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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Opistognathidae: [ 113 ] records


adelus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2010:42, Figs. 2A, 3A, 4-6, 7A [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 12; ref. 30922] Madagascar, off Nosy Tanga, west coast of Nosy Bé [Nossi-Bé], 13°23'S, 48°11'E, depth 5-10 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 49583. Paratypes: SAIAB 54745 (3), USNM 372769 (1). Plus non-type specimen. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:163 [ref. 35805]. •Valid as Opistognathus adelus Smith-Vaniz 2010 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:162 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus adelus Smith-Vaniz 2010. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa and Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

afer, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2010:45, Figs. 2B, 8-10 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 12; ref. 30922] Maputoland Reef, 2 kilometers south of Kosi mouth, 26°54'S, 32°53'E, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 31 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 39994. Paratypes: SAIAB 42789 (1), 56415 (1); ROM 72836 (1); USNM 368139 (1). Plus non-type specimen. •Valid as Opistognathus afer Smith-Vaniz 2010. Current status: Valid as Opistognathus afer Smith-Vaniz 2010. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Mozambique and Kenya to South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

albicaudatus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2011:35, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 3085; ref. 31597] Fusilier Strait, 11°52.6'N. 93°03.13'E, Andaman Islands, depth 35 meters. Holotype: WAM P.33321-001 [not P.3332-001]. Paratypes: WAM P.33256-001 (1). •Valid as Opistognathus albicaudatus Smith-Vaniz 2011 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:352 [ref. 31980], Biswas et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32524], Hibino et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35047]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus albicaudatus Smith-Vaniz 2011. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Andaman Islands. Habitat: marine.

alleni, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2004:210, Figs. 1, 2A, 3A, 4A [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27780] Northern end of Dicks Island in Goss Passage, 28°30'S, 113°46'E. Houtman Abrolhos Archipelago, Western Australia, depth 30-32 meters. Holotype: WAM P.27590-030. Paratypes: AMS I.33668-001 (3); ANSP 157594 (4); BMNH 2001.11.28.1 (1); MPM 33190-92 (1, 2, 1); NMT S.13294-001 (3); USNM 315663 (3); WAM P.27590-002 (11), P.27587-003 (1), P.27595-003 (9). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:38 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Opistognathus alleni Smith-Vaniz 2004 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1073 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus alleni Smith-Vaniz 2004. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

ancistrus, Lonchopisthus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] & Walsh [S. J.] 2017:70, Figs. 2A, 3, 6A, 25, 27, 31 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 28; ref. 35628] USA, eastern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, Desoto Canyon, 26°25.2'N, 84°15'W, depth 183 meters. Holotype: ANSP 139314 (formerly USA 5526). Paratypes: AMNH, ANSP, FMNH, GCRL, UF, USNM. •Valid as Lonchopisthus ancistrus Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2017. Current status: Valid as Lonchopisthus ancistrus Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2017. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Gulf of Mexico off Florida and Honduras. Habitat: marine.

annulata, Gnathypops rosenbergi Eibl-Eibesfeldt [I.] & Klausewitz [W.] 1961:421, Pls. 21-23 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 42 (nos 5/6); ref. 9344] Ganges harbor, Great Nicobar, Nicobar Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype: SMF 5422. Paratypes: SMF 5423-24 (2). •Valid as Opistognathus annulatus (Eibl-Eibesfeldt & Klausewitz 1961) -- (Smith-Vaniz 2011:38 [ref. 31597], Biswas et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32524]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus annulatus (Eibl-Eibesfeldt & Klausewitz 1961). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Nicobar Islands, Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

aurifrons, Gnathypops Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [J. C.] 1905:252, Fig. 4 (not fig. 6) [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 24 (for 1904); ref. 2538] Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 8413. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:89 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Opistognathus aurifrons (Jordan & Thompson 1905) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:216 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:17 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:158 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634] as cf. aurifrons, Collette et al. 2003:113 [ref. 26784], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Smith et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:203 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:43 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:15 [ref. 34324] as aff. aurifrons, Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2018:118 [ref. 36264] as aff. aurifrons). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus aurifrons (Jordan & Thompson 1905). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bermudezi, Gnathypops Howell Rivero [L.] 1936:66 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 41 (no. 4); ref. 12257] Matanzas Bay, Cuba, in deep water. Holotype: MCZ 34147. Paratypes: MCZ 34148 (1). •Mentioned as not valid -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1997:1104, Figs. 9c, 13b, 20 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22985] Brazil, 23°44'S, 44°30'W, depth 62-69 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 13257. Paratypes: ANSP 141861 (1), MZUSP 13258-60 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Opistognathus brasiliensis Smith-Vaniz 1997 -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27192], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2018:112 [ref. 36264]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus brasiliensis Smith-Vaniz 1997. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

brochus, Opistognathus Bussing [W. A.] & Lavenberg [R. J.] 2003:534, Fig. 2a-b, 3b [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 51 (no. 2); ref. 27787] Off mouth of Río Sierpe, 8°47'24"N, 83°41'36"W, Pacific Costa Rica, depth 21 meters. Holotype: LACM 26488. Paratypes: LACM 32559-13 (1); SIO 60-120 (1), 65-305 (1), 76-280 (1); UCR 657-1 (1), 2347-2 (1). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:379 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Opistognathus brochus Bussing & Lavenberg 2003 -- (Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus brochus Bussing & Lavenberg 2003. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California and Costa Rica. Habitat: marine.

carpentariae, Merogymnoides Whitley [G. P.] 1966:240, Fig. 4 [Australian Zoologist v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 4734] Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.7145. Paratypes: AMS I.15557-212 (2), CSIRO (1, not found in 1997). •Synonym of Opistognathus macrolepis Peters 1866 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1075 [ref. 29000], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2012:20 [ref. 32262]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus macrolepis Peters 1866. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

castelnaui, Opistognathus Bleeker [P.] 1859:238 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 20 (no. 2); ref. 14019] Bulukomba, Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH 26979 [ex RMNH 15186]. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 26926 (1). Available by indication; based on Opistognathus sonneratii of Bleeker 1851:221 [ref. 330] (not of Valenciennes 1836). Appeared 3 times in 1859-60 (as above, in ref. 14028, Bleeker 1860:450 and in ref. 379, Bleeker 1860:45); earliest apparently is ref. 14019. •Valid as Opistognathus castelnaui Bleeker 1859 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:183 [ref. 19754], Smith-Vaniz 1983:6 [ref. 8211], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:200 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:742 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:742 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:34 [ref. 26830], Hoese & Bray 2006:1074 [ref. 29000], Smith-Vaniz & Allen 2007:37 [ref. 29354], Smith-Vaniz 2009:75 [ref. 30149], Allen & Erdmann 2012:352 [ref. 31980], Hiramatsu & Endo 2013:19 [ref. 32573], Hibino et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35047]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus castelnaui Bleeker 1859. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia. Habitat: marine.

chaplini, Upsilonognathus Fowler [H. W.] 1946:5, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 181; ref. 1455] North beach of Hog Island, Nassau, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71727. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:135 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Opistognathus whitehursti (Longley & Hildebrand 1940) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1120 [ref. 22985] as whitehursti). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus whitehursti (Longley 1927). Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

crassus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2010:47, Figs. 2C, 11-13 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 12; ref. 30922] Ari Atoll, reef north of Bathala Islands, Maldive Islands, depth 35 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 32706. •Valid as Opistognathus crassus Smith-Vaniz 2010 -- (Hiramatsu & Endo 2013:22 [ref. 32573]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus crassus Smith-Vaniz 2010. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Maldives (holotype). Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Opisthognathus Valenciennes [A.] 1840:no page number, Pl. 78 (fig. 3) [Le règne animal distribué d'après son organisation; ref. 17868] Coromandel Coast, India. No types known. Based solely on the published figure and figure legend. Preoccupied by Opisthognathus cuvierii Valenciennes 1836, a different species. •A junior primary homonym Opisthognatus cuvierii Valenciennes 1836, which is a different species -- (Smith-Vaniz 1983:6 [ref. 8211]). •In the synonymy of Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1983:6 [ref. 8211], Smith-Vaniz 2009:85 [ref. 30149]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

cuvierii, Opisthognathus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:504, Pl. 343 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2108. Genus was spelled Opisthognathus in original. •Valid as Opistognathus cuvierii Valenciennes 1836 -- (Andreata & Séret 1996:588 [ref. 16204] as cuvieri, Smith-Vaniz 1997:1106 [ref. 22985], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27192] as cuvieri, Smith-Vaniz et al. 2018:114 [ref. 36264]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus cuvierii Valenciennes 1836. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

cyanospilotus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2009:78, Figs. 1d, 2a, 3b, 4b, 10-12, 23 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 30149] Koa Raja Jai Island, Phuket, Thailand, depth 25 meters. Holotype: ANSP 144110. Paratypes: ANSP 144108 (1), 144109 (1, partial c&s): BMNH 1982.1.20.1 (1); BPBM 22580 (1); 22893 (1); SMF 5424 (1), 27582 (1); USNM 226783 (1); WAM P.31524-001 (1). •Valid as Opistognathus cyanospilotus Smith-Vaniz 2009 -- (Smith-Vaniz 2011:38 [ref. 31597], Allen & Erdmann 2012:352 [ref. 31980], Biswas et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32524]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus cyanospilotus Smith-Vaniz 2009. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea, Nicobar Islands, Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Indonesia and Bali. Habitat: marine.

darwiniensis, Opisthognathus Macleay [W.] 1878:355, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 17573] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16401-001 [ex MAMU F1020] (3). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:209 [ref. 19518]. Correct spelling of the original genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Opisthognathus darwinensis Macleay 1878 -- (Larson & Williams 1997:365 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:204 [ref. 23977]). •Valid as Opistognathus darwiniensis Macleay 1878 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:126 [ref. 25477], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833] as darwinensis, Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Smith-Vaniz 2004:222 [ref. 27780], Hoese & Bray 2006:1074 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:106 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus darwiniensis Macleay 1878. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

davidsheni, Stalix Klausewitz [W.] 1985:18, Figs. 1-2, 4-7 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 5986] Bay of Marsa-el-Muqabila (Mucabelah), about 100 yards from shore, east coast of Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 17 meters. Holotype (unique): SMF 20037. •Valid as Stalix davidsheni Klausewitz 1985 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1989:388 [ref. 13438], Goren & Dor 1994:57 [ref. 25356], Shinohara 1999:269 [ref. 24048], Smith-Vaniz 2010:39 [ref. 30922], Prokofiev 2015:489 [ref. 33929], DiBattista et al. 2015:20 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[5] 243 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:133 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Stalix davidsheni Klausewitz 1985. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

decorus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] & Yoshino [T.] 1985:19, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 32 (no. 1); ref. 6721] Naha fish market, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: ANSP 151868. Paratypes: FAKU 48887-89 (3); NSMT-P 23161 (1); URM-P 3319 (1), 8133 (1). •Valid as Opistognathus decorus Smith-Vaniz & Yoshino 1985 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:742 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:742 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:34 [ref. 26830], Hiramatsu & Endo 2013:19 [ref. 32573]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus decorus Smith-Vaniz & Yoshino 1985. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

dendritica, Gnathypops Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1908:261, Fig. 9 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 27(Doc. 640) (for 1907); ref. 2492] Cuyo, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 20313. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:89 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Opistognathus dendriticus (Jordan & Richardson 1908) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Allen 2000:99 [ref. 25868], Allen & Adrim 2003:34 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:353 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus dendriticus (Jordan & Richardson 1908). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

dicra, Stalix Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1989:401, Figs. 1g, 9e, 16 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 141; ref. 13438] Paddock Reef, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, 5°09'44"S, 145°49'08"E, depth 29 meters. Holotype: BPBM 32009. Paratypes: ANSP 163028 (3), BPBM 32528 (4), USNM 304442 (2). •Valid as Stalix dicra Smith-Vaniz 1989 -- (Shinohara 1999:269 [ref. 24048], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Allen & Erdmann 2012:359 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:68 [ref. 33932], Prokofiev 2015:489 [ref. 33929]). Current status: Valid as Stalix dicra Smith-Vaniz 1989. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Madang District (Papua New Guinea). Habitat: marine.

dipharus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2010:49, Figs. 1D, 14-15 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 12; ref. 30922] Dahlak Archipelago, Um-Aabak, southern Red Sea, shallow snorkelling depth. Holotype (unique): HUJ 16975. Other material: one specimen photographed at Masamirit, Red Sea. •Valid as Opistognathus dipharus Smith-Vaniz 2010 -- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[5] 243 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:133 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus dipharus Smith-Vaniz 2010. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

elizabethensis, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2004:216, Figs. 3D, 8 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27780] Elizabeth Reef, northern side near lagoon entrance, 29°56'S, 159°01'E, off New South Wales, Australia, depth 0-5 meters. Holotype: AMS I.27891-010. •Valid as Opistognathus elizabethensis Smith-Vaniz 2004 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1074 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus elizabethensis Smith-Vaniz 2004. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Tasman Sea, off northern New South Wales, Australia. Habitat: marine.

ensiferus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2016:279, Figs. 1, 2A [Zootaxa 4196 (no. 2); ref. 34922] Gulf of Mannar, Manauli Reef, Musal Tivu Island (Hare Island), India, 9°12'N, 79°55'E, depth ca. 1.0 meter. Holotype (unique): FMNH 71365. •Valid as Opistognathus ensiferus Smith-Vaniz 2016. Current status: Valid as Opistognathus ensiferus Smith-Vaniz 2016. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Gulf of Mannar, India. Habitat: marine.

eremia, Stalix Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1989:403, Figs. 9f, 17 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 141; ref. 13438] Paddock Reef, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, 5°09'44"S, 145°49'08"E, depth 29 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 32527. •Valid as Stalix eremia Smith-Vaniz 1989 -- (Shinohara 1999:269 [ref. 24048], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Allen & Erdmann 2012:359 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:68 [ref. 33932], Prokofiev 2015:489 [ref. 33929]). Current status: Valid as Stalix eremia Smith-Vaniz 1989. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Madang District (Papua New Guinea). Habitat: marine.

evermanni, Gnathypops Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1902:493, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1263); ref. 2513] Wakanoura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, Inland Sea. Holotype: CAS-SU 6542. Paratypes: USNM 50279 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:89 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Opistognathus evermanni (Jordan & Snyder 1902) -- (Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:200 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Myoung et al. 1999:141 [ref. 25170], Nakabo 2000:741 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:612 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:741 [ref. 26001], Hiramatsu & Endo 2013:22 [ref. 32573]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus evermanni (Jordan & Snyder 1902). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Vietnam to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

eximius, Merogymnus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:18 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3286] Off Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.9496 (not QM I.2136 or possibly I.1541). •Valid as Opistognathus eximius (Ogilby 1908) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833] as eximus, Johnson 1999:745 [ref. 25471], Smith-Vaniz 2004:222 [ref. 27780], Hoese & Bray 2006:1074 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus eximius (Ogilby 1908). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

fasciatum, Opisthognathus Longley [W. H.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1940:259, Fig. 18 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 32; ref. 2822] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 108873. Paratypes: USNM 109312 (12). Longley was listed as the author, but information on p. 261 causes us to include Hildebrand as an author. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. •Synonym of Opistognathus macrognathus Poey 1860 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1097 [ref. 22985]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus macrognathus Poey 1860. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Opisthognathus Chan [W. L.] 1966:9, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 14 (nos 1-3); ref. 7949] About 20 miles south of Hong Kong, about 30 fathoms depth (via Aberdeen wholesale fish market, Hong Kong). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1965.11.6.5. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Opisthognathus fasciatum Longley & Hildebrand 1940, replaced by Opisthognathus hongkongiensis Chan 1968. •Treated as valid as Opistognathus fasciatus Chan 1966 -- (Shen et al. 1986:72 [ref. 13818]). •Synonym of Opistognathus hongkongiensis Chan 1968. Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus hongkongiensis Chan 1968. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

fenmutis, Opistognathus Acero P. [A.] & Franke [R.] 1993:291, Fig. [Caldasia v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 22085] Playa Pizarro, Isla de Gorgona, (Pacific) Colombia, depth 63-72 meters. Holotype: INVEMAR-P 1818. Paratypes: ICNMHN 1821 (not 2486) (1), MMGPe 88043 (2). Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:53 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Opistognathus fenmutis Acero P. & Franke 1993 -- (Bussing & Lavenberg 2003:544 [ref. 27787]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus fenmutis Acero P. & Franke 1993. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Isla Gorgona, Colombia and Costa Rica. Habitat: marine.

flavida, Stalix Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1989:399, Figs. 1e, 9d, 13, 14b [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 141; ref. 13438] Northwest Shelf, Western Australia, 19°35'S, 117°45'E, depth 57-60 meters. Holotype: CSIRO B 3591. Paratypes: CSIRO H 1017-01 (1). •Valid as Stalix flavida Smith-Vaniz 1989 -- (Randall 1995:303 [ref. 22896], Shinohara 1999:270 [ref. 24048], Smith-Vaniz 2004:221 [ref. 27780], Hoese & Bray 2006:1076 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Stalix flavida Smith-Vaniz 1989. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

fossoris, Opistognathus Bussing [W. A.] & Lavenberg [R. J.] 2003:539, Figs. 3d, 6 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 51 (no. 2); ref. 27787] Bay on southwestern side of Isla San José (Isla Cayo), 24°18.3'N, 110°41.7'W, Gulf of California, Baja California Sur, Mexico, depth 14-21 meters. Holotype: SIO 65-620. Paratypes: SIO 65-185 (4), 65-263 (8), 65-343 (8). •Valid as Opistognathus fossoris Bussing & Lavenberg 2003 -- (Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus fossoris Bussing & Lavenberg 2003. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

galapagensis, Opistognathus Allen [G. R.] & Robertson [D. R.] 1991:47, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 19718] Urvina Bay, Isabela Island, Galápagos Islands, about 0°23'S, 91°14'W, depth 10 meters. Holotype: USNM 316794. Paratypes: WAM P.30227-001 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:38 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Opistognathus galapagensis Allen & Robertson 1991 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:213 [ref. 22193], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:511 [ref. 24023], Bussing & Lavenberg 2003:529, 543 [ref. 27787], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus galapagensis Allen & Robertson 1991. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands and Costa Rica. Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Opistognathus Böhlke [J. E.] 1967:2, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 407; ref. 7945] Little San Salvador, southwestern end at West Bay, Bahamas, depth 105-125 feet. Holotype: UF 13985. Paratypes: AMNH 24054 (1); ANSP 108964 (1, c&s), 110152 (3); BMNH 1967.5.20.1 (1); UF 13432 (3), 13627 (1), 13692 (1), 13713 (4, ? now 5), 13733 (4), 13986 (1, allotype), 223119 [ex UMML 23119] (1); USNM 201553 (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:112 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:135 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Opistognathus gilberti Böhlke 1967 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Smith et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27621], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:44 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus gilberti Böhlke 1967. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

higmani, Lonchopisthus Mead [G. W.] 1959:104, Fig. 41 [Natuurwetenschappelijke Studiekring voor Surinam v. 2 (no. 5); ref. 12009] Suriname, 6°41'30"N, 54°16'W, depth 24 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 158983. Paratypes: ANSP 80988 (1), FMNH 64343 (1), RMNH 21653 (1), CAS-SU 50186 (1), USNM 158984 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:135 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:53 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Lonchopisthus higmani Mead 1959 -- (Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:401 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1994:12 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2017:82 [ref. 35628]). Current status: Valid as Lonchopisthus higmani Mead 1959. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

histrio, Stalix Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1902:495, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1263); ref. 2513] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6543. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:89 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Stalix histrio Jordan & Snyder 1902 -- (Dor 1984:219 [ref. 29757], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:200 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1989:383 [ref. 13438], Goren & Dor 1994:57 [ref. 25356], Shinohara 1999:269 [ref. 24048], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:743 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:743 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:34 [ref. 26830], Smith-Vaniz 2004:221 [ref. 27780], Randall 2005:345 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1077 [ref. 29000], Prokofiev 2015:491 [ref. 33929]). Current status: Valid as Stalix histrio Jordan & Snyder 1902. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

hongkongiensis, Opisthognathus Chan [W. L.] 1968:198 [Copeia 1968 (no. 1); ref. 22840] About 20 miles south of Hong Kong, about 30 fathoms depth (via Aberdeen wholesale fish market, Hong Kong). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1965.11.6.5. Correct spelling of the original genus is Opistognathus. Replacement name for Opisthognathus fasciatus Chan 1966, preoccupied by Opisthognathus fasciatum Longley & Hildebrand 1940. •Valid as Opistognathus hongkongiensis Chan 1968 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:612 [ref. 25122], Smith-Vaniz 2001:577 [ref. 25284], Hiramatsu & Endo 2013:22 [ref. 32573], Motomura et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus hongkongiensis Chan 1968. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Hong Kong and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

hopkinsi, Gnathypops Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1902:492, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1263); ref. 2513] Misaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, Sagami Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6541. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:89 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Opistognathus hopkinsi (Jordan & Snyder 1902) -- (Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:200 [ref. 6441], Myoung et al. 1999:141 [ref. 25170], Nakabo 2000:741 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:741 [ref. 26001], Hiramatsu & Endo 2013:19 [ref. 32573]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus hopkinsi (Jordan & Snyder 1902). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

immaculatus, Stalix Xu [C.-Y.] & Zhan [H.-X.] in Xu, Deng, Xiong & Zhan 1980:179 [182], Figs. 1-2 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 8642] East China Sea off Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, depth 80-90 meters. Holotype: ECSFI SH75-656. Paratypes: ECSFI SH75-664 (1), SH75-707 to 709 (3). English description on p. 182. •Valid as Stalix immaculata Xu & Zhan 1980 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1989:400 [ref. 13438], Shinohara 1999:269 [ref. 24048], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Nakabo 2000:743 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:743 [ref. 26001]). Current status: Valid as Stalix immaculata Xu & Zhan 1980. Opistognathidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: marine.

inornatus, Opisthognathus Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1887:561 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 3598] Derby, Western Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.841-42 (1, 1). Correct spelling of the original genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Opistognathus inornatus Ramsay & Ogilby 1887 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:126 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:204 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Smith-Vaniz 2004:223 [ref. 27780], Hoese & Bray 2006:1074 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus inornatus Ramsay & Ogilby 1887. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

iyonis, Gnathypops Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1913:65, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 46 (no. 2011); ref. 2542] Yawatahama, Iyo Province, Shikoku, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 74763. •Valid as Opistognathus iyonis (Jordan & Thompson 1913) -- (Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:200 [ref. 6441], Myoung et al. 1999:139 [ref. 25170], Nakabo 2000:742 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:742 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:317, 595 [ref. 26218], Hiramatsu & Endo 2013:19 [ref. 32573]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus iyonis (Jordan & Thompson 1913). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

jacksoniensis, Opisthognathus Macleay [W.] 1881:570 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 4); ref. 2869] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: (several) AMS I.16400-001 [ex MAMU F1019] (3 or 4). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:209 [ref. 19518]. Correct spelling of the original genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Opistognathus jacksoniensis Macleay 1881 -- (Kuiter 1993:313 [ref. 23929], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:745 [ref. 25471], Smith-Vaniz 2004:222 [ref. 27780], Hoese & Bray 2006:1074 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus jacksoniensis Macleay 1881. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

latitabunda, Tandya Whitley [G. P.] 1937:21, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 4691] Port Newry, north of Mackay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.6958. •Valid as Opistognathus latitabundus (Whitley 1937) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:126 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:204 [ref. 23977], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Myoung et al. 1999:141 [ref. 25170], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Smith-Vaniz 2004:223 [ref. 27780], Hoese & Bray 2006:1075 [ref. 29000], Allen & Erdmann 2012:353 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:106 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus latitabundus (Whitley 1937). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

lemur, Lonchistium Myers [G. S.] 1935:3, Fig. 1 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 91 (no. 23); ref. 3111] Off Punta Boca Juana, Puerto Rico, 18°31'30"N, 66°14'55"W, depth 150 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 93459. •Valid as Lonchopisthus lemur (Myers 1935) -- (Cervigón 1994:13 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2017:73 [ref. 35628]). Current status: Valid as Lonchopisthus lemur (Myers 1935). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

leprocarus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1997:1078, Figs. 1-3, 8a [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22985] San Salvador, off Riding Rock Point, Bahamas, 24°04'N, 74°33'W, depth 308 meters. Holotype: ANSP 151615 [ex IRCZM 107:7205]. Paratypes: ANSP 138163 (1), 138563 (1, c&s), 153335 (1), 159269 (1, c&s), 159270 (1), 163460 (1); IRCZM 107:07802 (1); UF 40690 (1); USNM 258668 (1). •Valid as Opistognathus leprocarus Smith-Vaniz 1997 -- (Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus leprocarus Smith-Vaniz 1997. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lindneri, Lonchopisthus Ginsburg [I.] 1942:366 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 32 (no. 12); ref. 13203] Gulf of Mexico off Padre Island, 27°13.5'N, 96°40'W, depth 42 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 119874. Paratypes: USNM 119878 (1), YPM 3968 (1). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:23 [ref. 16741] as linderi. •Valid as Lonchopisthus lindneri Ginsburg 1942 -- (Castro-Aguirre & Villavicencio-Garayzar 1988:115 [ref. 17648]). •Synonym of Lonchopisthus micrognathus (Poey 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2017:76 [ref. 35628]). Current status: Synonym of Lonchopisthus micrognathus (Poey 1860). Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

liturus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] & Yoshino [T.] 1985:23, Figs. 2b, 3b, 4 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 32 (no. 1); ref. 6721] Beach near Seto Marine Biological Lab., Shirahama-cho, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 33°41'N, 135°21'E. Holotype: URM-P 8134. •Valid as Opistognathus liturus Smith-Vaniz & Yoshino 1985 -- (Nakabo 2000:742 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:742 [ref. 26001], Hiramatsu & Endo 2013:19 [ref. 32573]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus liturus Smith-Vaniz & Yoshino 1985. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

lonchurus, Opisthognathus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:290 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. (stomach content). Holotype: USNM 29671 [= 30864]. Paratypes: USNM 30712 (1). Correct spelling of original genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Opistognathus lonchurus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:216 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:158 [ref. 23239], Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:79 [ref. 31601], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:204 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2018:116 [ref. 36264]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus lonchurus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

longinaris, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2010:51, Figs. 2E, 16 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 12; ref. 30922] KwaZulu-Natal, Kosi mouth area, 26°53'S, 32°55.8'E, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 65 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB 40331. •Valid as Opistognathus longinaris Smith-Vaniz 2010. Current status: Valid as Opistognathus longinaris Smith-Vaniz 2010. Opistognathidae. Distribution: South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

macrognathus, Opisthognatus Poey [F.] 1860:284 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. Correct spelling of original genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Opistognathus macrognathus Poey 1860 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:216 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:18 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz 1997:1097 [ref. 22985], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:158 [ref. 27754], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:205 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus macrognathus Poey 1860. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

macrolepis, Opisthognathus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1866:520 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1866; ref. 3439] Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype (unique): ZMB 6177. Correct spelling of original genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Opistognathus macrolepis Peters 1866 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:612 [ref. 25122], Smith-Vaniz 2004:222 [ref. 27780], Hoese & Bray 2006:1075 [ref. 29000], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2012:20 [ref. 32262], Biswas et al. 2013:2 [ref. 32524], Yoshida et al. 2013:102 [ref. 34464], Yoshida in Kimura et al. 2018:107 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus macrolepis Peters 1866. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: east coast of India east to Gulf of Thailand, north to northern Vietnam, south to Gulf of Carpentaria (Australia). Habitat: marine.

macrops, Opisthognathus Poey [F.] 1860:287 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 12514 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:217 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 12514 as holotype. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. •Synonym of Opistognathus macrognathus Poey 1860 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1097 [ref. 22985]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus macrognathus Poey 1860. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

macrostomus, Opisthognathus Smith [J. L. B.] 1935:186, Pl. 20 (fig. B) [Records of the Albany Museum Grahamstown v. 4; ref. 4066] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 40 [ex AMG]. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. •Synonym of Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:727 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz 2009:85 [ref. 30149]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Opisthognathus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:280, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Palm Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16402-001 [ex MAMU F1021]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:209 [ref. 19518]. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. •Synonym of Opistognathus papuensis Bleeker 1877 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1075 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus papuensis Bleeker 1868. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

margaretae, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1983:2, Figs. 1-4 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 30; ref. 8211] Sodwana Bay, 27°32'S, 32°41'E, Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 18-19 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 9336. Paratypes: ANSP 147308 (1), 149352 [ex RUSI 16057] (1, c&s); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 7599 (1), 7600 (1), 7603 (1). •Valid as Opistognathus margaretae Smith-Vaniz 1983 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:726 [ref. 5718], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:376 [ref. 28072], Smith-Vaniz 2010:39, 42 [ref. 30922], Fricke et al. 2018:163 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus margaretae Smith-Vaniz 1983. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa and Mozambique to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

maxillosus, Opisthognathus Poey [F.] 1860:286 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. Correct spelling of original genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Opistognathus maxillosus Poey 1860 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:217 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:19 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz 1997:1122 [ref. 22985], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:158 [ref. 27754], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Smith et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:206 [ref. 28815], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:44 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus maxillosus Poey 1860. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

meadi, Lonchopisthus Menezes [N. A.] & Figueiredo [J. L. de] 1971:198, Fig. 1 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 24 (no. 15); ref. 21985] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 32°12'S, 50°12'W, depth 149 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 8014. Paratypes: MZUSP 8015-17 (3), 8018-19 (2), 8020 (1). 8021-29 (9). •Valid as Lonchopisthus meadi Menezes & Figueiredo 1971 -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27192]). •Synonym of Lonchopisthus lemur (Myers 1935) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2017:73 [ref. 35628]). Current status: Synonym of Lonchopisthus lemur (Myers 1935). Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

megalepis, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1972:48, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1972 (no. 1); ref. 7646] Arrowsmith Bank off Yucatán, 21°05'N, 86°23'W, depth 146-265 meters. Holotype: ANSP 114764. Paratypes: ANSP 116370 (1); UF 220955 [ex UMML 20955] (2 or 3), 229148 [ex UMML 29148] (1); USNM 205549 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:135 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Opistognathus megalepis Smith-Vaniz 1972 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus megalepis Smith-Vaniz 1972. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

megastoma, Opisthognathus Günther [A.] 1860:255 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Gulf of Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1855.9.19.394 (2). Correct spelling of original genus is Opistognathus. •Synonym of Opistognathus macrognathus Poey 1860 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1097 [ref. 22985]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus macrognathus Poey 1860. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

melachasme, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1972:50, Figs. 3-4 [Copeia 1972 (no. 1); ref. 7646] Arrowsmith Bank off Yucatán, 21°07'N, 86°21'W, depth 155-205 meters. Holotype: ANSP 114763. Paratypes: UF 228548 [ex UMML 28548] (1), USNM 37462 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:135 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Opistognathus melachasme Smith-Vaniz 1972 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:217 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz 1997:1085 [ref. 22985], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:158 [ref. 27754], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:207 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz 2017:55 [ref. 35243]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus melachasme Smith-Vaniz 1972. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

mexicanus, Opistognathus Allen [G. R.] & Robertson [D. R.] 1991:48, Fig. 4 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 19718] Bahia Agua Verde, Gulf of California, Baja California, Mexico, about 25°31'N, 111°04'W, depth 12-14 meters. Holotype: USNM 316795. •Valid as Opistognathus mexicanus Allen & Robertson 1991 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:213 [ref. 22193], Thomson et al. 2000:195 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807]). •Synonym of Opistognathus punctatus Peters 1869 -- (Bussing & Lavenberg 2003:546 [ref. 27787]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus punctatus Peters 1869. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

micrognathus, Opisthognathus Poey [F.] 1860:287 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Poey specimens: MCZ 12517 (1), 12515 (2); USNM 4785 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:217 [ref. 22926]. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Lonchopisthus micrognathus (Poey 1860) -- (Mead 1959:xx [ref. 12009], Robins & Ray 1986:216 [ref. 23100], Castro-Aguirre & Villavicencio-Garayzar 1988:115 [ref. 17648], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1994:15 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Smith et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:202 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2017:76 [ref. 35628]). Current status: Valid as Lonchopisthus micrognathus (Poey 1860). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

moenensis, Gnathypops Popta [C. M. L.] 1922:28 [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 7 (art. 2); ref. 3550] Raha, Muna Island, Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): SMF 6563. •Valid as Stalix moenensis (Popta 1922) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1989:394 [ref. 13438], Shinohara 1999:269 [ref. 24048], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Allen & Erdmann 2012:359 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:329 [ref. 32989], Prokofiev 2015:489 [ref. 33929], Miesen et al. 2016:89 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Valid as Stalix moenensis (Popta 1922). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia. Introduced and established in Philippines. Habitat: brackish, marine.

muscatensis, Opisthognathus Boulenger [G. A.] 1888:662, Pl. 54 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 4); ref. 14479] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1887.11.11.227-229 (3). Correct spelling of original genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Opistognathus muscatensis Boulenger 1888 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:727 [ref. 5718], Goren & Dor 1994:57 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:302 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:206 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S105 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:376 [ref. 28072], Smith-Vaniz 2009:82 [ref. 30149], Smith-Vaniz 2010:39, 41 [ref. 30922], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2012:24 [ref. 32262], Hussain & Jawad 2014:254 [ref. 33657], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Jawad et al. 2018:105 [ref. 36262]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus muscatensis Boulenger 1888. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa and Seychelles to Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

mystacinus, Gnathypops Jordan [D. S.] 1884:37 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 404); ref. 13340] Snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. (stomach content). Holotype (unique): USNM 34976. •Synonym of Opistognathus lonchurus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus lonchurus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

nigromarginatus, Opistognathus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:114, Pl. 28 (fig. 4) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 591. Paralectotypes: SMF 12489 [not 12948] (2). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:219 [ref. 29757], but established earlier by Smith-Vaniz 1983 [ref. 8211]. •Valid as Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1983:6 [ref. 8211], Dor 1984:219 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz 1986:727 [ref. 5718], Randall et al. 1994:236 [ref. 21645], Goren & Dor 1994:57 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:302 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:206 [ref. 23922], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:612 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S105 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:41 [ref. 27712], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:376 [ref. 28072], Smith-Vaniz 2009:85 [ref. 30149], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:99 [ref. 30492], Smith-Vaniz 2010:39, 42 [ref. 30922], Smith-Vaniz 2011:38 [ref. 31597], Allen & Erdmann 2012:353 [ref. 31980], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2012:20 [ref. 32262], Biswas et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32524], Golani & Fricke 2018:133 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa and Persian Gulf east to Thailand and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

nothus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1997:1091, Figs. 5, 6b, 7b1-4, 9b [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22985] 59 kilometers off Cape Lookout, 34°08.5'N, 76°10.3'W, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 127058. Paratypes: AMNH 82388 (1), ANSP 162313 (1, c&s), USNM 37462 (1). •Valid as Opistognathus nothus Smith-Vaniz 1997 -- (Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:208 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz 2017:55 [ref. 35243]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus nothus Smith-Vaniz 1997. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

novikovi, Stalix Prokofiev [A. M.] 2015:487, Figs. 1a-d, 1f-h [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 55 (no. 4); ref. 33929] Nha Trang Bay, western side of Ran Qiao, Vietnam, 12°17′890-12°15′538"N, 109°15′800-109°14′515"E, depth 10-15 meters. Holotype: ZMMU 23144. Paratypes: ZMMU 23145 (14). •Valid as Stalix novikovi Prokofiev 2015. Current status: Valid as Stalix novikovi Prokofiev 2015. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Vietnam and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Opisthognathus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:498 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Red Sea. Not available; name mentioned in synonymy of Opisthognathus sonneratii. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. •In the synonymy of Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1983:6 [ref. 8211], Dor 1984:219 [ref. 29757], Smith-Vaniz 2009:85 [ref. 30149]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830. Opistognathidae.

omanensis, Stalix Norman [J. R.] 1939:66, Fig. 23 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Gulf of Oman, 25°38'18"N, 56°26'36"E, John Murray station 72, depth 73 meters. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1939.5.24.1222. •Valid as Stalix omanensis Norman 1939 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1989:396 [ref. 13438], Randall 1995:303 [ref. 22896], Shinohara 1999:269 [ref. 24048], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S105 [ref. 27377], Smith-Vaniz 2010:39 [ref. 30922]). Current status: Valid as Stalix omanensis Norman 1939. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman. Habitat: marine.

ommata, Opisthognathus Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:153 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 39640. Paratypes: (2). Correct spelling of original genus is Opistognathus. •Synonym of Opistognathus scops (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Bussing & Lavenberg 2003:530 [ref. 27787]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus scops (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

panamaensis, Opistognathus Allen [G. R.] & Robertson [D. R.] 1991:52, Fig. 11 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 19718] Uva Island, Gulf of Chiriqui, (Pacific) Panama, about 7°48'N, 81°45'W, depth 12 meters. Holotype: USNM 316793. Not the same as Opistognathus panamensis Fowler 1944. •Valid as Opistognathus panamaensis Allen & Robertson 1991 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:214 [ref. 22193], Thomson et al. 2000:193 [ref. 25640], Bussing & Lavenberg 2003:529 [ref. 27787]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus panamaensis Allen & Robertson 1991. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California, lower Central America and Isla del Coco. Habitat: marine.

panamensis, Opisthognathus scops Fowler [H. W.] 1944:268, Fig. 255 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Ensenada Honda, Pedro Gonzalez, Perlas Islands, Panama. Holotype: ANSP 70139. Paratypes: (6) ANSP 70140-45 (7 in bottle). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:135 [ref. 13621]. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. •Synonym of Opistognathus scops (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus scops (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

papuensis, Opisthognathus Bleeker [P.] 1868:333 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 2; ref. 425] Waigeo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 18093. . Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. For information the holotype see Boeseman 1954 [ref. 20675]. •Valid as Opistognathus papuensis Bleeker 1868 -- (Randall et al. 1990:356 [ref. 15987], Larson & Williams 1997:365 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:356 [ref. 25919], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Allen & Adrim 2003:34 [ref. 26830], Smith-Vaniz 2004:223 [ref. 27780], Hoese & Bray 2006:1075 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus papuensis Bleeker 1868. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Australia and southern New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

pardus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.], Bineesh [K. K.] & Akhilesh [K. V.] 2012:21, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 3523; ref. 32262] Off Quilon, Kerala, southwestern coast of India, depth 110-220 meters. Holotype (unique): CMFRI GB.31.104.1.2. •Valid as Opistognathus pardus Smith-Vaniz, Bineesh & Akhilesh 2012 -- (Hussain & Jawad 2014:256 [ref. 33657]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus pardus Smith-Vaniz, Bineesh & Akhilesh 2012. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Southwestern coast of India (holotype). Habitat: marine.

punctatulus, Batrachus Ramsay [E. P.] 1883:177 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 1); ref. 14346] Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.1254. •Synonym of Opistognathus papuensis Bleeker 1868 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1075 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus papuensis Bleeker 1868. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Opisthognathus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1869:708 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1869; ref. 14098] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7063. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Opistognathus punctatus Peters 1869 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:214 [ref. 22193], Thomson et al. 2000:194 [ref. 25640], Bussing & Lavenberg 2003:546 [ref. 27787], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668] as Opisthognathus, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus punctatus Peters 1869. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California, Isla Gorgona, and Panama to Colombia. Habitat: marine.

pygmaeus, Anoptoplacus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2017:49, Figs. 2-3, 4A, 5A [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 26; ref. 35243] Mexico, Quintana Roo, Arrowsmith Bank off Yucatán, near Cozumel Island, 20°20.5'N, 87°19.4'W, trawled in 240-267 meters. Holotype: ANSP 138391. Paratype: ANSP 138392 (1). •Valid as Anoptoplacus pygmaeus Smith-Vaniz 2017. Current status: Valid as Anoptoplacus pygmaeus Smith-Vaniz 2017. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Arrowsmith Bank off Yucatán, Mexico, Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2009:87, Figs. 1c, 2d, 3c, 4c-d, 19-14 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 30149] Cocoro Island, 10°53'09"N, 121°11'34'E, Palawan Province, Philippines, depth 1-21 meters. Holotype: ANSP 142963. Paratypes: (60) at AMS, ANSP, BMNH 1982.1.20.4, BPBM, CAS, FMNH, ROM, USNM, WAM. •Valid as Opistognathus randalli Smith-Vaniz 2009 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:354 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus randalli Smith-Vaniz 2009. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Indonesia and Philippines, Malaysia. Habitat: marine.

reticeps, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2004:220, Figs. 2D, 3F, 11 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27780] East arm of Darwin Harbour, 12°29'S, 130°53'E, Northern Territory, Australia, depth 0-1 meters. Holotype: NTM S.10553-004. Paratypes: NTM S.10718-032 (1 c&s), S.11242-002 (1), S.10608-013 (1), S.13282-001 (1); WAM P.24227 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:38 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Opistognathus reticeps Smith-Vaniz 2004 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1075 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus reticeps Smith-Vaniz 2004. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

reticulata, Tandya McKay [R. J.] 1969:1, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia v. 52 (pt 1, art. 1); ref. 7831] Broome, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.15758-001. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:34 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:38 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Opistognathus reticulatus (McKay 1969) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:126 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:204 [ref. 23977], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Smith-Vaniz 2004:223 [ref. 27780], Hoese & Bray 2006:1076 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus reticulatus (McKay 1969). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

rex, Opistopnathus Wongratana [T.] 1975:99, Fig. 1 [Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society v. 26 (no. 1-2); ref. 7485] Chon Buri-Khlong Dan, Gulf of Thailand. Holotype: MFLB 1975-6-17-1. Paratypes: MFLB 1975-6-17-2 (1). Genus is Opistognathus. •Synonym of Opistognathus macrolepis Peters 1866 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 2012:20 [ref. 32262]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus macrolepis Peters 1866. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

rhomaleus, Opisthognathus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:276 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 227); ref. 10613] Santa Maria Cove, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 29382. Correct spelling of original genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Opistognathus rhomaleus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:214 [ref. 22193], Thomson et al. 2000:195 [ref. 25640], Bussing & Lavenberg 2003:548 [ref. 27787], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807] dating to 1881, Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668] as Opisthognathus, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus rhomaleus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of Mexico to Costa Rica and the Revillagigedo Islands. Habitat: marine.

robinsi, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1997:1109, Figs. 8d, 9e, 13d, 22-23, 24a, 25 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22985] Belle Vista Beach, Pinellas County, Florida, U.S.A., depth 1.2 meters. Holotype: ANSP 138478 [ex FSBC 3060]. Paratypes: (108) Deposited at AMNH, ANSP, CAS, SIO, UF, UMMZ, USNM. •Valid as Opistognathus robinsi Smith-Vaniz 1997 -- (Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:209 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus robinsi Smith-Vaniz 1997. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

rosenbergii, Opistognathus Bleeker [P.] 1856:220 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 354] Nias Island [Pulau Nias, Sumatera Utara Province, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5957. •Valid as Opistognathus rosenbergii Bleeker 1856 -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1993:231 [ref. 24016], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:612 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:34 [ref. 26830] as rosenbergi dated 1856, Mishra & Krishnan 2003:42 [ref. 27712], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:99 [ref. 30492], Smith-Vaniz 2011:38 [ref. 31597], Allen & Erdmann 2012:354 [ref. 31980], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2012:20 [ref. 32262], Biswas et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32524]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus rosenbergii Bleeker 1856. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: southeast coast of India to Andaman Sea, Indonesia to Thailand and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

rosenblatti, Opistognathus Allen [G. R.] & Robertson [D. R.] 1991:50, Figs. 7-10 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 19718] San Pedro Martir Island, Gulf of California, Mexico, about 27°56'N, 111°04'W, depth 12 meters. Holotype: USNM 316792. Paratypes: USNM 316791 (5), WAM P.30228-001 (3). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:38 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Opistognathus rosenblatti Allen & Robertson 1991 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:213 [ref. 22193], Thomson et al. 2000:193 [ref. 25640], Bussing & Lavenberg 2003:529 [ref. 27787], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus rosenblatti Allen & Robertson 1991. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California and Revillagigedo Islands. Habitat: marine.

rufilineatus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] & Allen [G. R.] 2007:37, Figs. 2-5 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 29354] North Triton Bay, 3°47'01"S, 134°09'55"E, Barat Province, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Holotype: NCIP 6313. Paratypes: WAM P.32802-001 (1). Type catalog: Not treated by Moore et al. 2008 [ref. 30117]. Original had 34°47'01"S, but that should have been 3°47'01"S. •Valid as Opistognathus rufilineatus Smith-Vaniz & Allen 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:354 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus rufilineatus Smith-Vaniz & Allen 2007. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Triton Bay, West Papua, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

scaphiurus, Opisthognathus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:417 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 5936. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. •Synonym of Opistognathus macrognathus Poey 1860 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1097 [ref. 22985]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus macrognathus Poey 1860. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

schrieri, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2017:53, Figs. 8-10, 13A, 14A, 15A [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 26; ref. 35243] Curaçao, Willemstad, near Curaçao Sea Aquarium, off aquarium submersible downline, ca. 12°5.078'N, 68°53.788'W, depth approx. 152 meters. Holotype: UF 185355. Paratype: USNM 413977 (1). •Valid as Opistognathus schrieri Smith-Vaniz 2017. Current status: Valid as Opistognathus schrieri Smith-Vaniz 2017. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Caribbean Sea, Curaçao. Habitat: marine.

scops, Gnathypops Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:152 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 39641. Paratypes: (2) CAS 79642 [ex IU 7767] (1). •Valid as Opistognathus scops (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:215 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:140 [ref. 23101], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:510 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:195 [ref. 25640], Bussing & Lavenberg 2003:529 [ref. 27787], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus scops (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Panama and Isla Gorgona. Habitat: marine.

seminudus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2004:213, Figs. 2B, 3B, 4B, 5-6 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27780] One Tree Island, reef flat at southwestern end of island, Capricorn Group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, depth 0-1 meter. Holotype: AMS I.22794-001. Paratypes: AMS I.15641-042 (1), I.15681-063 (4), I.17445-031 (9), I.20212-004 (2), I.15482-002 (1), I.20766-010 (2), IB.4054-5 (2), IB.6127-28 (1, 3); ANSP 142950 (8); BPBM 14385 (3), 14535 (1); CAS 13790 (1), 13818 (3); USNM 220928 (14), 220941-44 (1, 1, 9, 6), 295803-04 (3, 1). •Valid as Opistognathus seminudus Smith-Vaniz 2004 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1076 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus seminudus Smith-Vaniz 2004. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

sheni, Stalix Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1989:390, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 141; ref. 13438] Tai-chi [Tashi, Daxi], northeastern Taiwan, 24°45'N, 122°15'E, depth 80-120 meters. Holotype (unique): NTUM 7520. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:43 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Stalix sheni Smith-Vaniz 1989 -- (Shinohara 1999:269 [ref. 24048], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:612 [ref. 25122], Ho & Shao 2011:43 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Valid as Stalix sheni Smith-Vaniz 1989. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

signatus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 1997:1116, Figs. 9e, 13d, 24b, 26-27 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22985] Golfo de los Mosquitos, Panama, 9°20.5'N, 80°13.5'W - 9°19.6'N, 80°15.5'W, depth 64-68 meters. Holotype: ANSP 138390 [ex UMML 23936]. Paratypes: ANSP 138467 (3, 1 c&s), 138469-72 (1, 1, 2, 1); SIO 77-373 (1); UF 226502 (1), 226655 (1), 228490 (2); USNM 217447 (1). •Valid as Opistognathus signatus Smith-Vaniz 1997 -- (Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus signatus Smith-Vaniz 1997. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

simus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2010:52, Figs. 2H, 17 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 12; ref. 30922] About 3.2 kilometers east of Raphael Island, ca. 16°20'S, 59°38.5'E, Cargados Carajos (St. Brandon Shoals), western Indian Ocean, depth 0.2-1.3 meters. Holotype: USNM 315658. Paratypes: ANSP 167418 (1), USNM 315659 (1). •Valid as Opistognathus simus Smith-Vaniz 2010. Current status: Valid as Opistognathus simus Smith-Vaniz 2010. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Cargados Carajos, western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

sinuscalifornicus, Lonchopisthus Castro-Aguirre [J. L.] & Villavicencio-Garayzar [C. J.] 1988:110, Figs. 1-3 [Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México v. 32 (nos 1-4); ref. 17648] La Paz Bay, Baja California, Mexico, Gulf of California. Holotype: ENCB-IPN 5999. Paratypes: Mus. Zool. Univ. Autónoma Baja Calif. 793 (3) and 887 (2). Type catalog: Guzmán 2011:173 [ref. 32186]. •Valid as Lonchopisthus sinuscalifornicus Castro-Aguirre & Villavicencio-Garayzar 1988 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:213 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:140 [ref. 23101], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:247 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:195 [ref. 25640], Bussing & Lavenberg 2003:530 [ref. 27787], Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], Guzmán 2011:173 [ref. 32186], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2017:85 [ref. 35628]). Current status: Valid as Lonchopisthus sinuscalifornicus Castro-Aguirre & Villavicencio-Garayzar 1988. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

smithvanizi, Opistognathus Bussing [W. A.] & Lavenberg [R. J.] 2003:530, Figs. 1, 3a, 4a [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 51 (no. 2); ref. 27787] Northern side of Isla del Caño, 8°43'15"N, 83°53'07"W, Pacific Costa Rica, depth 9-15 meters. Holotype: LACM 32547-55. Paratypes: LACM 32547-56 (1), UCR 685-7 (1). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:380 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Opistognathus smithvanizi Bussing & Lavenberg 2003. Current status: Valid as Opistognathus smithvanizi Bussing & Lavenberg 2003. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Isla del Caño, Costa Rica. Habitat: marine.

snyderi, Gnathypops Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1898:2285 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] San Luis Gonzales Bay, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 2014. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:89 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Opistognathus rhomaleus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (personal communication, W. Smith-Vaniz 19 Aug. 2011). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus rhomaleus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

solorensis, Opistognathus Bleeker [P.] 1853:81 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16911] Saparua, Kulur (Kolor), Banda Sea, Indonesia. Old locality: Lawajong, Solor Island, Indonesia. Neotype: RMNH 31660 [ex. USNM 210929]. Neotype designation by Smith-Vaniz 2016:287 [ref. 34922], •Valid as Opistognathus solorensis Bleeker 1853 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:612 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:34 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:355 [ref. 31980], Smith-Vaniz 2016:283 [ref. 34922], Tashiro et al. 2018:233 [ref. 36590]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus solorensis Bleeker 1853. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Palau and Papua New Guinea, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

sonneratii, Opisthognathus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes (ex Cuvier) 1836:498 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Ponducherry, India. No types known. Syntypes (?): MNHN A-2107 (1) Ponducherry, India, ZMB no number (1, lost) Red Sea. Name appeared first in Cuvier 1816 without a description. •Synonym of Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830 -- (Smith-Vaniz 2009:85 [ref. 30149]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

sonneratii, Opistognathus Cuvier [G.] 1816:252 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Indian seas. Appeared first as name only for one species associated with a generic description and is regarded as unavailable. See also Cuvier 1829:240 [ref. 995] and Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:498 [ref. 1005]. •In the synonymy of Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1983:6 [ref. 8211], Dor 1984:219 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus nigromarginatus Rüppell 1830. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

stigmosus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2004:215, Figs. 3C, 7 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27780] Outer reef, Escape Reef, 15°49'S, 145°50'E, Queensland, Australia, depth 29 meters. Holotype: AMS I.22583-004. Paratypes: AMS I.22583-037 (1); WAM P.27467-004 (1), P.29641-001 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:38 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Opistognathus stigmosus Smith-Vaniz 2004 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1076 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus stigmosus Smith-Vaniz 2004. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

suluensis, Opisthognathus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1933:25 [Copeia 1933 (no. 1); ref. 2106] Sitankai, Sibutu Islands, Sulu Province, Philippines. Holotype: CAS-SU 25508. Paratypes: CAS-SU 17467 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:89 [ref. 12291]. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. •Synonym of Opistognathus castelnaui Bleeker 1859 -- (Smith-Vaniz 2009:85 [ref. 30149]). Current status: Synonym of Opistognathus castelnaui Bleeker 1859. Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

thionyi, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.], Tornabene [L.] & Macieira [R. M.] 2018:100, Figs. 1-3, 4A, 5A, 7 [ZooKeys No. 794; ref. 36264] Sandy rubble bottom at Praia do Lixo, Trindade Island, Brazil, 20°31'30"S, 29°19'20"W, depth 20 meters. Holotype: CIUFES 2347. Paratypes: AMNH, CIUFES, MNRJ, MZUSP, NPM, UF, USNM, ZUEC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Opistognathus thionyi Smith-Vaniz, Tornabene & Macieira 2018. Current status: Valid as Opistognathus thionyi Smith-Vaniz, Tornabene & Macieira 2018. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Brazilian Province, Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

toyoshio, Stalix Shinohara [G.] 1999:267, Figs. 1-4 [Ichthyological Research v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 24048] Tanegashima Straits off Tanegashima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan, 30°32'N, 130°49'E, depth 77 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 53491. Paratypes: NSMT-P 53492-93 (1, 1). •Valid as Stalix toyoshio Shinohara 1999 -- (Nakabo 2000:743 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:743 [ref. 26001]). Current status: Valid as Stalix toyoshio Shinohara 1999. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

trimaculatus, Opistognathus Hiramatsu [W.] & Endo [H.] 2013:19, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) Supple. 7; ref. 32573] Off Kochi City, central Tosa Bay, depth about 150 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P111154 [ex. BSKU 42806]. Paratypes: BSKU 37494 (1). •Valid as Opistognathus trimaculatus Hiramatsu & Endo 2013 -- (Nakayama et al. 2016:[1] [ref. 35273]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus trimaculatus Hiramatsu & Endo 2013. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Japan and East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

vanderbilti, Lonchopisthus Mowbray [L. L.] in Borodin 1928:30, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Oceanographic Museum v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 526] Off coast of Cuba, depth 10 fathoms. Holotype (unique): VMM unnumbered (now at AMNH). •Synonym of Lonchopisthus micrognathus (Poey 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1997:1075 [ref. 22985], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2017:76 [ref. 35628]). Current status: Synonym of Lonchopisthus micrognathus (Poey 1860). Opistognathidae. Habitat: marine.

variabilis, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2009:92, Figs. 1e-f, 2e, 3d, 4e-f, 25-43 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 30149] Tanjung Bobo (site 2), 1°02'35"N, 127°23'55.1"E, western Halmahera, depth 7 meters. Holotype: NCIP 6348. Paratypes: (70) at ANSP, AZISP, BPBM, MCZ, PMBC, USNM, WAM. Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:43 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Opistognathus variabilis Smith-Vaniz 2009 -- (Smith-Vaniz 2010:39, 42 [ref. 30922], Ho & Shao 2011:43 [ref. 31432], Smith-Vaniz 2011:38 [ref. 31597], Allen & Erdmann 2012:358 [ref. 31980], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2012:20 [ref. 32262], Biswas et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32524], Hibino et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35047], Koeda et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus variabilis Smith-Vaniz 2009. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldive Islands and Sri Lanka east to Indonesia, Palau, north to Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands (southern Japan) and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

verecundus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] 2004:218, Figs. 2C, 3E, 9-10 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27780] Eastern side of Coral Bay, 11°11'S, 132°04'E, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory, Australia, depth 5-6 meters. Holotype: NTM S.10016-003. Paratypes: AMS I.33644-001 (3); ANSP 167416 (4); NTM S.10016-046 (12); USNM 320261 (4); WAM P.30593-001 (4). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:38 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Opistognathus verecundus Smith-Vaniz 2004 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1076 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32988], Smith-Vaniz 2016:278 [ref. 34922]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus verecundus Smith-Vaniz 2004. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Northern Territory, Australia. Habitat: marine.

versluysi, Opisthognathus Weber [M.] 1913:261, Fig. 65 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Roma Island, Indonesia, Siboga station 279, depth 20-45 meters. Syntypes: ZMA 112628 (1), 112990 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:93 [ref. 19236]. Correct spelling of genus is Opistognathus. •Valid as Stalix versluysi (Weber 1913) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1989:391 [ref. 13438], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2589 [ref. 24833], Allen & Adrim 2003:34 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:361 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Stalix versluysi (Weber 1913). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

vicinus, Opistognathus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.], Tornabene [L.] & Macieira [R. M.] 2018:107, Figs. 4B, 5B, 8, 9 [ZooKeys No. 794; ref. 36264] Ilha Rasa de Dentro, Guarapari, Espírito Santo, 20°40'S, 40°21'W, depth 15 meters. Holotype: CIUFES 0796. Paratypes: AMNH, CIUFES, MNRJ, MZUSP, NPM, UF, USNM, ZUEC. •Valid as Opistognathus vicinus Smith-Vaniz, Tornabene & Macieira 2018. Current status: Valid as Opistognathus vicinus Smith-Vaniz, Tornabene & Macieira 2018. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Ceará to Espírito Santo State, coastal Brazil. Habitat: marine.

walkeri, Opistognathus Bussing [W. A.] & Lavenberg [R. J.] 2003:537, Figs. 3c, 5 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 51 (no. 2); ref. 27787] Near Punta San Juan Batista Flats, 27°47.0'N, 112°44.0'W, Gulf of California, Baja California Sur, Mexico, depth 80-90 meters. Holotype: SIO 75-402. Paratypes: SIO 62-218 (1), 75-402 (1). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Opistognathus walkeri Bussing & Lavenberg 2003 -- (Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus walkeri Bussing & Lavenberg 2003. Opistognathidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

whitehursti, Gnathypops Longley [W. H.] 1927:222 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book No. 26; ref. 5630] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 5689. Paratypes: USNM 5866 (2). Regarded as available as by indication as "... Gnathypops maxillosa Jordan and Evermann is not the same as Gnathypops maxillosa (Poey). For the former, first collected at Tortugas by Dr. Whitehurst, I propose the name G. whitehursti. Jordan and Evermann was known to all at that time period as "The Fishes of North and Middle America." Gnathypops maxillosa occurs on p. 2284 in that work. A description appeared in Longley & Hildebrand 1940:262-264 with the spelling whitehurstii. We suggest using the original spelling whitehursti. •Valid as Opistognathus whitehursti (Longley 1927) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:217 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:19 [ref. 24488] as whitehurstii, Smith-Vaniz 1997:1118 [ref. 22985], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:158 [ref. 27754] dated 1940, Collette et al. 2003:113 [ref. 26784], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1378 [ref. 27083], Smith et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27621] as whitehurstii, Nelson et al. 2004:130 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:210 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:44 [ref. 33341], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2018:111 [ref. 36264]). Current status: Valid as Opistognathus whitehursti (Longley 1927). Opistognathidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.