Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Paralepididae: [ 96 ] records


advena, Pontosudis Rofen [R. R.] 1963:4 [Aquatica No. 2; ref. 3794] Gulf of Mexico, off Mississippi Delta, Louisiana, U.S A., western Atlantic, 28°58'N, 88°18'W, depth 545-445 fathoms. Holotype: CAS-SU 55575. Paratypes: CAS-SU 55576 (5), USNM 196077 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:156 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Uncisudis advena (Rofen 1963) -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:602 [ref. 23897], Nakabo 2000:368 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:368 [ref. 26001], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:196 [ref. 27076], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Prokofiev 2017:643 [ref. 35721]). Current status: Valid as Uncisudis advena (Rofen 1963). Paralepididae. Distribution: Probably circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas (including Hawaiian Islands), but except eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Macroparalepis Ege [V.] 1933:231 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Southwest of Canary Islands, 25°07'N, 19°20'W, Dana station 829, depth about 100 meters (300 meters of wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P23457. Type catalog: Post 1972:151 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:31 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Macroparalepis affinis Ege 1933 -- (Post 1973:207 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:501 [ref. 13675], Post 1986:276 [ref. 5705], Post 1990:378 [ref. 15233], Santos et al. 1997:42 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:52 [ref. 24952], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:195 [ref. 27076], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242], Stewart 2015:587 [ref. 34254], Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572], Nión et al. 2016:37 [ref. 35565], Brown et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Macroparalepis affinis Ege 1933. Paralepididae. Distribution: Atlantic and South Pacific. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Paralepis Ege [V.] 1930:81, Fig. 21 [Report on the Danish Oceanographical Expeditions 1908-1910 to the Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas v. 2 A (no. 13); ref. 16270] Central Atlantic, 12°11'N, 35°49'W, depth about 2000 meters. Lectotype: ZMUC P2318754. Paralectotypes: ZMUC (20), ZMUC P233171 (1), P233236 (1), P233250 (1), others uncat. Type catalog: Post 1972:137 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:32 [ref. 9588]. Lectotype selected by Post 1972:137 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Lestidiops affinis (Ege 1930) -- (Post 1973:206 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:499 [ref. 13675], Post 1990:374 [ref. 15233], Santos et al. 1997:41 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:52 [ref. 24952], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:592 [ref. 23897], Moore et al. 2003:194 [ref. 27076], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192] with wrong locality, Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops affinis (Ege 1930). Paralepididae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

americana, Macroparalepis affine Rofen [R. R.] 1963:2 [Aquatica No. 2; ref. 3794] Western Atlantic, 29°00'N, 76°23'W. Holotype: USNM 195936. Paratypes: Boston Univ. Coll. (4); USNM 195929-30 (4, 1), 195932-33 (4, 1), 195935-36 (4, 1), 195938-39 (3, 5). Type catalog: Post 1972:151 [ref. 20860]. •Synonym of Macroparalepis affinis Ege 1933 -- (Post 1990:378 [ref. 15233]). Current status: Synonym of Macroparalepis affinis Ege 1933. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

annulata, Notolepis Post [A.] 1978:10, Fig. 2 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 29 (nos 1-2); ref. 8892] Antarctic Ocean, 50°47'S, 50°01'W, Walther Herwig station 10-II/76, depth 2000-2050 meters. Holotype: ISH 779-1976. Paratypes: ISH 243-1976 (3), 460-1976 (1), 527-1976 (2), 774-1976 (1), 775-1976 (3), 776-1976 (1), 783-1976 (1), 792-1976 (4). Type catalog: Krefft 1987:79 [ref. 20751]. •Valid as Notolepis annulata Post 1978 -- (Post 1987:101 [ref. 6225], Post 1990:140 [ref. 21683], Miller 1993:504 [ref. 21297], Trunov 1999:462 [ref. 24579], Duhamel et al. 2005:154 [ref. 32059], Ho & Duhamel 2019:509 [ref. 36885]). Current status: Valid as Notolepis annulata Post 1978. Paralepididae. Distribution: Atlantic, southern Indian Ocean and Antarctic. Habitat: marine.

atlanticum, Lestidium Borodin [N. A.] 1928:10, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Oceanographic Museum v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 526] Port Antonia, Jamaica. Holotype (unique): VMM 36 (now at AMNH). Type catalog: Post 1972:146 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Lestidium atlanticum Borodin 1928 -- (Fujii in Uyeno et al. 1983:191 [ref. 14275], Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:76 [ref. 6441], Post 1986:275 [ref. 5705], Paxton et al. 1989:247 [ref. 12442], Post 1990:377 [ref. 15233], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:594 [ref. 23897], Fricke 1999:96 [ref. 24106], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Nakabo 2000:371 [ref. 25086], Paxton in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:21 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:371 [ref. 26001], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:195 [ref. 27076], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:205 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:492 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:48 [ref. 32988], Ghedotti et al. 2014:312 [ref. 34482] in Lestidiidae, Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572], Fricke et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Lestidium atlanticum Borodin 1928. Paralepididae. Distribution: Atlantic and Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Paralepis Krøyer [H. N.] 1868:70 [Tidsskrift for fiskeri / udgivet af H. V. Fiedler og Arthur Ferrersen. v. 2; ref. 19271] Shore at Skagen, Denmark [Skagerrak/Kattegat, North Sea/Baltic Sea, Northeastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): ZMUC (lost). Type catalog: Post 1972:138 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:32 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Paralepis atlantica Krøyer 1868 -- (Post 1973:204 [ref. 7182], Yamamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:243, 321 [ref. 8379], Fujii in Uyeno et al. 1983:190 [ref. 14275], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:504 [ref. 13675], Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:76 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:169, 347 [ref. 8057], Peden et al. 1985:6 [ref. 24081], Peden & Jamieson 1988:492 [ref. 12864], Scott & Scott 1988:196 [ref. 25518], Matarese et al. 1989:138 [ref. 26885], Paxton et al. 1989:247 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:34 [ref. 14125], McAllister 1990:101 [ref. 14674], Santos et al. 1997:42 [ref. 23531], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:596 [ref. 23897], Porteiro et al. 1999:32 [ref. 24203], Nakabo 2000:367 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:300 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:367 [ref. 26001], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370]). •Valid as Magnisudis atlantica (Krøyer 1868) -- (Post 1987:89 [ref. 6225], Post 1990:379 [ref. 15233], Post in Okamura et al. 1995:97 [ref. 22531], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:22 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:239 [ref. 25968], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Moore et al. 2003:195 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:206 [ref. 28379], Møller et al. 2010:32 [ref. 31169], Page et al. 2013:89 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:153 [ref. 33547], Ghedotti et al. 2014:312 [ref. 34482], Afonso et al. 2016:28, 216 [ref. 36199], Bañón et al. 2016:311 [ref. 34397], Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Magnisudis atlantica (Krøyer 1868). Paralepididae. Distribution: Circumglobal in warm to cold temperate seas; not in eastern tropical Pacific. Habitat: marine.

atrox, Lestidium (Lestrolepis) Harry [R. R.] 1953:240 [Pacific Science v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 2045] Not available, no distinguishing features provided; see Post 1972:146 [ref. 20860]. Paralepididae.

atrox, Sudis Rofen [R. R.] 1963:5, Fig. 1 [Aquatica No. 2; ref. 3794] Eastern Pacific, 29°26'N, 134°59'W (stomach content). Holotype (unique): SIO 60-79. Type catalog: Post 1972:158 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Sudis atrox Rofen 1963 -- (Post 1990:385 [ref. 15233], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:600 [ref. 23897], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Nakabo 2000:367 [ref. 25086], Paxton in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:367 [ref. 26001], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:196 [ref. 27076], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Shinohara et al. 2005:410 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:207 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242], Russell 2016:1848 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Sudis atrox Rofen 1963. Paralepididae. Distribution: Probably circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas (including Hawaiian Islands). Habitat: marine.

australis, Arctozenus Ho [H.-C.] & Duhamel [G.] 2019:503, Figs. 1D-E, 2C-D, 3C-D [Zootaxa 4651 (no. 3); ref. 36885] "La Curieuse" off Kerguelen Islands, 49°58'S, 71°48'E, depth 350 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2000-0260. Paratypes: MNHN. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Arctozenus australis Ho & Duhamel 2019. Current status: Valid as Arctozenus australis Ho & Duhamel 2019. Paralepididae. Distribution: Kerguelen Islands, Southern Ocean. Habitat: marine.

barracudina, Paralepis Fowler [H. W.] & Phillips [R. J.] 1910:403, Fig. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 62; ref. 14437] Corson's Inlet, Cape May County, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 37627. Type catalog: Post 1972:138 [ref. 20860], Böhlke 1984:136 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820 -- (Post 1973:204 [ref. 7182], Scott & Scott 1988:197 [ref. 25518], Post 1990:381 [ref. 15233]). Current status: Synonym of Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

barysoma, Magnisudis Harry [R. R.] 1953:235, Fig. 5 [Pacific Science v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 2045] Drifted on shore at Avila, San Luis Obispo County, California, U.S.A. Holotype: CAS-SU 18631. Paratypes: ANSP 72170 (1, c&s, in pieces), CAS-SU 15352 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:155 [ref. 20860] but with incorrect interpretation of Art. 13b, Böhlke 1984:136 [ref. 13621]. Appeared first as above, then in Harry 1953:180 [ref. 12696]. Holotype established on p. 234. •Synonym of Paralepis atlantica Krøyer 1868 -- (Post 1973:204 [ref. 7182] with a lectotype). •Synonym of Magnisudis atlantica (Krøyer 1868) -- (Post 1990:380 [ref. 15233], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:22 [ref. 25650]). Current status: Synonym of Magnisudis atlantica (Krøyer 1868). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

bathyopteryx, Sudis Fowler [H. W.] 1944:353, Figs. 92-93 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] 300 miles off Acapulco, Mexico (stomach content). Holotype (unique): ANSP 70027. Type catalog: Post 1972:159 [ref. 20860], Böhlke 1984:136 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Lestidiops bathyopteryx (Fowler 1944) -- (Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops bathyopteryx (Fowler 1944). Paralepididae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

bellottii, Paralepis Ege [V.] 1933:227 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] New Guinea, 1°20'S, 138°42'E, Dana station 3768, depth about 1000 meters (2000 meters wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P2329236. Type catalog: Post 1972:139 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:32 [ref. 9588]. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

bigelowi, Lestidium Graae [M. J. F.] 1967:2, Fig. 1 [Breviora No. 277; ref. 7964] Indian Ocean, 4°01'-14'S, 65°00'-02'E, depth 0-615 meters. Holotype: MCZ 44881. Paratypes: MCZ 44880 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:146 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Lestidium bigelowi Graae 1967 -- (Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:254 [ref. 28944]). Current status: Valid as Lestidium bigelowi Graae 1967. Paralepididae. Distribution: Indian Ocean; eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

blanci, Lestidium Kartha [K. N. R.] 1971:146, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India v. 12 (nos 1 & 2); ref. 30954] About or km off Quilon, Cochin Cape Comorin Section, Arabian Sea, 8°45'N, 75°50'E, depth 370 meters in borrom trawl. Holotype: FMRI [C.M.F.R.I.] no. 105. Paratypes: FMRI [C.M.F.R.I.] no. 106 (2). •Status uncertain, not treated in recent literature; discovered to be absent from the Catalog of Fishes database on 9/15/2010. •Uncertain in Lestidiops Hubbs 1916 (H.-C. Ho, personal communication, Oct. 2017). Paralepididae. Distribution: Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

borealis, Paralepis Reinhardt [J. C. H.] 1837:115, 125 [33, 43] [Det Kongelige Danske videnskabernes selskabs naturvidenskabelige og mathematiske afhandlinger v. 7; ref. 3691] Julianehåb, Greenland. Lectotype: ZMUC 3. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-0633 [ex ZMUC] (1); ZMUC 2 (1), 11 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:9-10 [ref. 19576], Post 1972:139 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:33 [ref. 9588]. On pp. 33 & 43 of separate. Lectotype selected by Ege 1930:38 [ref. 16270]. •Synonym of Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820, but a valid subspecies -- (Post 1973:203 [ref. 7182], Scott & Scott 1988:197 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:101 [ref. 14674], Lasso-Alcalá et al. 2005:172 [ref. 28938]). •Synonym of Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820 -- (Post 1990:381 [ref. 15233], Ho & Duhamel 2019:498 [ref. 36885]). Current status: Synonym of Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Lestidium (Bathysudis) speciosum Parr [A. E.] 1928:43 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 3); ref. 3368] Bahamas, 21°30'N, 71°11'W, 8000 feet wire out. Lectotype: YPM 2136. Paralectotypes: YPM 2136 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:146 [ref. 20860], Moore & Boardman 1991:24 [ref. 16741]. Lectotype selected by Ege 1953:12 [ref. 12692]. •Valid as Paralepis brevirostris (Parr 1928) -- (Post 1973:205 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:505 [ref. 13675], Post 1987:113 [ref. 6225], Post 1990:380 [ref. 15233], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Paxton in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Moore et al. 2003:195 [ref. 27076], Ghedotti et al. 2014:312 [ref. 34482] as cf. brevirostris, Russell 2016:1848 [ref. 34572], Fricke et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Paralepis brevirostris (Parr 1928). Paralepididae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas. Habitat: marine.

brevis, Macroparalepis Ege [V.] 1933:231 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Near St. Helena, Atlantic, 19°16'S, 1°48'W, Dana station 3981, depth about 300 meters (1000 meters of wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P2318728. Type catalog: Post 1972:152 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:31 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Macroparalepis brevis Ege 1933 -- (Post 1973:207 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:502 [ref. 13675], Post 1990:378 [ref. 15233], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:195 [ref. 27076], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Ghedotti et al. 2014:312 [ref. 34482] in Lestidiidae, Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572], Brown et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Macroparalepis brevis Ege 1933. Paralepididae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

brevis, Paralepis Zugmayer [E.] 1911:4 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 193; ref. 6161] Off Portugal, 37°10'N, 11°48'W, station 3030, depth 0-4750 meters. Holotype (unique): MOM 0091-1162. Type catalog: Belloc 1949:10 [ref. 21544], Post 1972:139 [ref. 20860]. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Zugmayer 1911:61, Pl. 2 (fig. 7) [ref. 4846]. •Synonym of Paralepis atlantica Krøyer 1868 -- (Post 1973:204 [ref. 7182]). •Synonym of Magnisudis atlantica (Krøyer 1868) -- (Post 1990:379 [ref. 15233], Mundy 2005:206 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Magnisudis atlantica (Krøyer 1868). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

bronsoni, Sudis Parr [A. E.] 1928:36, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 3); ref. 3368] Off Crooked Island, Bahamas, 22°43'N, 74°23'W, 8000 feet wire out. Holotype (unique): YPM 2135. Type catalog: Post 1972:159 [ref. 20860], Moore & Boardman 1991:23 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Paralepis atlantica Krøyer 1868 -- (Post 1973:204 [ref. 7182]). •Synonym of Magnisudis atlantica (Krøyer 1868) -- (Post 1990:379 [ref. 15233]). Current status: Synonym of Magnisudis atlantica (Krøyer 1868). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

bullisi, Stemonosudis Rofen [R. R.] 1963:3 [Aquatica No. 2; ref. 3794] Gulf of Mexico, 28°58'N, 88°18'W, depth about 990-810 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 55574. Type catalog: Post 1972:158 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Stemonosudis bullisi Rofen 1963 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:597 [ref. 23897], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis bullisi Rofen 1963. Paralepididae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cadenati, Lestidium Maul [G. E.] 1962:532, Figs. 4-5 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 24; ref. 6082] Gorée, Senegal (found on beach). Holotype (unique): MNHN 1963-0032 [ex IFAB 53.510]. Type catalog: Post 1972:146 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Lestidiops cadenati (Maul 1962) -- (Post 1990:374 [ref. 15233], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Tweddle & Anderson 2008:7 [ref. 29604], Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops cadenati (Maul 1962). Paralepididae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola. Habitat: marine.

coatsi, Notolepis Dollo [L.] 1908:60 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh v. 28 (pt 1, no. 5); ref. 1136] Scotia Bay, 60°43'42"'S, 44°50'W, Scotia station 325, surface. Holotype (unique): NMSZ 1921.143.0331. Type catalog: Post 1972:156 [ref. 20860], Herman et al. 1990:2 [ref. 20727]. Name originally appeared as coatsi, but based on stated etymology for Mr. James Coats, Jr., and his brother, Major Andrew Coats, therefore mandatory correction to coatsorum. •Valid as Notolepis coatsorum Dollo 1908 (often as coatsi) -- (Post 1987:105 [ref. 6225], Post 1990:141 [ref. 21683], Miller 1993:502 [ref. 21297], Trunov 1999:462 [ref. 24579], Duhamel et al. 2005:156 [ref. 32059], Ho & Duhamel 2019:509 [ref. 36885]). Current status: Valid as Notolepis coatsorum Dollo 1908. Paralepididae. Distribution: Southern Ocean. Habitat: marine.

coregonoides, Paralepis Risso [A.] 1820:253 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 91; ref. 18636] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Post 1972:140 [ref. 20860]. See also Risso 1827:472, Pl. 7 (fig. 15) [ref. 3757]. •Valid as Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820 -- (Post 1973:203 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:505 [ref. 13675], Post 1987:116 [ref. 6225], Scott & Scott 1988:196 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:101 [ref. 14674], Post 1990:381 [ref. 15233], Post in Okamura et al. 1995:98 [ref. 22531], Santos et al. 1997:42 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:53 [ref. 24952], Porteiro et al. 1999:32 [ref. 24203], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Moore et al. 2003:195 [ref. 27076], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:24 [ref. 36649], Møller et al. 2010:32 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:119 [ref. 31212], Ghedotti et al. 2014:312 [ref. 34482], Goren & Galil 2015:517 [ref. 33910], Afonso et al. 2016:28, 244 [ref. 36199], Russell 2016:1848 [ref. 34572], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:97 [ref. 36370], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36864], Ho & Duhamel 2019:510 [ref. 36885]). Current status: Valid as Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820. Paralepididae. Distribution: North Atlantic, including Mediterranean Sea; and adjacent Arctic region. Habitat: marine.

coruscans, Paralepis Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1881:411 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 171); ref. 10592] Port Townsend harbor, Washington, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 27171. Type catalog: Post 1972:140 [ref. 20860]. •Synonym of Notolepis risso (Bonaparte 1840) -- (Post 1973:208 [ref. 7182]). •Synonym of Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840) -- (Post 1990:373 [ref. 15233], Ho & Duhamel 2019:499 [ref. 36885]). Current status: Synonym of Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Paralepis Bonaparte [C. L.] 1840:fasc. 29, punt. 152 [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 514] No types known. Type catalog: Post 1972:140 [ref. 20860]. •Synonym of Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820 -- (Post 1973:203 [ref. 7182]). Current status: Synonym of Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

danae, Macroparalepis Ege [V.] 1933:230 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Near Fiji Islands, South Pacific, 20°00'S, 174°29'E, Dana station 3602, depth about 2000 meters (4000 meters wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P23458. Type catalog: Post 1972:152 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:31 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Macroparalepis danae Ege 1933 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:110 [ref. 24556], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242], Stewart 2015:588 [ref. 34254]). Current status: Valid as Macroparalepis danae Ege 1933. Paralepididae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

danae, Paralepis Ege [V.] 1933:223 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Off West Africa, 13°31'N, 18°03'W, Dana station 4005, depth about 1500 meters (3000 meters of wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P2316968. Type catalog: Post 1972:140 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:33 [ref. 9588]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Paralepis pseudosphyraenoides danae Ege 1930, replaced by Paralepis egei Harry 1948. •Objective synonym of Paralepis egei Harry 1948. •Synonym of Paralepis elongata (Brauer 1906) -- (Post 1987:122 [ref. 6225], Post 1990:381 [ref. 15233]). Current status: Synonym of Paralepis elongata (Brauer 1906). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

danae, Paralepis pseudosphyraenoides Ege [V.] 1930:79, Fig. 19 [Report on the Danish Oceanographical Expeditions 1908-1910 to the Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas v. 2 A (no. 13); ref. 16270] 25°07'N, 19°20'W, depth about 30 meters (100 meters of wire out). Lectotype: ZMUC P2322674. Paralectotypes: (34) ZMUC P2323811 (1), P2323816 (1), P2323841-42 (2), others uncat. and not identifiable. Type catalog: Post 1972:143 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:34 [ref. 9588]. Lectotype selected by Post (1972:143 [ref. 20860]). •Synonym of Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889) -- (Post 1973:206 [ref. 7182], Post 1990:375 [ref. 15233], Mundy 2005:203 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

denticulata, Uncisudis Kotthaus [A.] 1967:80, Figs. 85-86 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 1; ref. 2668] East of Mombasa, 4°17.8'-16.5'S, 48°0l.5'-14'E, Meteor station 168, depth 450 meters. Holotype: ZMH 4930 [ex IOES 37a]. Paratypes: ZMH 4931 [ex IOES 37b] (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:160 [ref. 20860]. •Synonym of Uncisudis longirostris Maul 1956 -- (Post 1973:210 [ref. 7182]). •Synonym of Uncisudis longirostra. Current status: Synonym of Uncisudis longirostra Maul 1956. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

distans, Lestidium Ege [V.] 1953:95, 119, Fig. 19 [Dana Report No. 40; ref. 12692] Off west coast of Africa, 10°21'N, 17°59'W, depth about 30 meters (100 meters wire out). Holotype: ZMUC P2316994. Paratypes: ZMUC P2316995-96 (2), P2316997-98 (2); others not identifiable. Type catalog: Post 1972:146 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:29 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Lestidiops distans (Ege 1953) -- (Post 1990:375 [ref. 15233], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops distans (Ege 1953). Paralepididae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

distans, Macroparalepis Ege [V.] 1957:35, Fig. 7 [Dana Report No. 43; ref. 18062] Western Pacific, 0°37'S, 134°29'E, about 160 meters (500 meters wire out). Lectotype: ZMUC P2318732. Paralectotypes: ZMUC P2318731 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:152 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:31 [ref. 9588]. Lectotype selected by Post 1972:152 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Stemonosudis distans (Ege 1957) -- (Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis distans (Ege 1957). Paralepididae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

egei, Macroparalepis Maul [G. E.] 1945:31, Fig. 9 [Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal No. 1 (art. 1); ref. 13147] Off Madeira, northeastern Atlantic (stomach content). Holotype (unique): MMF 3003. Type catalog: Post 1972:152 [ref. 20860]. •Synonym of Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889) -- (Post 1973:206 [ref. 7182], Post 1990:375 [ref. 15233]). Current status: Synonym of Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

egei, Paralepis Harry [R. R.] 1948:221 [Copeia 1948 (no. 3); ref. 18246] Replacement name for Paralepis danae Ege 1933, preoccupied by Paraliparis pseudosphyraenoides danae Ege 1930. •Synonym of of Paralepis elongata (Brauer 1906) -- (Post 1987:122 [ref. 6225], Post 1990:381 [ref. 15233]). Current status: Synonym of Paralepis elongata (Brauer 1906). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Lestidium Parr [A. E.] 1928:45, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 3); ref. 3368] Turks Islands, Bahamas, surface. Holotype (unique): YPM 2139. Type catalog: Post 1972:147 [ref. 20860], Moore & Boardman 1991:23 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Lestidium atlanticum Borodin 1928 -- (Post 1990:377 [ref. 15233]). Current status: Synonym of Lestidium atlanticum Borodin 1928. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Macroparalepis Ege [V.] 1933:232 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] [ca. 230 kilometers] south of Lord Howe Island [Tasman Sea, southwestern Pacific], 33°39.5'S, 159°00'E, Dana station 3655, depth about 70 meters (200 meters wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P2318733. Type catalog: Post 1972:153 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:31 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Stemonosudis elegans (Ege 1933) -- (Post 1986:277 [ref. 5705], Paxton et al. 1989:248 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:110 [ref. 24556], Fricke 1999:96 [ref. 24106], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Nakabo 2000:370 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:370 [ref. 26001], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Mundy 2005:206 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:494 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242], Stewart 2015:592 [ref. 34254], Fricke et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis elegans (Ege 1933). Paralepididae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa east to Hawaiian Islands and Society Islands, north to Japan, south to New Caledonia, Tasman Sea and New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

elongatum, Lestidium Ege [V.] 1953:61, Fig. 10 [Dana Report No. 40; ref. 12692] North Pacific, 39°43'N, 167°55'W, about 60 meters (183 meters wire out). Holotype: ZMUC P2316989. Paratypes: ZMUC P2316985-87 (3), P2316988 (1); more at ZMUC but not identifiable. Type catalog: Post 1972:147 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:30 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Lestidiops ringens (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Mecklenburg et al. 2002:237 [ref. 25968], Mundy 2005:204 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Lestidiops ringens (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Macroparalepis Ege [V.] 1933:233 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Southeast of Sri Lanka, 4°28'N, 82°13'E, Dana station 3908, depth about 300 meters (1000 meters wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P2318729. Type catalog: Post 1972:153 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:31 [ref. 9588]. Stemonosudis is feminine, so species should be elongata. •Valid as Stemonosudis elongatus (Ege 1933) -- (Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Mundy 2005:207 [ref. 28379]). •Valid as Stemonosudis elongata (Ege 1933) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis elongata (Ege 1933). Paralepididae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Philippines, south to Fiji. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Omosudis Brauer [A.] 1906:140, Fig. 68 [Die Tiefsee-Fische v. 15; ref. 632] Gulf of Guinea, 3°55'S, 7°48'05"E. Lectotype: ZMB 17554. Paralectotypes: (13) ASUM A20.2.1.1a (1). SMF 2063 (1), ZMB 22580 (2), ZMH 8171 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:156 [ref. 20860], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:411 [ref. 21161]. Lectotype selected by Post 1972:156 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Paralepis elongata (Brauer 1906) -- (Ege 1958:4 [ref. 24557], Post 1986:277 [ref. 5705], Post 1987:122 [ref. 6225], Post 1990:381 [ref. 15233], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:195 [ref. 27076], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Russell 2016:1848 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Paralepis elongata (Brauer 1906). Paralepididae. Distribution: Cosmopolitan. Habitat: marine.

extremum, Lestidium Ege [V.] 1953:136, Fig. 29 [Dana Report No. 40; ref. 12692] Molucca Passage, 0°18'S, 132°52'E, depth about 100 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P2316999. Paratypes: ZMUC P2318701-02 (1, 1). Type catalog: Post 1972:147 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:30 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Lestidiops extrema (Ege 1953) -- (Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops extrema (Ege 1953). Paralepididae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

fuliginosa, Dolichosudis Post [A.] 1969:17, Figs. 1-4 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 3554] Off Brazil, 28°34'S, 46°53'W, depth 1200 to 0 meters. Holotype (unique): ISH 2007-1968. Type catalog: Post 1972:145 [ref. 20860], Krefft 1978:12 [ref. 9884]. •Valid as Dolichosudis fuliginosa Post 1969 -- (Fujii in Uyeno et al. 1983:194 [ref. 14275], Post 1990:374 [ref. 15233], Savinykh & Balanov 1999:423 [ref. 24871], Nakabo 2000:369 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:369 [ref. 26001], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Dolichosudis fuliginosa Post 1969. Paralepididae. Distribution: Atlantic and Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gracile, Lestidium Ege [V.] 1953:101, Fig. 20 [Dana Report No. 40; ref. 12692] Southeast of New Zealand, 46°43'S, 176°08'30"E, depth about 30 meters (100 meters of wire out). Holotype: ZMUC P2318706. Paratypes: ZMUC P2318707-08 (2, 2). Type catalog: Post 1972:148 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:30 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Lestidiops gracilis (Ege 1953) -- (Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops gracilis (Ege 1953). Paralepididae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Macroparalepis Ege [V.] 1933:234 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Straits of Macasar, 0°06'N, 118°43'E, Dana station 3795, depth about 300 meters (1000 meters wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P2318734. Type catalog: Post 1972:153 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:31 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Stemonosudis gracilis (Ege 1933) -- (Post 1986:277 [ref. 5705], Post 1990:382 [ref. 15233], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:598 [ref. 23897], Fricke 1999:96 [ref. 24106], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Paxton in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Stewart 2015:593 [ref. 34254] as ? gracilis, Russell 2016:1848 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis gracilis (Ege 1933). Paralepididae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific and Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

harryi, Paralepis Maul [G. E.] 1954:54, Figs. 19, 20 (top), 21a [Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal No. 7 (art. 18); ref. 12657] Funchal fish market, from the stomach of an *Aphanopus carbo* caught off Madeira. Holotype (unique): MMF 3863. Type catalog: Post 1972:141 [ref. 20860]. •Synonym of Paralepis brevirostris (Parr 1928) -- (Post 1973:205 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:506 [ref. 13675], Post 1987:115 [ref. 6225], Post 1990:380 [ref. 15233]). Current status: Synonym of Paralepis brevirostris (Parr 1928). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

hookeri, Prymnothonus Richardson [J.] 1845:51, Pl. 30 (figs. 6-7) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] No locality. Holotype (unique): lost before publication. Type catalog: Post 1972:157 [ref. 20860]. •Questionably a synonym of Notolepis risso (Bonaparte 1840) -- (Post 1973:208 [ref. 7182] as rissoi). •Synonym of Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840) or incertae sedis in Paralepididae -- (Ho & Duhamel 2019:498 [ref. 36885]). Current status: Uncertain as Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

hyalina, Sudis Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:60, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): lost. Type information: Post 1972:159 [ref. 20860]. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:34 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Sudis hyalina Rafinesque 1810 -- (Post 1973:209 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:507 [ref. 13675], Post 1986:278 [ref. 5705], McAllister 1990:101 [ref. 14674], Post 1990:385 [ref. 15233], Santos et al. 1997:42 [ref. 23531], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:601 [ref. 23897], Porteiro et al. 1999:33 [ref. 24203], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:44 [ref. 26753], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:196 [ref. 27076], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Paxton et al. 2006:494 [ref. 28995] as hyalinus, Fricke et al. 2007:59 [ref. 29533], Ghedotti et al. 2014:312 [ref. 34482], Goren & Galil 2015:518 [ref. 33910], Stewart 2015:594 [ref. 34254], Russell 2016:1848 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Sudis hyalina Rafinesque 1810. Paralepididae. Distribution: Circumglobal, including Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Paralepis brevis Ege [V.] 1953:5, Fig. 1 [Dana Report No. 40; ref. 12692] Indian Ocean, 11°18'S, 50°03'E, about 2000 meters (4000 meters wire out). Holotype: ZMUC P2318755. Paratypes: ZMUC P236935 (1), P236941 (1), P236949-50 (2); more types at ZMUC but not identifiable. Type catalog: Post 1972:139 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:33 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Paralepis atlantica Krøyer 1868, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1982:103, 337 [ref. 8256], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:503 [ref. 13675], Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:76 [ref. 6441], Okamura & Machida 1986:41 [ref. 22278], Scott & Scott 1988:196 [ref. 25518]). •Valid as Magnisudis indica (Ege 1953) -- (Post 1987:94 [ref. 6225], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Paxton in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Magnisudis indica (Ege 1953). Paralepididae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

indopacificum, Lestidium Ege [V.] 1953:120, Fig. 26 [Dana Report No. 40; ref. 12692] Off India [is southwest of Laamu Atoll, Maldives, Indian Ocean], 1°45'N, 73°03'E, depth about 100 meters (300 meters wire out). Holotype: ZMUC P2329237. Paratypes: ZMUC P2331008-22 (5), others not identifiable. Type catalog: Post 1972:148 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:30 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Lestidiops indopacifica (Ege 1953) -- (Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:77 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:246 [ref. 12442], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Nakabo 2000:368 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:368 [ref. 26001], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:203 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:492 [ref. 28995], Gomon 2008:267 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2011:359 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops indopacifica (Ege 1953). Paralepididae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa and Madagascar to Hawaiian and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia; southeastern Pacific: off Chile. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Macroparalepis Ege [V.] 1933:235 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Caribbean Sea, 13°47'N, 61°26'W, Dana station 1183, depth about 1250 meters (2500 meters of wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P2318735. Type catalog: Post 1972:153 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:32 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Stemonosudis intermedia (Ege 1933) -- (Post 1990:382 [ref. 15233], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:599 [ref. 23897], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:195 [ref. 27076], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Russell 2016:1848 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis intermedia (Ege 1933). Paralepididae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Paralepis Poey [F.] 1868:416 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Matanzas [Matanzas Province], northwestern Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 32931. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:176 [ref. 22926], Post 1972:141 [ref. 20860], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]. •Valid as Lestrolepis intermedia (Poey 1868) -- (Ueyno & Aizawa in Uyeno et al. 1983:192 [ref. 14275], Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:77 [ref. 6441], Post 1986:275 [ref. 5705], Post 1990:377 [ref. 15233], Boschung 1992:71 [ref. 23239], Shinohara et al. 1996:164 [ref. 26605], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:595 [ref. 23897], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Nakabo 2000:371 [ref. 25086], Paxton in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:371 [ref. 26001], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192] dated 1864, Moore et al. 2003:195 [ref. 27076], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:205 [ref. 28379], Kim et al. 2007:63 [ref. 36292], Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242], Ghedotti et al. 2014:312 [ref. 34482] in Lestidiidae, Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195], Fricke et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35805], Ho & Golani 2019:578 [ref. 36800]). Current status: Valid as Lestrolepis intermedia (Poey 1868). Paralepididae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas. Habitat: marine.

japonicum, Lestidium Tanaka [S.] 1908:27 [Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses v. 7 (pt 1); ref. 14424] Sagami Sea, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 2013. Paratypes: (1) ZUMT 2014 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:148 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Lestrolepis japonica (Tanaka 1908) -- (Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:77 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:247 [ref. 12442], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Nakabo 2000:371 [ref. 25086], Paxton in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:21 [ref. 25847], Chen 2002:251 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:371 [ref. 26001], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:206 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:493 [ref. 28995], Kim et al. 2007:64 [ref. 36292], Larson et al. 2013:48 [ref. 32988], Ghedotti et al. 2014:312 [ref. 34482] in Lestidiidae, Motomura et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35490] as Lestolepis, Ho & Golani 2019:578 [ref. 36800]). Current status: Valid as Lestrolepis japonica (Tanaka 1908). Paralepididae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South China Sea north to southern Korea and Japan; northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

jayakari, Sudis Boulenger [G. A.] 1889:241, Fig. [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1889 (pt 2); ref. 14491] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1889.4.25[?15].60. Type catalog: Post 1972:159 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889) -- (Post 1973:206 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:500 [ref. 13675], Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:76 [ref. 6441], Post 1986:275 [ref. 5705], Scott & Scott 1988:194 [ref. 25518], Paxton et al. 1989:246 [ref. 12442], McAllister 1990:100 [ref. 14674], Post 1990:375 [ref. 15233], Goren & Dor 1994:13 [ref. 25356], Golani 1996:24 [ref. 22271], Santos et al. 1997:41 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:52 [ref. 24952], Adam et al. 1998:9 [ref. 23610], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:593 [ref. 23897], Fricke 1999:96 [ref. 24106], Porteiro et al. 1999:32 [ref. 24203], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Nakabo 2000:368 [ref. 25086], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:43 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:368 [ref. 26001], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:194 [ref. 27076], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:203 [ref. 28379], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:254 [ref. 28944], Paxton et al. 2006:492 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2007:59 [ref. 29533], Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242], Ghedotti et al. 2014:312 [ref. 34482] in Lestidiidae, Stewart 2015:585 [ref. 34254], Nión et al. 2016:37 [ref. 35565] as jayakari jayakari, Fricke et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:35 [ref. 36273], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889). Paralepididae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea), except southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

johnfitchi, Lestidium Rofen [R. R.] 1960:284, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1959 (no. 4); ref. 11944] East end Anchorage, San Clemente Island, southern California, U.S.A., in 15 fathoms [at night from a purse seine]. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 52109 [ex UCLA W53-254]. Type catalog: Post 1972:149 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Macroparalepis johnfitchi (Rofen 1960) -- (Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Page et al. 2013:89 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Macroparalepis johnfitchi (Rofen 1960). Paralepididae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

kroyeri, Paralepis Lütken [C. F.] 1892:228 [26] [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1891; ref. 13407] Off Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Ocean, 62°16'58.8"N, 10°10'1.2"W, depth 676 ‒ 696 meters. Neotype: MNHN 2018-0264 [ex MNHN 2000-5431]. Type catalog: Post 1972:141 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:33 [ref. 9588]. Based on Pl. 16B (fig. 1) of Krøyer 1847 in Gaimard 1842-56. Neotype designated by Ho & Duhamel 2019:499 [ref. 36885]. •Synonym of Notolepis risso (Bonaparte 1840) -- (Post 1973:208 [ref. 7182] as rissoi). •Synonym of Notolepis rissoi (Bonaparte 1840), but a valid subspecies kroyeri (Lütken 1892) -- (Scott & Scott 1988:195 [ref. 25518] as rissoi, McAllister 1990:100 [ref. 14674] as rissoi). •Synonym of Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840) -- (Dolgov 2013:917 [ref. 33112], Parin et al. 2014:153 [ref. 33547], Ho & Duhamel 2019:499 [ref. 36885]). Current status: Synonym of Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

lanceolatus, Lestidium Fourmanoir [P.] & Crosnier [A.] 1964:10, Fig. 6 A [Cahiers O. R. S. T. O. M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Série Océanographie No. 6 (1963); ref. 5568] Mozambique Channel. Syntypes: MNHN (2) apparently lost. Type catalog: Post 1972:149 [ref. 20860]. Correct spelling is Lestidium lanceolatum. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

longilateralis, Macroparalepis Post [A.] 1973:223, Fig. 5 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 23 (no. 3); ref. 7580] South Atlantic, 39°53'S, 21°33'W, depth 696-708 meters. Holotype (unique): ISH 924-1971. Type catalog: Krefft 1978:13 [ref. 9884]. •Valid as Macroparalepis longilateralis Post 1973 -- (Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Stewart 2015:589 [ref. 34254]). Current status: Valid as Macroparalepis longilateralis Post 1973. Paralepididae. Distribution: Probably circumglobal in Southern Hemisphere. Habitat: marine.

longipinnis, Maculisudis Kotthaus [A.] 1967:82, Figs. 87-90 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 1; ref. 2668] East of Mombasa, Kenya, Meteor station 168, 4°17.8'-16.5'S, 48°1.5'-14'E, depth 450 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 4932 [ex IOES 38]. Type catalog: Post 1972:155 [ref. 20860], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:411 [ref. 21161]. Maculisudis longipinnis Kotthaus 1967 and Stemonosudis rothschildi Richards 1967 appeared in the same year, but Richards 1967 [ref. 7991] appeared in Jan. and has apparently priority; Stemonosudis rothschildi is also in prevailing usage. •Synonym of Stemonosudis rothschildi Richards 1967 (Post 1971:740 [ref. 36812]). Current status: Synonym of Stemonosudis rothschildi Richards 1967. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

longirostra, Uncisudis Maul [G. E.] 1956:91, Fig. 18 [Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal No. 9 (art. 24); ref. 2917] Off Madeira (stomach content). Holotype: MMF 5722. Paratypes: MMF 8649 (1, head only). Type catalog: Post 1972:160 [ref. 20860]. See Post 1990:383 [ref. 15233] for spelling of species name. •Valid as Uncisudis longirostris Maul 1956 -- (Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:502 [ref. 13675]). •Valid [correctly] as Uncisudis longirostra Maul 1956 -- (Post 1990:383 [ref. 15233], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Russell 2016:1848 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Uncisudis longirostra Maul 1956. Paralepididae. Distribution: Cosmopolitan. Habitat: marine.

luetkeni, Paralepis Ege [V.] 1933:226 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Mozambique Channel, 18°30'S, 42°18'E, Dana station 3955, depth about 150 meters (500 meters wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P2318776. Type catalog: Post 1972:141 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:33 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Paralepis luetkeni Ege 1933 -- (Dor 1984:49 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:13 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Lestrolepis luetkeni (Ege 1933) -- (Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Nakabo 2000:371 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:371 [ref. 26001], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Mundy 2005:206 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:36 [ref. 36273]). •Valid as Lestidiops lutkeni (Ege 1933) -- (H. Ho pers. commun. 7/2019). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops luetkeni (Ege 1933). Paralepididae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa; New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

luxiocula, Lestrolepis Ho [H.-C.] & Golani [D.] 2019:575, Fig. 2 [Zootaxa 4619 (no. 3); ref. 36800] Elat, Red Sea, Israel, 29°32'36.04"N, 34°58'25.53"E [corrected], depth 1 - 1.5 meters. Holotype: HUJ 18623. Paratypes: MNHN 1977-0938 (3). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Lestrolepis luxiocula Ho & Golani 2019. Current status: Valid as Lestrolepis luxiocula Ho & Golani 2019. Paralepididae. Distribution: Red Sea. Habitat: marine.

macrogeneion, Macroparalepis Post [A.] 1973:218, Fig. 4 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 23 (no. 3); ref. 7580] South Atlantic, 39°53'S, 21°44'W, depth 256-260 meters. Holotype: ISH 896-1971a. Paratypes: ISH 494-1971 (1), 653-1971 (4), 896-1971b (2), 1489-1971 (3). Type catalog: Krefft 1978:13 [ref. 9884]. •Valid as Macroparalepis macrogeneion Post 1973 -- (Post 1986:276 [ref. 5705], Paxton et al. 1989:247 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:34 [ref. 14125] as macrogeneios, Gomon et al. 1994:272 [ref. 22532], Trunov 1999:462 [ref. 24579], Hutchins 2001:21 [ref. 25847], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Duhamel et al. 2005:394 [ref. 32059] with question, Paxton et al. 2006:493 [ref. 28995], Gomon 2008:268 [ref. 30616], Stewart 2015:590 [ref. 34254], Nión et al. 2016:37 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Macroparalepis macrogeneion Post 1973. Paralepididae. Distribution: Circumglobal in Southern Hemisphere. Habitat: marine.

macrurus, Macroparalepis Ege [V.] 1933:232 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Netherlands Indies [ca. 410 kilometers southwest of Pulau Pagai Selatan, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean], 5°17'S, 97°06'E, Dana station 3855, depth about 130 meters (400 meters of wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P2318730. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:32 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Stemonosudis macrura (Ege 1933) -- (Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:77 [ref. 6441], Post 1986:277 [ref. 5705] as macrurus, Paxton et al. 1989:248 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:34 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:110 [ref. 24556] as macrurus, Fricke 1999:96 [ref. 24106] as macrurus, Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Nakabo 2000:370 [ref. 25086], Paxton in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:370 [ref. 26001], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Shinohara et al. 2005:410 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:207 [ref. 28379], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:254 [ref. 28944], Paxton et al. 2006:494 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2018:74 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis macrura (Ege 1933). Paralepididae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: South and East Africa, Comoros and Madagascar east to Hawaiian Islands, Galápagos Islands, and off Chile, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

mirabilis, Paralepis Ege [V.] 1933:228 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Sulawesi Sea, western Pacific, 4°03'N, 123°26'E, Dana station 3683, depth about 1000 meters (2000 meters wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC (lost). Type catalog: Post 1972:142 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:34 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Lestidiops mirabilis (Ege 1933) -- (Fujii in Uyeno et al. 1983:193 [ref. 14275], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Nakabo 2000:368 [ref. 25086], Paxton in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:368 [ref. 26001], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:204 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242], Stewart 2015:586 [ref. 34254], Fricke et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops mirabilis (Ege 1933). Paralepididae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical seas, but not in eastern Atlantic and eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

miscellus, Macroparalepis Ege [V.] 1933:233 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Near Sumatra, Indonesia, 0°51.5'S, 99°24.5'E, Dana station 3821, depth about 100 meters (300 meters wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P2318736. Type catalog: Post 1972:154 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:32 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Stemonosudis miscella (Ege 1933) -- (Nakabo 2000:370 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:370 [ref. 26001], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis miscella (Ege 1933). Paralepididae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

molestus, Macroparalepis Marshall [N. B.] 1955:315, Fig. 5 [Discovery Reports v. 27; ref. 12282] Near Campbell Island, south of New Zealand, Discovery station 2209, 53°07.7'S, 168°56.4'E. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1955.3.30.1. Type catalog: Post 1972:154 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Stemonosudis molesta (Marshall 1955) -- (Yamamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:97, 187 [ref. 8379], Pequeño 1989:34 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:110 [ref. 24556] as molestus, Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis molesta (Marshall 1955). Paralepididae. Distribution: Southeastern and southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

neles, Lestidium Harry [R. R.] 1953:199, Figs. 18, 22 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 105; ref. 12696] Off Puerto Vallarta, Pacific coast of Mexico, 20°48'15"N, 106°11'50"W, 3240 feet wire out. Holotype (unique): YPM 2655. Type catalog: Post 1972:149 [ref. 20860]. Appeared first as name only in Harry 1953:240 [ref. 2045]. •Valid as Lestidiops neles (Harry 1953) -- (Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:254 [ref. 28944], Robertson et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops neles (Harry 1953). Paralepididae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California to Gulf of Panama. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Longisudis Maul [G. E.] 1965:56, Figs. 1a-1c [Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal No. 19 (art. 81); ref. 2918] Off Madeira (stomach content). Holotype: MMF 21171. Paratypes: MMF 13080 (1), 14701 (1), 14969 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:150-151 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Macroparalepis nigra (Maul 1965) -- (Post 1973:208 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:502 [ref. 13675], Post 1990:379 [ref. 15233], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Macroparalepis nigra (Maul 1965). Paralepididae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nudum, Lestidium Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:607, Fig. 236 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Pailolo Channel, between Molokai Island and Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3899, depth 0 to 283-284 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 51615. Type catalog: Post 1972:149 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Lestidium nudum Gilbert 1905 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:247 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:109, 110 [ref. 24556], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Myers & Donaldson 2003:613 [ref. 27495], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Mundy 2005:205 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:492 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:48 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Lestidium nudum Gilbert 1905. Paralepididae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Timor Sea; Western Pacific: New South Wales (Australia), Hawaiian Islands; probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

pacificus, Paralepis Parr [A. E.] 1931:19, Figs. 6-7 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 2 (art. 4); ref. 3371] Off Puerto Vallarta, Pacific coast of Mexico, 20°48'15"N, 106°11'50"W, 3240 feet wire out. Holotype: YPM 2654. Paratypes: YPM 2655 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:142 [ref. 20860], Moore & Boardman 1991:23-24 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Lestidium pacificum (Parr 1931) -- (Pequeño 1989:34 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889), but a valid subspecies pacifica (Parr 1931) -- (Castro-Aguirre 1991:78 [ref. 19554], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Mundy 2005:204 [ref. 28379]). •Valid as Lestidiops pacificus (Parr 1931) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:271 [ref. 22532] as pacifica, Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops pacificus (Parr 1931). Paralepididae. Distribution: Pacific. Habitat: marine.

paralepis, Coregonus Cuvier [G.] (ex Risso) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:357, Pl. 67 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820. However, name is spelled Paralepis coregonoïde on Pl. 67, and on p. 357 reference was made to Coregonus paralepis Risso, 1st edit. •Synonym of Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820. Current status: Synonym of Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

philippinus, Paralepis Fowler [H. W.] 1934:281, Fig. 42 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Varadero Harbor, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 92323. Paratypes: FMNH 42783 (2); CAS-SU 14970 [ex USNM 135257] (1); USNM 93414 (2), 135257 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:18 [ref. 12291], Post 1972:142 [ref. 20860], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:63 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Lestrolepis japonica (Tanaka 1908) -- (Mundy 2005:206 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Lestrolepis japonica (Tanaka 1908). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

pofi, Lestidium Harry [R. R.] 1953:189, Figs. 6, 12 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 105; ref. 12696] Kiritimati [formerly Christmas Island], Line Islands, surface. Holotype: USNM 163316. Paratypes: CAS-SU 18632 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:150 [ref. 20860]. Appeared first as name only in Rofen 1953:240 [ref. 2045]. •Synonym of Lestrolepis luetkeni (Ege 1933) -- (Mundy 2005:206 [ref. 28379], Golani & Fricke 2018:36 [ref. 36273]). •Valid as Lestrolepis pofi (Harry 1953) -- (Dor 1984:48 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:13 [ref. 25356], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:61 [ref. 35264], Ho & Golani 2019:572 [ref. 36800]). Current status: Valid as Lestrolepis pofi (Harry 1953). Paralepididae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Australia, New Caledonia, Kiritimati, Japan, Hawaii. Habitat: marine.

posteropelvis, Uncisudis Fukui [A.] & Ozawa [T.] 2004:289, Figs. 2-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 51 (no. 4); ref. 28076] Western North Pacific, 8°43.9'N,157°16.3'E, 1500 meters wire out. Holotype: NSMT-PL 130. Paratypes: NSMT-PL 131-135 (1, 1, 1, 1 c&s, 1). •Valid as Uncisudis posteropelvis Fukui & Ozawa 2004. Current status: Valid as Uncisudis posteropelvis Fukui & Ozawa 2004. Paralepididae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

prionosa, Paralepis atlantica Rofen [R. R.] 1963:1 [Aquatica No. 2; ref. 3794] Antarctic (from whale stomach). Holotype: CAS-SU 55091. Paratypes: CAS-SU 55092 (1); USNM 158667 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:138 [ref. 20860]. •Synonym of Paralepis atlantica Krøyer 1868 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:248 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Paralepis atlantica Krøyer 1868, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:503 [ref. 13675], Scott & Scott 1988:196 [ref. 25518], Fujii in Amaoka et al. 1990:146 [ref. 16024]). •Valid as Magnisudis prionosa (Rofen 1963) -- (Post 1986:276 [ref. 5705], Post 1987:95 [ref. 6225], Paulin et al. 1989:109 [ref. 24556], Post 1990:139 [ref. 21683], Miller 1993:505 [ref. 21297], Fricke 1999:96 [ref. 24106], Trunov 1999:462 [ref. 24579], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Duhamel et al. 2005:152 [ref. 32059], Paxton et al. 2006:493 [ref. 28995], Stewart 2015:591 [ref. 34254], Nión et al. 2016:37 [ref. 35565] with author as Rofen 1963, Ho & Duhamel 2019:509 [ref. 36885]). Current status: Valid as Magnisudis prionosa (Rofen 1963). Paralepididae. Distribution: Southern Hemisphere, circumglobal. Habitat: marine.

progressum, Lestidium pseudosphyraenoides Ege [V.] 1953:82, Fig. 17 [Dana Report No. 40; ref. 12692] North of New Zealand, 34°24'S, 178°42'30"E, depth about 30 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P2316992. Paratypes: ZMUC P2331007 (1); more at ZMUC but not identifiable. Type catalog: Post 1972:150 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:30 [ref. 9588]. •A synonym of a species of Lestidiops. Current status: Synonym of Lestidiops. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

prolixum, Lestidium (Lestidium) Harry [R. R.] 1953:204, Figs. 25, 28 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 105; ref. 12696] Kumano-Nada, off Shikoku, Japan, depth 200 fathoms. Holotype: CAS-SU 32968. Paratypes: ZITU 44033 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:150 [ref. 20860]. Appeared first without clear distinguishing features in Harry 1953:223, 240, Fig. 1 [ref. 2045]. •Valid as Lestidium prolixum Harry 1953 -- (Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:76 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:167, 346 [ref. 8057], Suzuki & Hosokawa 1994:2 [ref. 24339], Nakabo 2000:371 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:300 [ref. 25995], Chen 2002:250 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:371 [ref. 26001], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:205 [ref. 28379], Kim et al. 2007:62 [ref. 36292], Shinohara et al. 2011:40 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:238 [ref. 33330]). Current status: Valid as Lestidium prolixum Harry 1953. Paralepididae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

proximus, Paralepis Ege [V.] 1933:224 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Sulawesi Sea, 1°48'N, 123°20.5'E, Dana station 3789, 200 meters wire out. Holotype (unique): ZMUC (lost). Type catalog: Post 1972:142 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:34 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889) -- (Post 1973:206 [ref. 7182], Post 1990:375 [ref. 15233]). Current status: Synonym of Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

pseudocoregonoides, Paralepis Sarato [C.] 1887:2 [Moniteur des Étrangers à Nice No. 265; ref. 18654] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Post 1972:142-143 [ref. 20860]. Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

pseudosphyraenoides, Paralepis Ege [V.] 1918:246 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn v. 69; ref. 15097] Northeastern Atlantic, 39°32'N, 5°15'E, about 1000 meters (2000 meters wire out). Lectotype: ZMUC P2318799. Paralectotypes: (31, but only 1 can be identified) ZMUC P2318800 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:143 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:34 [ref. 9588] with more paratypes at ZMUC but not identifiable. Lectotype designated by Post 1972:143 [ref. 20860]. •Synonym of Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889), but a valid subspecies -- (Post 1973:207 [ref. 7182], Post 1990:376 [ref. 15233]). •Synonym of Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889), but a valid subspecies -- (Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076]). •Valid as Lestidiops jayakari pseudosphyraenoides (Ege 1918) -- (Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops pseudosphyraenoides (Ege 1918). Paralepididae. Distribution: Eastern North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

quadrimaculata, Pontosudis Post [A.] 1969:10, Figs. 1-4 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 7838] Eastern Atlantic, 8°21'N, 24°10'W, depth 500-520 meters. Holotype: ISH 698-1968a. Paratypes: ISH 698-1968b (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:157 [ref. 20860], Krefft 1978:13 [ref. 9884]. •Valid as Uncisudis quadrimaculata (Post 1969) -- (Post 1990:383 [ref. 15233], Santos et al. 1997:43 [ref. 23531], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:603 [ref. 23897], Porteiro et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24203], Nakabo 2000:368 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:368 [ref. 26001], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27192], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Mundy 2005:208 [ref. 28379], Russell 2016:1848 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Uncisudis quadrimaculata (Post 1969). Paralepididae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic; western and central North Pacific: Japan, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

regani, Prymnothonoides Whitley [G. P.] & Phillipps [W. J.] 1939:228 [Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 69 (no. 2); ref. 4737] Off Cape Maria van Diemen, New Zealand, depth 2 meters. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Post 1972:157 [ref. 20860]. •Questionably a synonym of Notolepis risso (Bonaparte 1840) -- (Post 1973:209 [ref. 7182] as rissoi). •Questionably a synonym of Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840) or incertae sedis in Paralepididae -- (Ho & Duhamel 2019:499 [ref. 36885]). Current status: Uncertain as Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

ringens, Sudis Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:273 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 146); ref. 10599] Santa Barbara Channel, California, U.S.A. (stomach content). Holotype (unique): USNM 27401. Type catalog: Post 1972:159 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Lestidium ringens (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Castro-Aguirre 1991:77 [ref. 19554]). •Valid as Lestidiops ringens (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Peden et al. 1985:6 [ref. 24081], Matarese et al. 1989:134 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:100 [ref. 14674], Balanov 2000:851 [ref. 25105], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:22 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:237 [ref. 25968], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Mundy 2005:204 [ref. 28379], Parin et al. 2014:153 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops ringens (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Paralepididae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

risso, Paralepis Bonaparte [C. L.] 1840:fasc. 29, punt. 152, Pl. 124 (fig. 2) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 514] Off Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Ocean, 62°16'58.8"N, 10°10'1.2"W, depth 676 ‒ 696 meters [Italy, Mediterranean Sea]. Neotype: MNHN 2018-0264 [ex MNHN 2000-5431]. Type catalog: Post 1972:143 [ref. 20860]. Sometimes misspelled rissoi, risso is acceptable. Neotype designated by Ho & Duhamel 2019:499 [ref. 36885]. •Valid as Notolepis rissoi [sic] (Bonaparte 1840) -- (Post 1973:208 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:503 [ref. 13675], Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:76 [ref. 6441], Post 1986:277 [ref. 5705], Scott & Scott 1988:194 [ref. 25518], Matarese et al. 1989:136 [ref. 26885], Pequeño 1989:34 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:110 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:100 [ref. 14674], Arruda 1997:52 [ref. 24952], Nakabo 2000:367 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:367 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Notolepis risso (Bonaparte 1840) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:247 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Arctozenus rissoi [sic] (Bonaparte 1840) -- (Post 1987:80 [ref. 6225], Post 1990:373 [ref. 15233], Post 1990:138 [ref. 21683], Post in Okamura et al. 1995:96 [ref. 22531], Santos et al. 1997:41 [ref. 23531], Porteiro et al. 1999:32 [ref. 24203], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Paxton in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Savinykh & Balanov 1999:423 [ref. 24871], Tighe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:195 [ref. 26158], Cihangir et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27170], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Møller et al. 2010:32 [ref. 31169], Nión et al. 2016:37 [ref. 35565]). •Valid as Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840) -- (Fricke 1999:96 [ref. 24106], Trunov 1999:462 [ref. 24579], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:22 [ref. 25650], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:43 [ref. 26753], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:238 [ref. 25968], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Moore et al. 2003:194 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:203 [ref. 28379], Duhamel et al. 2005:150 [ref. 32059], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:254 [ref. 28944], Paxton et al. 2006:491 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2007:59 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:24 [ref. 36649], Fricke et al. 2011:359 [ref. 31242], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:119 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:89 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:153 [ref. 33547], Ghedotti et al. 2014:312 [ref. 34482], Stewart 2015:584 [ref. 34254], Pietsch & Orr 2015:24 [ref. 34694], Afonso et al. 2016:28, 96 [ref. 36199], Bañón et al. 2016:310 [ref. 34397], Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572], Fricke et al. 2018:73 [ref. 35805], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:95 [ref. 36370], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36864], Ho & Duhamel 2019:499 [ref. 36885]). Current status: Valid as Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840). Paralepididae. Distribution: Circumglobal (including Mediterranean Sea), probably not present in the Southern Ocean. Habitat: marine.

rothschildi, Stemonosudis Richards [W. J.] 1967:35, Fig. 1 [California Fish and Game v. 53 (no. 1); ref. 7991] Central Pacific, 22°47'N, 150°09'W (stomach content). Holotype (unique): USNM 199087. See also remarks under Maculisudis longipinnis Kotthaus 1967. •Valid as Stemonosudis rothschildi Richards 1967 -- (Post 1971:738 [ref. 36812], Fujii in Uyeno et al. 1983:195 [ref. 14275], Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:77 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:248 [ref. 12442], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Nakabo 2000:370 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:21 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:370 [ref. 26001], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Moore et al. 2003:196 [ref. 27076], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Mundy 2005:207 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:494 [ref. 28995], Larson et al. 2013:48 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis rothschildi Richards 1967. Paralepididae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical seas, including Hawaiian islands, but except eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

siliquiventer, Stemonosudis Post [A.] 1970:205, Figs. 1-5 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 21 (no. 3); ref. 7773] Atlantic, 3°00'S, 26°16'W, depth 2000 meters. Holotype: ISH 893-1968a. Paratypes: ISH 824-1968 (1), MCZ 55254 [ex WHOI 967] (1), 55255 [ex WHOI 1259] (1), 55256 [ex WHOI 1271] (1), 55257 [ex WHOI 1277] (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:158 [ref. 20860], Krefft 1978:13 [ref. 9884]. •Valid as Stemonosudis siliquiventer Post 1970 -- (Post 1990:383 [ref. 15233], Paxton & Niem 1999:1949 [ref. 24746], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27192], Thompson 2003:934 [ref. 27003], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Russell 2016:1848 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis siliquiventer Post 1970. Paralepididae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

similis, Macroparalepis Ege [V.] 1957:33, Fig. 6 [Dana Report No. 43; ref. 18062] 5°10'N, 92°50'E, about 70 meters (200 meters wire out). Lectotype: ZMUC P2318738. Paralectotypes: ZMUC P2318737 (1). Type catalog: Post 1972:154 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:32 [ref. 9588]. Lectotype selected by Post 1972:154 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Stemonosudis similis (Ege 1957) -- (Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076]). Current status: Valid as Stemonosudis similis (Ege 1957). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

similis, Paralepis Ege [V.] 1933:225 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 1186] Off Dakar, West Africa, 15°31'N, 18°05'W, Dana station 4006, depth about 100 meters (300 meters wire out). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P2316969. Type catalog: Post 1972:144 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:34 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Lestidiops similis (Ege 1933) -- (Post 1973:207 [ref. 7182], Post 1986:275 [ref. 5705], Post 1990:376 [ref. 15233], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops similis (Ege 1933). Paralepididae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

speciosus, Paralepis Bellotti [C.] 1878:54, 57, Fig. [Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali di Milano v. 20 (fasc. 1); ref. 16778] Off Nice, Département des Alpes-Maritimes, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes or holotype: MSNM (1, destroyed in 1943) Nice. Bellotti specimen: MNHN 1899-0243 (1) Messina. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:10 [ref. 19576], Post 1972:144 [ref. 20860], Conci & Michelangeli 1974:219 [ref. 21560]. •Synonym of Paralepis coregonoides Risso 1820 -- (Post 1987:120 [ref. 6225], Post 1990:381 [ref. 15233]). •Valid as Paralepis speciosa Bellotti 1878 -- (Post 1973:205 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:506 [ref. 13675], Scott & Scott 1988:196 [ref. 25518], Galil & Goren 1994:49 [ref. 23163], Santos et al. 1997:42 [ref. 23531], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:24 [ref. 36649], Goren & Galil 2015:517 [ref. 33910]). Current status: Valid as Paralepis speciosa Bellotti 1878. Paralepididae. Distribution: North Atlantic, including Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

sphyraenopsis, Lestidiops Hubbs [C. L.] 1916:155, Pl. 18 [University of California Publications in Zoology v. 16 (no. 13); ref. 2225] Near shore, Avalon Bay, Santa Catalina Island, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 22597. Type catalog: Post 1972:145 [ref. 20860]. •Valid as Lestidiops sphyraenopsis Hubbs 1916 -- (Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:76 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:369 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:369 [ref. 26001], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Mundy 2005:204 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2007:59 [ref. 29533], Fricke et al. 2011:360 [ref. 31242], Parin et al. 2014:153 [ref. 33547], Nión et al. 2016:37 [ref. 35565] with author as (Hubbs 1916)). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops sphyraenopsis Hubbs 1916. Paralepididae. Distribution: Pacific Ocean and South Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

sphyrenoides, Paralepis Risso [A.] 1820:254 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 91; ref. 18636] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): Apparently lost. Type catalog: Post 1972:144 [ref. 20860]. Spelled sphyraenoides in Risso 1827:473 [ref. 3757]. •Valid as Lestidiops sphyrenoides (Risso 1820) -- (Post 1973:205 [ref. 7182], Post in Whitehead et al. 1984:494 [ref. 13675], Post 1990:376 [ref. 15233], Santos et al. 1997:41 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:52 [ref. 24952], Porteiro et al. 1999:32 [ref. 24203], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:44 [ref. 26753], Fukui & Ozawa 2004:293 [ref. 28076], Fricke et al. 2007:59 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:24 [ref. 36649], Russell 2016:1847 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Lestidiops sphyrenoides (Risso 1820). Paralepididae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

suboppositus, Paralepis Poey [F.] 2000:544, Pl. 294 (figs. 2-3) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Paralepididae.

thermophilus, Paralepis Ege [V.] 1930:89, Fig. 23 [Report on the Danish Oceanographical Expeditions 1908-1910 to the Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas v. 2 A (no. 13); ref. 16270] North Atlantic, 14°38'N, 61°16'W, about 100 meters (300 meters wire out). Lectotype: ZMUC P2318805. Paralectotypes: ZMUC (5). Type catalog: Post 1972:144 [ref. 20860], Nielsen 1974:35 [ref. 9588]. Correct spelling of species name should be thermophila when in Paralepis. Lectotype selected by Post 1972:144 [ref. 20860]. •Synonym of Lestidium atlanticum Borodin 1928 -- (Post 1990:377 [ref. 15233]). Current status: Synonym of Lestidium atlanticum Borodin 1928. Paralepididae. Distribution: RF 6/16. Habitat: marine.

thori, Paralepis pseudosphyraenoides Ege [V.] 1930:73 [Report on the Danish Oceanographical Expeditions 1908-1910 to the Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas v. 2 A (no. 13); ref. 16270] Unneeded new name for Paralepis pseudosphyraenoides pseudosphyraenoides (Ege 1918). •Synonym of Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889), subspecies pseudosphyraenoides (Ege 1918) -- (Post 1990:376 [ref. 15233]). Current status: Synonym of Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.

thunnorum, Lestidium Harry [R. R.] 1953:223, 224, 231, 240, Figs. 2-3 [Pacific Science v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 2045] Not available; figures (2) of lateral-line segements and (3) top of head are not clearly tied to a description or definition (Art. 13 of the Code). Paralepididae.

vanderbilti, Sudis Fowler [H. W.] 1944:145, Pl. 2 (second fig. from bottom) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] St. Andrews Island [San Andrés Island], West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70133. Type catalog: Post 1972:160 [ref. 20860], Böhlke 1984:136 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Lestrolepis intermedia (Poey 1868) -- (Post 1990:378 [ref. 15233], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Lestrolepis intermedia (Poey 1868). Paralepididae. Habitat: marine.