Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Ophidiidae: [ 326 ] records


abyssalis, Porogadus Nybelin [O.] 1957:288, Figs. 19-20; Pl. 6 (figs. 2-4) [Reports of the Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition 1947-1948 v. 2 (Zool.) (fasc. 3) (art. 20); ref. 3235] North Atlantic, 1°03'N, 18°40'W to 0°58'N, 18°37"W, depth 5250-5300 meters. Holotype (unique): NHMG Pi 1738. •Valid as Porogadus abyssalis Nybelin 1957 -- (Amaoka in Amaoka et al. 1983:129, 204 [ref. 8379], Nielsen 1990:572 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Porogadus abyssalis Nybelin 1957. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

abyssorum, Barathrites Roule [L.] 1916:17 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 320; ref. 3818] Monaco Trench, Atlantic, station 819, depth 5285 meters. Holotype (unique): MOM 0091-0436. Type catalog: Belloc 1949:14 [ref. 21544]. See also Roule 1919:71 [ref. 19805]. •Mention -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:25 [ref. 881]). •Valid as Barathrites abyssorum Roule 1916 -- (Nielsen 1973:549 [ref. 6885]). •Synonym of Barathrites iris Zugmayer 1911 -- (Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1159 [ref. 13677], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:53 [ref. 24448], Ohashi et al. 2012:169 [ref. 32377]). Current status: Synonym of Barathrites iris Zugmayer 1911. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

acer, Homostolus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:147, Pl. 8 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Iligan Bay, Mindanao, 8°17'24"N, 124°11'42"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5508, depth 270 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74132. •Valid as Homostolus acer Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Machida & Okamura 1992:343 [ref. 19823], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:68 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:444 [ref. 25086], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:307 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:444 [ref. 26001], Hoese et al. 2006:561 [ref. 29051], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Homostolus acer Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean off Australia. Habitat: marine.

acutirostre, Ophidium barbatum var. Costa [O. G.] 1843:Ophidium p. 11, Pl. 20A (fig. 6), Pl. 20B (fig. 1) [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Published 1 Sept. 1843 Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

aequatoris, Bassogigas Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:153, Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, 0°08'S, 121°19'E, Indonesia, Albatross station 5608, depth 1089 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 74137. •Valid as Holcomycteronus aequatoris (Smith & Radcliffe 1913) -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Cohen 1986:348 [ref. 5700], Nielsen & Quéro 1991:194 [ref. 20072], Fricke 1999:101 [ref. 24106], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:68 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Anderson & Stein 2006:3 [ref. 28595], Nielsen et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29625], Fricke et al. 2009:27 [ref. 30213], Nielsen & Møller 2011:785 [ref. 31147], Nielsen & Møller 2015:718 [ref. 34259]). Current status: Valid as Holcomycteronus aequatoris (Smith & Radcliffe 1913). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

agassizii, Dicromita Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:319, Pl. 82 (fig. 285) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Off Granada, depth 291 fathoms. Lectotype: MCZ. Paralectotypes: USNM 44669 (1). Lectotype established in Jordan & Evermann 1898 [ref. 2445] and established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 355, p. 3306 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446]. •Valid as Monomitopus agassizii (Goode & Bean 1896) -- (Arai in Uyeno et al. 1983:233 [ref. 14275], Carter & Cohen 1985:86 [ref. 5145], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:722 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448] as agassizi, Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:207 [ref. 27076], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:53 [ref. 29626]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus agassizii (Goode & Bean 1896). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

alcocki, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:15, Fig. 4 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Andaman Sea, Investigator Survey, depth 344-403 meters. Holotype: USNM 44422. Paratypes: USNM 365708 (1), 340892 (2). •Valid as Neobythites alcocki Nielsen 2002 -- (Kannan et al. 2013:1 [ref. 34750], Reethas et al. 2016:1 [ref. 34746], Psomadakis et al. 2020:325 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites alcocki Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar and Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

amaculata, Spottobrotula Cohen [D. M.] & Nielsen [J. G.] 1982:497, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1982 (no. 3); ref. 5406] Visayan Sea between Negros and Masbate islands, southwest of Caduruan Pt., Philippines, 11°38'N, 123°52'E, depth 90 meters. Holotype: USNM 224567. Paratypes: USNM 224568 (2), ZMUC P77717 (1). •Valid as Spottobrotula amaculata Cohen & Nielsen 1982 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:314 [ref. 12442], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:91 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:566 [ref. 29051], Larson et al. 2013:50 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Sirembo amaculata (Cohen & Nielsen 1982) -- (Nielsen et al. 2014:5 [117] [ref. 33532]). Current status: Valid as Sirembo amaculata (Cohen & Nielsen 1982). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean off western Australia. Habitat: marine.

americanum, Selachophidium Nielsen [J. G.] 1971:26, Fig. 5 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 7451] Argentine basin, southern Atlantic, 30°03'S, 47°44'W, depth 800 meters. Holotype: ISH 1803-1968a. Paratypes: ISH 1803-1968b-f (5); USNM 205095 (1); ZMUC P77531 (1, stained), P77532. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:78 [ref. 9588], Krefft 1978:14 [ref. 9884]. •Valid as Monomitopus americanus (Nielsen 1971) -- (Carter & Cohen 1985:87 [ref. 5145], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:113 [ref. 37485], Nión et al. 2016:40 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus americanus (Nielsen 1971). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil) south to Uruguay. Habitat: marine.

analis, Neobythites Barnard [K. H.] 1927:75 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 20 (no. 115) (art. 8); ref. 193] 22 miles north of Tugela River mouth, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 115 meters. Lectotype: SAM 12487. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1902.5.28.16 (1), 1927.12.6.67 [ex SAM 12487] (1), 1927.12.6.68 [ex SAM 12087] (1); SAM 12084 (1), 12087-88 (now 13, 1), 33644 [ex SAM 12487] (2); USNM 188420 (5, now 4); ZMUC [ex USNM and SAM 12487] P77716 (1). Also appeared as new in Barnard 1927:879 [ref. 194]. Lectotype selected by Nielsen 1995:2 [ref. 21625]. •Valid as Neobythites analis Barnard 1927 -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:349 [ref. 5700], Nielsen 1995:2 [ref. 21625], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:17 [ref. 26394]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites analis Barnard 1927. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

andamanensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:19, Fig. 8 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Andaman Sea, 8°25'N, 96°30'E, depth 465 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P771294. Paratypes: ZMMGU P-12399 (1). Plus nontype lot USNM 326147 (1). •Valid as Neobythites andamanensis Nielsen 2002 -- (Kannan et al. 2013:1 [ref. 34751], Reethas et al. 2016:1 [ref. 34746], Psomadakis et al. 2020:325 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites andamanensis Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar and Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

antipholus, Ophidion Lea [R. N.] & Robins [C. R.] 2003:2, Figs. 1A, 2A [University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Scientific Papers No. 31; ref. 27029] Florida, U.S.A., Atlantic coast, 30°03'N, 81°12'W, depth 13 meters. Holotype: UF 232138. Paratypes: Numerous, in ANSP, CAS, FMNH, KU, MCZ, UF, USNM. •Valid as Ophidion antipholus Lea & Robins 2003 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion antipholus Lea & Robins 2003. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

aporrhox, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.] 1961:218, Figs. 5-6 [Copeia 1961 (no. 2); ref. 3785] Northern South America, about 110 miles northeast of Paramaribo, 7°18'N, 54°08'W, Oregon station 2016, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 195853. Paratypes: FMNH 64503 (1), 64510 (3 of 4); UF 202302 [ex UMML 2302] (1); USNM 195852 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:51 [ref. 12367] without catalog numbers. •Valid as Lepophidium aporrhox Robins 1961 -- (Cervigón 1991:170 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:375 [ref. 23827], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:35 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292, 297 [ref. 28946], Robins et al. 2012:37[ref. 32161]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium aporrhox Robins 1961. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Honduras, northern South America to Trinidad and French Guiana. Habitat: marine.

argenteum, Glyptophidium Alcock [A. W.] 1889:390 [16] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 81] Andaman Sea, off Ross Island, Investigator station 7 [or 8], depth 271 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11661. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:148 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:40 [ref. 22148]. On p. 16 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1892: Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [ref. 20531]. •Valid as Glyptophidium argenteum Alcock 1889 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Machida 1988:296 [ref. 12746], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:67 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nakae & Matsuura 2009:244 [ref. 31426], Nakae & Matsuura 2010:28 [ref. 31425], Psomadakis et al. 2020:323 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Glyptophidium argenteum Alcock 1889. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar, Andaman Sea, Sulawesi (Indonesia), Philippines, southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

argenteus, Sirembo Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1887:280 [24] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 53 (1. abth.); ref. 4249] Not available; mentioned in the synonomy of Sirembo armatus (Döderlein 1886), from Tokyo, Japan. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae.

armata, Brotula Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:255 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Seas of Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH D1409 (dry). Type information: Boeseman 1947:183 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Hoplobrotula armata (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:190 [ref. 7348], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:245, 371 [ref. 8057], Paxton et al. 1989:312 [ref. 12442], Machida 1990:212 [ref. 19206], Chen & Shao 1991:12 [ref. 16679], Machida 1990:209 [ref. 19206], Cheng & Zhou 1997:230 [ref. 26385] with year as 1847, Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:69 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:437 [ref. 25086], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:307 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:437 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:206, 537 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:413 [ref. 28370], Hoese et al. 2006:561 [ref. 29051] dated 1847, Shinohara et al. 2011:40 [ref. 31715], Larson et al. 2013:49 [ref. 32988], Iwamoto & McCosker 2014:282 [ref. 33298], Fricke et al. 2014:33 [ref. 33932], Shinohara et al. 2014:241 [ref. 33330], Motomura et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35490], Sonoyama et al. 2020:30 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Hoplobrotula armata (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, north to Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

armatum, Pteridium Doderlein [P.] 1886:76 [4], Pl. 1 [Naturalista Siciliano [Il Naturalista Siciliano, Giornale di scienze naturali] v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 17417] Augusta Sea, off Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. On p. 4 of separate. •Synonym of Benthocometes robustus (Goode & Bean 1886) -- (Nielsen 1973:550 [ref. 6885], Cohen & Nielsen 1978:28 [ref. 881], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1160 [ref. 13677], Nielsen 1990:566 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:59 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2010:59 [ref. 30910], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:10 [ref. 35177]). Current status: Synonym of Benthocometes robustus (Goode & Bean 1886). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

armatum, Pycnocraspedum Gosline [W. A.] 1954:80, Figs. 2e, 3e [Pacific Science v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 1860] Off the Mauna Loa lava flow, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 162717. •Valid as Pycnocraspedum armatum Gosline 1954 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:87 [ref. 24448], Mundy 2005:245 [ref. 28379], Prokofiev 2005:118 [ref. 34466], Evseenko & Okiyama 2006:195 [ref. 28760]). Current status: Valid as Pycnocraspedum armatum Gosline 1954. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

armatus, Acanthonus Günther [A.] 1878:23 [7] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 2 (nos 7/8/9)(art. 2/22/28); ref. 2010] North of New Guinea, Challenger station 218, depth 1075 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1884.12.7.56. BMNH 1887.12.7.56 from Challenger station 205, Philippines, depth 1050 fathoms [may be part of type series, but not mentioned in 1878 paper]. On p. 7 of separate. See also Günther 1887:117, Pl. 24 (fig. A) [ref. 2013]. •Valid as Acanthonus armatus Günther 1878 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:18 [ref. 881], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:99 [ref. 6441], Nielsen 1990:564 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Quéro 1991:193 [ref. 20072], Nielsen 1997:54 [ref. 23255], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:704 [ref. 23897], Fricke 1999:100 [ref. 24106], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:51 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:436 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:436 [ref. 26001], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27076], Mundy 2005:242 [ref. 28379], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29626], Fricke et al. 2009:27 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:107 [ref. 37485], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Vieira et al. 2016:[6] [ref. 34869], Carneiro et al. 2019:156 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Acanthonus armatus Günther 1878. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas. Habitat: marine.

asiro, Otophidium Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1902:752, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1303); ref. 2459] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 7123. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:103 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Otophidium asiro Jordan & Fowler 1902 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:192 [ref. 7348], Nakabo 2000:438 [ref. 25086]). •Synonym of Ophidion muraenolepis Günther 1880 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448]). •Possibly a synonym of Ophidion muraenolepis(Günther 1880) -- (see Randall 2007:118 [ref. 30952]). •Valid as Ophidion asiro (Jordan & Fowler 1902) -- (Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:99 [ref. 6441], Chen & Shao 1991:12 [ref. 16679], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:307 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:438 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:414 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2014:241 [ref. 33330], Sonoyama et al. 2020:30 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion asiro (Jordan & Fowler 1902). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan and China north to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Leucicorus Nielsen [J. G.] 1975:Fig. 5 [Trudy Instituta Okeanologii Imeni P.P. Shirshova v. 101; ref. 19741] Cayman Trench, 19°00'N, 80°38'W, depth 6400-6800 meters. Holotype: ZIN. Paratypes: UF 230276 [ex UMML 30276] (1), USNM 213788 (1), ZIN (15, in 5 lots); ZMUC P77575 (1, c&s). •Valid as Leucicorus atlanticus Nielsen 1975 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:34 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:73 [ref. 24448], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Nielsen & Møller 2008:29 [ref. 29803], Fujii et al. 2010:512 [ref. 30881], Fujii et al. 2010:512 [ref. 30881]). Current status: Valid as Leucicorus atlanticus Nielsen 1975. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and Solomon Sea. Habitat: marine.

atripectus, Porogadus Garman [S.] 1899:154, Pl. 37 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Eastern Pacific, 5°30'N, 86°45'W, Albatross station 3366; 7°05'30"N, 79°40'W, station 3392; 16°34'30"N, 100°3'W, station 3419. Syntypes: MCZ 28656-58 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Porogadus atripectus Garman 1899 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944]). Current status: Valid as Porogadus atripectus Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

australiensis, Benthocometes Nielsen [J. G.] 2010:60, Figs. 1, 2a, 3A-C , -4 [Zootaxa No. 2561; ref. 30910] Off northwestern Australia, 13°15'54"S, 123°22'27"E to 13°16'21"S, 123°21'24"E, depth 390-394 meters. Holotype (unique): NMV A29728-016. •Valid as Benthocometes australiensis Nielsen 2010 -- (Mizumachi & Endo 2019:7 [ref. 36485]). Current status: Valid as Benthocometes australiensis Nielsen 2010. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: northwestern Australia; Japan. Habitat: marine.

australiensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:20, Fig. 10 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Southwest of Rowley Shoals, 18°4.6'S, 118°22'E, Western Australia, depth 327-328 meters. Holotype: WAM P.28107-001. Paratypes: LACM 43621-1 (1); WAM P.25395-008 (1), P.25401-009 (1), P.28107-002 (1), P.30585-004 (1); ZMUC P771325 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:10 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Neobythites australiensis Nielsen 2002 -- (Hoese et al. 2006:562 [ref. 29051], Okamoto et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31712], Ohashi et al. 2012:27 [ref. 31981]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites australiensis Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northwestern Australia and off Okinawa Island, Japan. Habitat: marine.

australis, Apagesoma Nielsen [J. G.], King [N. D.] & Møller [P. R.] 2008:44, Figs. 2-3 [Cybium v. 32 (no. 1); ref. 29625] Off Crozet Islands, 49°01'S, 51°04'E, depth 4187-4191 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P771525. Paratypes: ZMUC P771526 (1). Name corrected to australe as Apagesoma is neuter. •Valid as Apagesoma australe Nielsen, King & Møller 2008. Current status: Valid as Apagesoma australe Nielsen, King & Møller 2008. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southern Ocean, off Crozet Islands. Habitat: marine.

australis, Genypterus Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:164 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Melbourne market, Victoria, Australia. Holotype: MNHN. •Synonym of Genypterus blacodes (Forster 1801) -- (Chong 1985:36 [ref. 25223], Paxton et al. 1989:311 [ref. 12442], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:64 [ref. 22530], Hoese et al. 2006:560 [ref. 29051]). Current status: Synonym of Genypterus blacodes (Forster 1801). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

badia, Hoplobrotula Machida [Y.] 1990:209, Figs. 1-3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 19206] Manazuru Fish Market facing Sagami Bay, Odawara City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 57621. •Valid as Hoplobrotula badia Machida 1990 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:69 [ref. 24448], Nakabo 2000:437 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:437 [ref. 26001]). Current status: Valid as Hoplobrotula badia Machida 1990. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

barbatum, Ophidion Linnaeus [C.] 1758:259 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Southern Europe. No types known. •Valid as Ophidion barbatum Linnaeus 1758 -- (Nielsen 1973:553 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1164 [ref. 13677], Nielsen 1990:571 [ref. 16246], Matallanas 1990:452 [ref. 20154], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448], Matallanas & Brito 1999:935 [ref. 24923], Dulĉić 2001:289 [ref. 25710], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:54 [ref. 26753], Goren & Galil 2002:150 [ref. 28414], Lea & Robins 2003:6 [ref. 27029], Golani 2005:26 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:65 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:31 [ref. 36649], Goren & Galil 2015:517 [ref. 33910], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Artüz & Fricke 2019:554 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:158 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:94 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:52 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:21 [ref. 37519] as Ophidium barbatum). Current status: Valid as Ophidion barbatum Linnaeus 1758. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: southern England south to Senegal, including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

barbatus, Enchelyopus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:52 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Brotula barbata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Nielsen & Nybelin 1963:204 [ref. 5094], Arai in Uyeno et al. 1983:223 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:100 [ref. 23100], Nielsen 1990:567 [ref. 16246], Cervigón 1991:166 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:75 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:374 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:711 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:23 [ref. 24448], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:154 [ref. 25013], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:970 [ref. 27008], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:100 [ref. 27795], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Greenfield 2005:80 [ref. 28204], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:291, 297 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:28 [ref. 33341], Nielsen 2016:1952 [ref. 34583], Bauer et al. 2018:[5] 717 [ref. 37062]). Current status: Valid as Brotula barbata (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Distribution: Atlantic; in western Atlantic south to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

bartschi, Luciobrotula Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:171, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Palawan Passage, 10°57'45"N, 118°38'15"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5348, depth 375 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 74151. •Valid as Luciobrotula bartschi Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Nielsen & Nybelin 1963:201 [ref. 5094], Cohen 1974:109 [ref. 7139], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:261, 374 [ref. 8057], Nielsen & Cohen 1986:349 [ref. 5700], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:75 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:441 [ref. 25086], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:308 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:441 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:414 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:245 [ref. 28379], Nielsen & Møller 2008:30 [ref. 29803], Nielsen 2009:147 [ref. 30647], Fricke et al. 2014:33 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Luciobrotula bartschi Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden and South Africa east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

beani, Ophidium Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:143 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (no. 355); ref. 18350] Snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 30868 (2, now 1?). Original genus should have been Ophidion. •Valid as Ophidion beani Jordan & Gilbert 1883 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:98 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:76, 77 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:728 [ref. 23897], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448]). •Synonym of Ophidion holbrookii Putnam 1874 -- (Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:18 [ref. 28815]). Current status: Synonym of Ophidion holbrookii Putnam 1874. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bimaculatus, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1997:62, Figs. 11a, b [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie v. 174; ref. 23255] New Caledonia, 22°09'S, 167°12.2' E, depth 470-480. Holotype: MNHN 1994-0730. Paratypes: MNHN 1994-0731 to 0732 (2, 1), ZMUC P771153 (1). •Valid as Neobythites bimaculatus Nielsen 1997 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Nielsen 2002:22 [ref. 26394], Hoese et al. 2006:563 [ref. 29051], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242], Ohashi et al. 2015:59 [ref. 35054]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites bimaculatus Nielsen 1997. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: South China Sea, southern Japan, northwestern Australia, New Caledonia and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

bimarginatus, Neobythites Fourmanoir [P.] & Rivaton [J.] 1979:416, Fig. 9 [Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 8833] West of Isle of Pines, New Caledonia, southwest Pacific. Holotype: MNHN 1978-0472. Paratypes: MNHN 1978-0473 (1). •Valid as Neobythites bimarginatus Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979 -- (Nielsen 1997:63 [ref. 23255], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen 2002:25 [ref. 26394], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242], Ohashi et al. 2012:27 [ref. 31981], Nielsen & Uiblein 2015:309 [ref. 36552]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites bimarginatus Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar; New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

biospeedoi, Ventichthys Nielsen [J. G.], Møller [P. R.] & Segonzac [M.] 2006:16, Figs. 1-8 [Zootaxa No. 1247; ref. 28732] South East Pacific Rise, hydrothermal vent site Oasis, 17°25.38'S, 113°12.29'W, depth 2586 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2004-2037. Paratypes: MNHN 2004-2038 (1). Observed at 3 additional sites. •Valid as Ventichthys biospeedoi Nielsen, Møller & Segonzac 2006. Current status: Valid as Ventichthys biospeedoi Nielsen, Møller & Segonzac 2006. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

blacodes, Ophidium Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:484 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New Zealand. No types known. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). See Corrigenda for citation to Forster manuscript; author is Forster. •Valid as Genypterus blacodes (Forster 1801) -- (Chong 1985:36 [ref. 25223], Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:144 [ref. 14235], Paxton et al. 1989:311 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:48 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:131 [ref. 24556], Machida in Amaoka et al. 1990:197 [ref. 16024], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:64 [ref. 22530], Gomon et al. 1994:368 [ref. 22532], Andreata & Séret 1996:583 [ref. 16204] with author as Schneider, López et al. 1996:28 [ref. 23681], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29, 30 [ref. 24448], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:80 [ref. 25942], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Smith & Paulin 2003:188 [ref. 27042], Hoese et al. 2006:559 [ref. 29051], Gomon 2008:354 [ref. 30616], Mabragaña et al. 2011:10 and table S2 [ref. 31800], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:109 [ref. 36167], Nielsen & Møller 2015:717 [ref. 34259], Nión et al. 2016:40 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Genypterus blacodes (Forster 1801). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Southern Hemisphere. Habitat: marine.

brasiliense, Ophidium Kaup [J. J.] (ex Valenciennes) 1856:95 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2574] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2634. •Valid as Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup 1856) -- (Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:148 [ref. 14235], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:44 [ref. 24448], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27192], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Nión et al. 2016:40 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup 1856). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Genypterus Regan [C. T.] 1903:68, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1903, v. 2 (pt 1) (art. 4) (for 12 May 1903); ref. 3615] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1903.6.9.86-87 (2). •Synonym of Genypterus blacodes (Forster 1801) -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29 [ref. 24448] with author as Schneider). •Valid as Genypterus brasiliensis Regan 1903 -- (Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:146 [ref. 14235], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Mabragaña et al. 2011:10 and table S2 [ref. 31800], Nión et al. 2016:40 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Genypterus brasiliensis Regan 1903. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Luciobrotula Nielsen [J. G.] 2009:142, Figs. 2-6 [Galathea Report No. 22; ref. 30647] Off Bahia, 14°36.579'S, 38°49.544'W, Brazil, depth 1055-1173 meters. Holotype (unique): MOVI 38685. •Valid as Luciobrotula brasiliensis Nielsen 2009. Current status: Valid as Luciobrotula brasiliensis Nielsen 2009. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

braziliensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1999:367, Figs. 21-22 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 64 (no. 2); ref. 24424] Off Brazil, 1°49'N, 46°48'W, Oregon station 2083, depth 412 meters. Holotype: USNM 185111. Paratypes: UF 204180 (3), USNM 308990-91 (1, 1), ZMUC P771179 (1). •Valid as Neobythites braziliensis Nielsen 1999 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295 [ref. 28946], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:114 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites braziliensis Nielsen 1999. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: mouth of Amazonas to Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

brevibarbe, Ophidium Cuvier [G.] 1829:359 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5772 (2). •Valid as Lepophidium brevibarbe (Cuvier 1829) -- (Arai in Uyeno et al. 1983:226 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:98 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:75 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:375 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:716 [ref. 23897], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:35, 36 [ref. 24448], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:971 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:207 [ref. 27076], Smith et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292, 297 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:52 [ref. 29626], García-Hernández et al. 2009:91 [ref. 37265], Robins et al. 2012:5 [ref. 32161] with a holotype on p. 48, Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:112 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium brevibarbe (Cuvier 1829). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southeastern U.S.A. south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

brevicauda, Brotulataenia Cohen [D. M.] 1974:146, Figs. 1-2 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 55 (no. 2); ref. 6890] Atlantic, 10°52'N, 22°09'W, depth 608-0 meters. Holotype: ISH 2640-1971. Paratypes: ISH 630-1968 (1), 889-1973 (1), 2459-1971 (1); USNM 209234 (1), 209608 (1), 209610-11 (1, 1); ZIN uncat. (1, not received); ZMUC P77555 (1). Type catalog: Krefft 1978:14 [ref. 9884]. Original genus should have been spelled Brotulotaenia. •Valid as Brotulotaenia brevicauda Cohen 1974 -- (Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1161 [ref. 13677], Nielsen 1990:567 [ref. 16246], Machida et al. 1997:423 [ref. 23365], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:712 [ref. 23897], Bañón et al. 1999:189 [ref. 24059], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:26 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:967 [ref. 27008], Okuyama & Kato 2002:159 [ref. 27033], Fahay & Nielsen 2003:210 [ref. 27217], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Carneiro et al. 2019:157 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Brotulotaenia brevicauda Cohen 1974. Ophidiidae: Brotulotaeniinae. Distribution: Atlantic; Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

breviceps, Porogadus Garman [S.] 1899:155 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Gulf of California, 26°48'N, 110°45'20"W, Albatross station 3435, depth 859 fathoms; 27°34'N, 110°53'40"W, station 3436, depth 905 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28654-55 (1, 1). •Synonym of Porogadus catena (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Porogadus catena (Goode & Bean 1885). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

breviventralis, Leptobrotula Nielsen [J. G.] 1986:166, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1986 (no. 1); ref. 3199] Off Hawaiian Islands, 21°05'N, 156°11'W, depth 636 meters. Holotype: USNM 215291. Paratypes: ZMUC P77763 (1); plus non-type material. •Valid as Leptobrotula breviventralis Nielsen 1986 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:72 [ref. 24448], Mundy 2005:245 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Valid as Leptobrotula breviventralis Nielsen 1986. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Hawaiian Islands; probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

broussoneti, Ophidion Müller [J.] 1845:152 [44] [Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1843; ref. 18466] Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: ?ZMB 22288. On p. 44 of separate. •Valid as Ophidion broussoneti Müller 1845 -- (Nielsen 1973:553 [ref. 6885], Nielsen 1973:553 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1164 [ref. 13677]). •Synonym of Ophidion rochei Müller 1845 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Ophidion rochei Müller 1845. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brucei, Neobythites Dollo [L.] 1906:177 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh v. 26 (pt 3); ref. 15655] Weddell Sea, Antarctic, 67°33'S, 36°35'W, depth 2500 fathoms. Holotype (unique): NMSZ 1921.143.0484. Type catalog: Herman et al. 1990:2 [ref. 20727]. •Valid as Holcomycteronus brucei (Dollo 1906) -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Nielsen 1990:207 [ref. 21689], Nielsen 1999:336 [ref. 24424], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:68 [ref. 24448], Anderson & Stein 2006:1 [ref. 28595], Nielsen et al. 2008:46 [ref. 29625], Nielsen & Møller 2011:785 [ref. 31147]). Current status: Valid as Holcomycteronus brucei (Dollo 1906). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Antarctic and Southern Ocean. Habitat: marine.

brunswigi, Bassobythites Brauer [A.] 1906:307, Pl. 14 (fig. 7) [Die Tiefsee-Fische v. 15; ref. 632] Off northeastern coast of Africa [off Somalia, western Indian Ocean], 6°18'08"N, 49°32'05"E, depth 1079 meters. Holotype: ZMB 17799. •Valid as Bassobythites brunswigi Brauer 1906 -- (Nielsen 1990:565 [ref. 16246]). •Valid as Lamprogrammus brunswigi (Brauer 1906) -- (Cohen et al. 1991:129 [ref. 19146], Cohen & Rohr 1993:472 [ref. 20545], Adam et al. 1998:9 [ref. 23610], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:71 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:207 [ref. 27076], Fahay & Nielsen 2003:210 [ref. 27217], Mundy 2005:244 [ref. 28379], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:52 [ref. 29626], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:169 [ref. 32953], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Lamprogrammus brunswigi (Brauer 1906). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas, including Hawaiian Islands, but not eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

burbonensis, Brotula Kaup [J. J.] 1858:92 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2576] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8468 (dry). •Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Fricke 1999:100 [ref. 24106], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:23 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Habitat: marine.

caninum, Hypopleuron Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:165, Pls. 13 (fig. 2), 14 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Near Kayoa Island, 0°07'30"N, 127°29'00"E, Indonesia, Albatross station 5626, depth 265 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74147. Paratypes: USNM 99198 (1), 99202 (1). •Valid as Hypopleuron caninum Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:33 [ref. 881], Paxton et al. 1989:312 [ref. 12442], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:70 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:561 [ref. 29051], Ho & Fang 2011:2 [ref. 33333], Psomadakis et al. 2020:324 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Hypopleuron caninum Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Arabian Sea east to eastern Indonesia, north to Philippines, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Xiphiurus Smith [A.] 1847:no pagination, Pl. 31 [Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa v. 4; ref. 4035] Near entrance to Table Bay, South Africa, southeastern Atlantic. Syntypes: BMNH (2, stuffed, not seen). •Valid as Genypterus capensis (Smith 1847) -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:347 [ref. 5700], Nielsen 1990:569 [ref. 16246], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:144 [ref. 25472], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29, 31 [ref. 24448], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:119 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Valid as Genypterus capensis (Smith 1847). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean off southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

catena, Bathyonus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:603 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 543); ref. 1842] Gulf of Mexico, 28°00'15"N, 87°42'W, Albatross station 2379, depth 1467 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 37341 (237-mm specimen). Paralectotypes: USNM 37341 (1 of 2). Lectotype established in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2511 [ref. 2446] and as figured specimen in caption to Pl. 356, p. 3306 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446]. •Valid as Porogadus catena (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:735 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:199 [ref. 28944], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:55 [ref. 29626], Costa & Mincarone 2010:354 [ref. 37483], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:116 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Porogadus catena (Goode & Bean 1885). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico south to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), including Caribbean Sea; eastern Pacific (Gulf of Panama). Habitat: marine.

caudalis, Mixonus Garman [S.] 1899:148, Pls. 36 (2), 39 (2), 74 (2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Central America, 5°30'00"N, 86°45'00"W, Albatross station 3366, depth 1067 fathoms [plus other stations]. Syntypes: MCZ 28674-77 (?). •Valid as Bathyonus caudalis (Garman 1899) -- (Nielsen 1997:58 [ref. 23255], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:59 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Endo et al. 2000:43 [ref. 24516], Nakabo 2000:439 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:439 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:413 [ref. 28370], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944], Nielsen et al. 2008:49 [ref. 29625], Nielsen & Møller 2008:26 [ref. 29803], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Bathyonus caudalis (Garman 1899). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cervinum, Leptophidium Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:422 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 533); ref. 14448] South of Nantucket Island (northeastern USA), Fish Hawk Sta. 941, depth 138 meters. Holotype: USNM 28764. Paratypes: USNM 28955 (1), 32653 (1), 37235 (1), 37236 (8, not found in 1986), 274258 [ex 28764] (now 5), 317888 [ex 28764] (1, osteol. prep.). •Valid as Lepophidium cervinum Goode & Bean 1885 -- (Nielsen 1973:553 [ref. 6885], Robins & Ray 1986:98 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:305 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:135 [ref. 14674]). •Synonym of Lepophidium profundorum (Gill 1863) -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:35 [ref. 24448], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Robins et al. 2012:9 [ref. 32161]). Current status: Synonym of Lepophidium profundorum (Gill 1863). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

chickcharney, Otophidium Böhlke [J. E.] & Robins [C. R.] 1959:37, Pl. 5A; Figs. 1 (A-B) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 111; ref. 11981] West of tip of Lyford Cay, New Providence Island, Bahamas, 25°02'06"N, 77°34'56"W. Holotype: ANSP 84806. Paratypes: ANSP 84807 (1), 84808 (1, c&s), 84809 (4); UF 203361 [ex UMML 3361] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Otophidium chickcharney Böhlke & Robins 1959 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:43 [ref. 24448], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Nelson et al. 2004:92 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Otophidium chickcharney Böhlke & Robins 1959. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

chilensis, Conger Guichenot [A.] 1848:339 [Fauna Chilena.... in Gay.; ref. 1939] Copiapó; coast of Chile. •Valid as Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot 1848) -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:142 [ref. 14235], Pequeño 1989:48 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:224 [ref. 24555], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29, 32 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Valid as Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot 1848). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

chinense, Ophidium Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:486, Pl. 90 (fig. 1) [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Baltic Sea and Ocean. Plate 90 is listed in text under chinense, but plate is labelled Ophidium imberbi; imberbi is regarded as an error. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

chrysocephalum, Ophidium Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:19 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:38 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Parophidion vassali (Risso 1810) -- (Parenti 2019:113 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Parophidion vassali (Risso 1810). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

clarkae, Brotula Hubbs [C. L.] 1944:167, Fig. 2 [Copeia 1944 (no. 3); ref. 10743] 5 miles south of Cape San Lazaro, north of Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico (floating at surface). Holotype: UMMZ 141263. Paratypes: UMMZ 141264 (1); USNM 77702 (1, also holotype of B. maculata), 94042 (1). We treat as a new species description as indicated by the author, but it could be regarded as a replacement name with USNM 77702 as type. •Valid as Brotula clarkae Hubbs 1944 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:73 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:74 [ref. 23101], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:243 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:223 [ref. 24555], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:23 [ref. 24448], Thomson et al. 2000:53 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Greenfield 2005:80 [ref. 28204], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Brotula clarkae Hubbs 1944. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

coheni, Bassogigas Mayer [R. F.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1972:163, Fig. 4 [Revue Roumaine de Biologie, Série de Zoologie v. 17 (no. 3); ref. 719] Peru Trench, eastern Pacific, 8°23'S, 80°25'W, depth 2945-2966 meters. Holotype (unique): MGAB 191. •Synonym of Spectrunculus grandis (Günther 1877) -- (Nielsen & Hureau 1980:162 [ref. 5585], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:90 [ref. 24448]). •Synonym of Spectrunculus crassus (Vaillant 1888) -- (Uiblein et al. 2008:547 [ref. 29800], Nielsen & Møller 2011:785 [ref. 31447]). Current status: Synonym of Spectrunculus crassus (Vaillant 1888). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

coheni, Luciobrotula Nielsen [J. G.] 2009:151, Figs. 10-12 [Galathea Report No. 22; ref. 30647] Gulf of Panama, 7°22'N, 79°32'W, eastern Pacific, depth 915-975 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P77467. Paratypes: (9) HUMZ 167298 (1), 167996 (1), 175419-20 (2); USNM 391141 (2); ZMUC P77468-69 (2). •Valid as Luciobrotula coheni Nielsen 2009 -- (Robertson et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Luciobrotula coheni Nielsen 2009. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica to Peru. Habitat: marine.

collettei, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.], Robins [R. H.] & Brown [M. E.] 2012:13, Fig. 6 [Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History v. 52 (no. 1); ref. 32161] Western Caribbean, 4°52'N, 51°49'W, Oregon sta. 17620-21, depth 37 meters. Holotype: USNM 405909. Paratypes: many at CAS, UF and USNM. •Valid as Lepophidium collettei Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Current status: Valid as Lepophidium collettei Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: between Trinidad and Venezuela and Guianas to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

compressus, Bathynectes Günther [A.] 1878:20 [4] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 2 (nos 7/8/9)(art. 2/22/28); ref. 2010] South of New Guinea, 12°08'S, 145°10'E, Challenger station 184, depth 2562 meters. Lectotype: BMNH 1887.12.7.47. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1887.12.7.48 (1) east-southeast of Raine Island, New Guinea Challenger station 184, depth 1400 fathoms; BMNH (1) Mid-Atlantic, Challenger station 107, depth 1500 fathoms. On p. 4 of separate. See also Günther 1887:109, Pl. 22 (fig. A) [ref. 2013]. Lectotype selected by Nielsen & Merrett 2000:21 [ref. 24949]. •Valid as Bathynectes compressus Günther 1878 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:708 [ref. 23897]). •Valid as Bassozetus compressus (Günther 1878) -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:57 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nielsen & Merrett 2000:21, 23 [ref. 24949], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Prokofiev 2005:113 [ref. 34466], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Hoese et al. 2006:557 [ref. 29051], Nielsen & Møller 2008:25 [ref. 29803], Tomiyama et al. 2015:223 [ref. 35430], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811], Carneiro et al. 2019:157 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus compressus (Günther 1878). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: New Caledonia to Okinawa Islands. Habitat: marine.

congrus, Ophidion Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:164 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.124 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:235 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Ophidion barbatum Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1958:235 [ref. 13434]). Current status: Synonym of Ophidion barbatum Linnaeus 1758. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

conjugator, Neobythites (Monomitopus) Alcock [A. W.] 1896:304 [4] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 65 (pt 2, No. 3); ref. 91] Off Sri Lanka, Investigator station 201, depth 296-320 fathoms; off Travancore, depth 406 fathoms. Syntypes: USNM 231713 (1); ZSI F56/1 (1), F57/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:41 [ref. 22148]. On p. 4 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1897: Pl. 17 (fig. 4) [ref. 20533]. •Valid as Monomitopus conjugator (Alcock 1896) -- (Carter & Cohen 1985:86 [ref. 5145], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Fricke et al. 2018:84 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus conjugator (Alcock 1896). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Madagascar; India. Habitat: marine.

corethromycter, Luciobrotula Cohen [D. M.] 1964:391, Figs. 1-5 [Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 1637] Off north coast of Panama, 9°20'N, 81°24'W, Oregon station 3586, depth 470-500 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 188547. Paratypes: FMNH 66454 (1); MCZ 42930 (1); UF 213664 [ex UMML 13664] (1); USNM 188548-52 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:54 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Luciobrotula corethromycter Cohen 1964 -- (Cohen 1974:109 [ref. 7139], Arai in Uyeno et al. 1983:232 [ref. 14275], Nielsen 1990:570 [ref. 16246], Cervigón 1996:155 [ref. 24489], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:721 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:75 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:207 [ref. 27076], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Nielsen 2009:152 [ref. 30647], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Luciobrotula corethromycter Cohen 1964. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and off eastern U.S.A. Habitat: marine.

crassa, Brotulotaenia Parr [A. E.] 1934:36, Fig. 12 (bottom) [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 4 (art. 6); ref. 3375] Off New Providence Island, Bahamas, 25°39'N, 77°18'W, Atlantis station 1478, depth 1050-1100 meters. Holotype: YPM 3205. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:8 [ref. 16741]. Genus misspelled Brotulataenia in some literature. •Valid as Brotulotaenia crassa Parr 1934 -- (Nielsen 1973:550 [ref. 6885], Cohen 1974:140 [ref. 6890], Cohen 1981:1085 [ref. 8491], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1161 [ref. 13677], Nielsen & Cohen 1986:346 [ref. 5700], Paxton et al. 1989:311 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:131 [ref. 24556], Shcherbachev et al. 1989:165 [ref. 36134], Nielsen 1990:568 [ref. 16246], Gomon et al. 1994:366 [ref. 22532], Machida et al. 1997:423 [ref. 23365], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:26 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:967 [ref. 27008], Okuyama & Kato 2002:159 [ref. 27033], Moore et al. 2003:206 [ref. 27076], Fahay & Nielsen 2003:210 [ref. 27217], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Hoese et al. 2006:558 [ref. 29051], Gomon 2008:353 [ref. 30616], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Carneiro et al. 2019:158 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Brotulotaenia crassa Parr 1934. Ophidiidae: Brotulotaeniinae. Distribution: Circumglobal, but not in eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

crassus, Bythites Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:279, Pl. 25 (fig. 1) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Northeastern Atlantic between Azores and France, 44°20'N, 17°11'W, depth 4255 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1886-0552. •Valid as Parabassogigas crassus (Vaillant 1888) -- (Nielsen 1973:552 [ref. 6885]). •Synonym of Spectrunculus grandis (Günther 1877) -- (Nielsen & Hureau 1980:162 [ref. 5585], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1165 [ref. 13677], Nielsen 1990:573 [ref. 16246], Nielsen 1999:336 [ref. 24424], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:90 [ref. 24448]). •Valid as Spectrunculus crassus (Vaillant 1888) -- (Uiblein et al. 2008:547 [ref. 29800], Nielsen & Møller 2011:785 [ref. 31147], Carneiro et al. 2019:159 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Spectrunculus crassus (Vaillant 1888). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northeastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

crosnieri, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1995:4, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 62; ref. 21625] Off southwestern Madagascar, 22°19.1'S, 43°06.1'E, depth 330-335 meters. Holotype: ZMMU P-18904. Paratypes: MNHN 1992-0532 to 0534 (1, 1, 1); ZMUC P77823 (1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Neobythites crosnieri Nielsen 1995 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:27 [ref. 26394], Fricke et al. 2018:84 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites crosnieri Nielsen 1995. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

crossotum, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.], Robins [R. H.] & Brown [M. E.] 2012:28, Fig. 18 [Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History v. 52 (no. 1); ref. 32161] Panama (Atlantic) 24°23'-24'N, 82°56'-57'W, Gerda sta. 572, depth 146 meters. Holotype: UF 217430. Paratypes: many at FMNH, GMBL, MCZ, UF, USNM and VIMS. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Lepophidium crossotum Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Current status: Valid as Lepophidium crossotum Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southeastern USA, eastern and central Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

cultratum, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.], Robins [R. H.] & Brown [M. E.] 2012:26, Fig. 17 [Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History v. 52 (no. 1); ref. 32161] Panama (Atlanic), 9°18'N, 80°22'W, Oregon sta. 3590, depth 229 meters. Holotype: UF 211765. Paratypes: many at FMNH, UF and USNM. •Valid as Lepophidium cultratum Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Current status: Valid as Lepophidium cultratum Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: off Honduras and Nicaragua, Panama and along the northern coast of South America to French Guiana. Habitat: marine.

delosommatus, Typhlonus Hureau [J.-C.], Staiger [J. C.] & Nielsen [J. G.] 1979:272, Figs. 1-6 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 8824] Southeastern Atlantic, 12°21.4'S, 11°02.7'E, depth 3431 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1976-0042. Paratypes: UF 233179 [ex UMML 33179] (1). Name is treated as an adjective, therefore corrected to delosommatum when in Apagesoma. •Valid as Apagesoma delosommatus (Hureau, Staiger & Nielsen 1979) -- (Nielsen 1990:564 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:52 [ref. 24448] as delosomatus on p. 93, Merrett & Nielsen 2001:751 [ref. 26393], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Nielsen et al. 2008:44 [ref. 29625], Nielsen & Møller 2008:23 [ref. 29803], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583]). •Valid as Apagesoma delosommatum (Hureau, Staiger & Nielsen 1979). Current status: Valid as Apagesoma delosommatum (Hureau, Staiger & Nielsen 1979). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Atlantic and Solomon Sea [few specimens known]. Habitat: marine.

digittatus, Holcomycteronus Garman [S.] 1899:163, Pls. 36 (fig. 1), 76 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Gulf of California to Colombia, Mexico, Albatross station 3374, 3375, 3414, 3415 and 3434, depth 1201-2232 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28638-42 (2, 1, 1, 2, 1); USNM 57872 (1). •Questionably valid as Holcomycteronus digittatus Garman 1899 -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:348 [ref. 5700]). •Valid as Holcomycteronus digittatus Garman 1899 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Nielsen 1980:18 [ref. 6926], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:68 [ref. 24448], Anderson & Stein 2006:3 [ref. 28595], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], Nielsen et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29625], Nielsen & Møller 2011:786 [ref. 31147]). Current status: Valid as Holcomycteronus digittatus Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

dormitator, Otophidium Böhlke [J. E.] & Robins [C. R.] 1959:43, Pl. 5 (B); Figs. 1 (C, D) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 111; ref. 11981] Andros Island, Bahamas, 24°06'15"N, 77°32"15'W. Holotype: ANSP 84810. Paratypes: ANSP 84811 (9), 84812 (1, c&s), 84813-16 (1, 1, 2, 1); UF 203362 [ex UMML 3362] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Otophidium dormitator Böhlke & Robins 1959 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:100 [ref. 23100], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:43 [ref. 24448], Collette et al. 2003:100 [ref. 26784], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Nelson et al. 2004:92 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:28 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Otophidium dormitator Böhlke & Robins 1959. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

dromio, Ophidion Lea [R. N.] & Robins [C. R.] 2003:5, Figs. 1D, 2D [University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Scientific Papers No. 31; ref. 27029] South Carolina, U.S.A., 32°04'N, 79°14'W, depth 77-82 meters. Holotype: UF 232221. Paratypes: CAS 216611 [UF 215404] (1), 216612 (1); FMNH 69274-76 (1, 1, 1); KU 29982 [ex UF 204970] (2), 29983 [ex UMML 32740] (3, 2 c&s), 29984 [ex UF 232222] (1); MCZ 52738 (5); SIO 02-101 [ex UF 216301] (2); UF 12249 (9), 203981 (1), 210247 (1), 210807 (2), 72158 (2), 72161 (1), 72258 (1), 72272 (1). •Valid as Ophidion dromio Lea & Robins 2003 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292, 297 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion dromio Lea & Robins 2003. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

edentatum, Apagesoma Carter [H. J.] 1983:95, Figs. 1-7 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 33 (no. 1); ref. 5165] Off Bahamas, western North Atlantic, 23°43.5'N, 73°40.0'W, depth 5082 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 227090. Additional material: (2, see footnote on p. 94). •Valid as Apagesoma edentatum Carter 1983 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:52 [ref. 24448], Merrett & Nielsen 2001:751 [ref. 26393], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Nielsen et al. 2008:44 [ref. 29625], Fujii et al. 2010:512 [ref. 30881]). Current status: Valid as Apagesoma edentatum Carter 1983. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

effulgens, Glyptophidium Nielsen [J. G.] & Machida [Y.] 1988:302, Fig. 11 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 35 (no. 3); ref. 12746] Bagacay Point Light, Philippines, 10°28'45"N, 124°05'30"E, Albatross D5410, depth 385 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 99158. Paratypes: USNM 272001 (1), ZMUC P77783 (1). •Valid as Glyptophidium effulgens Nielsen & Machida 1988 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:67 [ref. 24448]). •Synonym of Glyptophidium argenteum Alcock, 1889 -- (Nakae & Matsuura 2010:28 [ref. 31425]). Current status: Synonym of Glyptophidium argenteum Alcock 1889. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Bassozetus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:157, Pl. 11 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, 0°08'00"S, 121°19'00"E, Indonesia, Albatross station 5608, depth 1089 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 74141. Possible additional specimen: CAS-SU 25627 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:102 [ref. 12291] with a paratype. •Valid as Bassozetus elongatus Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Nielsen 1997:56 [ref. 23255], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:57 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nielsen & Merrett 2000:25 [ref. 24949]). •Synonym of Bassozetus compressus (Günther 1878) -- (Tomiyama et al. 2015:223 [ref. 35430]). Current status: Synonym of Bassozetus compressus (Günther 1878). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] & Retzer [M. E.] 1994:993, Fig. 2B [Copeia 1994 (no. 4); ref. 21652] East Caribbean Sea, Oregon station 2652, 18°19'00"N, 67°17'30"W, depth 549 meters. Holotype: FMNH 69355. Paratypes: FMNH 69339 (2), 69347 (1), 104424 [ex FMNH 69355] (3); ZMNH P77941 (1). •Valid as Neobythites elongatus Nielsen & Retzer 1994 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:724 [ref. 23897], Nielsen 1999:363 [ref. 24424], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295 [ref. 28946]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites elongatus Nielsen & Retzer 1994. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

emmelas, Leptophidium Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:110 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Coast of Baja California, Mexico, 25°27'30"N, 110°50'30"W, Albatross station 3007, depth 362 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 44326 [or 44386]. Paralectotypes: (many) BMNH 1900.9.29.247 [from Jordan] (3?), CAS-SU 192 (6?), UMMZ 162265 (3), ?USNM 44386 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:102 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Robins 1961:215 [ref. 3785]. •Valid as Cherublemma emmelas (Gilbert 1890) -- (Pequeño 1989:48 [ref. 14125], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1993:80 [ref. 21807], Bussing & López S. 1994:76 [ref. 23101], Lea in Fischer et al. 1995:1345 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:244 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:224 [ref. 24555], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944], Robertson et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35676], González-Murcia et al. 2019:292 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Cherublemma emmelas (Gilbert 1890). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to northern Chile. Habitat: marine.

ensiformis, Brotula Günther [A.] 1862:372 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Aneiteum Island, Vanuatu. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.7.18.13 (1, stuffed), 1860.7.18.61(1, stuffed). •Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:23 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Habitat: marine.

entomelan, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.], Robins [R. H.] & Brown [M. E.] 2012:24, Fig. 15 [Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History v. 52 (no. 1); ref. 32161] Northern Gulf of Mexico, 29°13'N, 88°11'W, Oregon sta. 4583, depth 183 meters. Holotype: UF 214242. Paratypes: many at FMNH, GMBL, TU and UF. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Lepophidium entomelan Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Current status: Valid as Lepophidium entomelan Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southeastern USA, Gulf of Mexico and off Yucatan (Mexico) to Nicaragua. Habitat: marine.

everriculi, Sirembo Whitley [G. P.] 1936:47, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 11 (pt 1); ref. 4687] Off Shaw Island, Cumberland Group, northern Queensland, Australia, depth 10 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.6564. •Synonym of Sirembo imberbis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Cohen & Robins 1986:257 [ref. 5254], Paxton et al. 1989:314 [ref. 12442], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:89 [ref. 24448], Hoese et al. 2006:565 [ref. 29051], Nielsen et al. 2014:8 [120] [ref. 33532]). Current status: Synonym of Sirembo imberbis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

exul, Ophidion Robins [C. R.] 1991:3, Fig. 1 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 427; ref. 20178] Off Hanga Roa, Easter Island, 27°08'37"S, 109°26'10"W, depth 1-5 meters. Holotype: NMC 74-524 [ex BC 65-451]. Paratypes: BC 65-428 (1), 65-458 (1); BPBM 6765-66 (5, 9), 30546-47 (1, 1); LACM 6560-2 (9); NMC 74-525 (4); UF 232674 [ex UMML 32674] (orig. 3, now 2); USNM 213841 [ex BC 65-453] (2); plus non-type material. •Valid as Ophidion exul Robins 1991 -- (Pequeño 1997:81 [ref. 23536] as exsul, Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion exul Robins 1991. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Pacific. Habitat: marine.

exutus, Lamprogrammus Nybelin [O.] & Poll [M.] 1958:2, Fig. 1 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 34 (no. 19); ref. 12098] 34 miles west of Point Dande, off Angola, 8°28'S, 12°45'E, South Atlantic, depth 500 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 377. Paratypes: IRSNB 378-379 (2, 5), MRAC 126658-66 (9). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:23 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:49 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Lamprogrammus exutus Nybelin & Poll 1958 -- (Nielsen & Nybelin 1963:199 [ref. 5094], Cohen & Nielsen 1978:34 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Cohen 1986:348 [ref. 5700], Cohen & Rohr 1993:472 [ref. 20545], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:144 [ref. 25472], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:71 [ref. 24448], Fahay & Nielsen 2003:210 [ref. 27217], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Lamprogrammus exutus Nybelin & Poll 1958. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Neobythites (Watasea) Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:142, Pl. 7 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Batangas Bay, Luzon Island, 13°40'09"N, 120°59'30"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5290, depth 214 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74129. Paratypes: ?BMNH 1939.4.1.9 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 99052 (1), 99055-56 (2, 1), 99064-65 (2, 1), 99240 (1), 99259 (1). •Valid as Neobythites fasciatus Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Okamura in Okamura et al. 1982:183, 354 [ref. 8256], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Nielsen 2002:28 [ref. 26394]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites fasciatus Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ferruginosus, Geneiates Tickell [S. R.] in Day 1888:804 [The fishes of India Suppl.; ref. 1082] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in synonymy of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846 (see Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:23 [ref. 24448]). Ophidiidae: Brotulinae.

fijiensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:31, Fig. 20 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Natewa Bay, Fiji Islands, 16°39'S, 179°37'W, depth depth 360-380 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2000-0685. Paratypes: MNHN 2000-0686 (2), 2000-1561 (3); ZMUC P771320 (1). Plus non-types (2). •Valid as Neobythites fijiensis Nielsen 2002. Current status: Valid as Neobythites fijiensis Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Off Fiji and tentatively off Bali. Habitat: marine.

filamentosa, Dicrolene Garman [S.] 1899:149, Pls. F, 75 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Panama Bay, 6°-7° and 16°N, 79°-81° and 99°W, Albatross station 3358, 3393, 3394, 3418, depth 511-1020 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28669 (2), 28671-72 (2, 2), 28673 (ca. 10). Holotype if identifiable is 17 inches in length and may be in MCZ 28672. •Valid as Dicrolene filamentosa Garman 1899 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:231 [ref. 24555], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944], Robertson et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene filamentosa Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Mexico to Peru. Habitat: marine.

flaviviridis, Brotula Greenfield [D. W.] 2005:81, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 56 (no. 8); ref. 28204] Northern Lau Group, northern side of Kanacea Island at copra plantation, Fiji, 17°14.890'S, 179°08.475'W, depth 7-9.5 meters. Holotype: CAS 221531. Paratypes: CAS 221532 (1). •Valid as Brotula flaviviridis Greenfield 2005. Current status: Valid as Brotula flaviviridis Greenfield 2005. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Fiji. Habitat: marine.

fluminense, Lepophidium Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:187 [44] [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] 1903 (nos 4-7); ref. 3709] East-southeast of Ilha Rasa, off coast of Brazil. Syntypes: MNRJ 1890 (6). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:402 [ref. 12732]. On p. 44 of separate. •Valid as Raneya fluminensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1903) -- (Andreata & Séret 1996:583 [ref. 16204]). •Synonym of Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup 1856) -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:44 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup 1856). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

formosae, Brotula Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1902:364, Fig. 27 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1289); ref. 2447] Taiwan. Holotype: ZUMT [orig. no. 359] (apparently lost). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:37 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Chen & Shao 1991:11 [ref. 16679], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:23 [ref. 24448], Ho & Shao 2011:37 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Habitat: marine.

fragilis, Lamprogrammus Alcock [A. W.] 1892:348 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 10 (no. 59); ref. 88] Bay of Bengal, 15°43'30"N, 81°19'30"E, Investigator station 133, depth 678 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F13171. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:149 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:41 [ref. 22148]. •Valid as Lamprogrammus fragilis Alcock 1892 -- (Cohen & Rohr 1993:472 [ref. 20545], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:71 [ref. 24448], Fahay & Nielsen 2003:210 [ref. 27217], Psomadakis et al. 2020:324 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Lamprogrammus fragilis Alcock 1892. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden east to Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

franzi, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:33, Fig. 22 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Off Dunk Island, Queensland, 18°01'S, 147°07'E, Australia, depth 298-300 meters. Holotype: NTM S-11782-004. Paratypes: AMS I-15528-004 (1), I-15534-011 (1), I-25826-008 (1), I-25827-004 (1); NMV A6907 (2); NTM S-11779-004 (1), S-1782-004 (1); ZMUC P771332 (1). •Valid as Neobythites franzi Nielsen 2002 -- (Hoese et al. 2006:563 [ref. 29051]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites franzi Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

freddyi, Epetriodus Cohen [D. M.] & Nielsen [J. G.] 1978:30, Fig. 45 [NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) Circular No. 417; ref. 881] Southwestern Indian Ocean, 21°18'S, 36°18'E, depth 1510-1600 meters. Holotype: USNM 206942. Paratypes: MNHN 1977-0303 (1), SAM 27745 (1). •Valid as Epetriodus freddyi Cohen & Nielsen 1978 -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:347 [ref. 5700], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:64 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:559 [ref. 29051], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242], Ohashi & Endo 2015:23 [ref. 33829], Fricke et al. 2018:84 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Epetriodus freddyi Cohen & Nielsen 1978. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: South Africa, Mozambique and Madagascar east to Wallis and Futuna, north to southern Japan, south to western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

fulvum, Otophidium Hildebrand [S. F.] & Barton [O.] 1949:32, Fig. 9 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 111 (no. 10); ref. 13015] Talara, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 144257. •Valid as Ophidion fulvum (Hildebrand & Barton 1949) -- (Lea in Fischer et al. 1995:1347 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:228 [ref. 24555], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion fulvum (Hildebrand & Barton 1949). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

fulvum, Pycnocraspedum Machida [Y.] in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:247, Pl. 173 [Fishes of the Okinawa Trough and the adjacent waters; ref. 8057] Okinawa Trough, 28°06.0'N, 126°23.0'E, depth 143 meters. Holotype (unique): BSKU 27497. •Valid as Pycnocraspedum fulvum Machida 1984 -- (Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:101 [ref. 6441], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:87 [ref. 24448], Nakabo 2000:442 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:442 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:414 [ref. 28370], Prokofiev 2005:119 [ref. 34466], Evseenko & Okiyama 2006:195 [ref. 28760]). Current status: Valid as Pycnocraspedum fulvum Machida 1984. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

galatheae, Abyssobrotula Nielsen [J. G.] 1977:42, Figs. 1-9 [Galathea Report v. 14; ref. 3198] Kermadec Trench, southern Pacific, 36°07'S, 178°32'W, Galathea station 661, depth 5230-5340 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P77599. Paratypes: ?MNHN 1981-0930 (1); ZMUC P77600 (1), P77601 (1, c&s), P77602 (1); plus additional material. •Valid as Abyssobrotula galatheae Nielsen 1977 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:24 [ref. 881], Machida 1989 [ref. 19204], Paulin et al. 1989:131 [ref. 24556], Nielsen 1990:564 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:50 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:154 [ref. 25013], Nakabo 2000:438 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:438 [ref. 26001], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27076], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Fujii et al. 2010:512 [ref. 30881], Nielsen & Møller 2015:715 [ref. 34259], Ohashi & Nielsen 2016:560 [ref. 34519], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Carneiro et al. 2019:156 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Abyssobrotula galatheae Nielsen 1977. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Circumglobal. Habitat: marine.

galatheae, Bassozetus Nielsen [J. G.] & Merrett [N. R.] 2000:26, Figs. 14-15 [Galathea Report v. 18; ref. 24949] Eastern Indian Ocean, 3°03'S, 83°02.5'E, depth 1680-1800 meters. Holotype: ZMMU P-15136. Paratypes: AMS I.31151-003 (2); CSIRO H 2551-01 (1); MNHN 1988-1943 (1), 1995-670 (1); ZMMU P-15058-60 (2, 1, 2), P-15130 (1), P-20515-17 (1, 2, 1); ZMUC P771214-18 (2, 1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:67-68 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Bassozetus galatheae Nielsen & Merrett 2000 -- (Mundy 2005:242 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:557 [ref. 29051], Fricke et al. 2009:27 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus galatheae Nielsen & Merrett 2000. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

galeoides, Otophidium Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:110 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Off Baja California, Mexico, 31°21'15"N, 113°59'00"W, Albatross station 3025, depth 9.5 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 44381. •Valid as Ophidion galeoides (Gilbert 1890) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:74 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:76 [ref. 23101], Lea in Fischer et al. 1995:1347 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:228 [ref. 24555], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion galeoides (Gilbert 1890). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

garmani, Monomeropus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:151, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, Indonesia, 0°36'00"S, 122°01'00"E, Indonesia, Albatross station 5610, depth 678 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74135. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.4.1.8 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 99102-04 (2, 2, 2), 99108 (1), 99112 (1), 99260 (6). •Valid as Monomitopus garmani (Smith & Radcliffe 1913) -- (Carter & Cohen 1985:86 [ref. 5145], Nielsen 1997:60 [ref. 23255], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen & Møller 2008:32 [ref. 29803], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus garmani (Smith & Radcliffe 1913). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

genyopus, Otophidium Ogilby [J. D.] 1897:93 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 22 (pt 1); ref. 3272] Maroubra Beach, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.3660. •Status uncertain -- (Paxton et al. 1989:314 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Ophidion genyopus (Ogilby 1897) -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Hoese et al. 2006:564 [ref. 29051]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion genyopus (Ogilby 1897). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: New South Wales, Australia. Habitat: marine.

gilli, Neobythites Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:601 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 543); ref. 1842] Gulf of Mexico, 28°36'N, 85°33'W, Albatross station 2402, depth 111 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 37340. •Valid as Neobythites gilli Goode & Bean 1885 -- (Arai in Uyeno et al. 1983:234 [ref. 14275] as gillii, Cervigón 1991:173 [ref. 24472] as gillii, Boschung 1992:76 [ref. 23239], Nielsen & Retzer 1994:992 [ref. 21652], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:725 [ref. 23897], Nielsen 1999:337 [ref. 24424], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295 [ref. 28946], Nielsen et al. 2009:59 [ref. 30411], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites gilli Goode & Bean 1885. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

gillii, Bassogigas Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:328, Pl. 83 (fig. 291) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Off Cape Henlopen, Delaware, U.S.A., 39°35'N, 70°54'W, Albatross station 2684, depth 1106 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 39417. •Questionably valid as Bassogigas gillii Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:345 [ref. 5700]). •Valid as Bassogigas gillii Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Nielsen 1980:18 [ref. 6926], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:707 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:54 [ref. 24448] as gilli, Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27076], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:49 [ref. 29626], Costa & Mincarone 2010:330 [ref. 37483], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242], Nielsen & Møller 2011:785 [ref. 31447], Fricke et al. 2018:83 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Bassogigas gillii Goode & Bean 1896. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas, except for eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gilmorei, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.], Robins [R. H.] & Brown [M. E.] 2012:39, Fig. 30 [Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History v. 52 (no. 1); ref. 32161] Grenada, off Halifax Harbor, 12°06.61'N, 61°45.91'W, depth 125 meters. Holotype: UF 182220. Paratypes: KU 34001 (1); UF uncat. (1), 38459 (1), 233173 (2); UAIC 10889.50 (1). •Valid as Lepophidium gilmorei Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Current status: Valid as Lepophidium gilmorei Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: (few localities) southeastern USA (South Carolina), northern Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, Venezuela and Grenada. Habitat: marine.

gloriae, Neobythites Uiblein [F.] & Nielsen [J. G.] 2018:158, Figs. 1A [Zootaxa 4387 (no. 1); ref. 35819] Gulf of Oman, NW Indian Ocean, 25°02' N, 56°52' E, depth 272-291 meters. Holotype: USNM 309008. Paratypes: BMNH, USNM, ZMUC. •Valid as Neobythites gloriae Uiblein & Neiesen 2018 -- (Eagderi et al. 2019:34 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites gloriae Uiblein & Nielsen 2018. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman and southern Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

glutinosus, Bathyonus Alcock [A. W.] 1890:211 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 33) (art. 26); ref. 82] Off Madras coast, India, 18°26'N, 85°24'E, Investigator station 97, depth 1310 fathoms. Lectotype: BMNH 1890.11.28.37 [ex ZSI 12828]. Paralectotypes: USNM 231712 [ex ZSI F12827] (1), MNHN 1890-0344 [ex ZSI F12826] (1), ZSI F12824-25 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:147 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:40 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1892: Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 20531]. Lectotype selected by Nielsen & Merrett 2000:30 [ref. 24949]. •Valid as Bassozetus glutinosus (Alcock 1890) -- (Nielsen & Quéro 1991:193 [ref. 20072], Nielsen 1997:56 [ref. 23255], Fricke 1999:100 [ref. 24106], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:57 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nielsen & Merrett 2000:30 [ref. 24949], Hoese et al. 2006:557 [ref. 29051], Nielsen & Møller 2008:25 [ref. 29803], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242], Tomiyama et al. 2015:225 [ref. 35430], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Fricke et al. 2018:83 [ref. 35805], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus glutinosus (Alcock 1890). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Widespread in Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gnathopus, Sirembo (Haplobrotula) Regan [C. T.] 1921:417 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 7 (no. 41); ref. 3672] 15-20 miles off Umvoti River, KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 120-130 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1921.3.1.22. •Valid as Hoplobrotula gnathopus (Regan 1921) -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:348 [ref. 5700], Machida 1990:209 [ref. 19206], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:69 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Valid as Hoplobrotula gnathopus (Regan 1921). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

gomoni, Enchelybrotula Cohen [D. M.] 1982:109, Fig. 6 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 32 (no. 1); ref. 5521] Off Colombia, 6°42'N, 78°56'W to 6°44'N, 78°54.5'W, depth 3173-3208 meters. Holotype: USNM 221141. Paratypes: UF 222859 [ex UMML 22859] (1), USNM 221142 (1, c&s), ZMUC P77700 (1). •Valid as Enchelybrotula gomoni Cohen 1982 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:63 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944]). Current status: Valid as Enchelybrotula gomoni Cohen 1982. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Bathynectes Günther [A.] 1878:21 [5] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 2 (nos 7/8/9)(art. 2/22/28); ref. 2010] South of New Guinea, Challenger station 184, 12°08'S, 145°10'E, depth 1400 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.12.7.52. On p. 5 of separate. See also Günther 1887:112, Pl. 16 (fig. B) [ref. 2013]. •Valid as Porogadus gracilis (Günther 1878) -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Fricke et al. 2014:33 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Porogadus gracilis (Günther 1878). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

graellsi, Ophidium Poey [F.] 1861:425 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 12440. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:218 [ref. 22926]. Originally graëllsi. •Synonym of Lepophidium brevibarbe (Cuvier 1829) -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:35 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:971 [ref. 27008], Robins et al. 2012:5 [ref. 32161]). Current status: Synonym of Lepophidium brevibarbe (Cuvier 1829). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

grandis, Sirembo Günther [A.] 1877:437 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] Near Yokohama [65 kilometers southeast of Kamogawa], Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Challenger station 237, 34°37'N, 140°32'E, depth 1875 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.12.7.40. •Valid as Spectrunculus grandis (Günther 1877) -- (Nielsen & Hureau 1980:162 [ref. 5585], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:101 [ref. 6441], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1165 [ref. 13677], Nielsen & Cohen 1986:350 [ref. 5700], Peden & Hughes 1986:7 [ref. 9714], Paulin et al. 1989:131 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:136 [ref. 14674], Nielsen 1990:573 [ref. 16246], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:145 [ref. 25472], Shinohara et al. 1996:168 [ref. 26605], Santos et al. 1997:53 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:110 [ref. 24952], Nielsen 1999:336 [ref. 24424], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:90 [ref. 24448], Nakabo 2000:443 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:23 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:265 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:443 [ref. 26001], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:207 [ref. 27076], Mundy 2005:246 [ref. 28379], Duhamel et al. 2005:276 [ref. 32059], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295 [ref. 28946], Uiblein et al. 2008:544 [ref. 29800], Nielsen & Møller 2011:785 [ref. 31447], Parin et al. 2014:183 [ref. 33547], Nielsen & Møller 2015:719 [ref. 34259], Bañón et al. 2016:317 [ref. 34397], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583], Williams et al. 2018:99 [ref. 36359], Burton & Lea 2019:51 [ref. 37205], Carneiro et al. 2019:159 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Spectrunculus grandis (Günther 1877). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Circumglobal. Habitat: marine.

grayi, Otophidium Fowler [H. W.] 1948:2, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 204; ref. 13050] Marineland, Florida, U.S.A., depth about 7 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71737. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Ophidion grayi (Fowler 1948) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:99 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:76 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:7290 [ref. 23897], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Lea & Robins 2003:6 [ref. 27029], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion grayi (Fowler 1948). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

gregoryi, Dicrolene Trotter [E. S.] 1926:116, Fig. 31 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 4466] Eastern Pacific, 60 miles south of Cocos Island, 4°50'N, 87°00'W, depth 844 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMNH 7511 [ex NYZS 6063]. Type catalog: Mead 1958:132 [ref. 20648]. •Valid as Dicrolene gregoryi Trotter 1926 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene gregoryi Trotter 1926. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gryllus, Ophidion Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xix [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Not available, name only; from Malta. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae.

guentheri, Porogadus Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1902:762, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1303); ref. 2459] Sagami Bay, Japan, Albatross station 3696, depth 501-749 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 50577. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7124 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:102 [ref. 12291]. Originally as güntheri. •Valid as Porogadus guentheri Jordan & Fowler 1902 -- (Machida 1982:27 [ref. 23166], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:101 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:261, 375 [ref. 8057], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Nakabo 2000:440 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:440 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:414 [ref. 28370], Prokofiev 2005:115 [ref. 34466] as cf. guentheri). Current status: Valid as Porogadus guentheri Jordan & Fowler 1902. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Selachophidium Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1903:209, Pl. 17 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 2; ref. 1645] Off Table Mountain, bearing N 79°E distant 40 miles, South Africa, southeastern Atlantic, depth 250 fathoms. Lectotype: SAM 12081. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1902.5.28.7-8 (2). Lectotype selected by Nielsen 1971:23 [ref. 7451]. •Valid as Selachophidium guentheri Gilchrist 1903 -- (Nielsen 1971:21 [ref. 7451], Cohen & Nielsen 1978:39 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Cohen 1986:350 [ref. 5700], Shcherbachev et al. 1989:165 [ref. 36134], Nielsen 1990:572 [ref. 16246], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:145 [ref. 25472], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:88 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Selachophidium guentheri Gilchrist 1903. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Sirembo Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:268, Pl. 24 (fig. 5) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Off Cape Verde Islands, depth 3200 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1886-0525. Paratypes: MNHN 1886-0526 (1). •Synonym of Mixonus laticeps (Günther 1878) -- (Nielsen 1973:551 [ref. 6885]). •Synonym of Bathyonus laticeps (Günther 1878) -- (Nielsen 1990:566 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:59 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Bathyonus laticeps (Günther 1878). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

guianense, Ophidion Lea [R. N.] & Robins [C. R.] 2003:5, Fig. 1G [University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Scientific Papers No. 31; ref. 27029] Suriname, 6°53'N, 55°59'W, depth 43 meters. Holotype: UF 204008. Paratypes: CAS 216610 [ex UF 229556] (1); KU 30051 (3); UF 232225 (1), 229557 (17). •Valid as Ophidion guianense Lea & Robins 2003. Current status: Valid as Ophidion guianense Lea & Robins 2003. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern and southern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

hadropercularis, Abyssobrotula Ohashi [S.] & Nielsen [J. G.] 2016:560, Figs. 1-2, 3A, 4-5, 6A [Zootaxa 4132 (no. 4); ref. 34519] Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (46°55.53'N, 160°2.84'E - 46°54.14'N, 160°1.99'E), depth 5204-5205 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 121429. Paratypes: NSMT-P. •Valid as Abyssobrotula hadropercularis Ohashi & Nielsen 2016. Current status: Valid as Abyssobrotula hadropercularis Ohashi & Nielsen 2016. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

heraldi, Umalius Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1953:818 [United States Fish and Wildlife Service Research Report No. 20; ref. 5594] Divisoria market, Manila, Philippines. Based on Lepophidium marmoratum of Umali 1935:323, Pl. 1 (fig. 3). •Synonym of Sirembo jerdoni (Day 1888) -- (Cohen & Robins 1986:257 [ref. 5254], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:89 [ref. 24448], Prokofiev 2008:865 [ref. 29938], Nielsen et al. 2014:10 [122] [ref. 33532]). Current status: Synonym of Sirembo jerdoni (Day 1888). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

hextii, Tauredophidium Alcock [A. W.] 1890:213, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 33) (art. 26); ref. 82] Off Madras coast, India, 18°26'N, 85°24'E, Investigator station 97, depth 1310 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.11.28.28 [ex ZSI F12831] (1); ZSI F12829-30 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:100 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:41 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 21 (fig. 3) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Tauredophidium hextii Alcock 1890 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:20 [ref. 881], Nielsen 1997:77 [ref. 23255], Machida et al. 1997:175 [ref. 25734], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:92 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Fricke et al. 2011:367 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Tauredophidium hextii Alcock 1890. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Madagascar; India; New Caledonia; probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

holbrookii, Ophidium Putnam [F. W.] 1874:340, Fig. [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 16 (for 1873-1874); ref. 18579] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Although holbrookii would be correct, prevailing usage may permit the continued use of holbrooki as the correct original spelling. •Valid as Ophidion holbrookii Putnam 1874 [usually as holbrooki] -- (Robins & Ray 1986:99 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:171 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:76 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:376 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:583 [ref. 16204], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:730 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221] in Ophidium, Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:164 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:100 [ref. 26784] in Ophidium, Nielsen & Robins 2003:972 [ref. 27008], Lea & Robins 2003:7 [ref. 27029], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192] as holbrooki, Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:72 [ref. 31601], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292, 297 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion holbrookii Putnam 1874. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hubbsi, Lepophidium microlepis Robins [C. R.] & Lea [R. N.] 1978:721 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 9013] 10 miles southwest of Isla del Caño, Costa Rica, depth 142 meters. Holotype: LACM 35772-1 [ex UCR 328-3]. Paratypes: GCRL 13965 (6); UCR 328-3 (4), 682-3 (1); UF 232229 [ex UMML 32229] (1), 232882 [ex UMML 32882] (1); UP 807 (2). Additional material: GCRL 13972 (1). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:377 [ref. 35212]. •Synonym of Lepophidium microlepis (Gilbert 1890), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24448]). •Valid as Lepophidium hubbsi Robins & Lea 1978 -- (Robins et al. 2012:35 [ref. 32161]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium hubbsi Robins & Lea 1978. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern California (USA) to Costa Rica. Habitat: marine.

hubrechti, Dicrolene Weber [M.] 1913:553, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Timor Sea, 10°48.6'S, 123°23.1'E, Siboga station 300, depth 918 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 110840. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:65 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Dicrolene hubrechti Weber 1913 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Mundy 2005:244 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene hubrechti Weber 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

illustris, Lamprogrammus Garman [S.] 1899:174, Pls. 34, 81 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Panama Bay, 6°30'N, 81°44'W, Albatross station 3358, depth 511 fathoms; 7°21'N, 79°35'W, station 3394, depth 555 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28626-27 (1, 2). •Synonym of Lamprogrammus niger Alcock 1891. Current status: Synonym of Lamprogrammus niger Alcock 1891. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

imberbis, Brotula Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:253, Pl. 111 (fig. 3) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Bay of Oomura, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3469a (largest of 3). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1401 (1 stuffed), 3469b-c (2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:183 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Sirembo imberbis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:189 [ref. 7348], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441], Cohen & Robins 1986:257 [ref. 5254], Allen & Swainston 1988:38 [ref. 25477] as imberis, Paxton et al. 1989:313 [ref. 12442], Chen & Shao 1991:12 [ref. 16679], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:541 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:62 [ref. 23977] as imberis, Chen et al. 1997:28 [ref. 26476], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:89 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:437 [ref. 25086], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:308 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:437 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:206, 537 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:414 [ref. 28370], Hoese et al. 2006:565 [ref. 29051], Prokofiev 2008:867 [ref. 29938], Larson et al. 2013:49 [ref. 32988], Shinohara et al. 2014:241 [ref. 33330], Nielsen et al. 2014:8 [122] [ref. 33532], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:60 [ref. 36460], •Possible a synonym of Ophidion muraenolepis(Günther 1880) -- (see Randall 2007:118 [ref. 30952]).). Current status: Valid as Sirembo imberbis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Vietnam east to Philippines, north to Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

imitator, Ophidion Lea [R. N.] 1997:960, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22978] Southwest of Corinto, Nicaragua, 12°09'N, 87°32'W, depth 112 meters. Holotype: SIO 73-279 [not 73-297]. Paratypes: CAS 30872 (1); GCRL 13959 (3); LACM 9812-5 (7), 30757-1 (1); SIO 59-150 (1), 62-77 (32), 63-510 (1), 63-513 to 514 (9, 2), 63-518 (6), 63-526 (6), 63-983 (1), 65-165 to 167 (7, 6, 1), 70-160 to 161 (4, 1), 73-248 (2), 73-272 (2), 73-275 (4), 73-279 (9, with holotype), 79-11 (13), 91-98 (1); UCR 337-15 (3), 687-5 (1); UF 226022 (1), 226030 (1), 226038 (1), 226059 (2), 226074 (2), 226129 (1), 226137 (1), 226142 (1), 226236 (4); UP 587 (1), 679 (2). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:379 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Ophidion imitator Lea 1997 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion imitator Lea 1997. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

imperator, Mastigopterus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:159, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Between Leyte and Mindanao, 9°06'30"N, 125°00'20"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5495, depth 976 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74142. •Valid as Mastigopterus imperator Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:75 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Machida et al. 2002:195 [ref. 26156]). Current status: Valid as Mastigopterus imperator Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

inca, Lepophidium microlepis Robins [C. R.] & Lea [R. N.] 1978:722 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 9013] Northern Peru, 5°02'S, 81°24'W, Anton Bruun cruise 16, station 627A, depth 195-316 meters. Holotype: USNM 216345. Paratypes: CAS 33808 (10); IMARPE 1199 (1); LACM 35562-1 (10); UF 232871 [ex UMML 32871] (5); USNM 216346 (22). •Synonym of Lepophidium microlepis (Gilbert 1890), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24448]). •Valid as :epophidium inca Robins & Lea 1978 -- (Robins et al. 2012:35 [ref. 32161]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium inca Robins & Lea 1978. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

indefatigabile, Otophidium Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:172 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Indefatigable [Santa Cruz] Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 44393. •Valid as Otophidium indefatigabile Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Lea in Fischer et al. 1995:1348 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:213 [ref. 24023], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:43 [ref. 24448], Nelson et al. 2004:92 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:63 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Otophidium indefatigabile Jordan & Bollman 1890. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California and Gulf of California to Panama, including Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

introniger, Dicrolene Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1883:202 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 10 (no. 5); ref. 1838] Atlantic, 33°35'20"-33°42'15"N, 76°00'00"-76°00'50"W, depth 464-647 fathoms. Syntypes: (11) MCZ 25828 (4), 25829 (? now 0); USNM 120406 [ex MCZ 25829] (1). •Valid as Dicrolene introniger Goode & Bean 1883 -- (Arai in Uyeno et al. 1983:229 [ref. 14275], Wenner 1984:538 [ref. 25572] as intronigra, Nielsen & Cohen 1986:346 [ref. 5700], McAllister 1990:135 [ref. 14674], Nielsen 1990:568 [ref. 16246], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:144 [ref. 25472], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:713 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Pakhorukov 1999:657 [ref. 24883], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:206 [ref. 27076], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:109 [ref. 37485], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene introniger Goode & Bean 1883. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

iris, Barathrites Zugmayer [E.] 1911:11 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 193; ref. 6161] Southwest of Azores, northeastern Atlantic, 31°44'30"N, 42°39'W, station 2108, depth 3465 meters. Holotype (unique): MOM 0091-0905. Type catalog: Belloc 1949:14 [ref. 21544]. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Zugmayer 1911:132, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [ref. 4846]. •Valid as Barathrites iris Zugmayer 1911 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:25 [ref. 881], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1159 [ref. 13677], Arruda 1997:109 [ref. 24952], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:53 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Ohashi et al. 2012:169 [ref. 32377], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Carneiro et al. 2019:156 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Barathrites iris Zugmayer 1911. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Atlantic; northwestern Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

iris, Ophidion Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1936:44, Fig. 16 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 2 (art. 3); ref. 634] Gonzago Bay, northern Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): YPM 981. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:23 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Ophidion iris Breder 1936 -- (Lea in Fischer et al. 1995:1347 [ref. 22830], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion iris Breder 1936. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

japonica, Brotula Steindachner [F.] & Döderlein [L.] 1887:279 [23] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 53 (1. abth.); ref. 4249] Tokyo, Japan. Holotype (unique): NMW. •Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:187 [ref. 7348], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:23 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicum, Glyptophidium Kamohara [T.] 1936:310 [English p. 306], Fig. 3 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 48 (no. 6); ref. 13707] Mimase fish market, Tosa Bay, Japan. Neotype: BSKU 92. Holotype lost in 1945 (Kamohara 1961:1 [ref. 19282]). Neotype designated by Nielsen & Machida 1988:315 [ref. 12746]. •Synonym of Glyptophidium oceanicum Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881]). •Valid as Glyptophidium japonicum Kamohara 1936 -- (Nielsen & Machida 1988:315 [ref. 12746], Paxton et al. 1989:312 [ref. 12442], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:67 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:441 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:307 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:441 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:413 [ref. 28370], Hoese et al. 2006:560 [ref. 29051], Fricke et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Glyptophidium japonicum Kamohara 1936. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Philippines and Papua New Guinea north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Homostolus Matsubara [K.] 1943:47, Fig. 9 [Journal Shigenkagaku Kenkyusyo v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 6514] Heta, Japan, depth 208 fathoms. Holotype: FAKU 6535. Paratypes: FAKU 6536 (1). •Valid as Homostolus japonicus Matsubara 1943 -- (Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441], Nielsen 1997:59 [ref. 23255], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:68 [ref. 24448]). •Synonym of Homostolus acer Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Machida & Okamura 1992 [ref. 19823], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122]). Current status: Synonym of Homostolus acer Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Penopus Nielsen [J. G.] & Ohashi [S.] 2011:233, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 58 (no. 3); ref. 31451] North slope of Ryukyu Trench, 24°33.2'N to 24°31.9'N, 127°02.9'E to 127°01.5'E, depth 3817-3924 meters. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 96978 (some damage). •Valid as Penopus japonicus Nielsen & Ohashi 2011. Current status: Valid as Penopus japonicus Nielsen & Ohashi 2011. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Ryukyu Trench, western Pacific (holotype). Habitat: marine.

javaensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:35, Fig. 25 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Off Java, 8°30'S, 114°38'E, Indonesia, depth about 450 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P771295. Paratypes: ZMUC P771296-1298 (3). •Valid as Neobythites javaensis Nielsen 2002. Current status: Valid as Neobythites javaensis Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Off Java. Habitat: marine.

jayakari, Brotula Günther [A.] 1909:334 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 16); ref. 14377] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1888.12.29.193 (2?), BMNH uncat. (1, skeleton). •Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:24 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Habitat: marine.

jeannae, Lepophidium Fowler [H. W.] 1941:103, Figs. 16-17 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 13237] Main channel south of Key West, Florida, U.S.A., depth 19 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69724. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Lepophidium jeannae Fowler 1941 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:98 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:76 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:717 [ref. 23897], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:35 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Robins et al. 2012:14 [ref. 32161], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium jeannae Fowler 1941. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

jerdoni, Brotula Day [F.] 1888:804 [The fishes of India Suppl.; ref. 1082] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:158 [ref. 23762]. •Valid as Sirembo jerdoni (Day 1888) -- (Dor 1984:59 [ref. 29757], Cohen & Robins 1986:257 [ref. 5254], Paxton et al. 1989:314 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:15 [ref. 25356], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:89 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:565 [ref. 29051], Prokofiev 2008:865 [ref. 29938], Yoshida et al. 2013:51 [ref. 34464], Nielsen et al. 2014:10 [120] [ref. 33532], Golani & Fricke 2018:39 [ref. 36273], Psomadakis et al. 2020:327 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sirembo jerdoni (Day 1888). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Myanmar east to Indonesia, north to Philippines, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

josephi, Ophidion Girard [C. F.] 1858:170 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] St. Joseph Island, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 868 (2, poor condition). See also Girard 1859:29 [ref. 13405]. •Valid as Ophidion josephi Girard 1858 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:18 [ref. 28815], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion josephi Girard 1858. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

kallion, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.] 1959:1, Fig. 1 [Breviora No. 104; ref. 12017] Off Barbados, West Indies, Blake sta. 291, depth 200 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 28057A. Paratypes: MCZ 28057B (1, not found). •Valid as Lepophidium kallion Robins 1959 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:35 [ref. 24448], Claro et al. 2000:21 [ref. 26458], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008] with date is 1960, Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Robins et al. 2012:19 [ref. 32161]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium kallion Robins 1959. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bahamas to Cuba, Antilles to Barbados. Habitat: marine.

kanazawai, Dicrolene Grey [M.] 1958:170, Fig. 27 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 39 (no. 16); ref. 12068] Gulf of Mexico, 28°47'N, 87°50'W, Oregon station 1303, depth 1150-1200 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 159332. Paratypes: FMNH 64083 (6). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:32 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Dicrolene kanazawai Grey 1958 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:714 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:50 [ref. 29626], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:110 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene kanazawai Grey 1958. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico south to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

kenyaensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1995:5, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 62; ref. 21625] Off Ras Ngomeni, Kenya, western Indian Ocean, 2°50'S, 40°31'E, depth 275 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 13952. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.5.24.1439 (1). •Valid as Neobythites kenyaensis Nielsen 1995 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:37 [ref. 26394], Uiblein & Nielsen 2019:111 [ref. 36595]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites kenyaensis Nielsen 1995. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) north to Kenya. Habitat: marine.

koefoedi, Bassogigas Nybelin [O.] 1954:66 [Publications de l'UISB/ Union International des Sciences Biologiques, Sér. B = Compte rendu des colloques, Paris (UISB) No. 16; ref. 12217] North Atlantic, 27°27'N, 14°52'W. Based on Bassogigas digittatus of Koeford, not Garman. •Synonym of Bassogigas squamosus (Roule 1916) -- (Nielsen 1973:549 [ref. 6885]). •Synonym of Holcomycteronus squamosus (Roule 1916) -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1162 [ref. 13677], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:68 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Møller 2011:785 [ref. 31147]). Current status: Synonym of Holcomycteronus squamosus (Roule 1916). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

kumae, Monomitopus Jordan [D. S.] & Hubbs [C. L.] 1925:324, Pl. 12 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 2486] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): FMNH 58844 [ex CM 7954]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:98 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:58 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Monomitopus kumae Jordan & Hubbs 1925 -- (Okamura in Okamura et al. 1982:185, 355 [ref. 8256], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:259, 374 [ref. 8057], Carter & Cohen 1985:87 [ref. 5145], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Nakabo 2000:444 [ref. 25086], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:308 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:444 [ref. 26001], Fricke et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus kumae Jordan & Hubbs 1925. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: South China Sea to southern Japan; Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

lagochila, Parophidion Böhlke [J. E.] & Robins [C. R.] 1959:46, Pl. 5 (C); Figs. 2 (A, B) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 111; ref. 11981] Northern shore of New Providence Island, Bahamas, 25°05'04"N, 77°27'42"W. Holotype: ANSP 84817. Paratypes: ANSP 84818 (1, c&s), 84819-20 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. The original spelling was lagochila and that probably should be maintained. •Valid as Parophidion lagochila Böhlke & Robins 1959 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:92 [ref. 27807]). •Valid as Ophidion lagochila (Böhlke & Robins 1959) -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448] as lagocheila, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:155 [ref. 25013], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Dennis et al. 2004:72 [ref. 31601], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:28 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion lagochila (Böhlke & Robins 1959). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lalandi, Hoplophycis Kaup [J. J.] 1858:93 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2576] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. •Synonym of Genypterus capensis (Smith 1847) -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:347 [ref. 5700], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29 [ref. 24448] with original genus as Hoplophysis). Current status: Synonym of Genypterus capensis (Smith 1847). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

laticeps, Bathynectes Günther [A.] 1878:20 [4] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 2 (nos 7/8/9)(art. 2/22/28); ref. 2010] Mid-Atlantic, Challenger station 104, depth 2500 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.12.7.46. On p. 4 of separate. See also Günther 1887:108, Pl. 25 (fig. B) [ref. 2013]. •Valid as Mixonus laticeps (Günther 1878) -- (Nielsen 1973:551 [ref. 6885]). •Valid as Bathyonus laticeps (Günther 1878) -- (Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1159 [ref. 13677], Nielsen 1990:566 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:59 [ref. 24448], Endo et al. 2000:43 [ref. 24516], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Nielsen et al. 2008:49 [ref. 29625], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Vieira et al. 2016:[7] [ref. 34869], Carneiro et al. 2019:157 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Bathyonus laticeps (Günther 1878). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Atlantic, ?North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

lelepris, Cherublemma Trotter [E. S.] 1926:119, Figs. 32-33 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 4466] Eastern Pacific, between Panama and the Galápagos Islands, 5°03'N, 81°08'W, depth 140 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8463 [ex NYZS 5108]. Type catalog: Mead 1958:132 [ref. 20648]. •Synonym of Cherublemma emmelas (Gilbert 1890) -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Cherublemma emmelas (Gilbert 1890). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

levistomatus, Bassozetus Machida [Y.] 1989:187, Figs. 1-3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 13417] Izu-Bonin Trench, Japan, 31°10.4'N, 141°44.0'E, depth 5160 meters. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 29533. •Valid as Bassozetus levistomatus Machida 1989 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:57 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Merrett 2000:34 [ref. 24949], Nakabo 2000:442 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:442 [ref. 26001], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Vieira et al. 2016:[6] [ref. 34869], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811], Carneiro et al. 2019:157 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus levistomatus Machida 1989. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Circumglobal. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Volcanus Gosline [W. A.] 1954:79, Figs. 2d, 3d [Pacific Science v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 1860] Off the Mauna Loa lava flow, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 162716. •Valid as Luciobrotula lineata (Gosline 1954) -- (Cohen 1974:109 [ref. 7139], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:75 [ref. 24448], Mundy 2005:245 [ref. 28379], Prokofiev 2005:113 [ref. 34466], Nielsen 2009:146 [ref. 30647]). Current status: Valid as Luciobrotula lineata (Gosline 1954). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Kyushu-Palau Ridge [ref. 34466], Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

lombokensis, Neobythites Uiblein [F.] & Nielsen [J. G.] 2018:160, Figs. 1B [Zootaxa 4387 (no. 1); ref. 35819] Southeast of Lombok Island, Indonesia, Eastern Indian Ocean, 8°58’S, 116°34’E, depth 150-280 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P77744. •Valid as Neobythites lombokensis Uiblein & Neilsen 2018. Current status: Valid as Neobythites lombokensis Uiblein & Nielsen 2018. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Lombok Island, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

longiceps, Monomitopus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:149, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] China Sea south of Hong Kong, 20°05'00"N, 116°05'00"E, Albatross station 5299, depth 524 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 74134. •Valid as Monomitopus longiceps Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Carter & Cohen 1985:87 [ref. 5145], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus longiceps Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

longiceps, Porogadus Garman [S.] 1899:153, Pls. F (fig. 2), 76 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Panama Bay, 4°-7°N, 79°-86°W, Albatross stations 3370, 3381, 3382 and 3393, depth 134-1793 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28659-62 (4). •Valid as Porogadus longiceps Garman 1899 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:199 [ref. 28944]). Current status: Valid as Porogadus longiceps Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

longimana, Dicrolene Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:144, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Between Leyte and Mindanao, Philippines, 10°00'00"N, 125°06'45"E, Albatross station 5488, depth 772 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74130. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.4.1.2-3 [ex USNM] (2); USNM 99075-81 (1, 1, 1, 5, 1, 4, 1), 99084 (1), 99090 (1), 99093-97 (1, 4, 1, 1, 1), 99099 (3), 99101 (1). •Valid as Dicrolene longimana Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Nalbant & Mayer 1971:320 [ref. 23676], Nielsen 1997:59 [ref. 23255], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene longimana Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

longipes, Glyptophidium Norman [J. R.] 1939:77, Fig. 28 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Zanzibar area, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean, 5°05'18"S, 39°22'12"E, station 115, depth 640-658 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1939.5.24.1466. Paratypes: (23) BMNH 1939.5.24.1467-1481 (10); USNM 109499 (1); ZMUC P77589 (1). •Valid as Glyptophidium longipes Norman 1939 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Cohen 1986:347 [ref. 5700], Nielsen & Machida 1988:309 [ref. 12746], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:67 [ref. 24448], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2018:84 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Glyptophidium longipes Norman 1939. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: South and East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

longipes, Neobythites Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:139, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Off Jolo Island, 6°02'00"N, 120°44'40"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5550, depth 258 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74126. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.4.1.10 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 99069-70 (1, 2), 99073 (1), 99089 (1), 99091-92 (1, 2), 99204 (1), 99229 (1), 99236 (1). •Valid as Neobythites longipes Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:313 [ref. 12442], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753] as longiceps, Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Nielsen 2002:38 [ref. 26394], Hoese et al. 2006:563 [ref. 29051], Uiblein & Nielsen 2018:162 [ref. 35819]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites longipes Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northwest Australia to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

longispinis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:41, Fig. 31 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Macclesfield Bank, South China Sea, 16°10'06"N, 114°29'12"E, depth 307-311 meters. Holotype: USNM 309001. Paratypes: USNM 365705 (1). •Valid as Neobythites longispinis Nielsen 2002. Current status: Valid as Neobythites longispinis Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

longiventralis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1997:66, Fig. 13 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie v. 174; ref. 23255] New Caledonia, 18°59.3'S, 163°25'E, depth 320 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1994-0739. Paratypes: MNHN 1994-0740 (1). •Valid as Neobythites longiventralis Nielsen 1997 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen 2002:42 [ref. 26394], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites longiventralis Nielsen 1997. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

lozanoi, Ophidion Matallanas [J.] 1990:449, Fig. 1 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 20154] Off Saharian coast, 24°06.3'N, 16°20.2'W, northeastern Atlantic, depth 61-68 meters. Holotype: IIPB 409/1983. Paratypes: IFAN-Gorée 59.684 (1). Type catalog: Allué et al. 2000:74 [ref. 30499]. •Valid as Ophidion lozanoi Matallanas 1990 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448], Matallanas & Brito 1999:935 [ref. 24923], Lea & Robins 2003:6 [ref. 27029], Tweddle & Anderson 2008:8 [ref. 29604], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion lozanoi Matallanas 1990. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lucidum, Glyptophidium Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:161, Pl. 12 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Between Gillolo and Kayoa islands, 0°07'00"N, 127°28'00"E, Indonesia, Albatross station 5625, depth 230 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74144. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.4.1.6 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 99105-07 (2, 4, 7), 99109 (1), 99111 (3), 99113 (1). •Valid as Glyptophidium lucidum Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Machida 1988:305 [ref. 12746], Paxton et al. 1989:312 [ref. 12442], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:67 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:560 [ref. 29051], Nakae & Matsuura 2009:246 [ref. 31426], Nakae & Matsuura 2010:28 [ref. 31425], Fricke et al. 2014:32 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Glyptophidium lucidum Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

lusciosus, Leucicorus Garman [S.] 1899:146, Pls. 38, 74 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] South of Mexico, 14°46'N, 98°40'W, Albatross station 3415, depth 1879 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28680. •Valid as Leucicorus lusciosus Garman 1899 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:34 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:73 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Møller 2008:29 [ref. 29803]). Current status: Valid as Leucicorus lusciosus Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

macdonaldi, Penopus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:336, Pl. 84 (fig. 293) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] East of New Jersey, U.S.A., 38°29'30"N, 70°57'W, Albatross station 2716, depth 1631 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 39433. •Valid as Penopus macdonaldi Goode & Bean 1896 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:734 [ref. 23897]). •Synonym of Penopus microphthalmus (Vaillant 1888) -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:84 [ref. 24448] as microcephalus, Moore et al. 2003:207 [ref. 27076], Nielsen & Ohashi 2011:235 [ref. 31451]). Current status: Synonym of Penopus microphthalmus (Vaillant 1888). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

machidai, Neobythites Ohashi [S.], Nielsen [J. G.] & Yabe [M.] 2012:28, Figs. 1-3Y [Bulletin of the National Museum of Natural Science, Ser. A., Supplement No. 6; ref. 31981] 33°5.95'N, 133°7.59'E - 33°4.46'N - 133°5.95'E, Tosa Bay, Kochi Prefecture, Japan, depth 154-158 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 106558 [ex BSKU 96032]. Paratypes: BSKU 64445 (1), 66949 (1), 74521 (1), 77927 (1), 102732 (1); ZMUC P771708 (1). •Valid as Neobythites machidai Ohashi, Nielsen & Yabe 2012. Current status: Valid as Neobythites machidai Ohashi, Nielsen & Yabe 2012. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Tosa Bay, Japan [types]. Habitat: marine.

macrocelli, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:44, Fig. 35 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Off Kiritimati [formerly Christmas Island], 1°50'42"N, 157°30'36"E, Line Islands, depth 285 meters. Holotype: USNM 309004. Paratypes: USNM 365706 (1). •Valid as Neobythites macrocelli Nielsen 2002. Current status: Valid as Neobythites macrocelli Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Kiritimati, Line Islands, Pacific. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Neobythites Günther [A.] 1887:102, Pl. 20 (fig. A) [Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger v. 22 (pt 57); ref. 2013] Off Philippines, Challenger station 210, depth 375 fathoms. Lectotype: BMNH 1887.12.7.41. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1887.12.7.42 (1) Fiji. Additional non-type material: USNM 188820 (4), ZMUC [ex USNM] (1). Lectotype selected by Nelson 2002 [ref. 26934]. •In part a synonym of Neobythites pallidus Nielsen 1997 -- (Nielsen 2002:69 [ref. 26394]). •Valid as Neobythites macrops Günther 1887 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Nielsen 2002:46 [ref. 26394], Hoese et al. 2006:563 [ref. 29051], Fricke et al. 2014:33 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites macrops Günther 1887. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

macropterus, Lamprogrammus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:163, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Butung [Buton] Strait, 5°35'00"S, 122°20'00"E, Sulawesi, Indonesia, Albatross station 5648, depth 559 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74146. •Synonym of Bassobythites brunswigi Brauer 1906 -- (Nielsen 1990:565 [ref. 16246], Pakhorukov 1999:657 [ref. 24883]). •Synonym of Lamprogrammus brunswigi (Brauer 1906) -- (Cohen et al. 1991:129 [ref. 19146], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:71 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Lamprogrammus brunswigi (Brauer 1906). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

macropus, Glyptophidium Alcock [A. W.] 1894:122 [8], Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 63 (pt 2); ref. 90] Bay of Bengal, 13°51'12"N, 80°28'12"E, Investigator station 162, depth 145-250 fathoms. Lectotype: ZSI F13534. Paralectotypes: ZSI F13529-33 (5), 13635 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:148 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:40 [ref. 22148]. On p. 8 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1895: Pl. 15 (fig. 6) [ref. 20532]. Lectotype selected by Nielsen & Machida 1988:307 [ref. 12746]. •Valid as Glyptophidium macropus Alcock 1894 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Machida 1988:307 [ref. 12746], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:67 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Glyptophidium macropus Alcock 1894. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Brotella Kaup [J. J.] 1858:92 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2576] Apparently an unneeded new name for Brotula imberbis Temminck & Schlegel 1846. •Synonym of Sirembo imberbis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Cohen & Robins 1986:257 [ref. 5254], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:89 [ref. 24448], Nielsen et al. 2014:8 [120] [ref. 33532]). Current status: Synonym of Sirembo imberbis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Brotula Evermann [B. W.] & Radcliffe [L.] 1917:151, Pl. 13 (fig. 3) [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 95; ref. 1284] Paita, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 77702. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Brotula maculata Day 1868. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Brotula Day [F.] 1868:196 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 1); ref. 1076] Madras, India. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1868.4.15.1-2 (2), ZSI 3115 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:158 [ref. 23762]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatum, Ophidium Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:29, Pl. 5 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Coast between Callao and Huacho, Peru. Holotype (unique): ZMB 2336. Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:52 [ref. 25858]. Objectively invalid, preoccupied by Ophidium maculatum Rafinesque 1810. •Treated as valid [while a petition is pending] as Genypterus maculatus (Tschudi 1846) -- (Pequeño 1989:48 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:224 [ref. 24555], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29, 33 [ref. 24448], Barriga Salazar 2014:104 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Genypterus maculatus (Tschudi 1846). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

maculatum, Ophidium Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:38 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Unneeded new name for Ophidium barbatum Linnaeus 1758. Original genus should have been spelled Ophidion, •Synonym of Ophidion barbatum Linnaeus 1758 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448], Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Ophidion barbatum Linnaeus 1758. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

magnus, Monomitopus Carter [H. J.] & Cohen [D. M.] 1985:87, Figs. 1-6 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 5145] Florida, U.S.A., 24°24'N, 80°00'W, depth 857 meters. Holotype: USNM 262507. Paratypes: FMNH 94947 (1); LACM 43581 (1); MCZ 39414 (1); UF 212512 [ex UMML 12512] (1), 213206 [ex UMML 13206] (1); USNM 228226 (4); ZMUC P77754 (1). •Valid as Monomitopus magnus Carter & Cohen 1985 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:723 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus magnus Carter & Cohen 1985. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

mahodadi, Spottobrotula Cohen [D. M.] & Nielsen [J. G.] 1978:41, Fig. 64 [NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) Circular No. 417; ref. 881] Near Baren Island, Andaman Islands, Andaman Sea, about 40 meters. Holotype (unique): KUMF 02842. •Valid as Spottobrotula mahodadi Cohen & Nielsen 1978 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:91 [ref. 24448], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377], Nielsen et al. 14 [126] [ref. 33532], Matsunuma et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35371], Psomadakis et al. 2020:327 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Spottobrotula mahodadi Cohen & Nielsen 1978. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar and Andaman Islands. Habitat: marine.

malayanus, Neobythites Weber [M.] 1913:554, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Saleh Bay, Sumbawa Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, 8°19'S, 117°41'E, Siboga station 312, depth 274 meters. Lectotype: ZMA 110841 (SL 137). Paralectotypes: ZMA 110841 (4). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:65 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Nielsen 2002:48 [ref. 26394] [although not complying with the 1999 code]. See also Uiblein & Nielsen 2018:163 [ref. 35819]. •Valid as Neobythites malayanus Weber 1913 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen 2002:48 [ref. 26394], Uiblein & Nielsen 2018:163 [ref. 35819]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites malayanus Weber 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines, and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

malhaensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1995:6, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 62; ref. 21625] Saya de Malha Bank, 11°02'S, 62°15'E, depth 250 meters. Holotype: ZMMU P-18915. Paratypes: ZMMU P-18916-17 (1, 1), ZMUC P77840 (1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Neobythites malhaensis Nielsen 1995 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:51 [ref. 26394], Uiblein & Nielsen 2018:164 [ref. 35819]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites malhaensis Nielsen 1995. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Saya de Malha Bank, off southeast Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

malispinosus, Monomeropus Garman [S.] 1899:158, Pl. 40 (figs. 2-2b) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Gulf of Panama, 7°15'N, 79°36'W, Albatross station 3393, depth 1020 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28649. •Valid as Monomitopus malispinosus (Garman 1899) -- (Carter & Cohen 1985:86 [ref. 5145], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Robertson et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus malispinosus (Garman 1899). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica to Peru, including Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

manatinus, Barathrodemus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1883:200 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 10 (no. 5); ref. 1838] Atlantic, 33°35'20"N, 76°00'00"W, Blake station 325, depth 647 fathoms. Lectotype: MCZ 25827. Paralectotypes: MCZ 28003 (1). Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 357, p. 3306 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Valid as Barathrodemus manatinus Goode & Bean 1883 -- (Carter & Musick 1985:69 [ref. 6791], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:706 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:54 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27076], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:49 [ref. 29626], Costa & Mincarone 2010:328 [ref. 37483]). Current status: Valid as Barathrodemus manatinus Goode & Bean 1883. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

marginalis, Brotula Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:403, Fig. 16 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 (1899); ref. 2340] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 49694. •Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:24 [ref. 24448], Mundy 2005:243 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Habitat: marine.

marginatum, Ophidium DeKay [J. E.] 1842:315, Pl. 52 (fig. 169) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York harbor, New York, U.S.A. Holotype or syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). Original genus should have been Ophidion. •Valid as Ophidion marginatum DeKay 1842 -- (Smith 1986:407 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:99 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:76 [ref. 23239], Fahay 1992:805 [ref. 19885], Murdy et al. 1997:116 [ref. 23144], Schwartz 1997:327 [ref. 23515], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:731 [ref. 23897], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448], Collette & Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:209 [ref. 26158], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion marginatum DeKay 1842. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Neobythites Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1886:162 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 12 (no. 5); ref. 1844] Off Barbados, West Indies, 13°00.5'N, 59°36.2'W, Blake station 274, depth 209 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 27953. •Valid as Neobythites marginatus Goode & Bean 1886 -- (Cervigón 1991:173 [ref. 24472], Nielsen & Retzer 1994:992 [ref. 21652], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:726 [ref. 23897], Nielsen 1999:358 [ref. 24424], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295, 298 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites marginatus Goode & Bean 1886. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

marianaensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:53, Fig. 43 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Off Saipan-Tinian, Mariana Islands, 15°10'06"N, 145°39'54"E, depth 302 meters. Holotype: USNM 309006. Paratypes: USNM 365707 (6); ZMUC P1771327 (1). •Valid as Neobythites marianaensis Nielsen 2002. Current status: Valid as Neobythites marianaensis Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

marmoratum, Leptophidium Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:423 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 533); ref. 14448] Gulf Stream off western Cuba, 23°10'39"N, 82°20'21"W, Albatross station 2350, depth 213 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 37237. Paratypes: (2). Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:10 [ref. 35177]. •Valid as Sirembo marmoratum (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Lepophidium marmoratum (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:35 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Robins et al. 2012:21 [ref. 32161], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:10 [ref. 35177]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium marmoratum (Goode & Bean 1885). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bahamas and Cuba, Greater Antilles and in the western Caribbean. Habitat: marine.

marquesaensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:55, Fig. 45 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Off Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, 9°51.3'S, 139°09.3'W, depth 420-450 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2000-0689. Paratypes: MNHN 2000-0688 (3), 2001-1203 (1); ZMUC P771322 (1). •Valid as Neobythites marquesaensis Nielsen 2002. Current status: Valid as Neobythites marquesaensis Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: South Pacific: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

melampeplus, Dermatorus Alcock [A. W.] 1896:305 [5] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 65 (pt 2, No. 3); ref. 91] Arabian Sea, 15°11'N, 72°28'45"E, Investigator station 193, depth 931 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F60/1. Type catalog: Menon & Rama Rao 1971:343 [ref. 31198], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:40 [ref. 22148]. On p. 5 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1897: Pl. 17 (fig. 3) [ref. 20533]. •Valid as Porogadus melampeplus (Alcock 1896) -- (Nielsen 1997:75 [ref. 23255], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Prokofiev 2005:115 [ref. 34466], Fricke et al. 2011:367 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2015:3 [ref. 33930]). Current status: Valid as Porogadus melampeplus (Alcock 1896). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Mascarene Plateau east to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

melanocephalus, Dermatorus Alcock [A. W.] 1891:32 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 8 (no. 43/44); ref. 87] Bay of Bengal, 12°50'N, 90°52'E, Investigator station 111, depth 1644 fathoms; 11°58'N, 88°52'17'E, station 117, depth 1748 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1896.9.11.6 [ex ZSI F13073] (1), ZSI F13073 (1) depth 1644 fathoms. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:147 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:40 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 21 (fig. 4) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Porogadus melanocephalus (Alcock 1891) -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Prokofiev 2005:117 [ref. 34466] with authorship as Wood-Mason & Alcock). Current status: Valid as Porogadus melanocephalus (Alcock 1891). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

mesogramma, Dicrolene Shcherbachev [Yu. N.] 1980:134, Fig. 5 [Trudy Instituta Okeanologii Imeni P.P. Shirshova v. 110; ref. 8280] Southeastern Indian Ocean, 30°36'S, 94°24'E, depth 1400 meters. Holotype: ZMMU P-15163. Paratypes: ZMMU P-15163-65 (1, 2, 1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:68-69 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Dicrolene mesogramma Shcherbachev 1980 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Møller 2008:27 [ref. 29803], Psomadakis et al. 2020:323 [ref. 37272] as aff. mesogramma). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene mesogramma Shcherbachev 1980. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean; southwestern Pacific: Solomon Sea. Habitat: marine.

metachroma, Sirembo Cohen [D. M.] & Robins [C. R.] 1986:253, Pl. 1 (A, B) [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 22 (pt 2); ref. 5254] 7 miles northwest off Cape Moreton, Queensland, Australia, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype: QM I.13005 (not present in 1997). Paratypes: QM I.19500 (4, not present in 1997), WAM P.25739-005 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:10 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:10 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Sirembo metachroma Cohen & Robins 1986 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:314 [ref. 12442], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:89 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:566 [ref. 29051], Nielsen et al. 2014:11 [123] [ref. 33532]). Current status: Valid as Sirembo metachroma Cohen & Robins 1986. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. Habitat: marine.

meteori, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1995:7, Fig. 6 [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 62; ref. 21625] Off Socotra Island, northern Indian Ocean, 11°33.9'N, 52°54'E, depth 175-337 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 5621. •Valid as Neobythites meteori Nielsen 1995 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:57 [ref. 26394], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377], Uiblein & Nielsen 2018:165 [ref. 35819]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites meteori Nielsen 1995. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: off Socotra. Habitat: marine.

metoecus, Ophidion Robins [C. R.] 1991:5, Fig. 2 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 427; ref. 20178] Juan Fernández Islands, eastern Pacific, 33°38'20"S, 78°48'50"W, depth 20-35 feet. Holotype: USNM 204246. Paratypes: MCZ 46159 (1), 46170 (4); SIO 65-434 (6), 65-625 (1), 65-624 (2), 65-629 (1), 65-636 (1), 65-637 (23), 65-645 (18), 65-657 (1), 65-659 (6); UF 232938 [ex UMML 32938] (3). •Valid as Ophidion metoecus Robins 1991 -- (Pequeño 1997:81 [ref. 23536], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Dyer & Westneat 2010:599 [ref. 31446]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion metoecus Robins 1991. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

metriostoma, Sirembo Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:270, Pl. 23 (figs. 3-3b) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Banc d'Arguin, depth 1230 meters; Azores, northeastern Atlantic, depth 1442 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1886-0519. Syntypes: MNHN 1886-0521 (1), MNHN (1, lost). •Valid as Monomitopus metriostoma (Vaillant 1888) -- (Nielsen & Nybelin 1963:195 [ref. 5094], Nielsen 1973:551 [ref. 6885], Cohen 1981:1090 [ref. 8491], Carter & Cohen 1985:86 [ref. 5145], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1163 [ref. 13677], Nielsen 1990:570 [ref. 16246], Santos et al. 1997:53 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:109 [ref. 24952], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583], Carneiro et al. 2019:158 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus metriostoma (Vaillant 1888). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Itatius Matsubara [K.] 1943:41, Figs. 2, 4. [Journal Shigenkagaku Kenkyusyo v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 6514] Kumano-Nada, Kii Peninsula, Japan. Holotype (unique): FAKU 3195 (apparently lost). •Valid as Pycnocraspedum microlepis (Matsubara 1943) -- (Okamura in Okamura et al. 1982:183, 355 [ref. 8256], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:101 [ref. 6441], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:87 [ref. 24448], Nakabo 2000:442 [ref. 25086], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:308 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:442 [ref. 26001], Evseenko & Okiyama 2006:195 [ref. 28760]). Current status: Valid as Pycnocraspedum microlepis (Matsubara 1943). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Leptophidium Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:109 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Off Baja California, Mexico, Albatross station 3015 and 3016, depths 145 and 76 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 44390. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 219 (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:102 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Robins 1962:495 [ref. 31289]; other syntypes are L. negropinna according to him. •Valid as Lepophidium microlepis (Gilbert 1890) -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:74 [ref. 23101], Lea in Fischer et al. 1995:1345 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:245 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:227 [ref. 24555], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24448], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], Robins et al. 2012:33 [ref. 32161], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium microlepis (Gilbert 1890). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: outer Baja Caliornia and Gulf of California, Mexico. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Monomitopus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:150, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Between Cebu and Leyte, 10°28'45"N, 124°05'30"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5410, depth 385 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74156. Paratypes: USNM 99051 (5), 99053 (1). •Valid as Monomitopus microlepis Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Carter & Cohen 1985:87 [ref. 5145], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Fricke et al. 2014:33 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus microlepis Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

microphthalmus, Sirembo Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:275, Pl. 24 (fig. 4) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Off Cape Verde Islands, off western Africa, depth 3200 meters. Lectotype: MNHN 1886-0539. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1886-0538 (1), 1886-0540 (1). Lectotype selected by Eschmeyer 1998:1086 [ref. 23416]. •Valid as Penopus microphthalmus (Vaillant 1888) -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:350 [ref. 5700], Nielsen 1990:571 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:84 [ref. 24448] as microcephalus by mistake, Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:207 [ref. 27076], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:54 [ref. 29626], Costa & Mincarone 2010:336 [ref. 37483], Nielsen & Ohashi 2011:235 [ref. 31451], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583], Carneiro et al. 2019:158 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Penopus microphthalmus (Vaillant 1888). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Atlantic; southwestern Indian Ocean: off Cape Town (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

microps, Barathrodemus Parr [A. E.] 1933:44, Fig. 19 (top) [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 6); ref. 3373] Tongue of the Ocean, 23°54'10"N, 77°09'00"W, Bahamas, 8000 feet wire out. Holotype (unique): YPM 2850. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:8 [ref. 16741]. •Mention -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:25 [ref. 881]). •Synonym of Barathrodemus manatinus Goode & Bean 1883 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:54 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Barathrodemus manatinus Goode & Bean 1883. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

microstomus, Genypterus Regan [C. T.] 1903:599 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 11 (no. 66) (art. 79); ref. 15042] Tasmania, Dunedin, and Stewart Island, southwestern Pacific. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1886.11.18.70 [ex Otago Mus.] (1) Dunedin, 1889.10.26.7 (1) Stewart Island, whereabouts third syntype unknown. •Valid as Genypterus microstomus Regan 1903 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:131 [ref. 24556]). •Synonym of Genypterus blacodes (Forster 1801) -- (Chong 1985:36 [ref. 25223] with question, Paxton et al. 1989:312 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:368 [ref. 22532], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29 [ref. 24448], Smith & Paulin 2003:189 [ref. 27042], Hoese et al. 2006:560 [ref. 29051]). Current status: Synonym of Genypterus blacodes (Forster 1801). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

miles, Porogadus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:602 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 543); ref. 1842] Off Delaware Bay, U.S.A., 38°27'00"N, 73°02'00"W, Albatross station 2230, depth 1168 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 35625. •Valid as Porogadus miles Goode & Bean 1885 -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:350 [ref. 5700], Shcherbachev et al. 1989:165 [ref. 36134], Machida & Amaoka 1990 [ref. 16610], Machida & Amaoka 1990 [ref. 16610], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:144 [ref. 25472], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:736 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:440 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:440 [ref. 26001], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:207 [ref. 27076], Shinohara et al. 2005:414 [ref. 28370], Prokofiev 2005:115 [ref. 34466], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:55 [ref. 29626], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583], Carneiro et al. 2019:159 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Porogadus miles Goode & Bean 1885. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in warm waters. Habitat: marine.

monocellatus, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1999:351, Figs. 8-9 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 64 (no. 2); ref. 24424] Off Venezuela, 9°53'N, 59°53'W, Oregon station 1983, depth 229 meters. Holotype: USNM 309234. Paratypes: UF 101518 (4), 204794 (1), 222153 (2), 222168 (1), 229530 (1), 230439 (2), 230418 (7), 230449 (2); USNM 185391 (8), 185417 (11), 309234 [same catalog number as the holotype] (10), 309235 (1), 309238 (1), 309241 (3), 309244 (6), 340897 (1); ZMUC P771180 (1), 771181-82 (1, 1), 771183 (1), 771184-86 (3), 771187 (1). •Valid as Neobythites monocellatus Nielsen 1999 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295, 298 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:53 [ref. 29626], Nielsen et al. 2009:62 [ref. 30411]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites monocellatus Nielsen 1999. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Honduras to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

mossambica, Spottobrotula Nielsen [J. G.], Schwarzhans [W.] & Uiblein [F.] 2014:17 [129], Figs. 7-9 [Marine Biology Research v. 11 (no. 2) (for 2015); ref. 33532] Mozambique Channel, 19°35'S, 36°15'E, depth 45 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P771715. Paratypes: LACM, SAIAB, USNM, ZMUC, ZMMSU. •Valid as Spottobrotula mossambica Nielsen, Schwarzhans & Uiblein 2014. Current status: Valid as Spottobrotula mossambica Nielsen, Schwarzhans & Uiblein 2014. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Oman to Mozambique Channel. Habitat: marine.

mozambiquensis, Bassozetus Tomiyama [S.], Takami [M.] & Fukui [A.] 2016:2, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 64 (no. 1); ref. 34428] Mozambique Channel, western Indian Ocean, 21°18'S, 36°18'E, depth 510-1600 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 206917. •Valid as Bassozetus mozambiquensis Tomiyama, Takami & Fukui 2016 -- (Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus mozambiquensis Tomiyama, Takami & Fukui 2016. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Mozambique Channel, western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

muelleri, Brotula Günther [A.] 1909:334 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 16); ref. 14377] Ponape, Caroline Islands; Tahiti, Society Islands. Syntypes: (orig. 3, 4 now labeled syntypes) BMNH 1873.8.1.7 (1) and 1876.5.19.48 [or 45] (1) Tahiti, BMNH 1881.10.20.8 (1) and 1881.10.20.77 (1) Ponape. Spelled mülleri originally. •Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:24 [ref. 24448] as mülleri). Current status: Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Habitat: marine.

multibarbata, Brotula Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:251, Pl. 111 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Shimabara, Ariake Sea, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3468. Paralectotypes: RMNH D1402 (stuffed), D2238 (1 stuffed), D2268 (1 stuffed), 3467 (1); ZMB 2326 (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:330 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:182 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:187 [ref. 7348], Dor 1984:58 [ref. 29757], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:99 [ref. 6441], Nielsen & Cohen 1986:346 [ref. 5700], Allen & Swainston 1988:38 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:311 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:48 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:14 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:52 [ref. 15987], Chen & Shao 1991:11 [ref. 16679], Baranes & Golani 1993:304 [ref. 22372], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:217 [ref. 24016], Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:15 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:81 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:62 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:125 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:28 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:52 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:52 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:66 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:100 [ref. 24106], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:24 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1982 [ref. 24753], Randall 1999:8 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:436 [ref. 25086], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:123 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:307 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:436 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:206, 537 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:614 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3317 [ref. 27945], Greenfield 2005:80 [ref. 28204], Randall 2005:65 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:243 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:117 [ref. 30952], Prokofiev 2007:168 [ref. 34654], Fricke et al. 2009:27 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:77 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011:37 [ref. 31432], Allen & Erdmann 2012:128 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:49 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:32 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:313 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:83 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:39 [ref. 36273], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:60 [ref. 36460], Arndt & Fricke 2019:25 [ref. 36883], Brown et al. 2019:162 [ref. 36444] as Brotula cf. multibarbata, Eagderi et al. 2019:34 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:322 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:30 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island. Saint Helena population probably based on a distinct species. Habitat: marine.

multicirrata, Brotula Vaillant [L. L.] & Sauvage [H.-E.] 1875:282 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 3; ref. 17853] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-8916. •Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:24 [ref. 24448], Mundy 2005:243 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Habitat: marine.

multidigitatus, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1999:369, Figs. 23-24 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 64 (no. 2); ref. 24424] Bahamas, 26°12'N, 79°31'W, Gerda station 299, depth 641 meters. Holotype (unique): UF 214853. •Valid as Neobythites multidigitatus Nielsen 1999 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295 [ref. 28946], Ohashi et al. 2012:31 [ref. 31981]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites multidigitatus Nielsen 1999. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

multifilis, Paradicrolene Alcock [A. W.] 1889:387 [13] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 81] Bay of Bengal, Investigator station 14, depth 193 fathoms; Andaman Sea, East of Port Blair, depth 271 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.7.31.2-3 [ex ZSI F11711 and 11714] (2); MNHN 1890-0342 and 0343 [ex ZSI] (1, 1); USNM 231714 (1) depth 193 fathoms; ZSI F11717 (1) depth 193 fathoms. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:150 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:41 [ref. 22148]. On p. 13 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1892: Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [ref. 20531] and 1894: Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [ref. 17304]. •Valid as Dicrolene multifilis (Alcock 1889) -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:346 [ref. 5700], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene multifilis (Alcock 1889). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

multiocellatus, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.], Uiblein [F.] & Mincarone [M. M.] 2009:66, Figs. 1, 8-9 [Zootaxa No. 2228; ref. 30411] Off Caribbean Panama, 9°04'N, 81°25'W, Oregon sta. 3597, depth 282-301 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P771207. Paratypes: many at MOVI, UF, USNM, ZMUC. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Neobythites multiocellatus Nielsen, Uiblein & Mincarone 2009. Current status: Valid as Neobythites multiocellatus Nielsen, Uiblein & Mincarone 2009. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Atlantic coast of Florida (U.S.A.) and most of the Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

multispinis, Bassozetus Shcherbachev [Yu. N.] 1980:124, Fig. 1 [Trudy Instituta Okeanologii Imeni P.P. Shirshova v. 110; ref. 8280] Southeastern Indian Ocean, 19°54.5'S, 87°52.5'E, depth 1500-1550 meters. Holotype: ZMMU P-15110. Paratypes: ZMMU P-15154 (4). Additional material: ZMMU P-15155-57 (2, 8, 2). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:68 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Bassozetus multispinis Shcherbachev 1980 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:58 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Merrett 2000:36 [ref. 24949], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus multispinis Shcherbachev 1980. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

multistriatus, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] & Quéro [J.-C.] 1991:194, Figs. 1-4 [Cybium v. 15 (no. 3); ref. 20072] Off Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, 20°57.9'S, 55°14.5'E, depth 450-580 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1988-1945. Paratypes: MNHN 1988-1946 (2), ZMUC P77809 (1). •Valid as Neobythites multistriatus Nielsen & Quéro 1991 -- (Nielsen 1995:8 [ref. 21625], Fricke 1999:101 [ref. 24106], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:59 [ref. 26394], Fricke et al. 2009:27 [ref. 30213], Kannan et al. 2013:1 [ref. 34750], Kannan et al. 2013:1 [ref. 34751], Reethas et al. 2016:1 [ref. 34746]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites multistriatus Nielsen & Quéro 1991. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Réunion, Rodrigues, India and Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

muraenolepis, Ophidium Günther [A.] 1880:46, Pl. 20 (fig. A) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Kai Islands, Indonesia, Banda Sea, western Pacific, Challenger station 192, depth 129 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.46. Original genus should have been Ophidion. •Valid as Ophidion muraenolepis Günther 1880 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:38 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:313 [ref. 12442], Nielsen 1997:74 [ref. 23255], Allen 1997:62 [ref. 23977], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:438 [ref. 25086], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:438 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:245 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:564 [ref. 29051], Randall 2007:118 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:367 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:49 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion muraenolepis Günther 1880. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Western Australia east to Hawaiian Islands, north to Ogasawara Islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

muraenolepis, Sirembo Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:273, Pl. 23 (figs. 4-4a) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Off Cape Bojador, Coast of Sudan, northwestern Africa, depth 410 meters. Lectotype: MNHN 1886-0523. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1886-0524 (1). Lectotype established by Eschmeyer 1998:1138 [ref. 23416]. •Synonym of Benthocometes robustus (Goode & Bean 1886) -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:28 [ref. 881], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1160 [ref. 13677], Nielsen 1990:566 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:59 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2010:59 [ref. 30910], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:10 [ref. 35177]). Current status: Synonym of Benthocometes robustus (Goode & Bean 1886). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

musorstomi, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:61, Fig. 51 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Northeast of Fiji, 11°47.8'S, 178°19.1'W, depth 547-552 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1995-0712. Paratypes: MNHN 2001-0034 (1), ZMUC P771312 (1). Plus 1 non-type. •Valid as Neobythites musorstomi Nielsen 2002. Current status: Valid as Neobythites musorstomi Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific, off Fiji. Habitat: marine.

myersi, Xyelacyba Cohen [D. M.] 1961:289, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1961 (no. 3); ref. 879] Gulf of Mexico, 27°48'N, 88°45'W, Oregon station 2577, depth 850-1100 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 187058. Paratypes: USNM 187059 (1). Additional material: USNM 187060 (1). •Valid as Xyelacyba myersi Cohen 1961 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:21 [ref. 881], Machida 1989 [ref. 12579], Nielsen 1990:573 [ref. 16246], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:737 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:93 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:436 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:436 [ref. 26001], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:208 [ref. 27076], Shinohara et al. 2005:414 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:246 [ref. 28379], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295 [ref. 28946], Hoese et al. 2006:566 [ref. 29051], Mincarone et al. 2008:55 [ref. 29626], Costa & Mincarone 2010:338 [ref. 37483], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:117 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Xyelacyba myersi Cohen 1961. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas, except not in the eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nasus, Bassozetus Garman [S.] 1899:159, Pls. 77, 78 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Gulf of Panama, 4°56'N, 80°52'30"W, Albatross station 3381, depth 3243 meters. Lectotype: MCZ 28646 (282 mm SL). Paralectotypes: MCZ 28646-48 (now 2, 1, now 4), USNM 57852 [ex MCZ 28648] (1). Lectotype selected by Nielsen & Merrett 2000:38 [ref. 24949]. •Valid as Bassozetus nasus Garman 1899 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:58 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Merrett 2000:38 [ref. 24949], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus nasus Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nasus, Typhlonus Günther [A.] 1878:21 [5] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 2 (nos 7/8/9)(art. 2/22/28); ref. 2010] Northeast of Australia and north of Sulawesi, Indonesia, depth 2150 and 2440 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1887.12.7.57 (1), 1887.12.7.58 (1). On p. 5 of separate. See also Günther 1887:119, Pl. 25 (fig. A) [ref. 2013]. •Valid as Typhlonus nasus Günther 1878 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:42 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:93 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Mundy 2005:246 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Valid as Typhlonus nasus Günther 1878. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Arabian Sea east to Hawaiian Islands and eastern South Pacific, south to New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

nasutus, Barathrodemus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:152, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, 0°11'00"S, 121°16'00"E, Indonesia, Albatross station 5609, depth 1092 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74136. Paratypes: (2). •Mention -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:26 [ref. 881]). •Valid as Barathrodemus nasutus Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:54 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Fricke et al. 2018:83 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Barathrodemus nasutus Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Madagascar; Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1995:9, Fig. 8 [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 62; ref. 21625] Off KwaZuku-Natal, South Africa, 25°20'S, 35°17'E, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: ZMUC P77824. Paratypes: MNHN 1992-0535 (3). •Valid as Neobythites natalensis Nielsen 1995 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:63 [ref. 26394], Ohashi et al. 2012:31 [ref. 31981], Fricke et al. 2018:84 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites natalensis Nielsen 1995. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

negropinna, Lepophidium Hildebrand [S. F.] & Barton [O.] 1949:28, Fig. 8 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 111 (no. 10); ref. 13015] Talará, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 144256. •Valid as Lepophidium negropinna Hildebrand & Barton 1949 -- (Pequeño 1989:48 [ref. 14125] as nigropinna, Bussing & López S. 1994:74 [ref. 23101], Lea in Fischer et al. 1995:1345 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:245 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:228 [ref. 24555], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:36, 37 [ref. 24448], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], Robins et al. 2012:7 [ref. 32161], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium negropinna Hildebrand & Barton 1949. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: outer Baja California and Gulf of California to Peru. Habitat: marine.

nelsoni, Thalassobathia Lee [R. S.] 1974:629, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1974 (no. 3); ref. 7514] Chile, 23°37.1'-23°35.9'S, 71°40.5'-71°20.0'W, depth 0-2000 meters (5200 meters wire out) over 3620-5430 meters. Holotype: SIO 72-164. Paratypes: SIO 72-154 (1). References 24646, 24448 and 25968 are apparently not this species. •Valid as Thalassobathia nelsoni Lee 1974 -- (Pequeño 1989:48 [ref. 14125], Balanov & Fedorov 1996:346 [ref. 24646], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:112 [ref. 24448], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:268 [ref. 25968], Nielsen et al. 2010:224 [ref. 30920] in Ophidiidae). Current status: Valid as Thalassobathia nelsoni Lee 1974. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

neocaledoniensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1997:67, Fig. 14 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie v. 174; ref. 23255] New Caledonia, 18°52.8'S, 163°21.7'E, depth 550 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1994-0741. Paratypes: MNHN 1994-0742 to 0744 (2, 1, 1), NMNZ-P.29201 (2), ZMUC-P.771156 (1). •Valid as Neobythites neocaledoniensis Nielsen 1997 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen 2002:65 [ref. 26394], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites neocaledoniensis Nielsen 1997. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nielseni, Bassozetus Tomiyama [S.], Takami [M.] & Fukui [A.] 2018:[2], Figs. 1-3, 4A [Ichthyological Research v. 65 (no. 3) (for July 2018); ref. 35811] Gulf of Mexico, 25°41'N, 91°2'W, depth 3,155-3,200 meters. Holotype: USNM 206928. Paratypes: BMNH, VIMS, ZMUC. •Valid as Bassozetus nielseni Tomiyama, Takami & Fukui 2018 -- (Carneiro et al. 2019:157 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus nielseni Tomiyama, Takami & Fukui 2018. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: North Atlantic; Western Indian Ocean: Kenya. Habitat: marine.

nielseni, Brotulataenia Cohen [D. M.] 1974:144, Fig. 17 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 55 (no. 2); ref. 6890] Eastern Pacific, 31°N, 127°W, depth 600 meters. Holotype: USNM 209609. Paratypes: LACM 9572-5 (1), 30354-1 (1); SIO 69-330 (1), 69-496 (1); UCR 707-1 (1); ZMUC P77554 (1). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:370 [ref. 35212]. Original genus should have been spelled Brotulotaenia. •Valid as Brotulotaenia nielseni Cohen 1974 -- (Machida et al. 1997:421 [ref. 23365], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:210 [ref. 24023], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:26 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Okuyama & Kato 2002:160 [ref. 27033], Fahay & Nielsen 2003:210 [ref. 27217], Mundy 2005:243 [ref. 28379], Suntsov 2007:177 [ref. 29154]). Current status: Valid as Brotulotaenia nielseni Cohen 1974. Ophidiidae: Brotulotaeniinae. Distribution: Pacific and Indian oceans. Habitat: marine.

niger, Lamprogrammus Alcock [A. W.] 1891:33, Fig. 2 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 8 (no. 43/44); ref. 87] Bay of Bengal, Investigator station 112, depth 561 fathoms; Andaman Sea, 11°25'05"N, 92°47'06"E, station 116, depth 405 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1896.9.11.5 [ex ZSI F13048] (1); ZSI F13048-49 (1, 1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:149 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:41 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1892: Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [ref. 20531]. •Valid as Lamprogrammus niger Alcock 1891 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:34 [ref. 881], Arai in Uyeno et al. 1983:230 [ref. 14275], Nielsen & Cohen 1986:348 [ref. 5700], Shcherbachev et al. 1989:165 [ref. 36134], Nielsen 1990:570 [ref. 16246], Cohen & Rohr 1993:472 [ref. 20545], Adam et al. 1998:1 [ref. 23610], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:715 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:72 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Pakhorukov 1999:657 [ref. 24883], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Moore et al. 2003:207 [ref. 27076], Fahay & Nielsen 2003:210 [ref. 27217], Mundy 2005:244 [ref. 28379], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292, 297 [ref. 28946], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583], Robertson et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35676] as cf. niger, Burton & Lea 2019:51 [ref. 37205], Carneiro et al. 2019:158 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Lamprogrammus niger Alcock 1891. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Possibly circumglobal. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Brotulotaenia Parr [A. E.] 1933:50, Fig. 19 (bottom) [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 6); ref. 3373] Turks Island Passage, West Indies, 21°30'N, 71°11'W, 8000 feet wire out. Holotype (unique): YPM 2855. Genus often misspelled Brotulataenia. •Valid as Brotulotaenia nigra Parr 1933 -- (Nielsen 1973:550 [ref. 6885], Cohen 1974:143 [ref. 6890], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1162 [ref. 13677], Paxton et al. 1989:311 [ref. 12442], Machida in Amaoka et al. 1990:196 [ref. 16024], Machida et al. 1997:423 [ref. 23365], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:26 [ref. 24448], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Nielsen & Robins 2003:967 [ref. 27008], Okuyama & Kato 2002:160 [ref. 27033], Moore et al. 2003:206 [ref. 27076], Fahay & Nielsen 2003:210 [ref. 27217], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Hoese et al. 2006:558 [ref. 29051], Nielsen & Møller 2015:716 [ref. 34259], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Carneiro et al. 2019:158 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Brotulotaenia nigra Parr 1933. Ophidiidae: Brotulotaeniinae. Distribution: Circumglobal, but not in eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Dicrolene Garman [S.] 1899:150, Pls. 37 (fig. 2), 75 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Galápagos Islands, 1°S-7°N, 79°-89°W, Albatross station 3358, 3380, 3393, and 3402, depth 421-1020 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 28667. Paratypes: MCZ 28664-65 (2, 3), 28668 (3), 102583 [ex MCZ 28667] (3). •Valid as Dicrolene nigra Garman 1899 -- (Pequeño 1989:48 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:231 [ref. 24555], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene nigra Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nigracauda, Ophidion Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1936:44, Fig. 15 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 2 (art. 3); ref. 634] Refugio Bay (Angel Island), Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): YPM 980. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:23 [ref. 16741] as nigricauda. •Synonym of Ophidion iris Breder 1936 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Ophidion iris Breder 1936. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Genypterus Philippi [R. A.] 1857:269 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 23 (pt. 1); ref. 3462] Chile. No types known. •Synonym of Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot 1848) -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot 1848). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

nigricaudis, Paradicrolene Alcock [A. W.] 1891:30 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 8 (no. 43/44); ref. 87] Andaman Sea, 11°31'40"N, 92°46'40"E, Investigator station 115, depth 188-220 fathoms. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1891.9.2.3 [ex ZSI F13042] (1); ZSI F13040 (1), F13044 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:150 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:41 [ref. 22148]. •Valid as Dicrolene nigricaudis (Alcock 1891) -- (Adam et al. 1998:9 [ref. 23610], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2020:323 [ref. 37272] as aff. nigricaudis). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene nigricaudis (Alcock 1891). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

nigripinnis, Sirembo Alcock [A. W.] 1889:384 [10] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 81] Andaman Sea, 7.5 miles east of North Cingue Island, Investigator station 10, depth 490 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11764. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:150 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:41 [ref. 22148]. On p. 10 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1894: Pl. 11 (fig. 3) [ref. 17304] as Monomitopus nigripinnis. •Valid as Monomitopus nigripinnis (Alcock 1889) -- (Carter & Cohen 1985:86 [ref. 5145], Nielsen & Cohen 1986:349 [ref. 5700], Adam et al. 1998:9 [ref. 23610], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Fricke et al. 2018:84 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus nigripinnis (Alcock 1889). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: South and East Africa east to India and Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

nigriventris, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:66, Fig. 57 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Marion Plateau, Queensland, 22°53.3'S, 152°59.3'E, Australia, depth 325-338 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 2310-03. Paratypes: Many at AMS, CSIRO, NMV, NTM, and ZMUC. •Valid as Neobythites nigriventris Nielsen 2002 -- (Hoese et al. 2006:563 [ref. 29051]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites nigriventris Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. Habitat: marine.

nigromaculatus, Neobythites Kamohara [T.] 1938:67, Fig. 37 [On the offshore bottom-fishes of Prov. Tosa; ref. 2551] Mimase, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Kamohara "neotype": BSKU 3573. Type catalog: Kamohara 1961:9 [ref. 19282]. "Neotype" designation: Kamohara 1961:9 [ref. 19282], but neotype designation was not made in a revisory work and is invalid. •Valid as Neobythites nigromaculatus Kamohara 1938 -- (Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441], Chen & Shao 1991:13 [ref. 16679] as nigromaculata, Nakabo 2000:443 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:443 [ref. 26001]). •Synonym of Neobythites unimaculatus Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122]). Current status: Synonym of Neobythites unimaculatus Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

nocomis, Ophidion Robins [C. R.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1959:2, Figs. 1-2 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 325; ref. 12016] Northern side of sandy point forming the western tip of Green Cay, Bahamas Islands, 24°02'25"N, 77°11'00"W, depth to about 5 feet. Holotype: ANSP 89340. Paratypes: ANSP 89341 (28, not 29), 89342 (7, c&s), 89343-45 (1, 1, 8); UF 204943 [ex UMML 4943] (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:135 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Ophidion nocomis Robins & Böhlke 1959 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Lea & Robins 2003:6 [ref. 27029], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:72 [ref. 31601], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion nocomis Robins & Böhlke 1959. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nolfi, Luciobrotula Cohen [D. M.] 1981:1086, Figs. 1, 2 (4a, 4b, 5) [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 94 (no. 4); ref. 8491] Eastern Atlantic, 22°10'N, 17°20'W, depth 860-810 meters. Holotype: ZIN 45772. Paratypes: IRSNB 506 (1); USNM 198606 (1); ZMMU P16002 (1), P77390-91 (1, 1). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:23 [ref. 20755], Vasil'eva et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Luciobrotula nolfi Cohen 1981 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:75 [ref. 24448], Prokofiev 2005:113 [ref. 34466], Nielsen 2009:154 [ref. 30647], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Luciobrotula nolfi Cohen 1981. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic off western Africa. Habitat: marine.

normalis, Bassozetus Gill [T. N.] 1883:259 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (no. 380); ref. 1724] East of New Jersey, U.S.A., 39°33'00'N, 68°26'45"W, Albatross station 2042, depth 1555 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 33306. •Valid as Bassozetus normalis Gill 1883 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:58 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Merrett 2000:40 [ref. 24949], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:206 [ref. 27076], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:17 [ref. 28815], Prokofiev 2005:113 [ref. 34466] as cf. normalis and dated 1884, Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus normalis Gill 1883. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and Coral Sea [ref. 34466]. Habitat: marine.

novaculum, Ophidion Harry [R. R.] 1951:30, Figs. 1-2 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 12893] Avalon Bay, Santa Catalina Island, off southern California, U.S.A., depth 18 fathoms. Holotype: CAS-SU 15964. Paratypes: CAS-SU 15965 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:102 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Chilara taylori (Girard 1858) -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:39 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Chilara taylori (Girard 1858). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

nudus, Porogadus Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:262, Pl. 24 (figs. 2-2b) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Banc d'Arguin, depth 2321 meters or Cape Verde Islands, depth 3200 meters. Lectotype: MNHN 1886-0537 (1 of 2). Paralectotypes: (3) MNHN 1886-0537 (1) Banc d'Arguin, depth 2321 meters [additional specimens apparently lost]. Lectotype (measured specimen of Vaillant) designated by Eschmeyer 1998:1208 [ref. 23416]. •Valid as Porogadus nudus Vaillant 1888 -- (Machida & Amaoka 1990:67 [ref. 16610], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Prokofiev 2005:117 [ref. 34466], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Porogadus nudus Vaillant 1888. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

obtusirostre, Ophidium barbatum var. Costa [O. G.] 1843:Ophidium p. 12, Pls. 20A (fig. 1), 20B (fig. 2) [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] [Napoli] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Published 1 Sept. 1843. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

oceanium, Glyptophidium Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:162, Pl. 12 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] North of Samar, 12°43'51"N, 124°58'50"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5444, depth 308 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74145. Paratypes: (2). •Valid as Glyptophidium oceanium Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441] and Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:255, 372 [ref. 8057] as oceanicum, Nielsen & Machida 1988:312 [ref. 12746], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:67 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:441 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:307 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:441 [ref. 26001], Nielsen & Møller 2008:28 [ref. 29803]). Current status: Valid as Glyptophidium oceanium Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ocella, Eretmichthys Garman [S.] 1899:166, Pls. 37 (fig. 1), 79 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Panama Bay, 7°5'30"N, 79°40'W, Albatross station 3392, depth 1270 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28634 (2). •Questionably a synonym of Eretmichthys pinnatus Garman 1899 -- (Machida & Ohta 1990:314 [ref. 19203]). •Synonym of Eretmichthys pinnatus Garman 1899 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:65 [ref. 24448] but as ocellata). Current status: Synonym of Eretmichthys pinnatus Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Neobythites Günther [A.] 1887:103, Pl. 21 (fig. B) [Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger v. 22 (pt 57); ref. 2013] Off Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, 9°05'S, 34°50'W, Challenger station 122, depth 350 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.12.7.43. •Valid as Neobythites ocellatus Günther 1887 -- (Nielsen & Retzer 1994:992 [ref. 21652], Nielsen 1999:346 [ref. 24424], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295, 298 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:54 [ref. 29626], Nielsen et al. 2009:63 [ref. 30411], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:115 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites ocellatus Günther 1887. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bahamas; Venezuela south to Bahia (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

omostigma, Genypterus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:301 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. (stomach content). Holotype (unique): USNM 29670. The name omostigma apparently is a noun in apposition and should remain omostigma. •Valid as Otophidium omostigmum (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Arai in Uyeno et al. 1983:228 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:100 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:77 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:376 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:733 [ref. 23897]). •Valid as Otophidium omostigma (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:43 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Nelson et al. 2004:92 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Otophidium omostigma (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

oncerocephalus, Sirembo Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:277, Pl. 24 (fig. 6) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Near the Cape Verde Islands, depth 3200 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1886-0541. •Valid as Bassozetus oncerocephalus (Vaillant 1888) -- (Nielsen 1990:566 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:58 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Merrett 2000:42 [ref. 24949], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus oncerocephalus (Vaillant 1888). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Africa: Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

ordwayi, Brotula Hildebrand [S. F.] & Barton [O.] 1949:25, Fig. 7 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 111 (no. 10); ref. 13015] Talara, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 144259. •Valid as Brotula ordwayi Hildebrand & Barton 1949 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:73 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:74 [ref. 23101], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:211 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:25 [ref. 22816], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:223 [ref. 24555], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:24 [ref. 24448], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Greenfield 2005:80 [ref. 28204], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:442 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:607 [ref. 34923], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Brotula ordwayi Hildebrand & Barton 1949. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific, including the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

pallidus, Dicrolene Hureau [J.-C.] & Nielsen [J. G.] 1981:9, Fig. 8 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5438] Southeastern Atlantic, 21°46.3'S, 11°08.3'E, depth 2992 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1976-0083. Paratypes: MNHN 1976-0084 (1), 1976-0085 (1); ZMUC P77705 (1). •Valid as Dicrolene pallidus Hureau & Nielsen 1981 -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:347 [ref. 5700], Nielsen 1990:568 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene pallidus Hureau & Nielsen 1981. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pallidus, Monomitopus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:148, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Between Mindoro and Panay, 11°57'30"N, 121°42'15"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5259, depth 312 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74133. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.4.1.7 [ex USNM] (1), USNM 99261-64 (1, 1, 1, 1). •Valid as Monomitopus pallidus Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:259, 373 [ref. 8057], Carter & Cohen 1985:87 [ref. 5145], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:444 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:444 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:414 [ref. 28370]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus pallidus Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pallidus, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1997:68, Fig. 15a, b [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie v. 174; ref. 23255] New Caledonia, 18°49.4'S, 163°18.8'E, depth 590 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1994-0745. MNHN 1994-0746 to 0749 (1, 2, 1, 10), ZMUC-P.771157-58 (1, 1). •Valid as Neobythites pallidus Nielsen 1997 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen 2002:69 [ref. 26394], Hoese et al. 2006:563 [ref. 29051], Gomon 2008:352 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242], Psomadakis et al. 2020:325 [ref. 37272] as aff. pallidus). Current status: Valid as Neobythites pallidus Nielsen 1997. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: eastern Australia to New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

palmietensis, Brotula Smith [J. L. B.] 1935:220, Pl. 21 (fig. C) [Records of the Albany Museum Grahamstown v. 4; ref. 4066] Palimet River, Great Fish Point, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 299 [ex AMG]. •Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:346 [ref. 5700], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:24 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Habitat: marine.

pardale, Leptophidium Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:108 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Off Baja California, Mexico, 28°28'N, 112°04'30"W, Albatross station 3014, depth 29 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 44382. •Valid as Lepophidium pardale (Gilbert 1890) -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:74 [ref. 23101], Lea in Fischer et al. 1995:1346 [ref. 22830], Lea 1997:964 [ref. 22978], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:245 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:227 [ref. 24555], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24448], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], Robins et al. 2012:18 [ref. 32161], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium pardale (Gilbert 1890). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California and Gulf of California south to Peru, including (?) Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

parri, Barathrites Nybelin [O.] 1957:283, Fig. 13; Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Reports of the Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition 1947-1948 v. 2 (Zool.) (fasc. 3) (art. 20); ref. 3235] Turks Island Passage, 21°15'40"N, 71°17'06"W, depth 900-955 fathoms. Holotype (unique): YPM 2736. •Valid as Barathrites parri Nybelin 1957 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:25 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:53 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:205 [ref. 27076], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:17 [ref. 28815], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29626], Hartel et al. 2008:331 [ref. 29890], Ohashi et al. 2012:169 [ref. 32377]). Current status: Valid as Barathrites parri Nybelin 1957. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic and off eastern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

paucidens, Enchelybrotula Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:154, Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, 0°08'00"S, 121°19'00"E, Indonesia, Albatross station 5608, depth 1089 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74138. •Valid as Enchelybrotula paucidens Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Cohen 1982:111 [ref. 5521], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:63 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753]). Current status: Valid as Enchelybrotula paucidens Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pectoralis, Bathyonus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:604 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 543); ref. 1842] Gulf of Mexico, 28°02'30"N, 87°43'45"W, Albatross station 2380, depth 1430 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 37342. Paratypes: (1). •Valid as Bathyonus pectoralis Goode & Bean 1885 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:710 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:59 [ref. 24448], Endo et al. 2000:43 [ref. 24516], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946]). Current status: Valid as Bathyonus pectoralis Goode & Bean 1885. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Cosmopolitan. Habitat: marine.

pelagica, Thalassobathia Cohen [D. M.] 1963:3, Figs. 1-2 [Breviora No. 196; ref. 880] Northwestern Atlantic, 39°26'N, 71°00'W to 39°32'N, 71°00'W, depth 390 fathoms over 1400-1350 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 42272 [not 42161]. Paratypes: MCZ 42273 [not 42162] (2). •Valid as Thalassobathia pelagica Cohen 1963 -- (Nielsen 1973:552 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1157 [ref. 13677], Nielsen 1990:575 [ref. 16246], Balanov & Fedorov 1996:345 [ref. 24646], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:112 [ref. 24448], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:24 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:268 [ref. 25968], Moore et al. 2003:208 [ref. 27076], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:290 [ref. 28946], Prokofiev & Kukuev 2008:565 [ref. 30239], Nielsen et al. 2010:224 [ref. 30920] in Ophidiidae, Møller et al. 2010:35 [ref. 31169] in Bythitidae, Parin et al. 2014:183 [ref. 33547] in cf. pelagica in Bythitidae, Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Thalassobathia pelagica Cohen 1963. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: North Atlantic and Bering Sea and North Pacific and Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

persica, Spottobrotula Nielsen [J. G.], Schwarzhans [W.] & Uiblein [F.] 2014:19 [131], 4, 7-8 [Marine Biology Research v. 11 (no. 2) (for 2015); ref. 33532] Persian Gulf, 27°58'N, 51°01'E, depth 45 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P771720. Paratypes: Iranian Shrimp Research Center, Bushehr (2). Plus tentatively referred specimen: ZMUC P771716 (1). •Valid as Spottobrotula persica Nielsen, Schwarzhans & Uiblein 2014 -- (Eagderi et al. 2019:34 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Spottobrotula persica Nielsen, Schwarzhans & Uiblein 2014. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Socotra Island, Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

phenax, Brotula Prokofiev [A. M.] 2007:172, figs. 5-10 [Aktual'nie Problemi Sovremennoi Nauki no. 1 (art. 34); ref. 34654] Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam, South China Sea. Holotype: ZIN 54074. Paratypes: ZIN 54075 (1), 54076 (2). •Valid as Brotula phenax Prokofiev 2007. Current status: Valid as Brotula phenax Prokofiev 2007. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

pheromystax, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.] 1960:84, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 11942] Off Guiana coast, 7°55'N, 57°25'W, Oregon station 2001, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 185737. Paratypes: ANSP 89346-47 (1, 2); FMNH 64499 (5), 64501-02 (1, 1), 64513-14 (5, 6), 64519 (1); MCZ 40422 (3); UF 203990 [ex UMML 3990] (4), 205049 [ex UMML 5049] (4), 205052 [ex UMML 5052] (3); UMMZ 177299 (4); USNM 185738-41 (1 ea.), 185742-43 (6, 1). Additional material: ANSP 89348 (1); FNHM 64515 (1); UF 205050-51 [ex UMML 5050-51] (3, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:135 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:51 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Lepophidium pheromystax Robins 1960 -- (Arai in Uyeno et al. 1983:225 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:169 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:375 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:718 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:35 [ref. 24448], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:72 [ref. 31601], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292, 297 [ref. 28946], Mincarone et al. 2008:52 [ref. 29626], Robins et al. 2012:16 [ref. 32161], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium pheromystax Robins 1960. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southwestern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil, also Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands. Habitat: marine.

philippinus, Umalius Herre [A. W. C. T.] & Herald [E. S.] 1950:312, Fig. 1 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 79 (no. 3); ref. 2114] Manila Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines, depth 13-25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 112107. •Synonym of Sirembo jerdoni (Day 1888) -- (Cohen & Robins 1986:257 [ref. 5254], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:89 [ref. 24448], Nielsen et al. 2014:10 [123] [ref. 33532]). Current status: Synonym of Sirembo jerdoni (Day 1888). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

phyllosoma, Neobythites Parr [A. E.] 1933:44, Fig. 20 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 6); ref. 3373] Off Turks Island, Bahamas, 21°30'N, 71°11'W, 8000 feet wire out. Holotype (unique): YPM 2902. •Valid as Pycnocraspedum phyllosoma (Parr 1933) -- (Nielsen 1999:336 [ref. 24424], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:87 [ref. 24448], Evseenko & Okiyama 2006:195 [ref. 28760]). Current status: Valid as Pycnocraspedum phyllosoma (Parr 1933). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

physocephalum, Ophidium Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:19 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:38 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Ophidion barbatum Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:113 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Ophidion barbatum Linnaeus 1758. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

pinnatus, Eretmichthys Garman [S.] 1899:165, Pls. 35 (figs. 1-4), 79 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Between Panama and Galápagos Islands, Albatross station 3363, 3366, 3400, in depths of 978-1322 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28635-37 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Eretmichthys pinnatus Garman 1899 -- (Machida & Ohta 1990 [ref. 19203], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:65 [ref. 24448], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:438 [ref. 26001], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], Mincarone et al. 2008:51 [ref. 29626], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:111 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Eretmichthys pinnatus Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil; Indo-Pacific. Habitat: marine.

praetor, Mastigopterus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:160, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Patiente Strait, 0°28'30"S, 127°45'00"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5628, depth 1291 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 74143 (not found in 1980). •Valid as Mastigopterus praetor Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:75 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753]). •Synonym of Mastigopterus imperator Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Machida et al. 2002:195 [ref. 26156]). Current status: Synonym of Mastigopterus imperator Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

profundissimus, Grimaldichthys Roule [L.] 1913:3, Fig. [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 261; ref. 3816] Southwest of Cape Verde Islands, 12°07'30"N, 35°53'W, station 1173, depth 6035 meters. Holotype (unique): MOM 0091-0563. Type catalog: Belloc 1949:15 [ref. 21544]. Also treated as new in Roule 1914:498 [ref. 3814]. •Valid as Holcomycteronus profundissimus (Roule 1913) -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Nielsen 1990:569 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:68 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Mundy 2005:244 [ref. 28379], Anderson & Stein 2006:3 [ref. 28595], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Nielsen et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29625], Fujii et al. 2010:512 [ref. 30881], Nielsen & Møller 2011:785 [ref. 31147], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Holcomycteronus profundissimus (Roule 1913). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Possibly circumglobal, but known from few specimens. Habitat: marine.

profundorum, Leptophidium Gill [T. N.] 1863:211 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1683] Gulf Stream off Florida, U.S.A., depth 30 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 6472. •Valid as Lepophidium profundorum (Gill 1863) -- (Arai in Uyeno et al. 1983:224 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:168 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:76 [ref. 23239], Fahay 1992:808 [ref. 19885], Cervigón 1992:375 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:719 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24448], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Collette & Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:208 [ref. 26158], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:207 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292, 297 [ref. 28946], Fine et al. 2007:953 [ref. 29824], Nguyen et al. 2008:1 [ref. 29833], Robins et al. 2012:9 [ref. 32161], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:292 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium profundorum (Gill 1863). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Georges Bank (Canada/USA) to Florida, eastern Gulf of Mexico to Yucatan, Mexico. Habitat: marine.

promelas, Porogadus Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:546 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Gulf of California, Mexico, 27°23'45"N, 111°25'W, Albatross station 3010, depth 1005 fathoms. Syntypes: CAS-SU 7 (2); USNM 48265 (2), 125002 [ex USBF 445] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:102 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Porogadus catena (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Porogadus catena (Goode & Bean 1885). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

prorates, Leptophidium Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:172 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Panama (Pacific), 8°47'00"N, 79°29'30"W, depth 14 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 41149. Paratypes: CAS-SU 445 (2), USNM 41247 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:102 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Lepophidium prorates (Jordan & Bollman 1890) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:74 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:74 [ref. 23101], Lea in Fischer et al. 1995:1346 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:246 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:227 [ref. 24555], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24448], González-Acosta & De la Cruz-Agüero 1999:40 [ref. 24505], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], Robins et al. 2012:7 [ref. 32161], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium prorates (Jordan & Bollman 1890). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California and outer Baja California to Peru. Habitat: marine.

pterotus, Neobythites Alcock [A. W.] 1890:210 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 33) (art. 26); ref. 82] Off Madras coast, India, 18°26'N, 85°24'E, Investigator station 97, depth 1310 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F12832. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:149 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:41 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1894: Pl. 11 (fig. 4) [ref. 17304] and in Alcock 1900: Pl. 29 (fig. 1) [ref. 20536]. •Valid as Holcomycteronus pterotus (Alcock 1890) -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:68 [ref. 24448], Anderson & Stein 2006:3 [ref. 28595], Nielsen et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29625], Nielsen & Møller 2011:785 [ref. 31147]). Current status: Valid as Holcomycteronus pterotus (Alcock 1890). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

puck, Ophidion Lea [R. N.] & Robins [C. R.] 2003:6, Fig. 1P [University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Scientific Papers No. 31; ref. 27029] Off Yucatán, Mexico, 21°05'N, 86°23'W, depth 348-357 meters. Holotype: UF 232199. Paratypes: KU 29981 (1). •Valid as Ophidion puck Lea & Robins 2003. Current status: Valid as Ophidion puck Lea & Robins 2003. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Off the eastern coast of Yucatán and Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas. Habitat: marine.

pullata, Dicrolene Garman [S.] 1899:152 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Gulf of Panama, eastern Pacific, 7°30'36"N, 78°39'W, Albatross station 3395, depth 730 fathoms. Holotype (?): MCZ 28663. •Valid as Dicrolene pullata Garman 1899 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene pullata Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

purus, Neobythites (Watasea) Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:141, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Near Destacado Island between Samar and Masbate, 12°12'35"N, 124°02'48"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5392, depth 135 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74128. Paratypes: USNM 308953 (1). •Valid as Neobythites purus Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:313 [ref. 12442], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen 2002:72 [ref. 26394], Hoese et al. 2006:564 [ref. 29051], Larson et al. 2013:49 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites purus Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

quinquarius, Pteroidonus Günther [A.] 1887:106, Pl. 22 (fig. B) [Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger v. 22 (pt 57); ref. 2013] Off Japan, Challenger station 235, depth 565 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.12.7.45 [or 48]. •Valid as Dicrolene quinquarius (Günther 1887) -- (Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:257, 372 [ref. 8057], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Nakabo 2000:439 [ref. 25086], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122] as quinquaris, Shinohara et al. 2001:307 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:439 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:413 [ref. 28370], Fricke et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene quinquarius (Günther 1887). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Taiwan and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

radcliffei, Spectrunculus Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1914:301, Pl. 37 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 2543] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): FMNH 57123 [ex CM 6061]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:98 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:80 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Spectrunculus radcliffei Jordan & Thompson 1914 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:34 [ref. 881]). •Synonym of Spectrunculus grandis (Günther 1877) -- (Nielsen & Hureau 1980:162 [ref. 5585], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:90 [ref. 24448], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:265 [ref. 25968], Uiblein et al. 2008:544 [ref. 29800]). Current status: Synonym of Spectrunculus grandis (Günther 1877). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

reedi, Genypterus Reed [E. P.] 1962:134 [No. 5; ref. 23451] Not available, no distinguishing features; from off Concepción, Chile, 300 m. •Mention -- (Chong 1985:36 [ref. 25223], Pequeño 1989:48-49 [ref. 14125], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Genypterus. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae.

remifer, Eretmichthys Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:155, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, 0°11'00"S, 121°16'00"E, Indonesia, Albatross station 5609, depth 1092 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 74139. •Synonym of Eretmichthys pinnatus Garman 1899 -- (Machida & Ohta 1990:314 [ref. 19203], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:65 [ref. 24448]). •Valid as Eretmichthys remifer Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753]). Current status: Synonym of Eretmichthys pinnatus Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

robinsi, Ophidion Fahay [M. P.] 1992:801, Fig. 2 [Copeia 1992 (no. 3); ref. 19885] Western Atlantic, 35°51'N to 35°52'N, 75°22'W to 75°23'W, depth 25-29 meters. Holotype: USNM 302375. Paratypes: ANSP 147228 (1); MCZ 85260 (1); USNM 302374 (1); VIMS 01882 (1), 04177 (3), 07445 (6, 2 c&s). •Valid as Ophidion robinsi Fahay 1992 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Nelson et al. 2004:92 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion robinsi Fahay 1992. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

robustum, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.], Robins [R. H.] & Brown [M. E.] 2012:38, Fig. 29 [Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History v. 52 (no. 1); ref. 32161] Panama (Atlantic), 9°02'N, 81°26'W, Oregon sta. 33595, depth 186 meters. Holotype: UF 234453. Paratypes: UF 233172 (1), 234460 (1 c&s), 234488 (1), 234496 (3), 234499 (2). •Valid as Lepophidium robustum Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Current status: Valid as Lepophidium robustum Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama, Colombia and northwestt of Trinidad. Habitat: marine.

robustus, Bassozetus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:156, Pl. 11 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Palawan Passage, 10°54'00"N, 118°26'20"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5349, depth 730 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 74140. •Valid as Bassozetus robustus Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:345 [ref. 5700], Nielsen 1997:55 [ref. 23255], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:709 [ref. 23897], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:58 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nielsen & Merrett 2000:43 [ref. 24949], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Prokofiev 2005:113 [ref. 34466], Hoese et al. 2006:557 [ref. 29051], Mincarone et al. 2008:50 [ref. 29626], Costa & Mincarone 2010:332 [ref. 37483], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242], Tomiyama et al. 2015:225 [ref. 35430], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus robustus Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Circumglobal, except not in the eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

robustus, Neobythites Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1886:161 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 12 (no. 5); ref. 1844] Off Moro Castle, Havana, Cuba, depth 250-400 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 28084. Paratypes: USNM 29057 (1). Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:10 [ref. 35177]. •Valid as Benthocometes robustus (Goode & Bean 1886) -- (Nielsen 1973:550 [ref. 6885], Cohen & Nielsen 1978:28 [ref. 881], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1160 [ref. 13677], Nielsen & Evseenko 1989 [ref. 12830], Nielsen 1990:566 [ref. 16246], Golani 1996:24 [ref. 22271], Nielsen 1999:336 [ref. 24424], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:59 [ref. 24448], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27192], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Moore et al. 2003:206 [ref. 27076], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294, 298 [ref. 28946], Fricke et al. 2007:65 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:31 [ref. 36649], Nielsen 2010:60, 64 [ref. 30910], Deval 2013:311 [ref. 33114], Goren & Galil 2015:517 [ref. 33910], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:108 [ref. 37485], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:10 [ref. 35177], Carneiro et al. 2019:157 [ref. 37250], Bariche & Fricke 2020:52 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:21 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Benthocometes robustus (Goode & Bean 1886). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

rochei, Ophidion Müller [J.] 1845:152 [44] [Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1843; ref. 18466] Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMB 2335. On p. 44 of separate. •Valid as Ophidion rochei Müller 1845 -- (Nielsen 1973:553 [ref. 6885], Nielsen 1973:553 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1164 [ref. 13677], Matallanas 1990:452 [ref. 20154], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448], Matallanas & Brito 1999:935 [ref. 24923], Dulĉić 2001:289 [ref. 25710], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:54 [ref. 26753], Lea & Robins 2003:6 [ref. 27029], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:181 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:66 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:53 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:173 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:31 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:183 [ref. 33547], Artüz & Fricke 2019:554 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:94 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:52 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:21 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion rochei Müller 1845. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rostratus, Porogadus Günther [A.] 1887:113, Pl. 24 (fig. B) [Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger v. 22 (pt 57); ref. 2013] North of Sulawesi, Indonesia, 2°55'N, 124°53'E, Challenger station 198, depth 2150 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.12.7.53. •Valid as Alcockia rostrata (Günther 1887) -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:25 [ref. 881], Nielsen 1997:55 [ref. 23255], Endo et al. 1998:205 [ref. 23392], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:50 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:440 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:307 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:440 [ref. 26001], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Alcockia rostrata (Günther 1887). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

saldanhai, Ophidion Matallanas [J.] & Brito [A.] 1999:932 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 55 (no. 5); ref. 24923] Off Cabo Verde Islands, Boavista, 15°57'64"N, 22°54'69"W, depth 31-37 meters. Holotype: TFMC VP/456. Paratypes: UAB [ZUAB SL/1312] (1). •Valid as Ophidion saldanhai Matallanas & Brito 1999 -- (Wirtz et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32972]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion saldanhai Matallanas & Brito 1999. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

schmidti, Otophidium Woods [L. P.] & Kanazawa [R. H.] 1951:640, Figs. 136-137 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 31 (no. 53); ref. 12812] Castle Harbor inside of Cock Rock, Bermuda, depth 1 foot. Holotype (unique): FMNH 48175. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:63 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Parophidion schmidti (Woods & Kanazawa 1951) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:100 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:376 [ref. 23827], Villamizar 1996:37 [ref. 23496], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:44 [ref. 24448], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:155 [ref. 25013], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Smith et al. 2003:12 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:92 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:28 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Parophidion schmidti (Woods & Kanazawa 1951). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

scrippsi, Otophidium Hubbs [C. L.] 1916:166, Pl. 20 [University of California Publications in Zoology v. 16 (no. 13); ref. 2225] Near Cerros Island, off the coast of Baja California, 28°02'01"N, 115°06'00"E, depth 73 meters. Holotype: SIO 64-283. Named after Miss Ellen B. Scripps, therefore mandatory correction to scrippsae. •Valid as Ophidion scrippsae (Hubbs 1916) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:102 [ref. 9277], Lea in Fischer et al. 1995:1344 [ref. 22829], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448], Lea & Robins 2003:6 [ref. 27029], Nelson et al. 2004:92 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:112 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion scrippsae (Hubbs 1916). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

selenops, Ophidion Robins [C. R.] & Böhlke [J. E.] 1959:5, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 325; ref. 12016] Dry Tortugas shrimp grounds, Florida, U.S.A., 24°45-50'N, 82°10-30'W, depth 16 fathoms. Holotype: ANSP 90017. Paratypes: ANSP 90018 (6), 90019 (1, c&s); UF 201199 [ex UMML 1199] (1), 222401 [ex UMML 2401] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:135 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Ophidion selenops Robins & Böhlke 1959 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:99 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:305 [ref. 25518], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Lea & Robins 2003:6 [ref. 27029], Nelson et al. 2004:92 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:18 [ref. 28815], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:293 [ref. 28946], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion selenops Robins & Böhlke 1959. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

sereti, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:74, Fig. 63 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Northeast of Fiji, 12°13.8'S, 177°28'W, depth 795-820 fathoms. Holotype: MNHN 1995-0713. Paratypes: MNHN 1995-0716 (1), 2001-0042 (6); ZMUC P771319 (1). •Valid as Neobythites sereti Nielsen 2002. Current status: Valid as Neobythites sereti Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northeast of Fiji Islands. Habitat: marine.

serratus, Neobythitoides Nielsen [J. G.] & Machida [Y.] 2006:66, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 1227; ref. 28703] East China Sea off Ryukyu Islands, 28°52.6'N, 128°08.5'E, depth 950 meters. Holotype: BSKU 19514. Paratypes: BSKU 19513 (1). •Valid as Neobythitoides serratus Nielsen & Machida 2006. Current status: Valid as Neobythitoides serratus Nielsen & Machida 2006. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

shcherbachevi, Lamprogrammus Cohen [D. M.] & Rohr [B. A.] 1993:470, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1993 (no. 2); ref. 20545] Off Antofagasta, Chile, 23°39.5'S, 72°43'W, depth 0-1000 meters. Holotype: SIO 72-163. Paratypes: AMS I.22818-008 (1), USNM 323202 (1), ZMMU P-18000 (1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Lamprogrammus shcherbachevi Cohen & Rohr 1993 -- (Pequeño 1997:81 [ref. 23536], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:72 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Schwarzhans 2000:205 [ref. 24743], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Fahay & Nielsen 2003:211 [ref. 27217], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Hoese et al. 2006:562 [ref. 29051], Hartel et al. 2008:328 [ref. 29890], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Lamprogrammus shcherbachevi Cohen & Rohr 1993. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southern circumglobal, northwestern North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

silus, Porogadus Carter [H. J.] & Sulak [K. J.] 1984:361, Figs. 1, 6a, 7, 10-17 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 8244] Western North Atlantic, 24°16'N, 76°16'W, depth 1962 meters. Holotype: USNM 238801. Paratypes: BMNH 1982.10.28.37 (1), CAS 51437 (1), FMNH 94508 (2), MCZ 58994 (1), SIO 82-80 (1), UF 234130 [ex UMML 34130] (3), USNM 238802 (2), ZMUC P77729-730 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Porogadus silus Carter & Sulak 1984 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295 [ref. 28946]). Current status: Valid as Porogadus silus Carter & Sulak 1984. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

sinensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:76, Fig. 65 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] South China Sea, 16°20'N, 114°39'E, depth 392-395 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 309002. •Valid as Neobythites sinensis Nielsen 2002. Current status: Valid as Neobythites sinensis Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

sivicola, Watasea Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:765, Pl. 37 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1235); ref. 2504] Misaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, Sagami Sea, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 6375. Paratypes: USNM 49707 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:102 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Neobythites sivicola (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:191 [ref. 7348], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:255, 371 [ref. 8057], Chen & Shao 1991:13 [ref. 16679], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:83 [ref. 24448], Nakabo 2000:443 [ref. 25086] as sivicolus, Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:308 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:443 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:206, 537 [ref. 26218], Nielsen 2002:77 [ref. 26394], Okamoto et al. 2011:71 [ref. 31712], Shinohara et al. 2011:40 [ref. 31715], Ohashi et al. 2012:27 [ref. 31981], Shinohara et al. 2014:241 [ref. 33330], Sonoyama et al. 2020:30 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites sivicola (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Otophidium Fowler [H. W.] 1934:508, Fig. 52 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1419] Umgui [= Umgeni], KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ANSP 55227. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:135 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Ophidion smithi (Fowler 1934) -- (Nielsen & Cohen 1986:349 [ref. 5700], Goren & Dor 1994:15 [ref. 25356], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24448] with doubt, Golani & Fricke 2018:39 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Ophidion smithi (Fowler 1934). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East and South Africa east to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

soelae, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 2002:80, Fig. 69 [Galathea Report v. 19; ref. 26394] Off Port Headland, 17°35'S, 118°37'E, Western Australia. Holotype: CSIRO CA 3573. Paratypes: CSIRO B 3303 (1), B 4010 (1). •Valid as Neobythites soelae Nielsen 2002 -- (Hoese et al. 2006:564 [ref. 29051]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites soelae Nielsen 2002. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

somaliaensis, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1995:10, Fig. 9 [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 62; ref. 21625] Brothers Islands, southwest of Socotra, 12°16.6'N, 53°08.2'E, depth 380 meters. Holotype: ZMMU P-18905. Paratypes: ZMMU P-18906-12 (1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1); ZMUC P77836-39 (1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:70 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Neobythites somaliaensis Nielsen 1995 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:82, 101 [ref. 26394], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites somaliaensis Nielsen 1995. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

spinifer, Acanthonus Garman [S.] 1899:170, Pl. F (figs. 3-3a) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Panama Bay, 4°56'N, 80°52'30"W, Albatross station 3381, depth 1772 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28629. •Synonym of Acanthonus armatus Günther 1878 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:18 [ref. 881], Nielsen 1990:564 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:50 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthonus armatus Günther 1878. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Habitat: marine.

squamipinne, Pycnocraspedum Alcock [A. W.] 1889:386 [12] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 81] Bay of Bengal, 20°17'30"N, 88°50'E, Investigator, depth 193 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.7.31.1 [ex ZSI F11702] (1); ZSI F11700 (1), F11703 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:150 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516] as squamipinnae, Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:41 [ref. 22148] as squammipinae. On p. 12 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 21 (fig. 1) [ref. 20534] as Neobythites squamipinnis. •Valid as Pycnocraspedum squamipinne Alcock 1889 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:313 [ref. 12442], Nielsen 1997:76 [ref. 23255], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:87 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Prokofiev 2005:118 [ref. 34466] as cf. squamipinne and squamipinne, Evseenko & Okiyama 2006:192 [ref. 28760], Hoese et al. 2006:565 [ref. 29051], Fricke et al. 2011:367 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35805], Psomadakis et al. 2020:326 [ref. 37272] as cf. squamipinne). Current status: Valid as Pycnocraspedum squamipinne Alcock 1889. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Madagascar; northern Australia to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

squamosus, Grimaldichthys Roule [L.] 1916:19 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 320; ref. 3818] Near Santa Maria, Azores, northeastern Atlantic, station 652, depth 4261 meters. Holotype (unique): MOM 0091-0235. Type catalog: Belloc 1949:15 [ref. 21544]. See also Roule 1919:70 [ref. 19805]. •Valid as Bassogigas squamosus (Roule 1916) -- (Nielsen 1973:549 [ref. 6885]). •Valid as Holcomycteronus squamosus (Roule 1916) -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:32 [ref. 881], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1162 [ref. 13677], Santos et al. 1997:52 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:109 [ref. 24952], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:68 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Anderson & Stein 2006:3 [ref. 28595], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Nielsen et al. 2008:48 [ref. 29625], Mincarone et al. 2008:51 [ref. 29626], Costa & Mincarone 2010:334 [ref. 37483], Nielsen & Møller 2011:85 [ref. 31147], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Carneiro et al. 2019:158 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Holcomycteronus squamosus (Roule 1916). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

staurophor, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.] 1959:360, Figs. 1 a & g, 2 [Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean v. 8 (no. 4) [for 1958]; ref. 12108] Western Caribbean Sea, 16°39'N, 81°43'W, Oregon station 1878, depth 125 fathoms. Holotype: FMNH 64383. Paratypes: FMNH 64384 (1), UF 202349 [ex UMML 2349] (1), USNM 185695 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:51 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Lepophidium staurophor Robins 1959 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:98 [ref. 23100], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:720 [ref. 23897], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:292 [ref. 28946], Robins et al. 2012:11 [ref. 32161], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium staurophor Robins 1959. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Off Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) and off Nicaragua and Honduras. Habitat: marine.

steatiticus, Neobythites Alcock [A. W.] 1894:181 [13], Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 62 (pt 2, No. 4); ref. 89] Bay of Bengal, 15°04'07"N, 80°25'07"E, Investigator station 137, depth 128 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F13435. Non-types: BMNH [ex ZSI F13473-74] (2?), USNM [ex ZSI F13475] (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:149-150 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516] as steaticus, Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:41 [ref. 22148], Talwar 1977:637 [ref. 26599]. On p. 13 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 21 (fig. 2) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Neobythites steatiticus Alcock 1894 -- (Nielsen 1995:11 [ref. 21625], Carpenter et al. 1997:125 [ref. 23922], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:84 [ref. 26394], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377], Kannan et al. 2013:1 [ref. 34750], Kannan et al. 2013:1 [ref. 34751], Reethas et al. 2016:1 [ref. 34746], Ali et al. 2018:313 [ref. 36183], Uiblein & Nielsen 2018:165 [ref. 35819], Psomadakis et al. 2020:326 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites steatiticus Alcock 1894. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Bay of Bengal (India) to Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

stefanovi, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] & Uiblein [F.] 1993:110, Figs. 1-2 [Senckenbergiana Maritima v. 23 (nos 4/6); ref. 20990] Gulf of Aden, 14°48.8'N, 51°16.1'E, depth 335-345 meters. Holotype: ZMMU P-18923. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.5.14.1437 (1); SMF 26427-29 (1, 1, 6); USNM 302930 (1), 309008 (3); ZMMU P-18924-31 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3); ZMUC P77843-44 (2). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:70-71 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Neobythites stefanovi Nielsen & Uiblein 1993 -- (Uiblein et al. 1994:18 [ref. 21798], Klausewitz 1994:465 [ref. 23564], Nielsen 1995:12 [ref. 21625], Carpenter et al. 1997:125 [ref. 23922], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:83 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:86 [ref. 26394], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:9S99 [ref. 27377], Kannan et al. 2013:1 [ref. 34750], Kannan et al. 2013:1 [ref. 34751], Uiblein & Nielsen 2018:169 [ref. 35819], Golani & Fricke 2018:39 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites stefanovi Nielsen & Uiblein 1993. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

stelliferoides, Neobythites Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:112 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Off Baja California, Mexico, 24°30'15"N, 110°29'00"W, Albatross station 2996, depth 112 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 44383 (154 mm SL). Paralectotypes: UMMZ 162264 (2), USNM 125557 (4). Lectotype not established by Jordan & Evermann 1898:2516 [ref. 2445]. Lectotype designation by Nielsen 2002:88 [ref. 26394] does not conform to the 1999 code but is accepted. •Valid as Neobythites stelliferoides Gilbert 1890 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:76 [ref. 23101], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:83 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:7 [ref. 26394], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], Nielsen & Møller 2011:785 [ref. 31447], Page et al. 2013:95 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites stelliferoides Gilbert 1890. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California Sur, including Gulf of California, to Peru. Habitat: marine.

stigmatistium, Leptophidium Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:109 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Gulf of California, Mexico, 24°30'15"N, 110°29'W, Albatross station 2996, depth 112 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 44389. •Valid as Lepophidium stigmatistium (Gilbert 1890) -- (Lea in Fischer et al. 1995:1346 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:245 [ref. 24545], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24448], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Robins et al. 2012:32 [ref. 32161], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Lepophidium stigmatistium (Gilbert 1890). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: outer coast of Baja California and Gulf of California, Mexico. Habitat: marine.

stigmosus, Neobythites Machida [Y.] in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:251, Pl. 174 [Fishes of the Okinawa Trough and the adjacent waters; ref. 8057] Off Owase, Kumano-Nada, Mie Prefecture, Japan, depth 180-200 meters. Holotype: BSKU 38777. Paratypes: BSKU 27496 (1), 27939 (1), 28440-41 (2), 28328 (1), 38376 (1), 38608-09 (2), 38640 (1), 38752 (1), 38757-59 (3), 38763 (1), 38765 (1), 38775-76 (2), 38778 (1), 38786 (1), 38788 (1), 39474 (1). •Valid as Neobythites stigmosus Machida 1984 -- (Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441], Shen et al. 1986:65 [ref. 13818], Chen & Shao 1991:14 [ref. 16679], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:83 [ref. 24448], Nakabo 2000:443 [ref. 25086], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:308 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:443 [ref. 26001], Nielsen 2002:91 [ref. 26394], Shinohara et al. 2005:414 [ref. 28370], Okamoto et al. 2011:71 [ref. 31712], Ohashi et al. 2012:27 [ref. 31981], Motomura et al. 2015:16 [ref. 34709]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites stigmosus Machida 1984. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

subarmatus, Porogadus Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:265, Pl. 24 (figs. 3-3c) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Off Cape Verde Islands, western Africa, depth 3200 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1886-0530 (1). Paratypes: (10) BMNH 1939.2.20.4 [ex MNHN] (1); MNHN 1886-0529 (1), 1886-0534 and 0535 (1, 1). •Valid as Porogadus subarmatus Vaillant 1888 -- (Nielsen 1990:572 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2016:1951 [ref. 34583]). Current status: Valid as Porogadus subarmatus Vaillant 1888. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic off Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

taenia, Bathyonus Günther [A.] 1887:110, Pl. 23 (fig. A) [Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger v. 22 (pt 57); ref. 2013] Mid-Atlantic, 2°25'N, 20°01'W, Challenger station 104, depth 2500 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.12.7.51. •Valid as Bassozetus taenia (Günther 1887) -- (Nielsen 1990:565 [ref. 16246], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:58 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Merrett 2000:48 [ref. 24949], Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:294 [ref. 28946], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Vieira et al. 2016:[6] [ref. 34869], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811], Carneiro et al. 2019:157 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus taenia (Günther 1887). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

taylori, Ophidion Girard [C. F.] 1858:138 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] Monterey, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 35928 [ex USNM 867] (2), UMMZ 146978 (1), USNM 867 (orig. 6, now 5). •Valid as Chilara taylori (Girard 1858) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:102 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:214 [ref. 26885], Lea 1997:964 [ref. 22978], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:210 [ref. 24023], Lea & Béarez 1999:99 [ref. 23837], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:39 [ref. 24448], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:27 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:112 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:51 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Chilara taylori (Girard 1858). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tigerinus, Genypterus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1872:39 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 38 (pt. 1); ref. 2623] Hobson's Bay, Victoria, Australia. Syntypes: SMNS 1574 (1, damaged), 1664 (1), 24576 [ex SMNS 1574] (skeleton, not found), Type catalog: Fricke 1992:14 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:51 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Genypterus blacodes (Forster 1801) -- (Chong 1985:36 [ref. 25223], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:64 [ref. 22530]). •Valid as Genypterus tigerinus Klunzinger 1872 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:312 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:60 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:369 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:52 [ref. 25488], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:29, 34 [ref. 24448], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Smith & Paulin 2003:192 [ref. 27042], Hoese et al. 2006:560 [ref. 29051], Gomon 2008:355 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Genypterus tigerinus Klunzinger 1872. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Southern Australia: New South Wales to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

torvus, Monomitopus Garman [S.] 1899:157, Pl. 40 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] South of Gulf of Panama, 6°30'N-7°31'30"N, 79°14'W-81°44'W, Albatross stations 3358, 338 and 3394, depth 458-555 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28650 (1), 28651-53 (?); USNM 135354 (1). •Valid as Monomitopus torvus Garman 1899 -- (Carter & Cohen 1985:87 [ref. 5145], Pequeño 1989:48 [ref. 14125], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:198 [ref. 28944], Robertson et al. 2017:62 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus torvus Garman 1899. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of Panama to northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

townsendi, Brotula Fowler [H. W.] 1900:518, Pl. 20 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 52; ref. 14727] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8981. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:135 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Brotula townsendi Fowler 1900 -- (Myers 1999:66 [ref. 23965], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:24 [ref. 24448], Randall et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27624], Greenfield 2005:80 [ref. 28204], Randall 2005:65 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:243 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:117 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Brotula townsendi Fowler 1900. Ophidiidae: Brotulinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific Ocean: Marshall Islands east to Hawaiian Islands, south to Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia), Rotuma and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

trichiurus, Dermatorus Alcock [A. W.] 1890:298 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 34); ref. 83] Off Elicapeni Bank, Laccadive Sea, 11°12'47"N, 74°25'30"E, Investigator station 104, depth 1000 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F12865. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:148 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:40 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1892: Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [ref. 20531]. •Valid as Porogadus trichiurus (Alcock 1890) -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:86 [ref. 24448], Prokofiev 2005:117 [ref. 34466]). Current status: Valid as Porogadus trichiurus (Alcock 1890). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

trifilis, Neobythites Kotthaus [A.] 1979:11, Fig. 461 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 28; ref. 8818] Southwestern Socotra, 11°33.9'N, 52°54'E, Meteor station 102, depth 337-175 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 5620. Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:419 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Neobythites trifilis Kotthaus 1979 -- (Nielsen 1995:13 [ref. 21625], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:83 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:93 [ref. 26394], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S99 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites trifilis Kotthaus 1979. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

tristis, Dicrolene Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:145, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Lagonoy Gulf, Luzon Island, Philippines, 13°35'27"N, 123°37'18"E, Albatross station 5467, depth 480 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74131. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.4.1.4-5 [ex USNM] (2); USNM 99071 (1), 99243 (2), 99275-77 (1, 1, 1); ZMUC [ex USNM 99275] (1). •Valid as Dicrolene tristis Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:100 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:257, 373 [ref. 8057], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1980 [ref. 24753], Nakabo 2000:439 [ref. 25086], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:307 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:439 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:413 [ref. 28370], Fricke et al. 2014:32 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene tristis Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines north to Taiwan, south to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

tusca, Dannevigia Whitley [G. P.] 1941:42, Pl. 1 (fig. 28) [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 1); ref. 4701] Great Australian Bight, edge of bank southwest from Eucla, Western Australia, depth 80-120 fathoms. Holotype: AMS E.3508. Paratypes: AMS E.2336-38 (1, 1, 1), E.3506-07 (1, 1), I.12320 (1) •Valid as Dannevigia tusca Whitley 1941 -- (Cohen & Nielsen 1978:19 [ref. 881], Paxton et al. 1989:311 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:367 [ref. 22532], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:60 [ref. 24448], Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:559 [ref. 29051], Gomon 2008:353 [ref. 30616], Williams et al. 2018:99 [ref. 36359]). Current status: Valid as Dannevigia tusca Whitley 1941. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia to Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] & Retzer [M. E.] 1994:993, Fig. 2A [Copeia 1994 (no. 4); ref. 21652] Eastern Caribbean Sea, 17°38'30"N, 63°27'00"W, Oregon station 2633, depth 348 meters. Holotype: FMNH 69349. Paratypes: FMNH 69348 (1), 69352 (1), 69354 (1); INHS 32130 (1); TCWC 6207.2 (2), 4469.3 (2); ZMUC P7794 (1). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:274 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Neobythites unicolor Nielsen & Retzer 1994 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:727 [ref. 23897], Nielsen 1999:354 [ref. 24424], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:83 [ref. 24448], Claro et al. 2000:21 [ref. 26458], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:152 [ref. 27754], Nielsen & Robins 2003:969 [ref. 27008], Garrido-Linares & Acero P. 2006:295 [ref. 28946], Uiblein et al. 2019:278 [ref. 36734]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites unicolor Nielsen & Retzer 1994. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southern Florida (U. S. A.) south to southern Caribbean Sea, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

unimaculatus, Neobythites (Watasea) Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Radcliffe 1913:140, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 44 (no. 1948); ref. 3579] Near Mabul Island, 4°10'50"N, 118°39'35"E, Borneo, Albatross station 5590, depth 310 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74127. Paratypes: USNM 76678 (1). •Valid as Neobythites unimaculatus Smith & Radcliffe 1913 -- (Nielsen 1997:71 [ref. 23255], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:83 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen in Randall & Lim 2000:596 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:308 [ref. 25995], Nielsen 2002:95 [ref. 26394], Hoese et al. 2006:564 [ref. 29051], Fricke et al. 2011:367 [ref. 31242], Okamoto et al. 2011:71 [ref. 31712], Ohashi et al. 2012:27 [ref. 31981], Larson et al. 2013:49 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites unimaculatus Smith & Radcliffe 1913. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean off Australia. Habitat: marine.

vaillanti, Paradicrolene Alcock [A. W.] 1890:297 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 34); ref. 83] About 75 miles west of Goa coast, Arabian Sea, 15°02'N, 72°34'E, Investigator station 105, depth 740 fathoms. Holotype: ZSI F12862. Type catalog: Menon & Rama Rao 1971:344 [ref. 31198], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:41 [ref. 22148]. Also based on Dicrolene introniger of Vaillant 1888:258-262, Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [ref. 4496]. •Valid as Dicrolene vaillanti (Alcock 1890) -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:62 [ref. 24448]). Current status: Valid as Dicrolene vaillanti (Alcock 1890). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

vassali, Ophidium Risso [A.] 1810:97, Pl. 5 (fig. 12) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN B-3181 (5). •Valid as Parophidion vassali (Risso 1810) -- (Nielsen 1973:554 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1165 [ref. 13677], Matallanas & Casadevall 1990:1 [ref. 19124], Azevedo & Heemstra 1995:3 [ref. 22269], Santos et al. 1997:53 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:110 [ref. 24952], Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:44 [ref. 24448], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:54 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:26 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:66 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:31 [ref. 36649], Nielsen 2016:1950 [ref. 34583], Artüz & Fricke 2019:554 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:158 [ref. 37250], Bariche & Fricke 2020:53 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:21 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Parophidion vassali (Risso 1810). Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: southern Spain and northern Morocco to Madeira. Habitat: marine.

vitiazi, Selachophidium Nielsen [J. G.] 1971:30, Fig. 13 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 7451] Indian Ocean, 23°57'S, 112°14'E, depth 834 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN 39767. Original spelling was vitiazi with "(1 specimen caught by the "Vitiaz")." The name of the ship is usually spelled Vityaz, but technically the spelling vitiazi should be continued. •Valid as Monomitopus vitiazi (Nielsen 1971) -- (Carter & Cohen 1985:86 [ref. 5145], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24448] as vityazi, Hutchins 2001:23 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:562 [ref. 29051]). Current status: Valid as Monomitopus vitiazi (Nielsen 1971). Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

vityazi, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1995:14, Fig. 13 [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 62; ref. 21625] Off southeastern Madagascar, 22°19.1'S, 43°06.1'E, depth 300-335 meters. Holotype: ZMMU P-18918. Paratypes: MNHN 1992-0526 to 0531 (2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1), 1992-934 (1); ZMMU P-18919-22 (1, 1, 4, 1); ZMUC P77833-835 (3). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:71-72 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Neobythites vityazi Nielsen 1995 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:83 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 2002:98 [ref. 26394], Fricke et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites vityazi Nielsen 1995. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Mozambique to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

walkeri, Bassogigas Nielsen [J. G.] & Møller [P. R.] 2011:785, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 78; ref. 31147] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific, 13°35.4'N, 144°32.1'E, depth 2333-2590 meters. Holotype (unique): SIO 08-109. •Valid as Bassogigas walkeri Nielsen & Møller 2011. Current status: Valid as Bassogigas walkeri Nielsen & Møller 2011. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific (unique holotype). Habitat: marine.

wami, Sirembo Nielsen [J. G.], Schwarzhans [W.] & Uiblein [F.] 2014:12 [124], Figs. 4-6 [Marine Biology Research v. 11 (no. 2) (for 2015); ref. 33532] Off Cape Cuvier, Western Australia, 24°15'S, 113°26'E. Holotype: WAM P.22339.001. Paratypes: AMS I.21613-001 (1), USNM 226483 (1). •Valid as Sirembo wami Nielsen, Schwarzhans & Uiblein 2014 Current status: Valid as Sirembo wami Nielsen, Schwarzhans & Uiblein 2014. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

welshi, Otophidium Nichols [J. T.] & Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1922:15, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 35; ref. 15355] Southwest from Braye's Light, Texas, U.S.A., depth 10 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 85512. Paratypes: AMNH 8099 (1). •Valid as Ophidion welshi (Nichols & Breder 1922) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:99 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:76 [ref. 23239], Schwartz 1997:327 [ref. 23515], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:732 [ref. 23897]). •Probably a synonym of Ophidion josephi Girard 1858 -- (Robins in Nielsen et al. 1999:41 [ref. 24448]). •Synonym of Ophidion josephi Girard 1858 -- (Nielsen & Robins 2003:968 [ref. 27008]). Current status: Synonym of Ophidion josephi Girard 1858. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Habitat: marine.

werneri, Bassozetus Nielsen [J. G.] & Merrett [N. R.] 2000:51, Figs. 36-37 [Galathea Report v. 18; ref. 24949] South of New Caledonia, 23°51.5'S, 168°25.98'E, depth 1862-1846 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1997-0650. •Valid as Bassozetus werneri Nielsen & Merrett 2000 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:366 [ref. 31242], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[8] [ref. 35811]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus werneri Nielsen & Merrett 2000. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: south of Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

wileyi, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.], Robins [R. H.] & Brown [M. E.] 2012:30, Fig. 21 [Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History v. 52 (no. 1); ref. 32161] Northeast of Cuba, 20°52'N, 73°20'W, Oregon sta. 10852, depth 329 meters. Holotype: UF 229501. Paratypes: many at FMNH, GMBL, UF and USNM. •Valid as Lepophidium wileyi Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Current status: Valid as Lepophidium wileyi Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Western edge of the Bahamas, Cuba, Gulf of Mexico, off Nicaragua and Honduras, Antilles and northern South America to Trinidad (scattered localities). Habitat: marine.

zenkevitchi, Bassozetus Rass [T. S.] 1955:333, Fig. 5 [Trudy Instituta Okeanologii, Akademija Nauk S.S.S.R. v. 12; ref. 3610] Kuril-Kamchatka trench, off Iturup Island, Kuril Islands, western North Pacific, 45°N, 148°E, benthopelagic, depth between 2250-0 meters. Holotype (unique): not at ZIN. Holotype examined by Nielsen & Merrett 2000:52 [ref. 24949] •Valid as Bassozetus zenkevitchi Rass 1955 -- (Machida & Tachibana 1986:437 [ref. 6620], Machida 1989:189 [ref. 13417], Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:58 [ref. 24448], Nielsen & Merrett 2000:52 [ref. 24949], Nakabo 2000:442 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:23 [ref. 25650], Nakabo 2002:442 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:413 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:242 [ref. 28379], Fujii et al. 2010:512 [ref. 30881], Parin et al. 2014:183 [ref. 33547], Tomiyama et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34428], Tomiyama et al. 2018:[7] [ref. 35811]). Current status: Valid as Bassozetus zenkevitchi Rass 1955. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Ogasawara Islands to Okhotsk Sea and Hawaiian Ridge. Habitat: marine.

zonatus, Neobythites Nielsen [J. G.] 1997:72, Fig. 17 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie v. 174; ref. 23255] Norfolk Ridge, 24°55.48'S, 168°21.29'E, depth 500-610 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1994-0752. Paratypes: MNHN 1994-0753 to 0758 (1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1); NMNZ-P.29200 (1), P.29019 (1), P.29329 (1); ZMUC-P.771160 (1). •Valid as Neobythites zonatus Nielsen 1997 -- (Nielsen & Cohen in Nielsen et al. 1999:83 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1981 [ref. 24753], Nielsen 2002:99 [ref. 26394], Fricke et al. 2011:367 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Neobythites zonatus Nielsen 1997. Ophidiidae: Neobythitinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: New Ireland (Papua New Guinea); New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

zophochir, Lepophidium Robins [C. R.], Robins [R. H.] & Brown [M. E.] 2012:21, Fig. 13 [Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History v. 52 (no. 1); ref. 32161] Cuba, 9°39'N, 59°47'W, Oregon sta. 1986, depth 182 meters. Holotype: UF 182222. Paratypes: many at FMNH, UF and USNM. •Valid as Lepophidium zophochir Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Current status: Valid as Lepophidium zophochir Robins, Robins & Brown 2012. Ophidiidae: Ophidiinae. Distribution: Northern coast of South America: Colombia to the Guianas. Habitat: marine.