Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 1 April 2019

SEARCH RESULTS FROM

Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
Select the database to search:
GENERA   SPECIES   REFERENCES
Include unavailable names

         Comments: ,

    Please look in Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes for authorships of sections, Families of Fishes (all), and related information.

Species in the family or subfamily Ophichthidae: [ 609 ] records


acuminata, Anguilla (Ophisurus) Swainson [W.] 1839:334 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Estuaries near Calcutta, India. Based on Gray, Ind. Zool. i. pl. 91. fig. 2 -- which is Gray 1832:Pl. 91 (fig. 2) [ref. 1878]. •Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

acuminata, Muraena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:21 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] America. No types known. •Valid as Myrichthys acuminatus (Gronow 1854) -- (McCosker 1977:78 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:63 [ref. 23100], McAllister 1990:48 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:56 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:373 [ref. 23827]). •Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:374 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:156 [ref. 21180], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:139 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

acus, Aotea Phillipps [W. J.] 1926:534, Pl. 90 [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 56; ref. 6447] Cook Strait, New Zealand (stomach content). Holotype: NMNZ P.285. Type catalog: Hardy 1990:7 [ref. 18942]. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Muraenichthys breviceps Günther 1876 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:200 [ref. 22532]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys breviceps (Günther 1876) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], McCosker 2006:22 [ref. 28592]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys breviceps (Günther 1876). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

acuticeps, Sphagebranchus Barnard [K. H.] 1923:444 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 13 (pt 8, no. 14); ref. 191] Off mouth of Tugela River, northwest 20 miles, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 37 fathoms [68 meters]. Holotype (unique): SAM 12791 (poor condition). •Valid as Ichthyapus acuticeps (Barnard 1923) -- (McCosker 1977:68 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:179 [ref. 5690], McCosker 2004:172 [ref. 27619]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyapus acuticeps (Barnard 1923). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

acutirostris, Ichthyapus Brisout de Barneville [C. N. F.] 1847:219 [Revue Zoologique par la Société Cuvierienne (Paris) v. 10; ref. 644] Locality unknown (possibly Japan). Syntypes: (2) MNHN 0000-2119 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:107 [ref. 20810] as holotype (original as deux individus conservés); so there are syntypes and no holotype. •The same as specimens from Japan identified as Ichthyapus vullturis Weber & de Beaufort 1916 -- (see McCosker 2004:172 [ref. 27619]). •Valid as Ichthyapus acutirostris Brisout de Barneville 1847 -- (McCosker & Randall 2005:7 [ref. 28054], Randall 2007:66 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyapus acutirostris Brisout de Barneville 1847. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

acutirostris, Muraena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:19 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] America. No types known. •Synonym of Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:250 [ref. 7185], Leiby 1990:191 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acutirostris, Muraenichthys Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1916:279, Fig. 127 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 3; ref. 4604] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: ZMA 112643 (1 of 2). Paratypes: ZMA 112643 (1 of 2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:9 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Muraenichthys acutirostris Weber & de Beaufort 1916 -- (McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715]). •Valid in Scolecenchelys [acutirostris] -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys acutirostris (Weber & de Beaufort 1916) -- (Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32418]). •Needs investigation -- (Hibino & Kimura 2015:xx [ref. 33951]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys acutirostris (Weber & de Beaufort 1916). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

adspersus, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:57 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] China seas. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1851.12.27.232. •Synonym of Mystriophis porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). •Synonym of Brachysomophis porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (McCosker & Randall 2001:25 [ref. 25635]). Current status: Synonym of Brachysomophis porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

afuerae, Ophichthus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:139, Fig. 32 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Off Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru, 6°56'S, 80°43'W, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 127836. Type catalog: Smith 1994:33 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Pogonophis fossatus Myers & Wade 1941 -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Herpetoichthys fossatus (Myers & Wade 1941) -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:120 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Synonym of Herpetoichthys fossatus (Myers & Wade 1941). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

aki, Myrichthys Tanaka [S.] 1917:458, Pl. 128 (figs. 358-360) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 26; ref. 14910] Aki, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 7612. •Valid as Myrichthys aki Tanaka 1917 -- (Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:221 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:220 [ref. 26001], Tang & Zhang 2004:22 [ref. 27889]). •Synonym of Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:161 [ref. 21180], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Motomura et al. 2010:74 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:368 [ref. 31511]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

akkistikos, Ethadophis McCosker [J. E.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1984:41, Figs. 12-14 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 136; ref. 5316] Gulf of Mexico off Texas, U.S.A., 27°55'N, 95°40"W, Oregon station 3878, depth 55-58 meters. Holotype: ANSP 149884. Paratypes: ANSP 135526 (1); CAS 52672 (1); RMNH 29318 (1); USNM 263570 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ethadophis akkistikos McCosker & Böhlke 1984 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:342 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:875 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:35 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:265 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ethadophis akkistikos McCosker & Böhlke 1984. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

algoensis, Ophichthys Barnard [K. H.] 1925:498 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 15 (no. 86) (art. 56); ref. 12730] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 55 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAM 12776. Replacement name for Ophichthys triserialis Barnard 1923, secondarily preoccupied by Muraenopsis triserialis Kaup 1856. •Synonym of Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908 -- (McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690], McCosker 1999:583 [ref. 23699]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

aliculatus, Letharchus McCosker [J. E.] 1974:626, Fig. 6 [Copeia 1974 (no. 3); ref. 2933] Off the southern end of Parque Interlagos, Perto de Tibras, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, depth 0-1 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 9984. Paratypes: ANSP 124011 (3); BMNH 1980.9.5.19 (1); CAS 23820 (2), 23821 (1, c&s); GCRL 10807 (16); MZUSP 9985-86 (2); USNM 210600 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:132 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Letharchus aliculatus McCosker 1974 -- (McCosker 1977:64 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:314 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:885 [ref. 13285], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192] with genus as Letarchus). Current status: Valid as Letharchus aliculatus McCosker 1974. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

alleni, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:6, Figs. 8-10 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Off Newcastle, between 33°01'S, 151°59'E and 33°03'S, 152°01'E, New South Wales, Australia, depth 115-121 meters. Holotype: AMS I.36257. Paratypes: CAS 227496 [ex. AMS I.34211-001] (1), CSIRO H 1102-2 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus alleni McCosker 2010. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus alleni McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. Habitat: marine.

alternans, Ophisurus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:243, Pl. 45 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: MNHN A-8676. Paratypes: MNHN B-2739 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:110 [ref. 20810]. •Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (Bauchot et al. 1993:110 [ref. 20810], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:157 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

alternatus, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:21, Pl. 5 (figs. 3-4) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Tagus Cove, Isabela Island [Albemarle Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: ANSP 68300. Paratypes: ANSP 68301 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:120 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Quassiremus evionthas (Jordan & Bollman 1890) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Synonym of Quassiremus evionthas (Jordan & Bollman 1890). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

altipennis, Microdonophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:43 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2151 (1), ?RMNH 3740 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:107-108 [ref. 20810]. Also appeared in Kaup 1856:6, Pl. 1 (fig. 3 [not 4]) [ref. 2573] as altipinnis. •Valid as Ophichthus altipennis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836] as altipinnis, Bauchot et al. 1993:107 [ref. 20810], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715] as altipinnis, Randall et al. 2002:155 [ref. 26192], McCosker & Randall 2002:798 [ref. 26226], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830] as altipinnis, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:32 [ref. 28239], McCosker et al. 2006:271 [ref. 29006], Ji & Kim 2011:66 [ref. 31152], Allen & Erdmann 2012:108 [ref. 31980], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], Larson et al. 2013:27 [ref. 32988], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:171 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus altipennis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: East Indian Region, Japan and Philippines and Taiwan to Western Australia to Marshall Islands and to the Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

amboinensis, Ophichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864:45 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.294 (1) Ambon. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

amoyensis, Ophichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864:61 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 13921] Amoy, China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

anceps, Dalophis Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1309 [327], Pl. 6 (figs. 1-4) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.523 (1, skin) On p. 327 of separate. Based on specimen and description by Russell. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

andamanensis, Neenchelys Hibino [Y.], Satapoomin [U.] & Kimura [S.] 2015:57, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34166] Off Phuket, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean, 7°21'N, 97°26'E, depth 520-531 meters. Holotype (unique): PMBC 25065. •Valid as Neenchelys andamanensis Hibino, Satapoomin & Kimura 2015. Current status: Valid as Neenchelys andamanensis Hibino, Satapoomin & Kimura 2015. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

andersoni, Lethogoleos McCosker [J. E.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1982:114, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 134; ref. 2935] South Carolina, U.S.A., about 97.5 kilometers from Charleston Light, 32°29.3'N, 78°42.2'W, depth 141-146 meters. Holotype: ANSP 149062. Paratypes: CAS 50931 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:132 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Lethogoleos andersoni McCosker & Böhlke 1982 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:371 [ref. 13288], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Lethogoleos andersoni McCosker & Böhlke 1982. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

anguiformis, Ophichthys (Sphaegebranchus) Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:849 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 3454] Cape Verde Islands, south of Leton Rock, Atlantic, 15°40'01"N, 23°05'08"W, depth 38 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9777. •Valid as Verma anguiformis (Peters 1877) -- (Blache et al. 1973:250 [ref. 7185]). •Valid as Apterichtus anguiformis (Peters 1877) -- (McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:578 [ref. 13676], McCosker et al. 1989:318 [ref. 13288], Machida & Ohta 1994:3 [ref. 21444], Golani 1996:22 [ref. 22271], Castriota & Campagnuolo 1998:198 [ref. 23490], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], McCosker & Hibino 2015:53 [ref. 33725], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus anguiformis (Peters 1877). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

aniptocheilos, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:9, Figs. 11-12 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Tonga, 21°40.65'S, 175°19.37'W, depth 391-421 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 2001-1061. •Valid as Ophichthus aniptocheilos McCosker 2010. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus aniptocheilos McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Tonga [holotype]. Habitat: marine.

annulata, Muraena Ahl [J. N.] 1789:8, Pl. 1 (left fig) [Specimen ichthyologicum de Muraena et Ophichtho; ref. 80] In Indiæ Orientalis [Indonesia]. No types known. •Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:157 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

ansp, Verma Böhlke [J. E.] 1968:3, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 415; ref. 7873] Green Cay, about 1/4 mile north of center of cay, north of Rose Island, vicinity of Nassau, Bahamas, depth 50 feet. Holotype: ANSP 98366. Paratypes: ANSP 98367-69 (4, 4, 2), 111662-63 (1, 5), 111664 (1, c&s), 130692 (1); UF 10304 (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:110 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:132 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Apterichtus ansp (Böhlke 1968) -- (McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:64 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:85 [ref. 25518], McCosker et al. 1989:319 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:851 [ref. 13285], McAllister 1990:48 [ref. 14674], Machida & Ohta 1994:3 [ref. 21444], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:138 [ref. 25013], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:25 [ref. 33341], McCosker & Hibino 2015:54 [ref. 33725], Hibino et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34475]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus ansp (Böhlke 1968). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

anterodorsalis, Myrophis McCosker [J. E.], Böhlke [E. B.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1989:281, Figs. 261-265 [Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem. 1 (pt 9); ref. 13288] Outside Cartagena Bay, Baru Island, Colombia, 10°12'35"N, 75°37'30"W, depth 0-1.3 meters. Holotype: ANSP 153670. Paratypes: ANSP 98472 (1), 153671 (1), 117563 (6), 117574 (5); CAS 55913 (1). •Valid as Myrophis anterodorsalis McCosker, Böhlke & Böhlke 1989 -- (Leiby in Smith 1989:770 [ref. 13285], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Smith et al. 2003:7 [ref. 27621]). Current status: Valid as Myrophis anterodorsalis McCosker, Böhlke & Böhlke 1989. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Colombia (Atlantic). Habitat: marine.

aoki, Muraenichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:863, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Rock pool at Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6474. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Muraenichthys gymnotus Bleeker 1857 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931]). •Valid as Muraenichthys aoki Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (Nakabo 2000:216 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:216 [ref. 26001]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys gymnota (Bleeker 1857) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075] as gymnotus). •Valid as Scolecenchelys aoki (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Hibino et al. 2012:180 [ref. 32443], Hibino et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32418], Ji et al. 2013:591 [ref. 36298], Hibino & Kimura 2015:5 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys aoki (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Korea. Habitat: marine.

apachus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:399, Figs. 1, 3a [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] Islas Tres Marias, northeastern side of Isla Maria Magdalena, 21°26.5'N, 106°22.0'W, depth 0-8 meters. Holotype: SIO 62-25. Paratypes: ANSP 126077 (16), CAS 97856 (2). •Valid as Ophichthus apachus McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus apachus McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

aphotistos, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Chen [Y.-Y.] 2000:354, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Research v. 47 (no. 4); ref. 25028] Tung-Kong [Tongkang] Channel, southwestern Taiwan, 22°22'N, 120°19'E, depth 700-800 meters. Holotype: CAS 209192. Paratypes: NSYU 3657 (1), USNM 356862 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Ophichthus aphotistos McCosker & Chen 2000 -- (McCosker 2005:672 [ref. 28646], McCosker 2010:11 [ref. 30840], Zhang et al. 2010:331 [ref. 31511], Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:171 [ref. 34130], Hibino et al. 2016:119 [ref. 35050]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus aphotistos McCosker & Chen 2000. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

apicalis, Ophisurus Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:692 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ? BMNH 1982.5.7.3. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. Kottelat (2013) disagrees; see p. xi and 629 (but the article still lacks an author, agreeing with square brackets). •Valid as Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kuang & Yu in Kuang et al. 1986:34 [ref. 26639] dated 1803 [sic], McCosker & Castle 1986:182 [ref. 5690], Zheng et al. 1989:37 [ref. 21202] as spicalis, Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:61 [ref. 23876] as Ophichthys, Randall 1995:60 [ref. 22896], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Mishra et al. 1999:83 [ref. 25315], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:106 [ref. 28072], Zhang et al. 2010:340 [ref. 31511], McCosker et al. 2012:6 [ref. 31982], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:171 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines. Habitat: brackish, marine.

apterygia, Caecula Vahl [M.] 1794:156 [Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet Kiøbenhavn v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 4482] Unneeded new name for Muraena caeca Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Apterichtus caecus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:248 [ref. 7185], Leiby 1990:177 [ref. 13652], McCosker & Hibino 2015:56 [ref. 33725]). Current status: Synonym of Apterichtus caecus (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

arenicola, Ophichthys Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:609 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: MCZ 3767 (3); NMW 65136 (2), 65138 (1); SMF 835 (1); SMNS 1781 (2); ZIN 2578 or 2570 (1), 8066 (1); ZMB 8066 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:14 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:51 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Jenkinsiella playfairii (Günther 1870) -- (Dor 1984:35 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Cirrhimuraena playfairii (Günther 1870) -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:27 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Cirrhimuraena playfairii (Günther 1870). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

arneutes, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:400, Figs. 2, 3c [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] Isla Wolf, 1°22.9'N, 91°51.4'W, Galápagos Islands, depth 485 meters. Holotype: CAS 88004. Paratypes: CAS 94485 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus arneutes McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998 -- (McCosker & Ross 2007:785 [ref. 29436], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], McCosker et al. 2012:6 [ref. 31982]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus arneutes McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

asakusae, Ophichthus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:872, Fig. 18 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Outside Bay of Tokyo, near Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6478. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Ophichthus asakusae Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:32 [ref. 6441], Lee & Asano 1997:551 [ref. 23711], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:223 [ref. 25086], Sumida & Machida 2000:64 [ref. 26006], Nakabo 2002:223 [ref. 26001], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370], Zhang et al. 2010:339 [ref. 31511], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], Ji et al. 2013:595 [ref. 36300], McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:171 [ref. 34130], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus asakusae Jordan & Snyder 1901. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam, China and Taiwan north to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

ascensionis, Ophichthys Studer [T.] 1889:48, Pl. 19 (fig. 2) [Die Forschungsreise SMS "Gazelle"; ref. 18853] East of Ascension Island, Atlantic, depth 110 meters. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Ophichthys ascensionis Studer 1889 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Quassiremus ascensionis (Studer 1889) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:410 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:835 [ref. 13285], Castle 1996:115 [ref. 22122], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:141 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], Wirtz et al. 2014:[3] 785 [ref. 33516], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Quassiremus ascensionis (Studer 1889). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

aspetocheiros, Myrichthys McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1993:155, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 48 (no. 8); ref. 21180] Gulf of Tehuantepec, 16°03.6'N, 95°19'W, Mexico, depth 24 fathoms. Holotype: SIO 65-166. Paratypes: ANSP 169606 (1); CAS 33299 (1); SIO 64-357 (1), 64-371 (1), 65-166 (1), 73-229 (1), 73-296 (1), 73-298 (1); UCR 4-8 (1); UF 226710 [ex UMML 26710] (1), 267901 [ex UMML 26901] (3); USNM 323889 [ex UMML 29145] (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:32 [ref. 21917], Angulo et al. 2015:378 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Myrichthys aspetocheiros McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1336 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Allen 2012:39 [ref. 31763], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Myrichthys aspetocheiros McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

assamensis, Pisodonophis Sen [T. K.] 1986:241, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin of the Zoological Survey of India v. 7 (nos 2-3) (for Dec. 1985); ref. 9132] Dolu River at Barakhola, Silchar District, Lower Assam, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI FF2159. See Das 2003:350 [ref. 27706] as Pisodonopsis and dated 1985. •Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:86 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ater, Ophichthys (Herpetoichthys) Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1866:525 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1866; ref. 3439] Chile. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3978. •Valid as Ophichthus ater Peters 1866 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Brachysomophis Blache [J.] & Saldanha [L.] 1972:144, Figs. 11-15 [Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (Serie A) Sciences Naturelles v. 34 (no. 1); ref. 275] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype: MNHN 1964-0535. Paratypes: MNHN 1964-0534 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:104 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Brachysomophis atlanticus Blache & Saldanha 1972 -- (McCosker 1977:74 [ref. 6836], Leiby 1990:179 [ref. 13652], McCosker & Randall 2001:7 [ref. 25635], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Brachysomophis atlanticus Blache & Saldanha 1972. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Pseudomyrophis Blache [J.] 1975:722, Figs. 5-6 [Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (Serie A) Sciences Naturelles v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 7363] Off Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, depth 70 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1971-0040. Paratypes: MNHN 1964-0522 (1), 1971-0041 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:111 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Pseudomyrophis atlanticus Blache 1975 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:289 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:192 [ref. 13652], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Pseudomyrophis atlanticus Blache 1975. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

auratus, Echelus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:66, Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:42 [ref. 3595]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Apterichtus McCosker [J. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 2005:2, Pl. 1a; Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 800; ref. 28054] Off Hiri Bay, 27°36'S, 144°18'W, Rapa, depth 30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 12306. Paratypes: BPBM 11842 (1), 16506 (2), 16896 (2), 30548 (2), 39455 (3); CAS 219463 (1); USNM 376606 (1); ZMUC P32853 (1). •Valid as Apterichtus australis McCosker & Randall 2005 -- (Randall 2007:62 [ref. 30952], McCosker & Hibino 2015:55 [ref. 33725], McCosker & Stewart 2015:251 [ref. 34235]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus australis McCosker & Randall 2005. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: South Pacific. Habitat: marine.

australis, Muraenichthys Macleay [W.] 1881:272 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Lane Cove River, near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16266-001 (3); MAMU F114 (2). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Muraenichthys australis Macleay 1881 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:117 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:73 [ref. 24556], Gomon et al. 1994:199 [ref. 22532], Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847]). •Valid in Scolecenchelys -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:274 [ref. 29006], Smith & McCosker 2008:168 [ref. 30623], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32418], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Hibino & Kimura 2015:5 [ref. 33951], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], McCosker & Stewart 2015:256 [ref. 34235]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southeastern Australia, New Zealand and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

australis, Myrophis Castelnau [F. L.] 1879:396 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 764] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:129 [ref. 20810]. Originally as Myrophis? australis. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836]). •Status uncertain, in Ophichthidae -- (Paxton et al. 1989:121 [ref. 12442], McCosker et al. 2006:277 [ref. 29006]). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

baccidens, Ophiurus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1302 [320], Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia; Singapore. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.397 (1) Sea of Pinang. On p. 320 of separate. Original genus should have been spelled Ophisurus. •Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bangko, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1853:67 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1867.11.28.233 (1) Java (Bleeker coll.). •Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bascanium, Caecula Jordan [D. S.] 1884:43 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 36; ref. 10442] Tidal stream near Florida State Univ. marine lab, Alligator Harbor, Florida, U.S.A., Gulf of Mexico. Neotype: USNM 219832. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:27 [ref. 16741] as Coecula bascanium, Smith 1994:29 [ref. 21917]. Holotype apparently lost; originally YPM old zoological catalog no. 826. Neotype designated by Leiby & Yerger 1980:402 [ref. 21920]. •Valid as Bascanichthys bascanium (Jordan 1884) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:61 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:331 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:859 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:34 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:258 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], Moreno et al. 2016:13 [ref. 35398]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys bascanium (Jordan 1884). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bascanoides, Bascanichthys Osburn [R. C.] & Nichols [J. T.] 1916:147, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 35 (art. 16); ref. 15062] Off San Cristobal Bay, Baja California (stomach content). Holotype (unique): USNM 87541 [ex AMNH 5201]. Type catalog: Smith 1994:28 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Bascanichthys bascanoides Osburn & Nichols 1916 -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1332 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:242 [ref. 24545], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], Moreno et al. 2016:13 [ref. 35398]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys bascanoides Osburn & Nichols 1916. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

bengalensis, Ophisurus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:17 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Not available, museum name mentioned in synonymy. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

bennettai, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 1986:2, Figs. 1-2 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 39; ref. 8074] Southeastern Atlantic, 32°14'S, 16°32'E. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 20033. •Valid as Ophichthus bennettai McCosker 1986 -- (McCosker & Castle 1986:182 [ref. 5690]). •Synonym of Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917 -- (Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], McCosker 2006:737 [ref. 29103], McCosker 2010:32 [ref. 30840]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bernsteini, Muraenopsis Bleeker [P.] 1863:157 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 17001] Galéla, Halmahera, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Lamnostoma Kaup [J. J.] 1856:50 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Borneo. Holotype (unique): ?RMNH 3827. Also appeared in Kaup 1856:24 [ref. 2573]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Ho [H.-C.] 2015:76, Figs. 4-6 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34123] Dong-gang, Pingtung, southwest Taiwan, depth ca. 200 meters. Holotype: NMMB-P18103. Paratypes: CAS, NMMB-P. •Valid as Ophichthus bicolor McCosker & Ho 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:171 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus bicolor McCosker & Ho 2015. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

bilinearis, Callechelys Kanazawa [R. H.] 1952:72, Fig. 9 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 34 (no. 7); ref. 12780] Cooper's Island and St. Davids, Bermuda. Holotype: FMNH 48973. Paratypes: FMNH 48974 (now 0); USNM 157363 [ex FMNH 48974] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:19 [ref. 12367], Smith 1994:29 [ref. 21917]. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:63 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Callechelys bilinearis Kanazawa 1952 -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:627 [ref. 9166], McCosker et al. 1989:304 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:890 [ref. 13285], Cervigón 1991:52 [ref. 24472], McCosker 1998:188 [ref. 23298], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:138 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:25 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558], Brown et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys bilinearis Kanazawa 1952. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

bimaculata, Dalophis Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:69, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:43 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Dalophis imberbis (Delaroche 1809) -- (Blache et al. 1973:249 [ref. 7185]). Current status: Synonym of Dalophis imberbis (Delaroche 1809). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

biserialis, Ophichthys Garman [S.] 1899:311 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28454. •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:415 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bitaeniatus, Ophichthys Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:556, Unnumbered plate (figs. 2-2a) [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1877; ref. 13950] Mombasa, Kenya. Holotype (unique): ZMB 10052. •Valid as Callechelys bitaeniata (Peters 1877) -- (McCosker 1998:189 [ref. 23298], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Fricke et al. 2018:43 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys bitaeniata (Peters 1877). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

blastorhinos, Mystriophis Kanazawa [R. H.] 1963:282, Figs. 1, 2A; Pl. 1 (left) [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 76; ref. 4901] Off French Guiana, 7°18'N, 53°32'W, Oregon station 2021, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 158960. Type catalog: Smith 1994:33 [ref. 21917]. •See McCosker 1977:77, 79 [ref. 6836]. •Valid as Kertomichthys blastorhinos (Kanazawa 1963) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:369 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Randall 2001:3 [ref. 25635], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993] as blastorhinus). Current status: Valid as Kertomichthys blastorhinos (Kanazawa 1963). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Myrichthys Gosline [W. A.] 1951:314 [Pacific Science v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 1858] Seas of Indian Archipelago; said also to inhabit Indian and Polynesian Ocean. No types known. Replacement name for Ophisurus fasciatus semicincta [semicinctus] Bleeker 1864, preoccupied by Ophisurus semicinctus Lay & Bennett 1839. •Valid as Myrichthys bleekeri Gosline 1951 -- (McCosker 1977:78 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:118 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:158 [ref. 21180], McCosker 2002:27 [ref. 25848], Randall 2005:32 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:134 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:270 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Ophichthys Volz [W.] 1903:418 [Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere (Jena) v. 19 (no. 4); ref. 21451] Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: Not found. Replacement name for Ophichthys polyohthalmus when both are in Ophichthus [never used]. •Synonymy of Ophichthus polyophthalmus Bleeker 1864 -- (Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus polyophthalmus Bleeker 1864. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bonaparti, Poecilocephalus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:43 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2755. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:111 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:5, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [ref. 2573]. •Valid as Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690], Anderson et al. 1998:21 [ref. 23611], Allen 1997:58 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:66 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:222 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:118 [ref. 25191], McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:222 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:33 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:118 [ref. 28745], McCosker et al. 2006:271 [ref. 29006], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:108 [ref. 31980], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa and western Mascarenes east to Indonesia and Marshall Islands and Society Islands, north to Taiwan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

borealis, Muraenichthys Machida [Y.] & Shiogaki [M.] 1990:1, Figs. 1-3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 37 (no. 1); ref. 16608] Tairadate, Mutsu Bay, Aomori Prefecture, northernmost District of Hanshu, Japan, depth 50-60 meters. Holotype: BSKU 45367. Paratypes: BSKU 45365-66 (1, 1), 45368-70 and 72-73 (5), 45371 (1, c&s); NSMT-P 30813 (1). •Valid as Muraenichthys borealis Machida & Shiogaki 1990 -- (Machida & Ohta 1996:79 [ref. 22154], Nakabo 2000:216 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:216 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys borealis (Machida & Shiogaki 1990) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Hoshino et al. 2011:184 [ref. 31273]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys aoki (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Hibino et al. 2012:180 [ref. 32443], Ji et al. 2013:591 [ref. 36298], Hibino & Kimura 2015:5 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys aoki (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

boro, Ophisurus Hamilton [F.] 1822:20, 363 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River estuary near Calcutta, India. No types known. •Valid as Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836], Ataur Rahman 1989:43 [ref. 24860], Castle 1984:39 [ref. 6171], McCosker & Castle 1986:185 [ref. 5690], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:120 [ref. 12442], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:86 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:13 [ref. 23448], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:60 [ref. 23876] as Pisoodonophis, Poll & Gosse 1995:83 [ref. 24781], Rainboth 1996:58 [ref. 22772], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], George et al. 1999:328 [ref. 24214], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:224 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:118 [ref. 25191], Sakai et al. 2001:85 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:224 [ref. 26001], Raju Thomas et al. 2002:49 [ref. 26359], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:6 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:58 [ref. 31338], Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889], McCosker et al. 2006:273 [ref. 29006], Zhang et al. 2010:353 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Ji & Kim 2011:61 [ref. 31152], Larson et al. 2013:27 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Psomadakis et al. 2015:148 [ref. 34104], Ho et al. 2015:174 [ref. 34130], Motomura et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa and Madagascar east to Society Islands. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

boulengeri, Caecula Blache [J.], Cadenat [J.] & Stauch [A.] 1970:216, Fig. 587 [Clés de détermination des poissons de mer signalés dans l'Atlantique oriental v. 18; ref. 17964] Vicinity of Dakar, Senegal. Lectotype: MNHN 1971-0135. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1913-0139 (1), 1971-0139 (2), 1971-0141 (3), 1971-0142 (16, now 14), 1971-0143 (63), 1971-0144 (40), 1971-0145 (29); USNM 214143 [ex MNHN 1971-0142] (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:104-105 [ref. 20810], Smith 1994:29-30 [ref. 21917]. Dates to 1970 as above; also as a new species Dalophis boulengeri in Blache & Bauchot 1972:751 [ref. 304] where types are given; often wrongly dated to 1972. Blache & Bauchot 1972:751 [ref. 304] and Bauchot et al. 1993:104-105 [ref. 20810] treat a holotype, but a holotype was not established originally; that specimen technically established as lectotype in Eschmeyer 1998:258 [ref. 23416]. •Valid as Dalophis boulengeri (Blache, Cadenat & Stauch 1970) -- (Castle 1984:38 [ref. 6171], Leiby 1990:181 [ref. 13652], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1990:93 [ref. 21589], Vreven & De Vos 2007:181 [ref. 30015], Wirtz et al. 2007:6 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Dalophis boulengeri (Blache, Cadenat & Stauch 1970). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Angola. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brachycephalus, Uranichthys Poey [F.] 1867:257 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

brachynotopterus, Ophichthus Karrer [C.] 1983:73, Figs. 22 A-B [Faune Tropicale v. 23 (for 1982); ref. 5679] Nosy Be [Nossi-Bé], Mozambique Channel, Madagascar, 12°40'S, 48°13.8'E, depth 370-355 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1979-0021. Paratypes: MNHN 1979-0022 and 0023 (1, 1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:109-110 [ref. 20810], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805]. •Valid as Ophichthus brachynotopterus Karrer 1983 -- (McCosker & Chen 2000:356 [ref. 25028], McCosker 2005:673 [ref. 28646], McCosker 2010:11 [ref. 30840], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus brachynotopterus Karrer 1983. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Madagascar; southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

brachysoma, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1853:776 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 335] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.29.244 (1) Macassar. •Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brachyurus, Ophichthys Poey [F.] 1868:426 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

branderiana, Caecilia Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:134, 135 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:128 [ref. 20810]. Unneeded new name for Muraena caeca Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Apterichtus caecus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:248 [ref. 7185], Leiby 1990:177 [ref. 13652], McCosker & Hibino 2015:56 [ref. 33725]). Current status: Synonym of Apterichtus caecus (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Centrurophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:43 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [possibly erroneous]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8674. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:106 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:4 [ref. 2573]. •Valid as Ophichthus brasiliensis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:382 [ref. 13288], Bauchot et al. 1993:106 [ref. 20810], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:62 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus brasiliensis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Ophisurus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:46 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies; Brazil. Still researching. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

brevicaudata, Scolecenchelys Hibino [Y.] & Kimura [S.] 2015:10, Figs. 1e, 2e, 4b [Ichthyological Research v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 33951] Between Samar and Masbate islands, Philippines, 12°12.35'N, 124°02.48'E, depth 246 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 134960. •Valid as Scolecenchelys brevicaudata Hibino & Kimura 2015. Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys brevicaudata Hibino & Kimura 2015. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

brevicaudatus, Ophichthys Chu [Y.-T.], Wu [H.-L.] & Jin [X.-B.] 1981:23 [English p. 27], Fig. 3 [Journal of Fisheries of China v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21250] Sangou Fishing Ground, Taiwan Strait. Holotype: Shanghai Fish. Coll. A07185. •Valid as Ophichthus brevicaudatus Chu, Wu & Jin 1981 -- (Tang & Zhang 2002:855 [ref. 26492], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:345 [ref. 31511]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus brevicaudatus Chu, Wu & Jin 1981. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: China and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

breviceps, Muraenichthys Günther [A.] 1876:401 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 17 (no. 101) (art. 43); ref. 2007] Tasmania, Australia. Syntypes: BMNH 1862.11.15.119 (1), 1875.11.12.73 (1). •Valid as Muraenichthys breviceps Günther 1876 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931] with question, McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:117 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:28 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:200 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:26 [ref. 25488], Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847]). •Valid in Scolecenchelys [breviceps] -- (Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys breviceps (Günther 1876) -- (McCosker 2006:22 [ref. 28592], McCosker et al. 2006:274 [ref. 29006], Smith & McCosker 2008:169 [ref. 30623], McCosker et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31982], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], McCosker & Stewart 2015:257 [ref. 34235], Hibino & Kimura 2015:19 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys breviceps (Günther 1876). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

breviceps, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:99 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Unknown locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2015.1.8.1[ex Royal Coll. Surgeons]. •Valid as Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:374 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:827 [ref. 13285], Paulin et al. 1989:73 [ref. 24556], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:156 [ref. 21180], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:271 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:139 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:7 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Allen 2012:39 [ref. 31763], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:25 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:6 [ref. 34324], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

breviceps, Ophiurus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1308 [326], Pl. 5 (fig. 4) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. BMNH 1860.3.19.521 (skin). On p. 326 of separate. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

brevimanus, Ophichthys (Pisodontophis) Regan [C. T.] 1903:622 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 12 (no. 72) (art. 64); ref. 13401] Río Vaqueria near La Tola, northwestern Ecuador. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1902.7.29.51. •Synonym of Pisodonophis daspilotus Gilbert 1898 -- (J. M. McCosker, pers. comm. 6/2001). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis daspilotus Gilbert 1898. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Ross [S. W.] 2007:783, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2007 (no. 4); ref. 29436] Off Cape Lookout, trawled between 34°13.13'N, 75°52.11'W and 34°14.00'N, 75°52.13'W, North Carolina, U.S.A., depth 406-440 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 224335. •Valid as Ophichthus brevirostris McCosker & Ross 2007 -- (McCosker et al. 2012:6 [ref. 31982]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus brevirostris McCosker & Ross 2007. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Off North Carolina, U.S.A. [holotype]. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Ophichthys Poey [F.] 2000:782, Pl. 432 (fig. 4) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Ophichthidae.

brevirostris, Sphagebranchus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:461 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mozambique Channel, western coast of Madagacar, 23.5°S. Holotype: ZMB 4035. Also described as new in Peters 1855:273 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Yirrkala fusca (Zuiew 1793) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:47 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Yirrkala fusca (Zuiew 1793). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

broekmeyeri, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1856:71 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.296 (1) Makassar. Originally as Broekmeijeri, with Dutch ij equivalent to y in Latin. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Notophtophis Castro-Aguirre [J. L.] & Suárez de los Cobos [S.] 1983:114, Figs. 1-2 [Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México v. 27; ref. 5313] La Condesa beach, Acapulco Bay, Guerrero, Mexico. Holotype (unique): ENCB-IPN 5139. Type catalog: Guzmán 2011:170 [ref. 32186]. •Valid as Echiophis brunneus (Castro-Aguirre & Suárez de los Cobos 1983) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:52 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:44 [ref. 23101], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1334 [ref. 22830] Echiopsis by mistake, McCosker & Randall 2001:3 [ref. 25635], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Guzmán 2011:170 [ref. 32186], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Echiophis brunneus (Castro-Aguirre & Suárez de los Cobos 1983). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

buettikoferi, Ophichthys (Sphagebranchus) Steindachner [F.] 1894:88, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 16 (nos 1-2, art. 1); ref. 4237] Du Queah River, Hill Town, Liberia. Syntypes: NMW 60975 (3); RMNH 5331 (3). Species originally spelled as büttikoferi. •Synonym of Dalophis cephalopeltis (Bleeker 1863) -- (Castle 1984:38 [ref. 6171], Leiby 1990:181 [ref. 13652], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1990:93 [ref. 21589]). Current status: Synonym of Dalophis cephalopeltis (Bleeker 1863). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

buitendijki, Neenchelys Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1916:268, Figs. 116-117 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 3; ref. 4604] Jakarta Bay, Java, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: ZMA 102171. Paratypes: ZMA 112614 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:9 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Ho et al. 2013:2 [ref. 33156]. •Valid as Neenchelys buitendijki Weber & de Beaufort 1916 -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Hibino et al. 2012:345 [ref. 32271], Ho et al. 2012:949 [ref. 33018], Ho et al. 2013:3 [ref. 33156], Toshiro et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33874], Hibino et al. 2015:60 [ref. 34166], Motomura et al. 2017:32 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Neenchelys buitendijki Weber & de Beaufort 1916. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India east to western Malaysia and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

byrnei, Ethadophis Rosenblatt [R. H.] & McCosker [J. E.] 1970:499, Figs. 4, 6b [Pacific Science v. 24 (no. 4); ref. 3809] Puertocitos, Gulf of California, Baja California Norte, Mexico. Holotype (unique): SIO 67-31. •Valid as Ethadophis byrnei Rosenblatt & McCosker 1970 -- (McCosker 1977:72 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:342 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1334 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ethadophis byrnei Rosenblatt & McCosker 1970. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

caeca, Muraena Linnaeus [C.] (ex Brander) 1758:245 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Based on a description in manuscript by E. Brander. •Valid as Apterichtus caecus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:248 [ref. 7185], McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:579 [ref. 13676], McCosker et al. 1989:318 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:176 [ref. 13652], Machida & Ohta 1994:3 [ref. 21444], Golani 1996:23 [ref. 22271], Castriota & Campagnuolo 1998:198 [ref. 23490], Santos et al. 1997:21 [ref. 23531] as Apterichthus, Arruda 1997:59 [ref. 24952], Fricke et al. 2007:23 [ref. 29533], McCosker & Hibino 2015:56 [ref. 33725], Hibino et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34475], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus caecus (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Azores to Canary Islands and Madeira to Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

calamus, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:74 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Fremantle, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1861.5.18.8. •Valid as Cirrhimuraena calamus (Günther 1870) -- (McCosker 1977:75 [ref. 6836], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:116 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], McCosker et al. 2006:268 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Valid as Cirrhimuraena calamus (Günther 1870). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

californiensis, Ophisurus Garrett [A.] 1863:66 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 3; ref. 13928] Margarita Bay, Baja California. Holotype (unique): destroyed in fire in 1906. •Synonym of Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:418 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

callaensis, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1873:92 [12] [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 6424] Callao, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.6.23.7 [ex MGH 21]. On p. 12 of separate. •Valid as Ophichthus callaensis Günther 1873 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836] as callensis, Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:121 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

callisoma, Herpetoichthys Abbott [C. C.] 1860:475 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 12; ref. 15619] Pacific [probably in error]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 38148. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

calyptra, Yirrkala McCosker [J. E.] 2011:48, Figs. 4-6 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 13; ref. 31260] Fraser Island, Platypus Bay, 24°21'S, 152°30'E, Queensland, Australia, depth "probably about 10 fathoms". Holotype: AMS I.45310-001. Paratypes AMS I.17454-002 (1), BPBM 33916 (1), CAS 41667 (1). •Valid as Yirrkala calyptra McCosker 2011. Current status: Valid as Yirrkala calyptra McCosker 2011. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

camelopardalis, Chauligenion McCosker [J. E.] & Okamoto [M.] 2016:326, Figs. 1-6 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 63 (no. 9); ref. 34847] East China Sea, west of Okinawa, 27°15'00"N, 125°45'00"E, depth 150 meters. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 125489. •Valid as Chauligenion camelopardalis McCosker & Okamoto 2016. Current status: Valid as Chauligenion camelopardalis McCosker & Okamoto 2016. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: East China Sea, west of Okinawa. Habitat: marine.

canaliculatus, Callechelys Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:836, Pl. 27 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 10 (no. 119); ref. 12118] Pinda, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 103. Paratypes: (4) not researched. •Synonym of Callechelys bitaeniata (Peters 1877) -- (McCosker 1998:189 [ref. 23298]). Current status: Synonym of Callechelys bitaeniata (Peters 1877). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

cancrivorus, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:97, Pl. 50 (figs. 6-9) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Port Essington, Northern Territory, Australia [Arafura Sea, eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype: Whereabouts unknown. Additional original materia: BMNH 1938.12.21.1 (1) Singapore, BMNH 1938.12.21.2 (1) Philippine Is. Two specimens questionably referred and not regarded as types. •Valid as Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836], Dor & Palmer 1977:138 [ref. 21143], Castle 1984:39 [ref. 6171], Dor 1984:36 [ref. 29757], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], McCosker & Castle 1986:185 [ref. 5690], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:120 [ref. 12442], Ataur Rahman 1989:44 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:87 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:13 [ref. 23448], Poll & Gosse 1995:83 [ref. 24781], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:75 [ref. 22017], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:72 [ref. 27969], Rainboth 1996:58 [ref. 22772], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Anderson et al. 1998:21 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:67 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:224 [ref. 25086], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:111 [ref. 27511] dating to 1844, McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:224 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830] as cancrivora, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:59 [ref. 31338], Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889], McCosker et al. 2006:273 [ref. 29006], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:74 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:351 [ref. 31511], Ji & Kim 2011:61 [ref. 31152], Allen & Erdmann 2012:109 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:28 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:24 [ref. 34464], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Shinohara et al. 2014:236 [ref. 33330], Fricke et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33895], Psomadakis et al. 2015:148 [ref. 34104], Ho et al. 2015:175 [ref. 34130], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34319], Miesen et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34492], Motomura et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Algoa Bay (South Africa), Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to French Polynesia, north to southern Japan, south to Australia (Northern Territory and Queensland). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

capensis, Leptorhynchus Smith [A.] 1840:unnumbered page, Pl. 6 [Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa v. 4; ref. 4035] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. No types known. •Synonym of Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker 1977:82 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:184 [ref. 5690]). Current status: Synonym of Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caribbaeus, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:130, Fig. 49 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Old Providence Key [Providencia Island], Caribbean Sea. Holotype: ANSP 70121. Paratypes: ANSP 70122-26 (5), 70127 (1, missing), 70128-30 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:120 [ref. 13621]. •Questionably the same as Callechelys bilinearis Kanazawa 1952 -- (Leiby in Smith 1989:890 [ref. 13285]). Current status: Uncertain as Callechelys bilinearis Kanazawa 1952. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

cartieri, Benthenchelys Fowler [H. W.] 1934:267, Fig. 29 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Between Panay and Negros islands, Philippines, Albatross station 5185, 10°05'45"N, 122°18'30"E, depth 638 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 92356. Paratypes: USNM 93349 (4). •Valid as Benthenchelys cartieri Fowler 1934 -- (Castle 1972:6 [ref. 6968], McCosker 1977:57 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288]). Current status: Valid as Benthenchelys cartieri Fowler 1934. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

castlei, Scolecenchelys McCosker [J. E.] 2006:18, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 28592] Off the Chatham Islands, Chatham Rise, 43°09.5'S, 178°25.4'W, New Zealand. Holotype: NMNZ P.37671. Paratypes: Many lots at AMS, BMNH, BPBM, CAS, CSIRO, NMNZ, NMV, and USNM. Plus non-types. •Valid as Scolecenchelys castlei McCosker 2006 -- (McCosker et al. 2006:275 [ref. 29006], Smith & McCosker 2008:169 [ref. 30623], McCosker et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31982], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], McCosker & Stewart 2015:258 [ref. 34235]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys castlei McCosker 2006. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: New Zealand and Australia. Habitat: marine.

catostomus, Sphagebranchus Schneider [J. G.] (ex Forster) in Bloch & Schneider 1801:536 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Moorea, lagoon between Papetaoi and Paopao bays, Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific, depth 0-1.3 meters. Neotype: CAS 91793. Based on Forster manuscript; Forster painting of type reproduced in Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994]. Neotype designated by McCosker 1998:195 [ref. 23298]. Callechelys is feminine so catostoma is apparently correct. •Valid as Callechelys catostomus (Schneider 1801) -- (Randall et al. 1990:44 [ref. 15987], Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:58 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:225 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Callechelys catostoma (Schneider 1801) -- (Randall et al. 1997:44 [ref. 25919], McCosker 1998:190 [ref. 23298], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], McCosker 2002:25 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:225 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830] with author as Forster, Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624] with author as Forster, Randall 2005:31 [ref. 28239] with author as Forster, Mundy 2005:132 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:64 [ref. 30952], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], McCosker et al. 2011:275 [ref. 31452], Allen & Erdmann 2012:104 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:43 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:27 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys catostoma (Schneider 1801). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Hawaiian Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, and east to Lord Howe Island and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

caudatus, Ophisurus McClelland [J.] 1844:185, 204, Pl. 12 (fig. 3) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Bengal. Syntypes: SMF 296 (4). •Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamiltom 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

caudomaculatus, Leptocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1902:87, Figs. 5, 5a-b [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 21 (1901); ref. 11071] 20 miles south of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, U.S.A., 34°57'00"N, 75°43'30"W, Albatross station 2597. Syntypes: USNM 49758-59 (2, 2). Type catalog: Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of [young of] Echiophis intertinctus (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:359 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:830 [ref. 13285], McCosker & Randall 2001:3 [ref. 25635]). Current status: Synonym of Echiophis intertinctus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

ceciliae, Bascanichthys Blache [J.] & Cadenat [J.] 1971:168, Figs. 6-10 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 33 (no. 1); ref. 13696] Stranded on Hann Beach at Dakar, Senegal. Holotype: MNHN 1964-0530. Paratypes: MNHN 1974-0148 [ex IFAN Gorée 67-407 to 413] (7), 1965-0759 (1, dissected). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:104 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Bascanichthys ceciliae Blache & Cadenat 1971 -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], Leiby 1990:178 [ref. 13652], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys ceciliae Blache & Cadenat 1971. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

celebicus, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1856:70 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1867.11.28.329 (1) Manado. •Valid as Ophichthus celebicus (Bleeker 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Randall 1995:60 [ref. 22896], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:347 [ref. 31511], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus celebicus (Bleeker 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: northern Vietnam, southern China, Sulawesi (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

cephalopeltis, Pelia Schlegel [H.] in Bleeker 1863:128 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Not available; museum name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Sphagebranchus? cephalopeltis Bleeker. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

cephalopeltis, Sphagebranchus Bleeker [P.] 1863:128 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Ghana. Syntypes: RMNH 3826 (3). Original as Sphagebranchus? cephalopeltis. •Valid as Dalophis cephalopeltis (Bleeker 1863) -- (McCosker 1977:72 [ref. 6836], Castle 1984:38 [ref. 6171], Leiby 1990:181 [ref. 13652], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1990:93 [ref. 21589], Poll & Gosse 1995:83 [ref. 24781], Vreven & De Vos 2007:183 [ref. 30015], Félix et al. 2016:D [4] [ref. 34346], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Dalophis cephalopeltis (Bleeker 1863). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cephalozona, Ophichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864:49, Pl. 156 (fig. 2) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] Singapore; Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.256 (1) Ambon. •Valid as Ophichthus cephalozona Bleeker 1864 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:119 [ref. 12442], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:171 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:494 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:19 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889], Randall 2005:33 [ref. 28239], McCosker et al. 2006:271 [ref. 29006], Zhang et al. 2010:334 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:109 [ref. 31980], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130], McCosker & Psomadakis 2018:78 [ref. 36333]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus cephalozona Bleeker 1864. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Indian region, Australia (Queensland), the Marshall Islands and Society Islands and north to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

chamensis, Ophichthus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:155, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Chame Point, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 82216. Paratypes: USNM 82214-15 (1, 7), 82217 (2), 128398 (2). Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus chamensis Meek & Hildebrand 1923 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1337 [ref. 22830]). •Synonym of Ophichthus zophochir Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:421 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus zophochir Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

chaselingi, Yirrkala Whitley [G. P.] 1940:410, Fig. 17 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 4); ref. 4699] Yirrkala, Caledon Bay, Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.481. Paratypes: AMS 16190-001 (2). •Synonym of Yirrkala lumbricoides (Bleeker 1853) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:121 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Yirrkala chaselingi Whitley 1940 -- (Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker et al. 2006:277 [ref. 29006], McCosker 2011:47 [ref. 31260], Larson et al. 2013:28 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala chaselingi Whitley 1940. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

chauliodus, Aplatophis Böhlke [J. E.] 1956:3, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 289; ref. 596] Mayagüez pier, Puerto Rico. Holotype: FMNH 61772. Paratypes: ANSP 73871 [ex FMNH 61773] (1), LACM 21708 [ex AHF 2464] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:10 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Aplatophis chauliodus Böhlke 1956 -- (McCosker 1977:74 [ref. 6836], Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:122 [ref. 14275], McCosker et al. 1989:355 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:834 [ref. 13285], Cervigón 1991:54 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:33 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:371 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:256 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], McCosker & Robertson 2001:14 [ref. 25776], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Aplatophis chauliodus Böhlke 1956. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cheilopogon, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1860:59 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 7); ref. 379] Badjoa, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.317 (1) Badjoa. The spelling chilopogon in Bleeker 1864:42 [ref. 4860] is an unjustified emendation. •Valid as Cirrhimuraena cheilopogon (Bleeker 1860) -- (McCosker 1977:75 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Cirrhimuraena cheilopogon (Bleeker 1860). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

cheni, Caecula Fowler [H. W.] 1932:130 [Hong Kong Naturalist v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16369] Ling Sui, China. Holotype: Johnson Chen spec. no. 2427. Based on Sphagebranchus longipinnis of Chen 1929:25 [ref. 16075]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

cheni, Myrophis Chen [J. T. F.] & Weng [H. T. C.] 1967:39, Fig. 29 [Biological Bulletin Tunghai University Ichthyology Series Number 6 No. 6 (art. 32); ref. 7952] Tungkang, Taiwan. Lectotype: NMMBP 3019 [ex THUP 3234]. Paralectotypes: NMMBP 3328 [ex THUP 3328] (1). Type catalog: Ho et al. 2010:25 [ref. 31218], Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432]. Lectotype selected by Ho et al. 2010. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Myrophis cheni Chen & Weng 1967 -- (McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889], Ho et al. 2010:24 [ref. 31218], Zhang et al. 2010:326 [ref. 31511], Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432]). •Valid as Neenchelys cheni (Chen & Weng 1967) -- (Hibino et al.2012:345 [ref. 32271], Ho et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33156], Toshiro et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33874], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:169 [ref. 34130], Hibino et al. 2015:60 [ref. 34166]). Current status: Valid as Neenchelys cheni (Chen & Weng 1967). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

chilensis, Muraenichthys McCosker [J. E.] 1970:509, Figs. 1-5, 6b [Pacific Science v. 24 (no. 4); ref. 2931] South of Pta. Suroeste, northwestern side of Juan Fernández Islands, 33°37'15"S, 78°55'05"W, eastern Pacific. Holotype: SIO 65-645. Paratypes: (433) AMS 21355-001 (5); ANSP 144097 [ex SIO 65-655 (231)] (10); BMNH [ex SIO 65-629] (1); CAS 48088 [ex SIO 65-634] (10); MNHNC P.6307 [ex SIO 65-645] (10); SIO 65-628 (6), 65-624 (29), 65-634 (58, now 48), 65-636 (9), 65-637 (4), 65-638 (11) (ex UCLA W66-54), 65-645 (42, now 31 + 1 c&s), 65-657 (28), 65-659 (18); USNM 205477 [ex SIO 65-626] (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621], Meléndez C. et al. 1993:35 [ref. 24124], Smith 1994:32 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Muraenichthys chilensis McCosker 1970 -- (McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], McCosker & Parin 1995:232 [ref. 21924], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys chilensis (McCosker 1970) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Meléndez C. & Cornejo C. 2001:67 [ref. 26163], Dyer & Westneat 2010:599 [ref. 31446], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino et al. 2013:46 [ref. 32418], Hibino & Kimura 2015:11 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys chilensis (McCosker 1970). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernandez, Isla San Ambrosio, Isla San Félix (Chile). Habitat: marine.

chilkensis, Ophichthus Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1916:445, Figs. 12-13 [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 5 (no. 5); ref. 15054] Rambha Bay, Chilka Lake, Orissa, India. Holotype: ZSI F9177/1. Paratypes: ZSI F9182/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:134 [ref. 20743]. •Questionably a synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:87 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989] without question). Current status: Uncertain as Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chinensis, Cirrhimuraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:51 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Not stated [China, Indonesia on Kaup 1856]. Syntypes: BMNH 1851.12.27.228 (1), RMNH. •Valid as Cirrhimuraena chinensis Kaup 1856 -- (McCosker 1977:75 [ref. 6836], Kuang & Yu in Kuang et al. 1986:33 [ref. 26639], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:57 [ref. 23876], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Tang & Zhang 2003:553 [ref. 27147], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:358 [ref. 31511], Kottelat 2013:44 [ref. 32989], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Ho et al. 2015:167 [ref. 34130], Miesen et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Valid as Cirrhimuraena chinensis Kaup 1856. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chinensis, Colubrina Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:40, 41 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] China. Subfamily/family may be incorrect. Ophichthidae. Habitat: marine.

chioui, Xyrias McCosker [J. E.], Chen [W.-L.] & Chen [H.-M.] 2009:63, Figs. 1-3, 4a [Zootaxa No. 2289; ref. 30556] Changbin, 23°17'N, 121°27'E, Taitung County, Taiwan, depth 60-70 meters. Holotype (unique): TOU-AE 1561. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Xyrias chioui McCosker, Chen & Chen 2009 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:176 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Xyrias chioui McCosker, Chen & Chen 2009. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

chrysogaster, Myrophis Macleay [W.] 1881:271 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16267-001 [ex MAMU F115]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518] listed MAMU F115 as holotype. •Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:120-121 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chrysops, Ophisurus Poey [F.] 1860:321 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 27212. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:174 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

chrysospilos, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1857:8, 27, 88 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Not available; appeared in list on p. 8 and p. 27, and as name in the synonymy of Ophisurus bonapartei Kaup on p. 88. •In the synonymy of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 2002:28 [ref. 25848]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

cinctus, Sphagebranchus Tanaka [S.] 1908:4, Pl. 1 (figs. 4a-b) [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 23 (art. 13); ref. 4321] Yaeyama, Ishigaki Island, Ryukyu Islands, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Syntypes: ZUMT 1547 (1, the described spec.). •Synonym of Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1809) -- (Emily Stump, from J. E. McCosker, Jan. 14, 2013). Current status: Synonym of Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1839). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

cinereus, Ophichthus Ahl [J. N.] 1789:10 [Specimen ichthyologicum de Muraena et Ophichtho; ref. 80] In India Orientali [Indonesia]. No types known. •In genus Brachysomophis Kaup 1856. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

cirrocheilos, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1857:89 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) RMNH 7170 (1), BMNH 1867.11.28.213 (1). Spelled cirrocheilos 3 times in text, as cirrhocheilos in index (p. 102); cirrhocheilos regarded as a misspelling. Spelled cirrochilus by Günther 1870:65 [ref. 1995] -- an incorrect subsequent spelling. Nemtzov et al. 1987:13 [ref. 11594] list BMNH 1867.11.28.213 as holotype. •Valid as Brachysomophis cirrocheilos (Bleeker 1857) -- (McCosker 1977:74 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441] as cirrhocheilos, Nemtzov et al. 1987:13 [ref. 11594] as cirrhocheilus, Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:116 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:43 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356] as cirrhoceilus, Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:43 [ref. 25919], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:225 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], McCosker & Randall 2001:8 [ref. 25635], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:225 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830] as cirrocheilus, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889] as cirrhochilus, McCosker et al. 2006:266 [ref. 29006], Zhang et al. 2010:363 [ref. 31511], Allen & Erdmann 2012:102 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:44 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33932], McCosker & Ho 2014:95 [ref. 33573], Fricke et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33895], Ho et al. 2015:166 [ref. 34130], Golani & Fricke 2018:27 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Brachysomophis cirrocheilos (Bleeker 1857). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cirrochilus, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:65 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Apparently intended as an emendation of Ophisurus cirrocheilos Bleeker 1857, but Günther did not cite the spelling cirrocheilos so this is an incorrect subsequent spelling. •In the synonymy of Brachysomophis cirrocheilos (Bleeker 1857). Current status: Synonym of Brachysomophis cirrocheilos (Bleeker 1857). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

cliffi, Callechelys Böhlke [J. E.] & Briggs [J. C.] 1954:275, Figs. 1-2 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 12335] Fraile Bay, south of Los Frailes, Baja California, Mexico, 23°22'20"N, 109°24'40"W, at surface over 8 fathoms. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 47521. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:63 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Callechelys cliffi Böhlke & Briggs 1954 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:52 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1333 [ref. 22830], McCosker 1998:196 [ref. 23298], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys cliffi Böhlke & Briggs 1954. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Mexico. Habitat: marine.

cobra, Ophichthys De Vis [C. W.] 1884:455 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] South Seas. No types known. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

coecus, Apterichthys Gistel [J.] 1848:104 [Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs; ref. 1822] Mediterranean Sea. New combination and mispelling of Muraena caeca Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Apterichtus caecus (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

colubrina, Muraena Boddaert [P.] 1781:56, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Neue Nordische Beyträge zur physikalischen und geographischen Erd- und Völkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte und Oekonomie. St. Petersburg & Leipzig v. 2; ref. 16975] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:65 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Gymnothorax colubrinus Suckow 1799 was a new combination, not original (Suckow 1799:181 [ref. 18858]). •Valid as Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (McCosker 1977:78 [ref. 6836], Dor 1984:35 [ref. 29757], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], McCosker & Castle 1986:181 [ref. 5690], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:119 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:45 [ref. 15987], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:157 [ref. 21180], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:75 [ref. 22017], Randall 1995:62 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:26 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:45 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:64 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:221 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:117 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], McCosker 2002:25 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:221 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Tang & Zhang 2004:22 [ref. 27889] as colubrnus, Randall 2005:32 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:134 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:270 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:58 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:74 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:366 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], McCosker & Allen 2012:39 [ref. 31763], Allen & Erdmann 2012:107 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:27 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33932], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Fricke et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33895], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:169 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:44 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:27 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Johnston Atoll and Tuamotu Archipelago (but not Hawaiian Islands), north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

combibus, Gordiichthys McCosker [J. E.] & Lavenberg [R. J.] 2001:8, Figs. 1-3 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 49 (Suppl. 1); ref. 25775] Bahia Utria, 5°59'30'N, 77°21'22'W, Colombia, depth 0-1.5 meters. Holotype: ANSP 130223. Paratypes: ANSP 138561 (2), CAS 208467 (2), USNM 356856 (1). •Valid as Gordiichthys combibus McCosker & Lavenberg 2001. Current status: Valid as Gordiichthys combibus McCosker & Lavenberg 2001. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Colombia (Pacific). Habitat: marine.

compar, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:105 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1982.5.7.3. •Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (McCosker 1977:80 [ref. 6836], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

concolor, Allips McCosker [J. E.] 1972:117, Figs. 4-5 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 10); ref. 2932] Mouth of Pakehan River, north of Ban Parknam Ranong, 10°57'42"N, 98°35'18"E, Goh Phi, Ranong Province, Thailand, depth 0-3 meters. (Kottelat changed the locality to Myanmar, Ko Phi Island, 9°57'42"N, 98°35'18"E) Holotype (unique): CAS 13967. •Valid as Allips concolor McCosker 1972 -- (McCosker 1977:70 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], McCosker et al. 2006:265 [ref. 29006], Larson et al. 2013:26 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:43 [ref. 32989], Ho et al. 2018:201 [ref. 36046], Ho et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36050], Mohapatra et al. 2019:313 [ref. 36478]). Current status: Valid as Allips concolor McCosker 1972. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: east coast of India east to orthern South China Sea, north to Taiwan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish.

conger, Leptocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1902:37, Figs. 1-14 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 21 [1901]; ref. 11102] Apparently not intended as a new species but as the doubtful name for the young of the conger eel, Conger conger (Linnaeus 1758) -- "The evidence that the eggs here described are those of Leptocephalus conger is circumstantial rather than positive." [Eddy Derijst email 11/8/08.]. This record can be deleted from further consideration. •Synonym of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:384 [ref. 13288] who treated as an original description). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

congoensis, Bascanichthys Blache [J.] & Cadenat [J.] 1971:179, Figs. 16-20 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 33 (no. 1); ref. 13696] Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo. Holotype: MNHN 1965-0660. Paratypes: MNHN 1965-0661 (1), 1965-0768 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:104 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Bascanichthys congoensis Blache & Cadenat 1971 -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], Leiby 1990:178 [ref. 13652]). •Synonym of Bascanichthys paulensis Storey 1939 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:335 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Bascanichthys paulensis Storey 1939. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

congroides, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:12, Figs. 13-15 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Off Akiaki Island, 18°33'S, 139°12'W, Tuamotu Islands, Polynesia, depth (trap) 300 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P.41177. Paratypes: CAS 229328 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus congroides McCosker 2010. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus congroides McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Tuamotu Islands [type series]. Habitat: marine.

conklini, Sphagebranchus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1916:55, Pl. 9 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1/2) (art. 3); ref. 11116] Entrance to harbor, New Providence Island, Bahamas, depth 10 feet. Holotype (unique): FMNH 57731 [ex CM 6710]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:53 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:80 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Ichthyapus ophioneus (Evermann & Marsh 1900) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:323 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ichthyapus ophioneus (Evermann & Marsh 1900). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

cookei, Muraenichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1928:41, Fig. 9 [Memoirs of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. No. 10; ref. 5596] Milaekahana, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 3421. •Valid as Muraenichthys cookei Fowler 1928 -- (McCosker 1970:509 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys cookei (Fowler 1928) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], McCosker 2002:25 [ref. 25848], Mundy 2005:136 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:61 [ref. 30952], McCosker et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31982], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino & Kimura 2015:19 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys cookei (Fowler 1928). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

cooperae, Phaenomonas Palmer [G.] 1970:219, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology v. 19 (no. 6); ref. 7771] Lagoon reef at Betio, Tarawa, Gilbert Islands, Kiribati, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1969.8.26.90. •Valid as Phaenomonas cooperae Palmer 1970 -- (McCosker 1977:73 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:184 [ref. 5690], McCosker et al. 1989:352 [ref. 13288], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], McCosker 2002:25 [ref. 25848], Mundy 2005:135 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:69 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2015:63 [ref. 33895], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Phaenomonas cooperae Palmer 1970. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Aldabra east to Hawaiian and Marquesas islands. Habitat: marine.

copelandi, Pisoodonophis Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1953:10 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 82 (no. 1); ref. 11046] Off Dewey Blvd., Manila Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 202516 [ex UW 6485]. Paratypes: USNM 202571 [ex UW 19694] (1). Type catalog: Meldrim & Wadley 1968:873 [ref. 31181], Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. •Valid as Pisodonophis copelandi Herre 1953 -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Ji & Kim 2011:61 [ref. 31152], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288] with question). Current status: Valid as Pisodonophis copelandi Herre 1953. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

coronata, Pisoodonophis Kaup [J. J.] 1859:14, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] St. Thomas. Holotype (unique): ZMH H391. Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:160 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:404 [ref. 21161]. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. •Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:374 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:156 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

crenatus, Leptocephalus Strömman [P. H.] 1896:32, Pl. 3 (figs. 4-5) [Leptocephalids in the University Zoological Museum at Upsala; ref. 4294] Coast of Georgia, U.S.A., 29°N, 72°W. Holotype (unique): ZMUU 698. Type catalog: Wallin 1996:61 [ref. 32133]. •Synonym of Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:274 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:795 [ref. 13285]). Current status: Synonym of Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

creutzbergi, Mystriophis Cadenat [J.] 1956:857, Fig. 1 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 12184] Coastal zone, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Holotype: BMNH 1956.11.26.1 [ex IFAN 54-699]. Paratypes: MNHN B-1634 (1), MNHN 1974-0159 [ex IFAN 55-4912] (1), 1974-0196 [ex IFAN 55-4913] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:109 [ref. 20810]. •Synonym of Echiophis intertinctus (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker 1977:77 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Echiophis creutzbergi (Cadenat 1956) -- (Leiby 1990:183 [ref. 13652]). •Synonym of Echiophis punctifer (Kaup 1859) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:362 [ref. 13288], Bauchot et al. 1993:109 [ref. 20810], McCosker & Randall 2001:3 [ref. 25635]). Current status: Synonym of Echiophis punctifer (Kaup 1859). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

crocodilinus, Ophisurus Bennett [E. T.] 1833:32 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1833 (pt 1); ref. 16786] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia [original locality Mauritius]. Neotype: USNM 313600. Neotype designated by McCosker & Randall 2001:14 [ref. 25635] •Valid as Brachysomophis crocodilinus (Bennett 1833) -- (McCosker 1977:74 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:11 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:44 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:61 [ref. 22896], McCosker & Castle 1986:178 [ref. 5690], Allen 1997:58 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:44 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:62 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:225 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], McCosker & Randall 2001:14 [ref. 25635], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:225 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:30 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:131 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:57, 63 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213], Zhang et al. 2010:362 [ref. 31511], Allen & Erdmann 2012:102 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33932], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2014:95 [ref. 33573], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:166 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:42 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Brachysomophis crocodilinus (Bennett 1833). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Society islands, Society Islands, Johnston Atoll, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

crosnieri, Mystriophis Blache [J.] 1971:210, Figs. 6-10 [Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (Serie A) Sciences Naturelles v. 33 (no. 1); ref. 7667] Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, 5°02'S, 11°20'E, depth 300 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1965-0666. Paratypes: (15) ANSP 133551 [ex MNHN 1965-716 and 1965-725] (2), CAS 32480 [ex MNHN 1965-723] (1); MNHN 1965-0712 to 0724 (1 ea. = 13), 1965-0726 (now 0); USNM [ex MNHN 1965-726] 214142 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621], Bauchot et al. 1993:109 [ref. 20810], Smith 1994:33 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Mystriophis crosnieri Blache 1971 -- (McCosker 1977:79 [ref. 6836], Leiby 1990:187 [ref. 13652], McCosker & Randall 2001:4 [ref. 25635], McCosker 2016:1665 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Mystriophis crosnieri Blache 1971. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cruentifer, Pisoodonophis Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:147, Pl. 44 (fig. 166) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Off north-eastern U.S.A., 39°57'N, 69°28'W, Fish Hawk station 1035, depth 120 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 28938. Paralectotypes: USNM 278183 [ex USNM 28398] (1). Additional non-type material: USNM 30233 (1), 31711 (3). Type catalog: Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. Lectotype established in Jordan & Evermann 1900:3245 in caption to figure. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. •Valid as Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:65 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:86 [ref. 25518], McCosker et al. 1989:384 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:809 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:35 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:273 [ref. 23897], McCosker & Chen 2000:355 [ref. 25028], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], Smith & Tighe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:97 [ref. 26158], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Moore et al. 2003:174 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker 2005:672 [ref. 28646]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cyclorhinus, Ophichthus Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1934:466, Fig. [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 13 (no. 76); ref. 16423] Low Isles, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1933.8.12.13. •Possibly a synonym of Elapsopis versicolor (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker 1977:77 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Elapsopis cyclorhinus (Fraser-Brunner 1934) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:116 [ref. 12442], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715]). •Synonym of Leiuranus versicolor (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:269 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Synonym of Leiuranus versicolor (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

cylindricus, Bascanichthys Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:152, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Chame Point, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 82210. Non-types or paratypes: USNM 82209 (9). Type catalog: Smith 1994:28 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Bascanichthys cylindricus Meek & Hildebrand 1923 -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], Allen & Robertson 1994:51 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1332 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:242 [ref. 24545], Moreno et al. 2016:13 [ref. 35398]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys cylindricus Meek & Hildebrand 1923. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cylindroideus, Conger Ranzani [C.] 1839:80 [16], Pl. 13 (figs. 2a-b) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 4 [1840]; ref. 18606] Brazilian seas. Holotype (unique): MZUB 988. Appeared first without description as Ranzani in Alessandrini 1838:433 [ref. 25852]. Dates to publication in a separate, on p. 16 and Pl. 6 in 1839; journal version in 1840. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Ophichthus cylindroideus (Ranzani 1839) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:386 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:809 [ref. 13285], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192] dated 1840, McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus cylindroideus (Ranzani 1839). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

daedalus, Neenchelys McCosker [J. E.] 1982:63, Figs. 4-5 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 43 (no. 5); ref. 2934] Astrolabe Bay, south of Madang, Papua New Guinea, 5°24'S, 14°52.5'E. Holotype: AMS I.19690-012. Paratypes: CAS 50708 (1). •Valid as Neenchelys daedalus McCusker 1982 -- (Machida & Ohta 1993:391 [ref. 22465], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:217 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:217 [ref. 26001], Hibino et al. 2012:345 [ref. 32271], Ho et al. 2013:7[ref. 33156], Fricke et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33932], Toshiro et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33874], Ho & Loh 2015:54 [ref. 34121], Hibino et al. 2015:60 [ref. 34166], Ho et al. 2018:207 [ref. 36046], Ho et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36050]). Current status: Valid as Neenchelys daedalus McCosker 1982. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Taiwan and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

daspilotus, Pisoodonophis Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2803 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Pond at Miraflores, Panama. Lectotype: ?CAS-SU 5820. Paralectotypes: (3) ?BMNH 1903.5.15.439 (1), CAS-SU 6948 (?now 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291] with a holotype. Author is C. H. Gilbert. Original genus should have been spelled Pisodnophis. Lectotype established in Gilbert & Starks 1904, Pl. 7 (fig. 12) [ref. 1639]. •Valid as Pisodonophis daspilotus Gilbert 1898 -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836], Allen & Robertson 1994:54 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1340 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:98 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Ji & Kim 2011:61 [ref. 31152], Page et al. 2013:64 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Pisodonophis daspilotus Gilbert 1898. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

decaspilogaster, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:390, Fig. 53 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Islands [Islas Marias], Mexico. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70120. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:120 [ref. 13621] as questionably in Ophichthidae. Ophichthidae. Habitat: marine.

decimpunctum, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:158, Pl. 5 (figs. 5-6) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Fare Bay, Huaheine Island, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68324. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:120 [ref. 13621] in Ophichthyidae. Ophichthidae. Habitat: marine.

deraniyagalai, Bascanichthys Menon [A. G. K.] 1961:13, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Zoological Society of India v. 13 (no. 1) (for Mar. 1961); ref. 9366] Mouth of Arasalar River, Karaikkal, Tanjore, Coromandel Coast, Madras State, India. Holotype: ZSI F1964/2. Paratypes: ZSI F1965/2 (4). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:134 [ref. 20743]. See Das 2003:350 [ref. 27706] as Basicaichthys. •Valid as Bascanichthys deraniyagalai Menon 1961 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:83 [ref. 20764], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys deraniyagalai Menon 1961. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

derbyensis, Ophichthus Whitley [G. P.] 1941:14, Fig. 10 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 1); ref. 4701] Derby, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.840. Günther 1870:63 spelled the species rhytododerma [on ref. 29192]. •Valid as Ophichthus derbyensis Whitley 1941 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836] as derbeyensis). •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidodermatoides (Bleeker 1853) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:120 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

devisi, Muraenichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1907:421, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 59; ref. 1377] Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 33120 (poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Muraenichthys devisi Fowler 1907 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Muraenichthys breviceps Günther 1876 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:117 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:200 [ref. 22532]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys breviceps (Günther 1876) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], McCosker 2006:22 [ref. 28592], McCosker et al. 2006:275 [ref. 29006], Hibino & Kimura 2015:19 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys breviceps (Günther 1876). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

devius, Hyphalophis McCosker [J. E.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1982:117, Figs. 4-6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 134; ref. 2935] Southwest of Grenada, Lesser Antilles, 11°34'N, 62°49'W, Oregon station 2781, depth 293-366 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 115294. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hyphalophis devius McCosker & Böhlke 1982 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:367 [ref. 13288], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993]). Current status: Valid as Hyphalophis devius McCosker & Böhlke 1982. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

diaphora, Neenchelys Ho [H.-C.], McCosker [J. E.] & Smith [D. G.] 2015:49 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34122] Dong-gang Fishing Port, SW Taiwan, northern South China Sea. Holotype: NMMB-P17563. Paratypes: NMMB-P16304 (1), P17550 (1). First appeared in Ho et al. 2013 [ref. 33156], but not satisfying Art. 8.5.3 and thus not available. Name available in Ho et al. 2015 [ref. 34122]. •Valid as Neenchelys diaphora Ho, McCosker & Smith 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:170 [ref. 34130], Ho et al. 2018:210 [ref. 36046]). Current status: Valid as Neenchelys diaphora Ho, McCosker & Smith 2015. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

dicellurus, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1845:no p., Pl. 48 (figs. 2-4) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River] apparently in error, probably eastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.18.94. Available from plate. Text in Richardson 1845:106 [ref. 20275]. •Valid as Ophichthus dicellurus Richardson 1845 -- (Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645] with remarks on locality). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

diepenhorsti, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1860:85 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 375] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5) ?BMNH 1867.11.28.316 (1) no locality. •Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

dolichorhynchus, Myrophis Parr [A. E.] 1930:13, Fig. 1 (center) [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 4); ref. 3370] Washerwoman Cay, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): YPM 2602. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:22 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:287 [ref. 13288], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:140 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dromicus, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:80 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] West Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2012.1.31.1. •Valid as Pisodonophis dromicus (Günther 1870) -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:161 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

dunalailai, Apterichtus McCosker [J. E.] & Hibino [Y.] 2015:57, Figs. 6-7 [Zootaxa 3941 (no. 1); ref. 33725] Vanuatu (17°53'S, 168°28'E), depth 291-300 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1987-0810. Paratypes: MNHN. •Valid as Apterichtus dunalailai McCosker & Hibino 2015. Current status: Valid as Apterichtus dunalailai McCosker & Hibino 2015. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Vanuatu & Fiji. Habitat: marine.

echeloides, Leptocephalus D'Ancona [U.] 1928:69, Pl. 4 (figs. 5-5b) [Memoria, Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano No. 146; ref. 15917] Perim Island, Yemen, Bab el Mandeb Strait, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): MSNVE P-10. •Valid as Leptocephalus echeloides D'Ancona 1928 -- (Dor 1984:37 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Ophichthus echeloides (D'Ancona 1928) -- (McCosker et al. 1993:166 [ref. 20811], Baranes & Golani 1993:302 [ref. 22372], McCosker 2010:15 [ref. 30840], Fricke et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33895], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus echeloides (D'Ancona 1928). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

egmontis, Myrophis Jordan [D. S.] 1884:44 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 36; ref. 10442] Egmont Key, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 35086 [ex YPM 827]. Paralectotypes: YPM (1, not found in 1991). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:28 [ref. 16741], Smith 1994:33 [ref. 21917]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 60, p. 3244 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446]. •Valid as Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:60 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:85 [ref. 25518], McCosker et al. 1989:274 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:771 [ref. 13285], McAllister 1990:48 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:50 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:370 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:255 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:138 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:99 [ref. 26784], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:7 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:24 [ref. 33341], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119]). Current status: Valid as Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

elaps, Chlevastes Fowler [H. W.] 1912:13, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 64; ref. 1385] Philippines. Holotype (unique): ANSP 1001. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:158 [ref. 21180], Randall 2005:32 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

elapsoides, Ophichthys Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:47 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:129 [ref. 20810]. •Possibly a synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1789) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:121 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:158 [ref. 21180], McCosker et al. 2006:270 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

elerae, Muraenichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1934:278, Fig. 38 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Sulu Sea off western Mindanao, off Panabuton Pt., Philippines, Albatross station 5131, depth 27 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 92348. Type catalog: Smith 1994:32 [ref. 21917]. •Status uncertain -- (Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917]). •Probable synonym of Scolecenchelys godeffroyi (Regan 1909) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]). Current status: Uncertain as Scolecenchelys godeffroyi (Regan 1909). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

emmae, Myrophis Howell Rivero [L.] 1934:341, Fig. 2 [Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural v. 8 (no. 6); ref. 3767] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 33454. •Synonym of Myrophis platyrhynchus Breder 1927 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:283 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Myrophis platyrhynchus Breder 1927. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

epinepheli, Microrhynchus Blache [J.] & Bauchot [M.-L.] 1972:731, Fig. 18 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 304] Atlantic coast of Senegal (stomach content). Holotype (unique): MNHN 1964-0536 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:108 [ref. 20810]. •Valid, possilby in Apterichtus -- (McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Microrhynchus epinepheli Blache & Bauchot 1972 -- (Leiby 1990:185 [ref. 13652]). •Valid as Ethadophis epinepheli (Blache & Bauchot 1972) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:342 [ref. 13288]). •Valid but questionably in Ethadophis -- (Bauchot et al. 1993:108 [ref. 20810]). •Synonym of Phaenomonas foresti (Cadenat & Roux 1964) -- (McCosker 2006:737 [ref. 29013]). Current status: Synonym of Phaenomonas foresti (Cadenat & Roux 1964). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

episcopus, Ophichthys Castelnau [F. L.] 1878:244 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 761] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:129 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Ophichthus episcopus Castelnau 1878 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:119 [ref. 12442], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471]). •Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 2002:29 [ref. 25848], McCosker et al. 2006:271 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

equatorialis, Caecula Myers [G. S.] & Wade [C. B.] 1941:75, Pl. 11 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 3133] North of Barrington Island, Galápagos Islands, 0°43'S, 90°01'W, depth 73 fathoms. Holotype (unique): LACM 21723 [ex AHF 12]. •Valid as Apterichtus equatorialis (Myers & Wade 1941) -- (McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836], Machida & Ohta 1994:3 [ref. 21444], Allen & Robertson 1994:51 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1332 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:168 [ref. 24023], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], McCosker & Hibino 2015:60 [ref. 33725], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus equatorialis (Myers & Wade 1941). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

erabo, Microdonophis Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:870, Fig. 17 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Misaki, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 6477. Paratypes: (6) ANSP 26224 (1), MCZ 29032 (1), CAS-SU 6667 (1), ?CAS-SU 6744 (1), USNM 49924 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917]. Types: Shinohara & Williams 2006:550 [ref. 31656]. •Valid as Ophichthus erabo (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:222 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:222 [ref. 26001], Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889] as erado, Randall 2007:68 [ref. 30952], Zhang et al. 2010:336 [ref. 31511], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264] as Ophichthys, McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], Fricke et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33895], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus erabo (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South Africa east to China and Taiwan, north to southern Japan; not Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

ergodes, Gordiichthys McCosker [J. E.], Böhlke [E. B.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1989:344, Figs. 344-347 [Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem. 1 (pt 9); ref. 13288] Between Naples, Florida and Biloxi, Mississippi, northeastern Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A., depth 10-189 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 272462. Type catalog: Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Gordiichthys ergodes McCosker, Böhlke & Böhlke 1989 -- (Leiby in Smith 1989:865 [ref. 13285], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:266 [ref. 23897], McCosker & Lavenberg 2001:8 [ref. 25775], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Gordiichthys ergodes McCosker, Böhlke & Böhlke 1989. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

eristigmus, Callechelys McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1972:16, Figs. 1, 2a, 5 [Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 7629] Isla San José, 24°52'15"N, 110°37'00"W, Gulf of California, Baja California Sur, Mexico, depth 20-25 meters. Holotype: SIO 65-263. Paratypes: ANSP 119170 [ex SIO 65-299] (2); BMNH 1980.9.5.37 (1); CAS 15050 [ex SIO 65-270] (1); SIO 15-917 (1) (ex UCLA W59-249), 15-1025 (2) (ex UCLA W59-251), 59-13 (1) (ex UCLA W58-378), 61-239 (1), 61-252 (2), 61-256 (1), 61-277 (1), 61-279 (1), 65-185 (3), 65-260 (1), 65-263 (1), 65-270 (1), 65-277 (1), 65-299 (2), 65-321 (3) (ex UCLA W65-77), 65-377 (2), 65-342 (2), 65-354 (1 + 1 c&s), 70-136 (2), 70-140 (2); UCR 423-126 (5 of 6); USNM 201124 [ex SIO 61-256] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621], Angulo et al. 2015:371 [ref. 35212].. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:63 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Callechelys eristigma McCosker & Rosenblatt 1972 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1333 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys eristigma McCosker & Rosenblatt 1972. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

erythraeensis, Muraenichthys Bauchot [M.-L.] & Maugé [A. L.] 1980:934, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Série 4: Section A: Zoologie, Biologie et Écologie Animales v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 8745] Nuweiba, south of oasis, Egypt, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 2 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1977-0948. Paratypes: HUJ 9720 (1), 9722 (1), 9826 (1), 9828 (1); MNHN 1977-950 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:108 [ref. 20810], Golani 2006:22 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Muraenichthys erythraeensis Bauchot & Maugé 1980 -- (Dor 1984:37 [ref. 29757] as erythraensis, Bauchot et al. 1993:108 [ref. 20810], Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356] as erythraensis). •Valid as Scolecenchelys erythraeensis (Bauchot & Maugé 1980) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32418]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys iredalei (Whitey 1927) -- (Hibino & Kimura 2015:13 [ref. 33951], Golani & Fricke 2018:29 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys iredalei (Whitley 1927). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba (if valid). Habitat: marine.

evermanni, Ophichthus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1909:172, Pl. 67 (upper fig.) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 2493] Kaohsiung (Takao), Taiwan. Holotype: FMNH 52118 [ex CM 246]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 21260 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:53 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:62 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432]. Type designated in Pl. 67. •Valid as Ophichthus evermanni Jordan & Richardson 1909 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:22 [ref. 26476], Lee & Asano 1997:551 [ref. 23711], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:222 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:222 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:143, 491 [ref. 26218], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:335 [ref. 31511], Ji & Kim 2011:66 [ref. 31152]). •Synonym of Ophichthus lithinus (Jordan & Richardson 1908) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130], McCosker & Psomadakis 2018:79 [ref. 36333]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus lithinus (Jordan & Richardson 1908). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

evionthas, Ophichthus Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:154 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Hood Island [Española Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 41476. Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Quassiremus evionthas (Jordan & Bollman 1890) -- (McCosker 1977:84 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:410 [ref. 13288], Castle 1996:115 [ref. 22122], Allen & Robertson 1994:55 [ref. 22193], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:171 [ref. 24023], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Quassiremus evionthas (Jordan & Bollman 1890). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

exilis, Ophichthys Seale [A.] 1917:86 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Market in Santiago, Chile. Holotype: MCZ 28401. Paratypes: USNM 153611 [ex MCZ 28401] (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Probably a synonym of Ophichthus ramiger (Valenciennes 1847) -- (McCosker in Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

exourus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 1999:575, Figs. 1, 2a [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 180; ref. 23699] New Caledonia, 18°56.30'S, 163°12.90'E, depth 520 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1995-0425. Paratypes: CAS 57240 [not 89552] (1). •Valid as Ophichthus exourus McCosker 1999 -- (McCosker & Chen 2000:356 [ref. 25028], McCosker 2005:673 [ref. 28646], McCosker 2010:15 [ref. 30840], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus exourus McCosker 1999. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Muraena Ahl [J. N.] 1789:9, Pl. 2 (left fig.) [Specimen ichthyologicum de Muraena et Ophichtho; ref. 80] East Indies. No types known. •Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:157 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Ophichthys colubrinus var. Steindachner [F.] 1900:514 [32] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 70; ref. 14892] Samoa. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 32 of separate. Described as a new variety. Not included in abstract [ref. 20498]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Microdonophis Chu [Y.-T.], Wu [H.-L.] & Jin [X.-B.] 1981:21 [English p. 26], Fig. 1 [Journal of Fisheries of China v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21250] Pingtan Island, Fujian Province, China. Holotype: ASIZB [now NZMC] 73634 [ex A0823]. Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:12 [ref. 33808]. •Valid as Ophichthus fasciatus (Chu, Wu & Jin 1981) -- (Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889] as fasciantus, Zhang et al. 2010:338 [ref. 31511], Ye et al. 2015:12 [ref. 33808], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus fasciatus (Chu, Wu & Jin 1981). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Ophisurus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:686, 687 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:129 [ref. 20810]. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:12 (vol. 6) [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (Bauchot et al. 1993:129 [ref. 20810]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

fijiensis, Callechelys Seale [A.] 1935:342, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 21 (no. 27); ref. 12336] Suva, Fiji Islands. Holotype: CAS 5500. Paratypes: CAS 5501-03 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Bascanichthys fijiensis (Seale 1935) -- (McCosker 1998:196 [ref. 23298]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys fijiensis (Seale 1935). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Fiji. Habitat: marine.

filaria, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1872:425 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 10 (no. 60) (art,. 60); ref. 18195] Misool [Misol] Island, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1870.8.31.66. •Valid as Bascanichthys filaria (Günther 1872) -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys filaria (Günther 1872). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

flavicaudus, Sphagebranchus Snyder [J. O.] 1904:516, Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Auau Channel, between Mauai Island and Lanai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3874, depth 21-28 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 50863. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7509 (1). Additional material: USNM 320113 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:36 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Apterichtus flavicaudus (Snyder 1904) -- (McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836], Machida & Ohta 1994:3 [ref. 21444], Hatooka 1995:2 [ref. 24353], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:219 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], McCosker 2002:25 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:219 [ref. 26001], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], McCosker & Randall 2005:6 [ref. 28054], Mundy 2005:130 [ref. 28379], McCosker & Stewart 2006:92 [ref. 28702], McCosker et al. 2006:266 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:62 [ref. 30952], McCosker & Hibino 2015:60 [ref. 33725], McCosker & Stewart 2015:252 [ref. 34235], Hibino et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34475]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus flavicaudus (Snyder 1904). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands, Australia and Lord Howe Island, Midway and Rapa and the Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

flexuosus, Pterurus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:43, 59 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Ophichthidae. Habitat: marine.

foresti, Sphagebranchus Cadenat [J.] & Roux [C.] 1964:83, Fig. 1 [Annales de l'Institut Océanographique, Monaco (Nouvelle Série) v. 41; ref. 1450] São Tiago, Cape Verde Islands, 14°53.7'N, 23°30.4'W, Calypso station 14, depth 25-30 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1962-0071. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:112 [ref. 20810]. •Valid, questionably in Apterichtus -- (McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Microrhynchus foresti (Cadenat & Roux 1964) -- (Leiby 1990:185 [ref. 13652]). •Valid as Ethadophis foresti (Cadenat & Roux 1964) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:342 [ref. 13288], Bauchot et al. 1993:112 [ref. 20810]). •Valid as Phaenomonas foresti (Cadenat & Roux 1964) -- (McCosker 2006:736 [ref. 29103]). •Synonym of Phaenomonus longissima (Cadenat & Marchal 1963) -- (Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972]). Current status: Synonym of Phaenomonas longissima (Cadenat & Marchal 1963). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Cape Verde Islands and coastal eastern Atlantic (if valid). Habitat: marine.

fossatus, Pogonophis Myers [G. S.] & Wade [C. B.] 1941:79, Pl. 13 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 3133] Chatham Bay, Cocos Island, eastern Pacific, 5°33'50"N, 86°58'46"W, depth 40-47 fathoms. Holotype: LACM 21563 [ex AHF 14]. Paratypes: LACM 21700 (1), CAS-SU 36548 (1). •Valid as Pogonophis fossatus Myers & Wade 1941 -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Herpetoichthys fossatus (Myers & Wade 1941) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:365 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1335 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:169 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:120 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Herpetoichthys fossatus (Myers & Wade 1941). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

fowleri, Microdonophis Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:164 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50613. Type catalog: Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus fowleri (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Mundy 2005:134 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:68 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus fowleri (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

fowleri, Muraenichthys Schultz [L. P.] 1943:51, Pl. 7; Fig. 5e [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Reef at Siulagi Point, Tau Island, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 115972. Paratypes: MCVZ 37247 [ex USNM 115974] (1); USNM 115973 (2). Type catalog: Smith 1994:32 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Muraenichthys gymnotus Bleeker 1857 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys gymnota (Bleeker 1857) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075] as gymnotus, Hibino et al. 2012:184 [ref. 32443], Hibino & Kimura 2015:13 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys gymnota (Bleeker 1857). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

frio, Myrophis Jordan [D. S.] & Davis [B. M.] 1891:640 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 16 (for 1888) (art. 9); ref. 2437] Off Cape Frio, near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 23°08'S, 41°34"W, Albatross station 2762, depth 59 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 46760. Type catalog: Smith 1994:33 [ref. 21917]. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Myrophis frio Jordan & Davis 1891 -- (Andreata & Séret 1996:582 [ref. 16204] dated 1892). •Valid as Pseudomyrophis frio (Jordan & Davis 1891) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:290 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:770 [ref. 13285], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], Pinheiro et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Pseudomyrophis frio (Jordan & Davis 1891). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

frontalis, Ophichthys (Cryptopterus) Garman [S.] 1899:309 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] 7°16°45"-7°33'40"N, 79°17'15"-79°56'30"W, Albatross station 3386, 3389 and 3391, depth 153-242 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28455 (1, lost) station 3389, 28456 (2, lost) station 3391, 28457 (4, lost) station 3386; USNM 57899 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus frontalis Garman 1899 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1338 [ref. 22830], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:404 [ref. 23645], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:124 [ref. 24555], Tang & Zhang 2002:855 [ref. 26492], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus frontalis Garman 1899. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

fryi, Hesperomyrus Myers [G. S.] & Storey [M. H.] 1939:157 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 3132] Near breakwater, San Pedro, southern California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 25251. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. •Status uncertain, in Myrophis -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Myrophis vafer Jordan & Gilbert 1883 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:100 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Myrophis vafer Jordan & Gilbert 1883. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

fugesae, Pseudomyrophis McCosker [J. E.], Böhlke [E. B.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1989:292, Figs. 276-279 [Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem. 1 (pt 9); ref. 13288] Off Government Cut, near Maimi, Florida, U.S.A., depth 119 meters. Holotype: ANSP 153910. Paratypes: MZUSP 35644 (1). •Valid as Pseudomyrophis fugesae McCosker, Böhlke & Böhlke 1989 -- (Leiby in Smith 1989:770 [ref. 13285], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:64 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Pseudomyrophis fugesae McCosker, Böhlke & Böhlke 1989. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fusca, Muraena Zuiew [B.] 1793:296, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Nova Acta Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae v. 7 (for 1789); ref. 17717] Locality not stated. Holotype: ZIL uncat. (whereabouts unknown). Author also seen as Zuiew, Zuiev and Zouiev. •See McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836]. •Valid as Yirrkala fusca (Zuiev 1793) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:47 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala fusca (Zuiew 1793). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

fuscapenis, Scolecenchelys McCosker [J. E.], Ide [S.] & Endo [H.] 2012:2, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) Supplement No. 6; ref. 31982] Tosa Bay, 33°14.70'N, 133°38.42'E - 33°13.01'N, 133°36.55'E, Japan, depth 223-269 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 106570 [ex BSKU 96046]. Paratypes: many at AMS, BSKU, CAS, FAK NSMT-P, USNM. •Valid as Scolecenchelys fuscapenis McCosker, Ide & Endo 2012 -- (Shinohara et al. 2014:236 [ref. 33330], Ho et al. 2015:175 [ref. 34130], Hibino & Kimura 2015:19 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys fuscapenis McCosker, Ide & Endo 2012. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

fuscogularis, Scolecenchelys Hibino [Y.], Kai [Y.] & Kimura [S.] 2013:44, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 60 (no. 1); ref. 32418] Ryokuyo-maru, off Honjo, Kyotango, Kyoto Pref., Japan, depth 90-100 meters. Holotype: FAKU 132857. Paratypes: NSMT-P 101376 (1). •Valid as Scolecenchelys fuscogularis Hibino, Kai & Kimura 2013 -- (Hibino & Kimura 2015:11 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys fuscogularis Hibino, Kai & Kimura 2013. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Japan, East China Sea and Korea. Habitat: marine.

gaira, Bascanichthys Moreno [F.], Acero P. [A.] & Grijalba-Bendeck [M.] 2016:10, Figs. 1-2 [Boletin de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras v. 45 (no. 1); ref. 35398] Bahía de Gaira, Santa Marta, Colombia, 11°10'11"N, 74°13'14"W. Holotype: INV PEC 8147. Paratypes: INV PEC. •Valid as Bascanichthys gaira Moreno, Acero P. & Grijalba-Bendeck 2016. Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys gaira Moreno, Acero P. & Grijalba-Bendeck 2016. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Bahía de Gaira, Colombia. Habitat: marine.

galapagensis, Callechelys McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1972:18, Figs. 2b, 3, 5 [Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 7629] Small cove off north shore of Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Islands, depth 10 meters. Holotype: SIO 72-1. Paratypes: SIO 64-1018 (1) (ex UCLA W64-40), 15-554 (1) (ex UCLA W67-33); USNM 89728 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:29 [ref. 21917]. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:63 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Callechelys galapagensis McCosker & Rosenblatt 1972 -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:168 [ref. 24023], McCosker 1998:198 [ref. 23298], Randall 2007:65 [ref. 30952], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys galapagensis McCosker & Rosenblatt 1972. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

garretti, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1910:397, Pl. 163 (fig. A) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 17); ref. 14460] Society Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Ophichthus garretti Günther 1910 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). •Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 2002:29 [ref. 25848], Randall 2005:33 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:68 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

genie, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 1999:577, Figs. 2b, 3 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 180; ref. 23699] New Caledonia, 18°57.00'S, 163°12.60'E, depth 485 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1998-43. Paratypes: ANSP 174853 (1), BPBM 34923 (1), CAS 89551 (1), MNHN 1998-0044 (1), 1998-45 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus genie McCosker 1999 -- (McCosker & Ross 2007:785 [ref. 29436], McCosker 2010:16 [ref. 30840], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus genie McCosker 1999. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Leptocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1902:92, Figs. 14, 14a-b [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 21 (1901); ref. 11071] 20 miles south of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, U.S.A., 34°57'00"N, 75°43'30"W, Albatross station 2597, depth 0-15 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49766. Type catalog: Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Bascanichthys bascanium (Jordan 1884) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:331 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:859 [ref. 13285]). Current status: Synonym of Bascanichthys bascanium (Jordan 1884). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

gjellerupi, Sphagebranchus Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1916:326 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 3; ref. 4604] Brook near shore at Tanah Mera (6°140'S, 140°30'E), northern New Guinea. Holotype (unique): ZMA 104146. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:9 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Yirrkala gjellerupi (Weber & de Beaufort 1916) -- (McCosker et al. 2007:141 [ref. 28973], McCosker 2011:47 [ref. 31260]). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala gjellerupi (Weber & de Beaufort 1916). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: New Guinea and Fiji, in freshwater streams. Habitat: freshwater.

godeffroyi, Muraenichthys Regan [C. T.] 1909:439 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 14420] Bowen, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.4.3.200. •See Johnson 2001:721 [ref. 25471]. Probable synonym of Muraenichthys laticaudata (Ogilby 1897) -- (McCosker 1970:507 [ref. 2931], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471]). •Valid as Muraenichthys godeffroyi Regan 1909 -- (McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Muraenichthys laticaudatus (Ogilby 1897) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:118 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys godeffroyi (Regan 1909) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], McCosker et al. 2006:275 [ref. 29006], McCosker et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31982], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Larson et al. 2013:28 [ref. 32988] as cf. godeffroyi, McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288] with question, Hibino & Kimura 2015:19 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys godeffroyi (Regan 1909). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gomesii, Ophisurus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:84, Pl. 44 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2745. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:110 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:65 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:87 [ref. 25518] as gomesi, McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:814 [ref. 13285], McAllister 1990:48 [ref. 14674] as gomesi, Boschung 1992:35 [ref. 23239] as gomesi, Cervigón 1991:59 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:373 [ref. 23827] as gomesi, Andreata & Séret 1996:582 [ref. 16204] as gomesi, McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:274 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221] as gomesi, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:101 [ref. 24550] as gomesi, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:140 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:174 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Figueroa & Ehrlich 2006:237 [ref. 29812], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34324], Nión et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35565], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

goslingi, Quassiremus Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1932:110 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 13 (no. 5); ref. 9330] Castle Roads, Bermuda, depth 30 feet. Holotype: USNM 170563 [ex NYZS 8700]. Paratypes: USNM 170564 [ex NYZS 25150-51] (2). Type catalog: Mead 1958:134 [ref. 20648], Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Quassiremus productus Seale 1917 -- (McCosker 1977:84 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Quassiremus ascensionis (Studer 1889) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:410 [ref. 13288], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:141 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Quassiremus ascensionis (Studer 1889). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Neenchelys Ho [H.-C.] & Loh [K.-H.] 2015:52, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34121] Off Dong-gang, Pingtung, Taiwan, China Sea, depth ca. 400 meters. Holotype (unique): NMMB-P 22195. •Valid as Neenchelys gracilis Ho & Loh 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:170 [ref. 34130], Ho et al. 2018:211 [ref. 36046]). Current status: Valid as Neenchelys gracilis Ho & Loh 2015. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Ophisurapus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:52 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] No locality [Guinea]. Holotype: MNHN 0000-2122. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:110 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:29 [ref. 2573]. •Valid as Apterichtus gracilis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:318 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:177 [ref. 13652], Machida & Ohta 1994:3 [ref. 21444], McCosker & Hibino 2015:61 [ref. 33725], Hibino et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34475], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus gracilis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

grandimaculata, Ophichthys Kner [R.] & Steindachner [F.] 1867:389 [34], Pl. 5 (fig. 13) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 54 (pt 3); ref. 2640] Coast of Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.12.27.9 [ex MGH 2182]. On p. 34 of separate. •Valid as Ophichthus grandimaculatus Kner & Steindachner 1867 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:121 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:418 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

grandoculis, Ophiurus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1306 [324], Pl. 5 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.552 (2, skins). On p. 324 of separate. •Valid as Ophichthus grandoculis (Cantor 1849) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus grandoculis (Cantor 1849). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

grandoculis, Pogonophis Bleeker [P.] 1865:237 [5] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 17038] On p. 5 of separate. Not available, museum name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Ophichthys magnioculis. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

guichenoti, Callechelys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:52 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2126. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:106 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:28, Pl. 3 (fig. 13) [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Callechelys marmorata (Bleeker 1853) -- (McCosker 1977:63 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 2006:268 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Synonym of Callechelys marmorata (Bleeker 1854). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

guineensis, Ophichthys (Sphagebranchus) Osório [B.] 1893:179, 184 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa (Ser. 2) v. 3 (no. 11); ref. 20571] Original: São Tomé Island, eastern Atlantic. Neotype locality: Near Dakar, Senegal, 13°50'N, depth 35 meters. Neotype: MNHN B-1635. Date may be 1894. Neotype designated in Blache et al. 1979:97 [ref. 20632]. •Synonym of Myrichthys pardalis (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Leiby 1990:186 [ref. 13652]). •Valid as Callechelys guineensis (Osório 1893) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:308 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:892 [ref. 13285], McCosker 1998:198 [ref. 23298], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:261 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys guineensis (Osório 1893). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern and western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

guineensis, Ophisurus Blache [J.] 1975:727, Figs. 7-8 [Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (Serie A) Sciences Naturelles v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 7363] Off Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, depth 300 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1974-0186. Paratypes: MNHN 1974-0187 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:110 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Ophisurus guineensis Blache 1975 -- (Leiby 1990:190 [ref. 13652]). •Valid as Xyrias guineensis (Blache 1975) -- (McCosker 1998:9 [ref. 24055], McCosker et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30556], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Xyrias guineensis (Blache 1975). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Ophisurus Cuvier [G.] 1816:232 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Not available, name only as "Ophisurus guttatus, Cuv. Espèce novelle de Surinam." •In the synonymy of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

guttifer, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:189, Pl. 6 (figs. 11-12) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Kiritimati [formerly Christmas Island], Line Islands. Holotype: ANSP 68349 (with paratypes). Paratypes: ANSP 68350-55 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:120 [ref. 13621]. Ophichthidae. Habitat: marine.

guttifer, Ophichthys Bean [T. H.] & Dresel [H. G.] 1884:100 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 2; ref. 16051] Off Pensacola, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 32647. Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

guttulatus, Pisodonophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:49 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN B-2693 (1), B-2694 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:111 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:21, Pl. 2 (fig. 10) [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:374 [ref. 13288], Bauchot et al. 1993:111 [ref. 20810], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:156 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

gymnocelus, Caecula (Sphagebranchus) Böhlke [J. E.] 1953:325, Fig. 1 [Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science v. 56 (no. 3); ref. 12334] East of Isla Angel de la Guarda, Gulf of California, Mexico, 29°21'N, 113°19'W, depth 58-62 fathoms. Holotype: CAS-SU 17589. Paratypes: CAS-SU 17590 (1). •Valid as Apterichtus gymnocelus (Böhlke 1953) -- (McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Apterichtus equatorialis (Myers & Wade 1941) -- (McCosker & Hibino 2015:60 [ref. 33725]). Current status: Synonym of Apterichtus equatorialis (Myers & Wade 1941). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

gymnopterus, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1852:52 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH.PISC.7165 (not BMNH 1867.11.28.301). Described on p. 52 from a single specimen, but on p. 71 Bleeker provided an emended diagnosis under the name Muraenichthijs gijmnopterus [= Muraenichthys gymnopterus] and included a second specimen -- but emendation was in 1874. Holotype changed on 5 Jan. 2016 on Hibino & Kimura 2015:63 [ref. 34120]. •Valid as Muraenichthys gymnopterus (Bleeker 1852) (often seen as 1853) -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 29351], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Kuang & Yu in Kuang et al. 1986:31 [ref. 26639], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:57 [ref. 23876], Kottelat et al. 1993:12 [ref. 23448], Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:318 [ref. 31511], Ji & Kim 2011:66 [ref. 31152], Hibino et al. 2013:[4] [ref. 32505], Kottelat 2013:45 [ref. 32989], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], Hibino & Kimura 2015:69 [ref. 34120], Ho et al. 2015:168 [ref. 34130], Miesen et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34492], Motomura et al. 2017:31 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Muraenichthys gymnopterus (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gymnotus, Muraenichthys Bleeker [P.] 1857:90 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.334. •Valid as Muraenichthys gymnotus Bleeker 1857 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Dor 1984:37 [ref. 29757], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:30 [ref. 6441], McCosker & Castle 1986:180 [ref. 5690], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:118 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:74 [ref. 22017], Randall 1995:60 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:54 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:63 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715], Randall 1999:6 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:216 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:216 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys gymnotus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys gymnota (Bleeker 1857) -- (McCosker 2002:25 [ref. 25848], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:33 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:136 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:275 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:58 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:110 [ref. 31980], Hibino et al. 2013:183 [ref. 32443], Hibino et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32418], Larson et al. 2013:28 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:23 [ref. 33932], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Hibino & Kimura 2015:13 [ref. 33951], Fricke et al. 2018:46 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys gymnota (Bleeker 1857). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Johnston Island, south to Western Australia and Queensland, Chesterfield and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

habereri, Ophichthus Franz [V.] 1910:13, Pl. 3 (fig. 12) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Yokohama, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WW II. •Valid as Ophichthus habereri Franz 1910 -- (McCosker et al. 2012:14 [ref. 31982]). •Synonym of Ophichthus asakusae Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (Hibino et al. 2019:[1] [ref. 36433]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus asakusae Jordan & Snyder 1901. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

halituna, Muraenichthys breviceps Whitley [G. P.] 1955:110 [Australian Zoologist v. 12 (pt 2); ref. 4722] Tasman Bay, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): not researched. Based on Muraenichthys breviceps of Griffin 1921:351, Trans. N. Z. Inst., v. 53. •In Scolecenchelys based on placement of breviceps by Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]. •Synonym of Scolecenchelys breviceps (Günther 1876) -- (McCosker 2006:22 [ref. 28592]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys breviceps (Günther 1876). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

harancha, Ophisurus Hamilton [F.] 1822:21, 363 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Estuaries near Calcutta, India. No types known. Spelled hurancha by Gray 1831: Pl. 95 (fig. 2) [ref. 1878]. Simultaneous subjective synonym of Ophisurus boro; Bleeker 1853:78 gave precedence to boro. •Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

hatookai, Apterichtus Hibino [Y.], Shibata [J.-Y.] & Kimura [S.] 2014:[2], Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Research; ref. 33212] Morode, Ainan, Minami-uwa, Ehime Prefecture, Japan, depth 4-5 meters. Holotype: OMNH-P 13794. Paratypes: FRLM 9344 (1), HUMZ 207074 (1), OMNH-P 13802 (1). •Valid as Apterichtus hatookai Hibino, Shibata & Kimura 2014 -- (McCosker & Hibino 2015:62 [ref. 33725], Ho et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36050], Hibino 2018:222 [ref. 36341]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus hatookai Hibino, Shibata & Kimura 2014. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Japan, Taiwan and Fujian, China. Habitat: marine.

hattae, Muraenichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:862, Fig. 12 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Rock pool at Wakanoura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, Inland Sea. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6473. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Muraenichthys gymnopterus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Kottelat 2013:45 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Muraenichthys hattae Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:30 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:217 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:217 [ref. 26001], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], Ho et al. 2015:168 [ref. 34130], Hibino & Kimura 2016:135 [ref. 35048]). Current status: Valid as Muraenichthys hattae Jordan & Snyder 1901. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

hauannensis, Muraena Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:491 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Spelled hauanensis in index (p. lv); evidently misprinted for havannensis. Based on the 'Innominado' of Parra 1787:96, Pl. 38 (fig. 2) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker 1977:80 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

hearstorum, Pylorobranchus McCosker [J. E.] 2014:334, Figs. 1-4 [ ref. 33288] Verde Island Passage, Philippine Archipelago,13.583-13.575°N, 120.382-120.411°E, depth 892--966 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 235464. Philippines. •Valid as Pylorobranchus hearstorum McCosker 2014. Current status: Valid as Pylorobranchus hearstorum McCosker 2014. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Verde Island Passage, Philippines, Habitat: marine.

heemstraorum, Luthulenchelys McCosker [J. E.] 2007:5, Figs. 1-4 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 7; ref. 29192] Off Durban, 29°57'14"S, 31°16'23"E, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 450-460 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB 75732. •Valid as Luthulenchelys heemstraorum McCosker 2007. Current status: Valid as Luthulenchelys heemstraorum McCosker 2007. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Off Durban, South Africa [known only from the holotype]. Habitat: marine.

hemizona, Bascanichthys Ogilby [J. D.] 1897:248 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 22 (pt 2); ref. 3273] Port Jackson market, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Malvoliophis pinguis (Günther 1872) -- (McCosker 1977:78 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:117 [ref. 12442], McCosker et al. 2006:269 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Synonym of Malvoliophis pinguis (Günther 1872). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

henshawi, Brachysomophis Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1904:940 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1377); ref. 2518] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 51399 [also = USNM 51654]. Type catalog: Smith 1994:28-29 [ref. 21917]. •Perhaps the same as Brachysomophis crocodilinus Bennett 1833 -- (McCosker 1977:75 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Brachysomophis crocodilinus (Bennett 1833) -- (Randall 1995:61 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Brachysomophis henshawi Jordan & Snyder 1904 -- (McCosker & Randall 2001:20 [ref. 25635], McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:30 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:131 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:63 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:103 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33932], McCosker & Ho 2014:95 [ref. 33573], Ho et al. 2015:166 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Brachysomophis henshawi Jordan & Snyder 1904. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Oman; Philippines and Papua New Guinea east to Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands and Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

hexastigma, Leptocephalus Regan [C. T.] 1916:141, Pl. 7 (fig. 6) [British Antarctic ("Terra Nova") Expedition (1910-1913). Zoology v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 15063] Tropical Atlantic, 18°00'S, 31°45'W, at surface. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1916.3.20.136. •Synonym of Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:274 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:795 [ref. 13285]). Current status: Synonym of Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

heyningi, Sphagebranchus Weber [M.] 1913:46, Fig. 8 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Molo Strait, Siboga station 51, depth 69-91 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 111200. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:10 [ref. 19236]. Spelled two ways originally: heijnigi and heynigi (p. 47) -- the latter correctly formed; technical first reviser not researched. •Valid as Hemerorhinus heyningi (Weber 1913) -- (McCosker 1977:67 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Allen & Erdmann 2012:105 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Hemerorhinus heyningi (Weber 1913). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indonesia (Komono Islands and Cenderawasih Bay, West Papua). Habitat: marine.

hijala, Ophisurus Hamilton [F.] 1822:20, 363, Pl. 5 (fig. 5) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Bengal, India. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:86 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Pisodonophis hijala (Hamilton 1822) -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Ji & Kim 2011:61 [ref. 31152], Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Pisodonophis hijala (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hirritus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:16, Figs. 16-18 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Seychelles, 4°21'S, 56°19'E, depth (trap) 600 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1898-0747. Paratypes: CAS 229178 [ex MNHN 1989-0747] (1); MNHN 1989-0749 (1), •Valid as Ophichthus hirritus McCosker 2010. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus hirritus McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

hispanus, Ophisurus Bellotti [C.] in Masserotti & Cantù 1858:56 [Atti Accademia Fisio-Medico-Statistica di Milano v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 21163] Barcelona, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: (3) MZUT 511 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:141 [ref. 21559], Conci & Michelangeli 1974:219 [ref. 21560]. Also appeared in Bellotti 1858 [ref. 26077] -- earliest not determined. •Synonym of Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Blache et al. 1973:248 [ref. 7185]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

hoevenii, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1853:172 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16912] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.314 (1) Macassar. Also appeared in Bleeker 1853:67 [ref. 339]. •Valid as Pisodonophis hoevenii (Bleeker 1853) -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836], Randall 1995:63 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:108 [ref. 23922], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Ji & Kim 2011:61 [ref. 31152]). Current status: Valid as Pisodonophis hoevenii (Bleeker 1853). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf; eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

hoi, Pylorobranchus McCosker [J. E.], Loh [K.-H.] & Lin [J.] in McCosker, Loh, Lin & Chen 2012:1192, Figs. 1-4 [Zoological Studies v. 51 (no. 7); ref. 32371] Changbin, 23°18'N, 121°29'E, Taitung County, Taiwan, depth 300 meters Holotype: TOU-AE 5574. Paratypes: CAS 233704 (1), TOU-AE 5525 (1). Apparently made available in 2012. •Valid as Pylorobranchus hoi McCosker, Loh & Lin 2012 -- (McCosker 2014:337 [ref. 33288], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:175 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Pylorobranchus hoi McCosker, Loh & Lin 2012. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

holochroma, Cryptopterygium Ginsburg [I.] 1951:482, Fig. 15 [Texas Journal of Science v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 1804] Off Cape Fear, North Carolina, U.S.A., 33°30'N, 78°13'30"W, depth 12 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 154994. Type catalog: Smith 1994:29 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Callechelys springeri (Ginsburg 1951) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:311 [ref. 13288], McCosker 1998:208 [ref. 23298]). Current status: Synonym of Callechelys springeri (Ginsburg 1951). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

horridus, Brachysomophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:45 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Tahiti, Society Islands. Lectotype: MNHN A-7624. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:104 [ref. 20810]. Lectotype selected by McCosker & Randall 2001:17 [ref. 25635]. •Synonym of Brachysomophis crocodilinus (Bennett 1833) -- (Bauchot et al. 1993:104 [ref. 20810], Fricke 1999:62 [ref. 24106], McCosker & Randall 2001:14 [ref. 25635]). Current status: Synonym of Brachysomophis crocodilinus (Bennett 1833). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

humanni, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:18, Figs. 19-21 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Vanuatu, 15°08'S, 166°53'E, depth 254-300 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1997-0600. •Valid as Ophichthus humanni McCosker 2010. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus humanni McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Vanuatu [holotype]. Habitat: marine.

humilis, Leptocephalus Strömman [P. H.] 1896:29, Pl. 2 (figs. 7-9) [Leptocephalids in the University Zoological Museum at Upsala; ref. 4294] Fernando Noronha Island, Brazil, western Atlantic, 3°S, 30°W. Syntypes: ZMUU 696 (2). Type catalog: Wallin 1996:61 [ref. 32133]. •Synonym of Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:274 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:795 [ref. 13285]). Current status: Synonym of Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

huysmani, Sphagebranchus Weber [M.] 1913:48, Fig. 10 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Molo Strait, Siboga station 51, depth 69-91 meters. Syntypes: ZMA 104149 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:10 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Muraenichthys gymnotus Bleeker 1857 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys gymnota (Bleeker 1857) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075] as gymnotus, Hibino et al. 2012:183 [ref. 32443], Hibino & Kimura 2015:13 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys gymnota (Bleeker 1857). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

hyposagmatus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1984:24, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 136; ref. 10404] Gulf of Mexico south of Destin, Florida, 29°56'N, 86°38'W, U.S.A., depth 108 meters. Holotype: ANSP 152300. Paratypes: ANSP 152301 (1); CAS 53292 (1); FMNH 71764 (1); UF 231629 [ex UMML 31629] (1); USNM 263573 [ex UMML 22177] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:62 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Ophichthus hyposagmatus McCosker & Böhlke 1984 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:393 [ref. 13288], Boschung 1992:36 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:275 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus hyposagmatus McCosker & Böhlke 1984. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hypselopterus, Ophiurus Bleeker [P.] 1851:69 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 327] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.279 (1) no locality. •Valid as Pisodonophis hypselopterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836], Kottelat et al. 1993:13 [ref. 23448], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Ji & Kim 2011:61 [ref. 31152], Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Pisodonophis hypselopterus (Bleeker 1851). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

iguapensis, Myrophis Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1908:[4], Fig. 7 [Kosmos, Rio de Janeiro [Rev. Art. Sci. Litt.] v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1907); ref. 3715] Rio Ribeiro, Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:286 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

imberbis, Sphagebranchus Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:360 [74], Pl. 25 (fig. 18) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Baleares Islands, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2127. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:112 [ref. 20810]. On p. 74 and Pl. 6 of separate. •Valid as Dalophis imberbis (Delaroche 1809) -- (McCosker 1977:72 [ref. 6836], Blache et al. 1973:249 [ref. 7185], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:580 [ref. 13676], Bauchot et al. 1993:112 [ref. 20810], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:32 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:24 [ref. 29533]). Current status: Valid as Dalophis imberbis (Delaroche 1809). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Spain to Mauritania. Habitat: marine.

immaculata, Anguilla (Ophisurus) Swainson [W.] 1839:334 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Estuaries ear Calcutta, India. Based on Gray, Ind. Zool. i. pl. 91. fig. 1 -- which is Gray 1832:Pl. 91 (fig. 1) [ref. 1878]. •Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Benthenchelys cartieri Castle [P. H. J.] 1972:10 [Dana Report No. 82; ref. 6968] Northern Indian Ocean, 3°36'S, 97°37'E, depth 600 meters wire out. Holotype: ZMUC P 32531. Paratypes: ZMUC P32532-536 (5). •Valid as Benthenchelys indicus Castle 1972 -- (J. E. McCosker, pers comm. 6/2001). Current status: Valid as Benthenchelys indicus Castle 1972. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

inhacae, Jenkinsiella Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:449, Fig. 1; Pl. 66 (figs. D-E) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 24; ref. 6436] Inhaca, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 118. Paratypes: MNHN 1907-0011 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:107 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Cirrhimuraena inhacae (Smith 1962) -- (McCosker 1977:75 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:178 [ref. 5690], Fricke et al. 2018:43 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Cirrhimuraena inhacae (Smith 1962). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

inopinatus, Bascanichthys McCosker [J. E.], Böhlke [E. B.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1989:333, Figs. 327-330 [Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem. 1 (pt 9); ref. 13288] Municipio de Yabucoa, 1.75 miles south-southeeast of Playa de Guayanes, Puerto Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. Holotype: ANSP 158885. Paratypes: ANSP 158886 (1), UF 18131 (1), UPRM 3654 (1). •Valid as Bascanichthys inopinatus McCosker, Böhlke & Böhlke 1989 -- (Leiby in Smith 1989:863 [ref. 13285], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Moreno et al. 2016:13 [ref. 35398]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys inopinatus McCosker, Böhlke & Böhlke 1989. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

insolitus, Yirrkala McCosker [J. E.] 1999:584, Figs. 6b, 7 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 180; ref. 23699] New Caledonia, 19°23.40'S, 163°31.90'E, depth 59 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1998-0050. •Valid as Yirrkala insolitus McCosker 1999 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], McCosker 2011:47 [ref. 31260]). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala insolitus McCosker 1999. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

insularis, Ichthyapus McCosker [J. E.] 2004:169, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 55 (no. 7); ref. 27619] Southwest Bay, Ascension Island, depth 0-1 meters. Holotype: USNM 214480. Paratypes: ANSP 158903 (2), CAS 218803 (1), USNM 375444 (8). •Valid as Ichthyapus insularis McCosker 2004 -- (Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyapus insularis McCosker 2004. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Ophichthys Regan [C. T.] 1905:17 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 85) (art. 2); ref. 3624] Inland Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.6.49. •Synonym of Ophichthus zophistius (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Hibino et al. 2019:[1] [ref. 36433]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus zophistius (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

intertinctus, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:102 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] West Indies. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1982.5.7.4. •Valid as Echiophis intertinctus (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker 1977:76 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:64 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:359 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:830 [ref. 13285], Cervigón 1991:61 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:34 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:372 [ref. 23827], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:172 [ref. 24023], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:263 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker & Randall 2001:3 [ref. 25635], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Echiophis intertinctus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

iredalei, Muraenichthys Whitley [G. P.] 1927:5, Fig. 1 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 15829] Michaelmas Cay, Great Barrier Reef, off Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.2743. Paratypes: AMS IA.2744 (1). •Probable synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]). •Valid as Muraenichthys iredalei Whitley 1927 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:118 [ref. 12442], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:274 [ref. 29006]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys iredalei (Whitley 1927) -- (Hibino & Kimura 2015:13 [ref. 33951], Ho et al. 2015:175 [ref. 34130], Golani & Fricke 2018:29 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys iredalei (Whitley 1927). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to southern Japan, Fiji and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

irretitus, Gordiichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Davis [B. M.] 1891:644 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 16 (for 1888) (art. 9); ref. 2437] Snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. (stomach content). Holotype: USNM 44303 (poor condition). Type catalog: Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Gordiichthys irretitus Jordan & Davis 1891 -- (McCosker 1977:72 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:63 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:347 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:868 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:35 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:267 [ref. 23897], McCosker & Lavenberg 2001:8 [ref. 25775], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Gordiichthys irretitus Jordan & Davis 1891. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Gulf of Mexico and Puerto Rico. Habitat: marine.

ishiyamorum, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:22, Figs. 22-25 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Somalia, 10°51'40"N, 43°56'35"E, Gulf of Aden, depth 258-326 meters. Holotype: USNM 394260. Paratypes: CAS 227329 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus ishiyamorum McCosker 2010. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus ishiyamorum McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Gulf of Aden [2 specimens]. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Muraenichthys Machida [Y.] & Ohta [S.] 1993:323, Figs. 2-5 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 40 (no. 3); ref. 21006] Sea of Japan, off Mishima, Yamaguchi Prefecture, southwestern Japan, 34°58.08'-34°58.11'N, 131°04.87'-131°05.06'E, depth 74-78 meters. Holotype (unique): BSKU 81581. •Valid as Muraenichthys japonicus Machida & Ohta 1993 -- (Machida & Ohta 1996:79 [ref. 22154], Nakabo 2000:215 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:215 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys japonica (Machida & Ohta 1993) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32418]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys aoki (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Hibino & Kimura 2015:5 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys aoki (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan (if valid). Habitat: marine.

jeffwilliamsi, Apterichtus McCosker [J. E.] & Hibino [Y.] 2015:62, Figs. 8-10 [Zootaxa 3941 (no. 1); ref. 33725] Vanua Lava Island, Banks Islands, Vanuatu (13°7461'S, 167°4061'E), depth 9-16 meters. Holotype: USNM 363869. Paratypes: USNM. •Valid as Apterichtus jeffwilliamsi McCosker & Hibino 2015 -- (Hibino et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34475], Hibino 2018:222 [ref. 36341]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus jeffwilliamsi McCosker & Hibino 2015. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

johnmccoskeri, Ophichthus Mohapatra [A.], Ray [D.], Mohanty [S. R.] & Mishra [S. S.] 2018:252, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4462 (no. 2); ref. 36093] Shankarpur fishing harbor, West Bengal, India. Holotype: ZSI F 12811/2. Paratypes: EBRC/ZSI. Misspelled in Table 1 as mccoskeri. •Valid as Ophichthus johnmccoskeri Mohapatra, Ray, Mohanty & Mishra 2018. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus johnmccoskeri Mohapatra, Ray, Mohanty & Mishra 2018. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Northern part of Bay of Bengal, West Bengal, India. Habitat: marine.

johnsoni, Cirricaecula Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:50, Figs. 11h, 12 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Ocean reef at Bock Island, Rongerik Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141188. Paratypes: FMNH 62581 [ex USNM 141189] (1); USNM 141189 (orig. 3, now 1, 1 c&s not found). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:26 [ref. 12367], Smith 1994:29 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Cirricaecula johnsoni Schultz 1953 -- (McCosker 1977:67 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Randall 1993:190 [ref. 20826], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Cirricaecula johnsoni Schultz 1953. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

johnstonensis, Muraenichthys Schultz [L. P.] & Woods [L. P.] 1949:172, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 39 (no. 5); ref. 10179] Johnston Island [Central Pacific], reef along northern side of atoll. Holotype: USNM 141268. Paratypes: USNM 141269 (1), 141692 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:32 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Schultzidia johnstonensis (Schultz & Woods 1949) -- (McCosker 1970:507 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:62 [ref. 6836], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:45 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:45 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], McCosker 2002:24 [ref. 25848], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Mundy 2005:136 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:274 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:60 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:110 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], Ho et al. 2015:175 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Schultzidia johnstonensis (Schultz & Woods 1949). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Chagos Archipelago east to Taiwan and Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands, Marquesas Islands and Society Islands, south to northern Australia and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

kampeni, Brachysomophis (Achirophichthys) Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1916:316, Figs. 150-151 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 3; ref. 4604] Humboldt Bay near mouth of Mbai River, New Guinea. Holotype (unique): ZMA 101351. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:8 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Achirophichthys kampeni (Weber & de Beaufort 1916) -- (Allen 1991:42 [ref. 21090]). •Valid as Lamnostoma kampeni (Weber & de Beaufort 1916) -- (McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836], Séret & Dingerkus 1992:169 [ref. 22389], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], McCosker & Randall 2001:4 [ref. 25635], McCosker et al. 2007:144 [ref. 28973], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Kottelat 2013:44 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33932], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288]). •Possible synonym of Lamnostoma mindora (Jordan & Richardson 1908) -- (Chiu et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36033]). Current status: Valid as Lamnostoma kampeni (Weber & de Beaufort 1916). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines, northern New Guinea, Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

karreri, Ophichthus Blache [J.] 1975:733, Figs. 10-11 [Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (Serie A) Sciences Naturelles v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 7363] Southeastern Atlantic, 26°32'S, 14°13'E, depth 390 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMB 22065. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:129 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Ophichthus karreri Blache 1975 -- (Leiby 1990:188 [ref. 13652]). •Synonym of Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917 -- (McCosker 2006:737 [ref. 29103], McCosker 2010:32 [ref. 30840]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

kaupii, Sphagebranchus Bleeker [P.] 1858:3 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 8); ref. 16962] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH lost. •See McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836]. •Valid as Yirrkala kaupii (Bleeker 1858) (sometimes seen as kaupi) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:13 [ref. 23448], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Miesen et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala kaupii (Bleeker 1858). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indonesia and Philippines. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

keckii, Myrichthys Silvester [C. F.] 1915:214 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book No. 14; ref. 4027] Mud flats near mangrove island west of Guanica Harbor, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): PU 3082 (apparently lost). Also published and figured as new in Silvester 1918:20, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [ref. 15257]. •Synonym of Myrichthys ocellatus (Lesueur 1825) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:377 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:163 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys ocellatus (Lesueur 1825). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

kefersteini, Leptocephalus Kaup [J. J.] 1860:270, Pl. 3 (fig. A) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 6 (no. 34) (art. 36); ref. 2582] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.9.31.3. •Synonym of Echelus myrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:245 [ref. 7185] in part). •Synonym of Dalophis imberbis (Delaroche 1809) -- (Blache et al. 1973:249 [ref. 7185] in part). Current status: Synonym of Dalophis imberbis (Delaroche 1809). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

kendalli, Sphagebranchus Gilbert [C. H.] 1891:310, Fig. [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 9; ref. 18113] Off Florida, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A., 25°34'N, 82°50'W, Grampus station 5080, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 44304. Type catalog: Smith 1994:36 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Apterichtus kendalli (Gilbert 1891) -- (McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:64 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:626 [ref. 9166], McCosker et al. 1989:321 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:853 [ref. 13285], Leiby 1990:177 [ref. 13652], Boschung 1992:33 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:371 [ref. 23827], Machida & Ohta 1994:3 [ref. 21444], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:257 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], McCosker & Hibino 2015:65 [ref. 33725], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558], Brown et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus kendalli (Gilbert 1891). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) and Bermuda south to Brazil, including Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago; southern central Atlantic: Ascensionand Saint Helena islands, Grattan Seamount. Habitat: marine.

keramanus, Apterichtus Machida [Y.], Hashimoto [H.] & Yamakawa [T.] 1997:28, Figs. 2-5 [Ichthyological Research v. 44 (no. 1); ref. 22711] South of Kerama Islands, Okinawa Prefecture, southern Japan, about 26°10'N, 127°20'E, depth 25-50 meters. Holotype (unique): BSKU 82191. •Valid as Apterichtus keramanus Machida, Hashimoto & Yamakawa 1997 -- (Nakabo 2000:219 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:219 [ref. 26001], McCosker & Randall 2005:6 [ref. 28054]). •Valid as Ichthyapus keramanus Machida, Hishimoto & Yamakawa 1997 -- (McCosker & Hibino 2015:76 [ref. 33725]), Current status: Valid as Ichthyapus keramanus (Machida, Hashimoto & Yamakawa 1997). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Japan, Fujian, China and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

kirkii, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:89 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Rovuma Bay, eastern Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.9.50-51 (2), 1864.5.13.9-11 (3). See McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836]. •Valid as Bascanichthys kirkii (Günther 1870) -- (McCosker & Castle 1986:177 [ref. 5690], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Tang & Zhang 2004:22 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:374 [ref. 31511], Ho et al. 2015:166 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:42 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys kirkii (Günther 1870). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

klazingai, Sphagebranchus Weber [M.] 1913:47, Fig. 9 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Banda [Indonesia, Banda Sea, western Pacific], Siboga station 240, depth 9-45 meters. Syntypes: ZMA 104147-48 (1, 1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:10 [ref. 19236] as holotype and paratype. •Valid as Apterichtus klazingai (Weber 1913) -- (McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:177 [ref. 5690], Randall et al. 1990:43 [ref. 15987], Machida & Ohta 1994:3 [ref. 21444], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:74 [ref. 22017], Allen 1997:58 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:43 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:61 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], McCosker & Randall 2005:7 [ref. 28054], Mundy 2005:131 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:266 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:62 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:18 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:102 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33932], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Hibino 2015:66 [ref. 33725], Hibino et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34475], Hibino 2018:222 [ref. 36341]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus klazingai (Weber 1913). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa east to Hawaiian Islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

kunaloa, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 1979:61, Figs. 3-4 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 2); ref. 8805] Southeast of Barber's Point, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 350 meters. Holotype: CAS 29136 [ex SIO 70-33]. Paratypes: BPBM 21086 (1), USNM 218274 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus kunaloa McCosker 1979 -- (McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Mundy 2005:134 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:58 [ref. 30952], McCosker 2010:25 [ref. 30840]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus kunaloa McCosker 1979. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

kuro, Aphthalmichthys Kuroda [N.] 1947:27 [Seibutu, Supple. No. 1; ref. 29505] Tosa Bay, Japan, between 33°28.04'N, 133°32.12'E and 33°27.74'N, 133°31.41'E, depth 16-18 meters [Original locality: Numazu, Shizuoka Prefecture, Suruga Bay, Japan]. Neotype: BSKU 81516. Holotype apparently lost; neotype selected by McCosker et al. 2011:273 [ref. 31452]. •Valid as Sphagebranchus kuro (Kuroda 1947) -- (Nakabo 2000:218 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:218 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Callechelys kuro (Kuroda 1947) -- (McCosker et al. 2011:272 [ref. 31452], Ho et al. 2015:167 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys kuro (Kuroda 1947). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

kusanagi, Ophichthus Hibino [Y.], McCosker [J. E.] & Tashiro [F.] 2019:[ ], Figs. [Ichthyological Research First Online; ref. 36433] Holotype. Paratypes: •Valid as Ophichthus kusanagi Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus kusanagi Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Shizuoka, Mie and Kochi Prefectures, Japan. Habitat: marine.

labialis, Muraenichthys Seale [A.] 1917:79 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MCZ 29500A. •Valid as Schismorhynchus labialis (Seale 1917) -- (McCosker 1970:507 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:61 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:121 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], McCosker 2002:24 [ref. 25848], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Mundy 2005:135 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:274 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:58 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119]). Current status: Valid as Schismorhynchus labialis (Seale 1917). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Chagos Archipelago east to Johnston Atoll and Easter Island, south to Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

lacepedii, Leiuranus Bleeker [P.] 1852:36 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Sibogha, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1839) -- (McCosker 1977:77 [ref. 6836]). Current status: Synonym of Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1839). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

lasiops, Leuropharus Rosenblatt [R. H.] & McCosker [J. E.] 1970:502, Figs. 7-8 [Pacific Science v. 24 (no. 4); ref. 3809] Manzanillo Bay, western Mexico, depth 30 fathoms. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 57313 [ex NYZS 27134]. •Valid as Leuropharus lasiops Rosenblatt & McCosker 1970 -- (McCosker 1977:64 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1336 [ref. 22830], McCosker 1998:210 [ref. 23298], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Leuropharus lasiops Rosenblatt & McCosker 1970. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

latemaculatus, Ophisurus Poey [F.] 1867:252, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Matanzas, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 27223. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:173-174 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Myrichthys ocellatus (Lesueur 1825) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:377 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:163 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys ocellatus (Lesueur 1825). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

laticaudata, Myropterura Ogilby [J. D.] 1897:247 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 22 (pt 2); ref. 3273] Fiji Islands [South Pacific]. Syntypes: AMS I.16268-001 [ex MAMU F116 and F151] (2). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Muraenichthys laticaudatus (Ogilby 1897) -- (McCosker 1970:507 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Dor 1984:37 [ref. 29757], McCosker & Castle 1986:180 [ref. 5690], Paxton et al. 1989:118 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:74 [ref. 22017], Larson & Williams 1997:347 [ref. 23967], Myers 1999:54 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:63 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471] as cf. laticaudatus, Randall 1999:6 [ref. 25829], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys laticaudata (Ogilby 1897) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], McCosker et al. 2006:275 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:61 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:20 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:111 [ref. 31980], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32418], Larson et al. 2013:28 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:23 [ref. 33932], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Hibino & Kimura 2015:15 [ref. 33951], Ho et al. 2015:176 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:46 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:29 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys laticaudata (Ogilby 1897). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Mariana Islands and Pitcairn Group, south to Lord Howe Island, north to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

latifasciata, Ophisurus fasciatus var. Bleeker [P.] 1864:64 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] East Indies. No types known. •Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:157 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

leibyi, Gordiichthys McCosker [J. E.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1984:36, Figs. 7-8 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 136; ref. 5316] Florida, U.S.A., 30°05'N, 80°41.5'W, Silver Bay station 4843, depth 36 meters. Holotype: ANSP 110417. Paratypes: ANSP 151694-95 (1, 1), CAS 52671 (1), GCRL 21392 (1), USNM 263571 [ex CAS 51162] (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Gordiichthys leibyi McCosker & Böhlke 1984 -- (Scott & Scott 1988:85 [ref. 25518], McCosker et al. 1989:348 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:869 [ref. 13285], McAllister 1990:48 [ref. 14674], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:268 [ref. 23897], McCosker & Lavenberg 2001:8 [ref. 25775], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Gordiichthys leibyi McCosker & Böhlke 1984. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Florida (U.S.A.) and Puerto Rico. Habitat: marine.

lengomena, Muraenichthys (Muraenichthys) Scott [E. O. G.] 1980:100, Fig. 2 [Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania v. 114; ref. 8667] Eddystone Point, eastern coast of Tasmania, Australia, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype: QVM 1979:5:0068 [ex QVM type 368]. Paratypes: QVM 1979:5:76 [ex QVM type 369] (1), 1979:5:77 [ex QVM type 370] (1). •Valid as Muraenichthys lengomena Scott 1980 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:118 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:201 [ref. 22532] as lengomenah). •Probable synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:274 [ref. 29006], Hibino & Kimura 2015:8 [ref. 33951] with question). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

lentiginosa, Skythrenchelys Castle [P. H. J.] & McCosker [J. E.] 1999:119, Figs. 1D-F, 2B [Records of the Australian Museum v. 51 (nos 2-3); ref. 24075] Port Sudan Harbour, Sudan, Red Sea, 19°38'N, 37°07'E, depth 25 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 29320. •Synonym of Skythrenchelys macrostomus (Bleeker 1864) -- (Hibino et al. 2013:[1] [ref. 32505], Golani & Fricke 2018:29 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Skythrenchelys macrostomus (Bleeker 1864). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

lentiginosus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:25, Figs. 26-28 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Vanuatu, 15°40'S, 167°01'E, depth 398-400 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1997-0601. Paratypes: MNHN 1987-1244 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus lentiginosus McCosker 2010 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus lentiginosus McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

leonensis, Ophichthus Blache [J.] 1975:736, Figs. 12-13 [Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (Serie A) Sciences Naturelles v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 7363] Coast of Sierra Leone, depth 180 meters (stomach content). Holotype (unique): MNHN 1975-0004 [ex IFAN 54-685]. •Valid as Ophichthus leonensis Blache 1975 -- (Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus leonensis Blache 1975. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Sierra Leone. Habitat: marine.

lepturus, Myrophis Kotthaus [A.] 1968:40, Figs. 145-147 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 3; ref. 2669] Gulf of Aden, 12°25'N, 53°54.5'E to 12°26'N, 43°52'E, depth 60 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 4967 [ex IOES 64]. Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:414 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Myrophis lepturus Kotthaus 1968 -- (Castle 1975:26 [ref. 25984]). •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Myrophis lepturus Kotthaus 1968. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

leucoptera, Caecula Cadenat [J.] 1954:241, Fig. 2 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 12640] Beach at Gorée, Senegal. Lectotype: MNHN 1964-527. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1974-0061 [ex IFAN 806, 1950-1043, 1952-1, 1952-59, 1953-111] (5), MNHN 1964-0151 [ex IFAN 1950-1235] (1), 1964-0523 [ex IFAN 1951-723] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:105 [ref. 20810]. Lectotype established by Blache & Cadenat 1971:192 [ref. 13696]. •Valid as Callechelys leucoptera (Cadenat 1954) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:304 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:180 [ref. 13652], McCosker 1998:198 [ref. 23298], McCosker et al. 2011:275 [ref. 31452], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys leucoptera (Cadenat 1954). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

limbatus, Oxyodontichthys Poey [F.] 1880:254 [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 9 (for 7 July 1880); ref. 6524] Cuba. Unneeded new name for Ophichthys brachyurus Poey 1868. •Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

limkouensis, Ophichthys Chen [J. T. F.] 1929:23, Pl. 2 (figs. 2, 2A) [Bulletin of the Biology Department, Science College, Sun Yatsen University v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16075] Limkou, Kwangtung, China. Holotype (unique): ZLSYU 2998. Spelled limkouensis on p. 2 as well as p. 8 of Chinese summary; limkounensis on p. 23 and plate caption; printed errata indicates limkouensis is correct spelling. •Valid as Ophichthus limkouensis Chen 1929 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus limkouensis Chen 1929. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: China. Habitat: marine.

lingowenah, Muraenichthys Scott [E. O. G.] 1975:128, Fig. 1 [Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania v. 109; ref. 7470] Off Prime Seal Island, Furneaux Group, Bass Strait, Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): QVM 1974:5:0058 [ex QVM type 195]. •Valid as Muraenichthys lingowenah Scott 1975 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:118 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Muraenichthys australis Macleay 1881 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:200 [ref. 22532]). •Probable synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:274 [ref. 29006], Hibino & Kimura 2015:8 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

lithinus, Leiuranus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1908:238, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 27(Doc. 640) (for 1907); ref. 2492] Cuyo, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 20211. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Ophichthus lithinus (Jordan & Richardson 1908) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], Larson et al. 2013:27 [ref. 32988], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130], McCosker & Psomadakis 2018:79 [ref. 36333]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus lithinus (Jordan & Richardson 1908). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: India, Myanmar, Thailand, Philippines, northern Australia and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

longicollis, Muraena Cuvier [G.] 1816:231 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:128 [ref. 20810]. Based on Muraena myrus of Lacepède, v. 2, Pl. 3 (fig. 3). •Synonym of Echelus mirus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Echelus myrus (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longicollis, Myrophis Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1864:397 (footnote) [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1864; ref. 3437] Liberia. Treated by Leiby as separate from Muraena longicollis Cuvier 1816, but Peters' treatment perhaps a misidentification as Cuvier is cited. •Synonym of Myrophis plumbeus (Cope 1871) -- (Leiby 1990:186 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Myrophis plumbeus (Cope 1871). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

longidorsalis, Mixomyrophis Hibino [Y.], Kimura [S.] & Golani [D.] 2014:1, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 33410] Gulf of Eilat, Israel, Red Sea, depth 200 meters. Holotype (unique): HUJ 11561. •Valid as Mixomyrophis longidorsalis Hibino, Kimura & Golani 2014 -- (Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:27 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Mixomyrophis longidorsalis Hibino, Kimura & Golani 2014. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

longimanus, Asarcenchelys McCosker [J. E.] 1985:12, Figs. 3-5, 6c [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 44 (no. 2); ref. 5238] North of Belim, Brazil, depth 55 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1968-0215. Paratypes: MNHN B-2994 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:103-104 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Asarcenchelys longimanus McCosker 1985 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:276 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:770 [ref. 13285], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119]). Current status: Valid as Asarcenchelys longimanus McCosker 1985. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Brazil and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

longipenis, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:405, Figs. 3b, 5 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] La Vieja, Panamá (Pacific), 9°00'N, 79°29'W. Holotype: SIO 63-295. Paratypes: ANSP 152296 (1), 175793 (1); CAS 97894 [ex LACM 32559, originally UCR 686.010] (3); LACM 32554-11 (1), 32575-11 (7); MCZ 44173 (2); SIO 63-295 (5), 64-744 (1), 65-160 (1), 73-276 (3). •Valid as Ophichthus longipenis McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus longipenis McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

longipinnis, Brachysomophis McCosker [J. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 2001:23, Figs. 5E, 13 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 33; ref. 25635] Taiwan Strait, Formosa Bank, 22°40'N, 118°30'W, depth about 50 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 30568. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Brachysomophis longipinnis McCosker & Randall 2001 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432], McCosker & Ho 2014:96 [ref. 33573], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:166 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Brachysomophis longipinnis McCosker & Randall 2001. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

longipinnis, Sphagebranchus Kner [R.] & Steindachner [F.] 1867:390 [35], Pl. 5 (fig. 14) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 54 (pt 3); ref. 2640] Samoa. Syntypes: BMNH 1866.12.27.10 (1) no locality [ex MGH 2088]. On p. 35 of separate. •Valid as Sphagebranchus longipinnis Kner & Steindachner 1867 -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], Kuang & Yu in Kuang et al. 1986:35 [ref. 26639], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:63 [ref. 23876]). •Valid as Bascanichthys longipinnis (Kner & Steindachner 1867) -- (Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Zhang et al. 2010:373 [ref. 31511], Kottelat 2013:44 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Caecula longipinnis (Kner & Steindachner 1867) -- (Tang & Zhang 2004:22 [ref. 27889]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys longipinnis (Kner & Steindachner 1867). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China; Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

longissimus, Callechelys Cadenat [J.] & Marchal [E.] 1963:1243, Fig. 6 A-B [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 25 (no. 4); ref. 4333] Lemon Valley, St. Helena Island, depth 35 meters. Lectotype: MNHN 1963-0209. Paralectotypes: (1, apparently lost). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:106 [ref. 20810]. Lectotype established by Blache 1971:174. See McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836]. •Valid as Bascanichthys longissimus (Cadenat & Marchal 1963) -- (Leiby 1990:179 [ref. 13652]). •Valid as Phaenomonas longissima (Cadenat & Marchal 1963) -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:628 [ref. 9166], McCosker et al. 1989:352 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:873 [ref. 13285], Bauchot et al. 1993:106 [ref. 20810], McCosker 1998:196 [ref. 23298], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], McCosker 2006:737 [ref. 29013], Randall 2007:69 [ref. 30952], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558], Brown et al. 2019:157 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Phaenomonas longissima (Cadenat & Marchal 1963). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern, southern central and eastern Atlantic: Brazil; Ascension and Saint Helena islands; islands of eastern Atlantic, Ghana. Habitat: marine.

longleii, Myrophis Silvester [C. F.] 1915:214 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book No. 14; ref. 4027] Sand flats west of Guanica Harbor, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): PU 3083. Also published and figured as new in Silvester 1918:20, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [ref. 15257]. •Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:286 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longus, Ophisurus Poey [F.] 1867:254 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 9155. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:174 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:374 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:157 [ref. 21180], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:139 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

loxochila, Caralophia Böhlke [J. E.] 1955:2, Figs. 1-2 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 282; ref. 595] Bay on northern shore near western end of Rose Island, Bahamas, 25°05'47"N, 77°11'56"W, depth to 4 feet. Holotype: ANSP 73433. Paratypes: ANSP 73434 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Caralophia loxochila Böhlke 1955 -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:62 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:339 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:878 [ref. 13285], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:262 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:25 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Caralophia loxochila Böhlke 1955. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lucillae, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:188, Pl. 6 (figs. 7-8) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Kiritimati [formerly Christmas Island], Line Islands. Holotype: ANSP 68325 (with paratypes). Paratypes: ANSP 68326-41 (16). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:120 [ref. 13621]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

lumbricoides, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:32 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] No locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.300. Originally as lumbricoïdes. •Valid [these references are lumbricoides Bleeker 1864] as Yirrkala lumbricoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:185 [ref. 5690], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], McCosker 2006:374 [ref. 29014]). •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

lumbricoides, Sphagebranchus Bleeker [P.] 1864:71, Pl. 188 (fig. 4) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] Timor Island, southern Malay Archipelago. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.322. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Ophisurus lumbricoides Bleeker 1853 when both are in Ophichthys, replaced by Ophichthys timorensis Günther 1870. Also appeared in Bleeker 1865:46 [ref. 408]. •Valid as Yirrkala lumbricoides (Bleeker 1864) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:121 [ref. 12442], McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192]). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala lumbricoides (Bleeker 1864). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southern Malay Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

lumbricus, Myrophis Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:261 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Galveston, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 30896. Type catalog: Smith 1994:33 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:286 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lupus, Ophichthus Hibino [Y.], McCosker [J. E.] & Tashiro [F.] 2019:[ ], Figs. [Ichthyological Research First Online; ref. 36433] East China Sea. Holotype. Paratypes: •Valid as Ophichthus lupus Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus lupus Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

luteus, Callechelys Snyder [J. O.] 1904:517, Pl. 3 (fig. 5) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] South coast of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3821, surface at night. Holotype (unique): USNM 50864. Type catalog: Smith 1994:29 [ref. 21917]. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:63 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Callechelys lutea Snyder 1904 -- (McCosker 1998:199 [ref. 23298], McCosker 2002:25 [ref. 25848], Randall 2005:31 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:132 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:64 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys lutea Snyder 1904. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands (Midway Atoll to Hawai'i Island), Johnston Atoll. Habitat: marine.

macclellandi, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:33 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.278 (1) Jakarta. Appeared in original description as MacClellandi. •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macdowelli, Cirricaecula McCosker [J. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 1993:190, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 40 (no. 2); ref. 20826] Taiwan Strait, south of Taiwan Banks to P'enghu Ch'untao (Pescadores) Island, Taiwan, depth 30-50 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 15599. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Cirricaecula macdowelli McCosker & Randall 1993 -- (Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:167 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Cirricaecula macdowelli McCosker & Randall 1993. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

macgregori, Microdonophis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:422, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Lahaina, Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50721. Type catalog: Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Cirrhimuraena macgregori (Jenkins 1903) -- (McCosker 1977:75 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Cirrhimuraena playfairii (Günther 1870) -- (Mundy 2005:132 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:65 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Cirrhimuraena playfairii (Günther 1870). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

macgregori, Pisoodonophis Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1908:238, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 27(Doc. 640) (for 1907); ref. 2492] Manila, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 20210. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291]. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

machidai, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.], Ide [S.] & Endo [H.] 2012:8, Figs. 4-6 [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) Supplement No. 6; ref. 31982] West of Tosa Bay, Saga fish market (33°04.48'N, 133°06.80'E), Kuroshio-chu, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 106572 [ex BSKU 68428]. Paratypes: many at AMS, BAKU, FAK, KAUM, NSMT-P, USNM. •Valid as Ophichthus machidai McCosker, Ide & Endo 2012 -- (McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2019:49 [ref. 36586]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus machidai McCosker, Ide & Endo 2012. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Bay of Bengal (India); Taiwan; Japan. Habitat: marine.

macrochir, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:26 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7174. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.262 (1) Jakarta. •Valid as Ophichthus macrochir (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Kottelat et al. 1993:12 [ref. 23448], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:341 [ref. 31511], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1198 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus macrochir (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: India, western Indonesia (Sumatra and Java) to Taiwan, Thailand and Philippines. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrodon, Sphagebranchus Bleeker [P.] 1863:184 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 17005] Borneo. Syntypes: RMNH 3821 (2). •See McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836]. Current status: Valid as Yirrkala macrodon (Bleeker 1863). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Myrophis Parr [A. E.] 1930:10, Fig. 1 (bottom) [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 4); ref. 3370] Green Cay, Bahamas. Holotype: YPM 2593. Paratypes: YPM 2594-96 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:22 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:274 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1910:402, Pl. 166 (fig. A) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 17); ref. 14460] Kingsmill Islands [= Gilbert Islands]. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Ophichthus macrops Günther 1910 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus macrops Günther 1910. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific (Gilbert Islands). Habitat: marine.

macropterus, Muraenichthys Bleeker [P.] 1857:91 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.303. •Valid in Scolecenchelys [macroptera] -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]). •Valid as Muraenichthys macropterus Bleeker 1857 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:30 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:118 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:45 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:45 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:54 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:215 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Sakai et al. 2001:85 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:215 [ref. 26001], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:321 [ref. 31511]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys macroptera (Bleeker 1857) -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830] as macropterus, Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495] as macropterus, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:13 [ref. 27510], McCosker 2006:24 [ref. 28592], McCosker et al. 2006:276 [ref. 29006], Imamura 2009:21 [ref. 30434], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:111 [ref. 31980], McCosker et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31982], Hibino et al. 2013:46 [ref. 32418], Larson et al. 2013:28 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:23 [ref. 33932], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Ho et al. 2015:176 [ref. 34130], Hibino & Kimura 2015:19 [ref. 33951], Fricke et al. 2018:46 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys macroptera (Bleeker 1857). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar to Marshall and Society islands, northern Australia to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

macrorhynchos, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:28 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Near Kaminoseki Island, Japan. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1867.11.28.230. •Valid as Ophisurus macrorhynchus [sic, correct is macrorhynchos] Bleeker 1852-- (McCosker 1977:82 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:32 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:105, 324 [ref. 8057], Nakabo 2000:220 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:220 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:143, 492 [ref. 26218], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370], Zhang et al. 2010:356 [ref. 31511] as macrorhynchus, Shinohara et al. 2011:39 [ref. 31715] as macrirhynchus, Shinohara et al. 2014:236 [ref. 33330], as macrirhynchus, Ho et al. 2015:174 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Ophisurus macrorhynchos Bleeker 1852. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: China to Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

macrostomus, Muraenichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864:38 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.313. •Valid as Muraenichthys macrostomus Bleeker 1864 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715]). •Valid as Skythrenchelys macrostomus (Bleeker 1864) -- (Hibino et al. 2013:[1] [ref. 32505], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], Golani & Fricke 2018:29 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Skythrenchelys macrostomus (Bleeker 1864). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Pacific: eastern Indonesia and Philippines to Samoa. Habitat: marine.

macrurus, Ophichthys Poey [F.] 1867:256 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. •Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker 1977:80 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

macrurus, Phyllophichthus McKay [R. J.] 1970:4 [Western Australian Fisheries Bulletin v. 9 (no. 5); ref. 19157] Upper Kalgan River, near Albany, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.4015-001. Paratypes: WAM P.16789-001 (1), P.16790-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:6 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:5 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Phyllophichthus macrurus McKay 1970 -- (McCosker 1977:82 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:120 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Phyllophichthus xenodontus Gosline 1951 -- (McCosker et al. 2006:273 [ref. 29006], Hibino & Kimura 2016:136 [ref. 35048]). Current status: Synonym of Phyllophichthus xenodontus Gosline 1951. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Caecula Klausewitz [W.] 1964:667, Fig. 2 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 45 (no. 6); ref. 2347] Stream near the Ganges Bay, Greta Nicobar, Nicobar Islands, Indian Ocean, elevation about 15-20 meters. Holotype (unique): SMF 7491. •Valid as Yirrkala maculata (Klausewitz 1964) -- (McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker 2011:47 [ref. 31260]). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala maculata (Klausewitz 1964). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculata, Ophis Turton [W.] 1807:87 [British fauna, containing a compendium of the zoology of the British Islands v. 1; ref. 12590] No locality stated. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Callechelys Chu [Y.-T.], Wu [H.-L.] & Jin [X.-B.] 1981:22 [English p. 26], Fig. 2 [Journal of Fisheries of China v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21250] Pingtan Island, Fujian Province, China. Holotype: SFC A01293. Paratypes: SFC A01318 (1). Original spelling should have been maculata. If placed in Yirrkala this is a secondary homonym of Caecula maculata Klausewitz 1964 when both are in Yirrkala. •Valid as Yirrkala? maculatus [should be maculata] (Chu, Wu & Jin 1981) -- (McCosker 1998:196 [ref. 23298]). •Valid as Callechelys maculatus Chu, Wu & Jin 1981 -- (Tang & Zhang 2004:22 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:376 [ref. 31511]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys maculatus Chu, Wu & Jin 1981. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan Strait, China and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Cogrus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:62 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:41 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Ophichthus maculatus (Rafinesque 1810) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus maculatus (Rafinesque 1810). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Muraena serpens Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xix [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Not available, name only; from Malta. Ophichthidae.

maculatus, Ophisurus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:46 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Also appeared in Kaup 1856: 13 [ref. 2573]. Not available, museum name mentioned in synonymy; from Martinique. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

maculatus, Pisodonophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:48 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Still researching. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

maculosa, Muraena Cuvier [G.] 1816:232 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] No locality (is probably Indonesia). Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2730. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:108 [ref. 20810]. On Ophisurus ophis of Lacepède 1800 (part): Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [ref. 2709]. •Valid as Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816) -- (McCosker 1977:78 [ref. 6836], Dor 1984:36 [ref. 29757], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], McCosker & Castle 1986:181 [ref. 5690], Paxton et al. 1989:119 [ref. 12442], McCosker et al. 1989:373 [ref. 13288], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:45 [ref. 15987], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:161 [ref. 21180], Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:53 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:75 [ref. 22017], Randall 1995:62 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:58 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:26 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:45 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:65 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Randall 1999:6 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:221 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:117 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:221 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Tang & Zhang 2004:22 [ref. 27889], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:105 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:32 [ref. 28239], McCosker & Stewart 2006:93 [ref. 28702], McCosker et al. 2006:270 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:67 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:74 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:367 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], McCosker & Allen 2012:39 [ref. 31763], Allen & Erdmann 2012:107 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Fricke et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33895], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Ho et al. 2015:169 [ref. 34130], McCosker & Stewart 2015:253 [ref. 34235], Motomura et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:44 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:27 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Aldabra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Panama (except for Hawaiian Islands), north to southern Japan, Ogasawara Islands and Midway Atoll, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

madagascariensis, Ophichthys Fourmanoir [P.] 1961:102, Fig. 16 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 4; ref. 9346] Nosy Iranza, northwestern Madagascar, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 230 meters (stomach content). Syntypes: IRSMNB (5) lost. •Valid as Ophichthus madagascariensis Fourmanoir 1961 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Fricke 1999:66 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker 2010:2 [ref. 30840], Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

magnifica, Pisoodonophis Abbott [C. C.] 1860:476 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 12; ref. 15619] Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Island [central Pacific]. Holotype: ANSP 1013. Paratypes: ANSP 1014 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. •Valid as Myrichthys magnificus (Abbott 1860) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:163 [ref. 21180], Randall 1995:62 [ref. 22896], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], McCosker 2002:25 [ref. 25848], Randall 2005:32 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:134 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:67 [ref. 30952] datred 1861, McCosker & Allen 2012:39 [ref. 31763]). Current status: Valid as Myrichthys magnificus (Abbott 1860). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Hawaiian, Leeward islands and Johnston Atoll. Habitat: marine.

magnioculis, Scytalophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:46 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Brazil [St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies in error]. Syntypes: MNHN A-8801 (1), B-2749 (1), B-2762 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:112 [ref. 20810]. Ophichthys magnoculus Günther 1870:60 [ref. 1995] is an unjustified emendation. •Valid as Ophichthus magnioculis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288], Bauchot et al. 1993:112 [ref. 20810]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

major, Dalophis Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:68 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

malabar, Apterichtus McCosker [J. E.] & Hibino [Y.] 2015:67, Figs. 11-12 [Zootaxa 3941 (no. 1); ref. 33725] New South Wales, off Malabar, Australia (33°58'S, 157°17E). Holotype: AMS I.19426-001. Paratypes: AMS, CAS. Malabar, treated as a noun in apposition. •Valid as Apterichtus malabar McCosker & Hibino 2015. Current status: Valid as Apterichtus malabar McCosker & Hibino 2015. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: New South Wales, Australia. Habitat: marine.

malabonensis, Muraenichthys Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1923:157, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 23 (no. 2); ref. 2117] Bañgos pond at Malabon, Rizal Province, Manila Bay, Philippines. Syntypes: BSMP 839-842 (4) presumed destroyed. •Probably a synonym of Muraenichthys thompsoni Jordan & Richardson 1908 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931] as malabonensis, Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]). •Valid as Muraenichthys malabonensis Herre 1923 -- (Kuang & Yu in Kuang et al. 1986:32 [ref. 26639], Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:320 [ref. 31511], Kottelat 2013:45 [ref. 32989], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288] with ?). Current status: Valid as Muraenichthys malabonensis Herre 1923. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines to China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

malaita, Muraenichthys Seale [A.] 1935:341, Pl. 20 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 21 (no. 27); ref. 12336] Malaita Island, Solomon Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS 5499. •Synonym of Schultzidia retropinnis (Fowler 1934) -- (McCosker 1970:507 [ref. 2931]). Current status: Synonym of Schultzidia retropinnis (Fowler 1934). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

manilensis, Ophichthus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1923:176, Pl. 5 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 23 (no. 2); ref. 2117] Cavite, southwestern Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 9477 (presumed destroyed). Paratypes: BSMP 9488 (1) presumed destroyed. •Valid as Ophichthus manilensis Herre 1923 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288] with question). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus manilensis Herre 1923. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Muraenopsis Bleeker [P.] 1863:179 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 17005] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Possibly a senior synonym of Ophichthus cephalozona Bleeker 1864 -- (McCosker & Psomadakis 2018:78 [ref. 36333]). Current status: Uncertain as Ophichthus cephalozona Bleeker 1864. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Omochelys Fowler [H. W.] 1948:1, Figs. 1-5 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 210; ref. 13051] "The gulley" off Barnegat, Ocean County, New Jersey, U.S.A., depth 50 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ANSP 72103. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836] with question, McCosker et al. 1989:384 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Ophisurus Valenciennes [A.] in Bleeker 1863:180 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 17005] Not available, name only; in the synonymy of Muraenopsis marginatus. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

marginatus, Ophiurus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:460 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Inhambane, Mozambique, Africa, 24°S. Holotype: ZMB 4030. Also described as new in Peters 1855:272 [ref. 13448]. •Valid as Ophichthus marginatus (Peters 1855) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus marginatus (Peters 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

marinis, Muraena serpens Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xix [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Not available, name only; from Malta. Ophichthidae.

markworti, Poecilocephalus Kaup [J. J.] 1859:10, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] No locality. No types known. Originally as Markworti. •Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 2002:29 [ref. 25848]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

marmorata, Dalophis Bleeker [P.] 1854:247 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 16901] Sibogha, western Sumatra [Sibolga, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.260. Appeared as above with name and fin formula. Also appeared in Bleeker 1853:37 [ref. 339]. •Valid as Callechelys marmoratus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:116 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Kishimoto 1997:18 [ref. 24967], Nakabo 2000:225 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:225 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Callechelys marmorata (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dor 1984:35 [ref. 29757], McCosker & Castle 1986:178 [ref. 5690], Randall et al. 1990:44 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356], Randall et al. 1997:44 [ref. 25919], McCosker 1998:202 [ref. 23298], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:62 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:31 [ref. 28239], McCosker et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:65 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], McCosker et al. 2011:275 [ref. 31452], Allen & Erdmann 2012:104 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33895], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:167 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:43 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:27 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys marmorata (Bleeker 1854). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Aldabra, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Society Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Taiwan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

mcclellandi, Pisodonophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:48 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

mccoskeri, Neenchelys Hibino [Y.], Ho [H.-C.] & Kimura [S.] 2012:342, Fig. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 59 (no, 4); ref. 32271] Tungkang, southwestern Taiwan. Holotype: NMMB-P 15557. Paratypes: Many at ASIZP, NMMB-P, NSMT-P, USNM. •Valid as Neenchelys mccoskeri Hibino, Ho & Kimura 2012 -- (Ho et al. 2013:9 [ref. 33156], Toshiro et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33874], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], Ho & Loh 2015:54 [ref. 34121], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:170 [ref. 34130], Hibino et al. 2015:60 [ref. 34166]). Current status: Valid as Neenchelys mccoskeri Hibino, Ho & Kimura 2012. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Taiwan and Japan. Habitat: marine.

mecopterus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:407, Figs. 6, 8a [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] Nayarit, west of Laguna de Agua Brava, Mexico, 22°13.0'N, 106°10.0'W, depth 74-79 meters. Holotype: SIO 62-76. Paratypes: CAS 58340 (1); LACM 32575 [ex UCR 702.008] (1), 47325-1 [ex UCR 2352.001] (1); SIO 73-276 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus mecopterus McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus mecopterus McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

megalops, Ophichthus Asano [H.] 1987:135, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 34 (no. 2); ref. 6705] Off Owase, Mie Prefecture, Japan, depth about 360 meters. Holotype (unique): FAKU 19057 (not seen in 1997). •Valid as Ophichthus megalops Asano 1987 -- (Nakabo 2000:223 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:223 [ref. 26001], McCosker 2010:28 [ref. 30840], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus megalops Asano 1987. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

melanochir, Ophichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864:44 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.283. •Valid as Ophichthus melanochir Bleeker 1864 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:119 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495]). •Synonym of Ophichthus altipennis (Kaup 1856) -- (Randall et al. 2002:155 [ref. 26192], McCosker & Randall 2002:798 [ref. 26226], Randall 2005:32 [ref. 28239], McCosker et al. 2006:271 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus altipennis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

melanoporus, Ophichthus Kanazawa [R. H.] 1963:284, Figs. 2B, 3; Pl. 1 (right) [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 76; ref. 4901] Straits of Florida, west of Andros Island, Bahamas, 24°04'N, 79°15'W, Combat station 448, depth 250 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 191118. Paratypes: ?UF 97628 [ex TABL] (1), USNM 191119 (3). Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus melanoporus Kanazawa 1963 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:65 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:394 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:817 [ref. 13285], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:276 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus melanoporus Kanazawa 1963. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

melanotaenia, Callechelys Bleeker [P.] 1864:66 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH 7180. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.291 (1) Ambon. Apparently dates to Dec. 1864 [accompanying Pl. 193 to 1865]. Also appeared in Bleeker 1865:213 [ref. 4860]. •Mention - (McCosker 1977:63 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Callechelys melanotaenia Bleeker 1864 -- (Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:30 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:116 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847] as melanotaenius). •Synonym of Callechelys catostoma (Schneider 1801) -- (Randall et al. 1990:44 [ref. 15987], McCosker 1998:190 [ref. 23298] with author as Forster, McCosker 2002:27 [ref. 25848], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:318 [ref. 28867] with author as Forster, McCosker et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29006] with author as Forster, Randall 2007:64 [ref. 30952], McCosker et al. 2011:272 [ref. 31452], Golani & Fricke 2018:27 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Callechelys catostoma (Schneider 1801). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

melope, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:410, Figs. 7, 8b [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] Center of mouth of Golfo de Nicoya, off Puntarenas, Costa Rica, depth 224 meters. Holotype: LACM 47311-1 [ex UCR 2350-002]. Paratypes: ANSP 176292 [ex UMML 31933] (1), CAS 97857 [ex UCR 2377.002] (1). •Valid as Ophichthus melope McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus melope McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

menezesi, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1984:29, Figs. 7-9 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 136; ref. 10404] Rio Grande do Sul, Prof. W. Besnard station 1702, 28°46'S, 47°48'W, Brazil, depth 177 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 12166. Paratypes: ANSP 152303 (1, c&s), 152304 (1); CAS 53291 (1), MNHN 1983-0679 [ex MZUSP 12174] (1); MZUSP 12162 (1), 12164-65 (1, 1), 12168-69 (1, 1), 12172-73 (1, 1); USNM 263574 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:110 [ref. 20810], Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus menezesi McCosker & Böhlke 1984 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:396 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:818 [ref. 13285], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:277 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus menezesi McCosker & Böhlke 1984. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

merenda, Ethadophis Rosenblatt [R. H.] & McCosker [J. E.] 1970:500, Figs. 5, 6a [Pacific Science v. 24 (no. 4); ref. 3809] Thurloe Bay, 27°38'N, 114°50'W, Baja California, Mexico (stomach content). Holotype (unique): SIO 65-47. •Valid as Ethadophis merenda Rosenblatt & McCosker 1970 -- (McCosker 1977:72 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:342 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1334 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ethadophis merenda Rosenblatt & McCosker 1970. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microcephalus, Ophichthys Day [F.] 1878:665, Pl. 170 (fig. 2) [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Malabar, India. Syntypes (3) and/or Day specimens: ZSI 2759 (figured specimen), AMS B.7843 (1, syntype). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:299 [ref. 25110]. •Valid as Ophichthus microcephalus Day 1878 -- (McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus microcephalus Day 1878. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Malabar, India. Habitat: marine.

microchir, Echelus Bleeker [P.] 1864:40 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.319 (1) Sulawesi. •Valid as Myrophis microchir (Bleeker 1864) -- (Dor 1984:37 [ref. 29757], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:30 [ref. 6441], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:217 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:217 [ref. 26001], McCosker et al. 2006:270 [ref. 29006], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:108 [ref. 31980], Yoshida et al. 2013:23 [ref. 34464], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Myrophis microchir (Bleeker 1864). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Marshall and Marquesas islands, north to suthern Japan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

microphtalmus, Echelus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:64 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:42 [ref. 3595], spelled microphthalmus. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

micropinna, Pseudomyrophis Wade [C. B.] 1946:200, Pl. 28 (figs. 1-3) [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 7); ref. 4542] 3 miles south of Isla Ladrones, Gulf of Chiriqui, (Pacific) Panama, depth 54 fathoms. Holotype: LACM 21557 [ex AHF 905]. Paratypes: LACM 21707 [ex AHF 906] (1). •Valid as Pseudomyrophis micropinna Wade 1946 -- (McCosker 1977:61 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:289 [ref. 13288], Bussing & López S. 1994:44 [ref. 23101], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1340 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:64 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:64 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Pseudomyrophis micropinna Wade 1946. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microps, Myrophis Parr [A. E.] 1930:11, Fig. 1 (top) [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 4); ref. 3370] Edge of Great Bahamas Bank, 25°02'10"N, 77°35'27"W, surface. Holotype: YPM 2597. Paratypes: YPM 2598-2600 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:22-23 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:274 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ahlia egmontis (Jordan 1884). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

micropterus, Pisoodonophis Bleeker [P.] 1863:182 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 17005] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3722. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

microstictus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:28, Figs. 29-31 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Tonga, Nkotu Group, 19°25'29"S, 174°38'29"S, depth 362-388 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2001-0007. Paratypes: CAS 229179 (1); MNHN 2001-1095 (1), 2001-1096 (1), 2001-1069 (3). Plus non-type specimen. •Valid as Ophichthus microstictus McCosker 2010 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], McCosker et al. 2012:11[ref. 31982]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus microstictus McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia, Fiji and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

microstigmius, Myrophis Poey [F.] 1867:250, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 33440. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:173 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:286 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microstoma, Conger Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Souleyet [F. A.] 1850:205, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 4501] Macao, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2736. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:106 [ref. 20810]. •Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (Bauchot et al. 1993:106 [ref. 20810], Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

microstomus, Muraenichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864:39 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] No types known. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.311 (1) Makassar. •Synonym of Muraenichthys gymnopterus (Bleeker 1852) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Kottelat 2013:45 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Muraenichthys gymnopterus (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microtretus, Neenchelys Bamber [R. C.] 1915:479, Pl. 46 (fig. 3) [The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology v. 31 (no. 210); ref. 172] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1915.10.25.1. •Valid as Neenchelys microtretus Bamber 1915 -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836], Dor 1984:31 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Hibino et al. 2012:345 [ref. 32271], Ho et al. 2013:10 [ref. 33152], Toshiro et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33874], Ho & Loh 2015:54 [ref. 34121], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Neenchelys microtretus Bamber 1915. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Suez. Habitat: marine.

mictoscopus, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:389, Fig. 51 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Islands [Islas Marias], Mexico. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70119. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:120 [ref. 13621]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

mindora, Caecula Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1908:239, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 27(Doc. 640) (for 1907); ref. 2492] Mindoro Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 20209. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Lamnostoma mindora (Jordan & Richardson 1908) -- (McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836], Séret & Dingerkus 1992:169 [ref. 22389], Kottelat et al. 1993:12 [ref. 23448], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Zhang et al. 2010:369 [ref. 31511], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288] as ? from Philippines, Ho et al. 2015:168 [ref. 34130], Miesen et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34492], Chiu et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36033]). Current status: Valid as Lamnostoma mindora (Jordan & Richardson 1908). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Philippines, Java (Indonesia), eastern and southwestern Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

minimus, Ophisurus McClelland [J.] 1844:185, 204, 212, Pl. 10 (figs. 3-4) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Bengal, India. No types known. •Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1922) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

misolensis, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1872:426 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 10 (no. 60) (art,. 60); ref. 18195] Misool [Misol] Island, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1870.8.3.112. •See McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836]. •Valid as Yirrkala misolensis (Günther 1872) -- (Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker et al. 2006:277 [ref. 29006], McCosker 2011:47 [ref. 31260], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Ho et al. 2015:177 [ref. 34130], Motomura et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala misolensis (Günther 1872). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan and Australia. Habitat: marine.

miurus, Ophichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:357 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 290); ref. 12308] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 2304 (3). Type catalog: Smith 1994:34-35 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Scytalichthys miurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (McCosker 1977:84 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1341 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:172 [ref. 24023], Nelson et al. 2004:64 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:64 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Scytalichthys miurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

miyamotonis, Ophichthus Tanaka [S.] 1913:195, Pl. 52 (figs. 199-201) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 11; ref. 14902] Oshima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 2923. •Synonym of Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:161 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

mollis, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:126, Fig. 47 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Old Providence Key [Providencia Island], Caribbean Sea. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70118. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:120 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:287 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:791 [ref. 13285]). Current status: Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

moluccensis, Dalophis Bleeker [P.] 1854:246 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 16901] Ceram, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.289 (1) Ceram. Also appeared in Bleeker 1853:70 [ref. 339]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

moluccensis, Pisoodonophis Bleeker [P.] 1864:72, Pl. 193 (fig. 2) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.236 (1) Ambon. Text published 19 Dec. 1864. Also appeared in Bleeker 1865:214 [p. 2 of separate] [ref. 17037]. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. •See McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836]. •Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

monodi, Caecula (Sphagebranchus) Roux [C.] 1966:593, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 37 (no. 4) (for 1965); ref. 9062] Off Cape Verde Islands, Senegal, depth 150 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1971-0032. Paratypes: MNHN 1971-0033 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:105 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Apterichtus monodi (Roux 1966) -- (McCosker 1977:66 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:318 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:178 [ref. 13652], Machida & Ohta 1994:4 [ref. 21444], Hibino et al. 2014:[1] [ref. 33212], McCosker & Hibino 2015:69 [ref. 33725], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus monodi (Roux 1966). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

moorei, Yirrkala McCosker [J. E.] 2006:374, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 57 (no. 10); ref. 29014] Aunu'u Island, 14°17'S, 170°34'W, American Samoa, depth 24 meters. Holotype: CAS 46677. Paratypes: MNHN 2001-1076; several lots at ANSP, BPBM, USNM. Plus non-types. •Valid as Yirrkala moorei McCosker 2006 -- (Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala moorei McCosker 2006. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands and American Samoa. Habitat: marine.

moorii, Muraenichthys Günther [A.] 1870:53 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] No locality. Syntypes: BMNH 1869.3.7.5 (1), plus 3 in Liverpool Mus. (whereabouts unknown). •Unidentifiable, in Scolecenchelys -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]). Current status: Unknown. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

mordax, Conger Poey [F.] 1860:319 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 9220. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:174 [ref. 22926]. •Valid as Echiophis mordax (Poey 1860) -- (McCosker 1977:77 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:64 [ref. 23100], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993]). •Mention -- (McCosker & Randall 2001:3 [ref. 25635]). •Synonym of Echiophis punctifer (Kaup 1859) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:362 [ref. 13288], Cervigón 1992:372 [ref. 23827] with question). Current status: Synonym of Echiophis punctifer (Kaup 1859). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (if valid). Habitat: marine.

moseri, Sphagebranchus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:864, Fig. 14 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Suruga Bay, off Namazu, Japan, Albatross station 3700, depth 63 [not 100] fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49729 [not 49728] (poor condition, 3 pieces). Type catalog: Smith 1994:36 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Apterichtus moseri (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Machida & Ohta 1993:103 [ref. 22477], Machida & Ohta 1994:1 [ref. 21444], Nakabo 2000:219 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:219 [ref. 26001], McCosker & Hibino 2015:70 [ref. 33725], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Hibino et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34475], Ho et al. 2018:205 [ref. 36046], Ho et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36050], Hibino 2018:222 [ref. 36341]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus moseri (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Japan, Marquesas Islands and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

mucronatus, Leptocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1902:90, Figs. 11, 11a-b [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 21 (1901); ref. 11071] Atlantic off eastern U.S.A., 38°25'N, 72°40'W and 41°07'00"N, 65°26'30"W, Albatross. Syntypes: USNM 49746-47 (2, 1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:30-31 [ref. 21917] with remarks on locality. •Young of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:384 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:809 [ref. 13285]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

multidentatus, Dalophis Blache [J.] & Bauchot [M.-L.] 1972:764, Figs. 32-33 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 304] Off Saloum River mouth, Senegal, depth 50 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1964-0524. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:106 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Dalophis multidentatus Blache & Bauchot 1972 -- (McCosker 1977:72 [ref. 6836], Leiby 1990:181 [ref. 13652], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Dalophis multidentatus Blache & Bauchot 1972. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

multiserialis, Ophichthus Norman [J. R.] 1939:42, Fig. 15 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Gulf of Aden, northwestern Indian Ocean, station 194, depth 220 meters. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1939.5.24.649. •Valid as Ophichthus multiserialis Norman 1939 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Ophisurus multiserialis (Norman 1939) -- (Randall 1995:63 [ref. 22896] [misidentification]). •Valid as Xyrias multiserialis (Norman 1939) -- (McCosker 1998:10 [ref. 24055], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], McCosker et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30556]). Current status: Valid as Xyrias multiserialis (Norman 1939). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden and off Somalia. Habitat: marine.

multizonus, Ophisurus Cuvier [G.] in Kaup 1856:2 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] China; Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Malayan Archipelago. Appeared with brief description in synonymy of Leiuranus colubrinus; apparently not intended as valid. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

muraena, Callechelys Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1887:466 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 586); ref. 2441] Snapper banks, between Pensacola and Tampa Bay, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 37996. Type catalog: Smith 1994:29 [ref. 21917]. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:63 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Callechelys muraena Jordan & Evermann 1887 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:61 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:85 [ref. 25518], McCosker et al. 1989:310 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:894 [ref. 13285], McAllister 1990:48 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:34 [ref. 23239], McCosker 1998:203 [ref. 23298], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:260 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], McCosker et al. 2011:275 [ref. 31452], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys muraena Jordan & Evermann 1887. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

myersi, Callechelys Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1932:139 [Copeia 1932 (no. 3); ref. 10976] Dumaguete, Oriental Negros, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 26828. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Bascanichthys myersi (Herre 1932) -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], McCosker 1998:196 [ref. 23298], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys myersi (Herre 1932). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

myrus, Muraena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:245 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea [original: "in Mari Mediterraneo"]; localities include southern France; Lesbos Island, Greece. Syntypes: NRM 47 (1), 147 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:211-212 [ref. 20707]. Originally based on at least 16 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:24 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:40 [ref. 30349] as Muræna rostro acuto lituris albidis vario, margine pinnæ dorsalis nigro; Rondelet 1554:407 [ref. 30354] as Myrus, Gesner 1558:681 [ref. 30350] as Myrus, Charleton 1668:126 [ref. 30580] as Myrus, Willughby 1686:109 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:37 [ref. 30231] as Myrus. Misspelled mirus by Cabrera et al. 1817 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:175 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Echelus myrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker 1977:76 [ref. 6836], Blache et al. 1973:245 [ref. 7185], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:581 [ref. 13676], Leiby 1990:182 [ref. 13652], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:32 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:24 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Goren & Galil 2015:521 [ref. 33910], McCosker 2016:1664 [ref. 34558], Artüz & Fricke 2019:553 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Echelus myrus (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Congo. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mysi, Apterichtus McCosker [J. E.] & Hibino [Y.] 2015:70, Figs. 13-14 [Zootaxa 3941 (no. 1); ref. 33725] Fatu Hiva Island, off point at north end of Hanauu Bay, Marquesas Islands, 10°29'26'S, 138°38'56"W, depth 35 meters. Holotype: BPBM 11843. Paratypes: BPBM, MNHN. Plus non-type specimens. Mysi, a noun in apposition. •Valid as Apterichtus mysi McCosker & Hibino 2015 -- (Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Hibino et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34475]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus mysi McCosker & Hibino 2015. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

mystacinus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 1999:579, Figs. 2c, 4 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 180; ref. 23699] New Caledonia, 18°58.00'S, 163°10.50'E, depth 580 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1998-0046. Paratypes: BPBM 37308 (1), CAS 89552 (1), MNHN 1998-0047 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus mystacinus McCosker 1999 -- (McCosker 2010:31 [ref. 30840], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus mystacinus McCosker 1999. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

naga, Ophichthus McCosker [J. M.] & Psomadakis [P. N.] 2018:75, Figs. 4-6 [Zootaxa 4526 (no. 1); ref. 36333] Off Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar, 14°03.73'N, 94°19.09'E, depth 455-459 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 438246. •Valid as Ophichthus naga McCosker & Psomadakis 2018. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus naga McCosker & Psomadakis 2018. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

naja, Ophicthys De Vis [C. W.] 1884:455 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] South Sea islands. Holotype (unique): QM I.864. Original genus should have been Ophichthys. •Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:158 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

nansen, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Psomadakis [P. N.] 2018:72, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4526 (no. 1); ref. 36333] Off Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar, 14°41.49'N, 95°29.32'E, depth 103-106 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 438268. •Valid as Ophichthus nansen McCosker & Psomadakis 2018. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus nansen McCosker & Psomadakis 2018. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

nariculus, Apterichtus McCosker [J. E.] & Hibino [Y.] 2015:73, Figs. 15-16 [Zootaxa 3941 (no. 1); ref. 33725] Laha, northwest side of Ambon Bay, Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia, depth 28-30 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 38368. •Valid as Apterichtus nariculus McCosker & Hibino 2015 -- (Hibino 2018:222 [ref. 36341]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus nariculus McCosker & Hibino 2015. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

nasus, Suculentophichthus Fricke [R.], Golani [D.] & Appelbaum-Golani [B.] 2015:59, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 16; ref. 33895] Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Eilat, North beach, Red Sea, 29°32'40"N, 34°58'21"E, depth 0.5-1 meters. Holotype (unique): HUJ 20382. Original electronic version appeared on 20 July 2015; new electronic version with corrected name spelling "Suculentophichthus nasus" on p. 59 appeared on 21 July 2015. •Valid as Suculentophichthus nasus Fricke, Golani & Appelbaum-Golani 2015 -- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:29 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Suculentophichthus nasus Fricke, Golani & Appelbaum-Golani 2015. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Caecula Fowler [H. W.] 1934:416, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1419] Blue Lagoon, Umgeni River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Holotype (unique): ANSP 55068. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. •See McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836]. •Synonym of Yirrkala tenuis (Günther 1870) -- (McCosker & Castle 1986:186 [ref. 5690], McCosker 2011:47 [ref. 31260]). Current status: Synonym of Yirrkala tenuis (Günther 1870). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nebulosus, Callechelys Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:452, Pl. 65 (fig. D) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 24; ref. 6436] Pinda Island, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 115. Paratypes: (4) not researched. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:63 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Xestochilus nebulosus (Smith 1962) -- (McCosker 1998:210 [ref. 23298], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Allen & Erdmann 2012:111 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2015:63 [ref. 33895], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:46 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:29 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Xestochilus nebulosus (Smith 1962). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar; Andaman Islands; Indonesia east to Palau, Marshall and Marquesas islands. Habitat: marine.

nectura, Jenkinsiella Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Seale 1907:6, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 606) (for 1906); ref. 2498] Cavite, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): SU 9984. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

nicholsae, Muraenichthys Waite [E. R.] 1904:142, Pl. 17 (fig. 1) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 4561] Lord Howe Island, western side, in rock pool. Holotype (unique): AMS I.5475. Name originally appeared as nicholsae, but based on stated etymology for Mrs. T. Nichols and her daughters, therefore mandatory correction to nicholsarum. •Valid as Muraenichthys nicholsarum Waite 1904 -- (Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479] as nicholsae, Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847] as nicholsae). •Valid as Scolecenchelys nicholsarum (Waite 1904) (often as nicholsae) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], McCosker et al. 2006:276 [ref. 29006], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys nicholsarum (Waite 1904). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

nigrepinnis, Ophisurus Liénard [F.] 1842:90 [Rapport Annuel sur les travaux de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de l'Ile Maurice No. 13 (for 1842-1843); ref. 20927] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (2). For comments on authorship see Monod 1976:22 [ref. 30339]. Not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of precedence (ICZN Art. 23.9) in favor of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). •In the synonymy of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848) -- (Fricke 1999:67 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nimius, Pseudomyrophis Böhlke [J. E.] 1960:1, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 329; ref. 11894] East of the delta of the Mississippi River, Gulf of Mexico, 29°05'N, 88°22'W, Silver Bay station 1203, depth 250 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 186274. Paratypes: ANSP 91937 (7), 91938 (1, c&s), 91939 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Pseudomyrophis nimius Böhlke 1960 -- (McCosker 1977:61 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:295 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:770 [ref. 13285], Cervigón 1992:370 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:282 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], McCosker 2006:736 [ref. 29103], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Pseudomyrophis nimius Böhlke 1960. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nothochir, Ophichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:58 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] San Josef Island, Gulf of California, Mexico. Syntypes: (several) CAS-SU 122 (1); USNM 44296 (1), 46588 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Quassiremus nothochir (Gilbert 1890) -- (McCosker 1977:84 [ref. 6836], Allen & Robertson 1994:55 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1340 [ref. 22830], Castle 1996:115 [ref. 22122], Thomson et al. 2000:292 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:64 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:64 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Quassiremus nothochir (Gilbert 1890). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

novaezelandiae, Ophisurus Hector [J.] 1870:34, Pl. 8 [Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute v. 2 (1869); ref. 18264] New Zealand. Originally as Novae Zelandiae, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker 1977:82 [ref. 6836]). Current status: Synonym of Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nudiceps, Neenchelys Tashiro [F.], Hibino [Y.] & Imamura [H.] 2015:2, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 33874] Off Sumatra Island, eastern Indian Ocean, Indonesia, 5°53.8'S, 102°41.7'E to 5°54.2'S, 102°43.2'E, depth 844-856 meters. Holotype (unique): MZB 22725. •Valid as Neenchelys nudiceps Tashiro, Hibino & Imamura 2015 -- (Hibino et al. 2015:60 [ref. 34166]). Current status: Valid as Neenchelys nudiceps Tashiro, Hibino & Imamura 2015. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Off Sumatra, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

obtusirostris, Dalophis Blache [J.] & Bauchot [M.-L.] 1972:767, Figs. 34-35 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 304] Beach at Gorée, Senegal. Holotype: MNHN 1964-0525. Paratypes: MNHN 1971-0138 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:106-107 [ref. 20810]. Spelled obtusirostris in caption to figures and in text; obstusirostris in main heading is regarded as a misspelling. •Valid as Dalophis obtusirostris Blache & Bauchot 1972 -- (McCosker 1977:72 [ref. 6836], Leiby 1990:182 [ref. 13652], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Dalophis obtusirostris Blache & Bauchot 1972. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

obtusus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.], Ide [S.] & Endo [H.] 2012:12, Figs. 7-9 [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) Supplement No. 6; ref. 31982] West of Tosa Bay, Irino fish market, Kuroshio-cho, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 106574 [ex BSKU 71725]. Paratypes: Many at AMS, BSKU, CAS, FAK, NSMT-P, USNM. •Valid as Ophichthus obtusus McCosker, Ide & Endo 2012 -- (McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus obtusus McCosker, Ide & Endo 2012. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

ocellata, Muraenophis Lesueur [C. A.] 1825:108, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 17523] Martinique Island, 15°23'N, 61°26'W, West Indies, Oregon station 5983, depth 15 meters. Neotype: ANSP 107304. Neotype designated by McCosker et al. 1989:377 [ref. 13288]. •Valid as Ophichthus ocellatus (Lesueur 1825) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:65 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:87 [ref. 25518], Leiby in Smith 1989:829 [ref. 13285], McAllister 1990:49 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:57 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:373 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221]). •Valid as Myrichthys ocellatus (Lesueur 1825) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:377 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:163 [ref. 21180], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:139 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:7 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Allen 2012:39 [ref. 31763], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:25 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Myrichthys ocellatus (Lesueur 1825). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western and (?) eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Sphagebranchus Risso [A.] 1827:480, Pl. 16 (fig. 48) [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] No locality. No types known. Name accompanying plate; perhaps corresponds to Sphagebranchus oculatus appearing on p. 197. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

oculata, Ophisurus fasciatus var. Bleeker [P.] 1864:64 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] East Indies. No types known. •Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:157 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

oculatus, Ophisurus Schlegel [H.] in Kaup 1856:22 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Curaçao. Holotype (unique): RMNH. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

oculatus, Pisodonophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:49 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Curaçao. No types known. •Valid as Myrichthys oculatus (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:78 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:63 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:55 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:373 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221]). •Synonym of Myrichthys ocellatus (Lesueur 1825) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:377 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:163 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys ocellatus (Lesueur 1825). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

oculatus, Sphagebranchus Risso [A.] 1827:197 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-0848 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1945:375 [ref. 21554], Bauchot et al. 1993:112 [ref. 20810]. •Synonym of Dalophis imberbis (Delaroche 1809) -- (Blache et al. 1973:249 [ref. 7185], Bauchot et al. 1993:112 [ref. 20810]). Current status: Synonym of Dalophis imberbis (Delaroche 1809). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

ogilbyi, Muraenichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1907:423, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 59; ref. 1377] Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 33121. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Mureanichthys macropterus Bleeker 1857 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931]). •Synonym of Muraenichthys breviceps Günther 1876 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:117 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:200 [ref. 22532]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys breviceps (Günther 1876) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], McCosker 2006:22 [ref. 28592], McCosker et al. 2006:275 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys breviceps (Günther 1876). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

okamurai, Muraenichthys Machida [Y.] & Ohta [S.] 1996:77, Fig. 1 [Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kochi University (Ser. D) (Biology) v. 16/17; ref. 22154] Pacific east of Cape Daioh, Mie Prefecture, western Honshu, Japan, 34°15'N, 136°55'E, depth 62-63 meters. Holotype: BSKU 82152. Paratypes: BSKU 82153 (1). •Valid as Muraenichthys okamurai Machida & Ohta 1996 -- (Nakabo 2000:216 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:216 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys okamurai (Machida & Ohta 1996) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys borealis (Machida & Shiogaki 1990) -- (Hoshino et al. 2011:184 [ref. 31273]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys aoki (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Hibino et al. 2012:180 [ref. 32443], Ji et al. 2013:591 [ref. 36298], Hibino & Kimura 2015:5 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys aoki (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

oligodon, Pisoodonophis Bleeker [P.] 1864:59 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 13921] Amoy, China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

oligosteus, Ophichthus Hibino [Y.], McCosker [J. E.] & Tashiro [F.] 2019:[ ], Figs. [Ichthyological Research First Online; ref. 36433] Tosa Bay, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype. Paratypes: •Valid as Ophichthus oligosteus Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus oligosteus Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Habitat: marine.

oliveri, Jenkinsella Seale [A.] 1910:493 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Zamboanga, Mindanao, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 4299 (apparently destroyed). Original genus should have been Jenkinsiella. •Valid as Cirrhimuraena oliveri (Seale 1910) -- (McCosker 1977:75 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Cirrhimuraena oliveri (Seale 1910). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

oliveri, Muraenichthys Waite [E. R.] 1910:374, Pl. 35 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 42; ref. 14596] Kermadec Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Muraenichthys australis Macleay 1881 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075] with question, Hibino & Kimura 2015:5 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Uncertain as Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

omanensis, Sphagebranchus Norman [J. R.] 1939:43, Fig. 16 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Gulf of Oman, station 72, depth 73 meters. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1939.5.24.650. •Valid as Ichthyapus omanensis (Norman 1939) -- (McCosker 1977:68 [ref. 6836] as incertae sedis, Randall 1995:61 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Yirrkala omanensis (Norman 1939) -- (McCosker 2011:47 [ref. 31260]). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala omanensis (Norman 1939). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Gulf of Oman. Habitat: marine.

omorgmus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1984:26, Figs. 4-6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 136; ref. 10404] Gulf of Mexico off northern Florida, station 21, 29°16.6'N, 86°05.5'W, U.S.A., depth 183 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 152302. •Valid as Ophichthus omorgmus McCosker & Böhlke 1984 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:397 [ref. 13288], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:278 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus omorgmus McCosker & Böhlke 1984. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

opercularis, Letharchus Myers [G. S.] & Wade [C. B.] 1941:82, Pl. 14 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 3133] Gardner Bay, Hood Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: LACM 21548 [ex AHF 15]. Paratypes: LACM 21702 (2), CAS-SU 36551 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Paraletharchus opercularis (Myers & Wade 1941) -- (McCosker 1977:64 [ref. 6836], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:167 [ref. 24023], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:442 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Paraletharchus opercularis (Myers & Wade 1941). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific islands. Habitat: marine.

ophichthoides, Leptocephalus D'Ancona [U.] 1928:65, Pl. 4 (figs. 3-4a) [Memoria, Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano No. 146; ref. 15917] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: (3). Leptocephalus is a catch-all name for the larval stages of Anguilliformes. •Valid as "Leptocephalus" ophichthoides D'Ancona 1928 -- (Dor 1984:37 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356]). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Red Sea. Habitat: marine.

ophioneus, Sphagebranchus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:73, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Off Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, Fish Hawk station 6065, depth 4-6 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49526. Type catalog: Smith 1994:36 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ichthyapus ophioneus (Evermann & Marsh 1900) -- (McCosker 1977:68 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:63 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:627 [ref. 9166], McCosker et al. 1989:323 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:848 [ref. 13285], Leiby 1990:184 [ref. 13652], Cervigón 1992:372 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:269 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:138 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], McCosker 2004:171 [ref. 27619], Smith et al. 2003:7 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558], Brown et al. 2019:157 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyapus ophioneus (Evermann & Marsh 1900). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

ophis, Muraena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:244 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea [original: "in Oceano Europæo"]. No types known. Originally based on 4 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:24 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:41 [ref. 30349] as Muraena teres gracilis maculosa, cauda tereti cuspidata apterygia; Willughby 1686:xix (appendix) [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:37 [ref. 30231] as Serpens marinus, maculosus. •Valid as Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:247 [ref. 7185], McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:582 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:65 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:820 [ref. 13285], Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652], Cervigón 1991:60 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:373 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:279 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:140 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:168 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:25 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34324], McCosker 2016:1665 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

opici, Hemerorhinus Blache [J.] & Bauchot [M.-L.] 1972:741, Figs. 21-23 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 304] Pointe-Noire bay, Republic of the Congo. Holotype: MNHN 1965-0662. Paratypes: MNHN 1964-0526 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:107 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Hemerorhinus opici Blache & Bauchot 1972 -- (McCosker 1977:67 [ref. 6836], Leiby 1990:184 [ref. 13652], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Hemerorhinus opici Blache & Bauchot 1972. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

ori, Yirrkala McCosker [J. E.] 2011:46, Figs.1-3 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 13; ref. 31260] Addington Beach, 29°86'40"S, 31°05'00"E, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 20 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 17485. Paratypes: CAS 230224 (1); SAIAB 17284 (1), 96727 (1) •Valid as Yirrkala ori McCosker 2011. Current status: Valid as Yirrkala ori McCosker 2011. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Apterichtus Machida [Y.] & Ohta [S.] 1994:1, Figs. 2-4 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 41 (no. 1); ref. 21444] Southeast of Kii Peninsula, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 33°26.4'N, 135°43.8'E to 33°26.2'N, 135°44.3'E, depth 79-81 meters. Holotype (unique): BSKU 81631. •Valid as Apterichtus orientalis Machida & Ohta 1994 -- (Nakabo 2000:219 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:219 [ref. 26001], Hibino et al. 2014:[2] [ref. 33212], McCosker & Hibino 2015:75 [ref. 33725]). Current status: Valid as Apterichtus orientalis Machida & Ohta 1994. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Cirrhimuraena Nguyen [K. H.] 1993:44, Fig. [Marine fishes of Vietnam (Anguillomorpha, Cyprinomorpha, Atherinomorpha) v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 24102] Vietnam. •Valid as Cirrhimuraena orientalis Nguyen 1993. Current status: Valid as Cirrhimuraena orientalis Nguyen 1993. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Dalophis McClelland [J.] 1844:213 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Coromandel coast, India. No types known. •Valid as Lamnostoma orientalis (McClelland 1844) -- (McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:179 [ref. 5690], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:85 [ref. 20764], Séret & Dingerkus 1992:169 [ref. 22389], Kottelat et al. 1993:12 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:62 [ref. 22896] as Lamnastoma, Marquet et al. 1999:43 [ref. 23934], Carpenter et al. 1997:108 [ref. 23922], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Keith et al. 2002:90 [ref. 31473], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:105 [ref. 31980], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988]). •Valid as Lamnostoma orientale (McClelland 1844) -- (Kottelat 2013:44 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:43 [ref. 35805], Chiu et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36033] as orientalis). Current status: Valid as Lamnostoma orientale (McClelland 1844). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa and Madagascar east to New Guinea, Society Islands and Marqueas Islands, (questionably Society Islands), south to New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ornatissimus, Herpetoichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:44 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Coast of Malabar, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2757. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:107 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:7, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Herpetoichthys regius (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:365 [ref. 13288], Bauchot et al. 1993:107 [ref. 20810]). •Synonym of Herpetoichthys regius (Richardson 1848) -- (J. E.cCosker, pers. comm. 24 Aug. 2011). Current status: Synonym of Herpetoichthys regius (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

owstoni, Muraenichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:862, Fig. 11 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Yaeyama Island, Ishigaki Islands, southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 6472 [= 106472]. Paratypes: USNM 49865 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49-50 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:32 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Muraenichthys macropterus Bleeker 1857 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys macroptera (Bleeker 1857) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Hibino & Kimura 2015:19 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys macroptera (Bleeker 1857). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

oxyrhynchus, Leptognathus Swainson [W.] 1838:221, Fig. 42 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Spelled oxyrynchus in 1839:396 [ref. 4303]. •Synonym of Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker 1977:82 [ref. 6836]). Current status: Synonym of Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

oxyrinchus, Echelus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:64, Pl. 17 (fig. 4) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:250 [ref. 7185], Leiby 1990:191 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pachyrhynchus, Myrus Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:81, Pl. 5 (fig. 1, 1a-b) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Off Morocco (depth 1435 meters); Cape Verde Islands (depth 460 meters). Lectotype: MNHN 1884-0432. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1884-0431 (1), 1884-0435 (1), 1884-0438 (1). Type information: Bauchot et al. 1993:108-109, 116 [ref. 20810] with MNHN 1884-431 as holotype. Lectotype selected by Poll 1953:140-143 [?ref. 12713]. •Valid as Echelus pachyrhynchus (Vaillant 1888) -- (McCosker 1977:76 [ref. 6836], Leiby 1990:182 [ref. 13652], McCosker 2016:1664 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Echelus pachyrhynchus (Vaillant 1888). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pacifici, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:76 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Chile. Lectotype: BMNH 1866.12.27.5. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1868.1.11.16-18 (3). Lectotype selected by McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:415 [ref. 23645]. •Valid as Ophichthus pacifici Günther 1870 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:121 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

pacificus, Benthenchelys cartieri Castle [P. H. J.] 1972:11 [Dana Report No. 82; ref. 6968] Central Pacific, 7°46'S, 167°10'W, 3000 meters wire out. Holotype: USNM 92356. Paratypes: USNM 93349 (4), 923350 (1). •Valid as Benthenchelys pacificus Castle 1972 -- (J. E. McCosker, pers. comm. 6/01). Current status: Valid as Benthenchelys pacificus Castle 1972. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pacificus, Letharchus Osburn [R. C.] & Nichols [J. T.] 1916:146, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 35 (art. 16); ref. 15062] Cabo San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 87540 [ex AMNH 5200]. Type catalog: Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Paraletharchus pacificus (Osburn & Nichols 1916) -- (McCosker 1977:64 [ref. 6836], Allen & Robertson 1994:54 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1339 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:168 [ref. 24023], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:64 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paraletharchus pacificus (Osburn & Nichols 1916). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

paleracio, Myrichthys McCosker [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 2012:36, Figs. 1-3a + front cover [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 18 (no. 1); ref. 31763] Layag Layag, 13.688°N, 120.841°E. Luzon Island, Batangas Province, Philippines. Holotype: CAS 233313. Paratypes: WAM 33154-001 (1). •Valid as Myrichthys paleracio McCosker & Allen 2012.-- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:107 [ref. 31980], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288]). Current status: Valid as Myrichthys paleracio McCosker & Allen 2012. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

pallens, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:101 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2015.8.25.1 (Reeves coll.). •Valid as Ophichthus pallens (Richardson 1848) -- (Hibino et al. 2019:[1] [ref. 36433]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus pallens (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: China to Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

panamensis, Bascanichthys Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:151, Pl. 7 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Chame Point, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 82211. Paratypes: USNM 82212-13 (4, 1), 82225 (112). Type catalog: Smith 1994:28 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Bascanichthys panamensis Meek & Hildebrand 1923 -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], Allen & Robertson 1994:51 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1333 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:242 [ref. 24545], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], Moreno et al. 2016:13 [ref. 35398]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys panamensis Meek & Hildebrand 1923. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pantherina, Caecula Cadenat [J.] 1956:1267, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 18 (no. 4); ref. 12052] Near Dakar, Senegal, 13°50'N, depth 35 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1635 [ex IFAN 1956-140]. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:105 [ref. 20810]. The holotype of this species is also the neotype of Ophichthys guineensis. •Synonym of Callechelys perryae Storey 1939 -- (Leiby 1990:180 [ref. 13652]). •Objective synonym of Callechelys guineensis (Osório 1893) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:308 [ref. 13288], Bauchot et al. 1993:105 [ref. 20810], McCosker 1998:198 [ref. 23298]). Current status: Synonym of Callechelys guineensis (Osório 1893). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

pantostigmius, Myrichthys Jordan [D. S.] & McGregor [E. A.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2802 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 5710. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291]. Also in Jordan and McGregor 1899:274 [ref. 2488]. •Valid as Myrichthys pantostigmius Jordan & McGregor 1898 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:164 [ref. 21180], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Allen 2012:39 [ref. 31763], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Myrichthys pantostigmius Jordan & McGregor 1898. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Revillagigedo and Clipperton islands. Habitat: marine.

papulosa, Callechelys McCosker [J. E.] 1998:203, Figs. 11, 12b [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 7); ref. 23298] West of Make-is Pt., Buname Bay, Normandy Island, D'Entrecasteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): BPBM 36290. •Valid as Callechelys papulosa McCosker 1998 -- (Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], McCosker et al. 2011:275 [ref. 31452], Allen & Erdmann 2012:104 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys papulosa McCosker 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: D'Entrecasteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Ophisurus Valenciennes [A.] 1839:[90], Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2130. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:110-111 [ref. 20810]. Dates to Pl. 16 in 1839, p. 90 published in 1843. •Valid as Myrichthys pardalis (Valenciennes 1839) -- (McCosker 1977:79 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:374 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:185 [ref. 13652], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:164 [ref. 21180], Afonso et al. 1999:69 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], McCosker & Allen 2012:39 [ref. 31763], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Myrichthys pardalis (Valenciennes 1839). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

parilis, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:105 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] West Indies or Cuba. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1985.11.27.2. •Valid as Ophichthus parilis (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:121 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:58 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:374 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:582 [ref. 16204] as parilus dated 1844, Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221] as parilus, Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192]). •Synonym of Ophichthus cylindroideus (Ranzani 1839) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:386 [ref. 13288], and pers. comm. 1/2010). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus cylindroideus (Ranzani 1839). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

parvipectoralis, Neenchelys Chu [Y.-T.], Wu [H.-L.] & Jin [X.-B.] 1981:24 [English p. 27], Figs. 4-5 [Journal of Fisheries of China v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21250] Pingtan Island, Pington City, Fujian Province, China. Holotype: ASIZB [now NZMC] 73634 [ex A01383]. Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:12 [ref. 33808]. •Valid as Neenchelys parvipectoralis Chu, Wu & Jin 1981 -- (Ho et al. 2010:29 [ref. 31218], Zhang et al. 2010:323 [ref. 31511], Hibino et al. 2012:345 [ref. 32271], Ho et al. 2012:949 [ref. 33018], Ho et al. 2013:11[ref. 33156], Ye et al. 2015:12 [ref. 33808], Toshiro et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33874], Ho & Loh 2015:54 [ref. 34121], Ho et al. 2015:170 [ref. 34130], Hibino et al. 2015:60 [ref. 34166], Motomura et al. 2017:32 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Neenchelys parvipectoralis Chu, Wu & Jin 1981. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: China and Taiwan, Vietnam to Japan. East China Sea, South China Sea and Sulu Sea [ref. 35490]. Habitat: marine.

parvipinna, Quassiremus Seale [A.] 1917:83 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Acapulco, Mexico, eastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): MCZ 9205. •Synonym of Quassiremus nothochir (Gilbert 1890) -- (McCosker 1977:84 [ref. 6836]). Current status: Synonym of Quassiremus nothochir (Gilbert 1890). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

paucidens, Cirrhimuraena Herre [A. W. C. T.] & Myers [G. S.] 1931:249 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 10 (nos 2-3); ref. 2115] Purchased in Hoihow, Hainan, China. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 24326. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. •Possibly a synonym of Cirrhimuraena chinensis Kaup 1856 -- (McCosker 1977:75 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Cirrhimuraena paucidens Herre & Myers 1931 -- (Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Cirrhimuraena paucidens Herre & Myers 1931. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: China. Habitat: marine.

pauciporus, Ophichthys Poey [F.] 1867:255, Pl. 3 (fig. 5) [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. No types known. •Status uncertain -- (McCosker et al. 1989:380 [ref. 13288]). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

paulensis, Bascanichthys Storey [M. H.] 1939:73, Figs. 3, 5 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 12333] São Paulo, Brazil (stomach content). Holotype (unique): CAS 5586. •Valid as Bascanichthys paulensis Storey 1939 -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:335 [ref. 13288], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558], Moreno et al. 2016:13 [ref. 35398]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys paulensis Storey 1939. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pelagica, Neenchelys Ho [H.-C.], McCosker [J. E.] & Smith [D. G.] 2015:50 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34122] Dong-gang Fishing Port, SW Taiwan, northern South China Sea. Holotype: NMMB-P15556. Paratypes: CAS 231943 (1), USNM 401022 (1). First appeared in Ho et al. 2013 [ref. 33156], but not satisfying Art. 8.5.3 and thus not available. Name available in Ho et al. 2015 [ref. 34122]. •Valid as Neenchelys pelagica Ho, McCosker & Smith 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:170 [ref. 34130], Hibino et al. 2015:60 [ref. 34166]). Current status: Valid as Neenchelys pelagica Ho, McCosker & Smith 2015. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

penicillatus, Rhinophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 1999:581, Figs. 5, 6a [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 180; ref. 23699] New Caledonia, 18°57.80'S, 163°14.00'E, depth 435 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1998-0048. Paratypes: CAS 89553 (1, gill arches removed and c&s), MNHN 1998-0049 (1). •Valid as Rhinophichthus penicillatus McCosker 1999 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342]). Current status: Valid as Rhinophichthus penicillatus McCosker 1999. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

peninsulae, Callechelys Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:548 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] La Paz Bay, Baja California, Mexico, Gulf of California. Holotype (unique): USNM 44297. Type catalog: Smith 1994:29 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Myrichthys peninsulae (Gilbert 1892) -- (De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:242 [ref. 24545]). •Synonym of Myrichthys tigrinus Girard 1859 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:165 [ref. 21180]). •Synonym of Myrichthys xysturus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (McCosker 1998:196 [ref. 23298]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys xysturus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

percinctus, Evips McCosker [J. E.] 1972:114, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 10); ref. 2932] Kayangel Island, 8°02'18"N, 134°42'21"E, Palau Islands, southern Caroline Archipelago, depth 0-4 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 13966. •Valid as Evips percinctus McCosker 1972 -- (McCosker 1977:77 [ref. 6836], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965] as Evipes, Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Evips percinctus McCosker 1972. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Palau. Habitat: marine.

perlongus, Neoconger Poey [F.] 1875:67, Pl. 9 (figs. 3-4) [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 11 (nos 3-4) (art. 6); ref. 18564] Matanzas, Cuba. Holotype (unique): USNM 37478. Type catalog: Smith 1994:33 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:286 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

perryae, Callechelys Storey [M. H.] 1939:71, Figs. 2, 4 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 12333] 1 mile off southern shore of Sanibel Island, Florida, U.S.A., Gulf of Mexico, 26°25'-26'N, 82°01'-03'W, depth 2-3 fathoms. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 33027. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Callechels perryae Storey 1939 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:62 [ref. 23100], Leiby 1990:180 [ref. 13652], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:98 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Callechelys guineensis (Osório 1893) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:308 [ref. 13288], McCosker 1998:198 [ref. 23298]). Current status: Synonym of Callechelys guineensis (Osório 1893). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

philippinensis, Caecula Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1936:358, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 59 (no. 3); ref. 5609] Dumaguete, Oriental Negros, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 30977. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Yirrkala philippinensis (Herre 1936) -- (McCosker 2011:47 [ref. 31260], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288] with question). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala philippinensis (Herre 1936). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

philippinensis, Muraenichthys Schultz [L. P.] & Woods [L. P.] 1949:173, Fig. 2 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 39 (no. 5); ref. 10179] Badian Island, off western samar, Philippines, 11°31'40"N, 124°42'40"E, Albatross station 5206, depth 32 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 134951. Paratypes: USNM 134952 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:32 [ref. 21917]. •Probable synonym of Muraenichthys thompsoni Jordan & Richardson 1908 -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075]). •Valid as Muraenichthys philippinensis Schultz & Woods 1949 -- (McCosker 1970:507 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715], Allen & Erdmann 2012:106 [ref. 31980], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Hibino & Kimura 2015:69 [ref. 34120]). Current status: Valid as Muraenichthys philippinensis Schultz & Woods 1949. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

phoenixensis, Machaerenchelys Schultz [L. P.] 1943:16, Pl. 1; Fig. 2c [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Lagoon of Canton Island, Phoenix Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 115940. Type catalog: Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1839). Current status: Synonym of Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1839). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

pictum, Lamnostoma Kaup [J. J.] 1856:50 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Vizapathum and Deccan, India. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Lamnostoma orientale (McClelland 1844) -- (McCosker & Castle 1986:179 [ref. 5690], Kottelat 2013:44 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lamnostoma orientale (McClelland 1844). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pictus, Anguilla (Ophisurus) Swainson [W.] 1839:334, 395 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

pinguis, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1872:425 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 10 (no. 60) (art,. 60); ref. 18195] Solomon Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.3.29.101. •Valid as Malvoliophis pinguis (Günther 1872) -- (McCosker 1977:78 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:117 [ref. 12442], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471]). Current status: Valid as Malvoliophis pinguis (Günther 1872). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pinnaceps, Leptenchelys Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:79, Fig. 16 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Ocean reef at Romuk Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141691. Paratypes: USNM 202543 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Callechelys melanotaenia Bleeker 1864 -- (McCosker 1970:506 [ref. 2931]). •Synonym of Callechelys catostoma (Schneider 1801) -- (Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917] as catastomus, McCosker 1998:190 [ref. 23298], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965] as catostomus). Current status: Synonym of Callechelys catostoma (Schneider 1801). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

pinnata, Phaenomonas Myers [G. S.] & Wade [C. B.] 1941:77, Pl. 12 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 3133] Port Utria, Colombia, depth 15-30 fathoms. Holotype: LACM 21560 [ex AHF 13]. Paratypes: LACM 21705 (1). •Valid as Phaenomonas pinnata Myers & Wade 1941 -- (McCosker 1977:73 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:352 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1339 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:171 [ref. 24023], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Randall 2007:69 [ref. 30952], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:64 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Phaenomonas pinnata Myers & Wade 1941. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pisavarius, Ophichthys Poey [F.] 1876:196? [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 5 Apr. 1876); ref. 3510] Cuba. No types known. Original not seen; may date to Poey 1880. •Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:374 [ref. 13288], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:157 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

platyrhyncha, Caecula (Sphagebranchus) Gosline [W. A.] 1951:312, Figs. 1, 14 (b, d) [Pacific Science v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 1858] Between Laie and Kaneohe, Hauula Park, north shore of Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 152543. Paratypes: BPBM 5543 (1), 14200 [ex UH 316] (10, now 9), 37410 [ex UH 958] (9); USNM 152544 (3). •Synonym of Ichthyapus vulturis (Weber & de Beaufort 1916) -- (McCosker 1977:68 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Ichthyapus platyrhynchus (Gosline 1951) -- (McCosker & Randall 2005:7 [ref. 28054], Mundy 2005:132 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:66 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyapus platyrhynchus (Gosline 1951). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

platyrhynchus, Myrophis Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1927:8, Figs. 3-4 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 635] Glovers Reef, Belize, surface. Holotype: YPM 30. Paratypes: YPM 31-33 (5, 1, 2). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:23 [ref. 16741]. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Myrophis platyrhynchus Breder 1927 -- (Scott & Scott 1988:86 [ref. 25518], McCosker et al. 1989:283 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:770 [ref. 13285], McAllister 1990:48 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1992:370 [ref. 23827], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:139 [ref. 25013], Claro et al. 2000:20 [ref. 26458] as platyrhinchus, Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Smith et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:25 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Myrophis platyrhynchus Breder 1927. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

platyventris, Aprognathodon Böhlke [J. E.] 1967:100, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 118 (no. 4); ref. 602] About 1/4 mile north of Green Cay, Nassau Vicinity, Great Bahama Bank, Bahamas, depth 0-35 feet. Holotype: ANSP 106303. Paratypes: AMNH 20616 (1); ANSP 106296 (56, orig. 64), 106297-302 (1, 1, 3, 3, 1, 3), 106304 (19, orig. 21), 106305-08 (3, 2, 1, 1), 106387 (1, c&s); Museo Zool. Specola, Florence [ex ANSP 106296] (2); SIO 68-393 [ex ANSP 106296] (6); SMF 12334 (2); UF 12469 (3), 206661 [ex UMML 6661] (1), 212520 [ex UMML 12520] (1), 221753-54 [ex UMML 21753-54] (1, 3); ZMUC [ex ANSP 106304] (2). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:114 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Aprognathodon platyventris Böhlke 1967 -- (McCosker 1977:62 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:61 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:301 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:881 [ref. 13285], Cervigón 1991:53 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:371 [ref. 23827], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Smith et al. 2003:7 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708] Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:24 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Aprognathodon platyventris Böhlke 1967. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

playfairii, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:76 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.11.15.44. •Valid as Jenkinsiella playfairii (Günther 1870) -- (Dor 1984:35 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356] as playfairi). •Valid as Cirrhimuraena playfairii (Günther 1870) -- (McCosker 1977:75 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:179 [ref. 5690], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], McCosker 2002:25 [ref. 25848], Mundy 2005:132 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:65 [ref. 30952], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Fricke et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33895], Golani & Fricke 2018:27 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Cirrhimuraena playfairii (Günther 1870). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa and Aldabra east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas islands. Habitat: marine.

plumbea, Holopterura Cope [E. D.] 1871:482 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Liberia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 22964. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Myrophis plumbeus (Cope 1871) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:285 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:770 [ref. 13285], Leiby 1990:186 [ref. 13652], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], Vreven & De Vos 2007:185 [ref. 30015], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Myrophis plumbeus (Cope 1871). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Atlantic: western Atlantic and in eastern Atlantic from Senegal to the Democratic Republic of Congo. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

polyclitellum, Quassiremus Castle [P. H. J.] 1996:110, Figs. 1-2 [Pacific Science v. 50 (no. 1); ref. 22122] Tiki Rocks, north side of Fanal Island, New Zealand, 35°56'S, 175°09'E, depth 48 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P.30897. Paratypes: AIM 4021 (1), NMNZ P.32306 (1). •Valid as Quassiremus polyclitellum Castle 1996 -- (McCosker & Stewart 2015:255 [ref. 34235]). Current status: Valid as Quassiremus polyclitellum Castle 1996. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

polyodon, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1860:86 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 375] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.263 (1) Priaman. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

polyophthalmus, Dalophis Bleeker [P.] 1853:299 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] Priaman, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.310 (1) Ambon. Also appeared in Bleeker 1853:69 [ref. 339]. •Valid as Dalophis polyophthalmus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:85 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Lamnostoma polyophthalmum (Bleeker 1853) -- (Marquet et al. 1999:43 [ref. 23934] as polyophthalma, Nakabo 2000:218 [ref. 25086], Keith et al. 2002:92 [ref. 31473] as polyophthalma, Nakabo 2002:218 [ref. 26001], Kottelat 2013:44 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33932] as polyophthalma, Chiu et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36033], Ho et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36050]). Current status: Valid as Lamnostoma polyophthalmum (Bleeker 1853). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia, Luzon (Philippines), Japan and northern Taiwan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

polyophthalmus, Ophichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864:43 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.261 (1) no locality. A secondary junior hymonym of Dalophis polyophthamus Bleeker 1853, but replacement name never used. •Valid as Ophichthus polyophthalmus Bleeker 1864 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:75 [ref. 22017], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:66 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:222 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:222 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495] as polyophthalma, Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889], Mundy 2005:135 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:68 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213], Zhang et al. 2010:337 [ref. 31511], Allen & Erdmann 2012:109 [ref. 31980], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34130], Miesen et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus polyophthalmus Bleeker 1864. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

polyrinus, Echelus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:69 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

polyspondylus, Echelus McCosker [J. E.] & Ho [H.-C.] 2015:73, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34123] Dong-gang, Pingtung, southwestern Taiwan, South China Sea, depth ca. 200 meters. Holotype: NMMB-P 14218. Paratypes: ASIZP, CAS, NMMB-P. •Valid as Echelus polyspondylus McCosker & Ho 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:168 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Echelus polyspondylus McCosker & Ho 2015. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

porphyreus, Ophisurus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:265, Pl. 116 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH D1684. Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:189 [ref. 12876]. •See McCosker 1977:79 [ref. 6836]. •Valid as Mystriophis porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:220 [ref. 25086], Youn 2002:143, 491 [ref. 26218], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:355 [ref. 31511]). •Valid as Brachysomophis porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (McCosker & Randall 2001:25 [ref. 25635], Nakabo 2002:220 [ref. 26001], McCosker & Ho 2014:95 [ref. 33573], Ho et al. 2015:167 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Brachysomophis porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: China to Japan, Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

potamius, Stictorhinus Böhlke [J. E.] & McCosker [J. E.] 1975:5, Figs. 1-7 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 127 (no. 1); ref. 607] Freshwater pool of Rio Tocantin near Tucuruí, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 9248. Paratypes: ANSP 128520-21 (1, 8), 128522 [ex MZUSP 8980-81] (2); CAS 30473 (1, c&s), 30472 (8); GCRL-F-1571 (1); MZUSP 8959-79 (21), 9269-81 (13); USNM 212060 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:37 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Stictorhinus potamius Böhlke & McCosker 1975 -- (McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:326 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:855 [ref. 13285], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27061], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Stictorhinus potamius Böhlke & McCosker 1975. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Amazon River and Orinoco River basins and northeastern Brazil: Brazil and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

potamophilus, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1854:458 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 338] Sambas, western Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.232 (1) Borneo. Also appeared in Bleeker 1853:68 [ref. 339]. Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

productus, Quassiremus Seale [A.] 1917:82 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Nassau, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): MCZ 9150. •Valid as Quassiremus productus Seale 1917 -- (McCosker 1977:84 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Quassiremus ascensionis (Studer 1889) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:410 [ref. 13288], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:141 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Quassiremus ascensionis (Studer 1889). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

profundorum, Muraenichthys McCosker [J. E.] & Parin [N. V.] 1995:232, Figs. 1-3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 42 (no. 3/4); ref. 21924] Nazca Ridge, eastern Pacific, 21°32'S, 81°39'W, depth 310 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 48061. •Valid in Scolecenchelys [profundorum] -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], McCosker et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31982]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys profundorum (McCosker & Parin 1995) -- (Machida & Ohta 1996:79 [ref. 22154], Pequeño 1997:80 [ref. 23536], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32418], Hibino & Kimura 2015:17 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys profundorum (McCosker & Parin 1995). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Nazca Ridge. Habitat: marine.

pterygera, Caecula Vahl [M.] 1794:153, Pl. 13 [Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet Kiøbenhavn v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 4482] Syntypes: ZMUC 154-155 (2) East Indies (?). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:53 [ref. 9588]. Plate not seen. •See McCosker 1977:[ref. 6836]. •Valid as Caecula pterygera Vahl 1794 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:84 [ref. 20764], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Zhang et al. 2010:371 [ref. 31511]). Current status: Valid as Caecula pterygera Vahl 1794. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: northern Indian Ocean; China. Habitat: brackish, marine.

puhioilo, Muraenichthys McCosker [J. E.] 1979:59, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 2); ref. 8805] North of Barber's Point, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 275 meters. Holotype: CAS 29115 [ex SIO 70-32]. •Valid as Scolecenchelys puhioilo (McCosker 1979) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], McCosker 2002:25 [ref. 25848], Mundy 2005:136 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:58 [ref. 30952], McCosker et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31982], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino & Kimura 2015:19 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys puhioilo (McCosker 1979). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

pullus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2005:670, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 56 (no. 36); ref. 28646] Angola, 12°24'S, 13°22'E, depth 106-107 meters. Holotype: CAS 222666. Paratypes: CAS 222667 (1). Plus one non-type specimen. •Valid as Ophichthus pullus McCosker 2005 -- (McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus pullus McCosker 2005. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Angola and Guinea-Bissau. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Echelus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:65 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:42 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Echelus punctatus Rafinesque 1810 -- (McCosker 1977:77 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Echelus myrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Leiby 1990:182 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Echelus myrus (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctatus, Myrophis Lütken [C. F.] 1852:15, Pl. 2 (figs. 2, 2b-d) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1851 (nos 1-2); ref. 2852] West Indies. No types known. Also in Lütken 1852:270 [ref. 30287]. •Valid as Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852 -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:61 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:86 [ref. 25518], McCosker et al. 1989:286 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:770 [ref. 13285], McAllister 1990:48 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:51 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:35 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:370 [ref. 23827], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:55 [ref. 22947], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:272 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:99 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:140 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192] dated 1851, Smith et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:131 [ref. 27995], Matamoros et al. 2009:7 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:989 [ref. 33194], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:63 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Myrophis punctatus Lütken 1852. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

puncticeps, Cryptopterus Kaup [J. J.] 1859:11, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): ZMH H192. Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:161 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:404 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Leiby in Smith 1989:821 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:36 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:280 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708] dated 1860). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

puncticulata, Anguilla (Ophisurus) Swainson [W.] 1839:334 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Ham. fig. 5 -- which is Hamilton 1822:Pl. 5 (fig. 5) [ref. 2031]. Unneeded new name for Ophisurus hijala Hamilton 1822. •Synonym of Pisodonophis hijala (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis hijala (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

punctifer, Crotalopsis Kaup [J. J.] 1859:13, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): ZMH 392. •Valid as Echiophis punctifer (Kaup 1859) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:64 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:362 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:831 [ref. 13285], Cervigón 1991:62 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:34 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:372 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:264 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], McCosker & Randall 2001:3 [ref. 25635], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:25 [ref. 33341], McCosker 2016:1664 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Echiophis punctifer (Kaup 1859). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and eastern Atlantic (on cruetzbgergi). Habitat: marine.

punctulatus, Anguisurus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:50 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Lamnostoma polyophthalmum (Bleeker 1853) -- (Kottelat 2013:45 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lamnostoma polyophthalmum (Bleeker 1853). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

pusillipinna, Mixomyrophis McCosker [J. E.] 1985:10, Figs. 1-2, 6b [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 44 (no. 2); ref. 5238] Off Anguilla, Lesser Antilles, 18°26.4'N, 63°12.6'W to 18°28'N, 63°11.1'W, depth 393-451 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 152305 [ex UMML 30290]. •Valid as Mixomyrophis pusillipinna McCosker 1985 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:279 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:770 [ref. 13285], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Hibono et al.2014:xx [ref. 33410]). Current status: Valid as Mixomyrophis pusillipinna McCosker 1985. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pusillus, Bascanichthys Seale [A.] 1917:81 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Viti, Fiji Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MCZ 25147. •Valid as Bascanichthys pusillus Seale 1917 -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys pusillus Seale 1917. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

quadratus, Sphagebranchus Richardson [J.] 1845:no p., Pl. 52 (figs. 8-15) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2015.8.25.2. Available from plate. Text in Richardson 1845:115 [ref. 20275]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

quincunciatus, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:83 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] No locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.12.12.32. •Synonym of Myrichthys tigrinus Girard 1859 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:165 [ref. 21180]). •Synonym of Myrichthys xysturus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys xysturus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

ramiger, Ophisurus Valenciennes [A.] 1847:11 [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale v. 5 (art. 2); ref. 5010] Eastern Pacific. Technically dates to plate that was published in 1837; the name was spelled remiger. The spelling ramiger is the synonym of Ophichthys remiger. •Valid as Ophichthys ramiger (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:42 [ref. 23101]). •Valid as Ophichthus ramiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1338 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:120 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Callechelys McCosker [J. E.] 1998:206, Figs. 12A, 13 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 7); ref. 23298] Off point at north end of Hanauu Bay, Fatu Hiva, Marquesas Islands, central Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 11844. Paratypes: CAS 91839 (1). •Valid as Callechelys randalli McCosker 1998 -- (Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys randalli McCosker 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Gordiichthys McCosker [J. E.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1984:38, Figs. 9-11 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 136; ref. 5316] Crashboat basin, Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, depth 7.5 meters. Holotype: ANSP 151690. Paratypes: ANSP 151689 (1), 138370 (1 c&s), 151691-92 (1, 1); BPBM 29361 (1); CAS 52673 (1); USNM 263572 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Gordiichthys randalli McCosker & Böhlke 1984 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:349 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:871 [ref. 13285], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker & Lavenberg 2001:8 [ref. 25775], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993]). Current status: Valid as Gordiichthys randalli McCosker & Böhlke 1984. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

regius, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] (ex Shaw) 1848:106 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] St. Helena Island, South Atlantic. Holotype: BMNH 1985.2.19.5. •Valid as Ophichthus regius (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Leiby 1990:190 [ref. 13652], Trunov 2006:471 [ref. 28786]). •Valid as Herpetoichthys regius (Richardson 1848) -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:627 [ref. 9166], McCosker et al. 1989:365 [ref. 13288], Wirtz et al. 2014:[3] 785 [ref. 33516], McCosker 2016:1662 [ref. 34558], Brown et al. 2019:157 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Herpetoichthys regius (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern, southern central and eastern Atlantic: Santa Catarina (Brazil); Saint Helena, Ascension Island; Mauritania. Habitat: marine.

remicaudus, Centrurophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:42 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN (2, not found). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:128 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:3 [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Blache et al. 1973:248 [ref. 7185], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:583 [ref. 13676]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

remiger, Ophisurus Valenciennes [A.] 1837:Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Valparaíso, Chile. Lectotype: MNHN B-2748 (largest of 3). Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2748 (2 of 3). Valenciennes specimens: BMNH 1866.12.27.5 (1), MNHN A-9955 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:111 [ref. 20810]. Name available from plate as remiger, description in Valenciennes 1847:11 [ref. 5010] as Ophisurus ramiger. The spelling remiger should be used. The figured specimen cannot be identified as the holotype so McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:414-415 [ref. 23645] selected a lectotype from 3 "syntypes" in the Paris collection collected by d'Orbigny. Plate 12 published in 1837. •Valid as Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645], Tang & Zhang 2002:855 [ref. 26492], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Robertson et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Nicaragua to Chile. Habitat: marine.

retifer, Ophichthus Fowler [H. W.] 1935:368, Fig. 9 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 1421] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: ANSP 63915. Paratypes: ANSP 72145-47 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Ophichthus retifer Fowler 1935 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Dor 1984:36 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Ophichthus erabo (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus erabo (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

retrodorsalis, Ophichthus Liu [D.], Tang [W.] & Zhang [C.] 2010:332 [417], Fig. 191 [ ref. 31081] Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, China, 26˚05'N, 119˚18'E. Holotype (unique): ASIZB [now NZMC] 50929. Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:13 [ref. 33808]. Original description in Chinese; English translation on p. 417. •Valid as Ophichthus retrodorsalis Liu, Tang & Zhang 2010 -- (Ye et al. 2015:13 [ref. 33808], Ho et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36050]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus retrodorsalis Liu, Tang & Zhang 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

retropinna, Neenchelys Smith [D. G.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1983:80, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 135; ref. 8278] Gulf of Oman, 26°10'N, 57°02'E, depth 55-64 meters. Holotype: ANSP 131512. Paratypes: ANSP 131513 (1), AMS I.21847-017 (1). •Valid as Neenchelys retropinna Smith & Böhlke 1983 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:119 [ref. 12442], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], McCosker & Chen 2000:356 [ref. 25028], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], McCosker et al. 2006:271 [ref. 29006], Zhang et al. 2010:324 [ref. 31511], Larson et al. 2013:27 [ref. 32988]). •Questionably a synonym of Myrophis cheni Chen & Weng 1967 -- (Ho et al. 2010:24 [ref. 31218]). Current status: Synonym of Neenchelys cheni (Chen & Weng 1967). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

retropinnis, Muraenichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1934:277, Fig. 37 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Taratara Island, off western Samar Island, Philippines, 11°45'53"N, 124°42'50"E, Albatross station 5208, depth 26 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 92355. Paratypes: (4) USNM 134953-54 (1, 1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:32 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Schultzidia retropinnis (Fowler 1934) -- (McCosker 1970:507 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:62 [ref. 6836], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Allen & Erdmann 2012:110 [ref. 31980], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288]). Current status: Valid as Schultzidia retropinnis (Fowler 1934). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines, Solomon Islands, Caroline Islands and Marshall Islands. Habitat: marine.

retropinnis, Ophichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] 1887:116 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 613); ref. 18064] Snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 38054. Type catalog: Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus retropinnis Eigenmann 1887 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

revulsus, Xyrias Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:869, Fig. 16 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Near Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6476. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Xyrias revulsus Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (McCosker 1977:84 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:103, 323 [ref. 8057], McCosker 1998:12 [ref. 24055], Nakabo 2000:220 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:220 [ref. 26001], McCosker et al. 2006:277 [ref. 29006], McCosker et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30556], Zhang et al. 2010:349 [ref. 31511], Larson et al. 2013:29 [ref. 32988], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Ho et al. 2015:176 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Xyrias revulsus Jordan & Snyder 1901. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

rex, Ophichthus Böhlke [J. E.] & Caruso [J. H.] 1980:239, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 132; ref. 8737] Northern Gulf of Mexico, 28°17'N, 90°30'W, depth 64 meters. Holotype: ANSP 136745. Paratypes: ANSP 133550 (1), 135555 (1), 136744 (1), 142201 (1), 142968-69 (1, 1 head), 143064 (1), 143071 (1); GCRL 3691 (2), 4745 (2); TU 82453 (1), 88498-502 (5), 88505-06 (2), 88507 (1, skull & parts), 88508 (1), 88510 (1); UF 73592 [ex FSU 23592] (1); USNM 133826 (1), 200495 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621], Bart & Taylor 1993:50 [ref. 20906], Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus rex Böhlke & Caruso 1980 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:65 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:405 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:825 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:36 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:281 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus rex Böhlke & Caruso 1980. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

rhytidoderma, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:63 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.226. Unjustified emendation of Ophisurus rutidoderma Bleeker 1853, taking the same type specimen. •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rhytidodermatoides, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:62 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.292. Unjustified emendation of Ophisurus rutidodermatoides Bleeker 1853, taking the same type specimen. •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker 2011:6 [ref. 29192]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

ribeiroi, Antobrantia Pinto [S. Y.] 1970:13, Figs. 1-2 [Atas da Sociedade de biologia do Rio de Janeiro v. 14 (no. 1-2); ref. 3482] Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 9367. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker 1977:80 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

robusta, Scolecenchelys Hibino [Y.] & Kimura [S.] 2015:18, Figs. 1i, 2m, 4f [Ichthyological Research v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 33951] Réunion. Holotype: SMNS 20817. Paratypes: MNHN, SMNH, USNM. •Valid as Scolecenchelys robusta Hibino & Kimura 2015. Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys robusta Hibino & Kimura 2015. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Réunion and Mauritius. Habitat: marine.

rosenblatti, Letharchus McCosker [J. E.] 1974:625, Figs. 1, 4-5 [Copeia 1974 (no. 3); ref. 2933] Reef near Saboga village, Isla Saboga, Perlas Islands, (Pacific) Panama, depth 0-3 meters. Holotype: SIO 67-40. Paratypes: ANSP 124010 (2); CAS 27838 (2); GCRL 3555 (1); LACM 32547-47 (5); SIO 15-203 (2) (ex UCLA W63-214), 67-40 (5, largest c&s), ?68-367 (2), 71-213 (14); UA 68-60-9 (1); UCR 673-13 (2); USNM 209339 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917], Angulo et al. 2015:377 [ref. 35212].. •Valid as Letharchus rosenblatti McCosker 1974 -- (McCosker 1977:64 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:313 [ref. 13288], Allen & Robertson 1994:53 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1336 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Letharchus rosenblatti McCosker 1974. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

roseus, Ophichthus Tanaka [S.] 1917:39 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29 (no. 340); ref. 17353] Tokyo fish market, Japan. Syntypes and/or holotype: ZUMT 7485 (1, described spec.). •Valid as Ophichthus roseus Tanaka 1917 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus roseus Tanaka 1917. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

rostellatus, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:105 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Senegal. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1982.5.7.5. •Valid as Mystriophis rostellatus (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker 1977:79 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:182 [ref. 5690], Leiby 1990:187 [ref. 13652], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:136 [ref. 25472], McCosker & Randall 2001:4 [ref. 25635], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Mystriophis rostellatus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Ophisurus McClelland [J.] 1844:184, 211 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Bengal, India. Based on an unpublished Hamilton drawing. A junior homonym of Ophisurus rostratus Quoy & Gaimard 1824. •Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]) Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Sphagebranchus Bloch [M. E.] 1795:88, Pl. 419 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Suriname [not East Indies]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4034. On p. 79 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. See McCosker 1977:67 [ref. 6836]. •Synonym of Caecula pterygera Vahl 1794 -- (Paepke 1999:107 [ref. 24282]). Current status: Synonym of Caecula pterygera Vahl 1794. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rotundus, Ophichthus Lee [C.-L.] & Asano [H.] 1997:549, Figs. 1-4 [Korean Journal of Biological Sciences v. 1 (no. 14); ref. 23711] Kyehwado, Puan-gun, Chollabuk-do, 35°48'N, 126°36', south Korea. Holotype: BKNU 3001. Paratypes: BKNU 3002-3018 (17, 2 c&s). •Valid as Ophisurus rotundus (Lee & Asano 1997) -- (Youn 2002:143, 492 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Ophichthus rotundus Lee & Asano 1997 -- (McCosker & Chen 2000:356 [ref. 25028], Zhang et al. 2010:333 [ref. 31511] with authors as Lee & Hirotochi, Ji & Kim 2011:66 [ref. 31152]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus rotundus Lee & Asano 1997. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China, Korea (Yellow Sea). Habitat: marine.

rubicandus, Pisoodonophis Chen [J. T. F.] 1929:18, Pl. 1 (figs. 2-2A) [Bulletin of the Biology Department, Science College, Sun Yatsen University v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16075] Hoihow, Kwangtung, China. Holotype (unique): ZLSYU 2171. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. •Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (Zhang et al. 2010:353 [ref. 31511]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rufus, Echelus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:65, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:42 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Blache et al. 1973:248 [ref. 7185], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:583 [ref. 13676], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:32 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:24 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:6, 25 [ref. 30263]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

rugifer, Ophichthus Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:155 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 41428. Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856) -- (authors). •Valid as Ophichthus rugifer Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:415 [ref. 23645], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus rugifer Jordan & Bollman 1890. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands and Cocos Island. Habitat: marine.

rupestris, Myrichthys Snyder [J. O.] 1912:490 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 42 (no. 1913); ref. 14871] Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 74048. Type catalog: Smith 1994:32 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:161 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

rutidoderma, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:30 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.226. Ophichthys rhytidoderma Günther 1870:63 [ref. 1995] is an unjustified emendation. •Valid as Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) (often seen as 1853) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Rainboth 1996:58 [ref. 22772], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker & Chen 2000:356 [ref. 25028], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192], Larson et al. 2013:27 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rutidodermatoides, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:31 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.292. Original as rutidodermatoïdes. Ophichthys rhytidodermatoides Günther 1870:62 [ref. 1995] is an unjustified emendation. •Valid as Ophichthus rutidodermatoides (Bleeker 1853) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:120 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977] as rutiodermatoides, Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sangjuensis, Pisodonophis Ji [H.-S.] & Kim [J.-K.] 2011:59, Figs. 2-4 [Zootaxa No. 2758; ref. 31152] Sangju, South Sea of Korea, 34°37'04"N. 128°06'18"E, depth 40 meters. Holotype: PKU 3693. Paratypes: PKU 840 (1), 3483-3484 (2), 3864 (1), 3865-3872 (8), 3873 (1), 3874-3876 (3), 3877 (1), 3878-3879 (2), 3880 (1), 4213 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus sangjuensis (Ji & Kim 2011) -- (Hibino et al. 2019:[1] [ref. 36433]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus sangjuensis (Ji & Kim 2011). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southern Korea and sea south of Korea. Habitat: marine.

sauropsis, Brachysomophis Schultz [L. P.] 1943:18, Pl. 2; Fig. 2h [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Reef of Tutuila Island, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 115946. Paratypes: MCZ 37226 [ex USNM 115947] (1); USNM 115948 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:29 [ref. 21917]. •Perhaps the same as Brachysomophis crocodilinus (Bennett 1833) -- (McCosker 1977:75 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Brachysomophis sauropsis Schultz 1943 -- (Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715]). •Synonym of Brachysomophis crocodilinus (Bennett 1833) -- (McCosker & Randall 2001:14 [ref. 25635], McCosker 2002:27 [ref. 25848], Randall 2005:30 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:131 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Brachysomophis crocodilinus (Bennett 1833). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

schaapii, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:53 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 16832] Pankalpinang, Bangka, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimen: BMNH 1867.11.28.285 (1). Also in Bleeker 1853:735. •Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

schneideri, Ophichthys Steindachner [F.] 1879:184 [66] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 65096. On p. 66 of separate. •Synonym of Echiophis punctifer (Kaup 1859) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:362 [ref. 13288]). •Mention -- (McCosker & Randall 2001:3 [ref. 25635]). Current status: Synonym of Echiophis punctifer (Kaup 1859). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

schultzei, Muraenichthys Bleeker [P.] 1857:366 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 16868] Karangbollong [Karang-Bollong Bay, on northeastern tip of Nusa Kambangan Island, 4.5 kilometers southeast to Cilacap, Jawa Tengah Province, Java, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean, ca. 7°45'34''S, 109°02'32''E]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.331. •Valid as Muraenichthys schultzei Bleeker 1857 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Dor 1984:37 [ref. 29757], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:30 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:61 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:108 [ref. 23922], Myers 1999:54 [ref. 23965], Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Fricke 1999:64 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:217 [ref. 25086], McCosker 2002:24 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:217 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Mundy 2005:133 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:106 [ref. 31980], Hibino et al. 2013:[4] [ref. 32505], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], Hibino & Kimura 2015:69 [ref. 34120], Ho et al. 2015:169 [ref. 34130], Hibino & Kimura 2016:135 [ref. 35048], Koeda et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35333], Golani & Fricke 2018:27 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Muraenichthys schultzei Bleeker 1857. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Mauritius (Mascarenes), southwestern Indian Ocean. (Mascarenes) east to Johnston Atoll and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

scuticaris, Sphagebranchus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1880:343 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 98); ref. 18135] Cedar Key, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 23636. Type catalog: Smith 1994:36 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Bascanichthys scuticaris (Goode & Bean 1880) -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:61 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:336 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:864 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:34 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:259 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], Moreno et al. 2016:13 [ref. 35398]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys scuticaris (Goode & Bean 1880). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

selachops, Apterichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:356 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 290); ref. 12308] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 4391. Type catalog: Smith 1994:28 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ichthyapus selachops (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (McCosker 1977:68 [ref. 6836], Allen & Robertson 1994:52 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1335 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:169 [ref. 24023], McCosker 2004:172 [ref. 27619], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyapus selachops (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

semicincta, Ophisurus fasciatus var. Bleeker [P.] 1864:64 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] Seas of Indian Archipelago; said also to inhabit Indian and Polynesian Ocean. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Ophisurus semicinctus Lay & Bennett 1839; replaced by Myrichthys bleekeri Gosline 1951. •Objective synonym of Myrichthys bleekeri Gosline 1951 -- (McCosker 1977:78 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:118 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:157 [ref. 21180], McCosker 2002:27 [ref. 25848], McCosker et al. 2006:270 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert 1781). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

semicinctus, Ophisurus Lay [G. T.] & Bennett [E. T.] 1839:66, Pl. 20 (fig. 4) [The zoology of Captain Beechey's voyage; ref. 2730] Oahu? [Hawaiian Islands, central Pacific]. Holotype (unique): Royal College of Surgeons (whereabouts unknown). Lectotype as the figured specimen in Lay & Bennett, Pl. 20 (fig. 4) designated by Fricke 1999:63 [ref. 24106], but if there was only one type, then the lectotype designation is invalid. •Valid as Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1839) -- (McCosker 1977:78 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:30 [ref. 6441], McCosker & Castle 1986:180 [ref. 5690], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:117 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:45 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:45 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:62 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Randall 1999:6 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:221 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:117 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:221 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:31 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:133 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:269 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:66 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:74 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:365 [ref. 31511] with second author as 'Bennet', Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:105 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:26 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33932], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:168 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:44 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1839). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

semicinctus, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:99 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] West Africa north of the Equator. Syntypes: BMNH 2011.5.4.1 (1, the primary specimen), BMNH 1845.10.4.8? (stuffed). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Ophisurus semicinctus Lay & Bennett 1839; however if both species names have not been considered congeneric after 1899, current usage can be maintained but the case should be referred to the Commission for a ruling (Art. 23.9.5). •Treated as valid as Pisodonophis semicinctus (Richardson 1848) -- (Blache et al. 1973:250 [ref. 7185], McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:585 [ref. 13676], Leiby 1990:191 [ref. 13652], Insacco & Zava 1999:283 [ref. 24568], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466], Bañón et al. 2002:879 [ref. 26949], Tweddle & Anderson 2008:6 [ref. 29604], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Bañon et al. 2010:6 [ref. 31029], Ji & Kim 2011:61 [ref. 31152], McCosker 2016:1666 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Pisodonophis semicinctus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

serpa, Apterichtys Cocco [A.] 1846:751 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano Settima Riunione, Napoli; ref. 26448] New name for "Sphagebrancus coecus" Linn. Current status: Synonym of Apterichtus caecus (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

serpa, Dalophis Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:69, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:43 [ref. 3595]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

serpens, Anguilla Shaw [G.] 1803:23 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Mediterranean Sea, [northern seas] northeastern Atlantic Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

serpens, Muraena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:244 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea, northeastern Atlantic; localities including Norway; southern France; Rome, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece. No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed: the type locality should be restricted to Mediterranean Sea according to current usage. Originally based on multiple species and at least 13 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:24 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:41 [ref. 30349] as Muraena exacte teres, cauda acuta apterygia; Rondelet 1554:409 [ref. 30354] as Serpens marinus, Salviani 1558:58, Pl. (p. 57) [ref. 30229] as Serpen(s) marin(us), Charleton 1668:125 [ref. 30580] as Serpens marinus, Willughby 1686:107 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:36 [ref. 30231] as Serpens marinus. Also appeared in Linnaeus 1766:425 [ref. 2786]. •Valid as Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:250 [ref. 7185], McCosker 1977:82 [ref. 6836], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:583 [ref. 13676], McCosker & Castle 1986:184 [ref. 5690], Paxton et al. 1989:120 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:73 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Leiby 1990:190 [ref. 13652], Kuiter 1993:27 [ref. 23929], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:136 [ref. 25472], Gomon et al. 1994:202 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:26 [ref. 25488], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:32 [ref. 26753], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:106 [ref. 28072], McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], Fricke et al. 2007:24 [ref. 29533], Smith & McCosker 2008:167 [ref. 30622], Bañón et al. 2011:157 [ref. 31596], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], McCosker & Stewart 2015:254 [ref. 34235], McCosker 2016:1666 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Widespread (but not eastern Pacific or western Atlantic), in eastern Atlantic from Spain to South Africa, including Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

serpentinus, Ophichthys Seale [A.] 1917:84 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): MCZ 9200. •Valid as Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917 -- (Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], McCosker & Chen 2000:356 [ref. 25028], McCosker 2005:672 [ref. 28646], McCosker 2006:737 [ref. 29103], McCosker 2010:32 [ref. 30840], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: South Africa and Namibia. Habitat: marine.

shaoi, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Ho [H.-C.] 2015:80, Figs. 7-9 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34123] Da-xi fish market, Yilan, northeast Taiwan, depth ca. 200 meters. Holotype: NMMB-P 12228. Paratypes: CAS, NMMB-P. •Valid as Ophichthus shaoi McCosker & Ho 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:174 [ref. 34130], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus shaoi McCosker & Ho 2015. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: northern Vietnam; Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

sibogae, Callechelys Weber [M.] 1913:49, Pl. 7 (fig. 2); Fig. 11 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Noimini Bucht, southern Timor Island, Indonesia, Siboga station 296. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109034. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:8 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Bascanichthys sibogae (Weber 1913) -- (McCosker 1998:196 [ref. 23298], McCosker et al. 2006:266 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Valid as Bascanichthys sibogae (Weber 1913). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sibogae, Muraenichthys Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1916:276 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 3; ref. 4604] Obi Major, southern Timor Island, southern Malay Archipelago. Holotype: ZMA. Paratypes (incl. holotype): ZMA 112667-69 (2, 1, 1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:9 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Muraenichthys sibogae Weber & de Beaufort 1916 -- (McCosker 1970:509 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Myers 1999:54 [ref. 23965], Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Hibino & Kimura 2015:69 [ref. 34120], Hibino & Kimura 2016:135 [ref. 35048]). Current status: Valid as Muraenichthys sibogae Weber & de Beaufort 1916. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

similis, Neenchelys Ho [H.-C.], McCosker [J. E.] & Smith [D. G.] 2015:50 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34122] Daxi Fishing Port, Ilan, NE Taiwan. Holotype: ASIZP 59925. Paratypes: NSMT-P105355 (1); FRLM 38980 (1), 42319 (1). Plus non-type specimens. First appeared in Ho et al. 2013 [ref. 33156], but not satisfying Art. 8.5.3 and thus not available. Name available in Ho et al. 2015 [ref. 34122]. •Valid as Neenchelys similis Ho, McCosker & Smith 2015 -- (Ho & Loh 2015:54 [ref. 34121], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:170 [ref. 34130], Hibino et al. 2015:60 [ref. 34166], Ho et al. 2018:212 [ref. 36046]). Current status: Valid as Neenchelys similis Ho, McCosker & Smith 2015. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Japan, Taiwan, New Guinea and Banda Sea (midwater). Habitat: marine.

sinensis, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:98 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): Cambridge Philosophical Institution. Simultaneous synonym of Ophisurus concrivorus Richadson; Kaup 1856 gave presedence to cancrivorus. •Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

singapurensis, Ophichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864-65:52, Pl. 188 (fig. 1) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] Singapore. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.? (1) Singapore, NMV 46373 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus singapurensis Bleeker 1864-65 -- (McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus singapurensis Bleeker 1864-65. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Singapore; northern Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Scolecenchelys tasmaniensis Whitley [G. P.] 1944:262 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 3); ref. 4705] Quindalup, Geographe Bay, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.704-001. Paratypes: WAM P.1016-001 (1) Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:6 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:6 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Muraenichthys tasmaniensis McCulloch 1911 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:118 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Muraenichthys australis Macleay 1881 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:200 [ref. 22532]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys tasmaniensis (McCulloch 1911) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], McCosker et al. 2006:276 [ref. 29006], Moore et al. 2009:6 [ref. 30117]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881) -- (Hibino & Kimura 2015:8 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

soyoae, Apterichtus Hibino [Y.] 2018:219, Figs. 1-3a, 4a [Species Diversity v. 23; ref. 36341] Off Tori-shima island, Zunan Islands, Izu Islands, southern Japan, depth 130 meters. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 127390. •Valid as Apterichtus soyoae Hibino 2018 Current status: Valid as Apterichtus soyoae Hibino 2018. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

spadiceus, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1846:313 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH. •Synonymy of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

spinicauda, Acanthenchelys Norman [J. R.] 1922:296, Fig. [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 10 (no. 57); ref. 3211] Tobago Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1922.6.22.5. •Valid as Ophichthus spinicauda (Norman 1922) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:407 [ref. 13288], Cervigón 1991:60 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:374 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:98 [ref. 27795]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus spinicauda (Norman 1922). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Antilles and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

springeri, Gordiichthys Ginsburg [I.] 1951:484, Fig. 16 [Texas Journal of Science v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 1804] Off Salerno, Florida, U.S.A., depth 18 fathoms (stomach content). Holotype (unique): USNM 121604. Type catalog: Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Callechelys springeri (Ginsburg 1951) -- (McCosker 1977:72 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:62 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:311 [ref. 13288], McCosker 1998:208 [ref. 23298], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Callechelys springeri (Ginsburg 1951). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

stenopterus, Ophichthys Cope [E. D.] 1871:482 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Japan. Syntypes: ANSP 1043-44 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Ophichthus stenopterus Cope 1871 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:346 [ref. 31511], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123]). •Synonym of Ophichthus pallens (Richardson 1848) -- (Hibino et al. 2019:[1] [ref. 36433]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus pallens (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Callechelys Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:838, Pl. 27 (fig. C) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 10 (no. 119); ref. 12118] Baixo Pinda, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 96. Paratypes: (3) not researched. •Valid as Callechelys striata Smith 1958 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715]). •Synonym of Callechelys catostoma (Schneider 1801) -- (McCosker 1998:190 [ref. 23298], McCosker 2002:27 [ref. 25848], Randall 2007:64 [ref. 30952], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264]). Current status: Synonym of Callechelys catostoma (Schneider 1801). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

stypurus, Ophichthys Smith [R.] & Swain [J.] 1882:120 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 272); ref. 14298] Johnston Island, Pacific. Holotype (unique): USNM 26817. Type catalog: Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. Original genus should have been spelled Ophichthus. •Synonym of Myrichthys magnificus (Abbott 1860) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:163 [ref. 21180], Mundy 2005:134 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys magnificus (Abbott 1860). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

succinus, Apterichtus Hibino [Y.], McCosker [J. E.] & Kimura [S.] 2016:146, Figs. 1-2, 3a [Zootaxa 4117 (no. 1); ref. 34475] Bay of Vaiehu, Ura Pou Island, Marquesas Islands, 9.386'S, 140.119'W, depth 25 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 409323. •Valid as Apterichtus succinus Hibino, McCosker & Kimura 2016. Current status: Valid as Apterichtus succinus Hibino, McCosker & Kimura 2016. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

sugillatus, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:103 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] No locality: supposed to have come from the West Indies. Holotype (unique): Haslar Museum (whereabouts unknown). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

sulcatus, Herpetoichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:44 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN B-2758. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:107 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:8, Pl. 1 (fig. 5) [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

sumatranus, Ophichthys celebicus Machan [B.] 1930:426 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 67 (no. 8); ref. 16304] Indonesia; Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: NMW 15867 (1),15868 (1). •Status uncertain; in Ophichthyidae -- (Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

taiwanense, Lamnostoma Chiu [Y.-C.], Huang [S.-P.] & Shao [K.-T.] in Chiu, Shao, Huang & Chen 2018:25, Figs. 5, 6, 7C, 8, 9 [Zootaxa 4454 (no. 1); ref. 36033] Mouth of the Lan-yang River, Juan-wei, Yi-lan county, northeastern Taiwan. Holotype: TOU-AE 7152. Paratype: ASIZP. •Valid as Lamnostoma taiwanense Chiu, Huang & Shao 2018 -- (Ho et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36050]). Current status: Valid as Lamnostoma taiwanense Chiu, Huang & Shao 2018. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Lan-yang River, northeastern Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

taiwanensis, Sympenchelys Hibino [Y.], Ho [H.-C.] & Kimura [S.] 2015:44, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34119] Dong-gang, Taiwan. Holotype: NMMB-P 22188. Paratypes: ASIZP, FRLM, NMMB-P, NSMT-P. •Valid as Sympenchelys taiwanensis Hibino, Ho & Kimura 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:176 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Sympenchelys taiwanensis Hibino, Ho & Kimura 2015. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

tapeinopterus, Cirrhimuraena Bleeker [P.] 1863:183 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 17005] Java; Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1867.11.28.321 (1) Java. •Valid as Cirrhimuraena tapeinoptera Bleeker 1863 -- (McCosker 1977:75 [ref. 6836] as taeniopterus, Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Cirrhimuraena tapeinoptera Bleeker 1863. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tasmaniensis, Muraenichthys McCulloch [A. R.] 1911:19, Fig. 5 [Biological Results Endeavour [v. 1] (pt 1); ref. 2936] Entrance to Oyster Bay, Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS E.1059. •Valid as Muraenichthys tasmaniensis McCulloch 1911 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931], Paxton et al. 1989:118 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Muraenichthys australis Macleay 1881 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:200 [ref. 22532]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys tasmaniensis (McCulloch 1911) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], McCosker et al. 2006:276 [ref. 29006], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32418]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881) -- (Hibino & Kimura 2015:8 [ref. 33951]). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys australis (Macleay 1881). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Australia (if valid). Habitat: marine.

taylori, Caecula Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1923:183, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 23 (no. 2); ref. 2117] Cabatoan River, near Iba, Zambales, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP (presumed destroyed). •Valid as Lamnostoma taylori (Herre 1923) -- (McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836], Séret & Dingerkus 1992:169 [ref. 22389], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Kottelat 2013:45 [ref. 32989], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288]). •Synonym of Lamnostoma mindora (Jordan & Richardson 1908) -- (Chiu et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36033]). Current status: Synonym of Lamnostoma mindora (Jordan & Richardson 1908). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tchangi, Ophichthus Tang [W.-Q.] & Zhang [C.-G.] 2002:854, Figs. 1-3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 27 (no. 4); ref. 26492] Pingtan County, Fujian Province, China. Holotype (unique): IZCAS (now ASIZB) 67880. No other locality information (Zhang, pers. comm., 31 Dec. 2002). •Valid as Ophichthus tchangi Tang & Zhang 2002 -- (Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889] as tczhangi, Zhang et al. 2010:348 [ref. 31511]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus tchangi Tang & Zhang 2002. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China. Habitat: marine.

tenuis, Leptenchelys Tortonese [E.] 1964:30, Fig. 4 [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale `Giacomo Doria' v. 75 (for 1964-1965); ref. 9080] New Guinea. Holotype: MSNG 39721A. Paratypes: MSNG 39721B (1). •Probably a synonym of Bascanichthys longipinnis (Kner & Steindachner 1867) -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Bascanichthys longipinnis (Kner & Steindachner 1967) -- (Kottelat 2013:44 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Bascanichthys longipinnis (Kner & Steindachner 1867). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

tenuis, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:88 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] No locality stated. Lectotype: BMNH 1965.1.2.1. Paralectotypes: BMNH (2). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:36 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Pantonora tenuis (Günther 1870) -- (Dor & Palmer 1977:140 [ref. 21143], Dor 1984:36 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Yirrkala tenuis (Günther 1870) -- (McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:186 [ref. 5690], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356], Fricke 1999:67 [ref. 24106], Keith et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24548], McCosker 2006:376 [ref. 29014], Fricke et al. 2009:20 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2015:63 [ref. 33895], Golani & Fricke 2018:29 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Yirrkala tenuis (Günther 1870). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa south to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), western Mascarenes. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

teres, Sphagebranchus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:436 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Western Florida, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 31457. Paralectotypes: USNM 152575 (1), 220010 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:36-37 [ref. 21917]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 63, p. 3245, for Bascanichthys scuticaris in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] but see Smith 1994:36 [ref. 21917] who accepts the designation of Ginsburg 1951:479 [ref. 1804]. •Valid as Sphagebranchus teres Goode & Bean 1882 -- (McCosker 1977:71 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Bascanichthys scuticaris (Goode & Bean 1880) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:336 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Bascanichthys scuticaris (Goode & Bean 1880). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

tetratrema, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:417, Figs. 8c, 11 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] 12 kilometers south of Isla Blanca, Costa Rica, 9°24.5'N, 85°06.0'W, depth 900 meters. Holotype: SIO 73-294. Paratypes: CAS 57864 (1), ZMUC P32692 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus tetratrema McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus tetratrema McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

thompsoni, Muraenichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1908:237, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 27(Doc. 640) (for 1907); ref. 2492] Manila Bay, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 20201. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Muraenichthys thompsoni Jordan & Richardson 1908 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], McCosker et al. 2006:269 [ref. 29006], Allen & Erdmann 2012:106 [ref. 31980], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], Hibino & Kimura 2015:69 [ref. 34120], Ho et al. 2015:169 [ref. 34130], Motomura et al. 2017:31 [ref. 35490], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Muraenichthys thompsoni Jordan & Richardson 1908. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar east to Fiji, north to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

tigrina, Muraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:118, Pl. 30 (fig. 2) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Al Muwaylih, Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 3526. •Synonym of Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816) -- (McCosker 1977:79 [ref. 6836], Dor 1984:36 [ref. 29757], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:161 [ref. 21180], Golani & Fricke 2018:27 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier 1816). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

tigrinus, Myrichthys Girard [C. F.] 1859:58 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 1821] Adair Bay, Sonora, Mexico [not Oregon]. Holotype: USNM 1150 [= USNM 8810]. Type catalog: Smith 1994:33 [ref. 21917]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Myrichthys by Muraena tigrina Rüppell 1830. •Treated as valid as Uropterygius tigrinus by Allen & Robertson 1994:303 [ref. 22193] [but it is not this species or family]. •Valid as Myrichthys tigrinus Girard 1859 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:165 [ref. 21180], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1337 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:170 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:118 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:292 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Allen 2012:39 [ref. 31763], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). •Synonym of Myrichthys xysturus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- when both xysturus and tigrinus are in Myrichthys. Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys xysturus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific (if valid). Habitat: marine.

timorensis, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:86 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Timor Island, southern Malay Archipelago. Holotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.322 [from Bleeker coll.]. Günther terms the BMNH specimen as "Type of the species, 9 inches long," so that specimen is the lectotype if other syntypes exist. Replacement name for Sphagebranchus lumbricoides Bleeker 1864, preoccupied by Ophisurus lumbricoides Bleeker 1853 when both are in Ophichthys. But based on Art. 59.3, Ophichthus lumbricoides can be mainained as the valid. name. •In the synonymy of Yirrkala lumbricoides (Bleeker 1864). Current status: Synonym of Yirrkala lumbricoides (Bleeker 1864). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

tomioi, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:32, Figs. 32-35 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] San Bernadino Strait, Philippines, 12°54'29"N, 124°23'36"E, depth 376-382 meters. Holotype: CAS 214208. Paratypes: CAS 229180 [ex MNHN 2001-10060] (1); MNHN 1989-0748 (1), 2001-1060 (1), 2001-1065 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus tomioi McCosker 2010 -- (McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus tomioi McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Philippines, Marquesas, Fiji and Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

tredecimpunctum, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:188, Pl. 6 (figs. 9-10) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Kiritimati [formerly Christmas Island], Line Islands. Holotype: ANSP 68342 (with paratypes). Paratypes: ANSP 68343-48 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], family Ophichthidae. Ophichthidae. Habitat: marine.

triserialis, Muraenopsis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:12 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.1276. •Valid as Ophichthys triserialis (Kaup 1856) -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:42 [ref. 23101]). •Valid as Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:65 [ref. 9277], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1338 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:166 [ref. 24023], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:121 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:101 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:90 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern California to Peru; Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

triserialis, Ophichthys Barnard [K. H.] 1923:444 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 13 (pt 8, no. 14); ref. 191] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 55 fathoms [101 meters]. Holotype (unique): SAM 12776. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Ophichthus by Mureanopsis triserialis Kaup 1856; replaced by Ophichthys algoensis Barnard 1925. •Objective synonym of Ophichthus algoensis Barnard 1925 [= Synonym of Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908]. Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

tsuchidae, Ophichthus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:873, Fig. 19 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6479. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Ophichthus tsuchidae Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:32 [ref. 6441], Lee & Asano 1997:551 [ref. 23711], Nakabo 2000:223 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:223 [ref. 26001], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:344 [ref. 31511]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus tsuchidae Jordan & Snyder 1901. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: China (East China Sea) to Japan. Habitat: marine.

typus, Achirophichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864:39, Pl. 191 (fig. 3) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] Syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.315 (1) Sulawesi (Bleeker coll.). Also appeared in Bleeker 1864:42 [ref. 408]. •Possible synonym of Lamnostoma kampeni (Weber & de Beaufort 1916) -- (McCosker 1977:65 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Brachysomophis crocodilinus (Bennett 1833) -- (McCosker & Randall 2001:14 [ref. 25635]). Current status: Synonym of Brachysomophis crocodilinus (Bennett 1833). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

typus, Auchenichthys Duméril [A. M. C.] 1856:198 [Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences : tirés des registres de cette Académie. v. 27 (no. 1); ref. 1154] Name only, not available. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

umbonis, Brachysomophis McCosker [J. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 2001:28, Figs. 5G, 7 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 33; ref. 25635] Maeste de Campo, Batuanan Point, 12°56'00"N, 121°43'48"E, Mindoro Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 364282. Paratypes: BPBM 32163 (1). •Valid as Brachysomophis umbonis McCosker & Randall 2001 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:103 [ref. 31980], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288]). Current status: Valid as Brachysomophis umbonis McCosker & Randall 2001. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Philippines and Flores (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

undulatus, Leptocephalus Strömman [P. H.] 1896:27, Pl. 2 (figs. 4-6) [Leptocephalids in the University Zoological Museum at Upsala; ref. 4294] Coast of Georgia, U.S.A., 29°N, 72°W. Holotype (unique): ZMUU 695. Type catalog: Wallin 1996:62 [ref. 32133] •Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:374 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:827 [ref. 13285], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:157 [ref. 21180]). Current status: Synonym of Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Ophichthys Regan [C. T.] 1908:250, Fig. 1 [Annals of the Natal Museum v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 14355] 16 miles northeast of Bird Island, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean,depth 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1906.11.19.39. •Valid as Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690]). •Valid as Rhinophichthus unicolor (Regan 1908) -- (authors). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

uniformis, Echidna Seale [A.] 1901:62 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 47. Paratypes: ANSP 85945 (1), USNM 109383 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:131 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Muraenichthys macropterus Bleeker 1857 -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931]). •Synonym of Scolecenchelys macroptera (Bleeker 1857) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495] as macropterus). Current status: Synonym of Scolecenchelys macroptera (Bleeker 1857). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Habitat: marine.

uniserialis, Ophichthys Cope [E. D.] 1877:47 [31] [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17; ref. 18033] Peru (probably Pacasmayo Bay). Holotype (unique): ANSP 21152. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. On p. 31 of separate. •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

uniserialis, Ophichthys Seale [A.] 1917:85 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] China. Holotype (unique): MCZ 25957. Preoccupied by Ophichthys uniserialis Cope 1877. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

urolophus, Conger Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:260, Pl. 114 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3688a. Paralectotypes: RMNH 3688b (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:187 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Ophichthus urolophus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Ida in Okamura et al. 1982:63, 319 [ref. 8256] as Ophichthys, Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:32 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:103, 324 [ref. 8057], Lee & Asano 1997:551 [ref. 23711], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:223 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Sumida & Machida 2000:54 [ref. 26006], Shinohara et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:223 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:143, 492 [ref. 26218], Tang & Zhang 2002:855 [ref. 26492], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370], McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], McCosker 2010:37 [ref. 30840], Zhang et al. 2010:343 [ref. 31511], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Shinohara et al. 2014:236 [ref. 33330], McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:174 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus urolophus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, and northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

uropterus, Conger Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:261 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3689. Type information: Boeseman 1947:188 [ref. 12876]. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Myrophis uropterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:101, 322 [ref. 8057], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965]). •Valid as Echelus uropterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:30 [ref. 6441], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:224 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:224 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:143, 491 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370], McCosker et al. 2006:268 [ref. 29006], Shao et al. 2008:238 [ref. 29952], Ho et al. 2010:27 [ref. 31218], Zhang et al. 2010:327 [ref. 31511], Shinohara et al. 2011:39 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:236 [ref. 33330], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:168 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:43 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Echelus uropterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar; China to Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

vafer, Myrophis Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:645 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 334) (for 26 June 1883); ref. 10616] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: USNM 29681. Additional material: USNM (many). •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Myrophis vafer Jordan & Gilbert 1883 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:65 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:54 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:44 [ref. 23101], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1337 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:124 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:100 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:120 [ref. 25206], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Angulo et al. 2013:990 [ref. 33194], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Kells et al. 2016:347 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Myrophis vafer Jordan & Gilbert 1883. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

vanderbilti, Machaerenchelys Fowler [H. W.] 1938:85, Pl. 7 (fig. 14) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Takaroa Island, Tuamotu Islands. Holotype: ANSP 68367. Paratypes: ANSP 68369-70 (2), 68371 (1); USNM 119702 [ex ANSP 68368] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1839) -- (McCosker 1977:77 [ref. 6836]). Current status: Synonym of Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1839). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

velifer, Letharchus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:437 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Western Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 31458. Paralectotypes: USNM 278182 [ex 31458] (3). Type catalog: Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 61, p. 3244 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446]; also designated by McCosker et al.1989:317 [ref. 13288]. Genus spelled Letharchus on p. 436 and Letharcus on p. 437 (corrected in "List of Corrections" on p. xi to Letharchus). •Valid as Letharchus velifer Goode & Bean 1882 -- (McCosker 1977:63 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:63 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:315 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:887 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:35 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:270 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:732 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Letharchus velifer Goode & Bean 1882. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

velinasalis, Muraenichthys Hibino [Y.] & Kimura [S.] 2015:65, Figs. 2b, 3f, 4, 5a-c [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34120] Bay between Ken-Ting and Ta-Yuan Shan, Taiwan, 21°55'30"N, 120°48'00"E, depth 5-8 meters. Holotype: USNM 313976. Paratypes: AMS, ANSP, USNM. •Valid as Muraenichthys velinasalis Hibino & Kimura 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:169 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Muraenichthys velinasalis Hibino & Kimura 2015. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

vermiformis, Chilorhinus (Muraenichthys) Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1866:524 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1866; ref. 3439] Sri Lanka. •Valid as Muraenichthys vermiformis (Peters 1866) -- (McCosker 1970:508 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys vermiformis (Peters 1866) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32418]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys vermiformis (Peters 1866). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

vermiformis, Leptenchelys Myers [G. S.] & Wade [C. B.] 1941:73, Pl. 10 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 3133] Playa Blanca, Costa Rica, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 101785. Type catalog: Smith 1994:30 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Leptenchelys vermiformis Myers & Wade 1941 -- (McCosker 1977:73 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1335 [ref. 22830], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Leptenchelys vermiformis Myers & Wade 1941. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica. Habitat: marine.

vermiformis, Ophisurus McClelland [J.] 1844:184, 204, 212, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Bengal, India. Syntypes: SMF 701 (2) Bengal. •Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

versicolor, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:103 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1982.5.7.7. •Valid as Elapsopis versicolor (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker 1977:77 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:116 [ref. 12442], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830]). •Valid as Leiuranus versicolor (Richardson 1848) -- (Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], McCosker et al. 2006:269 [ref. 29006], Allen & Erdmann 2012:106 [ref. 31980], Allen & Erdmann 2012:106 [ref. 31980], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288]). Current status: Valid as Leiuranus versicolor (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Great Reef Reef (Australia). Habitat: marine.

vimineus, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1845:no p., Pl. 52 (fig. 16) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.18.3. Available from plate. Text in Richardson 1845:107 [ref. 20275] as Ophisurus? (Sphagebranchus?) vimineus. •Synonym of Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1839) -- (McCosker 1977:77 [ref. 6836]). Current status: Synonym of Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett 1839). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:53 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] New name for Muraena myrus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Echelus myrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:245 [ref. 7185]). Current status: Synonym of Echelus myrus (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulturis, Sphagebranchus Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1916:319 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 3; ref. 4604] Nasi Besar Island, western Sumatra [Sumatera Barat, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): ZMA 104153. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:10 [ref. 19236]. Correct spelling is vulturis. •Valid as Ichthyapus vulturus [sic] (Weber & de Beaufort 1916) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:117 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:56 [ref. 23965], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830]). •Valid as Ichthyapus vulturis (Weber & de Beaufort 1916) -- (McCosker 1977:68 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Randall 1999:6 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:218 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], McCosker 2002:25 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:218 [ref. 26001], McCosker 2004:172 [ref. 27619], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], McCosker & Randall 2005:7 [ref. 28054], Mundy 2005:133 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:268 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:66 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:105 [ref. 31980], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyapus vulturis (Weber & de Beaufort 1916). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles east to Hawaiian Islands and Easter Island, north to Izu Peninsula (southern Japan), south to Western Australia and Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

wassi, Glenoglossa McCosker [J. E.] 1982:61, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 43 (no. 5); ref. 2934] Larsen Bay, Tutuila Island, American Samoa. Holotype: CAS 47049. Paratypes: CAS 47048 (1, c&s). •Valid as Glenoglossa wassi McCosker 1982 -- (Smith & McCosker 1999:1667 [ref. 24715], Allen & Erdmann 2012:104 [ref. 31980], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119]). Current status: Valid as Glenoglossa wassi McCosker 1982. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: American Samoa and the Philippines. Habitat: marine.

woosuitingi, Ophichthys Chen [J. T. F.] 1929:22, Pl. 2 (figs. 1, 1A) [Bulletin of the Biology Department, Science College, Sun Yatsen University v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16075] Ying Khou, Kwangtung, China. Holotype: ZLSYU 3079. Spelled woosuiting on text p. 22, woosuitingi on p. 2, and wooshuitingi on plate caption and in Chinese summary. Printed errata indicates woosuitingi as correct spelling. •Valid as Ophichthus woosuitingi Chen 1929 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus woosuitingi Chen 1929. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: China. Habitat: marine.

xenodontus, Phyllophichthus Gosline [W. A.] 1951:316, Figs. 17a-b [Pacific Science v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 1858] Hauula Park, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 162709 [ex UH Hawaii 318]. Type catalog: Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Phyllophichthus xenodontus Gosline 1951 -- (McCosker 1977:82 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:185 [ref. 5690], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:120 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Mundy 2005:135 [ref. 28379], McCosker et al. 2006:273 [ref. 29006], Randall 2007:69 [ref. 30952], Ho et al. 2010:30 [ref. 31218], Allen & Erdmann 2012:109 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:23 [ref. 33932], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Fricke et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33895], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:174 [ref. 34130], Smith et al. 2015:303 [ref. 34209], Hibino & Kimura 2016:135 [ref. 35048], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Phyllophichthus xenodontus Gosline 1951. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Hawaiian, Marquesas and Society islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

xorae, Muraenichthys Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:126, Fig. 1 [South African Journal of Science v. 54 (no. 5); ref. 12116] Xora River mouth, 32°50'S, 29°E, Transkei, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 302. •Valid as Muraenichthys xorae Smith 1958 -- (McCosker 1970:509 [ref. 2931], McCosker 1977:59 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:181 [ref. 5690], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:74 [ref. 22017], Fricke 1999:64 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Scolecenchelys xorae (Smith 1958) -- (Castle & McCosker 1999:121 [ref. 24075], Fricke et al. 2009:20 [ref. 30213], McCosker et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31982], Hibino et al. 2012:182 [ref. 32443], Hibino & Kimura 2015:19 [ref. 33951], Fricke et al. 2018:46 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scolecenchelys xorae (Smith 1958). Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa, southwestern Madagascar to Réunion and Mauritius (western Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

xysturus, Ophichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:346 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28142 (1, not found in 1980), 28247 (1), 29642 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Myrichthys tigrinus Girard 1859 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1993:165 [ref. 21180]). •Valid as Myrichthys xysturus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (McCosker 1977:79 [ref. 6836], McCosker 1998:196 [ref. 23298], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Myrichthys xysturus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

yamakawai, Ophichthus Hibino [Y.], McCosker [J. E.] & Tashiro [F.] 2019:[ ], Figs. [Ichthyological Research First Online; ref. 36433] Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype. Paratypes: •Valid as Ophichthus yamakawai Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus yamakawai Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Habitat: marine.

yuanding, Cirrhimuraena Tang [W.-Q.] & Zhang [C.-G.] 2003:551, Figs. 1-3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 28 (no. 3); ref. 27147] Coastal areas of Pingtan County, Taiwan Strait, Fujian Province, China. Holotype (unique): SFU A01483. The use of yuanchu by Tang & Zhang 2004:14 [ref. 27889] is a misspelling, the spelling yuanding was used several times in ref. 27147. •Valid as Cirrhimuraena yuanding Tang & Zhang 2003 -- (Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889] as yuanchu, Zhang et al. 2010:360 [ref. 31511] as yuandingi). Current status: Valid as Cirrhimuraena yuanding Tang & Zhang 2003. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan Strait, China and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

zabra, Skythrenchelys Castle [P. H. J.] & McCosker [J. E.] 1999:116, Figs. 1A-C, 2A [Records of the Australian Museum v. 51 (nos 2-3); ref. 24075] Thevara, Ernakulam, southern India, 10°00'N, 76°16'E, shallow turbid water. Holotype: NMNZ 35152. Paratypes: AMS 38844-001 (1); BPBM 38404 (1); CAS 99802 (2, 1 c&s); MNHN 1998-0681 (1); NMNZ 35153 (2); NTM S.10031-004 (1); USNM 148574 (1), 193227 (1). •Valid as Skythrenchelys zabra Castle & McCosker 1999 -- (McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], McCosker et al. 2006:277 [ref. 29006], Hibino et al. 2013:[4] [ref. 32505], Larson et al. 2013:28 [ref. 32988], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Hibino et al. 2015:47 [ref. 34119], Ho et al. 2015:176 [ref. 34130], Motomura et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35490], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Skythrenchelys zabra Castle & McCosker 1999. Ophichthidae: Myrophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India east to Taiwan and northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

zonatus, Ophichthus Howell Rivero [L.] 1932:11 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 13; ref. 3765] In deep water off Cojimar, near Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 32788. •Synonym of Ophichthus spinicauda (Norman 1922) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:407 [ref. 13288], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:96 [ref. 27795]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus spinicauda (Norman 1922). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

zophistius, Pisoodonophis Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:868, Fig. 15 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Outside Bay of Tokyo, near Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6475. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291]. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. •Valid as Pisodonophis zophistius Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836] as zophistus, Yogo 1997:4 [ref. 24371], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:224 [ref. 25086], Shimizu 2001:20 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:224 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:143, 492 [ref. 26218] as Pisoodonophis, Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370]). •Synonym of Ophichthus altipennis (Kaup 1856) -- (Randall 2005:32 [ref. 28239], Ji & Kim 2011:61 [ref. 31152]). •Valid as Ophichthus zophistius (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Hibino et al. 2019:[1] [ref. 36433]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus zophistius (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Japan. Habitat: marine.

zophochir, Ophichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:347 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Rocks near Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 28277. Paralectotypes: USNM 28280 (1), 29220 (1, not found in 1980), 29239 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. Lectotype selected by McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:421 [ref. 23645]. •Valid as Ophichthys zophochir Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:42 [ref. 23101]). •Valid as Ophichthus zophochir Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:66 [ref. 9277], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1339 [ref. 22830], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:421 [ref. 23645], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:120 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:102 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:120 [ref. 25206], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:90 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus zophochir Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

zorro, Aplatophis McCosker [J. E.] & Robertson [D. R.] 2001:14, Figs. 1-3 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 49 (Suppl. 1); ref. 25776] Punta Patiña, at the mouth of the Golfo de San Miguel, 8°12.36'N, 78°19.58'W, Darien Province, Pacific Panama, depth 5-10 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 360118. •Valid as Aplatophis zorro McCosker & Robertson 2001. Current status: Valid as Aplatophis zorro McCosker & Robertson 2001. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Panama (Pacific). Habitat: marine.