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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Osphronemidae: [ 190 ] records


abbreviata, Betta splendens Pellegrin [J.] 1925:180 [v. 6 (no. 6); ref. 33399] Indochina. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1925-0082. Blanc attributes to Pellegrin 1925, Rev. Hist. Nat. Appl. v. 6:181 but that name is infrasubspecific and not available according to Schaller & Kottelat 1989:36 [ref. 13604], but treated as valid by Pellegrin 1925. •Synonym of Betta splendens Regan 1910 -- (Schaller & Kottelat 1989:36 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta splendens Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

acrostoma, Sphaerichthys Vierke [J.] 1979:342, Fig. [Aquarium Aqua Terra v. 13 (no. 122); ref. 8778] Mentaya River system, 250 kilometers northwest of Bandjarmasin, Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: ZMH 6055. Paratypes: SMF 18716 (3). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:420 [ref. 21161]. For comments on type locality see Schaller & Kottelat 1989:35 [ref. 13604]. •Valid as Sphaerichthys acrostoma Vierke 1979 -- (Vierke 1986:112 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:157 [ref. 36453], Kottelat et al. 1993:164 [ref. 23448], Kottelat 2013:456 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Sphaerichthys acrostoma Vierke 1979. Osphronemidae: Luciocephalinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

akarensis, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:779, Pl. 77 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Akar River, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1895.7.2.44. •Valid as Betta akarensis Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:83 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:118 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:326, 327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Kottelat 1995:63 [ref. 21728], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Kottelat 1998:43 [ref. 23543], Doi et al. 2001:17 [ref. 25691], Tan & Lim 2004:114 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:67 [ref. 28354], Parenti & Lim 2005:194 [ref. 28285], Tan & Ng 2004:279 [ref. 28058], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:37 [ref. 35802]). Current status: Valid as Betta akarensis Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Brunei and Sarawak (Malaysia), Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

albimarginata, Betta Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1994:67, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21376] Sungei Sanul, tributary of Sungei Tikung, Sungei Sebuku basin, Kalimantan Timur, Borneo. Holotype: ZRC 38485 [ex CMK 9541]. Paratypes: CMK 9549 (4), MZB 5897 (1), ROM uncat. (1), ZRC 35121-22 (2). •Valid as Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

alfredi, Parosphromenus Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:102, Fig. 1 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28282] Kota Tinggi, Mawai-Desaru road, Johor, Peninsula Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 28377. Paratypes: CMK 7859 (19); ZRC 16983-96 (14), 21131-32 (2), 28378-93 (16), 47766 (77). •Valid as Parosphromenus alfredi Kottelat & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus alfredi Kottelat & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Johor, Peninsula Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

allani, Parosphromenus Brown [B.] 1987:34, Fig. [The Aquarist and Pondkeeper v. 52 (no. 3); ref. 9159] Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Lectotype: ZRC 50243. Paralectotypes: ZRC. Description was proposed as preliminary, with complete descriptions to follow in the same publication; no types mentioned. Lectotype selected by Kottelat & Ng 2005:110 [ref. 28282]. •Valid as Parosphromenus allani Brown 1987 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Kottelat & Ng 2005:109 [ref. 28282], Parenti & Lim 2005:195 [ref. 28285], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus allani Brown 1987. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

anabatoides, Betta Bleeker [P.] 1851:269 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 325] Stream at kilometer 55 on Rantau-Martapura road, Bandjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia. Neotype: ZRC 40971. Neotype designated by Tan 2009:59 [ref. 30276]. •Valid as Betta anabatoides Bleeker 1851 -- (Vierke 1986:83 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:119 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:172 [ref. 6439], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Tan 2009:60 [ref. 30276], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta anabatoides Bleeker 1851. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Kalimantan (Indonesia), Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

anjunganensis, Parosphromenus Kottelat [M.] 1991:281, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 13588] Sungei Kepayang, 7 kilometers southeast of Anjungan on road to Pontianak, 0°20'N, 109°08'E, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 5887. Paratypes: MZB uncat. (2); CMK 6645 (1), 6669 (4), 6708 (1); ZSM 27935 (1). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:274 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Parosphromenus anjunganensis Kottelat 1991 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Ng 2005:109 [ref. 28282], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus anjunganensis Kottelat 1991. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

antoni, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:98, Figs. 1a-c [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] Sanggau area, Kapuas basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo [aquarium trade specimens]. Holotype: MZB 9340. Paratypes: CMK 18627 (6), 18544 (5); MZB 9341 (5); ZRC 46276 (4), 46277 (10), 46278 (16). Plus non-type matearial. •Valid as Betta antoni Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta antoni Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Lower Kapus basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

apollon, Betta Schindler [I.] & Schmidt [J.] 2006:50, Figs. 3-4 [Zeitschrift für Fischkunde v. 8 (no. 1/2); ref. 28865] About 20 kilometers west of Narathiwat at street to Marubo, about 6°23'N, 101°38'E, Province Narathiwat, Thailand. Holotype: MTD F30341. Paratypes: MTD F30342-45 (4), F30346-48 (3). •Valid as Betta apollon Schindler & Schmidt 2006 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta apollon Schindler & Schmidt 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Hill streams west of Narathiwat, peninsular Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

aura, Luciocephalus Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:129, Fig. 6 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28283] Pijoan area, Jambi, Sumatra. Holotype: MZB 9311. Paratypes: CMK 11054 (2), 11257 (3); MZB 9312 (1), ZRC 41714 (1), 41715 (3), 41716 (3), 46203 (8). •Valid as Luciocephalus aura Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Luciocephalus aura Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Luciocephalinae. Distribution: Sumatra, Indinesia. Habitat: freshwater.

aurigans, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Lim [K. K. P.] 2004:113, Figs. 5-6 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 11; ref. 27716] Pulau Natuna Besar, Natuna Archipelago. Holotype: MZB 10709. Paratypes: MZB 10710 (7); ZRC 49159-60 (8, 3). Plus 5 non-types as BMNH 1912.12.10.36-40. •Valid as Betta aurigans Tan & Lim 2004 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta aurigans Tan & Lim 2004. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Natuna Archipelago, South China Sea. Habitat: freshwater.

balunga, Betta Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1940:44 [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 16; ref. 11006] Tiny brook, tributary to the Balung River, 45 miles from Tawau, Borneo, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 33203. •Tentatively valid -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Questionably a synonym of Betta akarensis Regan 1910 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448]). •Valid as Betta balunga Herre 1940 -- (Vierke 1986:85 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:120 [ref. 36453], Kottelat 1995:63 [ref. 21728], Tan & Kottelat 1998:43 [ref. 23543], Tan & Lim 2004:114 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:69 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2004:273 [ref. 28058], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta balunga Herre 1940. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

baviensis, Macropodus Nguyen [H. D.] & Nguyen [V. H.] in Nguyen 2005:644, Fig. 11 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 3; ref. 29809] Creek Hai, Ba Vi, Ha Tay, Vietnam. Holotype: Univ. Su Pham, Ha Noi. Paratypes: (2). •Valid as Macropodus baviensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2005. •Questionably a synonym of Macropodus opercularus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]), Current status: Uncertain as Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Ba Vi, Ha Tay, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

bejeus, Trichopodus Hamilton [F.] 1822:118, 372 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Gangetic provinces, India. No types known. •Synonym of Polyacanthus fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1999:298 [ref. 24904]). •Synonym of Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801. Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bellica, Betta Sauvage [H.-E.] 1884:217, Fig. (p. 217) [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 9; ref. 14401] Neotype locality: North Selangor peat swamp forest, adjacent to Perak Island, 43 kilometers towards Sungai Besae (3°39'12.9"N, 101°18'00.4"E), Selangor, Malaysia. Neotype: ZRC 39196. Neotype designated by Tan & Ng 1996:144 [ref. 22921]; original locality Perak I., Malaysia. •Valid as Betta bellica Sauvage 1884 -- (Vierke 1986:85 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:120 [ref. 36453], Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 1996:144 [ref. 22921], Tan & Ng 2005:58 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:116 [ref. 28283], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Betta bellica Sauvage 1884. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

biguttatus, Stethochaetus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:174 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] "India." Holotype (unique): BMNH 1853.11.12.77. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:235-236 [ref. 13434]. •Synonym of Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Wheeler 1958:235 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bintan, Parosphromenus Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1998:269, Figs. 4-6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 23320] Bintan Island, Riau Archipelago, Indonesia, 1°06'40.1"N, 104°30'09.8"E. Holotype: MZB 17185. Paratypes: CMK 9586 (2), 9598 (3), 10022 (7), 11920 (5), 11925 (6); ZRC 30815-833 (19), 31162-64 (3), 31327-331 (5), 37495-98 (4), 41403-04 (15, 10). •Valid as Parosphromenus bintan Kottelat & Ng 1998 -- (Kottelat & Ng 2005:109 [ref. 28282], Tan & Ng 2005:131 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus bintan Kottelat & Ng 1998. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sumatra. Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

bleekeri, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:780 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Asia. Lectotype: BMNH 1860.3.10.930. Paralectotypes: RMNH 10741 (1). Lectotype selected by Hui & Ng 2005:63 [ref. 28354]. •Synonym of Betta bellica Sauvage 1884 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Junior objective synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849) after lectotype selection -- (Tan & Ng 2005:63 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

brederi, Betta Myers [G. S.] 1935:25 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 48; ref. 13906] Small stream emptying into Johore Strait, Johore, Malaysia. Holotype: USNM 94400. Paratypes: USNM 94442 (1). Also appeared in Myers 1935:307 [ref. 35916]. •Synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849) -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Tan & Tan 1996:419 [ref. 22754], Tan & Ng 2005:60 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

breviobesus, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Kottelat [M.] 1998:46, Fig. 2 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 23543] 87 kilometers east of Pontianak, 0°02'S, 110°07'E, stream, about 1 kilometer up Sungai Tajan from Tajan, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 3866. Paratypes: CMK 6927 (4); MNHN 1982-0719 (3); MZB 3859 (1), 3863-65 (1, 3, 1); RMNH 289118 (4); ZMA 16547 (1), ZRC 40284 (3). •Valid as Betta breviobesus Tan & Kottelat 1998 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459]). •Valid as Betta breviobesa Tan & Kottelat 1998 -- (Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta breviobesa Tan & Kottelat 1998. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

brownorum, Betta Witte [K.-E.] & Schmidt [J.] 1992:312, Figs. 5-6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 14256] Small peat swamp forest, 2.55 kilometers south of Batang Rejang ferry on road from Sibu to Kuching, Sarawak, East Malaysia, 2°08'N, 112°00'30"E. Holotype: ZSM 28090. Paratypes: KEW (K.E. Witte's coll.) 449 (3, 2 c&s), 1158 (1, c&s); ZSM 28091 (1), 28092 (2, c&s, missing). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:272 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Ng 2005:82 [ref. 28354], Parenti & Lim 2005:194 [ref. 28285], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia and Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

burdigala, Betta Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1994:70, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21376] 4 kilometers north of Bikang village on road from Koba to Toboali, Bangka, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC 35162. Paratypes: CMK 9597 (2), ZRC 35163-64 (2). •Valid as Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:118 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Banka, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

cantois, Trichopus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1884:218 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 9; ref. 14401] Perak,"mainly at Pengkalan-Pegou, om Kinta River, 150 km from mouth of Perak River", Malaysia. Holotype: MNHN. From Kottelat (2013). •Synonym of Trichopodus leerii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus leerii (Bleeker 1852). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cantoris, Osphomenus trichopterus var. Günther [A.] 1861:384 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1863.3.19.319 (left half skin). See Paepke 2009 [ref. 30200] for status of species names in Trichopodus; and as modified by Paepke 2009 [ref. 30602] [this is in error, Kottelat 2013]. •Valid as Trichopodus cantoris (Günther 1861) -- (Töpfer & Schindler 2009:49 [ref. 30199], Paepke 2009:59 [ref. 30200], Paepke 2009:145 [ref. 30602]). •Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

channoides, Betta Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1994:71, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21376] Unnamed blackwater stream entering Mahakam River on thenorthern side near Mujub, 0°01'S, 115°43'E, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC [ex CMK 7765]. Paratypes: CMK 7781 (1), MZB 5898 (1), ZRC 35165 (1). •Valid as Betta channoides Kottelat & Ng 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta channoides Kottelat & Ng 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

chinensis, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1790:5, Pl. 218 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] China. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1389. Type catalog: Paepke 1994:315 [ref. 21516], Paepke 1999:51 [ref. 24282]. On p. 5 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Macropodus chinensis (Bloch 1790) -- (Okada 1961:744 [ref. 6363], Uyeno & Arai in Masuda et al. 1984:122 [ref. 6441], Wang 1984:95 [ref. 22951], Vierke 1986:102 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:146 [ref. 36453], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:467 [ref. 25598], Zhuo in Ding 1994:533 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:186 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:401 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:485 [ref. 24032], Wang et al. 1999:75 [ref. 24099], Nakabo 2000:1352 [ref. 25182], Matsuura et al. 2000:247 [ref. 26000], Wang et al. 2001:284 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:1352 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:426, 679 [ref. 26218], Zhang et al. 2016:208 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Paepke 1990:74 [ref. 20168], Freyhof & Herder 2002:149 [ref. 26072], Naseka & Bogutskaya 2004:280 [ref. 27838], Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Japan, Korea and China [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

chini, Betta Ng [P. K. L.] 1993:290, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 21104] Peat swamps, about 12 kilometers from Beaufort, about 5°33'06"N, 115°50'23"E, Sabah, Borneo. Holotype: ZRC 35086. Paratypes: CMK 10027 (3); Sabah Mus. uncat. (2); ZRC 35087-93 (7), 35094-95 (2), 35096-102 (7). Author is P. K. L. Ng. •Valid as Betta chini Ng 1993 -- (Kottelat 1995:63 [ref. 21728], Tan & Kottelat 1998:43 [ref. 23543], Tan & Lim 2004:114 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:70 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2004:273 [ref. 28058], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta chini Ng 1993. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

chloropharynx, Betta Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1994:72, Figs. 6-8 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21376] Kilometer-mark 99.4 south of Pangkalpinang on road to Toboali, 41.4 kilometers south of Koba, Bangka, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC 35166. Paratypes: CMK 9761 (1), ZRC 35167 (1). •Valid as Betta chloropharynx Kottelat & Ng 1994 -- (Tan & Kottelat 1998:43 [ref. 23543], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta chloropharynx Kottelat & Ng 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

chryseus, Deschauenseeia Fowler [H. W.] 1934:147, Fig. 117 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype (unique): ANSP 60017. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:18 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Trichogaster microlepis (Günther 1861) -- (Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780]). •Synonym of Trichopodus microlepis (Günther 1861) -- (Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus microlepis (Günther 1861). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

chuna, Trichopodus Hamilton [F.] 1822:121, 372 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River, India. No types known. For nomenclatural comments see Derijst 1997:107 [ref. 23498] and Paepke 1997:185 [ref. 23729] who are in disagreement regarding the first reviser; both sota and chuna are regarded as the same species. •Synonym of Colisia sota (Hamilton 1822) -- (Derijst 1997:107 [ref. 23498]). •Synonym of Polyacanthus sota (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1999:297 [ref. 24904]). •Valid as Colisa chuna (Hamilton 1822) -- (Banik & Choudhury 1996:580 [ref. 24736], Paepke 1997:185 [ref. 23729]). •Valid as Trichopodus chuna Hamilton 1822 -- (Schaller & Kottelat 1989:36 [ref. 13604]). •Valid as Trichogaster chuna (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 2003:304 [ref. 31338]). Current status: Valid as Trichogaster chuna (Hamilton 1822). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: India and Bangladesh. Habitat: freshwater.

climacura, Betta Vierke [J.] 1988:336, Figs. 1-2 [Das Aquarium, Zeitschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienfreunde v. 22 (no. 228); ref. 19852] Small clear-water creek about 60 air-miles southwest of Brunei, near Rampayoh, West Borneo. Holotype: ZFMK 15532. Paratypes: ZFMK 15533 (1). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:132 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Betta climacura Vierke 1988 -- (Vierke 1988:122 [ref. 36453]). •Status uncertain -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Synonym of Betta akarensis Regan 1910 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448] with question, Kottelat 1995:63 [ref. 21728], Tan & Kottelat 1998:43 [ref. 23543] tentatively, Tan & Ng 2005:67 [ref. 28354], Parenti & Lim 2005:194 [ref. 28285], Tan & Ng 2004:273 [ref. 28058], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta akarensis Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

coccina, Betta Vierke [J.] 1979:288, Figured [Aquarium Aqua Terra v. 13 (no. 121); ref. 8775] Jambi, central Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ZMH 6056. Paratypes: ZMH 6057 (2). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:419 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Betta coccina Vierke 1979 -- (Vierke 1986:86 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:123 [ref. 36453], Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 2005:80 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:118 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta coccina Vierke 1979. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

colisa, Trichopodus Hamilton [F.] 1822:117, 372, Pl. 15 (fig. 40) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Gangetic provinces, India. No types known. •Synonym of Polyacanthus fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1999:297 [ref. 24904]). •Synonym of Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801. Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

compuncta, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:108, Fig. 6a-e [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] Mahakam asin, feeder stream to Sungai Hajuq, about 800 meters east of NE Lampunut camp, about 0°03.92'S, 114°55.34'E, ong Iram subsidt., Kalimantan Timur. Holotype: MZB 9344. Paratypes: CMK 18547 (10); MZB 9345 (10); ZRC 46334 (90). 46335 (65). 46336 (18)46337 (77). •Valid as Betta compuncta Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta compuncta Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Upper Mahakam basin, Kalimantan Timur, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

concolor, Macropodus opercularis Ahl [E.] in Schreitmüller 1936:501 [Nachrichtenblatt für Aquarien- und Terrarien-Vereine 1936 (Nr. 35); ref. 27793] Possible Hue, Vietnam (not Dutch Indies). Lectotype: ZMB 31380. Paralectotypes: ZMB 31381 (1). Type catalog: Paepke 1994:316 [ref. 21516]. Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989] treats as Ahl in Schreitmüller. Author is E. Ahl. Unneeded replacement name for Macropodus opercularis spechti Schreitmüller 1936 -- see Kottelat et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27792]. Lectotype established in Paepke 1994:316 [ref. 21516] with author as Ahl 1937. Also in Ahl 1937:116 [ref. 15261]. Schindler & Staeck 2003:206 [ref. 27794] proposed to conserve the species concolor Ahl 1937 [sic]. Opinion 2145 conserved the priority of spechti over concolor Ahl 1937 [sic]. •Valid as Macropodus concolor Ahl 1936 -- (Vierke 1986:103 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:147 [ref. 36453], Britz & Cambray 2001:280 [ref. 25647]). •Synonym of Macropodus spechti Schreitmüller 1936 -- (Freyhof & Herder 2002:156 [ref. 26072], Kottelat et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27792], Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macropodus spechti Schreitmüller 1936. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cotra, Trichopodus Hamilton [F.] 1822:119, 372 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Gangetic provinces, India. No types known. •Synonym of Coilisa lalia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Derijst 1997:110 [ref. 23498] as contra). •Synonym of Polyacanthus fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1999:298 [ref. 24904]). •Synonym of Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801. Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cracens, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:120, Fig. 2 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28283] Sungai Berliung Batam Bertram, about 1 kilometer into turnoff to Permata Biru Indah, 10 kilometers from Jambi towards Palembang after main bus terminus, Sumatra. Holotype: MZB 9309. Paratypes: CMK 14415 (2); ZRC 41717 (6), 42498 (2). •Valid as Betta cracens Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459]). Current status: Valid as Betta cracens Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

ctenopsoides, Macropodus Brind [W. L.] 1915:38, Fig. [Domesticated fish; ref. 21099] Hankow, China. No types known. •Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Freyhof & Herder 2002:149 [ref. 26072]). •Possibly synonym of Macropodus ocellatus Cantor 1842 -- (Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989] if from China). Current status: Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cupanus, Polyacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:357 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Arian-Coupang River, Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0723 (5), SMF 1689 [ex MNHN] (1), ?ZMB 1379 (1). Type catalog: Blanc 1963:73 [ref. 19851], Paepke 1994:317 [ref. 21516]. •Valid as Macropodus cupanus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:283 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1002 [ref. 20764], Indra 1993:191 [ref. 24009], Indra 1994:425 [ref. 24015], Arunachalam et al. 2001:129 [ref. 25692], Raju Thomas et al. 2002:51 [ref. 26359], Yadav 2003:25 [ref. 27711]). •Valid as Pseudosphromenus cupanus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Vierke 1986:76 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:111 [ref. 36453], Pethiyagoda 1991:267 [ref. 20075], Rema Devi et al. 1996:143 [ref. 24021], Rema Devi et al. 1999:164 [ref. 24758], Menon 1999:300 [ref. 24904], Cherian et al. 2001:461 [ref. 26176], Ataur Rahman 2003:308 [ref. 31338], Kullander et al. 2015:575 [ref. 33900]). Current status: Valid as Pseudosphromenus cupanus (Cuvier 1831). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: India and Sri Lanka (on ref. 33900). Habitat: freshwater.

cyana, Betta Brüning [C.] 1930:49, Fig. 1 [Der Aquarienfisch- und Naturfreund No. 4; ref. 36332] Aquarium import from Cambodia? No types known. Based on a blue colour variety of Betta splendens. Current status: Synonym of Betta splendens Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae.

dayi, Polyacanthus cupanus var. Engmann [P.] 1909:476, Abb. 1 [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 20 (no. 30); ref. 21423] Malacca [in error, probably Kerala, India]. Syntypes: BMNH 1908.10.26.2-3 (2). Köhler first published the name as a nomen nudum: Köhler 1908:395 [ref. 27528]. Also treated as a valid species by Steche 1914: pl. 7 [ref. 21424]. See Kottelat 1994:32 [ref. 21422] for discussion of availability and type locality. •Synonym of Macropodus cupanus (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1002 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Pseudosphromenus dayi (Engmann 1909) -- (Vierke 1986:77 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:113 [ref. 36453], Kottelat 1994:32 [ref. 21422], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Menon 1999:301 [ref. 24904], Britz & Cambray 2001:280 [ref. 25647], Cherian et al. 2001:461 [ref. 26176], Kullander et al. 2015:575 [ref. 33900]). Current status: Valid as Pseudosphromenus dayi (Engmann 1909). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

deissneri, Osphromenus Bleeker [P.] 1859:376, 377 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 18; ref. 16984] Sungai Baturussa basin, 8 kilometers from Pudingbesar on the road to Kampong Simpan, Bangka, Indonesia. Neotype: ZRC 31337. Proposed to replace the holotype with a neotype -- see Ng & Kottelat 1998:155 [ref. 25860]; this action was taken in Opinion 1946. The holotype was RMNH 6363, a specimen in poor condition. •Valid as Parosphromenus deissneri (Bleeker 1859) -- (Vierke 1986:107 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:152 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:174 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:164 [ref. 23448], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Kottelat & Ng 1998:265 [ref. 23320], Kottelat & Ng 2005:109 [ref. 28282], Tan & Ng 2005:131 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus deissneri (Bleeker 1859). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Banka, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

dennisyongi, Betta Tan [T. H.] 2013:326, Figs. 7-8 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 61 (no. 1); ref. 32497] Kabupaten Nagan Raya, Lamie, Alue Rayeuk, stream along road Meulaboh-Blangpidie; Ache Province, Sumatra. Holotype: MZB 17027. Paratypes: CMK 23281 (4); MZB 47028 (4), ZRC 53990 (19), 53991 (25), 53995 (7). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta dennisyongi Tan 2013 -- (Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]) Current status: Valid as Betta dennisyongi Tan 2013. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Ache Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

dimidiata, Betta Roberts [T. R.] 1989:172, Fig. 130 [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences No. 14; ref. 6439] Kapuas basin, Sungai Seriang, 37 kilometers west of Putussibau, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 3849. Paratypes: BMNH 1982.3.29.230-235 (6); CAS 49469-72 (9, 3, 2, 6); FMNH 94251 (6); MNHN 1982-0718 (5); MZB 3850-58 (3, 2, 1, 7, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1); RMNH 28917 (2); UMMZ 209927 (5); USNM 230336-37 (7, 5). •Valid as Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:87 [ref. 28354], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:165 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

edithae, Betta Vierke [J.] 1984:60, Figured [Aquarium Aqua Terra v. 18 (no. 176); ref. 8203] Barito Delta at Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: SMF 18712. Paratypes: SMF 18713 (1). •Status uncertain -- (Roberts 1989:173 [ref. 6439]). •Valid as Betta edithae Vierke 1984 -- (Vierke 1986:87 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:124 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:118 [ref. 28283], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta edithae Vierke 1984. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

einthovenii, Polyacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1851:423 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16897] Sambas, western Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Belontia hasselti (Cuvier 1831) -- (Roberts 1989:171 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Belontia hasselti (Cuvier 1831). Osphronemidae: Belontiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

enisae, Betta Kottelat [M.] 1995:60, Fig. 4 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 21728] Sungai Santik, a tributary of Sungai Tawang, 0°50'21"N, 112°03'50"E, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 5907. Paratypes: CMK 10100 (4), 10128 (7), 10183 (5), 10217 (2), 10270 (2), 10294 (4), 10509 (1); MZB 5908-09 (5, 4), 5910 (3); ZRC 38061 (3), 38453 (2). •Valid as Betta enisae Kottelat 1995 -- (Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:44 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta enisae Kottelat 1995. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

erythropterus, Macropodus Freyhof [J.] & Herder [F.] 2002:162, Figs. 13-14 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 26072] Stream at Quyêt Tiên, 17°11.54'N, 106°37.53'E, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZFMK 38945. Paratypes: ZFMK 35462-65 (4), 38946-61 (16), 38962-73 (12). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:132 [ref. 31087]. •Synonym of Macropodus spechti Schreitmüller 1936 -- (Winstanley & Clements 2008:5 [ref. 29886]). •Valid as Macropodus erythropterus Feryhof & Herder 2002 -- (Herder et al. 2010:132 [ref. 31087], Endruweit 2014:157 [ref. 33205], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Macropodus erythropterus Freyhof & Herder 2002. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Ouang Binh Provinmce, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

exodon, Osphronemus Roberts [T. R.] 1994:68, Fig. 1-6 [Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society v. 42 (no. 1); ref. 22560] Stung Treng market, Cambodia. Holotype: NRM 28231. Paratypes: CAS 81551 (1), 81553 (2); NRM 28232 (1); TISTRE 2665-66 (1, 1); ZRC 37463-64 (4, 4). •Valid as Osphronemus exodon Roberts 1994 -- (Rainboth 1996:218 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 1998:116 [ref. 23436], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:48 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Osphronemus exodon Roberts 1994. Osphronemidae: Osphroneminae. Distribution: Mekong River basin. Habitat: freshwater.

falx, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Kottelat [M.] 1998:557 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 105 (no. 3); ref. 23781] Sungai Alai, kilometer 19.5 on Muara Bungo-Muara Tebo Road, about 1°28'42.6"S, 102°18'31.7"E, Jambi Province, central Sumatra. Holotype: MZB 9308. Paratypes: CMK 11119 (44); MHNG 2593.95 (5); MZB 9307 (4); RMNH 33087 (5); ZMA 121673 (6); ZRC 38254 (3) 38571 (44), 40974 (20), 42496 (10); plus nontype material. •Valid as Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:118 [ref. 28283], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciata, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:782, Pl. 77 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Deli, Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1889.12.26.30. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1889.12.26.31 (1). Lectotype selected by Tan & Ng 1996:145 [ref. 22921]. •Valid as Betta fasciata Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:88 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:125 [ref. 36453]). •Synonym of Betta bellica Sauvage 1884 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 1996:144 [ref. 22921], Tan & Ng 2005:58 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta bellica Sauvage 1884. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Trichogaster Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:164, Pl. 36 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. Type catalog: Paepke 1994:317 [ref. 21516]. The genus Trichogaster if feminine, so species is correctly fasciata. •Valid as Polyacanthus fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1999:297 [ref. 24904]). •Valid as Colisa fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Shrestha 1978:41 [ref. 15970], Ataur Rahman 1989:280 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1006 [ref. 20764], Indra 1994:426 [ref. 24015], Sen 1995:591 [ref. 23778], Rema Devi et al. 1999:164 [ref. 24758], Fuller et al. 1999:472 [ref. 25838], Karmakar 2000:35 [ref. 25662], Ataur Rahman 2003:305 [ref. 31338], Vishwanath & Linthoingambi 2005:467 [ref. 28251], Shrestha 2008:228 [ref. 29923]). •Valid as Colisa fasciata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Vierke 1986:64 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:95 [ref. 36453], Rafique 2000:327 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2003:24 [ref. 27265]). •Valid as Trichogaster fasciatus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Derijst 1997:222 [ref. 23499], Britz 2004:7 [ref. 30110], Töpfer 2008:49 [ref. 30111]). •Valid as Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Ahmed et al. 2013:287 [ref. 32872], Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989], Suresh et al. 2018:309 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801. Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: Southern Asia: Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

ferox, Betta Schindler [I.] & Schmidt [J.] 2006:53, Fig. 5 [Zeitschrift für Fischkunde v. 8 (no. 1/2); ref. 28865] About 30 kilometers southwest of Rattsphun, Bori Pat, at national street 406, 150 meters before junction into Bori Pat waterfall park, 7°00'05"N, 100°08'55"E, Hat Yai, Thailand. Holotype: MTD F30355. Paratypes: MTD F30349-54 (6). •Valid as Betta ferox Schindler & Schmidt 2006 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta ferox Schindler & Schmidt 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Bori Pat, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

filamentosus, Macropodus Oshima [M.] 1919:278, Pl. 52 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 12 (nos 2-4); ref. 3312] Lan-yu Island (Kotosho, Botel Tobago Island), Taiwan. Holotype (unique): FMNH 59123 [ex CM 8261]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:89 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:54 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:60 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Freyhof & Herder 2002:149 [ref. 26072], Ho & Shao 2011:60 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

filamentosus, Parosphromenus Vierke [J.] 1981:363, Figs. 1-2 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 61 (nos 5/6) (1980); ref. 8531] Swampy terrain along the road between Bandjarmasin and Pleihari, Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: SMF 15552. Paratypes: SMF 15553-54 (2). Species is also described as new in Vierke 1982:122 [ref. 8405]. •Valid as Parosphromenus filamentosus Vierke 1981 -- (Vierke 1986:108 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:152 [ref. 36453], Kottelat et al. 1993:164 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Ng 2005:109 [ref. 28282], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus filamentosus Vierke 1981. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

foerschi, Betta Vierke [J.] 1979:386, Figured [Aquarium Aqua Terra v. 13 (no. 123); ref. 8777] Mentaya River system, 250 kilometers northwest of Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: ZMH 6058. Paratypes: ZMH 6059 (2). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:420 [ref. 21161]. For comments on type locality see Korthaus 1979:389 [ref. 33754] and Schaller & Kottelat 1989:35 [ref. 13604]. •Valid as Betta foerschi Vierke 1979 -- (Vierke 1986:89 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:126 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Schindler & van der Voort 2011:22 [ref. 32382], Tan 2013:329 [ref. 32497], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta foerschi Vierke 1979. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

furca, Platypodus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1804:206, 211 [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 12515] Osphronemidae.

fusca, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:780, Pl. 78 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1908.7.13.18. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1908.7.13.119 (1). Lectotype selected by Hui & Ng 2005:123 [ref. 28283]. •Status uncertain -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Valid as Betta fusca Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:90 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:127 [ref. 36453], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:122 [ref. 28283], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta fusca Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia and Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

gladiator, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:75, Figs. 25a-b, 47f [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Maliau basin, northeast of basecamp 1966, about 5°14'N, 116°53'E, stream at right trail about 2 kilometers into Jalan Babi towards Maliau falls, Sabah, Borneo. Holotype: SBM (= MUS) uncat. Paratypes: CMK 13125 (2); RMNH 33088 (2); SBM (= MUS) uncat. (13); ZRC 40960 (9), 40961 (6). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta gladiator Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta gladiator Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sabah, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

goramy, Osphronemus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:116, 117, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Mauritius, Mascarenes, introduced; Chine [China]; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Based on description and illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:127, 128 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. Spelled gourami and gouramy in literature. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:569 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Osphronemus goramy Lacepède 1801 -- (Vierke 1986:105 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:150 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:177 [ref. 6439], Lim et al. 1990:50 [ref. 16753], Pethiyagoda 1991:274 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1012 [ref. 20764], Roberts 1992:352 [ref. 14373], Kottelat et al. 1993:159 [ref. 23448], Roberts 1994:73 [ref. 22560], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Rainboth 1996:218 [ref. 22772], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Ng & Tan 1999:363 [ref. 24159], Fricke 1999:568 [ref. 24106], Fuller et al. 1999:476 [ref. 25838] Britz & Cambray 2001:280 [ref. 25647], Tan & Ng 2005:130 [ref. 28283], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284], Mundy 2005:515 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2009:114 [ref. 30213], Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:366 [ref. 35805], Ng et al. 2019:535 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Osphronemus goramy Lacepède 1801. Osphronemidae: Osphroneminae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Sumatra, Borneo, Java (Indonesia), Malaya (Malaysia), Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam; introduced in Madagascar and Mascarenes. Habitat: freshwater.

gunawani, Parosphromenus Schindler [I.] & Linke [H.] 2012:401, Figs. 1-2 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 62 (no. 3); ref. 32321] About 45 kilometers northeast of Jambi, ca. 1°22'N, 103°56'E, province of Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: MTD 32798. Paratypes: MTD 32799-32807 (9). •Valid as Parosphromenus gunawani Schindler & Linke 2012 -- (Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus gunawani Schindler & Linke 2012. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

harrisi, Trichopsis Fowler [H. W.] 1934:348, Figs. 11-12 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1418] Kratt, southeastern Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 60234. Paratypes: ANSP 60235-37 (3), 60238 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:136 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Trichopsis harrisi Fowler 1934 -- (Liem 1965:207 [ref. 20933]). •Synonym of Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier 1831) -- (Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:458 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier 1831). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Central and west Thailand (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

harveyi, Parosphromenus Brown [B.] 1987:34, Fig. [The Aquarist and Pondkeeper v. 52 (no. 3); ref. 9159] Batu Arang, western side of Peninsula Malaysia. Lectotype: ZRC 50234. Paralectotypes: ZRC. Description was proposed as preliminary, with complete descriptions to follow in the same publication; no types mentioned. Lectotype selected by Kottelat & Ng 2005:108 [ref. 28282]. •Valid as Parosphromenus harveyi Brown 1987 -- (Kottelat & Ng 2005:108 [ref. 28282], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus harveyi Brown 1987. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Peninsular Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

hasselti, Polyacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:353, Pls. 195, 205 (part) [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN A-0358 (2). Type catalog: Blanc 1963:73 [ref. 19851]. Type information: Roberts 1993:37 [ref. 21799]. Spelled hassellii by Swainson 1839:236 [ref. 4303]. •Valid as Belontia hasselti (Cuvier 1831) -- (Vierke 1986:81 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:116 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:171 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Roberts 1993:37 [ref. 21799], Tan & Ng 2005:116 [ref. 28283], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:165 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:448 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Belontia hasselti (Cuvier 1831). Osphronemidae: Belontiinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

helfrichii, Polyacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1855:162 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 16837] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Belontia hasselti (Cuvier 1831) -- (Roberts 1989:171 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Belontia hasselti (Cuvier 1831). Osphronemidae: Belontiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

hendra, Betta Schindler [I.] & Linke [H.] 2013:35, Fig. 1-3 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 32666] About 3 km south-east of Palangkaraya in direction of Berengbengkel, 2°16.5'S, 113°56.6'E, Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: MTD 32875. Paratypes: MTD 32876-77 (2), 32878-81 (4). •Valid as Betta hendra Schindler & Linke 2013 -- (Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta hendra Schindler & Linke 2013. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

hipposideros, Betta Ng [P. K. L.] & Kottelat [M.] 1994:597, Figs. 2B, 3C-D, 4C-D, 6 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 22076] North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest, 39 kilometers mark on road from Sungai Besar to Tanjung Malim, Selangor, Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 18688. Paratypes: CMK 10037-38 (16, 10); ZRC 15351-57 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 15358-61 (4), 17097 (1), 18029-34 (6), 18689-18705 (17), 27761 (1), 28515-17 (3), 28550 (1). First author is P. K. L. Ng. •Valid as Betta hipposideros Ng & Kottelat 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:84 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Betta hipposideros Ng & Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia). Habitat: freshwater.

hongkongensis, Macropodus Freyhof [J.] & Herder [F.] 2002:160, Figs. 11-12 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 26072] Shao Lo Tung, Tai Po, Hong Kong, China. Holotype: ZMB 33221. Paratypes: ZMB 33222-23 (4). •Valid as Macropodus hongkongensis Freyhof & Herder 2002 -- (Winstanley & Clements 2008:5 [ref. 29886], Zhang et al. 2016:208 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Macropodus hongkongensis Freyhof & Herder 2002. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Hong Kong and Fujian and Guangdong provinces, China. Habitat: freshwater.

ibanorum, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2004:273, Figs. 3, 7 [The Sarawak Museum Journal v. 59 (no. 80) (new series), Special Issue 6; ref. 28058] Kuching, Bako National Park, Bukit Gondol, Sarawak, Borneo. Holotype: SBC [ex ZRC 41584]. Paratypes: ZRC 37750 (3), 37757 (22). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta ibanorum Tan & Ng 2004 -- (Grinang & Lim 2004:292 [ref. 28551], Tan & Ng 2005:70 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta ibanorum Tan & Ng 2004. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southern Sarawak, Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

ideii, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:111, Fig. 7a-b [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] North of Baturicin area, from coastal basin draining into Laut Strait and adjacent to Pulau, 3°16'15-18"S, 115°58'17-23"E, Kalimantan Selatan, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 10713. Paratypes: CMK 18548 (5), MZB 10714 (4), ZRC 50277. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta ideii Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta ideii Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southern area of Kalimantan Selatan, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

imbellis, Betta Ladiges [W.] 1975:262, Figs. [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 28 (no. 8); ref. 7224] Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Holotype: ZMH H4644. Paratypes: ZMH H4520 (11). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:160 [ref. 22013]. •Valid as Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975 -- (Vierke 1986:91 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:128 [ref. 36453], Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Britz & Cambray 2001:280 [ref. 25647], Tan & Ng 2005:78 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Kuwasupat et al. 2012:49 [ref. 32254], Kowasupat et al. 2012:387 [ref. 32320], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), northern Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: freshwater.

insulatus, Osphromenus Seale [A.] 1910:530 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Lake on Cagayan Sulu Island, Sulu Sea, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 4951 (apparently destroyed). Paratypes: BSMP (many) apparently destroyed. •Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Kottelat 2013:458 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

jonklaasi, Belontia signata Benl [G.] & Terofal [F.] 1975:246, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-3) [Veröffentlichungen der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München v. 18; ref. 6768] Benl, Sri Lanka. Holotype: ZSM 24710. Paratypes: ZSM 22934 (2), 24711 (1) 24714 (1). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:272 [ref. 31652]. Osphronemidae: Belontiinae. Distribution: Sri Lanka. Habitat: freshwater.

koelreuteri, Osphromenus trichopterus var. Günther [A.] 1861:384 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (at least 6) BMNH. Based on Pl. 199 of Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831 [ref. 4881] and on specimens. •Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Kottelat 2013:458 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

krataios, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:102, Fig. 3a-c [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] Mandor area, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo [aquarium trade specimens]. Holotype: MZB 10715. Paratypes: ZRC 46274 (4), 47258 (9). •Valid as Betta krataios Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta krataios Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Lower Kapuas basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

kretseri, Malpulutta Deraniyagala [P. E. P.] 1937:353, Fig. 1 [The Ceylon Journal of Science, Section B. Zoology and Geology v. 20 (pt 3); ref. 1117] Dandegamuva, Northwest Province, Sri Lanka. Holotype: BMNH 1937.9.16.15 [ex Colombo Mus.]. Paratypes: (2). Type information: Pethiyagoda 1991:336 [ref. 20075]. Collection localities given, but locality of holotype not specified. •Valid as Malpulutta kretseri Deraniyagala 1937 -- (Vierke 1986:73 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:107 [ref. 36453], Pethiyagoda 1991:264 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1003 [ref. 20764]). Current status: Valid as Malpulutta kretseri Deraniyagala 1937. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sri Lanka. Habitat: freshwater.

kuehnei, Betta Schindler [I.] & Schmidt [J.] 2008:40, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of Fish Biology v. 10 (nos 1/2); ref. 30459] Kota Bharu, about 35 kilometers south of Panjang (5°48'40"N, 101°57'20"E), Kelantan, Malaysia. Holotype: ZMB 33884. Paratypes: ZMB 33885 (5). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Betta kuehnei Schindler & Schmidt 2008 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta kuehnei Schindler & Schmidt 2008. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

kuhlii, Polyacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1845:520 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 2 (3); ref. 312] Not available, no distinguishing features; from Batavia, Java. •In the synonymy of Belontia hasselti (Cuvier 1831) -- (Roberts 1989:171 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Belontia hasselti (Cuvier 1831). Osphronemidae: Belontiinae.

labiosus, Trichogaster Day [F.] 1877:374, Pl. 79 (fig. 4) [The fishes of India Part 3; ref. 4886] Rangoon, Myanmar. Syntypes: ams B.7582 (1), ZSI 1566 (1, figured specimen). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:298 [ref. 25110]. The genus Trichogaster if feminine, so the species is correctly labiosa. •Valid as Colisa labiosa (Day 1877) -- (Vierke 1986:66 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:98 [ref. 36453], Fuller et al. 1999:472 [ref. 25838], Karmakar 2000:35 [ref. 25662], Britz & Cambray 2001:280 [ref. 25647], Vishwanath & Linthoingambi 2005:466 [ref. 28251], Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Trichogaster labiosus Day 1877 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1006 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Trichogaster labiosa Day 1877. Current status: Valid as Trichogaster labiosa Day 1877. Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: Myanmar and India. Habitat: freshwater.

lalius, Trichopodus Hamilton [F.] 1822:120, 372 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Gangetic provinces, India. No types known. See Derijst 1997:110 for comments on first reviser action by Vierke in 1984. The genus Trichogaster is feminine, but lalius is regarded as a noun, see Töpfer & Schindler 2009:49 [ref. 30199]. •Valid as Polyacanthus lalius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1999:298 [ref. 24904]). •Valid as Colisa lalia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Vierke 1986:67 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:100 [ref. 36453], Ataur Rahman 1989:281 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1007 [ref. 20764], Banik & Choudhury 1996:580 [ref. 24736] misspelled balio, Derijst 1997:110 [ref. 23498], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Fuller et al. 1999:473 [ref. 25838], Rafique 2000:327 [ref. 25220], Karmakar 2000:35 [ref. 25662], Mirza 2003:24 [ref. 27265], Ataur Rahman 2003:306 [ref. 31338], Shrestha 2008:229 [ref. 29923]). •Valid as Trichogaster lalius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Töpfer & Schindler 2009:49 [ref. 30199] with name treated as a noun, Ahmed et al. 2013:287 [ref. 32872], Suresh et al. 2018:310 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Trichogaster lalius (Hamilton 1822). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: Southern Asia: Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

laticlavius, Osphronemus Roberts [T. R.] 1992:358, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 14373] Malaysia (Bangkok, Thailand, aquarium stock). Holotype: CAS 76349. Paratypes: BMNH 1895.9.11.40 (1), CAS 76350 (3). •Valid as Osphronemus laticlavius Roberts 1992 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:159 [ref. 23448], Roberts 1994:73 [ref. 22560], Martin-Smith & Tan 1998:593 [ref. 23647], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Osphronemus laticlavius Roberts 1992. Osphronemidae: Osphroneminae. Distribution: Borneo, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

leerii, Trichopus Bleeker [P.] 1852:577 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 334] Palembang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Trichogaster leerii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:21 [ref. 9708], Vierke 1986:114 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:160 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:177 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:164 [ref. 23448], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Fuller et al. 1999:474 [ref. 25838], Tan & Ng 2005:132 [ref. 28283], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284], Mundy 2005:515 [ref. 28379]). •Valid as Trichopodus leerii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Töpfer & Schindler 2009:49 [ref. 30199], Paepke 2009:54 [ref. 30200], Tan & Kottelat 2009:62 [ref. 30261], Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989], Low et al. 2014:73 [ref. 33509], Ng et al. 2019:535 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Trichopodus leerii (Bleeker 1852). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Thailand, Malaya (Malaysia), Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

lehi, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:65, Figs. 16, 46e [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Sungai Stuum Munda, 1°28'51.3"N, 105°58'18.1"E, about 58 kilometers to Sematan on road from Bau to Lundu, 21.1 kilometer before Lundu ferry over Batang Kayan, Sawawak, Borneo. Holotype: ZRC 39267. Paratypes: CMK 13021 (5); SM uncat. (5); ZMA 121674 (5); ZRC 41582 (15), 41583 (11). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta lehi Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta lehi Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

lineatus, Macropodus Nguyen [V. H.], Ngo [S. V.] & Nguyen [H. D.] in Nguyen 2005:641, Fig. 9 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 3; ref. 29809] Khe Mon, Son Trach, Phong Nha, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. Holotype: NCNTTS I Inst., Bac Ninh P.02.01.05. Paratypes: (4). Only 4 specimens in the bottle -- (Endruweit 2014:156 [ref. 33205]). •Questionbly a synonym of Macropodus erythrpterus Freyhof & Herder 2002 -- (Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Macropodus lineatus Nguyen, Ngo & Nguyen 2005 -- (Endruweit 2014:156 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Valid as Macropodus lineatus Nguyen, Ngo & Nguyen 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Khe Mon, Phong Nha, Ke Bang, Quang Binh, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

lineatus, Parasphaerichthys Britz [R.] & Kottelat [M.] 2002:244, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 26536] 35 kilometers from Yangon on road to Pathein, Myanmar (from ornamental fish collectors). Actual: Hmoain pool, 7.5 mies southwest of Einme, Ayeyarwaddy River drainage, 16°47'51"N, 95°04' 04"E, Ayeyarwaddy Division, Myanmar. Holotype: NRM 48010. Paratypes: CMK 16914 (500); NRM 48011 (51), 48012 (25 c&s); ZRC 46901 (40). Type locality given in Britz 2010:67 [ref. 30925]. •Valid as Parasphaerichthys lineatus Britz & Kottelat 2002 -- (Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parasphaerichthys lineatus Britz & Kottelat 2002. Osphronemidae: Luciocephalinae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

linkei, Parosphromenus Kottelat [M.] 1991:282, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 13588] Creeks in Pudukuali, 2 kilometers north of Sukamara and Tarantang, Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo. Holotype: ZSM 27978 [ex ZSM 27198]. Paratypes: LIPI uncat, [ex MZB 15182, ex ZSM 27918] (2), ZSM 27918 (15, now 12), ZRC 32124 (2). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:274 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Parosphromenus linkei Kottelat 1991 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:164 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Ng 2005:109 [ref. 28282], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus linkei Kottelat 1991. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indomesia. Habitat: freshwater.

livida, Betta Ng [P. K. L.] & Kottelat [M.] 1992:177, Figs. 2-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 20005] Blackwater stream, north Selangor peat swamp, 800 meters from 45 kilometer mark on road from Tanjong Malim to Sungai Besar, Peninsula Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 15287. Paratypp: CMK 8032 (25); ZRC 14439 (1), 15209-28 (20), 15254-73 (20), 15288-89 (2), 18836-40 (5), 18851-53 (3), 22764-67 (4), 22768 (1), 22829 (1). First author is P. K. L. Ng. •Valid as Betta livida Ng & Kottelat 1992 -- (Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 2005:80 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta livida Ng & Kottelat 1992. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalma, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:781, Pl. 77 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Singapore. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1868.7.10.28. •Synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849) -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Tan & Tan 1996:419 [ref. 22754], Tan & Ng 2005:60 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrostoma, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:778, Pl. 78 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1898.11.2.2. •Valid as Betta macrostoma Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:92 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:131 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Ng 2005:71 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:37 [ref. 35802]). Current status: Valid as Betta macrostoma Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Colisa (Trichopus) Swainson [W.] 1839:235 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Cuv., pl. 199 -- which is Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:Pl. 199 [ref. 4881]. •Synonymy of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

maculosus, Nemaphoerus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1879:22 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 19 (art. 1); ref. 457] •Not available, name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Trichopodus trichopterus. Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

mahachaiensis, Betta Kowasupat [C.], Panijpan [B.], Ruenwongsa [P.] & Sriwattanarothai [N.] 2012:50, Figs. 1-4c [Zootaxa No. 3522; ref. 32254] Behind the Pattarachai food factory (13°34'N, 100°15'E), Tha Sai subdistrict, Muang district, Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand. Holotype: THNHM-F-01630. Paratypes: many at THNHM •Valid as Betta mahachaiensis Kowasupat, Panijpan, Ruenwongsa & Sriwattanarothai 2012 -- (Kowasupat et al. 2012:387 [ref. 32320], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta mahachaiensis Kowasupat, Panijpan, Ruenwongsa & Sriwattanarothai 2012. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

malayanus, Osphromenus Duncker [G.] 1904:163, Pl. 1 (fig. 8) [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 21; ref. 5560] Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia. Lectotype: ZMH H411a. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1905.5.6.19-20 [ex SSMKL] (2), ZMH H411b (4), ZRC 2310 (1). Type catalog: Alfred 1963:165 [ref. 20555], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:408 [ref. 21161]. Type catalog and lectotype designation: Ladiges et al. 1958:166 [ref. 19181]. •Possibly valid as Sphaerichthys malayanus (Duncker 1904) -- (Roberts 1989:176 [ref. 6439]). •Uncertain as synonym of Sphaerichthys osphromenoides Canestrini 1860 -- (Kottelat 2013:456 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Sphaerichthys osphromenoides Canestrini 1860. Osphronemidae: Luciocephalinae. Distribution: Malaysia (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

mandor, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:104, Fig. 4a-d [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] Mandor area, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo [aquarium trade specimens]. Holotype: MZB 9342. Paratypes: CMK 6646 (6), 18545 (5); MZB 9343 (4); ZRC 46280 (8), 46281 (15). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta mandor Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Schindler & van der Voort 2011:26 [ref. 32382], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta mandor Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Lower Kapus basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

marchei, Micracanthus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1879:96 [7] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 3881] Ogooué River at Doumé, Gabon. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0964. Type catalog: Blanc 1963:73 [ref. 19851]. On p. 7 of separate. See also ICZN Case 3113 to suppress Micracanthus marchei. •Tentatively valid -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Synonym (of the younger) Betta splendens Regan 1910 -- (Roberts 1981:91 [ref. 20634]). Current status: Synonym of Betta splendens Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

mentum, Trichopodus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:125, 126, Pl. 8 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality stated. No types known. Based on illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:138, 139 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Osphronemus goramy Lacepède 1801 -- (Roberts 1992:352 [ref. 14373], Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Osphronemus goramy Lacepède 1801. Osphronemidae: Osphroneminae. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Osphromenus Günther [A.] 1861:385 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Cambodia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1861.4.12.41. •See Fricke 1999:568 [ref. 24106]. •Valid as Trichogaster microlepis (Günther 1861) -- (Vierke 1986:116 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:161 [ref. 36453] as microlepsis, Rainboth 1996:216 [ref. 22772], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Zhang et al. 2016:213 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Trichopodus microlepis (Günther 1861) -- (Töpfer & Schindler 2009:49 [ref. 30199], Paepke 2009:54 [ref. 30200], Low & Lim 2012:89 [ref. 32302], Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989], Low et al. 2014:73 [ref. 33509]). Current status: Valid as Trichopodus microlepis (Günther 1861). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: Thailand; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

midas, Betta Tan [H. H.] 2009:64, Figs. 4-8 [Zootaxa No. 2165; ref. 30276] Small stream draining into Sungau Sepatah, a tributary to Sungai Mandor, 24 kilometers northeast of Pontianak (0°07.5'N, 109°30'E), Kabupaten Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 3846. Paratypes: CMK 20838 (2), 16320 (7); MZB 9334 (2); ZRC 43711 (8), 46190 (12), 46191 (4), 51527 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta midas Tan 2009 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta midas Tan 2009. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

miniopinna, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Tan [S. H.] 1994:42, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21374] Swamp forest at Tanjong Bintan end near Pasir Segiling (1°10'N, 104°30'E), northern Pulau Bintan, Riau Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC 32504. Paratypes: MZB uncat. (1); ZRC 32503 (1), 32505 (1). •Valid as Betta miniopinna Tan & Tan 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:118 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta miniopinna Tan & Tan 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

minor, Malpulutta kretseri race Deraniyagala [P. E. P.] 1958:138 [Spolia Zeylanica v. 28 (pt 2); ref. 11990] Type information: Pethiyagoda 1991:336 [ref. 20075]. Described as a race; we regard as infrasubspecific and unavailable. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae.

nagyi, Parosphromenus Schaller [D.] 1985:302, Figs. (p. 301-302) [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 38 (no. 7); ref. 17272] Asian highway Route No. 18, 16 kilometers south of Kuantan, Malaysia. Lectotype: ZFMK 14186. Paralectotypes: ZFMK 14187-91 (5), ZMB 31605 (2), ZSM [now CMK 5949] (2). Plus non-type material: ZMB 31606 (2). Type catalog: Paepke 1994:317 [ref. 21516], Herder et al. 2010:132 [ref. 31087]. Lectotype selected by Schaller & Kottelat 1989:35 [ref. 13604]. •Valid as Parosphromenus nagyi Schaller 1985 -- (Vierke 1986:109 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:154 [ref. 36453], Kottelat & Ng 2005:108 [ref. 28282], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus nagyi Schaller 1985. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

nobilis, Ctenops McClelland [J.] 1845:281, Pl. 21 (fig. 1) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2929] Rivers at Sikkim passes, northern Bengal. Syntypes: SMF 1914 (4). •Valid as Ctenops nobilis McClelland 1845 -- (Liem 1965:207 [ref. 20933], Vierke 1986:72 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:106 [ref. 36453], Ataur Rahman 1989:282 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1001 [ref. 20764], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Menon 1999:299 [ref. 24904], Kundu 2000:96 [ref. 25663], Britz & Kottelat 2002:247 [ref. 26536], Ataur Rahman 2003:307 [ref. 31338], Shrestha 2008:230 [ref. 29923]). Current status: Valid as Ctenops nobilis McClelland 1845. Osphronemidae: Luciocephalinae. Distribution: India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Habitat: freshwater.

notatus, Osphromenus Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:386 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: ? RMNH 1083 (1), 1084 (1), 10-98 (1) [? ,=mistake], 1987 (1), 141 (1). Type information: Roberts 1993:39 [ref. 21799]. Appeared first as name only in footnote in Cuvier 1829:228 [ref. 995]. •Synonym of Osphronemus goramy Lacepède 1801 -- (Roberts 1989:177 [ref. 6439], Roberts 1992:353 [ref. 14373], Roberts 1993:39 [ref. 21799], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Osphronemus goramy Lacepède 1801. Osphronemidae: Osphroneminae. Habitat: freshwater.

obscura, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:90, Fig. 41 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Sungai Barito basin, Desa Kerendan, Sungai Lahei and tributaries, Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 9331. Paratypes: BMNH 1991.9.18.26-28 (3), 1991.9.18.32-37 (6), 1996.3.22.43-44 (2), 1996.3.22.253-260 (9); MZB 6941 (3), 9332 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta obscura Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta obscura Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellata, Betta de Beaufort [L. F.] 1933:35 [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 8; ref. 12381] Near Bettotan, Sandakan, British North Borneo. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1959.7.7.1 [ex NMS F.1126]. •Status uncertain -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Valid as Betta ocellata de Beaufort 1933 -- (Martin-Smith & Tan 1998:593 [ref. 23647], Tan & Ng 2005:72 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989], Wilkinson & Tan 2018:602 [ref. 36226]). Current status: Valid as Betta ocellata de Beaufort 1933. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Northeastern Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellatus, Macropodus Cantor [T. E.] 1842:484 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (nos 58, 59, 60); ref. 17344] Chusan [Shoushan] Island, China. Lectotype: BMNH 1843.7.21.28. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1989.7.1.1 (1). Lectotype selected by Paepke 1990:76 [ref. 20168]. •Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Okada 1961:746 [ref. 6363]). •Valid as Macropodus ocellatus Cantor 1842 -- (Paepke 1990:75 [ref. 20168], Kim & Park 2002:405 [ref. 25913], Freyhof & Herder 2002:154 [ref. 26072], Naseka & Bogutskaya 2004:280 [ref. 27838], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:238 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:354 [ref. 30085], Winstanley & Clements 2008:4 [ref. 29886], Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Macropodus ocellatus Cantor 1842. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: China, Japan and Korea. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellatus, Parasphaerichthys Prashad [B.] & Mukerji [D. D.] 1929:217, Pl. 8 (figs. 4-4a); Fig. 10 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 31 (pt 3); ref. 3558] Muddy stream along Kamaing Jade Mines Road, Kamaing, Myitkyina District, Upper Myanmar. Holotype: ZSI F 11011/1. Paratypes: (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:151 [ref. 20743]. See Das 2003:371 [ref. 27706] with date as 1930. •Valid as Parasphaerichthys ocellatus Prashad & Mukerji 1929 -- (Vierke 1986:74 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:110 [ref. 36453], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1008 [ref. 20764], Britz & Kottelat 2002:244 [ref. 26536], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parasphaerichthys ocellatus Prashad & Mukerji 1929. Osphronemidae: Luciocephalinae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

olfax, Osphromenus Cuvier [G.] (ex Commerson) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:377, Pls. 198, 205 (part), 206 (part) [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] [Mauritius] erroneous, is Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: ?ZMB 1386 (1). Type catalog: Paepke 1994:318 [ref. 21516]. Kottelat (2013) treats as Cuvier 1816 -- (Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Genus should have been spelled Osphronemus. Appeared first as name in synonymy of Osphronemus goramy in Lacepède 1801:117 [ref. 2710]; validly published as above which means the name in synonymy is available from Lacepède 1801. •Synonym of Osphronemus goramy Lacepède 1801 -- (Roberts 1989:177 [ref. 6439], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1012 [ref. 20764], Roberts 1992:353 [ref. 14373], Fricke et al. 2018:366 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Osphronemus goramy Lacepède 1801. Osphronemidae: Osphroneminae. Habitat: freshwater.

oligolepis, Macropodus Nguyen [V. H.], Ngo [S. V.] & Nguyen [H. D.] in Nguyen 2005:643, Fig. 10 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 3; ref. 29809] Son Trach market, Phong Nha, Ke Bang, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. Holotype: NCNTTS I Inst., Bac Ninh, lot 406. Paratypes: (1). •Questionably a synonym of Macrodpdus erythropterus Feryhof & Herder 2012 -- (Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Macropodus oligolepis Nguyen, Ngo & Nguyen 2005 -- (Endruweit 2014:157 [ref. 33205]) -- (Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Macropodus oligolepis Nguyen, Ngo & Nguyen 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Limestone mountain area in Phong Nha, Ke Bang, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

olivaceus, Polyacanthus van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1879:13 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 19 (art. 1); ref. 457] Not available, name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Polyacanthus hasselti Cuvier 1831. Osphronemidae: Belontiinae.

omega, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ahmad [A. B.] 2018:403, Figs. 1-3, 4i [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 66; ref. 36015] Sungai Burong near Jeram Batu, Pekan Nanas area, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 59663. Paratypes: ZRC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Betta omega Tan & Ahmad 2018. Current status: Valid as Betta omega Tan & Ahmad 2018. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Pekan Nanas area, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia [species could already be extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

opallios, Parosphromenus Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:103, Fig. 2 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28282] Area of Pangkalanbun, Arut River basin, 2°04'S, 111°36'E, Kalimati, Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 5996. Paratypes: CMK 16335 (3), 16720 (7); ZRC 46201 (5), 46427 (14), 50266 (3). •Valid as Parosphromenus opallios Kottelat & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus opallios Kottelat & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

opercularis, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:283 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Asia. No types known. Also appeared in Linnaeus 1759:248 [ref. 24770]. •Valid as Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Okada 1961:746 [ref. 6363], Uyeno & Arai in Masuda et al. 1984:122 [ref. 6441], Feng in Kuang et al. 1986:323 [ref. 26639], Vierke 1986:104 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:148 [ref. 36453], Zheng 1989:365 [ref. 21202], Paepke 1990:74 [ref. 20168], Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:509 [ref. 23876], Zhuo in Ding 1994:533 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:186 [ref. 25213], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Wang et al. 1999:75 [ref. 24099], Fuller et al. 1999:473 [ref. 25838], Nakabo 2000:1352 [ref. 25182], Freyhof et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25184], Tang et al. 2001:15 [ref. 25373], Kottelat 2001:62 [ref. 25482], Sakai et al. 2001:122 [ref. 25693], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Freyhof & Herder 2002:149 [ref. 26072], Nakabo 2002:1352 [ref. 26193], Winstanley & Clements 2008:4 [ref. 29886], Ho & Shao 2011:60 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:208 [ref. 34477], Fricke et al. 2018:366 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia to Korea and Japan; introduced in Madagascar. Habitat: freshwater.

ornaticauda, Parosphromenus Kottelat [M.] 1991:283, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 13588] Sungei Pinyuh, 8 kilometers southeast of Anjungan on road to Pontianak, 0°20'N, 109°08'E, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Holotype: MZB. Paratypes: MZB uncat. (10), CMK 6644 (16), ZSM 27934 (1). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:274 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Parosphromenus ornaticauda Kottelat 1991 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:164 [ref. 23448], Britz & Kottelat 2002:249 [ref. 26536], Kottelat & Ng 2005:109 [ref. 28282], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus ornaticauda Kottelat 1991. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

osphromenoides, Sphaerichthys Canestrini [G.] 1860:707 [11] [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien; ref. 713] India. NMW. Syntypes: (2). On p. 11 of separate. A translation of the original description is given in Roberts 1989:176 [ref. 6439]. •Possibly valid -- (Roberts 1989:176 [ref. 6439]). •Valid as Sphaerichthys osphromenoides Canestrini 1860 -- (Vierke 1986:112 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:158 [ref. 36453], Kottelat et al. 1993:164 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Ng & Tan 1999:363 [ref. 24159], Britz & Kottelat 2002:247 [ref. 26536], Tan & Ng 2005:132 [ref. 28283], Parenti & Lim 2005:195 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:456 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:535 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Sphaerichthys osphromenoides Canestrini 1860. Osphronemidae: Luciocephalinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), Indonesia: Habitat: freshwater.

pahuensis, Parosphromenus Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:104, Fig. 3 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28282] Mahakam River basin, swift blackwater stream entering Mahakam River downriver of Muarapahu at 0°14'S, 116°07'E, Kalimantan Timur, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: ZMB 5995. Paratypes: CMK 7806 (1), 14379 (1), 16871 (5); ZRC 50265 (1). •Valid as Parosphromenus pahuensis Kottelat & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:456 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus pahuensis Kottelat & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Kalimantan Timur, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

pallasii, Trichopus Shaw [G.] 1803:392 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian Seas. No types known. Osphronemidae.

pallida, Betta Schindler [I.] & Schmidt [J.] 2004:2, Figs. 1-2 [Zeitschrift für Fischkunde v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 28030] About 30 kilometers west of Narathiwat at the street to Ruso, about 6°21'N, 101°38'E, Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Holotype: MTD F 28389. Paratypes: MTD F 28390 (1). •Valid as Betta pallida Schindler & Schmidt 2004 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2006:54 [ref. 28865], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:44 [ref. 30459]). •Questionably a synonym of Betta prima Kottelat 1994 -- (Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Betta prima Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand (if valid), Habitat: freshwater.

pallifina, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:93, Figs. 44a-b, 49h [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Muara Teweh, Kec. Laung Tuhup, Desa Maruai, Rawa/Sungai Laung, tributary of Sungai Barito, Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 9328. Paratypes: BMNH 1966.3.22.1-38 (38), 1966.3.22.48-57 (10), 1966.3.22.106-138 (33), 1966.3.22.171-230 (60); MZB 6978 (60), 9329 (15), 9330 (20); ZRC 41576 (15), 41577 (20). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta pallifina Tan & Ng 2005. Current status: Valid as Betta pallifina Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

paludicola, Parosphromenus Tweedie [M. W. F.] 1952:69, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 24; ref. 12810] Merchang in Trengganu, Malaysia. Holotype: BMNH 1952.12.31.22-24 (1 of 3). Paratypes: (14) BMNH 1952.12.31.22-24 (2 of 3), ZRC 301-302 (8, 4). Type catalog: Alfred 1970:72 [ref. 23931]. •Valid as Parosphromenus paludicola Tweedie 1952 -- (Vierke 1986:110 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:155 [ref. 36453], Britz & Cambray 2001:280 [ref. 25647], Britz & Kottelat 2002:249 [ref. 26536], Kottelat & Ng 2005:109 [ref. 28282], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:456 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus paludicola Tweedie 1952. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia and Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

paludosus, Polyacanthus Richardson [J.] 1846:250 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Originally as Polyacanthus? paludosus. •Synonym of Macropodus ocellatus Cantor 1842 -- (Freyhof & Herder 2002:154 [ref. 26072]). Current status: Synonym of Macropodus ocellatus Cantor 1842. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

paradisi, Macropodus Joly [M. N.] 1873:317, Fig. 24 [v. 5; ref. 33956] Canton, China. No types known. •Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: China (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

pardalotos, Betta Tan [H. H.] 2009:501, Figs. 1-5 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 57 (no. 2); ref. 30388] Sungai Gelam, Laut Kenten, Palembang, Musi Drainage, South Sumatra Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 10999. Paratypes: CMK uncat. (2); MZB 11000 (2); ZRC 51837 (5), 51838 (2), 51839 (1). •Valid as Betta pardalotos Tan 2009 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta pardalotos Tan 2009. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Musi Drainage, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

parvipinnis, Trichopus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1876:98 [2] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (6th Série) v. 13; ref. 19811] Laos cambodgien [Cambodia: Phnom Penh]. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-9536. Paralectotypes: ?AMS B.8075 (1); BMNH uncat. [ex MNHN] (1), MNHN 0000-8583 (12), B-2967 [ex MNHN 0000-9536] (3). Type catalog: Blanc 1963:74 [ref. 19851]. On p. 2 of separate. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1984:818 [ref. 11440]. •Synonym of Trichogaster microlepis (Günther 1861) -- (Kottelat 1984:818 [ref. 11440], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780]). •Synonym of Trichopodus microlepis (Günther 1861) -- (Paepke 2009:56 [ref. 30200], Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus microlepis (Günther 1861). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

parvulus, Parosphromenus Vierke [J.] 1979:247, Fig. [Aquarium Aqua Terra v. 13 (no. 120); ref. 8776] Mentaya River system, 250 kilometers northwest of Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: ZMH 6051. Paratypes: ZMH 6052 (3). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:420 [ref. 21161]. For comments on type locality see Schaller & Kottelat 1989:35 [ref. 13604]. Also appeared in Foersch & Kotthaus 1979:250 [ref. 33753] as additional comments on type locality; Kottelat erroneously says independent of Vierke; Kottelat gives precedence to Vierke. •Valid as Parosphromenus parvulus Vierke 1979 -- (Vierke 1986:111 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:156 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:174 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:164 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Ng 2005:109 [ref. 28282], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:456 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus parvulus Vierke 1979. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

patoti, Betta Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1922:359 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 4; ref. 4598] Balikpapan, Mangar River; rivulet 25 kilometers east of Balikpapan Bay; Bluu River, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: ZMA 112510-13 (1, 1, 2, 3). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:105 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Tan & Ng (not valid); designated by Kottelat (2013), but lot 112513 apparently contains 3 specimens. •Valid as Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354]). Current status: Valid as Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

pectoralis, Trichopodus Regan [C. T.] 1910:784, Pl. 79 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Malay Peninsula; Thailand; Singapore. Syntypes: (6) BMNH 1862.11.1.232-233 (2). •Valid as Trichogaster pectoralis (Regan 1910) -- (Vierke 1986:117 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:163 [ref. 36453], Pethiyagoda 1991:269 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1009 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:164 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:249 [ref. 23210], Rainboth 1996:216 [ref. 22772], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Freyhof et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25184], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Tan & Ng 2005:132 [ref. 28283], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:195 [ref. 28285]). •Synonym of Trichopodus cantoris (Günther 1861) -- (Paepke 2009:59 [ref. 30200]). •Valid as Trichopodus pectoralis Regan 1910 -- (Paepke 2009:143 [ref. 30602], Low & Lim 2012:88 [ref. 32302], Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989], Low et al. 2014:73 [ref. 33509], Miesen et al. 2016:96 [ref. 34492], Sulaiman et al. 2018:37 [ref. 35802], Ng et al. 2019:535 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Trichopodus pectoralis Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia and Borneo; introduced in Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

persephone, Betta Schaller [D.] 1986:298, Figs. (p. 297, 299) [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 39 (no. 7); ref. 8046] Asian highway No. 2, 1°56'20.00"N, 103°09'40.00"E, at road bridge about 3 kilometers north of Ayer Hitam, Malaysia. Holotype: ZFMK 14226. Paratypes: ZFMK 14227-38 (12); ZMB 31614 (4); ZSM 31614 [now at CMK] (4). Type information: Schaller & Kottelat 1989:35 [ref. 13604]. Paratypes 5944 (4) are apparently at CMK but should be returned to ZSM. •Valid as Betta persephone Schaller 1986 -- (Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 2005:81 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta persephone Schaller 1986. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

phoenicurus, Parosphromenus Schindler [I.] & Linke [H.] 2012:402, Figs. 3-4 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 62 (no. 3); ref. 32321] Langgam (about 40 km southeast of Pekanbaru), ca. 0°11'N, 101°38'E, Province of Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: MTD 32808. Paratypes: MTD 32809-32813 (5). •Valid as Parosphromenus phoenicurus Schindler & Linke 2012 -- (Kottelat 2013:456 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus phoenicurus Schindler & Linke 2012. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

phongnhaensis, Macropodus Ngô [S. V.], Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [H. D.] in Nguyen 2005:640, Fig. 8 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 3; ref. 29809] Son Trach market, Phong Nha, Ke Bang, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. Holotype: NCNTTS I Inst., Bac Ninh, Lost. Paratypes: (3). Only 2 specimens were found -- Endruweit 2014:157 [ref. 33205]. •Questionably a synonym of Macropodus erythropterus (Freyhof & Herder 2002) -- (Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Macropodus phongnhaensis Ngô, Nguyen & Nguyen 2005 -- (Endruweit 2014:157 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Valid as Macropodus phongnhaensis Ngô, Nguyen & Nguyen 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Phong Nha, Ke Bang, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

pi, Betta Tan [H. H.] 1998:285, Figs. 3-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 23321] Mae Nam Tod Deng, about 6 kilometers north of Sungai Kolok, swamps about 100-200 meters south before bridge, Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZRC 40289. Paratypes: CMK 12030 (3), 13025 (3); ZRC 40290-92 (2, 6, 18). •Valid as Betta pi Tan 1998 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:85 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Schmidt 2006:60 [ref. 28865], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta pi Tan 1998. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

pictum, Anostoma van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1859:82 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 6 (art. 3); ref. 371] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy of Betta trifasciata Bleeker 1850. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae.

pictum, Panchax Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:385 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Near Bogor, Java, Indonesia. No types known [but see Roberts 1993]. Type information: Roberts 1993:38 [ref. 21799]. •Valid as Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Vierke 1986:93 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:133 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Roberts 1993:38 [ref. 21799], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Kottelat 1994:301 [ref. 21572], Tan & Kottelat 1998:557 [ref. 23781], Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

pinguis, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Kottelat [M.] 1998:43, Fig. 1 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 23543] Sungai Letang near Kampung Kandung Suli (Kecamatan Jongkong), Kapuas basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 5936. Paratypes: CMK 11592 (1), ZRC 39629 (1). •Valid as Betta pinguis Tan & Kottelat 1998 -- (Tan & Lim 2004:114 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284], Tan & Ng 2004:273 [ref. 28058], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta pinguis Tan & Kottelat 1998. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

ponticeriana, Colisa Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:370 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-5414 (4, dry, poor condition). Type catalog: Blanc 1963:71 [ref. 19851]. •Synonym of Polyacanthus fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1999:298 [ref. 24904]). •Synonym of Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801. Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

poptae, Trichopodus Low [B. W.], Tan [H. H.] & Britz [R.] 2014:70, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 33509] Borneo, Kalimantan Tengah, Barito River drainage, Desa Kerendan, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 21466. Paratypes: BMNH, MZB, ZRC. •Valid as Trichopodus poptae Low, Tan & Britz 2014. Current status: Valid as Trichopodus poptae Low, Tan & Britz 2014. Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

prima, Betta Kottelat [M.] 1994:298, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 21572] Creek at about kilometer 1 on road to Nam Tok Phliu, after leaving Chantaburi-Trat highway, 12°32'N, 102°11'E, Chantaburi, Thailand. Holotype: ZRC [ex CMK 10798]. Paratypes: CMK 9738 (1), 10665 (5), 10691 (6), 10714 (2), 10723 (1); KUMF uncat. (14); MHNG 2158.52 (6); NIFI uncat. (2); ZRC 38250-51 (6, 5). •Valid as Betta prima Kottelat 1994 -- (Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Schmidt 2006:56 [ref. 28865], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:44 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta prima Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand, Cambodia and Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

pugnax, Macropodus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1066 [84], Pl. 2 (figs. 1-3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Penang, Malaysia. Lectotype: BMNH 1860.3.19.930. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.317-318 (2, skins). Type catalog: Alfred 1961:183 [ref. 20551]. Lectotype selected by Alfred 1964; see Hui & Ng 2005:63 [ref. 28354]. •Valid as Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849) -- (Vierke 1986:94 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:134 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:173 [ref. 6439], Lim et al. 1990:49 [ref. 16753], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Kottelat 1994:300 [ref. 21572], Kottelat 1995:63 [ref. 21728], Tan & Tan 1996:419 [ref. 22754], Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Ng & Tan 1999:363 [ref. 24159], Tan & Lim 2004:111 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:60 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Schmidt 2006:48 [ref. 28865], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (West Malaysia) and Singapore. Habitat: freshwater.

pulcher, Diplopterus Gray [J. E.] 1830:no page number, Pl. 87 (fig. 1) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] Neotype locality: Mersing area, stream about kilometer 66 to Kluang, kilometer 166 to Batu Pahat, Johor, Sumatra. Neotype: ZRC 42520. Published about 30 Mar. 1830. Neotype designated by Tan & Ng 2005:129 [28283]. •Valid as Luciocephalus pulcher (Gray 1830) -- (Roberts 1989:178 [ref. 6439], Lim et al. 1990:50 [ref. 16753], Kottelat et al. 1993:159 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:247 [ref. 23210], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Ng & Tan 1999:363 [ref. 24159], Doi et al. 2001:17 [ref. 25691], Britz & Kottelat 2002:247 [ref. 26536], Tan & Lim 2004:111 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:126 [ref. 28283], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:194 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:37 [ref. 35802], Ng et al. 2019:535 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Luciocephalus pulcher (Gray 1830). Osphronemidae: Luciocephalinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

pulchra, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Tan [S. H.] 1996:428, Figs. 2a-c, 4c, 5B [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 44 (no. 2); ref. 22754] Kampong Jasa Sepakat, Pontian, Johor, Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 28860. Paratypes: ZRC 17368-70 (3), 29123-25 (3), 39252 (5), 28861-99 (39). Plus additional material. •Valid as Betta pulchra Tan & Tan 1996 -- (Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Tan & Ng 2005:63 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta pulchra Tan & Tan 1996. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southwest Johor, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

pumilus, Ctenops Arnold [J. P.] 1936:[inside back cover], Fig. [Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 33 (no. 11); ref. 21517] Saigon, southern Vietnam. Syntypes: ZMB 21154 (4). Type catalog: Paepke 1994:315 [ref. 21516]. Also appeared in Arnold & Ahl 1936:409 [ref. 26585] and, as Arnold in Ahl 1937:116 [ref. 15261]. •Valid as Trichopsis pumila (Arnold 1936) -- (Liem 1965:207 [ref. 20933] as pumilus, Vierke 1986:120 [ref. 36452] as pumilus, Vierke 1988:169 [ref. 36453] as pumilus, Schaller & Kottelat 1989:36 [ref. 13604], Rainboth 1996:217 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 2013:458 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Trichopsis pumila (Arnold 1936). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

quindecim, Parosphromenus Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:104, Figs. 4-5 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28282] Sungai Pawan basin, Sungai Liong, 4 kilometers north of Nanga Tayap on road to Sandai, 1°30'02"S, 110°34'19"E, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 5997. Paratypes: CMK 16829 (4), ZRC 46428 (15). •Valid as Parosphromenus quindecim Kottelat & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:456 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus quindecim Kottelat & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Kalimantan Barat, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

raja, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:123, Fig. 4 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28283] Sungai Ayer Merah, feeder stream to Danau Souak Padang, about 15 minutes by boat upstream, 1°36'45.7"S, 103°27'00.0"E, Sumatra. Holotype: MZB 9315. Paratypes: BMNH uncat. (5); CMK uncat. (9); ZMA 121823 (5); ZRC 42499 (12), 42500 (20), 42501 (10), 42502 (14). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta raja Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta raja Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sumatra. Habitat: freshwater.

renata, Betta Tan [H. H.] 1998:282, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 23321] Rantau Panjang, 1°21'57.6"S, 103°54'55.2"E, Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 9310. Paratypes: CMK 13024 (3); ZRC 39117 (3), 39265 (1), 40285-86 (7, 5). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta renata Tan 1998 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:126 [ref. 28283], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta renata Tan 1998. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

rubra, Betta Perugia [A.] 1893:242 [2] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 13; ref. 3434] Toba Lake, Sibolga, Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: MSNG 13019a. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1893.5.29.1 [ex MSNG] (1), MSNG 13019 (9). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:340 [ref. 10350]. On p. 2 of separate. Lectotype listed in Hui & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354] and Hui & Ng 2005:119 [ref. 28283]. •Valid as Betta rubra Perugia 1893 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:119 [ref. 28283], Schindler & van der Voort 2011:21 [ref. 32382], Tan 2012:324 [ref. 32497], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta rubra Perugia 1893. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

rubrimontis, Parosphromenus Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:105, Fig. 6 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28282] Perak, after kilometer stone 21 from Taiping to Segema, Sungai Beriang, 5°07'18"N, 100°39'04"E, Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 50264. Paratypes: CMK 4151 (5), 17696 (2); ZRC 38810 (7). Name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Parosphromenus rubrimontis Kottelat & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Ng et al. 2019:535 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus rubrimontis Kottelat & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Perak, Malaya (Malaysia). Habitat: freshwater.

rutilans, Betta Witte [K.-E.] & Kottelat [M.] in Kottelat 1991:278, Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 13588] Sungei Kepayang, 7 kilometers southeast of Anjungan on road to Pontianak, 0°20'N, 109°08'E, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Holotype: ZSM 27977 [now ZRC 38452]. Paratypes: ZSM [now CMK 7438 (4), 7439 (1, c&s)]. Type catalog: Neumann 2011:273 [ref. 31652]. Holotype is now at ZRC. •Valid as Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991 -- (Kottelat 1991:278 [ref. 13588], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

saigonensis, Osphronemus Borodin [N. A.] 1930:48 [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 2); ref. 16069] Near Saigon, southern Vietnam. Holotype (unique): AMNH 222124 [ex VMM 493]. •Synonym of Trichopodus cantoris (Günther 1861) -- (Paepke 2009:58 [ref. 30200]). •Synonym of Trichopodus pectoralis Regan 1910 -- (Paepke 2009:145 [ref. 30602], Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus pectoralis Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

satyrus, Trichopus Shaw [G.] 1803:391, Pl. 55, bottom [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian Seas. No types known. Kottelat (2013) says based on a common name -- (Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]). As satijrus in Bleeker 1845:519 [ref. 312]. New name for Trichopodus mentum Lacepède 1801. •Synonym of Osphronemus goramy Lacepède 1801 -- (Roberts 1992:353 [ref. 14373]). Current status: Synonym of Osphronemus goramy Lacepède 1801. Osphronemidae: Osphroneminae. Habitat: freshwater.

schalleri, Betta Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1994:74, Figs. 9-11 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21376] 5.5 kilometers north of Payung on road to Pangkalpinang, Bangka, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC 35170. Paratypes: CMK 9585 (4), 9622 (2), 9630 (2), 9639 (3), 9648 (1); ZRC 35171-73 (3), 35174-78 (5), 35179 (1), 35180 (1). •Valid as Betta schalleri Kottelat & Ng 1994 -- (Kottelat 1995:61 [ref. 21728], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta schalleri Kottelat & Ng 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

schalleri, Trichopsis Ladiges [W.] 1962:102, Fig. [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 15 (no. 4); ref. 6045] Nam-Mun at Korat, 135 miles northeast of Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype: ZMH H1646. Paratypes: ZMH H1647 (1, damaged). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:160 [ref. 22013]. •Valid as Trichopsis schalleri Ladiges 1962 -- (Vierke 1986:121 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:171 [ref. 36453], Kottelat 1998:116 [ref. 23436], Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:458 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:48 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Trichopsis schalleri Ladiges 1962. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Laos and Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

selatanensis, Sphaerichthys osphronemoides Vierke [J.] 1979:339, Figured [Aquarium Aqua Terra v. 13 (no. 122); ref. 8778] Near Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: ZMH 6053. Paratypes: ZMH 6054 (3). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:420 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Sphaerichthys selatanensis Vierke 1979 -- (Roberts 1989:176 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:164 [ref. 23448], Britz & Kottelat 2002:248 [ref. 26536], Tan & Ng 2005:132 [ref. 28283], Kottelat 2013:456 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Sphaerichthys selatanensis Vierke 1979. Osphronemidae: Luciocephalinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

sepat, Trichopus Bleeker [P.] 1845:520 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 2 (3); ref. 312] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 1604 (1); SMNS 10575 (2), 10669 (5). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:9 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:51 [ref. 29864]. Apparently not available, no distinguishing features; treated as available by Fricke 1991, but not so (Kottelat 2013). •In the synonymy of Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Roberts 1989:177 [ref. 6439]). •In the synonymy of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Kottelat 2013:458 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae.

septemfasciatus, Osphronemus Roberts [T. R.] 1992:355, Figs. 2-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 14373] Bo River, Mahakam basin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH 31751 [ex RMNH 7532]. Paratypes: BMNH 1892.10.7.23-24 (2), 1894.8.3.31 (1), 1898.11.14 (1), 1915.3.25.1 (1), 1978.3.20.304 (1), 1978.9.5.50-51 (2); CAS-SU 14104 (1); CAS 76257-58 (2, 1); RMNH 7532 (11), 7896 (3), 7898-99 (2). •Valid as Osphronemus septemfasciatus Roberts 1992 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:159 [ref. 23448], Roberts 1994:73 [ref. 22560], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284] as cf. septemfasciatus, Parenti & Lim 2005:195 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:455 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:37 [ref. 35802]). Current status: Valid as Osphronemus septemfasciatus Roberts 1992. Osphronemidae: Osphroneminae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

siamensis, Osphromenus Günther [A.] 1861:385 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Thailand. Syntypes: BMNH 1859.7.1.83-87 (5). •Synonym of Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Roberts 1989:177 [ref. 6439]). •Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Paepke 2009:56 [ref. 30200], Kottelat 2013:458 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

siamensis, Trichopsis pumilus var. Herms [E.] 1953:279, Fig. 3 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 6 (no. 11); ref. 20614] Bangkok, Thailand. Syntypes: CAS-SU 50200 (4). Name appeared in caption to figure 3. •Synonym of Trichopsis pumila (Arnold 1936) -- (Kottelat 2013:458 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopsis pumila (Arnold 1936). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

siamorientalis, Betta Kowasupat [C.], Panijpan [B.], Ruenwongsa [P.] & Jeenthong [T.] 2012:389, Fig. 1-3 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 62 (no. 3); ref. 32320] Sai Hai village (13°42′N, 101°13′E), Tha Thonglang subdistrict, Bang Khla district, Chachoengsao province, Thailand. Holotype: THNHM-F-01540. Paratypes: many at THNHM. •Valid as Betta siamorientalis Kowasupat, Panijpan, Ruenwongsa & Jeenthong 2012 -- (Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta siamorientalis Kowasupat, Panijpan, Ruenwongsa & Jeenthong 2012. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

signatus, Polyacanthus Günther [A.] 1861:379, 566 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Sri Lanka. Syntypes: (at least 13) BMNH 1853.12.27.15 (6), 2012.8.1.1-2 (2), 2012.8.1.3 (skeleton). •Valid as Belontia signata (Günther 1861) -- (Vierke 1986:62 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:91 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:171 [ref. 6439], Pethiyagoda 1991:261 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:999 [ref. 20764], Britz & Cambray 2001:280 [ref. 25647]). Current status: Valid as Belontia signata (Günther 1861). Osphronemidae: Belontiinae. Distribution: Sri Lanka. Habitat: freshwater.

simoni, Macropodus Dabry de Thiersant [P.] 1872:187 [La pisciculture et la pêche en Chine; ref. 12507] Name only, not available. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae.

simorum, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1996:151, Figs. 3c, 4c [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 44 (no. 1); ref. 22921] Swamp in Rantau Panjang, Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB (present ZRC 39628). Paratypes: CMK 11182 (5); ZRC 38549 (4), 39118 (19). •Valid as Betta simorum Tan & Ng 1996 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:116 [ref. 28283], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta simorum Tan & Ng 1996. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

simplex, Betta Kottelat [M.] 1994:301, Figs. 3-5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 21572] Spring (small lake) of Tham Sra Kaew and Nine Ponds, 2.2 kilometers from National highway 4034, northwestern Krabi, Krabi Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZRC 38486 [ex CMK 10635]. Paratypes: CMK 9445 (4); ZRC 35168-69 (2). •Valid as Betta simplex Kottelat 1994 -- (Tan & Kottelat 1998:558 [ref. 23781], Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Schmidt 2006:57 [ref. 28865], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta simplex Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

smaragdina, Betta Ladiges [W.] 1972:190, Figs. [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 25 (no. 6); ref. 19853] Nongkhai, Thailand. Holotype: ZMH H4639. Paratypes: ZMH H4640 (1). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:160 [ref. 22013]. •Valid as Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972 -- (Vierke 1986:95 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:136 [ref. 36453], Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Kuwasupat et al. 2012:49 [ref. 32254], Kowasupat et al. 2012:387 [ref. 32320], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:48 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Western and north-eastern Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

sota, Trichopodus Hamilton [F.] 1822:120, 372 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Gangetic provinces, India. No types known. For nomenclatural comments see Derijst 1997:107 [ref. 23498] and Paepke 1997:185 [ref. 23729] who are in disagreement regarding the first reviser; both sota and chuna are the same species. Species name misspelled sola by Cuvier 1831:167 [ref. 30376]. •Synonym of Trichopodus chuna Hamilton 1822 -- (Schaller & Kottelat 1989:36 [ref. 13604]). •Synonym of Colisa chuna (Hamilton 1822) -- (Paepke 1997:185 [ref. 23729]). •Valid as Polyacanthus sota (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1999:299 [ref. 24904], Shrestha 2008:229 [ref. 29923],). •Valid as Colisa sota (Hamilton 1822) -- (Vierke 1986:70 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:103 [ref. 36453], Ataur Rahman 1989:279 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1007 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:592 [ref. 23778], Derijst 1997:107 [ref. 23498], Karmakar 2000:35 [ref. 25662], Vishwanath & Linthoingambi 2005:468 [ref. 28251]). •Synonym of Trichogaster chuna (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 2003:304 [ref. 31338]). Current status: Synonym of Trichogaster chuna (Hamilton 1822). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: Nepal, India and Bangladesh [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

spechti, Macropodus opercularis var. Schreitmüller [W.] 1936:181, fig. [Das Aquarium: eine Zeitschrift mit Bildern für Liebhaber, Schulen und Naturfreunde, Berlin v. 10 (no. 10); ref. 13743] Aquarium import, ? Dutch Indies. Lectotype: ZMB 31380. Paralectotypes: ZMB 31381 (1). See Kottelat et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27792] for a nomenclatural discussion and comments on validity of spechti. See also Opinion 2145 that conserved the priority of spechti over concolor Ahl 1936. •Valid as Macropodus spechti Schreitmüller 1936 -- (Freyhof & Herder 2002:156 [ref. 26072], Winstanley & Clements 2008:4 [ref. 29886]). Current status: Valid as Macropodus spechti Schreitmüller 1936. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

spilotogena, Betta Ng [P. K. L.] & Kottelat [M.] 1994:606, Figs 2D, 3H, 4H, 8 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 22076] Northern Pulau Bintan, from small stream, Riau Archipelago, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC 35417. Paratypes: CMK 10021 (2); MZB (3); ZRC 34748 (1), 34783 (1), 35418-20 (3), 35421-31 (11); plus other material. •Valid as Betta spilotogena Ng & Kottelat 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:126 [ref. 28283], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta spilotogena Ng & Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

splendens, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:782 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Menam River [= Mae Nam Chao Phraya], Thailand. Lectotype: BMNH 1898.11.8.95. Paralectotypes: (8) BMNH 1897.12.28.36 (1), 1897.1.28.6-8 (now. 2), 1898.11.8.96-97 (2); ZMA 114490 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:105 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Schaller & Kottelat 1989:36 [ref. 13604]. •Valid as Betta splendens Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:96 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:138 [ref. 36453], Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Rainboth 1996:215 [ref. 22772], Fuller et al. 1999:471 [ref. 25838], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Kuwasupat et al. 2012:49 [ref. 32254], Kowasupat et al. 2012:387 [ref. 32320], Larson et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta splendens Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand; introduced elsewhere, such as NorthernTerritory, Australia, Habitat: freshwater.

stigmosa, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:64, Figs. 14a-b, 46d [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Terengganu, Sekayu waterfalls, 4°57'49.7"N, 102°57'14.0"E, near swampy stream, Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 43392. Paratypes: ZRC 21720 (1), 41710 (5), 43393 (7). Plus non-type material. Misspelled once as stigmosus. •Valid as Betta stigmosa Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta stigmosa Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

stiktos, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:95, Fig. 45 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Small swampy stream from Stung Treng to Ban Lung, about 3/4 to bridge over Tonle Srepok, about 13°30'N, 106°30'E, Mekong River basin, Cambodia. Holotype: CAS 204326. Paratypes: CAS 94115 (19), ZRC 43391 [ex CAS 94115] (3). •Valid as Betta stiktos Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Kuwasupat et al. 2012:49 [ref. 32254], Kowasupat et al. 2012:387 [ref. 32320], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta stiktos Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Mekong River drainage, Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

striatus, Trichopus Bleeker [P.] 1850:11 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 8); ref. 323] Jakarta; Serang, Java; Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: SMNS 10621 (1) Java. Type catalog: Fricke 1991:9 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:51 [ref. 29864]. Also appeared in Bleeker 1850:106 [ref. 16888]. •Synonym of Trichopis vittatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Kottelat 2013:458 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier 1831). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

strohi, Betta Schaller [D.] & Kottelat [M.] 1989:33, Unnum. fig.; Figs. 2, 5 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 43 (no. 1) [Jan. 1990]; ref. 13604] Nataik Sedawak, about 30 kilometers south of Sukamara (2°41'S, 111°13'E), Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: ZSM 26718. Paratypes: LIPI uncat. [ex ZSM 26719] (6); ZRC 32126-29 [ex ZSM 26719] (4) but returned to ZSM; ZSM 26719 (38, now 32), 26979 (10, 2 missing, probably at CMK). •Status uncertain -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Valid as Betta strohi Schaller & Kottelat 1989 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Schindler & van der Voort 2011:26 [ref. 32382]). •Synonym of Betta foerschi Vierke 1979 -- (Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Betta foerschi Vierke 1979. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

sumatranus, Parosphromenus deissneri Klausewitz [W.] 1955:320, Fig. 7 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 36 (nos 5/6); ref. 12205] Creek at Djambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: SMF 3566. Paratypes: SMF 3711 (4). •Valid as Parosphromenus sumatranus Klausewitz 1955 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:131 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:456 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus sumatranus Klausewitz 1955. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

sumatranus, Trichogaster Ladiges [W.] 1934:169 [Tropical fishes for the home; ref. 20522] Sumatra, Indonesia. No types known. Also mentioned by Ladewig 1934:225 [ref. 35555] as Trichopodus sumatranus. •Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniata, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:781, Pl. 78 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Senah River, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Lectotype: BMNH 1893.3.6.147. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1893.3.6.148-150 (3). Lectotype selected by Hui & Ng 2005:78 [ref. 28354]. •Tentatively valid -- (Roberts 1989:173 [ref. 6439]). •Valid as Betta taeniata Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:98 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:141 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Kottelat 1994:301 [ref. 21572], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Kottelat 1998:558 [ref. 23781], Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:76 [ref. 28354], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284], Schindler & Schmidt 2006:47 [ref. 28865], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:44 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta taeniata Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

tomi, Betta Ng [P. K. L.] & Kottelat [M.] 1994:603, Figs. 2C, 3E-G, 4E-G, 7 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 22076] Freshwater swamp forest along tributary of Sungai Mupor, about 15 kilometers on road from Kota Tinggi to Mersing (ca. 1°52'N, 103°56'E), Johor, Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 35409. Paratypes: CMK 9753 (6); ZRC 35410 (1), 35411-16 (6). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta tomi Ng & Kottelat 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:85 [ref. 28354], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta tomi Ng & Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia and Singapore. Habitat: freshwater.

tramiensis, Macropodus Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [V. H.] in Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [H. D.] 2004:92, Fig. 1 [ ref. 33393] Quang Nam Province, Tra Mi District, Tranh River Basin, Vietnam. Holotype: HNUE. From Kottelat (2013). •Status uncertain as Macropodus spechti Schreitmüller 1936 -- (Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Macropodus spechti Schreitmüller 1936. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Vietnam (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

trichopterus, Labrus Pallas [P. S.] 1770:45 [Spicilegia Zoologica v. 1 (fasc. 8); ref. 12293] Java, Indonesia; Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; erroneous. No types known. Originally spelled Labrvs trichoptervs. Appeared first in genus Sparus (without species name) in Koelreuter 1764 [ref. 26164], p. 452 [Pl. 10, fig. 1]. •Valid as Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Vierke 1986:117 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:164 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:177 [ref. 6439], Pethiyagoda 1991:270 [ref. 20075], Kottelat et al. 1993:165 [ref. 23448], Roberts 1993:38 [ref. 21799], Kottelat & Lim 1995:249 [ref. 23210], Zhu 1995:186 [ref. 25213], Rainboth 1996:216 [ref. 22772], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Vu & Nguyen 1997:27 [ref. 26438], Kottelat 1998:116 [ref. 23436], Martin-Smith & Tan 1998:593 [ref. 23647], Yue & Chen 1998:237 [ref. 26415], Fuller et al. 1999:474 [ref. 25838], Freyhof et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25184], Kottelat 2001:62 [ref. 25482], Britz & Cambray 2001:280 [ref. 25647], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Grinang & Lim 2004:293 [ref. 28551], Tan & Ng 2005:132 [ref. 28283], Parenti & Lim 2005:195 [ref. 28285], Fricke et al. 2009:114 [ref. 30213], Zhang et al. 2016:209 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770) -- (Töpfer 2008:45 [ref. 30111], Paepke 2009:53 [ref. 30200], Tan & Kottelat 2009:62 [ref. 30261], Low & Lim 2012:84 [ref. 32302], Phillip et al. 2013:25 [ref. 32896], Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989], Low et al. 2014:73 [ref. 32509], Kottelat 2015:48 [ref. 33971], Miesen et al. 2016:96 [ref. 34492], Labatos 2017:5 [ref. 36239], Sulaiman et al. 2018:37 [ref. 35802], Ng et al. 2019:535 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

trifasciata, Betta Bleeker [P.] 1849:14 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 12); ref. 16883] No types known. Also appeared in Bleeker 1850:12. •Synonym of Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Tan & Kottelat 1998:557 [ref. 23781], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tussyae, Betta Schaller [D.] 1985:350, Figs. [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 38 (no. 8); ref. 17271] About 77 kilometers south of Kuantan on road parallel to east coast, 17 kilometers south of Pekan, about 77 kilometers from Pahang, about 1 kilometer from sea, Pahang State, Malaysia. Holotype (?): ?ZSM 27336 [now ZRC 38451]. Paratypes: ZFMK 14195 (1), 14224-14225 (2). Plus additonal non-type material: ZFMK 14196-14207 (12), 14208-14212 (6); ZMB 31607-09 (6, 9, 3); CMK 6345 (11). Type catalog: Paepke 1994:315 [ref. 21516], Herder et al. 2010:132 [ref. 31087], Neumann 2011:273 [ref. 31652]. Type information: Schaller & Kottelat 1989:35 [ref. 13604]; holotype apparently still missing (Neumann, pers. comm. 12 July 2012). •Valid as Betta tussyae Schaller 1985 -- (Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 2005:82 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta tussyae Schaller 1985. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

tweediei, Parosphromenus Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:106, Fig. 7 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28282] Pontian, Sri Bunian, Kampong Pt. Tekong, 1°27'59.2"N, 103°26'07.7"E, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 24460. Paratypes: CMK 17697 (10); ZRC 396 (10), 397 (14), 24461-94 (24), 39979 (2), 40000 (30), 47796 (12), 50263 (4). •Valid as Parosphromenus tweediei Kottelat & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Linke 2012:399 [ref. 32321], Kottelat 2013:456 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parosphromenus tweediei Kottelat & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

uberis, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:105, Fig. 5a-d [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] Pankalanbun, Arut basin, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia [aquarium trade specimens]. Holotype: MZB 9338. Paratypes: CMK 16725 (7), 18546 (5); MZB 9339 (5); ZRC 46259 (21). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta uberis Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta uberis Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

unicolor, Colisa Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:368 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Calcutta, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-0403 (5), A-0404 (4); ?ZMB 1382 (1). Type catalog: Blanc 1963:71 [ref. 19851], Paepke 1994:315 [ref. 21516]. •Questionably a synonym of Colisa lalia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1007 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Polyacanthus lalius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1999:298 [ref. 24904]). •Synonym of Trichogaster lalius (Hamilton 1822) -- (based on changes in status of genera). Current status: Synonym of Trichogaster lalius (Hamilton 1822). Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Distribution: India (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

unimaculatus, Parophiocephalus Popta [C. M. L.] 1905:184 [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 25 (no. 4) (art. 15); ref. 3549] Howong R and Kajan River, Borneo, Indonesia. Lectotype: ZMA 114486. Syntypes: (52?) ZMA 114486 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:105 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Hui & Ng 2005:92 [ref. 28354]. •Valid as Betta unimaculata (Popta 1905) -- (Vierke 1986:99 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:142 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta unimaculata (Popta 1905). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

vaillanti, Sphaerichthys Pellegrin [J.] 1930:243 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 55; ref. 16119] Kapuas, Sebroeang, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN 1891-0509 to 0514 (6). Type catalog: Blanc 1963:73 [ref. 19851]. •Valid as Sphaerichthys vaillanti Pellegrin 1930 -- (Vierke 1986:114 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:159 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:177 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:164 [ref. 23448], Britz & Kottelat 2002:248 [ref. 26536], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284]). Current status: Valid as Sphaerichthys vaillanti Pellegrin 1930. Osphronemidae: Luciocephalinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

venustus, Macropodus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:375, Pl. 197 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Canton, China. No types known. •Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Okada 1961:746 [ref. 6363], Freyhof & Herder 2002:149 [ref. 26072], Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

viridiauratus, Macropodus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:416, 417, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] China. Syntypes: ?SMF 0571 [ex MNHN in 1830] (3). Originally viridi-auratus. •Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Zheng 1989:365 [ref. 21202], Freyhof & Herder 2002:149 [ref. 26072], Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

vittatus, Osphromenus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1831:387 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Java, Indonesia. Neotype: RMNH 1605. Appeared first as name only in footnote in Cuvier 1829:228 [ref. 995]. Neotype (possible holotype) designated by Roberts 1993:38 [ref. 21799]. •Valid as Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier 1831) -- (Lee et al. 1980:799 [ref. 22416], Vierke 1986:122 [ref. 36452] as vittatus, Vierke 1988:171 [ref. 36453] as vittatus, Schaller & Kottelat 1989:36 [ref. 13604], Page & Burr 1991:337 [ref. 18983], Roberts 1993:38 [ref. 21799], Kottelat et al. 1993:165 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:249 [ref. 23210], Rainboth 1996:216 [ref. 22772], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Ng & Tan 1999:364 [ref. 24159], Fuller et al. 1999:475 [ref. 25838], Freyhof et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25184], Britz & Cambray 2001:280 [ref. 25647], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Nelson et al. 2004:178 [ref. 27807], Tan & Ng 2005:133 [ref. 28283], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Kottelat 2013:458 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:48 [ref. 33971], Robins et al. 2018:418 [ref. 35886], Ng et al. 2019:535 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier 1831). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Indonesia (introduced elsewhere: USA, India, Myanmar, Bangladesh and possibly the Philippines). Habitat: freshwater.

vulgaris, Colisa Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:362, Pls. 196, 205 (part) [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Ganges River. No types known. Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Trichopodus colisa Hamilton 1822 (to avoid Strickland tautonomy). •Synonym of Polyacanthus fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Menon 1999:298 [ref. 24904]). •Synonym of Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Kottelat 2013:457 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider 1801. Osphronemidae: Trichogastrinae. Habitat: freshwater.

waseri, Betta Krummenacher [R.] 1986:177, Figs. [Aquaria: Vivaristische Fachzeitschrift mit Vereinsmitteilungen v. 33 (no. 12); ref. 8081] Small jungle creek, across the road Kuala Lumpur-Kuantan, 22.5 kilometers before Kuantan, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): ZMUZ 129201. •Valid as Betta waseri Krummenacher 1986 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Ng & Kottelat 1994:595 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 2005:83 [ref. 28354], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta waseri Krummenacher 1986. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

yeni, Macropodus Nguyen [H. D.] & Nguyen [V. H.] in Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [H. D.] 2004:93, Fig. 2 [ ref. 33393] Ouang Nam Province, Phuoc Son District, Daksa spring in Phuoc Doc commune, Vietnam. Holotype: HNUE. From Kottelat (2013). An alternative name for yeni on page 93 is nigrocorpus, probably an inadvertent error; Kottelat (2013) picked yeni as valid. •Status uncertain as Macropodus spechti Schreitmüller 1936 -- (Kottelat 2013:454 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Macropodus spechti Schreitmüller 1936. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.