N, 106°53.86'E, Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 27015. Paratypes: CMK 16013 (10); ZFMK 27016-110 (95), 38371-400 (30); ZSM 28867 (10). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:113 [ref. 31087], Neumann 2011:242 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Schistura psittacula Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Ho et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura psittacula Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cam Lo basin, Quang Tri province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

pulchellus, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1873:528 [The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology v. 11; ref. 17368] Bowany River [Bhavani], Neilgherries [Nilgiris], India. Syntypes (21) and/or Day specimens: AMS B.7739 (1, syntype); BMNH 1889.2.1.1591-1600 (10); NMW 48427 (1); RMNH 8755 [?= 2664] (1); ZIN 8263 (2); ZSI 2581 (1), 2563 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:157 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:301 [ref. 25110]. •Valid as Nemacheilus pulchellus Day 1873 -- (Menon 1987:164 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:496 [ref. 20764], Rama Devi 1994:209 [ref. 23719] as Noemacheilus, Indra 1994:417 [ref. 24015] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:185 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005:77 [ref. 28530]). •Valid as Mesonoemacheilus pulchellus (Day 1873) -- (Bănărescu & Nalban 1995:447 [ref. 23187], Rema Devi & Indra 2002:334 [ref. 26591], Shaji 2002:219 [ref. 27556], Kottelat 2012:89 [ref. 32367], Anoop et al. 2017:124 [ref. 35652], Bleher 2018:150 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Mesonoemacheilus pulchellus (Day 1873). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

pulcher, Nemacheilus Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:338, Fig. 10, Pl. 26 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa, Hainan Island, China. AMNH 8364. Type locality possible in errer (Kottelat 2013:213); Endruweit 2014:152 [ref. 33205] says not from Hainan Island. •Valid as Nemacheilus pulcher Nichols & Pope 1927 -- (Mai 1978:229 [ref. 13511], Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:149 [ref. 26639]). •Valid as Micronoemacheilus pulcher (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Zhu & Cao 1987:324 [ref. 14139], Zheng et al. 1989:40 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1989:11 [ref. 17744], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:240 [ref. 23876], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:437 [ref. 23187], Zhu 1995:105 [ref. 25213], Zhang et al. 2016:129 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Traccatichthys pulcher (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:188 [ref. 25364], Du et al. 2012:304 [ref. 32340], Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:152 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Valid as Traccatichthys pulcher (Nichols & Pope 1927). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China and Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

pulcherrimus, Yunnanilus Yang [J.-X.], Chen [Y.-R.] & Lan [J.-H.] 2004:2, Figs. 1-3 [Guangxi Aquatic Product Science and Technology 2004 (no. 3); ref. 28066] Underground river, Du'an County, ca. 23°56'N, 108°05'E, Red River drainage, Guangxi Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 99050001 [KIZ 1999001786]. Paratypes: KIZ. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:352 [ref. 32939] as 995001. Proofed from a rough electronic translation to English. •Valid as Yunnanilus pulcherrimus Yang, Chen & Lan 2004 -- (Chen & Chen 2007:111 [ref. 29350] with genus as Yunnanlilus, Zhu et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30145], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], An et al. 2009:635 [ref. 30709], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Kottelat 2012:136 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Zhang et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus pulcherrimus Yang, Chen & Lan 2004. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hongshui River drainage, Red River basin, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

pulsiz, Nemacheilus Krupp [F.] 1992:291, Fig. 1 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 89; ref. 20207] Lake Van drainage basin, road from Erçis to Patnos, Turkey. Holotype: ZMH 7995. Paratypes: ZMH 3606 (13), 3636 (66, now 64). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Barbatula pulsiz (Krupp 1992) -- (Fricke et al. 2007:51 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Paracobitis pulsiz (Krupp 1992) -- (Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus ercisianus (Erk'akan & Kuru 1986) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:308 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:96 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33140], Freyhof et al. 2019:34 [ref. 36739]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus ercisianus (Erk'akan & Kuru 1986). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pumatensis, Schistura Nguyen [X. K.] & Nguyen [H. D.] 2007:17, fig. [Tap Chí Sinh Hoc (Journal of Biology) v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 29908] Pumat National Park, Nghe An Province, Vietnam. Holotype: HNUE PM 020170. Paratypes:HNUE PM 020171-75 (5). Full original description not seen. •Valid as Schistura pumatensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2007 -- (Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Endruweit 2014:154 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Valid as Schistura pumatensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2007. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pumat National Park, Nghe An Province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

punctata, Schistura McClelland [J.] 1839:308, 442, Pl. 53 (fig. 4) [Asiatic Researches v. 19 (pt 2); ref. 2923] Northeastern Bengal and Assam, India. Based on drawing from Hamilton (Menon 1987:89 [ref. 14149]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus corica (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1987:89 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:169 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of 'Nemacheilus' corica (Hamilton 1922) -- (Kottelat 2012:90 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Nemacheilus corica (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

punctatus, Oreias Nguyen [V. H.] 2005:570, Fig. 15 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 2; ref. 29730] Creek Nâm Ngam, Núa Ngam, Dien Bien, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): NCNTTS I (lost). Types lost -- Endruweit 2014:152 [ref. 33205]. •Valid as Oreias punctatus Ngyuen 2005 -- (Nguyen et al. 2010:50 [ref. 32127]). •Valid as Claea punctata (Nguyen 2005). •Synonym of Schistura athos Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2012:106 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:204 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:152 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura athos Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Dien Bien, Vietnam (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

puncticeps, Schistura Bohlen [J.] & Šlechtová [V.] 2013:86, Figs. 1-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 32798] Shan state, stream Nam Paw west of Hsipaw city; 22°37'40"N, 97°18'17"E, Myanmar. Holotype: ZRC 53782. Paratypes: CMK 23278 (5), IAPG A5836-5840 (5), ZRC 53783 (17). •Valid as Schistura puncticeps Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013 -- (Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Shangningam et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33318]). Current status: Valid as Schistura puncticeps Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Shan state, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

punctifasciata, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1998:84, Figs. 123-124 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 23436] Nam Kathang, 5 kilometers north of Ban Gnomalat at Ban Keovilay, 17°39'N, 105°10'20"E, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 41804. Paratypes: CMK 12393 (72), 12485 (24), 12599 (10); DFV uncat. (6); NRM 36713 (5); ZRC 41805 (5). •Valid as Schistura punctifasciata Kottelat 1998 -- (Kottelat 2001:115 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:45 [ref. 33971], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura punctifasciata Kottelat 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Xe Banfai watershed, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

punjabensis, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1923:384, Figs. 2-3 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 25 (pt 4); ref. 15408] Stream below Watta Hills, Salt Range, Punjab, Pakistan. Syntypes: ZSI F10348/1 (6). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:124 [ref. 20743], Menon 1987:49 [ref. 14149]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:365 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus punjabensis Hora 1923 -- (Menon 1987:47 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:497 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:176 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura punjabensis (Hora 1923) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187] as panjabensis, Kullander et al. 1999:137 [ref. 23689], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:15 [ref. 27265]). •Valid as Paraschistura punjabensis (Hora 1923) -- (Kottelat 2012:102 [ref. 32367], Bleher 2018:198 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura punjabensis (Hora 1923). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan and northwest India. Habitat: freshwater.

putaoensis, Nemacheilus Rendahl [H.] 1948:27, Figs. 11-12 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 40 A (no. 7); ref. 19694] Putao, northern Myanmar. Holotype: NRM 10740. •Synonym of Nemacheilus vinciguerrae Hora 1935 -- (Menon 1987:134 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:507 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:180 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Nemacheilus putaoensis Rendahl 1948 -- (Zhu 1989:62 [ref. 17744], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:60 [ref. 23556]). •Synonym of Schistura vinciguerrae (Hora 1935) -- (Chen and Neely 2012:2256 [ref. 32333], Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477]). •Objective synonym of Schistura sikmaiensis (Hora 1921) -- (Kottelat 1990:208 [ref. 14137] after neotype designation for sikmaiensis, Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:97 [ref. 35308]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura sikmaiensis (Hora 1921). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pycnolepis, Homatula Hu [Y.-T.] & Zhang [E] 2010:52, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a, 5a, 6a, 7a [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 21 (no. 1); ref. 30780] Yangbi River, tributary of upper Mekong at Shaxi Town, about 26°19'N, 99°51'E, Jianchuan County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: IHASW 814045. Paratypes: IHASW 814042-43 (2), 814046 (1), 814047 (1, stained), 814048-51 (4). •Valid as Homatula pycnolepis Hu & Zhang 2010 -- (Gu & Zhang 2012:597 [ref. 31632], Min et al. 2012:313 [ref. 32341], Min et al. 2012:81 [ref. 32392], Kottelat 2012:84 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2015:70 [ref. 33868], Zhang et al. 2016:129 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2018:565 [ref. 35763], Li et al. 2019:343 [ref. 37175]). Current status: Valid as Homatula pycnolepis Hu & Zhang 2010. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mekong River drainage, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

qilianensis, Triplophysa Li [W.-J.], Chen [X.-C.] & Hu [Y.-P.] 2015:418, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 3905 (no. 3); ref. 33642] Zhamashi Town, Heihe River, Qilian County, Qinghai Province, China, 38°17'23.8"N, 99°49'50.1"E. Holotype: NWIPB 201007133. Paratypes: NWIPB. •Valid as Triplophysa qilianensis Li, Chen & Hu 2015. Current status: Valid as Triplophysa qilianensis Li, Chen & Hu 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Heihe River, Qinghai Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

qiubeiensis, Triplophysa Li [W.-X.] & Yang [H.-F.] in Li et al. 2008:674, Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 29 (no. 6); ref. 29925] Underground water cave near Nijiao Village, Qiubei County (24°05'N, 104°01°E), Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 20060409001. Paratypes: KIZ 20020423001 (1), 20060409002-010 (9). •Valid as Triplophysa qiubeiensis Li & Yang 2008 -- (Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193], Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34477], Yang et al. 2016:299 [ref. 34677], Liu et al. 2017:844 [ref. 35125], Wu et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971], Huang et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36689]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa qiubeiensis Li & Yang 2008. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanpan River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

quaesita, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:70, Fig. 54 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Ngum, rapids downstream of Ban Latbouak, 19°36'28"N, 103°14'23"E, Xiangkhouang Province, Laos. Holotype (unique): ZRC 45372. •Valid as Schistura quaesita Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:115 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:210 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura quaesita Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Ngum drainage, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

quasimodo, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:70, Fig. 55 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Houay Sala Yai, a tributary of Nam San, 18°35'17"N, 103°05'00"E, Saisomboun Special Zone, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45373. Paratypes: CMK 13352 (37), LARRI uncat. (6), NRM 44899 (6), ZRC45374 (6). •Valid as Schistura quasimodo Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:115 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura quasimodo Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Ngum drainage, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

quignardi, Noemacheilus barbatulus Bǎcescu-Meşter [L.] 1967:359, Figs. 1 (A, B, C), 5 (C, D) [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 7; ref. 7940] Le Lez River, near Montpellier, France. Holotype: MGAB 77. Paratypes: MGAB 78 (1), MGAB (16). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Vasil'eva 1998:95 [ref. 23591]). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies quignardi (Bǎcescu-Meşter 1967) -- (Prokofiev 2007:15 [ref. 30343]). •Valid as Barbatula quignardi (Bǎcescu-Meşter 1967) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:330 [ref. 29996], Kottelat 2012:79 [ref. 32367], Gauliard et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36787]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula quignardi (Bǎcescu-Meşter 1967). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Southern France and northwestern Spain. Habitat: freshwater.

qujinensis, Yunnanilus Du [L.-N.], Lu [Y.-F.] & Chen [X.-Y.] 2015:250, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 34050] Spring near Hujiafen Reservoir, Qujin City, Nanpanjiang River basin, Yunnan, China. Holotype: KIZ 2013000639. Paratypes: KIZ. •Valid as Yunnanilus qujinensis Du, Lu & Chen 2015. Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus qujinensis Du, Lu & Chen 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanpanjiang River drainage, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

rajasthanicus, Noemacheilus Mathur [D. S.] & Yazdani [G. M.] 1971:97, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Zoological Society of India v. 22 (no. 1-2) (1970); ref. 7266] Takhat Sagar, Kailana, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. Holotype: ZSI. Paratypes: ZSI (41). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:367 [ref. 27706]. •Questionably a synonym of Nemacheilus baluchiorum Zugmayer 1912 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:471 [ref. 20764]). •Questionable a synonym of Schistura baluchiorum (Zugmayer 1912). •Valid as Schistura rajasthanica (Mathur & Yazdani 1971) -- (Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura rajasthanica (Mathur & Yazdani 1971). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

ranikhetensis, Physoschistura Singh [P.] & Das [U.] 2019:145, Figs. [Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology v. 39 (no. 4); ref. 36939] Ganga River basin near Ranikhet, Uttarakhand, India. Holotype: ZSI. Paratypes: •Valid as Physoschistura ranikhetensis Singh & Das 2019. Current status: Valid as Physoschistura ranikhetensis Singh & Das 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Ganga River basin, India. Habitat: freshwater.

raoe, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1929:332, Pl. 15 (figs. 7-8) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 31 (pt 4); ref. 15899] Mongyai, 22°26'N, 98°03'E, northern Shan States, Myanmar. Holotype: ZSI F11062/1. Paratypes: BMNH 1930.3.3.6 [ex ZSI] (1), ZSI F11063/1 (4). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:124 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:365 [ref. 27706]. Spelled raoe, needed to be emended as raoi. •Synonym of Nemacheilus brunneanus Annandale 1918 -- (Menon 1987:136 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:474 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura raoi (Hora 1929) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Physoschistura raoi (Hora 1929) -- (Kottelat 1990:84 [ref. 14137], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Chen et al. 2011:180 [ref. 31359], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:9 [ref. 31362], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:9 [ref. 32001], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:230 [ref. 32098], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:102 [ref. 32325], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:253 [ref. 32336], Kottelat 2012:103 [ref. 32367], Suvarnaraksha 2013:245 [ref. 32981], Kottelat 2013:203 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34477], Lalramliana et al. 2016:199 [ref. 34795], Tamang & Sinha 2016:287 [ref. 34804], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Bleher 2018:203 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Physoschistura raoi (Hora 1929). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Salween drainage, Myanmar and India. Habitat: freshwater.

rarus, Noemacheilus Zhu [S.-Q.] & Cao [W.-X.] 1987:328 [331], Figs. 7-8 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 14139] Beijiang River drainage, 24°E, 113°N, Ruyuan County, Guangdong Province, China. Holotype: NIGLAS 840130. Paratypes: NIGLAS 840132 (1), 840205-07 (3), 840209-10 (2). [Types in IHB?] Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. English description on p. 331. •Valid as Nemacheilus rarus Zhu & Cao 1987 -- (Ye in Pan et al. 1991:243 [ref. 23876]). •Valid as Schistura rara (Zhu & Cao 1987) -- (Zhu 1989:49 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:110 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477], Cao & Zhang 2018:134 [ref. 36108]). Current status: Valid as Schistura rara (Zhu & Cao 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Bei-Jiang River drainage, Guangdong, China. Habitat: freshwater.

rebuw, Schistura Choudhury [H.], Dey [A.], Bharali [R. C.], Sarma [D.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2019:41, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4551 (no. 1); ref. 36483] Pachai stream near Seppa, Kameng River drainage (Brahmaputra basin), East Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh, India, 27°23ʹ20"N, 93°03ʹ20"E, elevation 400 meters. Holotype: GUMF 0301. Paratypes: GUMF, ZSI. •Valid as Schistura rebuw Choudhury, Dey, Bharali, Sarma & Vishwanath 2019. Current status: Valid as Schistura rebuw Choudhury, Dey, Bharali, Sarma & Vishwanath 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kameng River drainage, Brahmaputra River system, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Habitat: freshwater.

reidi, Noemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1945:313, Fig. 67 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 188; ref. 4056] Huey Mekong Kha, mountain torrent at base of Doi Mekong Kha, northern Thailand. Holotype: USNM 107944. Paratypes: USNM 107908 (3), 107913-14 (8, 6), 107918 (2), 117744 (1). Type catalog: Vilasri et al. 2018:59 [ref. 36451]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Schistura reidi (Smith 1945) -- (Kottelat 1990:193 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Vidthayanon & Jaruthanin 2002:19 [ref. 26523], Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003:172 [ref. 26859], Chen et al. 2005:30 [ref. 28352], Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Vilasri et al. 2018:59 [ref. 36451]). Current status: Valid as Schistura reidi (Smith 1945). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

remadevii, Mesonoemacheilus Shaji [C. P.] 2002:217, Figs. 2-4 [Indian Journal of Fisheries v. 49 (no. 2); ref. 27556] Kunthi River at Poochipara, Silent Valley National Park, Kerala, India. Holotype: KFRI F900. Paratypes: CLTV F11541 (2), KFRI F901 (3). First appeared as remadevii, but named for K. Rema Devi, who is female, therefore mandatory correction to remadeviae. •Valid as Mesonoemacheilus remadevii Shaji 2002 -- (Kottelat 2012:89 [ref. 32367], Anoop et al. 2017:124 [ref. 35652], Bleher 2018:152 [ref. 36647]). •Valid as Mesonoemacheilus remadeviae Shaji 2002. Current status: Valid as Mesonoemacheilus remadeviae Shaji 2002. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Habitat: freshwater.

rendahli, Noemacheilus Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1968:336, Pl. 1 (fig. 8); Figs. 5-6 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 65; ref. 6554] Nandur-Madhyameshwar dam on Godavari River, India. Holotype (unique): ZMH H3621. Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:159 [ref. 22013]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Schistura rendahli (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1968) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:442 [ref. 23187]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus denisoni Day 1867 -- (Menon 1987:93 [ref. 14149] as noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:477 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:171 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Kottelat 2012:108 [ref. 32367]). •Synonym of Schistura denisoni (Day 1867). Current status: Synonym of Schistura denisoni (Day 1867). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

restricta, Barbatula Prokofiev [A. M.] 2015:458, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4052 (no. 4); ref. 34065] Saldan-Kol (= Dinnoye) Lake, Builyukem River catchment, Chuya River system, upper Ob drainage, Altai, Russia, 50°13'00"N, 89°15'30"E, elevation 2272 meters. Holotype: ZIN 52587. Paratypes: ZIN. Specific name is an adjective. •Valid as Barbatula restricta Prokofiev 2015 -- (Prokofiev 2016:399 [ref. 34693], Dyldin et al. 2020:110, 111 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula restricta Prokofiev 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: North Asia: Chuya River system, Upper Ob, Altai (Russia). Habitat: freshwater.

reticulata, Schistura Vishwanath [W.] & Nebeshwar Sharma [K.] 2004:324, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 15 (no. 4); ref. 28011] Maklang River, Ukhrul District, Manipur, India. Holotype: MUMF 4400. Paratypes: MUMF 2180-89 (10), 4401-07 (7), 4408-09 (2), 4410-11 (2), 4412 (1), 4413/3 (3). •Valid as Schistura reticulata Vishwanath & Nebeshwar Sharma 2004 -- (Vishwanath & Shanta Kumar 2006:210 [ref. 28652], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011:1514 [ref. 31183], Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:55 [ref. 32801], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Khynrian & Sen 2014:21 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33318], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628]). Current status: Valid as Schistura reticulata Vishwanath & Nebeshwar Sharma 2004. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Manipur, India. Habitat: freshwater.

reticulofasciatus, Mesonoemacheilus Singh [A.] & Bănărescu [P. M.] in Singh, Sen, Bănărescu & Nalbant 1982:206, Figs. 12-16 [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 23 (for 1981); ref. 4030] Barani, near Shillong, Meghalaya, India. Holotype: V/ERS 3062. Paratypes: (27) BMNH; V/ERS 3064 and 3065, ISBB 3592, CAS 48109 (2), MINM uncat., USNM 227403 (1). See Das 2003:353 [ref. 27706] as retiveulofasciatus. •Valid as Mesonoemacheilus reticulofasciatus Singh & Bănărescu 1982 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:447 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Nemacheilus reticulofasciatus (Singh & Bănărescu 1982) -- (Menon 1987:173 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:498 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:549 [ref. 23778], Menon 1999:185 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31/ [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura reticulofasciata (Singh & Bănărescu 1982) -- (Kottelat et al. 2007:40 [ref. 28942], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:262 [ref. 32337], Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:5 [ref. 32463], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927] as cf. reticulofasciatus, Khynrian & Sen 2014:21 [ref. 33853], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[6] [ref. 33603], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628], Bleher 2018:230 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura reticulofasciata (Singh & Bănărescu 1982). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Brahmaputra basin, Assam and Meghalaya, India. Habitat: freshwater.

retrodorsalis, Oreonectes Lan [J.-H.], Yang [J.-X.] & Chen [Y.-R.] 1995:370 [English 370], Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 20 (no. 3); ref. 23184] Outlet of an underground river (25°10'N, 107°10'E), at Long-li Village, Liuzhai Town, Nandan County, Guangxi, China. Holotype: KIZ 9110001. Paratypes: KIZ 9110002-07 (6). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:351 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Oreonectes retrodorsalis Lan, Yang & Chen 1995 -- (Zhang et al. 2006:614 [ref. 29423], Du et al. 2008:32 [ref. 29544], Huang et al. 2009:445 [ref. 30323], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2011:211 [ref. 31282], Tang et al. 2012:489 [ref. 31595], Kottelat 2012:347 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:95 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:110 [ref. 34891], Deng et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34511], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936]). •Valid as Yunnanilus retrodorsalis (Lan, Yang & Chen 1995) -- (Lan et al. 2013:40 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34477], Liu et al. 2019:402 [ref. 36573]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus retrodorsalis (Lan, Yang & Chen 1995). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Long-li Village, Nandan County, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

retropinnis, Nemachilus dorsonotatus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:33, Pl. 3 (figs. 5a-b) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Chami [Hami], Tsaidam, Quinghai, China. Syntypes: ZIN 4206 (2). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990] as stoliczkae). •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866), but a valid subspecies retropinnis (Herzenssein 1888) -- (Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2007:13? [Engl. 9] [ref. 28990]). •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa retropinnis (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Uncertain as Triplophysa retropinnis (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

reuniens, Nemachilus strauchi Turdakov [F. A.] 1952:57 [ ref. 28934] Irisu River, tributary of Karkara River, Kirghizistan. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Original not seen. •Synonym of Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler 1874) -- (Kottelat 2006:89 [ref. 28831]). •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa ulacholica (Anikin 1905) -- (Prokofiev 2006:258 [ref. 29061]). Current status: Uncertain as Triplophysa ulacholica (Anikin 1905). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

rhadinaeus, Nemachilus Regan [C. T.] 1906:8 [Journal & Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (New Series) v. 2 (no. 1) (art. 2); ref. 15704] Helmand River basin, Seistan. Syntypes: BMNH 1905.11.29.28-29 (2); ZSI F1240/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:120 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus rhadinaeus Regan 1906 -- (Coad 1981:15 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus rhadineus, Coad 1995:23 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297] as rhadineus, Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869]). •Valid as Paracobitis rhadinaeus (Regan 1906) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:443 [ref. 23187], Nalbant & Bianco 1998:115 [ref. 23810], Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604], Esmaeili et al. 2010:373 [ref. 33391], Freyhof et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33505], Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:340 [ref. 33744], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:886 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:49 [ref. 36089]). •Valid as Paracobitis rhadinaea (Regan 1906) -- (Kottelat 2012:100 [ref. 32367], Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2019:386 [ref. 36466], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36900])- Current status: Valid as Paracobitis rhadinaea (Regan 1906). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia: Helmand River, Sistan basin: Iran, Afghanistan. Habitat: freshwater.

rikiki, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:71, Fig. 56 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Xe Kong between Attapu and downstream to Bank Ouk, 14°44'51"N, 106°43'95"E, Attapu Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45375. Paratypes: CMK 16028 (5), 16029 (7); LARRI uncat. (3); NRM 44917 (3); ZRC 45376 (3). •Valid as Schistura rikiki Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:115 [ref. 25780], Ou et al. 2011:199 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura rikiki Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

rivulicola, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1929:324, Pl. 15 (figs. 3-4) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 31 (pt 4); ref. 15899] He-Ho plain, southern Shan States, Myanmar. Holotype: ZSI F11060/1. Paratypes: BMNH 1930.3.3.2 [ex ZSI] (1), MCSNG 29806 [ex ZSI] (1), ZSI (number not given). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:124 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:365 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Noemacheilus rivulicola Hora 1929 -- (Menon 1987:139 [ref. 14149], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:498 [ref. 20764]). •Valid, genus uncertain -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:446 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Physoschistura rivulicola (Hora 1929) -- (Kottelat 1990:86 [ref. 14137], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Chen et al. 2011:180 [ref. 31359], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:9 [ref. 32001], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:230 [ref. 32098], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:102 [ref. 32325], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:253 [ref. 32336], Kottelat 2012:103 [ref. 32367], Suvarnaraksha 2013:245 [ref. 32981], Kottelat 2013:203 [ref. 32989], Lalramliana et al. 2016:199 [ref. 34795], Tamang & Sinha 2016:287 [ref. 34804], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:412 [ref. 35638]). Current status: Valid as Physoschistura rivulicola (Hora 1929). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Salween drainage, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

robertsi, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:198, Figs. 148-149 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Tributary of Khlong Khao Thalu at Ban Bang Kan, 8°33'N, 98°28'E, road from Phangnga to Kapong, Phangnga Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27482 [now ZRC 38472] [ex NIFI 1454, CMK 5346]. Paratypes: CMK 5179 (1), 5346 (1); MCZ 47273 (13 not 20), 49164 (21 not 23); NIFI 2071 (3), 2225 (5). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:242 [ref. 31652]. Holotype now at ZRC. •Valid as Schistura robertsi Kottelat 1990 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 1998:70 [ref. 23436], Freyhof & Serov 2001:137 [ref. 25364], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2010:319 [ref. 30687], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:173 [ref. 31357], Ou et al. 2011:197 [ref. 31692], Singer & Page 2012:351 [ref. 32390], Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25 [ref. 32804], Ng & Pethiyagoda 2013:161 [ref. 33011], Plongsesthee et al. 2013:171 [ref. 33012], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Suvarnaraksha 2015:168 [ref. 33813], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366]). Current status: Valid as Schistura robertsi Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

robustus, Nemachilus Kessler [K. F.] 1876:32 [v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 2595] Gansu Province, China. Holotype (unique): ZIN 2486. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa robusta (Kessler 1876) -- (Zhu 1989:76 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:190 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:65 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:113 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:64 [ref. 23556], Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367], Li et al. 2015:423 [ref. 33642], Zhang et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa robusta (Kessler 1876). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yellow River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

rosa, Triplophysa Chen [X.-Y.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2005:599, Fig. 2 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 66 (no. 3); ref. 28119] Subterranean pool of Dongba Cave, 29°13'40.44"N, 107°55'16.46'E, Wu Jiang drainage, Jiangkou Town, Tianxing Town, Chongqing City, Wulong County, China, 581 meters deep, elevation 314 meters. Holotype (unique): KIZ 20021101. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:353 [ref. 32939]. Name mentioned as Typhlobarbus rosa in Proudlove 2006:84 [ref. 28992] •Valid as Triplophysa rosa Chen & Yang 2005 -- (Li et al. 2008:676 [ref. 29925], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2012:170 [ref. 31483], Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32910], Bashir et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34447], Zhang et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34477], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:843 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Huang et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36689]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa rosa Chen & Yang 2005. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Changjiang River basin, Chongqing Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

rosammai, Aborichthys Sen [N.] 2009:15, Pls. 1-2; Fig. 1A-B [Records of the Zoological Survey of India v. 109 (part 2); ref. 30554] Pabomukh, Subansiri River, Dhemaji District, Assam, India, 27°34'N, 94°14'E, elevation 32 meters. Paratypes: V/F/ERS/2497 (4). Named for Smti. Rosamma Mathew, who is female, therefore mandatory correction to rosammae. •Valid as Aporichthys rosammai Sen 2009 -- (Kosygin 2012:49 [ref. 32937]). •Valid as Schistura rosammai (Sen 2009) -- (Kottelat 2012:116 [ref. 32367], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Khynrian & Sen 2014:24 [ref. 33853]). •Valid as Schistura rosammae (Sen 2009). Current status: Valid as Schistura rosammae (Sen 2009). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Arunachal Pradesh and Assam, India. Habitat: freshwater.

rossoperegrinatorum, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2001:200, Figs. 13-18 [Zoosystematica Rossica v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 26613] Small mountain streams in northwestern Gansu [possibly in mountains northern of Xining and Lanzhou], China. Holotype: ZIN 3719. Paratypes: ZIN 3719a (4). •Synonym of Tripophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061]). •Valid as Triplophysa rossoperegrinatorum Prokofiev 2001 -- (Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096]). •Questionably a synonym of Triplophysa hexiensis (Zhao & Wang 1988) -- (Kottelat 2012:126 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Uncertain as Triplophysa hexiensis (Zhao & Wang 1988). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

rotundicauda, Homaloptera (Octonema) Martens [E. von] 1868:608 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868 (for 26 Nov. 1868); ref. 2896] Hong Kong. Holotype (unique): ZMB 6842. •Synonym of Oreonectes platycephalus Günther 1868 -- (Zhu & Cao 1987:326 [ref. 14139], Zhu 1989:23 [ref. 17744], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:245 [ref. 23876], Du et al. 2008:30 [ref. 29544], Kottelat 2012:94 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Oreonectes platycephalus Günther 1868. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

rotundiventris, Nemachilus Wu [Y.-F.] & Chen [Y.] 1979:292 [English p. 296], Fig. 3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 8390] Jiegu He, tributary of the upper Jinsha Jiang, Yushu, Qinghai, China. Syntypes: Qinghai Inst. Biol. (5). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa rotundiventris (Wu & Chen 1979) -- (Zhu 1989:125 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:226 [ref. 21205], Zhang et al. 1995:68 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:119 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2006:Engl. 580 [ref. 28811] but probably a synonym of T. zaidamensis, Zhang et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34477], Feng et al. 2020:468 [ref. 37576]). •Valid as Quighaichthys rotundiventris (Kottelat 2012:103 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa rotundiventris (Wu & Chen 1979). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

rubidipinnis, Cobitis Blyth [E.] 1860:170 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 477] Rangoon (or possibly Mandalay), Myanmar. Neotype: NRM 13743. Possible syntypes or Day specimens: AMS B.7494 [from Day] (1). Neotype designated by Kottelat 1990:35 [ref. 14137]. •Valid as Nemacheilus rubidipinnis (Blyth 1860) -- (Menon 1987:152 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:499 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Acanthocobitis rubidipinnis (Blyth 1860) -- (Kottelat 1990:33 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:433 [ref. 23187], Kottelat 2012:51 [ref. 31992], Kottelat 2012:76 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Paracanthocobitis rubidipinnis (Blyth 1860) -- (Singer & Page 2015:395 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthocobitis rubidipinnis (Blyth 1860). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

rubrimaculata, Schistura Bohlen [J.] & Šlechtová [V.] 2013:22, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no.1); ref. 32804] Magway devision, stream Man Chaung, about 10 km upstream of Datkon village, 19°55.008' N , 94°30.104' E, Myanmar. Holotype: ZRC 53773. Paratypes: CMK 23277 (5); IAPG A5904-5905 (2), A66591 [? 6592] (1); ZRC 43774 (15), 53775 (1). •Valid as Schistura rubrimaculata Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013 -- (Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Shangningam et al. 2014:189 [ref. 33318], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Kottelat 2017:6 [ref. 35482], Choudhury et al. 2019:190 [ref. 37121]). Current status: Valid as Schistura rubrimaculata Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Man Chaung and Shwe Chaung, Irrawaddy River basin, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

rupecula, Cobitis (Schistura) McClelland [J.] 1838:948, Pl. 55 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 7 (for Nov. 1838); ref. 2924] Simla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Syntypes: SMF 8993 (6). See also McClelland 1839:309 & 441, pl. 57 fig. 3 [ref. 2923] as Cobitis (Schistura) rupecola and spelled rupicola in erratum sheet (but this sheet not included in the original description, so not valid). "Genus" Schistura treated as a subgenus of Cobitis Linnaeus 1758 by McClelland 1838:944 [ref. 2924], formally corrected by McClelland 1839:309, 441 [ref. 2923]. Specific name is to be treated as an adjective, see Kottelat 2013:204 [ref.32989]. •Valid as Nemacheilus rupecula (McClelland 1838) -- (Shrestha 1978:37 [ref. 15970], Menon 1987:49 [ref. 14149] as Noemachilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:500 [ref. 20764] as rupecola, Menon 1999:176 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus rupecola, Kundu 2000:96 [ref. 25663] as rupecola, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus rupecola). •Valid as Schistura rupecula (McClelland 1838) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Shrestha 2008:133 [ref. 29923], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011:6 [ref. 31362], Conway et al. 2011:1747 [ref. 31594], Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367], Khynrian & Sen 2014:24 [ref. 33853], Freyhof et al. 2016:75 [ref. 34414], Bleher 2018:232 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura rupecula McClelland 1838. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: South Asia: western Himalaya foothills, India and Nepal. Habitat: freshwater.

ruppelli, Cobitis Sykes [W. H.] 1839:162 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1838 (pt 6) (for 27 Nov. 1838); ref. 18720] Deccan, India [possibly the Mula-Mutha River]. Syntypes or possible syntypes: AMS B.7528 (1) Poonah. Probably not a syntype of ruppelli, see Keskar et al. 2015:558 [ref. 34106]. Originally spelled rupelli but considered an incorrect original spelling (Art. 32.5) as Sykes stated "dedicated ... to Rüppell". Appeared first as above, then in Sykes 1839:59 [ref. 4306]; more complete treatment in Sykes 1841:366, Pl. 64 (fig. 1) [ref. 18868]. •Valid as Nemacheilus ruppelli (Sykes 1839) -- (Menon 1987:158 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus ruppelli, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:499 [ref. 20764] as Nemacheilus rueppelli, Menon 1999:183 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus rupelli, Yadav 2000:41 [ref. 25661] as rueppelli, Yadav 2003:17 [ref. 27711]). •Valid as Nemachilichthys ruppelli (Sykes 1839) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:448 [ref. 23187], Kottelat 2012:93 [ref. 32367], Keskar et al. 2015:561 [ref. 34106] as rueppelli, Kullander 2016:92 [ref. 34436], Keskar et al. 2016:100 [ref. 34437], Kullander 2016:92 [ref. 34436], Bleher 2018:176 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Nemachilichthys ruppelli (Sykes 1839). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper reaches of the east-flowing Krishna River system, Western Ghats, India. Habitat: freshwater.

russa, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:71, Fig. 57 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Tha at Ban Finho, about 14 kilometers north of Luang Nam Tha, 21°04'44"N, 101°24°09"E, Louangnamtha Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45377. Paratypes: CMK 14267 (11), 14284 (7); LARRI uncat. (2); NRM 44900 (2); ZRC 45378 (2). •Valid as Schistura russa Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:115 [ref. 25780], Vidthayanon & Jaruthanin 2002:19 [ref. 26523], Kangrang et al. 2012:75 [ref. 32324], Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura russa Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

ruzskyi, Nemachilus Nekrashevich [N. G.] 1948:121 [Uchenye Zapinski Tomskogo Universiteta No. 11; ref. 21176] Lake Alakul, Kazakhstan. No types known. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler 1874) -- (Kottelat 2006:89 [ref. 28831], Prokofiev 2006:258 [ref. 29061], Kottelat 2012:132 [ref. 32367] with question). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler 1874). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

saadii, Turcinoemacheilus Esmaeili [H. R.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Özuluğ [M.], Geiger [M. F.] & Freyhof [J.] 2014:268, Figs. 7c, 13-15 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 3) [for 2013]; ref. 33241] Fars province, stream Tang-e-Tizab, a tributary to Bashar River which drains to the Karoun, 30°23'12"N, 51°46'50"E, Iran. Holotype: ZM-CBSU 7169B. Paratypes: ZB-CBSU 7265B (1), 7166b-7175B (9). •Valid as Turcinoemacheilus saadii Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Özuluğ, Geiger & Freyhof 2014 -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:889 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35254], Prokofiev 2017:255 [ref. 35630], Esmaeili et al. 2018:53 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Turcinoemacheilus saadii Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Özuluğ, Geiger & Freyhof 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Karun River basin, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

sabanus, Elxis Chin [P. K.] 1990:74, Figs. 3 [[The] Malayan Nature Journal v. 43 (2); ref. 20029] Mountain rapids in Mendolong area, Sipitang District, Sabah, Borneo, East Malaysia, elevation 750 meters. Holotype: FMNH 98130. Paratypes: FMNH 98131 (8), FRCL(T) 0005 (8), UKMS/OS 0296-71 and Lot 2073 (8). •Valid as Sundoreonectes sabanus (Chin 1990) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:57 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:237 [ref. 23210], Doi 1997:18 [ref. 22832], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010:45 [ref. 30914], Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:32 [ref. 35802]). Current status: Valid as Sundoreonectes sabanus (Chin 1990). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

salari, Nemachilus conipterus Turdakov [F. A.] 1954:118 [Trudy Institut zoologii i parazitologii, Kirgizskii filial Akademii nauk SSSR v. 1; ref. 26732] Talas canal at Taschkent, Uzbekistan. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Original description not seen. •Synonym of Triplophysa coniptera (Turdakov 1954) -- (Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990]). •Synonym of Triplophysa coniptera (Turdakov 1954) but a valid subspecies salari (Turdakov 1954) -- (Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061], Kottelat 2012:124 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2017:201 [ref. 35630]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa coniptera (Turdakov 1954). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Middle Syr-Darya basin, Uzbekistan [subspecies salari if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

salmonides, Nemachilus Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1911:18, Pl. 1 (figs. 3, 3a) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 6 (pt 1); ref. 14785] Mongpan, southern Yunnan Province, China. Holotype (unique): ZSI F4732/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:124 [ref. 20743]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Yunnanilus pleurotaenia (Regan 1904) -- (Zheng et al. 1989:42 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1989:15 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:135 [ref. 21205]). •Species inquirenda et incertae sedis -- (Kottelat 2012:102 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Petruichthys salmonides (Chaudhuri 1911). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

samantica, Orthrias brandti Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Bănărescu, Nalbant & Balik 1978:263, Fig. 4 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 75; ref. 9016] Tributary to Samanti, between Pinarbsi and Sarizi, Seyhan basin, southern Turkey. Holotype: ZMH 3633. Paratypes: ISBB 2978 (1), ZMH 5638 [not 5637] (8). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Schistura samantica (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978) -- (Erk'akan et al. 2007:81 [ref. 29026]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus brandtii (Kessler 1877), but a valid subspecies samanticus -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus samanticus (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:99 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Freyhof & Geiger 2017:259 [ref. 35343], Sungur et al. 2017:379 [ref. 35750], Çiçek et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36267], Turan et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 36540], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644], Kaya et al. 2020:289 [ref. 37622], Yogurtçuoglu et al. 2020:[14] [ref. 37627]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus samanticus (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Seyhan River basin, Mediterranean Sea tributary (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

sanduensis, Triplophysa Chen [S.-J.] & Peng [Z.-G.] 2019:376, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4560 (no. 2); ref. 36537] Outlet of a small karst cave in Dengguang Village, Zhonghe Town, Sandu County, Guizhou Province, China, 25°49'45.81"N, 107°50'37.63"E. Holotype: SWU 2017061305. Paratypes: CLJH, SWU. •Valid as Triplophysa sanduensis Chen & Peng 2019. Current status: Valid as Triplophysa sanduensis Chen & Peng 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper reaches of the Duliujiang River, Pearl River drainage, Guizhou Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

saravacensis, Nemachilus Boulenger [G. A.] 1894:251 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 13 (no. 75) (art. 26); ref. 535] Senah, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Lectotype: BMNH 1893.3.2.277. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1893.3.6.278-280 (3). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1984:236. •Valid as Nemacheilus saravacensis Boulenger 1894 -- (Roberts 1989:108 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:55 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:236 [ref. 23210], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Grinang & Lim 2004:290 [ref. 28551], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:157 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:188 [ref. 28285], Tan & Kottelat 2009:56 [ref. 30261], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010:45 [ref. 30914], Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus saravacensis Boulenger 1894. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kalimantan Barat and Sarawak, Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

sargadensis, Nemacheilus Nikolskii [A. M.] 1900:415 [41] [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 4; ref. 14731] Sij-Rischan [Zia Rishan] near Kuh-i-Tuftan volcano, Sargado [Sarhad region], eastern Iran. Syntypes: ZIN 11700 (31). On p. 41 of separate. •Valid as Nemacheilus sargadensis Nikolskii 1900 -- (Berg 1949:876 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1981:15 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus, Coad 1995:23 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:6 [ref. 23831], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869]). •Valid as Schistura sargadensis (Nikolskii 1900) -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:117 [ref. 23810]). •Valid as Paraschistura sargadensis (Nikolskii 1900) -- (Prokofiev 2009:892 [ref. 30604], Esmaeili et al. 2010:373 [ref. 33391], Kottelat 2012:102 [ref. 32367], Vatandoust & Eagderi 2015:182 [ref. 33819], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:888 [ref. 34062], Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:5 [ref. 34063], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2015:122 [ref. 35030]). •Synonym of Paraschistura kessleri (Günther 1889) -- (Freyhof et al. 2015:12 [ref. 33865], Esmaeili et al. 2017:71 [ref. 35254]). Current status: Synonym of Paraschistura kessleri (Günther 1889). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Mashkid River basin, Iran (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

savona, Cobitis Hamilton [F.] 1822:357, 394 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Kosi River at Nathpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. No types known. Information on type locality see Britz 2019:46 [ref. 37532]. Hamilton's original, unpublished illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 224 [ref. 37532]. •Valid as Nemacheilus savona (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1987:91 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Ataur Rahman 1989:150 [ref. 24860] as Nemachilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:501 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:549 [ref. 23778], Sen 1999:198 [ref. 24750] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:177 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura savona (Hamilton 1822) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:441 [ref. 23187], Ataur Rahman 2003:168 [ref. 31338], Kottelat et al. 2007:40 [ref. 28942], Shrestha 2008:133 [ref. 29923], Conway et al. 2011:1747 [ref. 31594], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:262 [ref. 32337], Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:25 [ref. 32804], Ahmed et al. 2013:286 [ref. 32872], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Khynrian & Sen 2014:25 [ref. 33853], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[6] [ref. 33603], Bleher 2018:234 [ref. 36647], Choudhury et al. 2019:50 [ref. 36483]). Current status: Valid as Schistura savona (Hamilton 1822). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Brahmaputra River system, Nepal, India and Bangladesh. Habitat: freshwater.

sawadai, Orthrias Prokofiev [A. M.] 2007:84, Figs. 26-29 [Morphology, systematics and origin of the stone loach genus Orthrias (Teleostei: Balitoridae: Nemacheilinae); ref. 30343] Uram River, Ero River basin, Selenga River system, into lake Baikal, Yenisei River basin, Mongolia / Russia. Holotype: ZIN 52054. Paratypes (55): ZIN 52055 (3), 52056 (12 + 3 c&s), 52254 (9 + 2 C&S), 53145 (1), 53150 (21 + 4 c&s). •Valid as Barbatula sawadai (Prokofiev 2007) -- (Cao et al. 2012:236 [ref. 32335], Kottelat 2012:80 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065], Prokofiev 2016:399 [ref. 34693], Prokofiev 2018:274 [ref. 35878], Dyldin et al. 2020:109 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula sawadai (Prokofiev 2007). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: North Asia: Selenga River basin (Mongolia and Russia). Habitat: freshwater.

sayu, Oreonectes Herre [A. W. C. T.] & Lin [S.-Y.] 1936:19 [Bulletin of the Chekiang Provincial Fisheries Experiment Station, Tinghai, Chekiang, China v. 2 (no. 7); ref. 10995] Upper Tsien Tang River, Chekiang Province, China. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 32584. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:40 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Lefua sayu (Herre & Lin 1936) -- (Kottelat 2012:88 [ref. 32367], Hosoya et al. 2018:199 [ref. 36197]). Current status: Valid as Lefua sayu (Herre & Lin 1936). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Chekiang Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

scapanognatha, Triplophysa Prokofiev [A. M.] 2007:13? [Engl. 9], Fig. 4a-e [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 47 (no. 1); ref. 28990] Datzan Sume, in proximinity of Donkyr, Quaidam, Tibet. Holotype: ZIN 12495. Paratypes: ZIN 12495a (4). •Valid as Triplophysa scapanognatha Prokofiev 2007 -- (Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa scapanognatha Prokofiev 2007. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tibet. Habitat: freshwater.

scaturigina, Schistura McClelland [J.] (ex Hamilton) 1839:308, 443, Pl. 53 (fig. 6) [Asiatic Researches v. 19 (pt 2); ref. 2923] Assam, India. No types known. Based on figure from Hamilton (Menon 1987:86 [ref. 14149]), which was reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 228 [ref. 37532] as Cobitis scaturigina. •Valid as Nemacheilus scaturigina (McClelland 1839) -- (Menon 1987:86 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:501 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:550 [ref. 23778], Menon 1999:178 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura scaturigina McClelland 1839 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Vishwanath & Laisram 2001:210 [ref. 25886], Ataur Rahman 2003:167 [ref. 31338], Shrestha 2008:134 [ref. 29923], Conway et al. 2011:1747 [ref. 31594], as cf. scaturigina on p. 1755, Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Khynrian & Sen 2014:25 [ref. 33853], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628], Bleher 2018:236 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura scaturigina McClelland 1839. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Eastern Himalaya Foothills, Nepal, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Habitat: freshwater.

schultzi, Noemacheilus Smith [H. M.] 1945:317, Fig. 69 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 188; ref. 4056] Huey Melao on Doi Hua Mot, northern Thailand. Holotype: USNM 107953. Paratypes: IBTS [ex USNM 109733] (2) and [ex USNM 109754] (1); USNM 109715 (5), 109733 (25, now 22), 109734 (8), 109754 (12, now 11). Type catalog: Vilasri et al. 2018:59 [ref. 36451]. •Valid as Schistura schultzi (Smith 1945) -- (Kottelat 1990:202 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Chen 1999:304 [ref. 24925] as schutzi, Kottelat 2001:117 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477], Vilasri et al. 2018:59 [ref. 36451]). Current status: Valid as Schistura schultzi (Smith 1945). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand and China. Habitat: freshwater.

scleropterus, Nemachilus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:54, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Bajangol, Chuan che River, near Gomi, Lake Kuku Nor, Ganssu, now flooded in Longyangxia, China. Lectotype: ZISP 7231. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Prokofiev 2003:61 [ref. 28070], fig. 20. •Valid as Triplophysa scleroptera (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:87 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:176 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:73 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:115 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:70 [ref. 23556], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa scleroptera (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

scripta, Schistura Sudasinghe [H.] 2018:479, Figs. 1-6, 7A-B [Zootaxa 4422 (no. 4); ref. 35942] Gin River basin, Seethala Dola, Nakiyadeniya Estate, Sri Lanka, 06°09'06"N, 80°18'36"E, elevation 83 meters. Holotype: NMSL 2018.4.1. Paratypes: DZ, NMSL. •Valid as Schistura scripta Sudasinghe 2018. Current status: Valid as Schistura scripta Sudasinghe 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Gin River basin, Sri Lanka. Habitat: freshwater.

scyphovecteta, Schistura Lokeshwor [Y.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2013:568, Figs. 7-11 [Zootaxa 3731 (no. 4); ref. 32971] Ka-ao River near New Serkawr village (Koladyne basin), Saiha District, Mizoram, India, 22°21'10.8"N, 92°57'49.88"E, elevation 199 meters. Holotype: MUMF 11136. Paratypes: MUMF 11135 (1), 11137 (1), 11138-39 (2). •Valid as Schistura scyphovecteta Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013 -- (Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Choudhury et al. 2019:50 [ref. 36483]). Current status: Valid as Schistura scyphovecteta Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Koladyne River system, Mizoram, India. Habitat: freshwater.

selangoricus, Nemachilus Duncker [G.] 1904:175 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 21; ref. 5560] Kuala Lumpur, 3°08'N, 101°42'E, Selangor, Malaysia. Lectotype: ZMH 386. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1905.5.6.16 [ex SSMKL 1291] (1), SSMKL uncat. (2, destroyed in 1945). Type catalog: Alfred 1963:165 [ref. 20555], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:403 [ref. 21161] as syntypes. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Type catalog and lectotype designation: Ladiges et al. 1958:159 [ref. 19181]. •Valid as Nemacheilus selangoricus Duncker 1904 -- (Roberts 1989:109 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 1990:68 [ref. 14137] as Noemacheilus, Lim et al. 1990:42 [ref. 16753], Kottelat et al. 1993:55 [ref. 23448], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:435 [ref. 23187] as selagoricus, Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Ng & Tan 1999:356 [ref. 24159], Freyhof & Serov 2001:137 [ref. 25364], Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:186 [ref. 25685], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2009:123 [ref. 30124], Tan & Kottelat 2009:56 [ref. 30261], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010:45 [ref. 30914], Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:521 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus selangoricus Duncker 1904. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Malaya (Malaysia). Habitat: freshwater.

sellaefer, Barbatula yarkandensis Nichols [J. T.] 1925:4 [American Museum Novitates No. 171; ref. 3178] Chin-ssu [tsu], 16 miles southwest of Taiyuan, Shansi Province, China. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8411. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:15 [ref. 12367]. Types changed to a unique holotype on K. Hartel email 16 Mar. 2016. •Valid as Triplophysa sellaefer (Nichols 1925) -- (Zhu 1989:74 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:113 [ref. 25213], Wang et al. 2001:170 [ref. 26566], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa sellaefer (Nichols 1925). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

semiarmatus, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1867:286 [6] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 2) (art. 5); ref. 14043] Bowany and Seegoor rivers; Billicul Lake, India. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.7740 (1, syntype) Bowany; BMNH 1867.7.24.25-27 (3) Nilgherries. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:157 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:301 [ref. 25110]. On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Nemacheilus semiarmatus Day 1867 -- (Menon 1987:110 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:502 [ref. 20764], Indra 1991:240 [ref. 24005] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:178 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Raju Thomas et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26359], Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005:77 [ref. 28530]). •Valid as Schistura semiarmata (Day 1867) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:442 [ref. 23187], Sreekantha et al. 2006:2216 [ref. 28597] as semiarmatus, Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367], Freyhof et al. 2016:76 [ref. 34414], Sudasinghe 2017:108 [ref. 35539], Bleher 2018:238 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura semiarmata (Day 1867). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Southern Peninsular India. Habitat: freshwater.

semizonata, Cobitis Blyth [E.] 1860:171 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 477] Rangoon (possibly Mandalay), Myanmar. Neotype: NRM 23743. Holotype was ZSI 2680, but it was lost in 1943; neotype designated by Kottelat 1990:35 [ref. 14137] as the same specimen designated neotype for Cobitis rubidipinnis Blyth 1860. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus rubidipinnis (Blyth 1860) -- (Menon 1987:152 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus). •Objective synonym of Acanthocobitis rubidipinnis (Blyth 1860) -- (Kottelat 1990:33 [ref. 14137] after neotype designation, Kottelat 2012:76 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:199 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Paracanthocobitis rubidipinnis (Blyth 1860) -- (Singer & Page 2015:395 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthocobitis rubidipinnis (Blyth 1860). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sertata, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:71, Fig. 58 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Mekong basin, Nam Xi below Kuang Xi waterfall, upstream of Bank Thapen, 19°45'10"N, 102°00'10"E, Louangphabang Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45379. Paratypes: CMK 13909 (57), LARRI uncat. (3), NRM 44918 (3), ZRC 45380 (3). •Valid as Schistura sertata Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:117 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura sertata Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

sewerzowi, Nemachilus Nikolskii [G. V.] 1938:319, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes de Moscou, Section Biologique (n. s.) v. 47 (nos. 5-6); ref. 17210] Lower part of Kaskelen River, 2 kilometers above mouth, Ili River basin, Kazakhstan. Holotype: ZMMU P3638. Paratypes: ?ZMMU P-3535-37 (7, 1, 2), P-3639 (orig. 198, now 188); ZIN 28026 (2), 28369 (10); ZMA 110487 (2); ZSI F12812/1 (10). Type catalog: Svetovidova 1978:258 [ref. 9011], Nijssen et al. 1982:32 [ref. 19236], Vasil'eva et al. 2001:26-27 [ref. 25714] as sewerzovi. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus sewerzowi Nikolskii 1938 -- (Berg 1949:867 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Valid as Triplophysa sewerzowi (Nikolskii 1938) -- (Prokofiev 2006:255 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2010:907 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:130 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2016:203 [ref. 34459]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa sewerzowi (Nikolskii 1938). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Ili River basin, southeastern Kazakhstan. Habitat: freshwater.

sexcauda, Nemacheilus Fowler [H. W.] 1937:156, Figs. 75-76 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 89; ref. 1425] Me Poon [Mae Phun], Thailand. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68007. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:64 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Schistura sexcauda (Fowler 1937) -- (Kottelat 1990:204 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187] as sexcaudata, Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2000:58 [ref. 25040], Freyhof & Serov 2001:145 [ref. 25364], Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003:172 [ref. 26859], Chen et al. 2005:31 [ref. 28352], Kangrang et al. 2012:76 [ref. 32324], Page et al. 2012:327 [ref. 32342], Singer & Page 2012:351 [ref. 32390], Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura sexcauda (Fowler 1937). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

sexnubes, Schistura Endruweit [M.] 2014:60, Figs. 1-5 [Zoological Research v. 35 (no. 1); ref. 33202] Mengmenghe River, Xiaoheijiang River subbasin, Mekong Basin, Shuangjiang County, Lincang Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, 23°33.045'N, 99°51.239'E, elevation 1047 meters. Holotype: KIZ 2011000101. Paratypes: KIZ 2011000102-05 (4), 200501401 (1). •Valid as Schistura sexnubes Endruweit 2014 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477], Endruweit et al. 2016:599 [ref. 34743], Endruweit 2017:399 [ref. 35191]). Current status: Valid as Schistura sexnubes Endruweit 2014. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, Mekong Basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

seyhanensis, Noemacheilus (Paracobitis) tigris Bănărescu [P. M.] 1968:355, Pl. 3 (figs. 2-3) [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 65; ref. 16001] Between Viransehir and Kazancik, Turkey. Holotype: ZMH H4014. Paratypes: ZMH H4015 (3). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:159 [ref. 22013]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Paracobitis tigris (Heckel 1843), but a valid subspecies -- (Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus seyhanensis (Bănărescu 1968) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:99 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33140], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644], Kaya et al. 2020:289 [ref. 37622], Sungur 2020:[1] [ref. 37465], Yogurtçuoglu et al. 2020:[14] [ref. 37627]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus seyhanensis (Bănărescu 1968). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Seyhan River basin, Mediterranean Sea tributary (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

seyhanicola, Schistura Erk'akan [F.], Nalbant [T. T.] & Özeren [S. C.] 2007:81, Fig. 11 [Journal of Fisheries International [electronic journal] v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 29026] Dam Bridge, near Adana, Seyhan River basin, 38°39'N, 36°37'E, Turkey. Holotype (unique): HUIC SEY-1. Also spelled Sinohanicolo in Fig. 11, an obvious error. •Valid as Schistura seyhanicola Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007 -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus seyhanicola (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:99 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644], Kaya et al. 2020:289 [ref. 37622]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus seyhanicola (Erk'akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Seyhan River basin (Mediterranean tributary), Adana Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

shaanxiensis, Triplophysa Chen [J.-X.] in Chen, Xu, Fang, Song & Wang 1987:21 [English p. 242], Fig. 8 [Fishes in Qinling Mountain area.; ref. 21175] Tongchuan Xian, Shaanxi Province, China. Holotype: Inst. Zool., Shaanxi 801811. Paratypes: IHASW 801810 (1), 801813 (1), 801815 (1), 801817-18 (1, 1), 801967 (1), 801969-71 (1, 1, 1), 801978-80 (1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Triplophysa minxianensis (Wang & Zhu 1979) -- (Wu & Wu 1992:152 [ref. 21205] as shaenxiensis). •Valid as Triplophysa shaanxiensis Chen 1987 -- (Zhu 1989:75 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:113 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa shaanxiensis Chen 1987. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

shadiwalensis, Schistura Mirza [M. R.] & Nalbant [T. T.] in Mirza, Nalbant & Bănărescu 1981:125, Figs. 51-55 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 5390] Chenab River at Shadiwal, Pakistan. Holotype: ISBB 3369. Paratypes: ISBB 3370 (1), ZMA 116447 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:36 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus horai Menon 1952 -- (Menon 1987:74 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:483 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:173 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura shadiwalensis Mirza & Nalbant 1981 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:442 [ref. 23187], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:15 [ref. 27265], Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Schistura shadiwalensis Mirza & Nalbant 1981. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: freshwater.

shanensis, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1929:322, Pl. 15 (figs. 5-6) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 31 (pt 4); ref. 15899] Thale-ú Stream near Fort Stedman (eastern shore of Inlé Lake), southern Shan States, Myanmar. Holotype: ZSI F11058 /1. Paratypes: BMNH 1930.3.3.5 [ex ZSI] (1), ZSI (3). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:365 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus shanensis Hora 1929 -- (Menon 1987:137 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:503 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Schistura shanensis (Hora 1929) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187]). •Valid as Physoschistura shanensis (Hora 1929) -- (Kottelat 1990:88 [ref. 14137], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:9 [ref. 32001], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:230 [ref. 32098], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:102 [ref. 32325], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012:249 [ref. 32336], Kottelat 2012:103 [ref. 32367], Suvarnaraksha 2013:246 [ref. 32981], Kottelat 2013:203 [ref. 32989], Lalramliana et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34795], Tamang & Sinha 2016:287 [ref. 34804], Kano et al. 2016:9 [ref. 34887], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:412 [ref. 35638]). •Valid as Mustura shanensis (Hora 1929) -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Mustura shanensis (Hora 1929). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Inlé Lake, Salween basin, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

shansi, Barbatula stoliczkai Nichols [J. T.] 1925:6 [American Museum Novitates No. 171; ref. 3178] Mai-tai-chao, Shansi (42 miles east of Paotow [Pao-t'ou] Nei Mongolia), northern China. Holotype: AMNH 84112. •Synonym of Barbatula nuda (Bleeker 1864) -- (Kottelat 2012:78 [ref. 32367], Chen et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36569]). •Uncertain -- (Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula nuda (Bleeker 1864). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sharavathiensis, Schistura Sreekantha [no initials], Gururaja [K. V.], Rema Devi [K.], Indra [T. J.] & Ramachandra [T. V.] 2006:2213, Fig. 3 [Zoos' Print Journal v. 21 (no. 4); ref. 28597] Sharavathi river, 14°08'15'N, 74°44'30"E, Kalkatte tributary, 1 kilometer above Dabbe Falls, Shimoga, Karnataka, western Ghats, India. Holotype: ZSI/SRS F-7597. Paratypes: IISc/CES/WGBIS 3-5-3-5-006 (2). •Valid as Schistura sharavathiensis Sreekantha, Gururaja, Rema Devi, Indra & Ramachandra 2006 -- (Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Sudasinghe 2017:108 [ref. 35539]). Current status: Valid as Schistura sharavathiensis Sreekantha, Gururaja, Rema Devi, Indra & Ramachandra 2006. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Sharavathi river, western Ghats, India. Habitat: freshwater.

shebbearei, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1935:52, Pl. 3 (figs. 1-2) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 37 (pt 1); ref. 13886] Rivers below Darjeeling, northern Bengal, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11719/1 (or 11720/1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:125 [ref. 20743] as shebbeari, Menon 1987:88 [ref. 14149]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:365 [ref. 27706] as shebbari. •Synonym of Nemacheilus scaturigina (McClelland 1839) -- (Menon 1987:86 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:501 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:178 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Schistura scaturigina McClelland 1839 -- (Ataur Rahman 2003:167 [ref. 31338], Conway et al. 2011:[11] [ref. 31594]). •Valid as Schistura shebbearei (Hora 1935) -- (Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517]). Current status: Valid as Schistura shebbearei (Hora 1935). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

shehensis, Noemacheilus Tilak [R.] 1990:138, Figs. 2-3 [Records of the Zoological Survey of India v. 87 (no. 1-4); ref. 23720] Irrigation canal at Sheh, nearly 12 kilometerss east of Leh, Ladakh, Sheh, India. Holotype: NRS/ZSI 1208. Paratypes: ZRS/ZSI 1209 (4), 1210 (25). Publication possibly not until 1997 according to Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367]. •Synonym of Triplophysa shehensis Menon 1987 -- (Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa shehensis Menon 1987. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

shehensis, Triplophysa Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:212 [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Ladakh, India. Holotype (unique): NRS/ZSI uncat. The description by Menon in Tilak 1984 "in press" and by Talwar and Jhingran 1991:514 as In press. We assume that the description provided in Menon may be different from Tilak's manuscript. •Valid as Triplophysa shehensis Menon 1987 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:514 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:191 [ref. 24904], Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa shehensis Menon 1987. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

shilinensis, Triplophysa Chen [Y.-R.] & Yang [J.-X.] in Chen, Yang & Xu 1992:17, Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 20028] Underground cave at Weiboyi village near Stone Forest, ca. 24°47'N, 103°22'E, Lunan [Shilin] County, Yunnan Province, Nanpan River basin, China. Holotype: KIZ 913001 [199100036]. Paratypes: KIZ 913002 (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:353 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Triplophysa shilinensis Chen & Yang 1992 -- (Zhu 1995:119 [ref. 25213], Romero & Paulson 2001:22 [ref. 26040], Chen & Yang 2005:604 [ref. 28119], Proudlove 2006:93 [ref. 28992], Li et al. 2008:676 [ref. 29925], Chen et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30169], Zheng 2009:[5] [ref. 30217], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1553 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2011:569 [ref. 31447], Yang et al. 2012:170 [ref. 31483], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193], Wu et al. 2012:878 [ref. 32311], Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891] with authors as Chu & Yang, Yang in Lan et al. 2013:256, 257 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34477], Yang et al. 2016:299 [ref. 34677], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:844 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971], Huang et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36689]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa shilinensis Chen & Yang 1992. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nanpan River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

shimogensis, Nemachilichthys Narayan Rao [C. R.] 1920:62, Pl. 2 (figs. 5, 5a-b) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 6 (no. 31) (art. 2); ref. 15244] Thunga River, Shimoga Town, Mysore, India. Holotype (?): BMNH 1919.11.19.13-18 (1 of 6, or 1). Paratypes: BMNH 1919.11.19.13-18 (5 of 6 or 6) Mysore. Non-types (?): ZSI F9824/1 to 9826/1 (3) Thunga R. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:121 [ref. 20743], Menon 1987:160 [ref. 14149]. Also in Rao & Seshachar 1927:124 [ref. 15818]. •Valid as Nemachilichthys shimogensis Narayan Rao 1920 -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:448 [ref. 23187], Bleher 2018:178 [ref. 36647]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus ruppelli (Sykes 1841) -- (Menon 1987:159 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus ruppelli, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:499 [ref. 20764] as rueppelli, Menon 1999:183 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus rupelli). •Synonym of Nemachilichthys ruppelli (Sykes 1839) -- (Kottelat 2012:93 [ref. 32367] with question, Keskar et al. 2015:555 [ref. 34106] as rueppelli). Current status: Synonym of Nemachilichthys ruppelli (Sykes 1839). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

shiyangensis, Nemachilus Zhao [T.-Q.] & Wang [X.-T.] 1983:97, Fig. 1 [Journal of Lanzhou University Natural Science v. 19 (no. 3); ref. 21318] Gansu, Leitai He stream near Wuwei (13°55'N, 102°38"W), Shiyang He River system, China. Holotype: DBLU 770582. Paratypes: DBLU 800895 (1). Original genus should have been Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa shiyangensis (Zhao & Wang 1983) -- (Kottelat 2013:131 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa shiyangensis (Zhao & Wang 1983). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Gansu, China. Habitat: freshwater.

shuangjiangensis, Noemacheilus Zhu [S.-Q.] & Wang [S.-H.] 1985:215 [220], Figs. 18-23 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 8120] Xiaoheijiang River, tributary of the Lancangjiang River, 23°20'N, 99°50'E, Shuangjiang County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: NIGLAS 810443. Paratypes: NIGLAS 810426 (1), uncat. (27). English description on p. 220. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus shuangjiangensis Zhu & Wang 1985 -- (Zhu 1989:65 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:112 [ref. 25213], Zhang et al. 2016:131 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Schistura shuangjiangensis (Zhu & Wang 1985) -- (Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:60 [ref. 33202]). •Valid as Physoschistura shuangjiangensis (Zhu & Wang 1985) -- (Endruweit et al. 2016:598 [ref. 34743], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:412 [ref. 35638]). •Probably in a new genus -- (Kottelat 2018:311 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Physoschistura shuangjiangensis (Zhu & Wang 1985). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Mekong basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

shuensis, Schistura Bohlen [J.] & Šlechtová [V.] 2014:217, Figs. 1-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 3) (for 2013); ref. 33238] Magway division: Shu Chaung [chaung = stream] at bridge of Pathein-Monywa highway; 19°09.395'N, 94°47.835' E, Myanmar. Holotype: ZRC 54186. Paratypes: ZRC 54187 (5). •Valid as Mustura shuensis (Bohlen & Šlechtová 2014) -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Mustura shuensis (Bohlen & Šlechtová 2014). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Shu stream, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

shuilongensis, Oreonectes Deng [H.-Q.], Xiao [N.], Hou [ X.-F.] & Zhou [J.] 2016:145, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4132 (no. 1); ref. 34511] Unnamed cave stream of Liujiang River basin, Shuilong Township, Sandu County, Guizhou Province, China, 25°50′44.4′′N, 107°52′54.3′′E. Holotype: GNUG 20100618010. Paratypes: GNUG. •Valid as Oreonectes shuilongensis Deng, Xiao, Hou & Zhou 2016 -- (Liu et al. 2019:405 [ref. 36573]). •Valid as Troglonectes shuilongensis (Deng, Xiao, Hou & Zhou 2016) -- (Huang et al. 2019:117 [ref. 37137]). Current status: Valid as Troglonectes shuilongensis (Deng, Xiao, Hou & Zhou 2016). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Cave system of the Liujiang River basin, Sandu County, Guizhou, China. Habitat: freshwater.

sibiricus, Nemacheilus Gratzianov [V. I.] 1907:164, 168 [Trudy Otdela Ichtiologii Imperatorskago Russkago Obshchestva Akklimatizacii Zivotnych' i Rastenii. v. 4; ref. 1871] Biya River near Biysk [Biysk], Altai, Russia. Lectotype: ZUMM 2531 (140 mm). Paralectotypes: ZMMU P-2532 (now 2). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:25 [ref. 25714]. Lectotype selected by Prokofiev 2016:394 [ref. 34693]. Former syntypes ZMMGU 2532 (3) = Barbatula compressirostris, see Prokofiev 2018:273 [ref. 35878]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:869 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Nemacheilus toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:47 [ref. 22798]). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Prokofiev 2007:17 [ref. 30343]). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (based on status of Barbatula). •Questionably the same as Nemacheilus tominus Ruzssky 1920 -- (Kottelat 2012:80 [ref. 32367]). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Vasil'eva 1998:95 [ref. 23591], Sideleva 2001:54 [ref. 26181], Sideleva 2003:11 [ref. 27815], Kottelat 2006:53 [ref. 28831], Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065], Prokofiev 2016:391 [ref. 34693] with question). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sichuanensis, Yunnanilus Ding [R.-H.] 1995:253 [English p. 255], Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 20 (no. 2); ref. 22583] Anlin River, Mianning County, 28°41'N, 102°12'E, Sichuan, China, elevation 2020 meters. Holotype: MSINR 930026. Paratypes: MSINR [Fish Mus. Sichuan Inst. Nat. Res.] 93001-25 (25), 930027-126 (100). •Valid as Yunnanilus sichuanensis Ding 1995 -- (Zhu et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30145], An et al. 2009:634 [ref. 30709], An et al. 2009:635 [ref. 30709], Kottelat 2012:136 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:361 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus sichuanensis Ding 1995. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, Sichuan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

sigillata, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:72, Fig. 59 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Houay Sala Yai, a tributary of Nam San, 18°35'17"N, 103°05'00"E, Saisomboun Special Zone, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45381. Paratypes: CMK 13353 (23), LARRI uncat. (6), NRM 44901 (6), ZRC 45382 (6). •Valid as Schistura sigillata Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:117 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura sigillata Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Ngum watershed, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

sijuensis, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:175, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Siju cave, about 25°25'N, 90°30'E [?25°21'N, 90°41'E], Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F570. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F571 (14). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Listed as Noemacheilus Mesonoemachilus sijuensis on plate caption. See Das 2003:367 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus sijuensis Menon 1987 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:503 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:550 [ref. 23778], Menon 1999:185 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura sijuensis (Menon 1987) -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:21 [ref. 26040], Proudlove 2006:95 [ref. 28992], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:262 [ref. 32337], Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor et al. 2013:588 [ref. 32764], Khynrian & Sen 2014:26 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33318], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[6] [ref. 33603], Choudhury et al. 2017:99 [ref. 35681], Choudhury et al. 2019:50 [ref. 36483]). Current status: Valid as Schistura sijuensis (Menon 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Barak-Meghna-Surma system, Garo Hills district, Meghalaya, India. Habitat: freshwater.

sikkimensis, Noemacheilus Mani [M. S.] 1974:671 [Ecology and biogeography in India.; ref. 21178] Name only, not available; possibly an emendation of Nemachilus sikmaiensis Hora 1921. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Nemacheilidae.

sikmaiensis, Nemachilus Hora [S. L.] 1921:201, Pls. 9 (fig. 4), 10 (figs. 1,1a) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 22 (pt 3, no. 19); ref. 2202] Putao, Myanmar. Neotype: NRM 10740 [ex MAL/1934168.3740 lost]. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:365 [ref. 27706]. Type ZSI F 9932/1 lost; neotype designated by Kottelat 1990:210 [ref. 14137]; neotype is also the holotype of Nemacheilus putaoensis Rendahl 1948. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Valid as Nemacheilus sikmaiensis Hora 1921 -- (Menon 1987:201 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Ataur Rahman 1989:149 [ref. 24860] as Nemachilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:504 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:550 [ref. 23778], Zhu 1995:112 [ref. 25213], Menon 1999:179 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura sikmaiensis (Hora 1921) -- (Kottelat 1990:208 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:440 [ref. 23187], Vishwanath & Laisram 2001:210 [ref. 25886], Ataur Rahman 2003:169 [ref. 31338], Vishwanath & Shanta Kumar 2006:210 [ref. 28652], Kottelat et al. 2007:39 [ref. 28942], Kottelat et al. 2007:40 [ref. 28942], Shrestha 2008:134 [ref. 29923] as sikamaiensis, Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011:1514 [ref. 31183], Conway et al. 2011:1747 [ref. 31594], Lokeshwor et al. 2012:262 [ref. 32337], Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2014:222 [ref. 33238], Khynrian & Sen 2014:27 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33318], Endruweit 2014:358 [ref. 33494], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628], Zhang et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34477], Kottelat 2017:97 [ref. 35308], Bleher 2018:240 [ref. 36647], Choudhury et al. 2019:50 [ref. 36483]). Current status: Valid as Schistura sikmaiensis (Hora 1921). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Irrawaddy and Chindwin basin, Manipur India, Myanmar and China. Habitat: freshwater.

siluroides, Nemachilus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:62, Pls. 7 (fig. 1), 8 (fig. 10) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Chuan Che River, near Gomi, elevation 7000 feet. Syntypes: ZIN 7243-44 (1, 1), 7851(1) Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa siluroides (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:103 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:233 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:86 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:116 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:74 [ref. 23556], Yue & Chen 1998:201 [ref. 26415], He et al. 2008:47 [ref. 29558], Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367], Bashir et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34447], Zhang et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa siluroides (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Yellow River system, China. Habitat: freshwater.

simavica, Orthrias brandti Balik [S.] & Bănărescu [P. M.] in Bănărescu, Nalbant & Balik 1978:261, Fig. 3 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 75; ref. 9016] Simav stream, Balikesir. Turkey. Holotype: ISBB 2976. Paratypes: ISBB 2977 (2). See Stoumboudi et al. 2006:143 [ref. 28767] for information on the type locality. •Valid as Barbatula simavica (Balik & Bănărescu 1978) -- (Erk'akan et al. 2007:70 [ref. 29026]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus brandtii (Kessler 1877), but a valid subspecies simavicus -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus simavicus (Balik & Bănărescu 1978) -- (Stoumboudi et al. 2006:143 [ref. 28767], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Erk'akan 2012:97 [ref. 32281], Kottelat 2012:99 [ref. 32367], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36267], Turan et al. 2019:[10] [ref. 36540], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus simavicus (Balik & Bănărescu 1978). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Marmara Sea tributary, Balιkesir Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

similis, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:210, Figs. 156-157 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Amphoe Tha Song Yang, Tambon Kanei Jiu, Huei Ki Teu, Tak Province, Salween basin, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 27483 [now ZRC 38478] [ex NIFI 1454]. Paratypes: CMK 4387 (5), 4388 (9); NIFI 882 (5), 883 (2), 1451 (10), 1454 (21). Holotype now at ZRC. •Valid as Schistura similis Kottelat 1990 -- (Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Freyhof & Serov 2001:145 [ref. 25364], Chen et al. 2005:30 [ref. 28352] once as similes, Page et al. 2012:327 [ref. 32342], Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Suvarnaraksha 2015:168 [ref. 33813]). Current status: Valid as Schistura similis Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

singhi, Noemacheilus Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:119, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Kiphire, Nagaland, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F580. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F581 (5). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:367 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus singhi Menon 1987 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:505 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:179 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus, Karmakar 2000:31 [ref. 25662] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Schistura singhi (Menon 1987) -- (Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Khynrian & Sen 2014:28 [ref. 33853], Bleher 2018:242 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura singhi (Menon 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nagaland, India. Habitat: freshwater.

sinuatus, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1870:371 [3] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870 (pt 2) (art. 3) (for 26 May 1870); ref. 17369] Wynaad, India. Syntypes: BMNH 1870.5.2.17-18 (2). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:157 [ref. 23762]. On p. 3 of separate. •Synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 1990:28 [ref. 14137]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus mooreh (Sykes 1839) -- (Menon 1987:145 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus moreh, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:490 [ref. 20764] as moreh, Menon 1999:181 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus moreh). •Synonym of Acanthocobitis mooreh (Sykes 1839) -- (Kottelat 2012:76 [ref. 32367], Grant 2008:17 [ref. 33826] as a subgenus Paracanthocobitis). •Synonym of Paracanthocobitis mooreh (Sykes 1839) -- (Singer & Page 2015:394 [ref. 33823]). Current status: Synonym of Paracanthocobitis mooreh (Sykes 1839). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sirindhornae, Schistura Suvarnaraksha [A.] 2015:160, Figs. 1-4, 5A, 6-7 [Zootaxa 3962 (no. 1); ref. 33813] Huay Nampan, Ban Khunkoon, Moo 2, Tumbon Phukha, Pua District, Nan Province, 19°08'12.24"N, 101°00'33.18"E, Thailand, elevation 721 meters. Holotype: MARNM 5555. Paratypes: MARNM. •Valid as Schistura sirindhornae Suvarnaraksha 2015. Current status: Valid as Schistura sirindhornae Suvarnaraksha 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nan Province, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

smithi, Noemacheilus Greenwood [P. H.] 1976:130, Figs. 1a-c, 2 [Journal of Zoology (London) v. 180 (no. 1); ref. 7336] A natural well at Kaaje-Ru, 33°05'N, 48°36'E, near Baq-e-Loveh Oasis, Zagros Mountains, Iran. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1976.6.28.1. •Valid as Nemacheilus smithi Greenwood 1976 -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:23 [ref. 23608], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Proudlove 2006:85 [ref. 28992]). •Valid as Paracobitis smithi (Greenwood 1976) -- (Nalbant & Bianco 1998:115 [ref. 23810], Romero & Paulson 2001:21 [ref. 26040], Prokofiev 2009:888 [ref. 30604] with genus questioned, Esmaeili et al. 2010:373 [ref. 33391], Kottelat 2012:100 [ref. 32367], Freyhof et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33505], Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2015:340 [ref. 33744], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:886 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2016:53 [ref. 34341]). •Valid as Eidinemacheilus smithi (Greenwood 1976) -- (Segherloo et al. 2016:471 [ref. 34639], Freyhof et al. 2016:233 [ref. 34803], Esmaeili et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:42 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Eidinemacheilus smithi (Greenwood 1976). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Spring and subterranean waters, Tigris River basin, Zagros Mountains, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

sokolovi, Schistura Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:172, Figs. 40-42 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] River Azun, about 30 kilometers east of Pleiku, a confluent to River Ba, 14°02.34'N, 108°21.07'E, Gia Lai Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 27116. Paratypes: CMK 16012 (5); ZFMK 27117-22 (6), 27123-49 (27); ZSM 28868 (6), Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:113 [ref. 31087], Neumann 2011:242 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Schistura sokolovi Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:72 [ref. 35486], Ho et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura sokolovi Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Da Rang basin, Gia Lei province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

sombooni, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1998:88, Figs. 125-126 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 23436] Nam Phao, 2 kilometers upriver of Ban Lak Song (5 kilometers upriver of Ban Nape), about 18°20'40"N, 105°07'30"E, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 41806. Paratypes: CMK 12663 (15), 12684 (72); DFV uncat. (8); NRM 36714 (8); ZRC 41807 (8). •Valid as Schistura sombooni Kottelat 1998 -- (Kottelat 2000:58 [ref. 25040], Kottelat 2001:117 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:45 [ref. 33971], Kottelat 2017:53 [ref. 35502], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura sombooni Kottelat 1998. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Theun and Mekong basin, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

sonlaensis, Oreias Nguyen [T. H.], Nguyen [V. H.] & Hoang [T. T.] 2010:45 [English p. 51], Fig. 1a-c [Tap Chí Sinh Hoc (Journal of Biology) v. 32 (no. 4); ref. 32127] Lake Bom Hau, Chieng Xom Commune, Son La City, at the basin of Da River (in caves and outflow), Vietnam. Holotype: SL.08.11.001. Paratypes: SL.08.11.002 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Claea sonlaensis (Nguyen, Nguyen & Hoang 2010) based on status of Oreias. •Species incertae sedia as Schistura sonlaensis (Nguyen, Nguyen & Hoang 2010) -- (Kottelat 2012:104 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:204 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura sonlaensis (Nguyen, Nguyen & Hoang 2010). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lake Bom Hau, Da River basin, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

spanisbripes, Yunnanilus An [L.], Liu [B.-S.] & Li [W.-X.] 2009:631 [English p. 637], Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 30709] Niulanjiang River, 25°59'N, 103°36'E, Zhanyi County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: 9206064. Paratypes: Many at Heilongtan Reservoir Admistration, Fisheries Administration of Qujin, and Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science. Appeared as Yunnanilus spanisbripes in the Chinese text and as spanitripes in the English summary; Spanitripes assumed to be a lapsus. The name in the Chinese text is regarded as correct. •Valid as Yunnanilus spanisbripes An, Liu & Li 2009 -- (Kottelat 2012:136 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:143 [ref. 36374], Zhang et al. 2019:359 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Yunnanilus spanisbripes An, Liu & Li 2009. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Niulanjiang River drainage, upper Yangtze River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

spekuli, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2004:187, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 27801] Cave in center of Chin Chu Chai village, 10 kilometers south of Tam Duong, about 22°24'N, 103°26'E, Lai Chau Province, Vietnam. Holotype: IRSNB 823. Paratypes: CMK 18309 (2). •Valid as Schistura spekuli Kottelat 2004 -- (Proudlove 2006:105 [ref. 28992], Kottelat 2012:341 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:118 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura spekuli Kottelat 2004. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lai Chau Province, northern Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

spiesi, Schistura Vidthayanon [C.] & Kottelat [M.] 2003:165, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 26859] Upstream section of Tham [= cave] Phra Wang Daeng, 100-200 meters from entrance, Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, Phitsanulok Province, Thailand, 16°40'40"N, 100°41'24"E. Holotype: NIFI 3150. Paratypes: CMK 17294 (2); NIFI 3077 (1), 3078 (3), 3149 (11). •Valid as Schistura spiesi Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003 -- (Proudlove 2006:99 [ref. 28992], Kottelat 2012:341 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:119 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:212 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura spiesi Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

spiloptera, Cobitis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:27, Pl. 522 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Cochinchine [? southern Vietnam]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3434 (19). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:96 [ref. 19574]. •Valid as Schistura spiloptera (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Kottelat 1990:213 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Freyhof & Serov 2001:145, 176 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2001:49 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2012:119 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:212 [ref. 32989], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366], Ho et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura spiloptera (Valenciennes 1846). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thua Thien-Hue, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

spilotus, Nemacheilus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:105, Fig. 57 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Metang River, 35 miles north of Chieng Mai, northern Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 56528. Paratypes: ANSP 56529-48 (20). Additional material: (22). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:64 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Schistura spilota (Fowler 1934) -- (Kottelat 1990:215 [ref. 14137], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:439 [ref. 23187], Doi 1997:17 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 1998:80 [ref. 23436], Plongsesthee et al. 2011:177 [ref. 31357], Kottelat 2012:119 [ref. 32367], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013:88, 91 [ref. 32798], Kottelat 2013:212 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:60 [ref. 33202]). Current status: Valid as Schistura spilota (Fowler 1934). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

spiniferus, Noemacheilus Kottelat [M.] 1984:250, Fig. 20 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 5292] Sungai Liam, tributary of Baram River, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia, 3°19'N, 114°45'E. Holotype: ROM 39890. Paratypes: BMNH 1932.8.9.31 (2); CMK 4349 (17); ROM 39891 (6), uncat. (6, 6, 7, 5, 5). Non-types; SMF 17012 (15). Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus spiniferus Kottelat 1984 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:55 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:236 [ref. 23210], Doi 1997:16 [ref. 22832], Hadiaty & Siebert 2001:186 [ref. 25685], Tan & Lim 2004:109 [ref. 27716], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:157 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:188 [ref. 28285], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2009:123 [ref. 30124], Tan & Kottelat 2009:56 [ref. 30261], Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010:45 [ref. 30914], Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:32 [ref. 35802]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus spiniferus Kottelat 1984. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

stala, Schistura Endruweit [M.] 2017:586, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4341 (no. 4); ref. 35662] Yangbijiang River, Mekong basin, Yangbi County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, approximately 25°40'N, 99°58'E. Holotype: KIZ 2009005397. Paratypes: KIZ. •Valid as Schistura stala Endruweit 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura stala Endruweit 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Mekong basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

starostini, Noemacheilus (Troglocobitis) Parin [N. V.] 1983:83, Fig. [Zoologicheskii Zhurnal v. 62 (no. 1); ref. 8287] In sinkholes, foothills of Khrebet Kugitangtau mountains east of Karlyuk village, Chardzhouskaya Obl., Turkilometersenistan. Holotype: ZIN 46159. Paratypes: (6) ZIN 46160 (3), ZMMU P-16030-31 (2, 1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:29 [ref. 25714]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus starostini Parin 1983 -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:20 [ref. 26040]). •Valid as Troglocobitis starostini (Parin 1983) -- (Proudlove 2006:88 [ref. 28992], Kottelat 2012:134 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Troglocobitis starostini (Parin 1983). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Turkmenistan. Habitat: freshwater.

stenurus, Nemachilus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:64, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Dy Tdchum, Tibet, elevation 12700-14200 feet. Lectotype: ZIN 7355. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1891.10.7.33 [ex ZIN] (1) Mt. Keria; ZIN 7256 (4), 7354 (3, now 2). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Lectotype selected by Prokofiev 2009:699. •Synonym of Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Berg 1949:862 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1995:23 [ref. 23608] with question). •Valid as Nemacheilus stenurus Herzenstein 1888 -- (Coad 1981:15 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Triplophysa stenura (Herzenstein 1888) -- (Zhu 1989:117 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:238 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:93 [ref. 21531], Zhang et al. 1995:63 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:118 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:81 [ref. 23556], Chen et al. 2004:507 [ref. 28065], Prokofiev 2006:258 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Li et al. 2007:47 [ref. 29309], He et al. 2008:47, 48 [ref. 29558] as a species complex, Zheng et al. 2010:[4] [ref. 30841], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2013:214 [ref. 32989], Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966], Zhang et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34477], Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665], Usharamalakshmi et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36315], Feng et al. 2020:468 [ref. 37576]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa stenura (Herzenstein 1888). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kashmir, India and Tibet, China. Habitat: freshwater.

stewarti, Diplophysa Hora [S. L.] 1922:70, Figs. 2c, 2d [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 24; ref. 15348] Small stream flowing into Rham-tso, eastern Tibet. Holotype: ZSI F2894/1. Paratypes: ZSI F2897/1 to 2903/1 (7). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:121 [ref. 20743]. See Das 2003:352 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus stewarti (Hora 1922) -- (Tilak 1990:144 [ref. 23720] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Triplophysa stewarti (Hora 1922) -- (Zhu 1989:97 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:168 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:116 [ref. 25213], Zhang et al. 1995:54 [ref. 22734], Prokofiev 2002:S47 [ref. 27462], Prokofiev 2010:908 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2016:203 [ref. 34459], Zhang et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa stewarti (Hora 1922). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tibet and China. Habitat: freshwater.

stigmofasciatus, Nemacheilus Arunachalam [M.] & Muralidharan [M.] 2009:148, Fig. 1 [Journal of Threatened Taxa v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 30462] Thuttinjet, Seethanathi River, Karnataka State, 13°23'54.3"N, 75°01'18.2"E, Arunachalam, India, elevation 199 meters. Holotype: ZSI SRS Chennai F7599. Paratypes: MUSM 19 (4). •Valid as 'Nemacheilus' stigmofasciatus Arunachalam & Muralidharan 2009-- (Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367], Bleher 2018:174 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus stigmofasciatus Arunachalam & Muralidharan 2009. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Seethanathi River system, Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Habitat: freshwater.

stolickai, Cobitis Steindachner [F.] 1866:793, Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 16; ref. 18789] Streams in Tsumureri Lake system, Rupshu Province, western Tibet, elevation 15550 feet. Syntypes: (12) NMW 48436 (5), 48439 (1), 50477 (4). Original spelling as stoličkai (with a diacritical mark over the c, which is deleted according to ICZN Art. 32.5.2.1). •Valid as Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Berg 1949:862 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1981:15 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus, Tilak 1990:144 [ref. 23720] as Noemacheilus, Coad 1995:23 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869]). •Valid as Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) (sometimes as stoliczkae) -- (Menon 1987:213 [ref. 14149], Zhu 1989:113 [ref. 17744] as stoliczkae, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:514 [ref. 20764], Wu & Wu 1992:212 [ref. 21205], Ding 1994:89 [ref. 21531], Zhang et al. 1995:58 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:118 [ref. 25213], Chen & Zhang in Chen 1998:80 [ref. 23556], Menon 1999:191 [ref. 24904], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Mirza 2003:16 [ref. 27265] as stoliczkae, Chen et al. 2004:507 [ref. 28065] as stoliczkae, Kottelat 2006:89 [ref. 28831], Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061] as stoliczkae with subspecies, Prokofiev 2007:8 [ref. 28990] as stoliczkae with subspecies, Li et al. 2007:47 [ref. 29309] as stoliczkae, He et al. 2008:49 [ref. 29558] as stoliczkae, Zheng et al. 2010:[4] [ref. 30841] as stoliczkae, Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096] as stoliczkae with unnamed subspecies, Esmaeili et al. 2010:373 [ref. 33391] as stolicskai, He et al. 2012:279 [ref. 32339] as stoliczkae, Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:214 [ref. 32989], Gurung et al. 2013:4883 [ref. 32969] as stiliczkai, Li et al. 2015:423 [ref. 33642], Yan et al. 2015:304 [ref. 33966] as stoliczkae, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:888 [ref. 34062], Bashir et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34447], Zhang et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34477] as stoliczkai, Wu et al. 2016:295 [ref. 34665], Esmaeili et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:53 [ref. 36089], Usharamalakshmi et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36315], Zhang et al. 2019:392 [ref. 36699], Feng et al. 2020:468 [ref. 37576] as stoliczkae). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa stolickai (Steindachner 1866). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Indus, Ganges and Tarim River basins, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Iran, Pakistan, India, Bhutan, China and Tibet. Habitat: freshwater.

strauchii, Diplophysa Kessler [K. F.] 1874:58, Pl. 8 (fig. 40) [Izvestiia Imperatorskago Obschchestva Liubitelei Estestvozaniia, Antropologii i Etnografii v. 11; ref. 2596] Ili River and Lake Balkhash, Kazakhstan (and possibly China). Syntypes: ZIN 2328-29 (2, 1) Lake Balkhash. •Valid as Nemacheilus strauchii (Kessler 1874) -- (Berg 1949:851 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus stauchi). •Valid as Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler 1874) -- (Zhu 1989:93 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:186 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:115 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2002:S45 [ref. 27462], Kottelat 2006:89 [ref. 28831], Prokofiev 2006:258 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler 1874). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

striatus, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1867:347 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 2) (art. 5); ref. 14044] Wynaad, India, elevation 3000 feet. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.7487 (1, syntype), BMNH 1889.2.1.1661-64 (4), RMNH 8757 [?= 2675] (1), ZSI 2683 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:157 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:302 [ref. 25110]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Valid as Nemacheilus striatus Day 1867 -- (Menon 1987:113 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:505 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:179 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Longischistura striata (Day 1867) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:445 [ref. 23187], Prokofiev 2010:889 [ref. 31096] based on status of genus). •Valid as Schistura striata (Day 1867) -- (Kottelat 2012:119 [ref. 32367], Sudasinghe 2017:108 [ref. 35539], Bleher 2018:262 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Schistura striata (Day 1867). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

sturanyi, Nemachilus Steindachner [F.] 1892:378 [22] [131], Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 59 (1. Abth.); ref. 14517] Lake Ohrid [Ochrida] at Pestani, between Ohrid City and Naum Monastery, Yugoslavia/Albania. Holotype (unique): NMW 48440. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. On p. 22 of separate; on p. 131 of abstract. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Lelek 1987:256 [ref. 22962] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Vasil'eva 1998:95 [ref. 23591], Economidis 2005:67 [ref. 28213]). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies sturanyi (Steindachner 1892) -- (Soric 2000:64 [ref. 28770], Prokofiev 2007:15 [ref. 30343]). •Valid as Barbatula sturanyi (Steindachner 1892) -- (Kottelat 2006:89 [ref. 28831], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:331 [ref. 29996], Kottelat 2012:80 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula sturanyi (Steindachner 1892). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lake Ohrid basin and upper Drin River: Macedonia and Albania. Habitat: freshwater.

suber, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:72, Fig. 60 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Unnamed small forest stream along road from Thad Leuk to Nam Leuk dam site, 18°27'05"N, 103°04'06"E, Vientiane Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45383. Paratypes: CMK 13308 (2). •Valid as Schistura suber Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:117 [ref. 25780], Vidthayanon & Jaruthanin 2002:19 [ref. 26523], Kangrang et al. 2012:75 [ref. 32324], Kottelat 2012:119 [ref. 32367], Bohlen et al. 2016:361 [ref. 34366], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). •Valid as Rhyacoschistura suber (Kottelat 2000) -- (Kottelat 2019: 161 [ref. 36743]). Current status: Valid as Rhyacoschistura suber (Kottelat 2000). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Ngum basin, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

subfusca, Schistura McClelland [J.] 1839:308, 443, Pl. 53 (fig. 5) [Asiatic Researches v. 19 (pt 2); ref. 2923] Upper Assam, India. No types known. First revisor apparently Hora 1935:64, selecting scaturigina over subfusca. •Synonym of Nemacheilus scaturigina (McClelland 1839) -- (Menon 1987:86 [ref. 14149] as Noemacheilus, Menon 1999:178 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Nemacheilus subfuscus (McClelland 1839) -- (Zhu 1989:63 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:144 [ref. 21205], Zhang et al. 1995:47 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:112 [ref. 25213], Zhang et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Schistura scaturigina McClelland 1839 -- (Kottelat 2012:117 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura scaturigina McClelland 1839. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

suborbitalis, Cobitis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:26 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3930. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:96 [ref. 19574]. First revisor selecting fasciatus over suborbitalis was Bleeker 1860:79. •Synonym of Nemacheilus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Kottelat 2012:91 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:201 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Nemacheilus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1846). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

susannae, Schistura Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:179, Figs. 46-48 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] Stream Mong Mo south of Hai Van Pass at national highway No. 1, 16°09.67'N,108°07.73'E, Quang Nam Da Nang Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 28382. Paratypes: CMK 16333 (6), ZFMK 28383-412 (30). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:113 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Schistura susannae Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:119 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:212 [ref. 32989], Ho et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura susannae Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Quang Nam Da Nang province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

susiani, Paraschistura Freyhof [J.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Esmaeili [H. R.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2015:41, Figs. 48-52 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 33865] Khozestan Province, Zard River close to Rudzard village at road from Ramhormoz to Baghmalek, a tributary of Jarahi, 31°22'34"N, 49°43'11'E, Iran. Holotype: ZM-CBSU J3009. Paratypes: ZM-CBSU J3010 (14). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Paraschistura susiani Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015 -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:888 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:72 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:52 [ref. 36089], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2019:582 [ref. 36833]). Current status: Valid as Paraschistura susiani Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tigris River basin, Khozestan, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

syngkai, Schistura Choudhury [H.], Mukhim [D. K. B.], Dey [A.], Warbah [D. P.] & Sarma [D.] 2019:186, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4701 (no. 2); ref. 37121] Twahdidoh Stream of Wahblei River near Seinduli village, Surma-Meghna basin, West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India, 25°39ʹ32ʺN, 91°08ʹ22ʺE, elevation 1,100 meters. Holotype: ZSI FF 8317. Paratypes: GUMF 304/6 (6). •Valid as Schistura syngkai Choudhury, Mukhim, Dey, Warbah & Sarma 2019. Current status: Valid as Schistura syngkai Choudhury, Mukhim, Dey, Warbah & Sarma 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Wahblei River drainage, Surma-Meghna basin, Meghalaya, India. Habitat: freshwater.

systomos, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2017:10, Figs. 1-2, 3a, 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 28 (no. 1); ref. 35483] Tad Set on Houay Set (Xe Set, tributary of Xe Don), near Ban Nonghinkhao, Bolaven Plateau, Champasak Province, Laos, 15°18'03"N, 106°18'23"E, elevation 1136 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2767.056. Paratypes: CMK. •Valid as Schistura systomos Kottelat 2017 -- (Kottelat 2017:346 [ref. 35511]). Current status: Valid as Schistura systomos Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Bolaven Plateau, southern Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniata, Nemacheilus pulcher var. Pellegrin [J.] & Chevey [P.] 1936:229, Fig. 6 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 61; ref. 13735] Thiong Khé (Phu tho), Rouge River, Tonkin, Vietnam. Holotype: MNHN 1935-0348. •Synonym of Nemacheilus pulcher Nichols & Pope 1927 -- (Mai 1978:229 [ref. 13511]). •Synonym of Micronemacheilus pulcher (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Zhu & Cao 1987:324 [ref. 14139] as Micronoemacheilus, Zhu 1989:12 [ref. 17744]). •Valid as Micronemacheilus taeniatus (Pellegrin & Chevey 1936) -- (Kottelat 2001:46 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2001:97 [ref. 25780] as Micronoemacheilus). •Valid as Traccatichthys taeniatus(Pellegrin & Chevey 1936) -- (Freyhof & Serov 2001:188 [ref. 25364], Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:152 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Valid as Traccatichthys taeniatus (Pellegrin & Chevey 1936). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Vietnam and China. Habitat: freshwater.

tambaraparniensis, Noemacheilus triangularis Menon [A. G. K.] 1987:171 [The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Pisces. Vol. IV; ref. 14149] Tambaraparni basin near Courtalam, Tamil Nadu, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F576. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F577 (20). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. See Das 2003:367 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus triangularis Day 1865 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:506 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus triangularis Day 1865, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Menon 1999:186 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Mesonoemacheilus triangularis (Day 1865), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Rema Devi & Indra 2002:334 [ref. 26591]). •Synonym of Mesonoemacheilus triangularis (Day 1865) -- (Kottelat 2012:89 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Mesonoemacheilus tambaraparniensis (Menon 1987) -- (Anoop et al. 2017:127 [ref. 35652], Bleher 2018:156 [ref. 36647]). Current status: Valid as Mesonoemacheilus tambaraparniensis (Menon 1987). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tamiraparani River basin, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

tamduongensis, Schistura Nguyen [T. H.], Nguyen [H. D.] & Nguyen [X. K.] 2009:1, 14 [Tap Chí Sinh Hoc (Journal of Biology) v. 31 (no. 4); ref. 33208] Ban Ho in Tam Duong district, Lai Chau Province, tributary of Mu River, left bank affluent the Black River, Vietnam. Holotype: LC.09.03001. Paratypes: LC.09.03002-14 (13). Reference not seen. •Valid as Schistura tamduongensis Nguyen, Nguyen & Nguyen 2009 -- (Endruweit 2014:154 [ref. 33205] tentatively). Current status: Valid as Schistura tamduongensis Nguyen, Nguyen & Nguyen 2009. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lai Chau Province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

tanggulaensis, Nemachilus Zhu [S.-Q.] 1982:223 [224], Figs. 1-4 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 8387] Hot springs of Wenquan, between Yanshiping and Tanggula Shankou, China. Holotype: NPIB 75061. Paratypes: NPIB uncat. (14). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. English description on p. 224. •Synonym of Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Wu & Wu 1992:212 [ref. 21205] as stoliczkae). •Valid as Triplophysa tanggulaensis (Zhu 1982) -- (Zhu 1995:118 [ref. 25213], Zhu 1989:112 [ref. 17744], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Chen et al. 2004:507 [ref. 28065], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2010:895 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:132 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34477], Feng et al. 2020:468 [ref. 37576]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa tanggulaensis (Zhu 1982). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

tangtianhensis, Nemachilus longianalis Wu [Y.-F.] & Wu [C.-Z.] 1988:21 [24], Fig. 4 [Acta Biologica Plateau Sinica No. 8; ref. 21206] Mouth of the Dangqu River, upper reaches of the Tangtianhe River, Qinghai Province, China. Holotype: NPIB 8606088. Paratypes: NPIB 8606089-91 (3). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. English description on p. 24. •Synonym of Triplophysa stewarti (Hora 1922) -- (Wu & Wu 1992:168 [ref. 21205], Kottelat 2012:131 [ref. 32367], Zhang et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa stewarti (Hora 1922). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tarimensis, Nemachilus Kessler [K. F.] 1879:300 [Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 25; ref. 2598] Lower Tarim River and Lob-Nor [Lop Nur] Lake, Xinjiang, China. Syntypes: (20+): ZIN 4204-05 (6+, 6+). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. Also appeared in Kessler 1879:259 [ref. 14266]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus yarkandensis Day 1877 -- (Berg 1949:867 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Triplophysa yarkandensis (Day 1877) -- (Wu & Wu 1992:257 [ref. 21205]). •Synonym of Hedinichthys yarkandensis (Day 1877) -- (Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096], Kottelat 2012:83 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Hedinichthys yarkandensis (Day 1877). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

taurica, Nemachilus barbatulus var. Kessler [K. F.] 1877:171 [The Aralo-Caspian Expedition; ref. 2597] Selgir River, Crimea, Ukraine. Syntypes: ZIN 3029 (3), 3032 (3). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:868 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Prokofiev 2007:54 [ref. 30343]). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (based on status of Barbatula) Current status: Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

tebo, Nemacheilus Hadiaty [R. K.] & Kottelat [M.] 2009:120, Figs. 3-5 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 57 (no. 1); ref. 30124] Merapun Village, Lake Tebo area, pond at mouth of west cave, 17°00'13"N, 54°10'54"E, Kelai District, Berau Regency, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 13367. Paratypes: ANSP 187006 (1); BMNH 2007.11.13.1 (1); CMK 18909 (3); MZB 13359 (3), 13360 (4), 13380 (1); UF 165707 (1); USNM 38874 (2); ZRC 50728 (1). Plus non-type material. Species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Nemacheilus tebo Hadiaty & Kottelat 2009 -- (Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010:45 [ref. 30914], Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Nemacheilus tebo Hadiaty & Kottelat 2009. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Lake Tebo drainage, East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

tenebrosa, Schistura Kangrang [P.], Page [L. M.] & Beamish [F. W. H.] 2012:70, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 3586; ref. 32324] Thong Pha Phum, Mae Khlong basin, Kwai Noi River system, Pakkok River, 14°36'22"N, 98°28'14"E, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Holotype: UF 181417. Paratypes: UF 181157 (1), 181418 (10), 181419 (4), 181420 (4); NIFI 4415 (3); USNM 400923 (3); ZRC 53100 (3). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Schistura tenebrosa Kangrang, Page & Beamish 2012 -- (Page et al. 2012:327 [ref. 32342], Kottelat 2013:212 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Schistura tenebrosa Kangrang, Page & Beamish 2012. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pakkok River, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

tenuicauda, Cobitis Steindachner [F.] 1866:792, Pl. 17 (fig. 3) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 16; ref. 18789] Stream near Hanle monastery, Hanle, Tibet. Syntypes: NMW 48570 (6). •Valid as Noemacheilus tenuicauda (Steindachner 1866) -- (Tilak 1990:144 [ref. 23720]). •Valid as Triplophysa tenuicauda (Steindachner 1866) -- (Menon 1987:216 [ref. 14149], Zhu 1989:119 [ref. 17744], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:515 [ref. 20764], Wu & Wu 1992:235 [ref. 21205], Zhang et al. 1995:64 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:118 [ref. 25213], Menon 1999:191 [ref. 24904], Rafique 2000:325 [ref. 25220], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613], Mirza 2003:17 [ref. 27265], Prokofiev 2006:258 [ref. 29061], Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], He et al. 2008:47 [ref. 29558], Prokofiev 2010:896 [ref. 31096], Zhang et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34477], Usharamalakshmi et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36315]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa tenuicauda (Steindachner 1866). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Indus River system: Kashmir, India, Pakistan, Tibet and China. Habitat: freshwater.

tenuis, Nemacheilus Day [F.] 1877:796 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1876 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 5 Dec. 1876); ref. 14207] Aktash (12600 eet) where waters of Ak-su pass to Oxus; Yankihissar (4320 feet) where rivers go to Yarkand River. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: BMNH 1889.2.1.1716-1717 (2); NMW 48477 (1); ZSI 684-686 (3), 709 (1, destroyed), 710-11 (2). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:157 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Berg 1949:864 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Valid as Nemacheilus tenuis Day 1877 -- (Coad 1981:15 [ref. 22348] as Noemacheilus). •Valid, or a synonym of Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner 1866) -- (Coad 1995:23 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Indotriplophysa tenuis (Day 1877) -- (Kottelat 2012:86 [ref. 32367]). •Valid as Triplophysa tenuis (Day 1877) -- (Zhu 1989:95 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:184 [ref. 21205], Zhu 1995:116 [ref. 25213], Nalbant & Bianco 1998:116 [ref. 23810], Prokofiev 2001:194 [ref. 26613] dated 1876, Prokofiev 2007:7 [ref. 28990], Prokofiev 2006:257 [ref. 29061], Li et al. 2007:47 [ref. 29309], Prokofiev 2010:895, 896 [ref. 31096] with comment, Li et al.2015:423 [ref. 33642], Zhang et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa tenuis (Day 1877). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

tenura, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:73, Fig. 61 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Nam Leuk, about 1 kilometer downstream of dam site, 18°26'10"N, 102°57'01"E, Vientiane Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45384. Paratypes: CMK 133242 (25), LARRI uncat. (6), NRM 44902 (6), ZRC 45385 (6). •Valid as Schistura tenura Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:117 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:119 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2012:119 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:212 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:705 [ref. 35677]). Current status: Valid as Schistura tenura Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Mang drainage, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

terekensis, Nemacheilus Gratzianov [V. I.] 1907:163, 167 [Trudy Otdela Ichtiologii Imperatorskago Russkago Obshchestva Akklimatizacii Zivotnych' i Rastenii. v. 4; ref. 1871] Terek River at Vladikavkas, North Osetia-Alanya, southern Russia. Syntypes: ZMMU P-3318 (24). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:24-25 [ref. 25714]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus marga [or merga] Krynicki 1840 -- (Berg 1949:873 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Barbatula merga (Krynicki 1840) -- (Vasil'eva 1998:95 [ref. 23591]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus merga (Krynicki 1840) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:306 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:98 [ref. 32367]). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus merga (Krynicki 1840). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

thai, Nemacheilus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:104, Fig. 56 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Bua Yai, eastern Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 56655. Paratypes: ANSP 56656-57 (2), 56658 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:64 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Schistura thai (Fowler 1934) -- (Zhu 1989:45 [ref. 17744], Zhu 1995:110 [ref. 25213], Chen 1999:304 [ref. 24925]). •Synonym of Schistura nicholsi (Smith 1933) -- (Kottelat 1990:169 [ref. 14137], Kottelat 2000:65 [ref. 25040], Kottelat 2001:111 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2012:114 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:209 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Schistura nicholsi (Smith 1933). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

thanho, Schistura Freyhof [J.] & Serov [D. V.] 2001:182, Figs. 49-51 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 25364] River Vinh Thanh, about 65 kilometers northwest Quy Nhon, 14°16.19'N, 108°45.69'E, Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 21047. Paratypes: CMK 16019 (3); ZFMK 21048-69 (22), 21074 (1). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:113 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Schistura thanho Freyhof & Serov 2001 -- (Kottelat 2012:119 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:212 [ref. 32989], Bohlen & Šlechtová 2014:222 [ref. 33238], Ho et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Schistura thanho Freyhof & Serov 2001. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Binh Dinh province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

thavonei, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2017:396, Figs. 1-6 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 65; ref. 35532] Nam Ma Yen, a branch of Nam Ma, upstream of Ban Sop Ma, Nam Ma watershed, Muang Long District, Louang Namtha Province, Laos, 21°02'53"N, 101°01'16"E, elevation 638 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2667.078. Paratypes: CMK, ZRC. •Valid as Schistura thavonei Kottelat 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura thavonei Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Nam Ma watershed, Mekong River basin, Louang Namtha Province, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

theophilii, Oxynoemacheilus Stoumboudi [M. Th.], Kottelat [M.] & Barbieri [R.] 2006:140, Figs. 8-9 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28767] Lesbos Island, Tsingou springs, in Evergetoulas drainage, Greece. Holotype: MHNG 2679.009. Paratypes: HCMR 1469 (2). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus theophili [sic] or theophilii Stoumboudi, Kottelat & Barbieri 2006 -- (Erk'akan et al. 2008:115 [ref. 29859], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:334 [ref. 29996], Prokofiev 2009:881 [ref. 30604], Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Erk'akan 2012:97 [ref. 32281], Kottelat 2012:99 [ref. 32367], Barbieri et al. 2015:76 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus theophilii Stoumboudi, Kottelat & Barbieri 2006. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Eurasia: Greece and Turkey. Habitat: freshwater.

tianeensis, Triplophysa Chen [X.-Y.], Cui [G.-H.] & Yang [J.-X.] 2004:228, Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 27818] Undeground river of Hongshuihe, Bala town, 24°58'N, 107°02'E, Tian'e County, Guangxi, China. Holotype: KIZ 200301003. Paratypes: KIZ 200301001-002 (2), 004-006 (3). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:353 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Triplophysa tianeensis Chen, Cui & Yang 2004 -- (Proudlove 2006:105 [ref. 28992], Li et al. 2008:676 [ref. 29925], Chen et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30169], Zheng 2009:[5] [ref. 30217], Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2012:170 [ref. 31483], Zheng et al. 2012:835 [ref. 31820], Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193], Lin et al. 2012:646 [ref. 32193], Kottelat 2012:132 [ref. 32367], Ma & Zhao 2012:111 [ref. 34891], Lan et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32910], Yang in Lan et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32910], Zhang et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34477], Li et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 35021], Liu et al. 2017:844 [ref. 35125], Li et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35551], Wu et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35971], Chen & Peng 2019:383 [ref. 36537]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa tianeensis Chen, Cui & Yang 2004. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Hongshuihe River drainage, upper Pearl River basin, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

tianlinensis, Triplophysa Li [J.], Li [X.-H.], Lan [J.-H.] & Du [L.-N.] 2016:296, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 64 (no. 3); ref. 35021] Karst cave, Hongxing Village, Langping Town, Tianlin County, Guangxi Province, China, 24.6167°N, 106.2739°E. Holotype: KIZ 2012005691. Paratypes: KIZ. •Valid as Triplophysa tianlinensis Li, Li, Lan & Du 2016 -- (Wu et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35850]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa tianlinensis Li, Li, Lan & Du 2016. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Honshui River system, Pearl River drainage, Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

tianxingensis, Triplophysa Yang [H.-F.], Li [W.-X.] & Chen [Z.-M.] 2016:297, Figs. 2-4 [Zoological Research v. 37 (no. 5); ref. 34677] Seasonal pond connected to subterranean waters in Longtao Village, Tianxing Township, Qiubei County, Yunnan, China, 23°56'29.0"N, 104°13'04.0"E. Holotype: HRA 20151002001. Paratypes: HRA, KIZ. •Valid as Triplophysa tianxingensis Yang, Li & Chen 2016 -- (Wu et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35971]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa tianxingensis Yang, Li & Chen 2016. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Qingshuijiang River drainage, Pearl River basin, Yunnan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

tibetanus, Nemachilus Regan [C. T.] 1905:187 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 86); ref. 15379] Lhasa, Tibet. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1904.12.28.86. Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Triplophysa tibetana (Regan 1905) -- (Zhu 1989:100 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:153 [ref. 21205], Zhang et al. 1995:52 [ref. 22734], Zhu 1995:116 [ref. 25213], Prokofiev 2002:S47 [ref. 27462], Prokofiev 2010:908 [ref. 31096] as thibetana, Kottelat 2012:132 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2016:203 [ref. 34459], Zhang et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Triplophysa tibetana (Regan 1905). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tibet and China. Habitat: freshwater.

tigerivinus, Yunnanilus Li [W.-X.] & Duan [S.] 1999:254, Fig. 1 [Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University (Natural Sciences) v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 28155] Kunming, 25°10'N, 102°55'E, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: HRA 9901004. Paratypes: HRA 9901001-03 (3), 9901005-16 (12). Spelled once as tigeriveinus (p. 256), regarded as in error. •Valid as Yunnanilus tigerivinus Li & Duan 1999 -- (Zhu et al. 2009:197 [ref. 30145] tigerivinus on p. 198 in the original reference title, An et al. 2009:634 [ref. 30709]). •Synonym of Yunnanilus pleurotaenia (Regan 1904) with question -- (Kottelat 2012:136 [ref. 32367]). •Synonym of Yunnanilus pleurotaenia (Regan 2014) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34477], Du et al. 2018:138 [ref. 36374], Zhang et al. 2019:362 [ref. 36699] as tigeriveinus). Current status: Synonym of Yunnanilus pleurotaenia (Regan 1904). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tigrinum, Physoschistura Lokeshwor [Y.] & Vishwanath [W.] 2012:97, Fig. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 3586; ref. 32325] Phungrei, Changa River (the Chindwin drainage); 25°12´26˝N, 94°31´35˝E, Ukhrul district, Manipur, India. Holotype: MUMF 11051. Paratypes: MUMF 11050 (1), 11052-53 (2). •Valid as Physoschistura tigrina Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012 (often seen as tigrinum) -- (Suvarnaraksha 2013:246 [ref. 32991], Kottelat 2013:203 [ref. 32989], Khynrian & Sen 2014:13 [ref. 33853], Lalramliana et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34795], Tamang & Sinha 2016:287 [ref. 34804], Endruweit 2017:378 [ref. 35305], Das & Darshan 2017:410 [ref. 35638], Bleher 2018:203 [ref. 36647]). •Valid as Mustura tigrina (Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012) -- (Kottelat 2018:292 [ref. 36206]). Current status: Valid as Mustura tigrina (Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Irrawaddy basin, Manipur, India. Habitat: freshwater.

tigrinum, Schistura Vishwanath [W.] & Nebeshwar Sharma [K.] 2005:79, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 102 (pt 1); ref. 28460] Barak River at Khunphung, Tami subdivison, Tamenglong District, Manipur, India. Holotype: MUMF 41O5. Paratypes: MUMF 4106/7 (7). •Valid as Schistura tigrinum Vishwanath & Nebeshwar Sharma 2005 -- (Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011:1514 [ref. 31183], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:4 [ref. 32463]). •Valid as Schistura tigrina Vishwanath & Nebeshwar Sharma 2005 -- (Kottelat 2012:119 [ref. 32367], Lokeshwor et al. 2013:588 [ref. 32764], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:55 [ref. 32801], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:575 [ref. 32971], Khynrian & Sen 2014:29 [ref. 33853], Shangningam et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33318], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[6] [ref. 33603], Lalramliana et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33628]). Current status: Valid as Schistura tigrina Vishwanath & Nebeshwar Sharma 2005. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Manipur, India. Habitat: freshwater.

tigris, Barbatula barbatula morpha Gundriser [A. N.] 1975 [Fishes of Tucva, ASSR; ref. 28833] Original not seen; from Kottelat 2006:51 [ref. 28831]. Infrasubspecific, not available. •Questionably in the synonymy of Barbatula compressirostris (Warpachowski 1897) -- (Kottelat 2006:51 [ref. 28831]). •Not available, infrasubspecific name -- (Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065]). Current status: Synonym of Barbatula compressirostris (Warpachowski 1897). Nemacheilidae.

tigris, Cobitis Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1088 [98] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Kuiek River near Aleppo, Syria. Syntypes: NMW 48441 (2), 49444-46 (2, 4, 2); SMF 405 (3). Illustrated by Heckel 1843, Pl. 12 (fig. 4) [ref. 2067]. On p. 98 of separate [ref. 2067]. •Valid as Noemacheilus tigris (Heckel 1843) -- (Goren 1974:93 [ref. 7502]). •Valid as Nemacheilus tigris (Heckel 1843) -- (Berg 1949:879 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:23 [ref. 23608], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869]). •Valid as Orthrias tigris (Heckel 1843) -- (Bănărescu et al. 1982:21 [ref. 174], Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:443 [ref. 23187], Nalbant & Bianco 1998:111 [ref. 23810], Fricke et al. 2007:52 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Paracobitis tigris (Heckel 1843) -- (Erk'akan et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29026], Prokofiev 2009:881, 888 [ref. 30604]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus tigris (Heckel 1843) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:99 [ref. 32367], Kamangar et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33140], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Freyhof et al. 2019:42 [ref. 36739], Çiçek et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37644]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus tigris (Heckel 1843). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: upper Euphrates River basin (Syria and Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

tikaderi, Aborichthys Barman [R. P.] 1985:680, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 81 (no. 3) (for Dec. 1984); ref. 8183] Namdapha Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Holotype: ZSI FF2135. Paratypes: ZSI FF2136 (2). See Das 2003:352 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Nemacheilus tikaderi (Barman 1985) -- (Menon 1999:188 [ref. 24904] as Noemacheilus). •Valid as Aborichthys tikaderi Barman 1985 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:459 [ref. 20764], Karmakar 2000:30 [ref. 25662], Sen 2009:13 [ref. 30554] dated 1984, Kottelat 2012:74 [ref. 32367], Kosygin 2012:49 [ref. 32937], Khynrian & Sen 2014:8 [ref. 33853], Arunachalam et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33198], Bleher 2018:126 [ref. 36647], Kosygin et al. 2019:74 [ref. 36729], Shangningam et al. 2019:369 [ref. 37201]). Current status: Valid as Aborichthys tikaderi Barman 1985. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Upper Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Habitat: freshwater.

tiomanensis, Sundoreonectes Kottelat [M.] 1990:52, Pl. 1 (fig. 2); Fig. 3 [Mémoires de Biospéologie v. 17; ref. 16763] Cave in Mount Gunung Kajang, about 2°50'N, 104°15'E, Pulau Tioman, Malaysia, elevation 2900 feet. Holotype: BMNH 1989.2.23.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1989.2.23.2 (1). •Valid as Sundoreonectes tiomanensis Kottelat 1990 -- (Lim & Ng 1999:157 [ref. 23893], Romero & Paulson 2001:21 [ref. 26040], Proudlove 2006:101 [ref. 28992]). •Valid as Speonectes tiomanensis (Kottelat 1990) -- (Kottelat 2012:121 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:213 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Speonectes tiomanensis (Kottelat 1990). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Pulau Tioman, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

tirapensis, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 1990:118 [Indochinese nemacheilines; ref. 14137] Riwa River at Manpong [Nampong], Arunachal Pradesh, India. Holotype: SRS/ZSI F572. Paratypes: SRS/ZSI F73 (2). Replacement name for Nemacheilus arunachalensis Menon 1987, preoccupied by Nemacheilus arunachalensis Datta & Barman 1984. •Valid as Schistura tirapensis Kottelat 1990 -- (Lokeshwor et al. 2012:262 [ref. 32337], Vishwanath & Nebeshwar Sharma 2005 [ref. 28460], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013:4 [ref. 32463], Lalronunga et al. 2013:589 [ref. 32927], Khynrian & Sen 2014:29 [ref. 33853], Solo et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33517], Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014:[6] [ref. 33603]). Current status: Valid as Schistura tirapensis Kottelat 1990. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Northeastern, India. Habitat: freshwater.

titan, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2017:67, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 28 (no. 1); ref. 35486] Houay Champong, in Ban Dak, immediately upstream of confluence with Houay Xe Kaman, 15 km from Dakchung, 4 km after Dak Noi and 4.4 km before Ban Sang Mai, Xekong Province, Laos, 15°34'24"N, 107°13'03"E, elevation 1170 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2767.057. Paratype: CMK. •Valid as Schistura titan Kottelat 2017. Current status: Valid as Schistura titan Kottelat 2017. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Dakchung Plateau, southern Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

tizardi, Schistura Kottelat [M.] 2000:73, Fig. 62 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Xe Kaman at Muang Xaisettha, 14°48'27"N, 106°55'52"E, Attapu Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45386. Paratypes: CMK 15674 (6), LARRI uncat. (1), NRM 44919 (1), ZRC 45387 (1). •Valid as Schistura tizardi Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:117 [ref. 25780], Ou et al. 2011:199 [ref. 31692], Kottelat 2012:120 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:212 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2017:356 [ref. 35511]). Current status: Valid as Schistura tizardi Kottelat 2000. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Bolaven Plateau, Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

tokaiensis, Lefua Ito [T.], Hosoya [K.] & Miyazaki [J.-I.] 2019:480 [2], Figs. 1-6a, 7-9, 10a-d, 11 [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 4); ref. 36659] Toyo River system, Kadoya, Shinshiro, Aichi, Japan, 34°58'24"N, 137°34'52"E. Holotype: NSMT-P 132821. Paratypes: CAS, KUN, TKPM, TMNH, USNM. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Lefua tokaiensis Ito, Hosoya & Miyazaki 2019. Current status: Valid as Lefua tokaiensis Ito, Hosoya & Miyazaki 2019. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Tokai Region, Aichi and Shizuoka prefectures, central Japan. Habitat: freshwater.

tomianus, Nemacheilus barbatulus Ruzsky [M. D.] 1920:36, Figs. 1-2 [Trudy estestvenno-isthrichsk. Otdel., Tomsk No. 1; ref. 21169] Basins of the rivers Tom, Ob and Yenisei, Russia. Syntypes: not researched. See Reshetnikov et al. 1997:743 [ref. 24702]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:871 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus). •Synonym of Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Vasil'eva 1998:96 [ref. 23591], Sideleva 2001:54 [ref. 26181], Sideleva 2003:11 [ref. 27815], Kottelat 2006:53 [ref. 28831]). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Prokofiev 2007:17 [ref. 30343]). •Valid as Barbatula tomiana (Ruzsky 1920) -- (Kottelat 2012:80 [ref. 32367], Prokofiev 2015:461 [ref. 34065], Prokofiev 2016:399 [ref. 34693], Romanov et al. 2017:823 [ref. 35687], Prokofiev 2018:274 [ref. 35878]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula tomiana (Ruzsky 1920). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Altai Republic, Russia and Mongolia. Habitat: freshwater.

tongiorgii, Seminemacheilus Nalbant [T. T.] & Bianco [P. G.] 1998:113, Figs. 11 A-D [Italian Journal of Zoology v. 65, Suppl.; ref. 23810] Large water spring near Darab town, Kul River basin, Iran. Holotype: IZA 801. Paratypes: ISBB uncat. (1). •Valid as Seminemacheilus tongiorgii Nalbant & Bianco 1998 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2010:373 [ref. 33391]). •Valid as Oxynoemacheilus tongiorgii (Nalbant & Bianco 1998) -- (Golzarianpour et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31693], Freyhof et al. 2012:307, 309 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:99 [ref. 32367], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:884 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2016:105 [ref. 34789], Freyhof 2016:94 [ref. 34815], Sayyadzadeh et al. 2016:248 [ref. 34976], Esmaeili et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:47 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Oxynoemacheilus tongiorgii (Nalbant & Bianco 1998). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Kor River basin, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

toni, Cobitis Dybowski [B. N.] 1869:957, Pl. 18 (fig. 10) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 19; ref. 1169] Onon and Ingoda rivers, Amur River basin, Russia. Syntypes and/or Dybowski specimens: MNHN B-0738 (8), B-0739 (4); NMW 50473 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:98 [ref. 19574]. For remarks on systematics see Kottelat 2006:53 [ref. 28831]. •Synonym of Nemacheilus barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1949:869 [ref. 20661] as Nemachilus, Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:398 [ref. 25598] as Neomacheilus, Chereshnev 1996:601 [ref. 24659] as Noemacheilus, Watanabe 1998:263 [ref. 23491], Nakabo 2000:276 [ref. 25086] as Noemacheilus, Nakabo 2002:276 [ref. 26001] as Noemacheilus). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula, subspecies nuda (Bleeker 1865) -- (Zhu 1989:29 [ref. 17744]). •Valid as Nemacheilus toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Wang 1984:82 [ref. 22951], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:59 [ref. 6441] as Noemacheilus, Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:47 [ref. 22798], Matsuura et al. 2000:176 [ref. 26000], Choi et al. 2003:178, 517 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Orthrias toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995:449 [ref. 23187], Kim et al. 2000:224 [ref. 25434], Kim & Park 2002:193 [ref. 25913], Jang et al. 2003:119 [ref. 27681]). •Synonym of Orthrias nudus (Bleeker 1865) -- (Kim 1997:555 [ref. 24032]). •Synonym of Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:93 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Orthrias barbatulus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Prokofiev 2003:736 [ref. 27494], Prokofiev 2007:17 [ref. 30343]). •Valid as Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869) -- (Okada 1961:541 [ref. 6363], Nikiforov et al. 1997:330 [ref. 24694], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:743 [ref. 24702], Vasil'eva 1998:95 [ref. 23591], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:17 [ref. 25650], Chereshnev et al. 2001:37 [ref. 26736], Tokranov 2001:268 [ref. 25407], Zemnukhov et al. 2001:420 [ref. 25412], Kottelat 2001:49 [ref. 25482], Pietsch et al. 2001:140 [ref. 25688], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:45 [ref. 26178], Sideleva 2001:54 [ref. 26181], Fedorov et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27579], Alekseyev et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27625], Sideleva 2003:11 [ref. 27815], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:113 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2006:53 [ref. 28831], Ocock et al. 2006:28 [ref. 28933], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:330 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:339 [ref. 30085], Cao et al. 2012:241 [ref. 32335], Kottelat 2012:80 [ref. 32367], Parin et al. 2014:103 [ref. 33547], Prokofiev 2015:460 [ref. 34065], Prokofiev 2016:399 [ref. 34693], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:669 [ref. 34853] with question, Prokofiev 2018:274 [ref. 35878], Chen et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36569], Dyldin et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869). Nemacheilidae. Distribution: East Asia: Amur (Heilongjiang) and Yin River drainages, Russia, Mongolia and northern China. Habitat: freshwater.

torrentis, Lefua Hosoya [K.], Ito [T.] & Miyazaki [J.-I.] 2018:194, Figs. 1-3, 4a, 5a-b, 6-10 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 28 (no. 3); ref. 36197] Yura River system, Kasuga, Tanba, Hyogo, Japan, 35°08'09"N, 135°11'09"E. Holotype: KUN-P 45408. Paratypes: AIFS, CAS, FAKU, KUN, MNHA, NSMT, OMNH, TKPM, USNM, WMNH. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Lefua torrentis Hosoya, Ito & Miyazaki 2018 -- (Ito et al. 2019:486 [ref. 36659]). Current status: Valid as Lefua torrentis Hosoya, Ito & Miyazaki 2018. Nemacheilidae. Distribution: Western Japan. Habitat: freshwater.

tortonesei, Noemacheilus insignis Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1966:331, Figs. 2-3; Pl. 4 (figs. 2-4) [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 63; ref. 8005] Wadi-Umm ad-Dananir Spring, tributary of Zerqua River, about 25 kilometers north of Amman, Jordan, about 32°04'N, 35°50'E. Holotype: ZMH 2742. Paratypes: ZMH 2743 (orig. 11, now 8). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:158 [ref. 22013]. Genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Valid as Nemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Goren 1974:93 [ref. 7502]). •Synonym of Nemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Krupp & Schneider 1989:380 [ref. 13651]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843), but a valid subspecies or a synonym of Oxynoemacheilus jordanicus -- (Prokofiev 2009:880 [ref. 30604]). •Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843) -- (Freyhof et al. 2012:309 [ref. 31752], Kottelat 2012:97 [ref. 32367] with question). Current status: Synonym of Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

transiens, Nemachilus strauchii Herzenstein [S. M.] 1888:50 [Zoologischer Theil, St. Petersburg v. 3 (2 abt.) (1); ref. 2147] Tschert Scher, Xinjian, Chana. Syntypes: ZIN 7349 (5). Original genus is correctly Nemacheilus. •Synonym of Triplophysa tenuis (Day 1876) -- (Zhu 1989:95 [ref. 17744], Wu & Wu 1992:185 [ref. 21205]). •Synonym of Trilophysa strauchii (Kessler 1874) -- (Prokofiev 2006:258 [ref. 29061], Kottelat 2012:132 [ref. 32367] with question). Current status: Synonym of Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler 1874). Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

translineatus, Nemacheilus Fowler [H. W.] 1939:63, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91; ref. 17188] Waterfall at Trang, Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 68493. Paratypes: ANSP 68494 (1), 68495 (1, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:64 [ref. 13621]. Originally as trans-lineatus. •Synonym of Nemacheilus selangoricus Duncker 1904 -- (Kottelat 1990:68 [ref. 14137], Kottelat 2012:92 [ref. 32367], Kottelat 2013:202 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Nemacheilus selangoricus Duncker 1904. Nemacheilidae. Habitat: freshwater.

translucens, Oreonectes Zhang [Z.-L.], Zhao [Y.-H.] & Zhang [C.-G.] 2006:612, Fig. 1 [Zoological Studies v. 45 (no. 4); ref. 29423] Xia'ao Cave near Xia'ao Town (24°15'N, 107°05'E), Du'an County, Guangxi, China, elevation 210 meters. Holotype: ASIZB [now NZMC] 94785. Paratypes: ASIZB [now NZMC] 94786 (1), 94787 (1). Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:66 [ref. 33808]. •Synonym of Triplophysa longibarbata (Chen, Yang, Sket & Aljancic 1998) -- (Du et al. 2008:33 [ref. 29544] as longibarbatus). •Valid as Oreonectes translucens Zhang, Zhao & Zhang 2006 -- (Romero et al. 2009 [ref. 30522], Zhao et al. 2011:1552 [ref. 31493], Yang et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31282], Tang et al. 2012:489 [ref. 31595], Kottelat 2012:347 [ref. 32232], Kottelat 2012:94 [ref. 32367] with genus in questian, Ma & Zhao 2012:110 [ref. 34891], Lan in Lan et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32910], Ye et al. 2015:66 [ref. 33808], Deng et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34936], Liu et al. 2019:404 [ref. 36573]). •Valid as Troglonectes translucens (Zhang, Zhao & Zhang 2006) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:148 [ref.