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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Pentanchidae: [ 116 ] records


abbreviatus, Apristurus Deng [S.-M.], Xiong [G.-Q.] & Zhan [H.-X.] 1985:102 (English p. 105), Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 8166] East China Sea, 31°34'04"N, 129°06'00"E, depth 692 meters. Holotype: ECSFI E-1547. Paratypes: ECSFI E-1000 (1), E-1001 (1), E-1417 (1), E-1418 (1), E-1548 (1), E-1597 (1). •Synonym of Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934) -- (Nakaya 1991:999 [ref. 19774], Compagno et al. 2005:24 [ref. 29145], Sato et al. 2008:118 [ref. 29680], Sato et al. 2013:759 [ref. 32718], Nakaya & Kawauchi 2013:131 [ref. 33037], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934). Pentanchidae. Distribution: East China sea (if valid). Habitat: marine.

acanutus, Apristurus Zhu [Y.-D.], Meng [Q.-W.] & Li [S.] in Meng, Zhu & Li 1985:46 (English p. 49), Fig. 3 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 8136] Off Zhujiang, South China Sea, depth 594 meters. Holotype: SCSFRI D 0172. Paratypes: SFCFRI D 0161 (1). •Valid as Apristurus acanutus Zhu, Meng & Li 1985 -- (Compagno & Niem 1998:1285 [ref. 23787], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589]). •Synonym of Apristurus platyrhynchus (Tanaka 1909) -- (Nakaya & Sato 2000:224 [ref. 24800], Kawauchi et al. 2008:76 [ref. 29712], Nakaya & Kawauchi 2013:162 [ref. 33037], White & Last 2013:241 [ref. 33042], Kawauchi et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33554], Weigmann 2016:33 [ref. 34211] with first author as Chu). Current status: Synonym of Apristurus platyrhynchus (Tanaka 1909). Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

albimarginatus, Parmaturus Séret [B.] & Last [P. R.] 2007:25, Figs. 2-3 [Zootaxa No. 1657; ref. 29377] Grand Passage, 18°54'S, 163°05'E, New Caledonia, depth 688-732 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1997-3584. •Valid as Parmaturus albimarginatus Séret & Last 2007 -- (Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211], Fahmi & Ebert 2018:540 [ref. 35910], Soares et al. 2019:322 [ref. 36748]). Current status: Valid as Parmaturus albimarginatus Séret & Last 2007. Pentanchidae. Distribution: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

albipenis, Parmaturus Séret [B.] & Last [P. R.] 2007:29, Figs. 4-5 [Zootaxa No. 1657; ref. 29377] Grand Passage, 18°54'S, 163°05'E, New Caledonia, depth 688-732 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1997-3583. •Valid as Parmaturus albipenis Séret & Last 2007 -- (Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211], Fahmi & Ebert 2018:540 [ref. 35910], Soares et al. 2019:322 [ref. 36748]). Current status: Valid as Parmaturus albipenis Séret & Last 2007. Pentanchidae. Distribution: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

albisoma, Apristurus Nakaya [K.] & Séret [B.] 1999:301, Figs. 1-5 [Cybium v. 23 (no. 3); ref. 24247] New Caledonia, 25°47'77"S, 167°11'52"E to 25°50'65"S, 167°12'47"E, depth 1317-1383 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1997-3366. Paratypes: MNHN 1997-3337 (1), 3350 (1), 3358-3361 (1, 1, 1, 1), 3365 (1), 3368-3370 (1, 1, 1), 3372-3373 (1, 1), 3375-3376 (1, 1), 3379 (3), 3380 (1), 3382-3383 (1, 1). •Valid as Apristurus albisoma Nakaya & Séret 1999 -- (Iglésias 2012:511 [ref. 32534], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Nakaya et al. 2015:78 [ref. 34218], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus albisoma Nakaya & Séret 1999. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia and New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

ampliceps, Apristurus Sasahara [R.], Sato [K.] & Nakaya [K.] 2008:93, Figs. 1-5, 8, 14 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022; ref. 29678] Off Urry Bank, New Zealand, 44°56'S, 174°06'E, depth 1052-1105 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P 27063. Paratypes: 9 specimens at CSIRO and HUMZ. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Apristurus ampliceps Sasahara, Sato & Nakaya 2008 -- (Naylor et al. 2012:43 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Iglésias 2013:511 [ref. 32534], Nakaya et al. 2015:79 [ref. 34218], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus ampliceps Sasahara, Sato & Nakaya 2008. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southern Australia to New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

anale, Scyllium Ogilby [J. D.] 1885:445 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 10 (pt 2); ref. 3262] Middle Harbor, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS B.8447. •Valid as Asymbolus analis (Ogilby 1885) -- (Compagno 1984:290 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:71 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:9 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:133 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:187 [ref. 23873], Kuiter 1997:10 [ref. 25488], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 1999:32 [ref. 25140], Hoese et al. 2006:82 [ref. 28999], Séret & Last 2008:138 [ref. 29988], White 2008:57 [ref. 30617], Weigmann 2016:33 [ref. 34211], Rigby et al. 2017:335 [ref. 35469], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Asymbolus analis (Ogilby 1885). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Western Australia; Victoria to New South Wales. Habitat: marine.

angelae, Parmaturus Soares [K. D. A.], Carvalho [M. R. de], Schwingel [P. R.] & Gadig [O. B. F.] 2019:315, Figs. 1-3A-B, 4-8 [Copeia v. 107 (no. 2); ref. 36748] Off Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, southwestern Atlantic. Holotype: MZUSP 124000. Paratype: MZUSP 124001 (1). •Valid as Parmaturus angelae Soares, Carvalho, Schwingel & Gadig 2019. Current status: Valid as Parmaturus angelae Soares, Carvalho, Schwingel & Gadig 2019. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southern Brazil, southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

annulatus, Squalus Nilsson [S.] 1832:114 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] Northern seas and Codana Bay, Norway. No types known. •Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Compagno 1984:312 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:49 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810. Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

antillensis, Galeus arae Springer [S.] 1979:55, Figs. 28c, 31-32 [NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) Circular No. 422; ref. 4175] Off St. Christopher Island [St. Kitts Island], Leeward Islands, West Indies, 17°41'N, 62°50'30"W, Oregon station 6695, depth 300-320 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 214178 [ex USNM 214177]. Paratypes: USNM 214177 [from Oregon station 6695] (4). Additional material or paratypes (whereabouts unknown); Oregon station 5417 (2), 5427 (1), 6701 (3), 6721 (1), 6722 (2), 10207 (3), 10842 (5) 10843 (4); Silver Bay 5181 (2). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:4 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Galeus arae (Nichols 1927) -- (Compagno 1984:308 [ref. 6846]). •Synonym of Galeus arae (Nichols 1927), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Konstantinou & Cozzi 1998:151 [ref. 23301]). •Valid as Galeus antillensis Springer 1979 -- (Soto 2001:18 [ref. 26632], Compagno 2003:451 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:15 [ref. 28226], Weigmann 2016:38 [ref. 34211], Soares & Carvalho 2020:379 [ref. 37593]). Current status: Valid as Galeus antillensis Springer 1979. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

aphyodes, Apristurus Nakaya [K.] & Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1998:79, Figs. 1-4 [Archive of Fishery and Marine Research v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 23495] George Blight Bank [Rockall Rise], 58°42.8'N, 13°37.6'W, eastern North Atlantic, Walther Herwig cruise 47, station 599/81, depth 1200-1240 meters. Holotype: ZMH 25397 [ex ISH 71-1981]. Paratypes: BMNH 1998.1.22.1 (1); HUMZ 152329-30 (1, 1); MNHN 1998-0041 (1); USNM 347837 (1); ZMH 24872 [ex ISH 17-1974] (1), 24875 [ex 24-1981] (1), 24876 [ex 36-1981] (1), 24877 [ex 49-1981] (1), 24881 [ex 84-1981] (6), 24870 [ex 124-1981] (1), 24871 [ex 138-1974] (6), 24873 [ex 184-1983] (2), 24874 [ex 187-1983] (1), 24879 [ex 739-1974] (1), 24880 [ex 807-1974] (1); ZIN N51551 (1); ZMH 24878 [ex ISH 71-1981] (1); ZMUB 10171 (1). Type catalog: Thiel et al. 2009:14 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Apristurus aphyodes Nakaya & Stehmann 1998 -- (Nakaya & Sato 1998:155 [ref. 23477], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Iglésias et al. 2004:355 [ref. 28061], George 2009:54 [ref. 30539], Rodríguez-Cabello et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33675], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211], Bañón et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34397], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:65 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus aphyodes Nakaya & Stehmann 1998. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Northeastern Atlantic: Iceland, Rockall Trough and Bay of Biscay. Habitat: marine.

arae, Pristiurus Nichols [J. T.] 1927:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 256; ref. 15804] Off Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.A., depth 200 fathoms. Holotype: AMNH 8677. Paratypes: (1) not at VMM. •Valid as Galeus arae (Nichols 1927) -- (Compagno 1984:308 [ref. 6846], Robins & Ray 1986:22 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:184 [ref. 23827], Compagno & Stevens 1993:187 [ref. 20843], Konstantinou & Cozzi 1998:151 [ref. 23301], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:65 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:18 [ref. 26632], Compagno 2003:452 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:15 [ref. 28226], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:33 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27807], Castro 2011:323 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:50 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:80 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Galeus arae (Nichols 1927). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

artedi, Scyllium Risso [A.] 1820:241 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 91; ref. 18636] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Compagno 1984:312 [ref. 6846] as artedii, Dyldin 2015:49 [ref. 34524], Biscoito et al. 2018:468 [ref. 37562]). Current status: Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810. Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Pristiurus Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:59, Pl. 1 (figs. 1, 1a-1d) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Off Cape Spartel, northwestern coast of Morocco, depth 540 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1884-0387. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:68 [ref. 20739]. •Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Springer 1973:20 [ref. 7162], Compagno 1984:312 [ref. 6474] with question, Springer 1990:91 [ref. 19319]). •Questionably a synonym of Galeus polli Cadenat 1959 -- (Compagno 1984:316 [ref. 6846]). •Valid as Galeus atlanticus (Vaillant 1888) -- (Muñoz-Chápuli & Ortega 1985:219 [ref. 22243], Compagno & Stevens 1993:188 [ref. 20843], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Rey et al. 2006:7 [ref. 29427], Bañon et al. 2010:4 [ref. 31029], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1265 [ref. 34544], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:70 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:21 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Galeus atlanticus (Vaillant 1888). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Spain and Portugal. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Scylliorhinus Koefoed [E.] 1927:18, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Scientific Results of the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition 1910 v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 2650] Off Canary Islands, 28°08'N, 13°35'W, station 41, depth 1365 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMUB 3203. Type catalog: Frøiland 1979:144 [ref. 21547]. This name was conserved in Opinion 1732 and placed on the Official List by suppression of the unused senior syonym Scyllium? spinacipellitum Vaillant 1888. •Valid as Apristurus atlanticus (Koefoed 1927) -- (Compagno 1984:261 [ref. 6846] [but see Nakaya & Sato 1998:156 [ref. 23477]], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:221 [ref. 36138], Springer 1990:90 [ref. 19319]). •Synonym, but to be submitted to ICZN -- (Nakaya & Séret 1989:977 [ref. 16198]). •Valid as Apristurus atlanticus after Opinion 1732 suppressed Scyllium? spinacipellitum Vaillant 1888. •Valid as Apristurus atlanticus (Koefoed 1927) -- (Nakaya & Stehmann 1998:78 [ref. 23495], Nakaya & Sato 1998:156 [ref. 23477], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589]). •Synonym of Apristurus laurussonii (Saemundsson 1922) -- (Iglésias & Nakaya 2004:221 [ref. 27975], Compagno 2016:1264 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Synonym of Apristurus laurussonii (Saemundsson 1922). Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Apristurus Sato [K.], Nakaya [K.] & Yorozu [M.] 2008:114, Figs. 1-7 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022; ref. 29680] East of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 33°44'-43'S, 151°53-54'E, depth 486-509 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 953-07. Paratypes: 28 specimens at AMS, CSIRO, HUMZ. •Valid as Apristurus australis Sato, Nakaya & Yorozu 2008 -- (Iglésias 2012:511 [ref. 32534], Sato et al. 2013:759 [ref. 32718], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594], White et al. 2017:107 [ref. 35860]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus australis Sato, Nakaya & Yorozu 2008. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Coasts of Australia: Queensland to Tasmania and to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

bigus, Parmaturus Séret [B.] & Last [P. R.] 2007:32, Figs. 6-7 [Zootaxa No. 1657; ref. 29377] South of Saumarez Plateau, 22°56'S, 154°21'E, Queensland, Australia, depth 590-606 meters. Holotype (unique): CSIRO H 947-10. •Valid as Parmaturus bigus Séret & Last 2007 -- (Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211], Fahmi & Ebert 2018:540 [ref. 35910]). Current status: Valid as Parmaturus bigus Séret & Last 2007. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Northeastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

boesemani, Halaelurus Springer [S.] & D'Aubrey [J. D.] 1972:11, Figs. 1D [Investigational Report. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban No. 29; ref. 17325] Off coast of Somalia, 11°37'N, 51°27'E, depth 67-72 meters. Holotype: USNM 205136. Additional material or paratypes: (9) BMNH 1939.5.24.1 (1); USNM 201763 (3), 221424 (1); WAM P.14836-001 (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:4 [ref. 21812], Moore et al. 2008:4 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Halaelurus boesemani Springer & D'Aubrey 1972 -- (Compagno 1984:321 [ref. 6846], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:73 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:203 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Niem 1998:1291 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S91 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:23 [ref. 27735], Compagno et al. 2005:26 [ref. 29145] as cf. boesemani, Hoese et al. 2006:87 [ref. 28999], White et al. 2007:20 [ref. 29295], Akhilesh et al. 2011:40 [ref. 31200], Weigmann 2016:40 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Halaelurus boesemani Springer & D'Aubrey 1972. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Somalia and Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

brevicaudatus, Apristurus Chu [Y.-T.], Meng [Q.-W.] & Li [S.] 1986:269 [English p. 274], Fig. 1 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 17 (no. 4); ref. 8017] South China Sea, depth 864 meters. Holotype: SCSFRI D-1125. Paratypes: Shanghai Fish. Coll. D-32 (1), D-1126 (1). •Synonym of Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934) -- (Nakaya 1991:999 [ref. 19774], Compagno et al. 2005:24 [ref. 29145], Nakaya & Kawauchi 2013:131 [ref. 33037], White & Last 2013:241 [ref. 33042], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934). Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

breviventralis, Apristurus Kawauchi [J.], Weigmann [S.] & Nakaya [K.] 2014:2, Figs. 1-5 [Zootaxa 3881 (no. 1); ref. 33554] Off Socotra Islands, 12°22’08"N, 53°02’07"E to 12°21’02"N, 53°01’'03"E, depth 1000-1120 meters. Holotype: ZMH 25600. Paratypes: HUMZ 221300 (1), 221301 (1); ZMH 25601(6). •Valid as Apristurus breviventralis Kawauchi, Weigmann & Nakaya 2014 -- (Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus breviventralis Kawauchi, Weigmann & Nakaya 2014. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Off Socotra Islands, Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Catulus Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:542 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Off La Jolla, California, U.S.A., 32°49'00"N, 117°27'30"W, Albatross station 2396, depth 359 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 51708. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:4 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Apristurus brunneus (Gilbert 1892) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:32 [ref. 9277], Compagno 1984:262 [ref. 6846], Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125], McAllister 1990:30 [ref. 14674], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:928 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:36 [ref. 24555], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Sato et al. 1999:334 [ref. 24607], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:74 [ref. 25968], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:6 [ref. 37547], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Castro 2011:296 [ref. 31457], Ingésias 2012:517 [ref. 32534], Page et al. 2013:50 [ref. 32708], Kawauchi et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33554], Pietsch & Orr 2015:15 [ref. 34694], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:78 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211], Kells et al. 2016:66 [ref. 35888], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594], Ebert et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Burton & Lea 2019:28 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus brunneus (Gilbert 1892). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southeastern Alaska south to Pacific coast of northern Baja California (Mexico); Panama south to Chile. Habitat: marine.

bucephalus, Apristurus White [W. T.], Last [P. R.] & Pogonoski [J. J.] 2008:106, Figs. 1-3 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022; ref. 29679] West of Mandurah, Western Australia, 32°33'S, 114°25'E, depth 1030-1140 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 261-01. Other non-type material: CSIRO H 3111-06 (1). •Valid as Apristurus bucephalus White, Last & Pogonoski 2008 -- (Iglésias 2013:511 [ref. 32534], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus bucephalus White, Last & Pogonoski 2008. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

buergeri, Scyllium Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1838:8, [Pl. 2] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D2593 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH D2585 (1, dry). Species originally spelled as Bürgeri, change mandatory. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:214 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Halaelurus buergeri (Müller & Henle 1838) -- (Compagno 1984:322 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:4 [ref. 6441], Compagno & Niem 1998:1285 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:129 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:287 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:129 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:51, 470 [ref. 26218], Compagno et al. 2005:26 [ref. 29145] as cf. buergeri, White et al. 2007:19 [ref. 29295], Akhilesh et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31200], Yamashita et al. 2012:122 [ref. 32408], Naylor et al. 2012:44 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Ebert et al. 2013:319 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:232 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:49 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:40 [ref. 34211], Motomura et al. 2017:20 [ref. 35490], Sonoyama et al. 2020:9 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Halaelurus buergeri (Müller & Henle 1838). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Borneo, Philippines, China and Taiwan north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

cadenati, Galeus Springer [S.] 1966:609, Fig. 20b, 21b, 27g [United States Fish and Wildlife Service Fishery Bulletin v. 65 (no. 3) (for 1965); ref. 4174] East coast of Panama, 9°13'N, 80°43 [not 44]'W, Oregon station 3592, Caribbean Sea, depth 240 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 231724 [ex 260468-F1]. Paratypes: (several) USNM 220416-17 (1, 2), 221382 (1), 221414 (1), 221418 (1), 231725 (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:5 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Galeus arae (Nichols 1927) -- (Compagno 1984:308 [ref. 6846], Castro 2011:323 [ref. 31457]). •Valid as Galeus cadenati Springer 1966 -- (Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:18 [ref. 26632], Compagno 2003:452 [ref. 26984], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Galeus cadenati Springer 1966. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

campechiensis, Parmaturus Springer [S.] 1979:100, Fig. 59 [NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) Circular No. 422; ref. 4175] Northwestern Bay of Campeche, Gulf of Mexico, 21°33'N, 96°48'W, Oregon II station 10956, depth 600 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 206184. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:5 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Parmaturus campechiensis Springer 1979 -- (Compagno 1984:341 [ref. 6846], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:66 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Compagno 2003:453 [ref. 26984], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:34 [ref. 27705], Castro 2011:330 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Soares et al. 2019:320 [ref. 36748]). Current status: Valid as Parmaturus campechiensis Springer 1979. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

canutus, Apristurus Springer [S.] & Heemstra [P. C.] in Springer 1979:16, Figs. 10-13 [NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) Circular No. 422; ref. 4175] Leeward Islands near Anguilla, Lesser Antilles, 18°18'N, 63°23'W, Caribbean Sea, Oregon II station 10834, depth 687 meters. Holotype: USNM 206176. Paratypes: USNM 206180 (5). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:5 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Apristurus canutus Springer & Heemstra 1979 -- (Compagno 1984:263 [ref. 6846], Nakaya & Sato 1998:155 [ref. 23477], Nakaya & Stehmann 1998:78 [ref. 23495], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Compagno 2003:450 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:13 [ref. 28226], Iglésias & Nakaya 2004:218 [ref. 27975], Iglésias et al. 2004:355 [ref. 28061], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Castro 2011:299 [ref. 31457], Kawauchi et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33554], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus canutus Springer & Heemstra 1979. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

cephalus, Catulus Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:541 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Near Revilla Gigedos, 18°17.5'N, 114°43.3'W, Albatross station 2992, depth 460 fathoms; Gulf of California, station 3007, depth 362 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 125094. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 293 (1), USNM 206019 [ex USNM 125094] (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:8 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established by Howe & Springer 1993:6 [ref. 21812], not by Springer 1979 as subsequent use of "holotype" since the original description specifically mentions more than one specimen. •Valid as Cephalurus cephalus (Gilbert 1892) -- (Compagno 1984:305 [ref. 6846], Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:928 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:35 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:6 [ref. 37547], Castro 2011:321 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:50 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:80 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:38 [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:452 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Soares & Carvalho 2020:379 [ref. 37593]). Current status: Valid as Cephalurus cephalus (Gilbert 1892). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of southern Baja California and Gulf of California (Mexico); Panama south to Chile. Habitat: marine.

corriganae, Galeus White [W. T.], Mana [R. R.] & Naylor [G. J. P.] 2016:256, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4205 (no. 3); ref. 34956] West of Sek Island, Madang, Papua New Guinea, 05°04'S, 145°51'E, depth 582-587 meters. Holotype: NTUM 10171. Paratypes: ASIZ, NTUM. •Valid as Galeus corriganae White, Mana & Naylor 2016 -- (White et al. 2017:110 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:27 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Galeus corriganae White, Mana & Naylor 2016. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

delarochianus, Squalus (Scyliorhinus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Compagno 1984:312 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810. Pentanchidae.

diessneri, Asymbolus Sprackland [R. G.] 1999:no page number [Key to the sharks and rays of the world; ref. 25187] Published electronically; listed in Zoological Record for 1999/2000. Not available, electronic publication not acceptable in the 1999 Code. Name provided to a published Asymbolus sp. account in a publication by different authors. Pentanchidae.

eastmani, Pristiurus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1904:230, Pl. 60 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 45; ref. 2519] Off Izu, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 7740. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Galeus eastmani (Jordan & Snyder 1904) -- (Compagno 1984:311 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:4 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:45, 297 [ref. 8057], Tachikawa & Taniuchi 1987:358 [ref. 6712], Compagno & Stevens 1993:183 [ref. 20843], Compagno & Niem 1998:1289 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:128 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:287 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:128 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:393 [ref. 28370], Yamashita et al. 2012:122 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:318 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:232 [ref. 33330], Motomura et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34709], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2016:262 [ref. 34956]). Current status: Valid as Galeus eastmani (Jordan & Snyder 1904). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Northwestern and western Pacific: China Sea, Taiwan and Japan. Habitat: marine.

exsanguis, Apristurus Sato [K.], Nakaya [K.] & Stewart [A. L.] 1999:326, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 24607] Eastern Chatham Rise, 43°52.0'-50.9'S, 178°12.1'-50.8'W, depth 560-573 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P.21417. Paratypes: AMS I.35885-001 (1), I.35886-001 (1); HUMZ 135345-46 (1, 1); NMNZ P.11406 (1), P.13143 (1), P.15064 (1), P.20257 (1), P.20341 (1), P.21455 (1), P.22072 (1), P.26833 (1); NSMT-P.42809 (1), 42810 (1). •Valid as Apristurus exsanguis Sato, Nakaya & Stewart 1999 - (Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Iglésius 2012:517 [ref. 32534], Sato et al. 2013: 758 [ref. 32718], Nakaya et al. 2015:80 [ref. 34218], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus exsanguis Sato, Nakaya & Stewart 1999. Pentanchidae. Distribution: New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Asymbolus Sprackland [R. G.] 1999:no page number [Key to the sharks and rays of the world; ref. 25187] Published electronically; listed in Zoological Record for 1999/2000. Not available, electronic publication not acceptable in the 1999 Code. Name provided to a published Asymbolus sp. account in a publication by different authors. Pentanchidae.

favus, Holohalaelurus Human [B. A.] 2006:36, Figs. 11-12 [Zootaxa No. 1315; ref. 28824] Off Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, about 29°51'S, 31°00'E, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [RUSI] 6139. Paratypes: SAIAB 6138 (1). •Valid as Holohalaelurus favus Human 2006 -- (Human 2010:25 [ref. 30764], Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Holohalaelurus favus Human 2006. Pentanchidae. Distribution: South Africa: KwaZulu-Natal to Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

fedorovi, Apristurus Dolganov [V. N.] 1983:74 (in key), Fig. 101 [Rukovodstvo po opredeleniyu khryashchevykh ryb dal'nevostochnykh morei SSSR i sopredel'nykh vod.; ref. 27960] North Pacific, off Japan, 39°50'N, 142°48'E, depth 1200 meters. Holotype: ZIN 46980. Paratypes: MT 752 (1). Also appeared in Dolganov 1985:64, Fig. [ref. 8093]. Types are from ref. 8093. •Questionably valid as Apristurus fedorovi Dolganov 1983 -- (Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Apristurus fedorovi Dolganov 1983 -- (Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Nakabo 2000:131 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:14 [ref. 25650], Nakabo 2002:131 [ref. 26001], Parin et al. 2014:20 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:48 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus fedorovi Dolganov 1983. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Kuril Islands. Habitat: marine.

funebris, Asymbolus Compagno [L. J. V.], Stevens [J. D.] & Last [P. R.] 1999:6, Fig. 1 [CSIRO Marine Laboratories, Report No. 239; ref. 25034] South of Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia, 34°35'S, 114°53'E, depth 144 meters. Holotype (unique): CSIRO T 569. •Valid as Asymbolus funebris Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999 -- (Last et al. 1999:31 [ref. 25140], Hoese et al. 2006:82 [ref. 28999], Weigmann 2016:34 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Asymbolus funebris Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

galacticus, Asymbolus Séret [B.] & Last [P. R.] 2008:138, Figs. 2-4 [Cybium v. 32 (no. 2); ref. 29988] Banc Jumeau Ouest/West Jumeau Bank, Norfolk Ridge, New Caledonia, 23°42.50'S, 168°01'E, depth 280-350 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1966-0463. Paratypes: CSIRO H 6621-01 (1); MNHN 1997-3384 (2), 1997-3385 (2), -3386 (1), -3387 (7), -3388 (1), -3389 (1), 3390 (1), -3391 (1), -3392 (1), -3393 (1), -3394 (1), 2002-1145 (1), 2002-1147 (1), 2002-1148 (2). •Valid as Asymbolus galacticus Séret & Last 2008 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Weigmann 2016:34 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Asymbolus galacticus Séret & Last 2008. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Seamonts off southern New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

garricki, Apristurus Sato [K.], Stewart [A. L.] & Nakaya [K.] 2013:760, Figs. 1-6, 8-10 [Marine Biology Research v. 9 (no. 8); ref. 32718] Hikurangi Trench off Hawk's Bay, North Island, 39°57.51'S, 178°10.88'E, depth 834 - 1109 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P 027943. Paratypes: AIM MA, CSIRO, NMNZ, HUMZ, MNHN, NMV, USNM. Plus other non-type material. •Valid as Apristurus garricki Sato, Stewart & Nakaya 2013 -- (Nakaya et al. 2015:81 [ref. 34218], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594], White et al. 2017:107 [ref. 35860]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus garricki Sato, Stewart & Nakaya 2013. Pentanchidae. Distribution: New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

gibbosus, Apristurus Meng [Q.-W.], Zhu [Y.-D.] & Li [S.] 1985:43 (English p. 49), Fig. 1 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 8136] Off Zhujiang, South China Sea, depth 913 meters. Holotype: SCSFRI D01121. Paratypes: SFC D0084 (1), D01133 (1). •Valid as Apristurus gibbosus Meng, Zhu & Li 1985 -- (Compagno & Niem 1998:1285 [ref. 23787], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Nakaya & Kawauchi 2013:131, 145 [ref. 33037], White & Last 2013:241 [ref. 33042], Ebert et al. 2013:314 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35594]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus gibbosus Meng, Zhu & Li 1985. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: South China Sea to East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Galeus Compagno [L. J. V.] & Stevens [J. D.] 1993:174, Figs. 1-9, 13E [Records of the Australian Museum v. 45 (no. 2); ref. 20843] Upper slope north of Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia, 9°49'S, 130°15'E, depth 290 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H1208-01. Paratypes: CSIRO CA 3304 (1), CA 4477 (1), CA 4478 (1). •Valid as Galeus gracilis Compagno & Stevens 1993 -- (Compagno & Niem 1998:1290 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:87 [ref. 28999], Séret & Last 2008:27 [ref. 29702], Larson et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33932], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2016:256 [ref. 34956] on NTUM 10171). Current status: Valid as Galeus gracilis Compagno & Stevens 1993. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

grennian, Holohalaelurus Human [B. A.] 2006:44, Figs. 14-16 [Zootaxa No. 1315; ref. 28824] Off Ras Ngomeni, Kenya, 2°50'S, 40°34'E, depth 246 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [RUSI] 13082. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.5.24.5 (1); SAM 36077 (1), 36078 (1). •Valid as Holohalaelurus grennian Human 2006 -- (Human 2010:25 [ref. 30764], Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Holohalaelurus grennian Human 2006. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Kenya, Tanzania and southern Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

herklotsi, Pentanchus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:238, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Cagayan Island, Jolo Sea, Philippines, Albatross station D.5424, 9°37'05"N, 121°12'37"E. Holotype (unique): USNM 93134 (head damaged). •Valid as Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934) -- (Compagno 1984:264 [ref. 6846], Nakaya 1988:437 [ref. 6855], Nakaya 1991:999 [ref. 19774], Compagno & Niem 1998:1286 [ref. 23787], Nakaya & Sato 1999:315 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:130 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:287 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:130 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:392 [ref. 28370], Compagno et al. 2005:23 [ref. 29145], Sato et al. 2008:118 [ref. 29680], Sato et al. 2013:758 [ref. 23718], Nakaya & Kawauchi 2013:131 [ref. 33037], Ebert et al. 2013:314 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35594], White et al. 2017:107 [ref. 35860]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Southern Japan, East China Sea, Taiwan to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

hertwigi, Pristiurus Engelhardt [R.] 1912:644 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 39 (nos 21/22); ref. 17459] Yokahama and Aburatsubo, Japan. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (4 + 1) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:280 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Parmaturus pilosus Garman 1906 -- (Compagno 1984:343 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Parmaturus pilosus Garman 1906. Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Scylliorhinus Brauer [A.] 1906:8, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Die Tiefsee-Fische v. 15; ref. 632] Indian Ocean, off eastern African coast, 2°58'08"N, 47°06'01"E, depth 1289 meters. Lectotype: ZMB 22424. Paralectotypes: ZMB 17411 (1), ZMH 8234 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:169 [ref. 21041], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:410 [ref. 21161], Thiel et al. 2009:14 [ref. 30918]. Lectotype selected by Springer 1979:19 [ref. 4175]. •Valid as Apristurus indicus (Brauer 1906) -- (Compagno 1984:265 [ref. 6846], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:221 [ref. 36138], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:22 [ref. 27735], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Kawauchi et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33554], Weigmann 2016:31 [ref. 34211], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:64 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus indicus (Brauer 1906). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, western Indian Ocean: South Africa and East Africa. Habitat: marine.

internatus, Apristurus Deng [S.-M.], Xiong [G.-Q.] & Zhan [H.-X.] 1988:32 [33], Fig. 28 [The deep water fishes of the east China Sea; ref. 23956] East China Sea, depth 200-1000 meters. Holotype: East China Sea Fisheries Inst. SH80D-0316. Paratypes: East China Sea Fisheries Inst. E-1226 (1). •Valid as Apristurus internatus Deng, Xiong & Zhan 1988 -- (Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711] as possibly a synonym of A. gibbosus, Weigmann 2016:31 [ref. 34211] as possibly a synonym of A. gibbosus). Current status: Valid as Apristurus internatus Deng, Xiong & Zhan 1988. Pentanchidae. Distribution: East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

investigatoris, Pentanchus (Parapristurus) Misra [K. S.] 1962:636, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-6) [Proceedings of the All-India Congress of Zoology 1959; ref. 2620] Andaman Sea, 11°46'30"N, 93°16'25"E, Investigator station 331, depth 569 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1627/2. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:95 [ref. 20743] as Pentachus (Parapristis), Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:32 [ref. 22148]. See Das 2003:370 [ref. 27706] with author as Mishra. •Valid as Apristurus investigatoris (Misra 1962) -- (Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:221 [ref. 36138], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211], Kumar et al. 2018:295 [ref. 36178], Psomadakis et al. 2020:167 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus investigatoris (Misra 1962). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar, Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Apristurus Nakaya [K.] 1975:24, Figs. 10-11 [Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University v. 23 (no. 1); ref. 7083] Sea of Japan, off Cape Daito, Chiba Prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Holotype: HUMZ 40082. Paratypes: HUMZ 39961 (1), 40075-81 (7). •Valid as Apristurus japonicus Nakaya 1975 -- (Compagno 1984:168 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:4 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:41, 295 [ref. 8057], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Sato et al. 1999:334 [ref. 24607], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:131 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:131 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:392 [ref. 28370], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Dyldin 2015:48 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:31 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus japonicus Nakaya 1975. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

jensenii, Pristiurus Saemundsson [B.] 1922:169, Pl. 4 (fig. 1), Pl. 5 (fig. 3) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 74; ref. 18652] Iceland. NHMR. •Synonym of Galeus murinus (Collett 1904) -- (Springer 1973:21 [ref. 7162], Compagno 1984:313 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Galeus murinus (Collett 1904). Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

kampae, Apristurus Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1972:73, Figs. 1-5 [Copeia 1972 (no. 1); ref. 7650] Gulf of California, Mexico, 27°22.4'N, 111°20.5'W to 27°10.1'N, 111°29.6'W, depth 1830-1888 meters. Holotype: SIO 70-248. Additional material: SIO 70-299 (1). See Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:36 [ref. 24555]. •Valid as Apristurus kampae Taylor 1972 -- (Anderson et al. 1979:259 [ref. 16035], Shirai in Amaoka et al. 1983:47, 164 [ref. 8379], Compagno 1984:269 [ref. 6846], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:928 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:69 [ref. 24023], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27705], Love et al. 2005:6 [ref. 37547], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Ruiz-Campos et al. 2010:366 [ref. 37373], Castro 2011:301 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:78 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:31 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Burton & Lea 2019:28 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus kampae Taylor 1972. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Oregon (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

lanatus, Parmaturus Séret [B.] & Last [P. R.] 2007:35, Figs. 8-9 [Zootaxa No. 1657; ref. 29377] Tanimbar Island, 8°29'S, 131°33'E, Arafura Sea, Indonesia, depth 855-840 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 2007-1499. •Valid as Parmaturus lanatus Séret & Last 2007 -- (Fricke et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33932], Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:112 [ref. 35860], Fahmi & Ebert 2018:540 [ref. 35910], White & Ko'ou 2018:28 [ref. 35922], Soares et al. 2019:322 [ref. 36748]). Current status: Valid as Parmaturus lanatus Séret & Last 2007. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

laurussonii, Scyllium Saemundsson [B.] 1922:173, Pl. 4 (fig. 2), Pl. 5 (fig. 4) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 74; ref. 18652] Near Vestmannaeyjar Island, off southern Iceland [North Atlantic], depth 560 meters. Holotype (unique): NHMR. •Valid as Apristurus laurussonii (Saemundsson 1922) -- (Springer 1973:20 [ref. 7162], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:96 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:270 [ref. 6846] and Robins & Ray 1986:22 [ref. 23100] as laurussoni, Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:221 [ref. 36138], Springer 1990:90 [ref. 19319], Nakaya & Sato 1998:149 [ref. 23477], Nakaya & Stehmann 1998:78 [ref. 23495] as laurussoni, McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:62 [ref. 23897], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Sato et al. 1999:334 [ref. 24607], Pakhorukov 1999:655 [ref. 24883] as laurissoni, Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589] as laurussoni, Compagno 2003:450 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:14 [ref. 28226] as cf. laurussoni, Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27705] as laurussoni, Iglésias & Nakaya 2004:221 [ref. 27975], Iglésias et al. 2004:355 [ref. 28061], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], George 2009:54 [ref. 30539], Møller et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31169], Castro 2011:303 [ref. 31457], Kawauchi et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33554], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:78 [ref. 34398] as laurussoni, Weigmann 2016:31 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1264 [ref. 34544], Biscoito et al. 2018:468 [ref. 37562], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:67 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:20 [ref. 37250], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus laurussonii (Saemundsson 1922). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Northwestern Atlantic: Canada south to Mexico, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; North Atlantic: Greenland, Iceland; eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Gabon. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Halaelurus Bass [A. J.], D'Aubrey [J. D.] & Kistnasamy [N.] 1975:12, Figs. 8, 20E [Investigational Report. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban No. 37; ref. 7409] Shore at Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 6148 [ex ORI 2935]. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 6161 [ex ORI 2614] (1, hatched from egg case), 6162 [ex ORI 2619] (1, hatched from egg case), 6147 [ex ORI 2936] (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Halaelurus lineatus Bass, D'Aubrey & Kistnasamy 1975 -- (Compagno 1984:327 [ref. 6846], Bass 1986:90 [ref. 5635], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:66 [ref. 28072], White et al. 2007:19 [ref. 29295], Akhilesh et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31200], Weigmann 2016:40 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Halaelurus lineatus Bass, D'Aubrey & Kistnasamy 1975. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

longianalis, Apristurus Chu [Y.-T.], Meng [Q.-W.] & Li [S.] 1986:271 [English p. 275], Fig. 3 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 17 (no. 4); ref. 8017] South China Sea, depth 533 meters. Holotype: SCSFRI S 06530. Paratypes: Shanghai Fish. College D 0571 (1). Catalog numbers and depths in English summary are incorrect. •Synonym of Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934) -- (Nakaya 1991:999 [ref. 19774], Compagno et al. 2005:24 [ref. 29145], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934). Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

longicaudatus, Apristurus Li [S.], Meng [Q.-W.] & Chu [Y.-T.] in Chu, Meng & Li 1986:272 [English p. 275], Fig. 4 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 17 (no. 4); ref. 8017] South China Sea, depth 840 meters. Holotype: South China Sea Fish. Res. Inst. Guangzhau D00811. Paratypes: SFC D0564 (1). •Valid as Apristurus longicaudatus Li, Meng & Chu 1986 -- (Okamura & Machida 1986:17 [ref. 22278]). •Synonym of Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934) -- (Nakaya 1991:999 [ref. 19774], Compagno et al. 2005:24 [ref. 29145], Sato et al. 2013:759 [ref. 32718], Nakaya & Kawauchi 2013:131 [ref. 33037], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934). Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

longicephalus, Apristurus Nakaya [K.] 1975:32, Figs. 15-16 [Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University v. 23 (no. 1); ref. 7083] Sea of Japan, Tosa Bay, 33°13'N, 133°44'E, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): HUMZ 42399. •Valid as Apristurus longicephalus Nakaya 1975 -- (Compagno 1984:271 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:4 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:43, 296 [ref. 8057], Ivanov 1986:147 [ref. 19451], Nakaya 1988:134 [ref. 6855], Nakaya 1988 [ref. 6696], Nakaya 1991:999 [ref. 19774], Last & Stevens 1994:180 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Niem 1998:1286 [ref. 23787], Nakaya & Sato 1999:315 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:130 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:287 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:130 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:392 [ref. 28370], Hoese et al. 2006:82 [ref. 28999], Sato et al. 2008:118 [ref. 29680], Iglésias 2012:511 [ref. 32534], Sato et al. 2013:759 [ref. 32718], Nakaya & Kawauchi 2013:131, 138 [ref. 33037], Ebert et al. 2013:314 [ref. 33045], Kawauchi et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33554], Weigmann 2016:32 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594], Soares & Carvalho 2020:379 [ref. 37593]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus longicephalus Nakaya 1975. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Galeus Tachikawa [H.] & Taniuchi [T.] 1987:352, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 33 (no. 4); ref. 6712] Near Amami-oshima, Japan, 28°40'N, 128°44'E, depth 440-520 meters. Holotype: FUMT-P 10000. Paratypes: FUMT-P 10001 (1), 10011 (1), 10021 (1), 10023-24 (1, 1); UF 44276 (2). Other material: FUMT (38 lots). •Valid as Galeus longirostris Tachikawa & Taniuchi 1987 -- (Compagno & Stevens 1993:185 [ref. 20843], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:128 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:128 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:393 [ref. 28370], Séret & Last 2008:27 [ref. 29702], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2016:262 [ref. 34956]). Current status: Valid as Galeus longirostris Tachikawa & Taniuchi 1987. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

macmillani, Parmaturus (Parmaturus) Hardy [G. S.] 1985:120, Figs. 1-2 [New Zealand Journal of Zoology v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 8156] Northwest of Three Kings Island, New Zealand, 33°55.0-55.2'S, 171°55.6-54.5'E, depth 985-1003 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P.15859. Paratypes: NMNZ P.10343 (1). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:6 [ref. 18942]. •Valid as Parmaturus macmillani Hardy 1985 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:22 [ref. 24556], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Séret & Last 2007:23 [ref. 29377], Nakaya et al. 2015:88 [ref. 34218], Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211], Fahmi & Ebert 2018:540 [ref. 35910]). Current status: Valid as Parmaturus macmillani Hardy 1985. Pentanchidae. Distribution: New Zealand region (and south of Madagascar, a different species [ref. 34218]). Habitat: marine.

macrorhynchus, Scyliorhinus Tanaka [S.] 1909:1 [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 27 (art. 8); ref. 4322] Near Misaki, Sagami Province, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 2153. Paratypes: ZUMT (1, skin, lost). •Valid as Apristurus macrorhynchus (Tanaka 1909) -- (Compagno 1984:272 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:4 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:43, 296 [ref. 8057], Nakaya 1988:437 [ref. 6696], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:130 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:130 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:392 [ref. 28370], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Weigmann 2016:32 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus macrorhynchus (Tanaka 1909). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

macrostomus, Apristurus Zhu [Y.-D.], Meng [Q.-W.] & Li [S.] in Meng, Zhu & Meng 1985:45 (English p. 49), Fig. 2 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 8136] Off Zhujiang, South China Sea, depth 913 meters. Holotype (unique): SCSFRI D 00807. •Valid as Apristurus macrostomus Zhu, Meng & Li 1985 -- (Compagno & Niem 1998:1285 [ref. 23787], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Nakaya & Kawauchi 2013:131,153 [ref. 33037], White & Last 2013:243 [ref. 33042], Ebert et al. 2013:315 [ref. 33045] as Chu, Meng & Li, Weigmann 2016:32 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35594], White et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:26 [ref. 35922], Psomadakis et al. 2020:168 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus macrostomus Zhu, Meng & Li 1985. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar east to South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

maculosus, Halaelurus White [W. T.], Last [P. R.] & Stevens [J. D.] 2007:2, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 1639; ref. 29295] Kedonganan fish market, Bali, Indonesia, 8°45'S, 115°10'E. Holotype: MZB 15449. Paratypes: CSIRO H 5858-01 (1), H 5889-09 (1), H 5889-16 (1), H 5889-17 (1), H 5889-18 (1), H 5890-01 (1), H 6497-02 (17 egg cases); MZB 15550 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Halaelurus maculosus White, Last & Stevens 2007 -- (Last el al. 2010:72 [ref. 32461], Akhilesh et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31200], Weigmann 2016:40 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Halaelurus maculosus White, Last & Stevens 2007. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southern coast of Java, off Bali and Lombok in eastern Indonesia and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

maderensis, Apristurus Cadenat [J.] & Maul [G. E.] 1966:769, Figs. 1-4 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire v. 28 (no. 2); ref. 8014] Camara de Lobos, Madeira, eastern Atlantic, depth 600-1000 meters. Holotype (unique): MMF 18750. See also Santos et al. 1997:117 [ref. 23531]. •Valid as Apristutus maderensis Cadenat & Maul 1966 -- (Springer 1973:20 [ref. 7162], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:97 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:272 [ref. 6846], Saldanha & Biscoito 1997:192 [ref. 24962]). •Synonym of Apristurus laurussonii (Saemundsson 1922) -- (Nakaya & Sato 1998:150 [ref. 23477], Nakaya & Stehmann 1998:78 [ref. 23495], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Iglésias & Nakaya 2004:221 [ref. 27975], Castro 2011:303 [ref. 31457], Compagno 2016:1264 [ref. 34544], Biscoito et al. 2018:468 [ref. 37562]). Current status: Synonym of Apristurus laurussonii (Saemundsson 1922). Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

manis, Parmaturus Springer [S.] 1979:102, Figs. 60-63 [NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) Circular No. 422; ref. 4175] Southwest of Nantucket, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 39°52'N, 70°50'W, western North Atlantic, depth 731-841 meters. Holotype: MCZ 38299. Paratypes: MCZ 37416 (2), 37512 (1), 37535 (1). •Valid as Apristurus manis (Springer 1979) -- (Compagno 1984:273 [ref. 6846], Scott & Scott 1988:23 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:30 [ref. 14674], Nakaya & Sato 1998:155 [ref. 23477], Nakaya & Stehmann 1998:78 [ref. 23495], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Pakhorukov 2001:376 [ref. 25409], Moore et al. 2003:167 [ref. 27076], Kiraly et al. 2003:13 [ref. 28226], Iglésias et al. 2004:355 [ref. 28061], George 2009:54 [ref. 30539], Castro 2011:305 [ref. 31457], Weigmann 2016:32 [ref. 34211], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:68 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:20 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus manis (Springer 1979). Pentanchidae. Distribution: North Atlantic; southeastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

melanoasper, Apristurus Iglésias [S. P.], Nakaya [K. (1)] & Stehmann [M. F. W.] 2004:346, Figs. 1-5 [Cybium v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 28061] Lorien Bank, 54°21.5'-54°22.0'N, 19°28.1'-19°44.4'W, North Atlantic, depth 1243-1260 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2000-1757. Paratypes: ARC 8602997 (3);MCZ 125408 (1); MNHN 1999-0780 (1), 1999-0782 (1), 1999-0783 (1), 2000-1754 (1), 2000-1755 (1), 2000-1756 (1), 2000-1758 (1), 2000-1759-60 (2), 2000-1761-63 (3), 2000-1768 (1), 2001-1111 (1); ZMH 25526 [ex ISH 26-1974] (1), 25527 [ex 49-1974] (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Thiel et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Apristurus melanoasper Iglésias, Nakaya & Stehmann 2004 -- (Nakaya et al. 2008:61 [ref. 29711], Hartel et al. 2008:319 [ref. 29890], Castro 2011:307 [ref. 31457], Naylor et al. 2012:42 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Iglésias 2013:517 [ref. 32534], Kawauchi et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33554], Rodríguez-Cabello et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33675], Nakaya et al. 2015:82 [ref. 34218], Weigmann 2016:32 [ref. 34211], Bañón et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34397], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:65 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus melanoasper Iglésias, Nakaya & Stehmann 2004. Pentanchidae. Distribution: North Atlantic; Indo-West Pacific: South Africaeast to Australia, New Zealand region and off New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

melanobranchus, Dichichthys Chan [W. L.] 1966:226, Figs. 2-3; Pl. 1b [Journal of Zoology (London) v. 148; ref. 806] South China Sea, about 135 miles south-southeast of Hong Kong, 20°05'N, 115°03'E, depth 300 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1965.8.11.6. The correct spelling is melanobranchus. •Valid as Parmaturus melanobranchius [sic] (Chan 1966) -- (Compagno 1984:341 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1291 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Shinohara et al. 2005:393 [ref. 28370]). •Valid as Parmaturus melanobranchus (Chan 1966) -- (Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Séret & Last 2007:23 [ref. 29377], Hsu et al. 2013:252 [ref. 33043], Ebert et al. 2013:320 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211], Fahmi & Ebert 2018:540 [ref. 35910]). Current status: Valid as Parmaturus melanobranchus (Chan 1966). Pentanchidae. Distribution: South China Sea: Hong Kong, Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Habitat: marine.

melanostigma, Scyliorhinus (Halaelurus) Norman [J. R.] 1939:9, Fig. 2A [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Zanzibar area, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean, station 115, depth 640-658 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1939.5.24.2. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.5.24.3-4 (2), 1939.5.24.5 (1). •Synonym of Holohalaelurus regani (Gilchrist 1922) -- (Compagno 1984:338 [ref. 6846]). •Valid as Holohalaelurus melanostigma (Norman 1939) -- (Human 2006:28 [ref. 28824], Human 2010:25 [ref. 30764], Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Holohalaelurus melanostigma (Norman 1939). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Tanzania and Kenya. Habitat: marine.

melanostomum, Scyllium Bonaparte [C. L.] 1834:fasc. 7, punt. 39, Pl. 131 (fig. 3) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 517] Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 566-574 (9). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Compagno 1984:312 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:49 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810. Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

melanostomus, Pristiurus Lowe [R. T.] 1843:93, Pl. 14 [A history of the fishes of Madeira; ref. 2833] Apparently not intended as new, but cited as "Pristurus melanostomus, Bonap.", a recombination and modification of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque. •Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Springer 1990:91 [ref. 19319], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:11 [ref. 26753], Dyldin 2015:49 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810. Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

melastomus, Galeus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:13 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] [Sicilia] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:46 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Springer 1973:20 [ref. 7162], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:97 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:312 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:91 [ref. 19319], Compagno & Stevens 1993:188 [ref. 20843], Santos et al. 1997:117 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:17 [ref. 24952], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:11 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:9 [ref. 37112], Rey et al. 2006:7 [ref. 29427], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:13 [ref. 29533], George 2009:55 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:7 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33547], Goren & Galil 2015:519 [ref. 33910], Dyldin 2015:48 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211], Bañón et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34397], Compagno 2016:1261 [ref. 34544], Gordon et al. 2016:271 [ref. 34661], Biscoito et al. 2018:468 [ref. 37562], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:69 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:21 [ref. 37250], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117], Bariche & Fricke 2020:11 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; northeastern Atlantic: Faeroe Islands and Norway south to Senegal. Habitat: marine.

microps, Scylliorhinus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1922:46, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 3); ref. 1648] Off Cape Town, South Africa, southeastern Atlantic, 33°45.8'S, 17°17.1'E, Pickle station 253, depth 790 fathoms. Holotype: lost. Additional material (or syntype): (1, lost). Correct spelling of genus is Scyliorhinus. •Valid as Apristurus microps (Gilchrist 1922) -- (Compagno 1984:275 [ref. 6846], Bass 1986:88 [ref. 5635], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Compagno et al. 1991:75 [ref. 21083], Nakaya & Stehmann 1998:78 [ref. 23495], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Moore et al. 2003:167 [ref. 27076], Kiraly et al. 2003:13 [ref. 28226], Iglésias et al. 2004:355 [ref. 28061], George 2009:54 [ref. 30539], Kawauchi et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33554], Kawauchi et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33554], Weigmann 2016:32 [ref. 34211], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:66 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:20 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus microps (Gilchrist 1922). Pentanchidae. Distribution: North Atlantic and southeastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

micropterygeus, Apristurus Meng [Q.-W.], Chu [Y.-T.] & Li [S.] in Chu, Meng & Li 1986:270 [English p. 275], Fig. 2 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 17 (no. 4); ref. 8017] South China Sea, depth 913 meters. Holotype (unique): SCSFRI E01128. •Valid as Apristurus micropterygeus Meng, Chu & Li 1986 -- (Compagno & Niem 1998:1285 [ref. 23787], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Nakaya & Sato 2000:229 [ref. 24800], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], White & Last 2013:243 [ref. 33042], Weigmann 2016:32 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus micropterygeus Meng, Chu & Li 1986. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

mincaronei, Galeus Soto [J. M. R.] 2001:12, Figs. 1-9 [Mare Magnum v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 26632] Off Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 30°14'51"S, 48°03'03"W, depth 430 meters. Holotype: MOVI 00147. Paratypes: MOVI 00090-91 (2), 00146 (1). Type catalog: Soto & Mincarone 2004:31 [ref. 37067]. •Valid as Galeus mincaronei Soto 2001 -- (Soto 2001:64, 69 [ref. 26637], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27192], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Galeus mincaronei Soto 2001. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Santa Catarina to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: marine.

murinus, Pristiurus Collett [R.] 1904:4 [Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-selskabet i Christiania (for 1904) No. 9; ref. 9338] 150 kilometers northwest of the Hebrides [eastern North Atlantic], Michael Sars station 76, depth 1100-1300 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMUO J22 (juvenile). Type catalog: Pethon 1969:2 [ref. 19268]. Holotype figured in Collette 1905: Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 19269]. •Valid as Galeus murinus (Collett 1904) -- (Springer 1973:21 [ref. 7162], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:98 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:313 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Stevens 1993:189 [ref. 20843], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], George 2009:55 [ref. 30539], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211], Bañón et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34397], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:69 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:21 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Galeus murinus (Collett 1904). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Northeastern Atlantic: Iceland and Faroe Islands south to Mauritania. Habitat: marine.

nakayai, Apristurus Iglésias [S. P.] 2013:516, Figs. 2-5 [Cybium v. 36 (no. 4) (for 2012); ref. 32534] Coriolis Bank, west of Exclusive Economic Zone of New Caledonia, 21°25.1' - 21°28.2'S, 157°50.5' - 158°06.1'E, depth 935-1022 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 2003-1983. •Valid as Apristurus nakayai Iglésias 2013 -- (Weigmann 2016:32 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594], White et al. 2017:104 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:26 [ref. 35922], Fricke et al. 2019:38 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus nakayai Iglésias 2013. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: New Caledonia, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea). Habitat: marine.

nanogaleus, Asymbolus Sprackland [R. G.] 1999:no page number [Key to the sharks and rays of the world; ref. 25187] Published electronically; listed in Zoological Record for 1999/2000. Not available, electronic publication not acceptable in the 1999 Code. Name provided to a published Asymbolus sp. account in a publication by different authors. Pentanchidae.

nasutus, Apristurus de Buen [F.] 1959:176 [Boletim do Museu Nacional de Chile v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 697] Near Valparíso, Chile, depth 400 meters. Holotype (unique): EBMC 10184 (lost?). Holotype figured in de Buen 1960: Fig. 4 [ref. 11965]. •Valid as Apristurus nasutus de Buen 1959 -- (Compagno 1984:276 [ref. 6846], Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125], Springer 1990:90 [ref. 19319], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:928 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:36 [ref. 24555], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Sato et al. 1999:334 [ref. 24607], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:78 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:32 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:67 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus nasutus de Buen 1959. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific; eastern Atlantic: Morocco. Habitat: marine.

natalense, Scyllium Regan [C. T.] 1904:128 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 14 (no. 80) (art. 16); ref. 12514] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1904.6.28.29 (1). •Valid as Halaelurus natalensis (Regan 1904) -- (Compagno 1984:330 [ref. 6846], Bass 1986:91 [ref. 5635], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Compagno et al. 1991:78 [ref. 21083], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S91 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:66 [ref. 28072], White et al. 2007:19 [ref. 29295], Akhilesh et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31200], Weigmann 2016:40 [ref. 34211], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:72 [ref. 37302], Soares & Carvalho 2020:379 [ref. 37593]). Current status: Valid as Halaelurus natalensis (Regan 1904). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa and southern Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

nipponensis, Galeus Nakaya [K.] 1975:51, Figs. 26-28 [Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University v. 23 (no. 1); ref. 7083] Mimase, off Kochi Prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Holotype: HUMZ 40012. Paratypes: HUMZ 39963 (1), 39968 (1), 39971-72 (1, 1), 39975 (1), 40000 (1), 40002 (1), 40004 (1), 40008 (1), 40011 (1), 40016 (1). Additional material: HUMZ 39367-68 (1, 1), 39372 (1), 39388 (1), 39960 (1), 39965-66 (1, 1), 39976-77 (1, 1), 39986 (1), 42410-11 (1, 1). •Valid as Galeus nipponensis Nakaya 1975 -- (Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1982:43, 309 [ref. 8256], Compagno 1984:314 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:4 [ref. 6441], Okamura & Machida 1986:19 [ref. 22278], Tachikawa & Taniuchi 1987:358 [ref. 6712], Compagno & Stevens 1993:185 [ref. 20843], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:128 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:287 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:128 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:393 [ref. 28370], Compagno et al. 2005:26 [ref. 29145] with remarks, Séret & Last 2008:27 [ref. 29702], Ebert et al. 2013:318 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2016:262 [ref. 34956]). Current status: Valid as Galeus nipponensis Nakaya 1975. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

occiduus, Asymbolus Last [P. R.], Gomon [M. F.] & Gledhill [D. C.] 1999:21, Fig. 1 [CSIRO Marine Laboratories, Report No. 239; ref. 25140] South of Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia, 34°57'S, 114°56'E, depth 200 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 2263--02. Paratypes: CSIRO CA 3331-34 (4), H 2613-01 (1), H 2620-01 (1), H 2620-02 (1), H 2620-03 (1), T 500 (1). •Valid as Asymbolus occiduus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999 -- (Hoese et al. 2006:83 [ref. 28999], Séret & Last 2008:138 [ref. 29988], White 2008:58 [ref. 30617], Weigmann 2016:34 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Asymbolus occiduus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Australia: South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

pallidus, Asymbolus Last [P. R.], Gomon [M. F.] & Gledhill [D. C.] 1999:24, Fig. 2 [CSIRO Marine Laboratories, Report No. 239; ref. 25140] East of Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, 32°52.9'S, 152°42.3'E, depth 225-282 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 448-01. Paratypes: AMS I39855-001 (1); CSIRO H 601-07 (1), H 601-08 (1), H 601-09 (1), H 769-05 (1), H 1113-02 (1), H 1113-03 (1), H 2343-02 (1), H 5240-01 (1); QM I31515 (1). •Valid as Asymbolus pallidus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999 -- (Hoese et al. 2006:83 [ref. 28999], Séret & Last 2008:138 [ref. 29988], Weigmann 2016:34 [ref. 34211], Rigby et al. 2017:333 [ref. 35469]). Current status: Valid as Asymbolus pallidus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Northeastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

parvipinnis, Apristurus Springer [S.] & Heemstra [P. C.] in Springer 1979:25, Fig. 15 [NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) Circular No. 422; ref. 4175] Gulf of Mexico off Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 28°33'N, 87°09'W, Oregon II station 10874, depth 610 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 206178. Paratypes: (10) USNM 206179 (1), 220969 (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:10 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Apristurus parvipinnis Springer & Heemstra 1979 -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:49 [ref. 14275], Compagno 1984:277 [ref. 6846], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:221 [ref. 36138], Cervigón 1992:183 [ref. 23827], Nakaya & Sato 1998:155 [ref. 23477], Nakaya & Stehmann 1998:78 [ref. 23495], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:63 [ref. 23897], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Compagno 2003:450 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:21 [ref. 27192], Kiraly et al. 2003:13 [ref. 28226], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27705], Iglésias & Nakaya 2004:218 [ref. 27975], Iglésias et al. 2004:355 [ref. 28061], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Castro 2011:309 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:80 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:32 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus parvipinnis Springer & Heemstra 1979. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

parvus, Asymbolus Compagno [L. J. V.], Stevens [J. D.] & Last [P. R.] 1999:12, Fig. 3 [CSIRO Marine Laboratories, Report No. 239; ref. 25034] North of Nickol Bay, Western Australia, 19°07.3'S, 117°04.4'E, depth 177-184 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 1505-01. Paratypes: CSIRO CA 2864 (1), CA 2865 (1), CA 3326 (1), CA 3327 (1), CA 4070 (1), H 1035-21 (1), H 1035-02 (1), T 1500 (1), T 1501 (1), T 1513 (1). •Valid as Asymbolus parvus Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999 -- (Last et al. 1999:31 [ref. 25140], Hoese et al. 2006:83 [ref. 28999], Séret & Last 2008:138 [ref. 29988], Weigmann 2016:34 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Asymbolus parvus Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

piceus, Figaro Chu [Y.-T.], Meng [Q.-W.] & Liu [J.-X.] 1983:104 (English p. 107), Figs. 1-2 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 8358] South China Sea, 19°40'N, 115°E, depth 810 meters. Holotype: SCSFRI A89. Paratypes: SCSFRI D 2436 (1). •Synonym of Parmaturus melanobranchus (Chan 1966) -- (Gledhill et al. 2008:179 [ref. 29686] as melanobranchius, White & Last 2013:243 [ref. 33042], Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Parmaturus melanobranchus (Chan 1966). Pentanchidae. Distribution: South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

pilosus, Parmaturus Garman [S.] 1906:204 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 46 (no. 11); ref. 1542] Off Japan, 34°59'N, l39°31'E, depth 430 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 1107-S. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xxxviii [ref. 23119]. •Valid as Parmaturus pilosus Garman 1906 -- (Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1982:43, 309 [ref. 8256], Compagno 1984:343 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:4 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:45, 297 [ref. 8057], Hardy 1985:121 [ref. 8156], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:127 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:287 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:127 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:393 [ref. 28370], Séret & Last 2007:23 [ref. 29377], Hsu et al. 2013:251 [ref. 33043], Ebert et al. 2013:320 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:42 [ref. 34211], Fahmi & Ebert 2018:540 [ref. 35910], Soares et al. 2019:322 [ref. 36748]). Current status: Valid as Parmaturus pilosus Garman 1906. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

pinguis, Apristurus Deng [S.-M.], Xiong [G.-Q.] & Zhan [H.-X.] 1983:64 (English p. 69), Fig. 1 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 14 (no. 1); ref. 8354] East China Sea, 26°-31°N, 125°-128°E, depth 200-1000 meters. Holotype: ECSFI SH80D-0312. •Questionably valid as Apristurus pinguis Deng, Xiong & Zhan 1983 -- (Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Apristurus pinguis Deng, Xiong & Zhan 1983 -- (Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Kawauchi et al. 2008:76 [ref. 29712], Iglésias 2013:511 [ref. 32534], Nakaya et al. 2015:82 [ref. 34218], Weigmann 2016:32 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus pinguis Deng, Xiong & Zhan 1983. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and se. Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

piperatus, Galeus Springer [S.] & Wagner [M. H.] 1966:1, Figs. 1-2 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 110; ref. 9068] Gulf of California, 28°55'N, 112°50.5'W, Alaska station 64A2-16, Mexico, depth 275 meters. Holotype: LACM 7552. Paratypes: LACM 8818-9 (1); USNM 200413 (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:11 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Galeus piperatus Springer & Wagner 1966 -- (Compagno 1984:315 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Stevens 1993:187 [ref. 20843], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:928 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:35 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:33 [ref. 27705], Castro 2011:328 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:452 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Galeus piperatus Springer & Wagner 1966. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California, Islas Marías and Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico; Peru (?). Habitat: marine.

platyrhynchus, Scyliorhinus Tanaka [S.] 1909:4 [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 27 (art. 8); ref. 4322] Misaki, Sagami Province, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 2154 (lost). •Valid as Apristurus platyrhynchus (Tanaka 1909) -- (Compagno 1984:278 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:4 [ref. 6441], Okamura & Machida 1986:18 [ref. 22278], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Nakaya 1989:205 [ref. 19777], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Nakaya & Sato 2000:224 [ref. 24800], Nakabo 2000:130 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:287 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:130 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:392 [ref. 28370], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Kawauchi et al. 2008:76 [ref. 29712], Shao et al. 2008:236 [ref. 29952], Last el al. 2010:66 [ref. 32461], Iglésias 2012:517 [ref. 32534], Nakaya & Kawauchi 2013:131, 161 [ref. 33037], Ebert et al. 2013:315 [ref. 33045], Kawauchi et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33554], Kawauchi et al. 2014:13 [ref. 33554] as cf. Platyrhynchus, Weigmann 2016:33 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus platyrhynchus (Tanaka 1909). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Philippines, Taiwan and Japan. Habitat: marine.

polli, Galeus Cadenat [J.] 1959:396, Figs. 1-4, 7-18 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 21 (no. 1); ref. 20802] Coast of Senegal. Syntypes: (17, plus young) MNHN 1959-0044 and 0045 (2). •Valid as Galeus polli Cadenat 1959 -- (Compagno 1984:316 [ref. 6846], Bass 1986:90 [ref. 5635], Springer 1990:92 [ref. 19319], Compagno et al. 1991:78 [ref. 21083], Compagno & Stevens 1993:189 [ref. 20843], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:74 [ref. 25472], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Rey et al. 2006:8 [ref. 29427], Weigmann 2016:39 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1265 [ref. 34544], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:70 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Galeus polli Cadenat 1959. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to western coast of South Africa. Habitat: marine.

polystigma, Scyliorhinus (Halaelurus) Regan [C. T.] 1921:413 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 7 (no. 41); ref. 3672] 15-20 miles off Umvoti River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 120-130 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1921.3.1.1. •Synonym of Holohalaelurus punctatus (Gilchrist 1914) -- (Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:v [ref. 21953], Human 2006:6 [ref. 28824]). Current status: Synonym of Holohalaelurus punctatus (Gilchrist 1914). Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

priapus, Galeus Séret [B.] & Last [P. R.] 2008:21, Figs. 2-3 [Zootaxa No. 1813; ref. 29702] Off New Caledonia, 23°03'S, 166°56'E, depth 620-700 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1997-3534. Paratypes: (10) at CSIRO and MNHN. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Galeus priapus Séret & Last 2008 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Weigmann 2016:40 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2016:261 [ref. 34956]). Current status: Valid as Galeus priapus Séret & Last 2008. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

prionurus, Squalus Otto [A. W.] 1821:5 [Conspectus animalium quorundam maritimorum; ref. 4987] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Compagno 1984:312 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:49 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810. Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

profundicolus, Pentanchus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] in Smith 1912:490, Pl. 42 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 41 (no. 1872); ref. 4041] Mindanao Sea, 10°02'N, 125°19'20"E, Philippines, Albatross station 5486, depth 585 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 70260 (poor condition). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:11-12 [ref. 21812]. First author is H. M. Smith. •Valid as Pentanchus profundicolus Smith & Radcliffe 1912 -- (Compagno 1984:345 [ref. 6846], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:221 [ref. 36138], Compagno & Niem 1998:1291 [ref. 23787], Nakaya & Stehmann 1998:78 [ref. 23495], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Nakaya & Séret 2000:374 [ref. 25115], Compagno et al. 2005:27 [ref. 29145], Weigmann 2016:42 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Pentanchus profundicolus Smith & Radcliffe 1912. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

profundorum, Scylliorhinus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:17, Pl. 5 (fig. 16) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Off Delaware Bay in Gulf Stream, 39°09'00"N, 72°03'15"W, Albatross station 2234, depth 816 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 35646 (disintegrated). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:12 [ref. 21812]. Correct spelling for original genus is Scyliorhinus. •Valid as Apristurus profundorum (Goode & Bean 1896) -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:50 [ref. 14275], Compagno 1984:279 [ref. 6846], Scott & Scott 1988:23 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:30 [ref. 14674], Springer 1990:91 [ref. 19319], Nakaya & Sato 1998:155 [ref. 23477], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Compagno 2003:451 [ref. 26984], Moore et al. 2003:167 [ref. 27076], Kiraly et al. 2003:14 [ref. 28226], Iglésias et al. 2004:355 [ref. 28061], Castro 2011:311 [ref. 31457], Rodríguez-Cabello et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33675], Afonso et al. 2016:11, 94 [ref. 36199], Weigmann 2016:33 [ref. 34211], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:68 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:21 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus profundorum (Goode & Bean 1896). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Scylliorhinus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1914:129, Fig. [Marine biological report: for the year ended ... and for the half year ending ...; to be presented to the Provincial Council; Union of South Africa, Province of the Cape of Good Hope. No. 2 (VII); ref. 15094] Red cliff off Bazaruto, Mozambique, depth 130-140 fathoms. Neotype: SAIAB [RUSI] 6128. Neotype designated by Human 2006:7 [ref. 28824]. •Valid as Holohalaelurus punctatus (Gilchrist 1914) -- (Compagno 1984:336 [ref. 6846], Bass 1986:93 [ref. 5635], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Compagno et al. 1991:80 [ref. 21083], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Human 2006:6 [ref. 28824], Human 2010:25 [ref. 30764], Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211], Fricke et al. 2018:10 [ref. 35805], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:73 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Holohalaelurus punctatus (Gilchrist 1914). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa and Mozambique to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

quagga, Scyllium Alcock [A. W.] 1899:17 [A descriptive catalogue of the Indian deep-sea fishes in the Indian Museum; ref. 5114] Laccadive Sea, off Malabar coast, 8°23'N, 76°28'E, Investigator station 258, depth l02 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F751/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:95 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:32 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1900: Pl. 27 (figs. 1, 1a) [ref. 20536]. •Valid as Halaelurus quagga (Alcock 1899) -- (Compagno 1984:331 [ref. 6846], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S91 [ref. 27377], White et al. 2007:19 [ref. 29295], Akhilesh et al. 2011:40, 42 [ref. 31200], Weigmann 2016:40 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Halaelurus quagga (Alcock 1899). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Somalia and India. Habitat: marine.

regani, Scylliorhinus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1922:45 [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 3); ref. 1648] Southeast of Hondeklip Bay, northern Cape Province, 30°57'S, 16°46'E, South Africa, depth 234 meters. Neotype: SAM 32448. Syntypes or non-types: (orig. 4 stations) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 952 (2). Case 3364 has been submitted to the ICZN by B. A. Human in Dec. 2005 to designate a neotype to maintain current usage. but it was not needed. Neotype designated by Human 2006:18 [ref. 28824]; see his account for rejection of syntypes. •Valid as Holohalaelurus regani (Gilchrist 1922) -- (Compagno 1984:338 [ref. 6846], Bass 1986:93 [ref. 5635], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Compagno et al. 1991:80 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:75 [ref. 25472], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Human 2006:18 [ref. 28824], Human 2010:25 [ref. 30764], Weigmann 2016:41 [ref. 34211], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:73 [ref. 37302], Soares & Carvalho 2020:379 [ref. 37593]). Current status: Valid as Holohalaelurus regani (Gilchrist 1922). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: southern Namibia around Cape of Good Hope (South Africa) north to Zanzibar (Tanzania). Habitat: marine.

riveri, Apristurus Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1944:23, Pl. 7 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 23; ref. 13163] North coast of Cuba, 23°24'N, 80°44'W, depth 580 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 36092. Type catalog: Gutiérrez de los Reyes et al. 2015:43 [ref. 36079]. •Valid as Apristurus riveri Bigelow & Schroeder 1944 -- (Compagno 1984:280 [ref. 6846], Nakaya & Sato 1998:155 [ref. 23477], Cervigón 1992:183 [ref. 23827], Nakaya & Stehmann 1998:78 [ref. 23495], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:64 [ref. 23897], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Compagno 2003:451 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:14 [ref. 28226], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27705], Iglésias et al. 2004:355 [ref. 28061], Castro 2011:314 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:80 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:33 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus riveri Bigelow & Schroeder 1944. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

rubiginosus, Asymbolus Last [P. R.], Gomon [M. F.] & Gledhill [D. C.] 1999:27, Fig. 3 [CSIRO Marine Laboratories, Report No. 239; ref. 25140] South of Gabo Island, Victoria, Australia, 37°46.7'S, 149°55.2'E, depth 120-130 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 3528-01. Paratypes: AMS I39854-001 (1); CSIRO CA 4059 (1), CA 4060 (1), H 253-01 (1), H 1325-01 (1), H 2693-01 (1), H 2967-04 (1), H 3427-01 (1), H 3427-02 (1); NMV A20925 (1). •Valid as Asymbolus rubiginosus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999 -- (Hoese et al. 2006:83 [ref. 28999], Séret & Last 2008:138 [ref. 29988], White 2008:58 [ref. 30617], Weigmann 2016:34 [ref. 34211], Rigby et al. 2017:337 [ref. 35469], Soares & Carvalho 2020:379 [ref. 37593]). Current status: Valid as Asymbolus rubiginosus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Queensland south to Tasmania (Australia). Habitat: marine.

saldanha, Scylliorhinus Barnard [K. H.] 1925:44 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 21 (pt 1); ref. 192] Off Saldanha Bay, South Africa, southeastern Atlantic, depth 500 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAM (apparently lost). Correct spelling of original genus is Scyliorhinus. •Valid as Apristurus saldanha (Barnard 1925) -- (Compagno 1984:282 [ref. 6846], Bass 1986:89 [ref. 5635], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Springer 1990:91 [ref. 19319], Compagno et al. 1991:77 [ref. 21083], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Sato et al. 1999:334 [ref. 24607], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Weigmann 2016:33 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1264 [ref. 34544], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:66 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus saldanha (Barnard 1925). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: Namibia south to South Africa. Habitat: marine.

sauteri, Pristiurus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1909:160, Pl. 63 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 2493] Takao [Kaohsiung], southwestern Taiwan. Holotype: FMNH 55193 [ex CM 219]. Paratypes: FMNH 55194 (1), CAS-SU 21261 (4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:51 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:18 [ref. 31432]. The figured specimen is labeled type and evidently has been determined to be FMNH 55193. •Valid as Galeus sauteri (Jordan & Richardson 1909) -- (Compagno 1984:317 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:4 [ref. 6441], Tachikawa & Taniuchi 1987:358 [ref. 6712], Compagno & Stevens 1993:186 [ref. 20843], Compagno & Niem 1998:1290 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:128 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:287 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:128 [ref. 26001], Compagno et al. 2005:25 [ref. 29145], Ho & Shao 2011:18 [ref. 31432], Ebert et al. 2013:318 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:40 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Galeus sauteri (Jordan & Richardson 1909). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Philippines and Taiwan to Japan. Habitat: marine.

schultzi, Galeus Springer [S.] 1979:67 [NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) Circular No. 422; ref. 4175] Balayan Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines, Albatross station 4693, depth 329 meters. Holotype: USNM 122312. Paratypes: USNM 122307 (1), 122311 (1). Additional material: USNM 316614 (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:13 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Galeus schultzi Springer 1979 -- (Compagno 1984:318 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Stevens 1993:186 [ref. 20843], Compagno & Niem 1998:1290 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Compagno et al. 2005:25 [ref. 29145], Weigmann 2016:40 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Galeus schultzi Springer 1979. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

sellus, Halaelurus White [W. T.], Last [P. R.] & Stevens [J. D.] 2007:11, Figs. 5-8 [Zootaxa No. 1639; ref. 29295] North of Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia, 19°25'S, 116°33'E, depth 126 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 994-01. Paratypes: CSIRO H 1082-01 (1), C 4809 (1), T 1505 (1), T 1508 (1), T 1510 (1), T 1511 (1), T 1512 (1), T 1512-02 (6 egg cases), 1514 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Halaelurus sellus White, Last & Stevens 2007 -- (Akhilesh et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31200], Larson et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:40 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Halaelurus sellus White, Last & Stevens 2007. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Northwestern Australia: Northern Territory to Shark Bay, Western Australia; Timor and Arafura seas. Habitat: marine.

sibogae, Scyliorhinus Weber [M.] 1913:595 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Makassar Strait, Indonesia, 0°32'S, 119°39.8'E, Siboga station 87, depth 655 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 111076 (poor condition). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:7 [ref. 19236]; Nakaya 1989:202 [ref. 19777] redescribed holotype. •Valid as Apristurus sibogae (Weber 1913) -- (Compagno 1984:283 [ref. 6846], Nakaya 1989 [ref. 19777], Compagno & Niem 1998:1286 [ref. 23787], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Nakaya & Sato 2000:229 [ref. 24800], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Weigmann 2016:33 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus sibogae (Weber 1913). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sinensis, Apristurus Chu [Y.-T.] & Hu [A.-S.] in Chu, Meng, Hu & Li 1981:103 [English p. 115], Fig. 1 (double) [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 4841] South China Sea, depth 537 meters. Holotype (unique): SCSFRI 99. •Valid as Apristurus sinensis Chu & Hu1981 -- (Compagno 1984:284 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1285 [ref. 23787], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Nakaya et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29711], Naylor et al. 2012:42 [ref. 32267] as cf. sinensis, see remarks, Iglesias 2013:517 [ref. 32534] as cf. sinensis, Nakaya et al. 2015:84 [ref. 34218] as cf. sinensis, Weigmann 2016:33 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus sinensis Chu & Hu 1981. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Madagascar, New Caledonia, Australia and New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

souverbiei, Pristiurus Lafont [A.] 1869:595, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Actes de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts de Bordeaux Ser. 3, v. 30; ref. 32438] Gironde, France. Syntypes (5): ?MNHN 2003-1925 (1) jaws. •Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Compagno 1984:312 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:49 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810. Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

spinacipellitum, Scyllium Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:60, Pl. 1 (figs. 3, 3a) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Off Canary Islands, depth 975 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1884-0384 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:68 [ref. 20739]. This name suppressed in Opinion 1732 and placed on the Official Index to conserve the use of Scylliorhinus atlanticus Koefoed 1927. •Questionaly a synonym of Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:358 [ref. 6846]). •Valid, but to be submitted to ICZN -- (Nakaya & Séret 1989:977 [ref. 16198]). •In the synonymy of Apristurus atlanticus (Koefoed 1927) -- (Opinion 1732). •In the synonymy of Apristrus laurussonii (Saemundsson 1922). Current status: Synonym of Apristurus laurussonii (Saemundsson 1922). Pentanchidae.

spongiceps, Catulus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:579 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Vicinity of Bird Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4151, depth 313-800 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 51590. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:13-14 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Apristurus spongiceps (Gilbert 1905) -- (Compagno 1984:285 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1287 [ref. 23787], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:33 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:25 [ref. 35594]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus spongiceps (Gilbert 1905). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: eastern Indonesia, Hawaiian Islands (probably more widespread). Habitat: marine.

springeri, Galeus Konstantinou [H.] & Cozzi [J. R.] 1998:152, Figs. 1-5 [Copeia 1998 (no. 1); ref. 23301] Off Leeward Islands, Lesser Antilles, 17°06'N, 62°17'W, depth 589 meters. Holotype: USNM 221366. Paratypes: AMS I.37877-001 [ex USNM 221386] (1), CAS 93497 [ex USNM 221386] (1), ROM 70681 [ex USNM 221386] (1); USNM 221358 (1), 221386 (1), 221390 (2), 336868 (3). •Valid as Galeus springeri Konstantinou & Cozzi 1998 -- (Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:18 [ref. 26632], Compagno 2003:452 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:15 [ref. 28226], Castro 2011:326 [ref. 31457], Weigmann 2016:40 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Galeus springeri Konstantinou & Cozzi 1998. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

stenseni, Parmaturus Springer [S.] 1979:104, Figs. 64-66 [NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) Circular No. 422; ref. 4175] Gulf of Panama, 7°22'N, 79°32'W, depth 915-975 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P06146 [ex ZMK Galathea 739-1]. Paratypes: (40) HUMZ 138785 [ex ZMUC P 06156] (1), 138786 [ex ZMUC P 06186] (1); ZMUC P 06147-155, 157-185 (38, 1 in each lot). •Valid as Apristurus stenseni (Springer 1979) -- (Compagno 1984:286 [ref. 6846], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:71 [ref. 24023], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:33 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus stenseni (Springer 1979). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

submaculatus, Asymbolus Compagno [L. J. V.], Stevens [J. D.] & Last [P. R.] 1999:8, Fig. 2 [CSIRO Marine Laboratories, Report No. 239; ref. 25034] Off Cape Howe, New South Wales, Australia, 37°39.0'S, 150°13.0'E, depth 180-200 meters. Holotype: CSIRO CA 3336. Paratypes: CSIRO CA 3335 (1), CA 3337 (1), CA 3338 (1), H 5241-01 (1); WAM P.711-001 (1), P.28483-001 (1), P.29399-001 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:3 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Asymbolus submaculatus Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999 -- (Last et al. 1999:31 [ref. 25140], Hoese et al. 2006:84 [ref. 28999], Séret & Last 2008:138 [ref. 29988], White 2008:59 [ref. 30617], Weigmann 2016:34 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Asymbolus submaculatus Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Australia: New South Wales to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

teriae, Asymbolus Sprackland [R. G.] 1999:no page number [Key to the sharks and rays of the world; ref. 25187] Published electronically; listed in Zoological Record for 1999/2000. Not available, electronic publication not acceptable in the 1999 Code. Name provided to a published Asymbolus sp. account in a publication by different authors. Pentanchidae.

terrencemilleri, Asymbolus Sprackland [R. G.] 1999:no page number [Key to the sharks and rays of the world; ref. 25187] Published electronically; listed in Zoological Record for 1999/2000. Not available, electronic publication not acceptable in the 1999 Code. Name provided to a published Asymbolus sp. account in a publication by different authors. Pentanchidae.

verweyi, Pentanchus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:237, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Sipadan Island, vicinity of Sibuko Bay, Borneo, Albatross station D.5587, 4°10'35"N, 118°37'12"E, depth 415 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 93135. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:14 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Apristurus verweyi (Fowler 1934) -- (Compagno 1984:287 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1287 [ref. 23787], Nakaya & Sato 1999:316 [ref. 23941], Nakaya & Séret 1999:307 [ref. 24247], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589]). •Synonym of Apristurus platyrhynchus (Tanaka 1909) -- (Nakaya & Sato 2000:224 [ref. 24800], Kawauchi et al. 2008:76 [ref. 29712], Last el al. 2010:67 [ref. 32461], Nakaya & Kawauchi 2013:162 [ref. 33037], Weigmann 2016:33 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Apristurus platyrhynchus (Tanaka 1909). Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

vincenti, Scyllium Zietz [A. H. C.] 1908:287 [Transactions Royal Society of South Australia v. 32; ref. 17706] Near the northern shore of Kangaroo Island, Investigator Strait, South Australia. Syntypes: (several) BMNH, SAMA. •Valid as Asymbolus vincenti (Zietz 1908) -- (Compagno 1984:291 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:71 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:9 [ref. 23929] as Asymbolis, Gomon et al. 1994:134 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:188 [ref. 23873], Kuiter 1997:10 [ref. 25488], Compagno 1999:479 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Last et al. 1999:31 [ref. 25140], Hoese et al. 2006:84 [ref. 28999], Séret & Last 2008:138 [ref. 29988], White 2008:59 [ref. 30617], Weigmann 2016:34 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Asymbolus vincenti (Zietz 1908). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Southern Australia: Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

xaniurus, Catulus Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:540 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Off southern California, U.S.A., 33°55'30"N, 128°28'00"W, depth 687 meters. Lectotype: USNM 46719. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 259 (3); USNM 46718 (7), 125059 (13); ZMB 13986 [ex USNM 46718] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:8 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Springer 1979:108 [ref. 4175]. •Valid as Parmaturus xaniurus (Gilbert 1892) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:33 [ref. 9277], Compagno 1984:344 [ref. 6846], Hardy 1985:121 [ref. 8156], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:928 [ref. 22829], Compagno 1999:480 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:34 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:6 [ref. 37547], Castro 2011:332 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:50 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:42 [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:452 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:68 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Burton & Lea 2019:29 [ref. 37205], Soares et al. 2019:322 [ref. 36748], Soares & Carvalho 2020:379 [ref. 37593]). Current status: Valid as Parmaturus xaniurus (Gilbert 1892). Pentanchidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Washington (U.S.A.) south to Gulf of California and Revillagigedo Archipelago (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

xenolepis, Apristurus Meng [Q.-W.], Zhu [Y.-D.] & Li [S.] 1985:47 (English p. 50), Fig. 4 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 8136] Off Zhujiang, South China Sea, depth 546 meters. Holotype (unique): SCSFRI D0042. •Synonym of Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934) -- (Nakaya 1991:999 [ref. 19774], Compagno et al. 2005:24 [ref. 29145], Nakaya & Kawauchi 2013:131 [ref. 33037], White & Last 2013:243 [ref. 33042], Weigmann 2016:30 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934). Pentanchidae. Habitat: marine.

yangi, Apristurus White [W. T.], Mana [R. R.] & Naylor [G. J. P.] 2017:26, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa 4320 (no. 1); ref. 35594] Vitiaz Strait, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea, 06°02.030'S, 147°37.490'E, depth 700-701 meters. Holotype: ASIZ P0080718. Paratype: NTUM. •Valid as Apristurus yangi White, Mana & Naylor 2017 -- (White et al. 2017:106 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:27 [ref. 35922], Fricke et al. 2019:38 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Apristurus yangi White, Mana & Naylor 2017. Pentanchidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Papua New Guinea endemic. Habitat: marine.