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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Percidae: [ 410 ] records


acerina, Perca Gmelin [J. F.] (ex Güldenstädt) 1789:1321 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Kottelat & Freyhof 2009:83-85 [ref. 30320] provide extensive remarks on the use of this name by Güldenstädt. They suggest that Güldenstädt (1775:457, Pl. 11) did not place the taxon in a genus and that acerina was not proposed as a scientific name [if so, it does not need to have been placed in a genus, W. N .E.]. They indicate that the name acerina was made available by Gmelin 1789:1321. They declare tanaicensis as a nomen oblitum, and declare acerina as a nomen protectum. Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:205 [ref. 28183] date acerina to Güldenstädt 1774 [herein 1775] and treat the name as a noun, hence Gymnocpehalus acerina. •Valid as Acerina acerina (Güldenstädt 1775) -- (Berg 1949:1048 [ref. 20662]). •Valid as Gymnocephalus acerina [sometimes as acerinus] (Güldenstädt 1775) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1453 [ref. 5845], Lelek 1987:280 [ref. 22962], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:749 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:117 [ref. 23588], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:47 [ref. 26178], Parin 2003:S3 [ref. 28536], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:205 [ref. 28183] dated to 1774, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:527 [ref. 29996], Parin et al. 2014:354 [ref. 33547]). •Dates to Gmelin (ex Güldenstädt) 1789 -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2009:84 [ref. 30320]). •Valid as Gymnocephalus acerina (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2009:84 [ref. 30320] but as Gmelin 1788). Current status: Valid as Gymnocephalus acerina (Gmelin 1789). Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: Europe. Habitat: freshwater.

aculeata, Perca Osbeck [P.] 1770:103 [Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldina-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum v. 4; ref. 18497] [Hispanicae] Spain. No types known. Percidae.

acuta, Perca Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:49, Pl. 10 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Lake Ontario, North America. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6578 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:81 [ref. 12478]. •Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814) -- (Smith 1986:338 [ref. 22186], La Rivers 1994:538 [ref. 23389], Scott & Crossman 1998:761 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

acuticeps, Etheostoma (Nothonotus) Bailey [R. M.] 1959:6, Pl. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 603; ref. 11977] South Fork of Holston River, about 0.5 miles above South Holston Dam, Sullivan County, Tennessee, U.S.A., elevation 1490 feet. Holotype: UMMZ 159014. Paratypes: UMMZ 157585 (2), 159013 (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:22 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma acuticeps Bailey 1959 -- (Lee et al. 1980:622 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:101 [ref. 22189], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:378 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:307 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:458 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:866 [ref. 21581], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:19 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:568 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma acuticeps Bailey 1959. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee, North Carolina and Virginia. Habitat: freshwater.

aesopus, Boleosoma Cope [E. D.] 1870:270 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11 (for 7 Jan. 1870); ref. 14127] Loyalsoc Creek, tributary of the Susquehanna River, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:14 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:137 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842 -- (Page 1983:85 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

akatulo, Etheostoma Layman [S. R.] & Mayden [R. L.] 2009:158, Fig. 1A, 1B [Copeia 2009 (no. 1); ref. 30060] Caney Fork River system, Collins River between mouths of Scott and Hillis creeks, 1.6 air kilometers southeast of Irving College, 35°34.188'N, 85°42.064'W, Warren County, Tennessee,U.S.A. Holotype: UAIC 10382.02. Paratypes: INHS 77585 (4); SIUC 70039 (4); TU 167868 (4); UAIC 10382.10 (7); UMMZ 187464 (1), 187465 (22); USNM 328258 (4); UT 91.4426 (4). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Etheostoma akatulo Layman & Mayden 2009 -- (Page & Burr 2011:542 [ref. 31215], Layman & Mayden 2012:19 [ref. 32285], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma akatulo Layman & Mayden 2009. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Upper Caney Fork River system, Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

alabamae, Etheostoma whipplei Gilbert [C. H.] & Swain [J.] in Gilbert 1887:62 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] Black Warrior River near Morris and near Tuscaloosa, Alabama, U.S.A. Syntypes: CAS-SU 2318 (2); USNM 36735 (6), 36687 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:42 [ref. 20211]. The original spelling of the species whipplii is an acceptable spelling, but based on Art. 33.2.3.1 of the Code, the spelling whipplei can be retained. •Synonym of Etheostoma whipplei (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:121 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma whipplei (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ambriaelacus, Gymnocephalus Geiger [M. F.] & Schliewen [U. K.] 2010:127, Fig. 8a [Spixiana (München) v. 33 (no. 1); ref. 30887] River Isar catchment area, Lake Ammersee, east shore near Ried, Bavaria, Germany, 48°00'21"N, 11°08'29"E, depth about 5 meters. Holotype: ZSM 33199. Paratypes: CU-RY uncat. [ex ZSM 33834] (2); SMF 32879 [ex ZSM 38781] (2); ZSM 32824 (4), 33314 (10), 33834 (11, now 8), 38522 [ex ZSM 33199] (2), 38781 (10, now 8) . Plus additional non-type material. Type catalog: Neumann 2011:275 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Gymnocephalus ambriaelacus Geiger & Schliewen 2010. Current status: Valid as Gymnocephalus ambriaelacus Geiger & Schliewen 2010. Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: Lake Ammersee, upper Danube River basin, southern Germany. Habitat: freshwater.

americana, Lucioperca Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:122, Pl. 16 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6618 (1) New York, A-7702 (1, dry) New York. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:81 [ref. 12478]. •Synonym of Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill 1818) -- (Smith 1986:349 [ref. 22186]). •Synonym of Sander vitreus (Mitchill 1818). Current status: Synonym of Sander vitreus (Mitchill 1818). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

americana, Perca Schrank [F. von P.] (ex Schoepf) 1792:100 [Abhandlungen einer Privatgesellschaft von Naturforschern und Oekonomen in Oberdeutschland, München v. 1 (art. 6); ref. 18709] New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: (at least 20) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:278 [ref. 28925]. Based on a literature source. Preoccupied by Perca americana Gmein 1789. Reference may be incorrect. •In the synonymy of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814) -- (La Rivers 1994:538 [ref. 23389]). Current status: Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

anceps, Plesioperca Vaillant [L. L.] 1873:37, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 9 (pt 1, Mémoire); ref. 4492] North America (no specific locality). Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000- 2778 [ex Agassiz no. 851]. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:59 [ref. 20211], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:82 [ref. 12478]. •Synonym of Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz 1854) -- (Page 1983:33 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

antesella, Percina (Imostoma) Williams [J. D.] & Etnier [D. A.] 1977:7, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 90 (no. 1); ref. 17765] Conasauga River at Tennessee highway 75, 12.9 miles southeast of Cleveland, Bradley County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 94031. Paratypes: TU 58938 (7), 58968 (3), 59427 (7), 65937 (7), 69143 (8), 78368 (1); UAIC 4456.01 (1), 4729.01 (11); UMMZ 194317 (2); USNM 210666-69 (1, 3, 2, 1); UT 91.471 (10), 91.799-800 (2, 1), 91.1100 (1). Addtional material: UMMZ 156697 (1). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:61-62 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Percina antesella Williams & Etnier 1977 -- (Lee et al. 1980:715 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:48 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:283 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:122 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:565 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:691 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Williams et al. 2007:11 [ref. 29253], Scharpf 2008:35 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:524 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina antesella Williams & Etnier 1977. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Georgia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

apina, Percina Near [T. J.] & Simmons [J. W.] in Near, Simmons, Mollish, Correa, Benavides, Harrington & Keck 2017:294, Figs. 2-3 [Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History v. 58 (no. 2); ref. 35622] Big Swan Creek, upstream of US Highway 412 crossing, Lewis County, Tennessee, U.S.A., latitude: 35.562698, longitude: -87.397534. Holotype: YPM ICH 032004, YFTC 028205. Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, INHS, TU, UT, YPM. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Percina apina Near & Simmons 2017. Current status: Valid as Percina apina Near & Simmons 2017. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Duck River system and Whiteoak Creek, Western Highland Rim, Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

appalachia, Hololepis barratti Bailey [J. R.] 1950:312 [Copeia 1950 (no. 4); ref. 12933] Pond south of mouth of Bent Creek, about 300 feet west of French Broad River, Buncombe County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 156224. Paratypes: Author coll. (orig. 11, now 2?), CUMV 18444 (3), DU uncat. (6), UMMZ 156225 (49, now 48). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:49 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854), subspecies barratti (Holbrook 1855) -- (Collette 1962:174 [ref. 5865]). •Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854) -- (Page 1983:156 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

apristis, Hadropterus scierus Hubbs [C. L.] & Hubbs [Clark L.] in Clark L. Hubbs 1954:211 [American Midland Naturalist v. 52 (no. 1); ref. 12648] Rio San Marcos, 0.5 mile southeast of Prairie Lea, Caldwell County, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 162377. Paratypes: FMNH 46194 [not 46195] (13); OAM 4707 (8); CAS-SU 17311 (3); TAMC 1F-13-g-4 (1), 1F-13-g-10 (16); TNHC 90 (15), 162 (1), 314 (1), 333 (disintgrated), 501 (1); USNM 160628 (6 or 11), 160629 (11 or 12); UMMZ 162374 (9), 162378 (40). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:46-47 [ref. 20211], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Percina sciera (Swain 1883), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Lee et al. 1980:740 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:31 [ref. 22189]). •Valid as Percina apristis (Hubbs & Hubbs 1954) -- (Robins & Page 2007:51 [ref. 29318], Scharpf 2008:36 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:519 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina apristis (Hubbs & Hubbs 1954). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Guadalupe River system, Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

apron, Aspro Siebold [C. T. E. von] 1863:55 [Die Süsswasserfische von Mitteleuropa; ref. 4021] Rhône River, France. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:278 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Zingel asper (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Zingel asper (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: freshwater.

aquali, Etheostoma (Nothonotus) Williams [J. D.] & Etnier [D. A.] 1978:464, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 91 (no. 2); ref. 8861] Flat Creek, tributary to Duck River at Tennessee highway 64, 1 mile southwest of Shelbyville, Bedford County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 105479. Paratypes: INHS 77826 (3); TU 32989 (6), 95729 (1), 105480-81 (1, 3); UAIC 2826 (6), 2700 (18), 2856 (1); UF 24499 (9); UMMZ 201716-17 (1, 2); USNM 218001-02 (6, 2); UT 91.228 (7), 91.622 (1), 91.749 (1), 91.1282 (1). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:57 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:277 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma aquali Williams & Etnier 1978 -- (Lee et al. 1980:623 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:101 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:306 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:460 [ref. 22809], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:19 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:565 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Nothonotus aquali (Williams & Etnier 1978) -- (Keck & Near 2013:4 [ref. 32583]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma aquali Williams & Etnier 1978. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

arcansanum, Etheostoma zonale Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1886:5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 549) (for 14 Aug. 1886); ref. 10626] Washita [Ouachita] River at Arkadelphia, Arkansas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36410. Paralectotypes: UMMZ 187506 [ex IU 777, IU 4543] (7), 187507 [ex IU] (4); USNM 36249 (2), 36275 (1), 36399 (2), 36447 (15), 188970 [ex USNM 36410] (25). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:43 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:43 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma zonale (Cope 1868) -- (Page 1983:73 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma zonale (Cope 1868). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

arcuscelestis, Etheostoma Crevecoeur [F. F.] 1903:177 [Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science v. 18 (for 1901-1902); ref. 15024] French Creek, tributary of Vermillion River near Onaga, Pottawatomie County, Kansas, U.S.A. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:23 [ref. 20211]. Originally as arcus-celestis. •Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854) -- (Page 1983:136 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

argenteus, Gymnocephalus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:30, Pl. 332 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] East Indies. On p. 25 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Percidae.

artesiae, Poecilichthys Hay [O. P.] 1881:494 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 179); ref. 2053] Small branch of Catawba River at Artesia, Lowndes County, Mississippi, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 27434. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:60 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma whipplei (Girard 1859), but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1980:709 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:125 [ref. 22189], Retzer et al. 1986:640 [ref. 22453], Robison & Buchanan 1988:444 [ref. 23393]). •Valid as Etheostoma artesiae (Hay 1881) -- (Piller et al. 2001:802 [ref. 25456], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:340 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:508 [ref. 27995], Page & Burr 2011:575 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma artesiae (Hay 1881). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Gulf Coast drainages and lower Mississippi River basin, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

asper, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:290 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Rhône River. Neotype: MNHN 0000-1895 (specimen with a tag). Appeared as Perca aspera in Bloch & Schneider 1801:84 [ref. 471]. Neotype designated by Kottelat 2003:163 [ref. 27239]. •Valid as Zingel asper (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1459 [ref. 5845], Lelek 1987:303 [ref. 22962], Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:536 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Valid as Zingel asper (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Distribution: South-central Europe. Habitat: freshwater.

asprellus, Pleurolepis Jordan [D. S.] 1878:38 [Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 10444] A small rocky tributary of Mississippi River at Warsaw, Hancock County, Illinois, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 26971. Paratypes: INHS (not found). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:60 [ref. 20211], Sabaj et al. 1997:277 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Ammocrypta asprella (Jordan 1878) -- (Lee et al. 1980:615 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:52 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:406 [ref. 23393], Etnier & Starnes 1993:443 [ref. 22809], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Lyons et al. 2000:44 [ref. 26594], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). •Valid as Crystallaria asprella (Jordan 1878) -- (Page & Burr 1991:288 [ref. 18983], Simons 1991:927 [ref. 22446], Boschung 1992:115 [ref. 23239], Stauffer et al. 1995:293 [ref. 23376], George et al. 1996:68 [ref. 22400], Mettee et al. 1996:585 [ref. 25836], Wood & Raley 2000:20 [ref. 24305], Ross et al. 2001:455 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:338 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:484 [ref. 27995], Welsh & Wood 2008:66 [ref. 29462], Scharpf 2008:19 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:533 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:311 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Crystallaria asprella (Jordan 1878). Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: Central U.S.A.: Minnesota to Gulf Coast states. Habitat: freshwater.

asprigenis, Poecilichthys Forbes [S. A.] in Jordan 1878:41 [Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 10444] Small creek near Pekin, Tazewell County, Illinois, U.S.A. Syntypes: (14) CAS-SU 2201 (2); UMMZ 128139 (1), 128278 (1), 128449 (1), 144351 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:60-61 [ref. 20211], Sabaj et al. 1997:289 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma asprigene (Forbes 1878) -- (Lee et al. 1980:624 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:132 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:409 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:313 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:461 [ref. 22809], Lyons et al. 2000:44 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:457 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:342 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:19 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:577 [ref. 31215], Suttkus et al. 2012:18 [ref. 32288], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma asprigene (Forbes 1878). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central U.S.A., Mississipi River basin, Wisconson to Louisiana. Habitat: freshwater.

aspro, Alvordius Cope [E. D.] & Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan 1877:51 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 29 (pt 1); ref. 2372] Mahoning River, Ohio, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): not found. Non-types: BMNH 1880.1.21.84 (1), USNM 20137 (1). First author is A. D. Cope. Based on Pl. 6 (fig. 1) in Kirtland 1841, not Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque; type specimen on which figure was based not found; single specimens in USNM 20137 and BMNH 1880.1.21.84 from White River, Indiana are not types but were collected and identified by Jordan (Collette & Knapp 1967:10 [ref. 20211]). •Synonym of Percina maculata (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:37 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Percina maculata (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

atraquae, Hololepis fusiformis Hubbs [C. L.] & Cannon [M. D.] 1935:68, Pl. 1 (fig. 11) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 30; ref. 2255] Mattawoman Creek, Prince George-Charles County line, Potomac River drainage basin, Maryland, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 107090. Paratypes: UMMZ 107089 (17, now 15); USNM 92946 (4), 117547 [ex. UMMZ] (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:49-50 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854) -- (Collette 1962:151 [ref. 5865], Page 1983:156 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

atripinnis, Arlina Jordan [D. S.] 1877:10 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum [v. 1] No. 10; ref. 2374] Tributary of Cumberland River near Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 20483 (poor condition). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:12 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma atripinne (Jordan 1877) -- (Lee et al. 1980:625 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:76 [ref. 22189], Powers & Mayden 2007:10 [ref. 29367], Scharpf 2008:20 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:552 [ref. 31215], Harrington & Near 2012:64 [ref. 31699], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma atripinne (Jordan 1877). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Cumberland River tributaries, Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

atromaculata, Estrella Girard [C. F.] 1859:66 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 1821] Potomac River near Washington, D.C., U.S.A. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:22 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842, but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1980:677 [ref. 22416], Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399]). •Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842 -- (Page 1983:85 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:333 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

aubeenaubei, Etheostoma Evermann [B. W.] 1900:367, Pl. 17 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner Pt. 25 (for 1899); ref. 14726] Aubeenaubee Creek, east inlet of Lake Maxinkuckee, Marshall County, Indiana, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 65248 [not 49379]. Paratypes: (many) USNM 65249 (10), 65255 (2), 65258 (10), 65260 (69 or 71), 65263 (5). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:23 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:152 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

aurantiacus, Cottogaster Cope [E. D.] 1868:211, Pl. [24] 28 (fig. 6) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 6 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 909] North Fork of Holston River, Virginia, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 13789. Paralectotypes: ANSP 13790 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:21 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:137 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:21 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina aurantiaca (Cope 1868) -- (Lee et al. 1980:716 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:43 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:284 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:566 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:810 [ref. 21581], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:36 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:525 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Percina aurantiaca (Cope 1868). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Georgia. Habitat: freshwater.

aurata, Perca vulgaris var. Fitzinger [L. J. F. J.] 1832:331 [Beiträge zur Landeskunde Österreichs unter der Enns, Wien v. 1; ref. 5019] Not available, no distinguishing features; from rivers Danube, Leytha and Schwarza, Lake Traunsee, Austria. •In the synonymy of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae.

aurea, Perca fluviatilis var. Smitt [F. A.] 1892:30 [A history of Scandinavian fishes; ref. 4146] Lake Mälaren basin, Sweden. Holotype: NRM 35750. Possibly can be treated as infrasubspecific and not available (see Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952]). •In the synonymy of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae.

aurolineata, Percina Suttkus [R. D.] & Ramsey [J. S.] 1967:129, Figs. 1-2 [Tulane Studies in Zoology v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 18862] Coosawattee River, 4.2 miles southwest of center of Ellijay, Gilmer County, Georgia, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 39573. Paratypes: TU 41049 (3), 38320 (5), 38507 (15), 40714 (4), 41053 (6); CUMV 50388 (3); TU 38320 (5), 40714 (4), 41053 (6); USNM 199733 (3), 199817 (6). Additional material: TU (6 lots, 12); UAIC 1611 (1). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:127 [ref. 20861], Bart & Taylor 1993:63 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Percina aurolineata Suttkus & Ramsey 1967 -- (Lee et al. 1980:717 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:32 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:281 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:123 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:693 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:577 [ref. 27995], Williams et al. 2007:11 [ref. 29253], Scharpf 2008:36 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:520 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina aurolineata Suttkus & Ramsey 1967. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Georgia and Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

aurora, Percina Suttkus [R. D.] & Thompson [B. A.] in Suttkus, Thompson & Bart 1994:15, Figs. 2, 5, 7-8 [Occasional Papers Tulane University Museum of Natural History No. 4; ref. 21916] Strong River, tributary to Pearl River at rapids, 0.2 miles upstream from Miss. highway 28 bridge, Simpson County, Mississippi U.S.A. Holotype: TU 101392. Paratypes: ANSP 171101 (2); CUMV 73971 (2); INHS 32133 (1); MCZ 102026 (1); NLU 11986 (2), 13280 (2), 13567 (1), 14937 (1), 15531 (12), 15933 (2), 19229 (2), 19532 (1); OSUM 77215 (1); TU (many lots); UAIC 10883.01 (2); UF 95412 (2); UMMZ 224805 (3); USNM 327768 (2). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:277-278 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Percina aurora Suttkus & Thompson 1994 -- (Ross et al. 2001:498 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:36 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:522 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina aurora Suttkus & Thompson 1994. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Mississippi and Louisiana, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

australe, Etheostoma Jordan [D. S.] 1889:362 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 723); ref. 10478] Río Chihuahua, Mexico. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:23 [ref. 20211]. Replacement name for Diplesion fasciatus Girard 1859, secondarily preoccupied by Catonotus fasciatus Girard 1859 when both are in Etheostoma; same types as for fasciatus. •Valid as Etheostoma australe Jordan 1889 -- (Page 1983:141 [ref. 22189], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:64 [ref. 22290], Norris & Minckley 1997:174 [ref. 23278], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:335 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2008:20 [ref. 30399], Page et al. 2013:136[ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma australe Jordan 1889. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Upper Río Conchos, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

austroperca, Percina Thompson [B. A.] 1995:3, Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, Louisiana State University No. 69; ref. 21626] Holmes Creek, tributary to Choctawhatchee River, near New Hope chruch, Washington County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: UF 47334. Paratypes: Geol. Surv. Alabama (32, 13 lots); INHS 86973 (1); NLU 23431 (2); TU (30, 7 lots); UAIC (7, 4 lots); UF (64, 18 lots); UMMZ 88704 (1), 163556 (4); USNM (4); UT (4, 2 lots). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:278 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Percina austroperca Thompson 1995 -- (Thompson 1997:2 [ref. 23154], Mettee et al. 1996:695 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:516 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:578 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:36 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:531 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Near et al. 2017:303 [ref. 35622], Robins et al. 2018:334 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Percina austroperca Thompson 1995. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama and Florida, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

autumnale, Etheostoma Mayden [R. L.] 2010:727, Figs. 1D, 2 [Copeia 2010 (no. 4); ref. 31085] Sawyer Creek at junction Missouri hwys B and D, just west of Henderson, 37°08'29.8"N, 93°03'44.98"W, Webster Co., Missouri. Holotype: USNM 398661 [ex UAIC 11155.04]. Paratypes: INHM 81704 (2); KU 20971 (3), 21268 (18), 21269 (1); UAIC 11155.04 (2); UF 178389 (2); UMMZ 248866 (2). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Etheostoma autumnale Mayden 2010 -- (Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma autumnale Mayden 2010. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Missouri and Arkansas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

babir, Acerina Güldenstädt [J. A. von] 1775:456 [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae v. 19 (for 1774); ref. 1955] Apparently not available, no distinguishing features. Percidae: Percinae.

baileyi, Etheostoma Page [L. M.] & Burr [B. M.] 1982:2, Fig. 1a [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas No. 101; ref. 5462] Little Sexton Creek, tributary of South Fork Kentucky River, Clay County, Kentucky, U.S.A., 37°19'N, 83°45'W. Holotype: INHS 87484. Paratypes: INHS 86871 (12), KU 19109 (9), SIUC 1026 (16), UF 32481 (10), UT 91.2360 (9). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:278 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma baileyi Page & Burr 1982 -- (Page & Burr 1991:299 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:463 [ref. 22809], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:20 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:551 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma baileyi Page & Burr 1982. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: Kentucky and Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

balcanicus, Aspro streber Karaman [S.] 1937:55, 61, fig. 1 [Glasnik Skopskog Nauchnog Drustva [Glasnik -- Bulletin de la Société Scientifique de Skopje]. v. 17; ref. 15282] Vardar River, Republic of Macedonia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Aspro streber Siebold 1863 -- (Berg 1949:1043 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Zingel streber (Siebold 1863), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1459 [ref. 5845]). •Valid as Zingel balcanicus (Karaman 1937) -- (Kottelat 1997:174 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:537 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Valid as Zingel balcanicus (Karaman 1937). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Distribution: Macedonia. Habitat: freshwater.

baloni, Gymnocephalus Holčík [J.] & Hensel [K.] 1974:472, Figs. 1 (upper), 3A, 4A [Copeia 1974 (no. 2); ref. 7505] Danube River at Klizská Nemá, 47°44'32.74"N, 17°48'59.21"E, Slovakia. Holotype: SNMB 2261. Paratypes: CU-RY [Comenius Univ., Fac. Sci., Bratislava] 196 (20, now 18), SNMB 2262 (10), ZSM 38081 [ex CU-RY 196] (2). Additional non-type material at CU-RY, LFRH [Lab. Fish. Res. Hydrobiol., Slovak Acad. Agric. Sci., Bratislava], ZICUP. Type catalog: Blahák 1991:205 [ref. 20023] for holotyp, Neumann 2011:275 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Gymnocephalus baloni Holčík & Hensel 1974 -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1453 [ref. 5845], Lelek 1987:282 [ref. 22962], Michajlova 1989:25 [ref. 20062], Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:749 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:118 [ref. 23588], Hanel 2003:64 [ref. 27894], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:205 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:177 [ref. 28369], Hanel & Lusk 2005:366 [ref. 28804], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:528 [ref. 29996], Geiger & Schliewen 2010:131 [ref. 30887]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocephalus baloni Holčík & Hensel 1974. Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: Eastern Europe: Danube River basin. Habitat: freshwater.

barbouri, Etheostoma (Catonotus) Kuehne [R. A.] & Small [J. W., Jr.] 1971:19, Fig. 1 (middle) [Copeia 1971 (no. 1); ref. 7686] Brush Creek, tributary of Green River, 2.7 miles north of Liberty, Casey County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 204339. Paratypes: UMMZ 174474 (31), 188926 (10); USNM 204340-44 (1, 1, 20, 7, 20), 204868 (6). •Valid as Etheostoma barbouri Kuehne & Small 1971 -- (Lee et al. 1980:626 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:151 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:322 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:464 [ref. 22809], Page et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27127], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:20 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:597 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Near & Thomas 2015:141 [ref. 34008]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma barbouri Kuehne & Small 1971. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: Kentucky and Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

barratti, Boleosoma Holbrook [J. E.] 1855:56, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 3 (art. 1); ref. 15935] Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: MCZ 24571 [ex MCZ 97]. Paralectotypes: MCZ 43090 [ex MCZ 24571] (4), UMMZ 86598 [ex MCZ 24571] (1), USNM 36598 [ex MCZ 24571] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:14 [ref. 20211]. Spelled barretti in table of plates (p. 58); apparently a lapsus, as it is stated that the species is named after J. P. Barratt. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:14 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854), but a valid subspecies -- (Page 1983:156 [ref. 22189], Collette 1962:173 [ref. 5865], Lee et al. 1980:650 [ref. 22416], Robison & Buchanan 1988:421 [ref. 23393], Ross et al. 2001:469 [ref. 25978], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:599 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A. [subspecies barratti]. Habitat: freshwater.

barrenense, Etheostoma Burr [B. M.] & Page [L. M.] in Page & Burr 1982:15, Fig. 1c [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas No. 101; ref. 5462] Trammel Creek, tributary of Drakes Creek, 3 kilometers southwest of Halfway, Allen County, Kentucky, U.S.A., 36°48'N, 86°18'W. Holotype: IHHS 87491. Paratypes: INHS 87492 (12), KU 19110 (7), SIUC 1009 (9), UF 32483 (10), UT 91.2358 (6). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:278 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma barrenense Burr & Page 1982 -- (Page & Burr 1991:300 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:464 [ref. 22809], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:20 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:551 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma barrenense Burr & Page 1982. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: Kentucky and Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

basilare, Etheostoma Page [L. M.], Hardman [M.] & Near [T. J.] 2003:522, Fig. 2B [Copeia 2003 (no. 3); ref. 27127] Duke creek, 9.6 kilometers south of Sheybogan, Rt. 53 bridge, Collins River-Canery Fork drainage, Cannon County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 90759. Paratypes: INHS 55616 (4); UAIC 10140.03 (4). All other paratypes are ex INHS 64776: AUM 34592 (2), SIUC 43056 (2), TU 193623 (2), UF 119607 (2), USNM 367644 (2). •Valid as Etheostoma basilare Page, Hardman & Near 2003 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:20 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:596 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Near & Thomas 2015:136 [ref. 34008]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma basilare Page, Hardman & Near 2003. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

beani, Poecilichthys Jordan [D. S.] 1884:479 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 451); ref. 10625] Tabo Creek, a tributary of Missouri River, near Lexington, Lafayette County, Missouri, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 35754. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:61 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820 -- (Page 1983:84 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

beanii, Ammocrypta Jordan [D. S.] 1877:5 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum [v. 1] No. 10; ref. 2374] Notalbany River, near Tickfaw, Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 17833. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:11 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma beanii [as beani] Jordan 1877 -- (Page & Burr 1991:289 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:115 [ref. 23239]). •Valid as Ammocrypta beanii Jordan 1877 -- (Lee et al. 1980:616 [ref. 22416] as beani, Page 1983:55 [ref. 22189] as beani, Etnier & Starnes 1993:444 [ref. 22809] as beani, Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557] as beani, Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560] as beani, Mettee et al. 1996:579 [ref. 25836] as beani, Ross et al. 2001:449 [ref. 25978] as beani, Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:18 [ref. 30399], Page et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Ammocrypta beanii Jordan 1877. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central and southeastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

bellator, Etheostoma Suttkus [R. D.] & Bailey [R. M.] 1993:18, Figs. 2-5, 9-10 [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 20905] Murphy Creek along U.S. highway 31, 2.0 miles southwest of Blount Springs, Blount County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 162448. Paratypes: ANSP 169685 (2); CUMV 73645 (2); TU 62656 (73), 77091 (155), 89606 (89), 125438 (13), 151827 (175), 151837 (70), 162665 (2), 162671 (4), 163053 (21); UIAC 10507.01 (4); UF 92634 (4); UMMZ 88848-49 (1, 43), 168582 (2), 168592 (1), 177736 (30), 221367-68 (6, 4); USNM 36736 (8), 166003 (27), 166360 (32), 324502 (4); UT 91.4203 (4). •Valid as Etheostoma bellator Suttkus & Bailey 1993 -- (Mettee et al. 1996:587 [ref. 25836], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:509 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:21 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:559 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma bellator Suttkus & Bailey 1993. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

bellum, Etheostoma Zorach [T.] 1968:476, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1968 (no. 3); ref. 7933] White Oak Creek, at bridge between White Oak and Galen, Green River, Macon County, Tennesse, U.S.A. Holotype: CUMV 51822. Paratypes: CUMV 51823-24 (34, 28); UMMZ 178172 (11); USNM 163038 (16). •Valid as Etheostoma bellum Zorach 1968 -- (Lee et al. 1980:627 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:108 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:307 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:466 [ref. 22809], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:21 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:567 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma bellum Zorach 1968. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: Kentucky and Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

bifascia, Ammocrypta Williams [J. D.] 1975:8, Fig. 2 [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 1; ref. 7402] Choctawhatchee River, 1.5 miles west of Pittman on Florida highway 2, Holmes County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 82632. Paratypes: UF 50199 [ex FSU 199] (3), 50671 [ex FSU 671] (1), 54406 [ex FSU 4406] (2), 55447 [ex FSU 5447] (3), 56308 [ex FSU 6308] (2); TU 2278 (4), 20405 (1), 20816 (8), 37399 (2), 46129 (2), 46435 (1), 82174 (1), 82633 (25); UAIC 369 (2), 378 (5), 1596 (8), 1930 (2), 2998 (1), 3191 (2), 3195 (18); UMMZ 166318 (1), 195243 (12); USNM 210649 (9), 210662 (2). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:55 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma bifascia (Williams 1975) -- (Page & Burr 1991:290 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:116 [ref. 23239]). •Valid as Ammocrypta bifascia Williams 1975 -- (Lee et al. 1980:617 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:55 [ref. 22189], Mettee et al. 1996:581 [ref. 25836], Fuller et al. 1999:377 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:481 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:18 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:535 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:310 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Ammocrypta bifascia Williams 1975. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama and Florida, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

bimaculata, Percina Haldeman [S. S.] 1844:157 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 1 (1841-1844); ref. 18240] Columbia, Lancaster County, Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 1405 (lost). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:57 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818) -- (Page 1983:50 [ref. 22189]). •Valid as Percina bimaculata Haldeman 1844 -- (Near 2008:7 [ref. 29672], Scharpf 2008:36 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:530 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Near et al. 2017:303 [ref. 35622]). Current status: Valid as Percina bimaculata Haldeman 1844. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Susquehanna and Potomac river basins, Pennsylvania and Maryland, Virginia and DC, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

binotatum, Etheostoma hopkinsi Bailey [R. M.] & Richards [W. J.] 1963:10, Pl. 1 (B, C); Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 630; ref. 3964] Calhoun Creek, 7.6 miles east of Calhoun Falls on highway 72, Abbeville County, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: CUMV 44157. Paratypes: CUMV 19600 + UMMZ 180075 (19). Paratypes or additional material: CUMV, UG, UMMZ, USNM 179063 [ex CUMV 19604] (4). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:29-30 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma hopkinsi (Fowler 1945) -- (Page 1983:140 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Etheostoma hopkinsi (Fowler 1945), but a valid subspecies -- (Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma hopkinsi (Fowler 1945). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Savana River drainage, Georgia and South Carolina (U.S.A.) [binotatum subspecies]. Habitat: freshwater.

bison, Etheostoma Ceas [P. A.] & Page [L. M.] 1997:518, Fig. 1H [Copeia 1997 (no. 3); ref. 22902] North Fork Buffalo River, 5.6 kilometers north of Three Oaks at US 43, Lawrence County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 37506. Paratypes: INHS 27851 (8), 32416 (20), 58182 (4), 79311 (1); SIUC 25128 (5); TU 177765 (5); UAIC 5042.12 (12); UMMZ 231178 (3); USNM 3309905 (3); UT 91.4754 (5). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:278-279 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma bison Ceas & Page 1997 -- (Ceas & Burr 2002:213 [ref. 26533], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:21 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:579 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma bison Ceas & Page 1997. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Kentucky, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

blennioides, Etheostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1819:419 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 88; ref. 3590] Ohio River, U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:13 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819 -- (Lee et al. 1980:628 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:68 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:319 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:411 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:143 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:294 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:116 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:468 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:830 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:294 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:218 [ref. 23394], Turner et al. 1996:2023 [ref. 25532], Mettee et al. 1996:589 [ref. 25836], Scott & Crossman 1998:777 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:378 [ref. 25838], Ross et al. 2001:459 [ref. 25978], Bailey et al. 2004:190 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:344 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:510 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:21, 22 [ref. 30399] with remarks, Page & Burr 2011:543 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern half of U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. Habitat: freshwater.

blennioperca, Etheostoma Cope [E. D.] 1868:215 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 6 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 909] Holston River, Virginia, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 14026. Paralectotypes: ANSP 14004 (1), 14006-08 (3), 14020-25 (6), 14027-34 (8). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:52-53 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:137 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype established by Fowler 1907:522 [ref. 1375] and confirmed by Collette & Knapp 1967:52 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819 -- (Page 1983:68 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

blennius, Etheostoma (Rhothoeca) Gilbert [C. H.] & Swain [J.] in Gilbert 1887:55 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] Cox's Creek, tributary of Tennessee River, near Florence, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 36187. Paratypes: CAS-SU 1955 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:23-24 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma blennius Gilbert & Swain 1887 -- (Lee et al. 1980:629 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:65 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:296 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:116 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:470 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:591 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:512 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:22 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:546 [ref. 31215] with 2 subspecies, Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma blennius Gilbert & Swain 1887. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

borea, Lucioperca Girard [C. F.] 1858:201 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 9 (no. 15) (for 1857); ref. 1811] Fort Sarpi, Nebraska, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 385. •Synonym of Stizostedion canadense (Griffith & Smith 1834) [sometimes as a valid subspecies] -- (Lee et al. 1980:745 [ref. 22416], Robison & Buchanan 1988:463 [ref. 23393], Baxter & Stone 1995:253 [ref. 23374]). •Synonym of Sander canadensis (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Sander canadensis (Griffith & Smith 1834). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: freshwater.

borealis, Poecilichthys Jordan [D. S.] 1884:477 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 451); ref. 10625] Montreal, Canada. Lectotype: USNM 35747. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 5447 (1 of 3), USNM 197993 [ex USNM 35747] (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:61 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:61 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:152 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:325 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

boschungi, Etheostoma (Oligocephalus) Wall [B. R., Jr.] & Williams [J. D.] 1974:173, Fig. 1 [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 18 (no. 4); ref. 7547] Lindsey Creek at junction of County roads 15 and 6, Lauderdale County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 79424. Paratypes: KU 14638 (8); TU 79425-27 (6, 6, 15); Univ. Alabama Ichthyol. coll. 3204 (11), 3210 (1), 3774 (6), 3961 (1); UF 16537 (2), 18424 (1), 66408 [ex FSU 16408] (3); UMMZ 197691 (3), 197692 [ex UAIC 3962] (2); USNM 206419-21 (1, 6, 2); MSU 809 [now atMMNS] (1); Univ. Alabama Ichthyol. coll. (2 lots, 16), UMMZ (2 lots, 4), Univ. Tulsa Mus. (2), UT (4 lots, 14). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:111 [ref. 21035], Bart & Taylor 1993:57-58 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma boschungi Wall & Williams 1974 -- (Lee et al. 1980:630 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:117 [ref. 22189], Boschung & Nieland 1986:1 [ref. 11376], Page & Burr 1991:310 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:116 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:472 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:593 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:513 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:22 [ref. 30399], Mayden 2010:716 [ref. 31085], Page & Burr 2011:572 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma boschungi Wall & Williams 1974. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

brevicauda, Percina Suttkus [R. D.] & Bart [H. L., Jr.] in Suttkus, Thompson & Bart 1994:20, Figs. 3, 6-8 [Occasional Papers Tulane University Museum of Natural History No. 4; ref. 21916] Cahaba River, tributary to Alabama River at Alabama highway 52, 3.2 miles west of Helena, Shelby County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 101393. Paratypes: ANSP 171100 (4); AUM 2570 (13), 17060 (2), 17541 (6), 18461 (5), 21192-93 (31, 17); CUMV 73970 (5); GSA 4537.14 (6); 4544.13 (4), 5152.17 (2), 5197.14 (1), 5277.18 (1); INHS 32132 (4); KU 23215 (4); MCZ 102025 (4); OSUM 77214 (4); TU (many lots); UAIC [6366 (3)], 10882.01 (4); UF 95411 (4); UMMZ 224803 (5), 224084 (5); UT 91.4440 (5); USNM 327767 (4). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:279 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Percina brevicauda Suttkus & Bart 1994 -- (Mettee et al. 1996:697 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:500 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:579 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:36 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:522 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina brevicauda Suttkus & Bart 1994. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

brevipinnis, Boleosoma olmstedi var. Cope [E. D.] 1868:214 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 6 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 909] Kiskiminitas River, western Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 22653. Paralectotypes: (many) ANSP 22654-67 (14). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:18 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:137 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:18 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820 -- (Page 1983:84 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

brevirostrum, Etheostoma (Ulocentra) Suttkus [R. D.] & Etnier [D. A.] 1991:15, Fig. 2 [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 28 (no. 1); ref. 20090] Shoal Creek at Pine Glen Recreation Area, Cleburne County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 158216. Paratypes: ANSP 167317 (2), AUM (6 lots, 15), CUMV 72360 (2), INHS 59306 (2), SIUC 18164 (2), TU (11 lots, 72), UAIC (5 lots, 9), UGAMNH 2168 (2), UMMZ 218252 (2), USNM 314353 (2), UT 91.3926 (2). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:58 [ref. 20906], Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:279 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma brevirostrum Suttkus & Etnier 1991 -- (Boschung 1992:116 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:554 [ref. 22809], Bauer et al. 1995:11 [ref. 22529], Mettee et al. 1996:595 [ref. 25836], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:515 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:23 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:560 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma brevirostrum Suttkus & Etnier 1991. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: Gerogia, Alabama and southeastern Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

brevispina, Richia Coker [R. E.] 1926:106, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 42 (Doc. 1004) (for 1926); ref. 5553] Paddys Creek, tributary of the Catawba River, just above head of Paddy's Creek Lake, Burke County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 87411. Paratypes: USNM 87412 (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:71 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819, but a valid subsepcies -- (Lee et al. 1980:647 [ref. 22416], Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399] as brevispina). •Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819 -- (Page 1983:147 [ref. 22189]). •Valid as Etheostoma brevispinum (Coker 1926) -- (Blanton & Schuster 2008:851 [ref. 29948], Scharpf 2009:20 [ref. 30400], Page & Burr 2011:593 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma brevispinum (Coker 1926). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. Habitat: freshwater.

brucethompsoni, Percina Robison [H. W.], Cashner [R. C.], Raley [M. E.] & Near [T. J.] 2014:238 [Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History v. 55 (2); ref. 33526] Ouachita Highlands, Arkansas, USA. •Valid as Percina brucethompsoni Robison, Cashner, Raley & Near 2014. Current status: Valid as Percina brucethompsoni Robison, Cashner, Raley & Near 2014. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Ouachita Highlands, Arkansas, USA. Habitat: freshwater.

burri, Etheostoma Ceas [P. A.] & Page [L. M.] 1997:514, Fig. 1E [Copeia 1997 (no. 3); ref. 22902] Mill Spring (Black River), northeastern edge of town of Mill Spring, Wayne County, Missouri, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 37503. Paratypes: INHS 27904 (26), SIUC 16040 (8), TU 177762 (5), UAIC 11345.01 (5), UMMZ 231175 (5), USNM 339902 (5), UT 91.4751 (5). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:279 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma burri Ceas & Page 1997 -- (Ceas & Burr 2002:213 [ref. 26533], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:23 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:580 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma burri Ceas & Page 1997. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Missouri, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

burtoni, Percina caprodes Fowler [H. W.] 1945:134, Figs. 218-219 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 7; ref. 1453] Swannanoa River near Oteen, Buncombe County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 70701. Paratypes: ANSP 13707 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:57 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:137 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Percina burtoni Fowler 1945 -- (Lee et al. 1980:718 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:49 [ref. 22189], Thompson 1985:13 [ref. 17281], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:391 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:286 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:123 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:568 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:781 [ref. 21581], Thompson 1997:2 [ref. 23154], Mettee et al. 1996:699 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:580 [ref. 27995], George et al. 2006:585 [ref. 28195], Scharpf 2008:37 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:528 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Near et al. 2017:302 [ref. 35622]). Current status: Valid as Percina burtoni Fowler 1945. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: East-central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

butlerianus, Poecilichthys Hay [O. P.] 1882:61 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 2 (for 1882); ref. 2054] Shallow pool along Big Black River, near Vaughan's Station, Yazoo County, Mississippi, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 32224. Paralectotypes: (1) Memphis, Tennessee. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:61 [ref. 20211] as holotype; technically a second specimen was included, so USNM 32224 was designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:299 [ref. 23416]. •Synonym of Etheostoma gracile (Girard 1859) -- (Collette 1962:133 [ref. 5865], Page 1983:154 [ref. 22189], Ross et al. 2001:470 [ref. 25978]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma gracile (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

caerulea, Etheostoma Storer [D. H.] 1845:47 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 2 (1845-1848); ref. 18834] Fox River, Illinois, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MCZ 32949. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:24 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma caeruleum Storer 1845 -- (Lee et al. 1980:631 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:133 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:321 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:412 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:143 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:313 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:116 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:473 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:871 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:296 [ref. 23376], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Mettee et al. 1996:597 [ref. 25836], Scott & Crossman 1998:780 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:379 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:45 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:460 [ref. 25978], Ceas & Burr 2002:213 [ref. 26533], Bailey et al. 2004:191 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:516 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:23 [ref. 30399] with remarks, Page & Burr 2011:576 [ref. 31215], Suttkus et al. 2012:18 [ref. 32288], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma caeruleum Storer 1845. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern central North America. Habitat: freshwater.

calliops, Aplocentrus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1819:420 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 88; ref. 3590] Ohio and Wabasch rivers, etc., U.S.A. Based on a Audubon drawing. Mythical; see Markle 1997:446 [ref. 23370]. Percidae.

camurum, Boleosoma Forbes [S. A.] in Jordan 1878:40 [Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 10444] Illinois River, [probably at Pekin, Tazewell County], Illinois, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 23455. Paralectotypes: MCZ 25053 (1), CAS-SU 1683 (1), UMMZ 187505 (1), USNM 27894 (now 1). Non-types: INHS. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Smith & Bridges 1960:254 [ref. 21197], Collette & Knapp 1967:14 [ref. 20211], Sabaj et al. 1997:289-290 [ref. 23225]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 171, p. 3269 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Etheostoma by Poecilichthys camurus Cope 1870. •Synonym of Etheostoma chlorosomum (Hay 1881) -- (Page 1983:92 [ref. 22189], Mettee et al. 1996:599 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:464 [ref. 25978]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma chlorosomum (Hay 1881). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

camurus, Poecilichthys Cope [E. D.] 1870:265 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11 (for 7 Jan. 1870); ref. 14127] Headwaters of Cumberland River, Tennessee, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 13741. Paralectotypes: ANSP 13742-44 (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:61 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype selected in Collette & Knapp 1967:61 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma camurum (Cope 1870) -- (Lee et al. 1980:632 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:105 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:322 [ref. 22186], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:380 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:306 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:117 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:475 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:856 [ref. 21581], Eisenhour 1995:368 [ref. 22408], Stauffer et al. 1995:299 [ref. 23376], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:518 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:23 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:566 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma camurum (Cope 1870). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: New York to Illinois and south to Tennessee and Alabama. Habitat: freshwater.

canadensis, Lucioperca Griffith [E.] & Smith [C. H.] 1834:275, Pl. 1 [The class Pisces, arranged by the Baron Cuvier; ref. 1908] Canada. No types known. Correct spelling is canadensis when in genus Sander (masculine). Based on a drawing by Smith, but Griffith & Smith are responsible for its publication; authorship sometimes given as Smith. •Valid as Stizostedion canadense (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1458 [ref. 5845], Lee et al. 1980:745 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:347 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:462 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:144 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:199 [ref. 24089], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:397 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:274 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:125 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:596 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:772 [ref. 21581], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Baxter & Stone 1995:252 [ref. 23374], Stauffer et al. 1995:339 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:241 [ref. 23394], Chereshnev 1996:606 [ref. 24659], Mettee et al. 1996:731 [ref. 25836], Scott & Crossman 1998:762 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:391 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:46 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:518 [ref. 25978], Miller & Robison 2004:398 [ref. 27931] with author as Smith). •Valid as Sander canadense [sic] (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Boschung & Mayden 2004:599 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:40 [ref. 30399]). •Valid as Sander canadensis (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Bailey et al. 2004:295 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Page & Burr 2011:510 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sander canadensis (Griffith & Smith 1834). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Distribution: Eastern and central U.S.A. and Canada, introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

caprodes, Sciaena Rafinesque [C. S.] 1818:354 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 3 (no. 5) (art. 3) (Sept.); ref. 3586] Ohio River, U.S.A. No types known. Type information and figure of type from Rafinesque notebook: Collette & Knapp 1967:71, Fig. 5 on p. 72 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818) -- (Lee et al. 1980:719 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:50 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:339 [ref. 22186], Thompson 1985:13 [ref. 17281], Thompson 1997:2 [ref. 23154], Robison & Buchanan 1988:446 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:144 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:286 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:123 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:569 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:788 [ref. 21581], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Stauffer et al. 1995:320 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:236 [ref. 23394], Turner et al. 1996:2023 [ref. 25532], Chereshnev 1996:606 [ref. 24659] as caproides, Mettee et al. 1996:701 [ref. 25836], Sigler & Sigler 1996:283 [ref. 25943], Thompson 1997:10 [ref. 23154], Scott & Crossman 1998:797 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:387 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:45 [ref. 26594], Grant et al. 2001:685 [ref. 25323], Ross et al. 2001:500 [ref. 25978], Roe et al. 2002:903 [ref. 26504], Buchanan & Stevenson 2003:454 [ref. 27167], Perry & Joyce 2003:57 [ref. 27193], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:380 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:581 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:37 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:528 [ref. 31215] with 4 described subspecies, Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552], Near et al. 2017:303 [ref. 35622]). Current status: Valid as Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Widespread in eastern Canada and U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

carbonaria, Pileoma Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1853:387 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6; ref. 15636] Rio Salado, 4 miles from San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 740. Paralectotypes: MCZ 24599 [ex USNM 740] (2); UMMZ 86594 [ex USNM 740] (1), 197999 [ex USNM 740] (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:59 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:59 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina carbonaria (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Page 1983:49 [ref. 22189], Thompson 1985:14 [ref. 17281], Page & Burr 1991:287 [ref. 18983], Thompson 1997:10 [ref. 23154], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:37 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:532 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Near et al. 2017:303 [ref. 35622]). Current status: Valid as Percina carbonaria (Baird & Girard 1853). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

cernua, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:294 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European lakes. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.5 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin), LS 2 (left half-skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:219 [ref. 13434], Wheeler 1985:51 [ref. 20705]. Name cernua is apparently a noun; cernuus should not be used -- see Kottelat & Freyhof 2009:85 [ref. 30320]. •Valid as Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1046 [ref. 20662], Zhu 1995:172 [ref. 25213], Zhang et al. 2016:195 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1453 [ref. 5845], Coad 1981:16 [ref. 22348], Lelek 1987:285 [ref. 22962], Page & Burr 1991:276 [ref. 18983], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Chereshnev 1996:606 [ref. 24659], Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:749 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:117 [ref. 23588], Scott & Crossman 1998:viii [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:385 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:57 [ref. 26594], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:47 [ref. 26178], Chereshnev et al. 2001:122 [ref. 26736], Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:201 [ref. 26728], Hanel 2003:64 [ref. 27894], Parin 2003:S3 [ref. 28536], Bailey et al. 2004:199 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:205 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:177 [ref. 28369], Hanel & Lusk 2005:362 [ref. 28804], Kottelat 2006:90 [ref. 28831], Fricke 2007:29 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:81 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:528 [ref. 29996], Kottelat & Freyhof 2009:85 [ref. 30320], Scharpf 2008:35 [ref. 30399], Geiger & Schliewen 2010:131 [ref. 30887], Page & Burr 2011:511 [ref. 31215] as cernua, Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:354 [ref. 33547], Barbieri et al. 2015:102 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Romanov et al. 2017:826 [ref. 35687]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: Native to Europe, introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cervus, Etheostoma Powers [S. L.] & Mayden [R. L.] 2003:577, Fig. 2 (bottom) [Copeia 2003 (no. 3); ref. 27129] Clarks Creek, 8 kilometers northeast of Henderson at Holly Springs Road, Chester County, Tennessee, U.S.A., 35°29.891'N, 88°35.238'W. Holotype: UAIC 13201. Paratypes: INHS 39394 (5), UAIC 13205.07 (7), UMMZ 168524 (28). Unfortuately, the authors segregate some specimens as "paratotypes" -- a term not included in the code. It is clear from the text that they meant them to be paratypes. •Valid as Etheostoma cervus Powers & Mayden 2003 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Powers & Warren 2009:523 [ref. 30383], Scharpf 2008:23 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:556 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Kozal et al. 2017:280 [ref. 35621]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma cervus Powers & Mayden 2003. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Western Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

cheneyi, Cottogaster Evermann [B. W.] & Kendall [W. C.] 1898:129, Pl. 8 (fig. 8) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 17 (art. 5) (for 1897); ref. 1281] Racket River [now Raquette River] near Norfolk, St. Lawrence County, New York, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 48781. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9048 [not 5774 as published] (4); USNM 48782 (4), 126978 [ex USFC 527] (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:21 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina copelandi (Jordan 1877) -- (Page 1983:44 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:341 [ref. 22186], Suttkus et al. 1994:6 [ref. 21916]). Current status: Synonym of Percina copelandi (Jordan 1877). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

chermocki, Etheostoma Boschung [H. T.], Mayden [R. L.] & Tomelleri [J. R.] 1992:12, Figs. 1 (A-B) [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 13; ref. 20301] Turkey Creek, tributary to Locus Fork of Black Warrior River drainage, Jefferson County, Alabama, U.S.A., elevation 600 feet. Holotype: UAIC [= ALA] 10288.02. Paratypes: CUMV 42112 (10); SIUC 20116 (2); UAIC [= ALA] 1400.04 (10), 1402.02 (6), 1905.09 (1), 3245.02 (1), 10288.03-04 (1, 6), 10441.01 (5, 2 c&s), 10442.01-10446.01 (3, 1, 1, 7, 15); UF 44006 (8); UMMZ 220470 (2); USNM 319766 (2); UT 91.4159 (2). •Valid as Etheostoma chermocki Boschung, Mayden & Tomelleri 1992 -- (Suttkus & Bailey 1993:1 [ref. 20905], Mettee et al. 1996:601 [ref. 25836], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:519 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:23 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:559 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma chermocki Boschung, Mayden & Tomelleri 1992. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

chienense, Etheostoma Page [L. M.] & Ceas [P. A.] in Page et al. 1992:627, Fig. 1G, 2G [Copeia 1992 (no. 3); ref. 19865] Jackson Creek, 2.6 kilometers northeast of Water Valley on Roy Lawrence Drive, Graves County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 58454. Paratypes: INHS 58221 (33), SIUC 18067 (5), UAIC 9998.01 (5), UMMZ 217893 [ex INHS 63920] (5), USNM 313758 (5), UT 91.3849 (5), plus non-type material. Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:279 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma chienense Page & Ceas 1992 -- (Warren et al. 1994 [ref. 21903], Ceas & Burr 2002:214 [ref. 26533], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:23 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:590 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma chienense Page & Ceas 1992. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

chlorobranchium, Etheostoma Zorach [T.] 1972:431, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1972 (no. 3); ref. 7661] Cullasaja River, Macon City, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 205650. Paratypes: CUMV 41950 (16), 44001-02 (11, 17); TU 26212 (25); UMMZ 131232 (2 or 3), 156503 (1), 156511 (1), 156619 (1), 163285 (1); USNM 205592-93 (6, 19). Additional non-type material: ANSP (8 lots), CUMV (13 lots), TU (12 lots), UMMZ (2 lots), USNM (4 lots). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:58 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma chlorobranchium Zorach 1972 -- (Lee et al. 1980:633 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:105 [ref. 22189], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:381 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:307 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:478 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:859 [ref. 21581], Eisenhour 1995:368 [ref. 22408], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:23 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:567 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma chlorobranchium Zorach 1972. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee River system, Virginia, North Carolina,Tennessee and Gerogia. Habitat: freshwater.

chlorosoma, Vaillantia Hay [O. P.] 1881:495 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 179); ref. 2053] Small tributary of Tuscumbia River at Corinth; Sandy Creek at Artesia; Horsehunter Creek at Macon, Mississippi, U.S.A. Syntypes: CAS-SU 726 (3, not found in 1995) Macon, ?UMMZ 150168 (1), 151818 (1), 155102 (2), 155180 (1); USNM 27428 (disintegrated and dry) Corinth. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:72 [ref. 20211]. It is argued in Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807] that the name chlorosoma is a noun; Etheostoma is neuter [needs research]. •Valid as Etheostoma chlorosomum [earlier as chlorosomus, also as chlorosoma] (Hay 1881) -- (Lee et al. 1980:634 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:92 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:414 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:292 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:117 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:479 [ref. 22809], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Cross & Collins 1995:220 [ref. 23394], Mettee et al. 1996:603 [ref. 25836], Lyons et al. 2000:45 [ref. 26594] as chlorosoma, Ross et al. 2001:463 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807] as chlorosoma, Miller & Robison 2004:346 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:520 [ref. 27995] as chlorosoma, Scharpf 2008:23 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:540 [ref. 31215] as chlorosoma, Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma chlorosomum (Hay 1881). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

chuckwachatte, Etheostoma Mayden [R. L.] & Wood [R. M.] in Wood & Mayden 1993:39, Figs. 3d, 3e [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 16; ref. 21303] Hillabee Creek at Alabama highway 22, 11.7 kilometers northeast of Alexander City, Tallapoosa County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: UAIC 9815.07. Paratypes: INHS 28459 (2); SIUC 20339 (2); UAIC 6418.09 (26), 9815.02 (7), 10284.01 (5); UF 92304 (2); UGAMNH 2431 (2); UT 91.4172 (2); USNM 319925 (2). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:279 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma chuckwachatte Mayden & Wood 1993 -- (Mettee et al. 1996:605 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:521 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:562 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma chuckwachatte Mayden & Wood 1993. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama and Georgia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

cincotta, Crystallaria Welsh [S. A.] & Wood [R. M.] 2008:64, Fig. 2 [Zootaxa No. 1680; ref. 29462] Elk River, 1.6 kilometers upstream of mouth of Big Sandy Creek, Clendenin, Kanawha County, West Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 233255. Paratypes: USMF 200616 (1), 200617 (1), 200618 (2), 200619 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Crystallaria cincotta Welsh & Wood 2008 -- (Scharpf 2008:19 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:534 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Crystallaria cincotta Welsh & Wood 2008. Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: Ohio and Kentucky (extirpated), West Virginia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

cinerea, Etheostoma Storer [D. H.] 1845:49 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 2 (1845-1848); ref. 18835] Tennessee River at Florence, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:24 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma cinereum Storer 1845 -- (Lee et al. 1980:635 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:60 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:303 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:117 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:480 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:817 [ref. 21581], Mettee et al. 1996:607 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:522 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:561 [ref. 31215], Powers et al. 2012:43 [ref. 31949], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma cinereum Storer 1845. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia. Habitat: freshwater.

clara, Ammocrypta Jordan [D. S.] & Meek [S. E.] 1885:8 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 470); ref. 10637] Des Moines River at Ottumwa, Iowa, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 35828. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 1500 (1), UMMZ 187510 [ex IU 753 and then IU 7323] (2, disintegrated), USNM 164166 [ex USNM 35828] (3). Additional material: USNM 36337, 36488. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:72-73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:11 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 172, p. 3270 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable; a Lectotype selected also by Linder 1959 [ref. 20213]. •Valid as Etheostoma clarum (Jordan & Meek 1885) -- (Page & Burr 1991:289 [ref. 18983]). •Valid as Ammocrypta clara Jordan & Meek 1885 -- (Lee et al. 1980:618 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:54 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:407 [ref. 23393], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:377 [ref. 21804], Etnier & Starnes 1993:445 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:815 [ref. 21581], Fuller et al. 1999:378 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:44 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:451 [ref. 25978], Bailey et al. 2004:188 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:334 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:19 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:534 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Ammocrypta clara Jordan & Meek 1885. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

clinton, Etheostoma Mayden [R. L.] & Layman [S. R.] In Layman & Mayden 2012:32, Fig. 3, 18 [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bull. 30; ref. 32285] Caddo River at Arkansas Hwy 182, 3.2 km north of Amity, Clark County, Arkansas, USA. Holotype: UAIC 10302.09. Paratypes: NLU, UAIC, UMMZ, USNM, UT. •Valid as Etheostoma clinton Mayden & Layman 2012. Current status: Valid as Etheostoma clinton Mayden & Layman 2012. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Arkansas, USA. Habitat: freshwater.

collettei, Etheostoma (Oligocephalus) Birdsong [R. S.] & Knapp [L. W.] 1969:106, Fig. 1 [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 15 (no. 3); ref. 7798] Dugdemona River, Jackson Parish, Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 201515. Paratypes: CUMV 42248 (71), 52108 (7); UF 64676-78 [ex FSU 14676-78] (23, 8, 7); TU uncat. (10, lost), 52876 (5); NLU 6317 [or 6717] (20); UMMZ 113734 (20), 123229 (2); USNM 165915 (52), 165953 (9), 172538 (4), 172913 (14), 201516-17 (38, 2); Univ. Ala. 2575 (17). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:126 [ref. 20861], Bart & Taylor 1993:58 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma collettei Birdsong & Knapp 1969 -- (Lee et al. 1980:636 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:132 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:415 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:315 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:348 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:583 [ref. 31215], Suttkus et al. 2012:18 [ref. 32288], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma collettei Birdsong & Knapp 1969. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South-central U.S.A.: Arkansas and Louisiana and Oklahoma. Habitat: freshwater.

collis, Hololepis Hubbs [C. L.] & Cannon [M. D.] 1935:52, Pls. 1 (fig. 7), 2 (fig. 4) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 30; ref. 2255] Creek near York, York County, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 94560. Paratypes: UMMZ 94546 (1), 107085 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:49 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma collis (Hubbs & Cannon 1935) -- (Collette 1962:200 [ref. 5865], Lee et al. 1980:637 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:157 [ref. 22189], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:382 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:325 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:886 [ref. 21581], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:601[ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma collis (Hubbs & Cannon 1935). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: Viginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Habitat: freshwater.

colorosum, Etheostoma Suttkus [R. D.] & Bailey [R. M.] 1993:2, Figs. 1, 8 [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 29 (no. 1); ref. 20905] Pine Barren Creek, tributary to Escambia River at Still Road, Escambia County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 162508. Paratypes: ANSP 169684 (2); AUM 26759 (1); CUMV 73644 (2); TU 151947 (24), 152006 (32), 154470 (19), 157537 (18), 162509 (42); UF 92633 (4); UIAC 10506.01 (4); UT 91.4202 (4); UMMZ 221365 (5), 221366 (4); USNM 324501 (2). •Valid as Etheostoma colorosum Suttkus & Bailey 1993 -- (Suttkus et al. 1994:97 [ref. 21393], Mettee et al. 1996:609 [ref. 25836], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:523 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:556 [ref. 31215], Robins et al. 2018:313 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma colorosum Suttkus & Bailey 1993. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Gulf Coast drainage, Alabama and Florida, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

coosae, Poecilichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1945:356, Figs. 226-228 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 7; ref. 1453] Small creek 1/4 mile northeast of Chesterfield, Coosa River drainage, Cherokee County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 71189. Paratypes: ANSP 71190-91 (2), 71192-95 (4), 71196 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:62 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Etheostoma coosae (Fowler 1945) -- (Lee et al. 1980:638 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:77 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:303 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:117 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:482 [ref. 22809], Bauer et al. 1995:11 [ref. 22529], Mettee et al. 1996:611 [ref. 25836], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:524 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:560 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma coosae (Fowler 1945). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Coosa River drainage, U.S.A.: Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

copelandi, Rheocrypta Jordan [D. S.] 1877:9 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum [v. 1] No. 10; ref. 2374] White River, 5 miles north of Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 20143. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1880.1.21.36-37 (2); MCZ 24392 (1); MNHN A-5200 (7); NMW 78568 (2), USNM 23461 (1), 197996 [ex USNM 20143] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:71 [ref. 20211], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:82 [ref. 12478]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:71 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina copelandi (Jordan 1877) -- (Lee et al. 1980:721 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:44 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:340 [ref. 22186], Suttkus 1985:225 [ref. 22487], Robison & Buchanan 1988:448 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:144 [ref. 14674], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:393 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:282 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:571 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:812 [ref. 21581], Suttkus et al. 1994:6 [ref. 21916], Stauffer et al. 1995:322 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:237 [ref. 23394], Scott & Crossman 1998:801 [ref. 24570], Ross et al. 2001:500 [ref. 25978], Bailey et al. 2004:202 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:382 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:37 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:520 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Percina copelandi (Jordan 1877). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Canada and east-central U.S.A. (scattered localities). Habitat: freshwater.

corona, Etheostoma Page [L. M.] & Ceas [P. A.] in Page et al. 1992:631, Fig. 1D, 2C [Copeia 1992 (no. 3); ref. 19865] Little Cypress Creek, Tennessee River drainage, 2.4 kilometers northwest of Crossroads, Wayne County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 64073. Paratypes: INHS 62819 (24), SIUC 18066 (3), UAIC 4848.11 (31), UMMZ 217889 (3), USNM 313754 (3), UT 91.3848 (3), plus non-type material. Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:280 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma corona Page & Ceas 1992 -- (Boschung 1992:117 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:557 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:613 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:525 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:589 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma corona Page & Ceas 1992. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

cragini, Etheostoma Gilbert [C. H.] 1885:99 [Bulletin of the Washburn Laboratory of Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 20646] Small brook leading from the "Lake" at Garden City to the Arkansas River, Finney County, Kansas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 38320. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 2141 (3); UMMZ 178977 (10); USNM 125109 [ex BF 309] (1), 197994 [ex USNM 38320] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:25 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:25 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma cragini Gilbert 1885 -- (Lee et al. 1980:639 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:118 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:417 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:310 [ref. 18983], Cross & Collins 1995:221 [ref. 23394], Fuller et al. 1999:379 [ref. 25838], Ceas & Burr 2002:214 [ref. 26533], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:350 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Mayden 2010:716 [ref. 31085] as craigini, Page & Burr 2011:572 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma cragini Gilbert 1885. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

crassus, Alvordius Jordan [D. S.] & Brayton [A. W.] 1878:12 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 12; ref. 2436] Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 23459. Paralectotypes: USNM 31111 (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:10 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected in Collette & Knapp 1967:10 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina crassa (Jordan & Brayton 1878) -- (Lee et al. 1980:722 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:40 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:280 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:802 [ref. 21581], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:37 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:518 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina crassa (Jordan & Brayton 1878). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Habitat: freshwater.

crossopterum, Etheostoma Braasch [M. E.] & Mayden [R. L.] 1985:15, Figs. 2d, 3d, 8, 10 (top) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas No. 119; ref. 6874] McKnight Branch, 8 kilometers north of Readyville, Rutherford County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: KU 20896. Paratypes: INHS 74918 (26); KU 20897 (5); SIUC 9782 (4); TU 139109 (2); UAIC [= ALA] 7713.01 (2); UMMZ 174481 (11), 177570 (27); USNM 266733 (4); UT 91.822 (3), 91.838 (4); plus non-type material. Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:59 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:280 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma crossopterum Braasch & Mayden 1985 -- (Page & Burr 1991:318 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:117 [ref. 23239], Page et al. 1992:635 [ref. 19865], Etnier & Starnes 1993:483 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:615 [ref. 25836], Poly & Wilson 1998:6 [ref. 26025], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:526 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:588 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma crossopterum Braasch & Mayden 1985. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern-central U.S.A.: Tennessee and neighboring states. Habitat: freshwater.

crypta, Percina Freeman [M. C.], Freeman [B. J.] & Burkhead [N. M.] in Freeman, Freeman, Burkhead & Straight 2008:28, Figs. 2A, 2B [Zootaxa No. 1963; ref. 29946] Chattahoochee River at GA Hwy 17/75 at Nacoochee, White County, Georgia, U.S.A. Holotype: GMNH 21606. Paratypes: many at AUM, GMNH, TU, UAIC, UF, USNM. Plus extensive non-type material. •Valid as Percina crypta Freeman, Freeman & Burkhead 2008 -- (Scharpf 2009:20 [ref. 30400], Page & Burr 2011:520 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina crypta Freeman, Freeman & Burkhead 2008. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Apalachicola River drainage: Alabama and Georgia. Habitat: freshwater.

cumberlandicum, Etheostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1883:251 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (no. 378); ref. 10648] Wolf Creek, tributary of Clear Fork, Cumberland River, near Pleasant View, Whitley County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36502. Paralectotypes: USNM 197992 [ex USNM 36502] (4). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:25 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:25 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma kennicotti (Putnam 1863) -- (Page 1983:149 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma kennicotti (Putnam 1863). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cyanoprosopum, Etheostoma Near [T. J.] & Kozal [L. C.] in Kozal, Simmons, Mollish, MacGuigan, Benavides, Keck & Near 2017:272, Figs. 3A-C [Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History v. 58 (no. 2); ref. 35621] Hubbard Creek at Kinlock Road (FR 210), approximately 11 km north of Rabbittown, Lawrence County, Alabama, USA, latitude 34.3074, longitude -87.5034. Holotype: YPM ICH 020211, YFTC 012274. Paratypes: AUM, YPM. •Valid as Etheostoma cyanoprosopum Near & Kozal 2017. Current status: Valid as Etheostoma cyanoprosopum Near & Kozal 2017. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Upland streams on the Cumberland Plateau, upper Bear Creek and Hubbard Creek systems, Alabama, USA. Habitat: freshwater.

cyanorum, Poecilichthys radiosus Moore [G. A.] & Rigney [C. C.] 1952:10, Pl. 1 (figs. 3-4) [Copeia 1952 (no. 1); ref. 12791] Blue River, tributary of Red River, on U.S. highway 99, Johnston County, Oklahoma, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 161366. Paratypes: MCZ 37204 (11); Oklahoma Agric. & Mechan. College 2913 (orig. 96); TU 10564 [ex OAM 2913] (9); UMMZ 161367 (77); UOMZ 26154-55 (82, 15); USNM 153532 (48 or 49). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:65 [ref. 20211], Bart & Taylor 1993:60 [ref. 20906], Matthews & Turner 2019:211 [ref. 36735]. •Synonym of Etheostoma radiosum (Hubbs & Black 1941) -- (Page 1983:125 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Etheostoma radiosum (Hubbs & Black 1941) but a valid subspecies -- (Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:576 [ref. 31215]). •Valid as Etheostoma cyanorum (Moore & Rigney 1952) -- (Matthews & Turner 2019:211 [ref. 36735]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma cyanorum (Moore & Rigney 1952). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: North America: Blue River, Oklahoma, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

cymatogramma, Etheostoma Abbott [C. C.] 1860:327 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 12; ref. 15620] No locality. Holotype (unique): ANSP 14009. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:59 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819 -- (Page 1983:68 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cymatotaenia, Etheostoma (Hadropterus) Gilbert [C. H.] & Meek [S. E.] in Gilbert 1887:51 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] Niangua River near Marshfield, Missouri, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36215. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 2603 (4), 3949 (some of 9); USNM 36260 [not 38260] (2), 36308 (5), 198090 [ex USNM 36215]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:26 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:26 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina cymatotaenia (Gilbert & Meek 1887) -- (Lee et al. 1980:723 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:43 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:276 [ref. 18983], Burr & Page 1993:16 [ref. 21302], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:37 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:512 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Percina cymatotaenia (Gilbert & Meek 1887). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Missouri, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

czekanowskii, Acerina Dybowski [B. N.] 1874:383 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 24 (no. 3-4); ref. 1172] Middle and lower Angara River, Siberia, Russia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Original as czekanowskü. •Synonym of Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1046 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parin et al. 2014:354 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

danubica, Acerina cernua natio Vladykov [V. D.] 1931:345 [Mémoires de la Société Zoologique de France v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 16343] Type catalog: Sanda et al. 2010:31 [ref. 31086]. Not available, infrasubspecific; from Tisza basin. •In the synonymy of Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1331 [ref. 20662]). •In the synonymy of Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Percinae.

danubiensis, Perca Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:112 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Danube River. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.4 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:219 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Acerina schraetser (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:219 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Gymnocephalus schraetser (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocephalus schraetser (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater.

davisoni, Etheostoma (Ulocentra) Hay [O. P.] 1885:554 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 537); ref. 14451] Yellow River near Chaffin, Santa Rosa County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 37365. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:26 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma davisoni Hay 1885 -- (Lee et al. 1980:640 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:93 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:293 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:117 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:617 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:528 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:540 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:315 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma davisoni Hay 1885. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Gulf Coast streams, Alabama and Florida, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

demidoffii, Percarina Nordmann [A. von] 1840:357, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [1842] [Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée; ref. 3209] Dniester river, near the town of Akkerman. Syntypes: NMW 38845 (4). •Valid as Percarina demidoffii Nordmann 1840 -- (Berg 1949:1043 [ref. 20662], Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1454 [ref. 5845], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:750 [ref. 24702] as demidoffi, Popova 1998:119 [ref. 23588], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:47 [ref. 26178], Parin 2003:S4 [ref. 28536], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:206 [ref. 28183], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:532 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:87 [ref. 30517], Parin et al. 2014:355 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Valid as Percarina demidoffii Nordmann 1840. Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: Black Sea and sea of Azov. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

denoncourti, Etheostoma Stauffer [J. R., Jr.] & van Snik [E. S.] 1997:118, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1997 (no. 1); ref. 22685] Copper Creek, 180-460 meters above mouth on coute 627, 2 air kilometers south of Clinchport, Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype: CUMV 77101. Paratypes: CUMV 62923 (4); PSU 3023 (3); UT 91.814 (10), 91.1676 (3), 91.2626 (9). •Valid as Etheostoma denoncourti Stauffer & van Snik 1997 -- (Skelton & Etnier 2000:1101 [ref. 25024], Kinziger et al. 2001:235 [ref. 25131], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:568 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma denoncourti Stauffer & van Snik 1997. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Virginia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

derivativum, Etheostoma Page [L. M.], Hardman [M.] & Near [T. J.] 2003:526, Fig. 2C [Copeia 2003 (no. 3); ref. 27127] McCory Creek, 1.6 kilometers southeast of Rudderville on EuDailey-Covington Road, Harpeth River drainage, Williamson County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 90760. Paratypes: INHS 91975 (3). All other paratypes are ex. INHS 91975: AUM 29022 (2), SIUC 43055 (2), UAIC 3775.16 (9), UF 119606 (2), USNM 367643 (3). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Etheostoma derivativum Page, Hardman & Near 2003 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:24 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:597 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Near & Thomas 2015:136 [ref. 34008]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma derivativum Page, Hardman & Near 2003. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Kentucky, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

ditrema, Etheostoma (Oligocephalus) Ramsey [J. S.] & Suttkus [R. D.] 1965:66, Figs. 1-3 [Tulane Studies in Zoology v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 9052] Tributary to Mills Creek, tributary to Chattooga River, 4.3 airline miles west of Lyerly, Chattooga County, Georgia, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 35703. Paratypes: ANSP 20649 (1), 101231 [ex TU 32981] (5), 101231 (5); CUMV 47872 [ex TU 32981] (5); MCZ 43123 [ex TU 32981] (5); CAS-SU 62401 [ex TU 32981] (5); TU 26086 (8), 27566 (9), 29153 [ex TU 35703] (21), 32762 (34), 32981 (43 minus 35); UMMZ 187501 [ex TU 32981] (5); USNM 198607 [ex TU 32981] (5). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:126 [ref. 20861], Collette & Knapp 1967:27 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621], Bart & Taylor 1993:59 [ref. 20906], Gilbert 2009:160 [ref. 30728]. •Valid as Etheostoma ditrema Ramsey & Suttkus 1965 -- (Lee et al. 1980:641 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:128 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:316 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:118 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:485 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:619 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:529 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:584 [ref. 31215], Suttkus et al. 2012:18 [ref. 32288], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma ditrema Ramsey & Suttkus 1965. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: Georgia, Tennessee and Alabama. Habitat: freshwater.

douglasi, Etheostoma Wood [R. M.] & Mayden [R. L.] 1993:37, Fig. 3b [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 16; ref. 21303] Sipsey River at Lawrence County Road 6, West Fork, Sipsey River Recreational Site, Winston County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: UAIC 10345.02. Paratypes: INHS 28458 (3); NLU 66886 (5); SIUC 20338 (3); UAIC 3851.08 (14), 3852.09 (18), 3854.07 (4), 3858.06 (10), 3868.06 (8), 4111.06 (4), 10345.01 (22); UF 92303 (3); UGAMNH 2432 (3); USNM 319926 (5); UT 91.4171 (3). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:280 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma douglasi Wood & Mayden 1993 -- (Mettee et al. 1996:621 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:531 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:562 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma douglasi Wood & Mayden 1993. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Upper Black Warrior River system, Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

duryi, Etheostoma Henshall [J. A.] 1889:32 [Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History v. 12; ref. 18278] Small tributary of Tennessee River at Whiteside, Tennessee, U.S.A. Syntypes: Mus. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist. (3, whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:27 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma duryi Henshall 1889 -- (Lee et al. 1980:642 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:77 [ref. 22189], Etnier & Bailey 1989:7 [ref. 20134], Page & Burr 1991:300 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:118 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:486 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:623 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:464 [ref. 25978], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:531 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:554 [ref. 31215]. Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma duryi Henshall 1889. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee River drainage, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

edwini, Villora Hubbs [C. L.] & Cannon [M. D.] 1935:13, Pls. 1-2 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 30; ref. 2255] Santa Fe River at Poe Springs, Alachua-Columbia County line, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 87892. Paratypes: MCZ 98 (1, not found); ?UF 2674 (2); UMMZ 88685 (1), 101680 (2), 107047 (3): USNM 94684 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:73 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma edwini (Hubbs & Cannon 1935) -- (Collette & Yerger 1962:215 [ref. 21093], Lee et al. 1980:643 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:116 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:326 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:118 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:625 [ref. 25836], Fuller et al. 1999:380 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:532 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:602 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552], Robins et al. 2018:317 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma edwini (Hubbs & Cannon 1935). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Gulf Coast streams, U.S.A.: Georgia, Florida and Alabama. Habitat: freshwater.

effulgens, Arlina Girard [C. F.] 1859:65 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 1821] Rock Creek, tributary of Potomac River, Washington D.C., U.S.A. Holotype or syntype: USNM 1253 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:12 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842 -- (Page 1983:85 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Boleichthys Girard [C. F.] 1859:104 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] Piedrapainte, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 24567 [ex MCZ 84] (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:12 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma grahami (Girard 1859). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma grahami (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Nanostoma Hay [O. P.] 1881:493 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 179); ref. 2053] Shallow rocky branch of Chickasawha River at Enterprise, Clarke County, Mississippi, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 27445. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 627 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:54 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1896:1075 [ref. 2443]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Etheostoma by Boleichthys elegans Girard 1859. •Synonym of Etheostoma zonale (Cope 1868) -- (Page 1983:73 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Etheostoma lynceum Hay 1885 -- (Ross et al. 2001:476 [ref. 25978]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma lynceum Hay 1885. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

eos, Boleichthys Jordan [D. S.] in Nelson 1876:34 [Bulletin of the Illinois Museum of Natural History v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 3154] Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 17848 (9), 20117 (1, poor condition), 23460 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:13 [ref. 20211]. Appeared in more detail as Boleichthys eos Jordan and Copeland in Jordan 1877:46 [ref. 2372]. •Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:152 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:325 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

erizonus, Poecilichthys euzonus Hubbs [C. L.] & Black [J. D.] 1940:8, 17, Pl. l (fig. 2) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 416; ref. 10848] Current River, at "the Nook," Ripley County, Missouri, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 124597. Paratypes: UMMZ 124595-96 (8, 2), 124598-99 (5, 2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:62 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma euzonum (Hubbs & Black 1940) -- (Page 1983:61 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Etheostoma euzonum (Hubbs & Black 1940), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Robison & Buchanan 1988:419 [ref. 23393], Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:549 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma euzonum (Hubbs & Black 1940). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Missouri and Arkansas, U.S.A. [subspecies erizonum]. Habitat: freshwater.

erochrous, Hololepis Cope [E. D.] 1864:233 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 906] Brown's Mills, Rancocas Creek, Burlington County, New Jersey, U.S.A. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-4669. Paralectotypes: ANSP 22630-32 (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:49 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:80 [ref. 12478]. Originally as erochroüs. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:49 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854) -- (Collette 1962:151 [ref. 5865], Page 1983:156 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

erythrogastrum, Poecilosoma Kirtland [J. P.] 1854:4 [Annals of Science (Cleveland, Ohio) v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 18415] Rocky River, 7 miles west of Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 65 [ex USNM 1815] (?). Also appeared as new in Kirtland 1854:15 [ref. 36677]. •Synonym of Etheostoma caeruleum Storer 1845 -- (Page 1983:133 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma caeruleum Storer 1845. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

erythrozonum, Etheostoma Switzer [J. F.] & Wood [R. M.] 2009:2, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 2095; ref. 30415] Huzzah Creek at the Reis Biological Station, 6.2 kilometers upstream from the Route 8 bridge, 37°56.871'N, 91°10.676'W, Crawford County Missouri, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 391646. Paratypes: JFBM 45691 (3), 45692 (6); UAIC 1526701 (7); USNM 391647 (3). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Etheostoma erythrozonum Switzer & Wood 2009 -- (Page & Burr 2011:549 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma erythrozonum Switzer & Wood 2009. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Meramec River drainage, Missouri, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

essipovi, Acerina cernus Burmakin [E. V.] 1941:156, Fig. 2 [Trudy Instituta polyarnogo zemedeliya v. 15; ref. 21765] Gyda Bay basin, Arctic Ocean; Yuribei River, Siberia, Russia. Syntypes: (5) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1047 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952], Parin 2003:S3 [ref. 28536]). •Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parin et al. 2014:354 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

etnieri, Etheostoma Bouchard [R. W.] 1977:107, Fig. 1 [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 19 (no. 3-4); ref. 7410] Cherry Creek at Tennessee highway 84, tributary to Calfkiller River, Caney Fork River system, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 83147. Paratypes: AUM 3218 (3), 3234 (11); CUMV 53474 (39); TU 30316 (2), 33451 (1), 33479 (5), 83148 (1, 11, 81); USNM 214172 (56); UF 19527 (22); UMMZ 200202-03 (22, 18); UT 91.48 (1), 91.109 (5), 91.211 (14), 91.645 (1), 91.672 (9), 91.676-677 (9, 14); plus originally uncat. (96 in 7 lots). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:59 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma etnieri Bouchard 1977 -- (Lee et al. 1980:644 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:77 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:301 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:488 [ref. 22809], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:555 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma etnieri Bouchard 1977. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Upper Caney Fork River system, Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

etowahae, Etheostoma Wood [R. M.] & Mayden [R. L.] 1993:38, Fig. 3c [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 16; ref. 21303] Etowah River at Georgia highway 52, 13.7 kilometers north-northeast of Dawsonville, Lumpkin County, Georgia, U.S.A. Holotype: UAIC 9169.14. Paratypes: INHS 28460 (2); NLU 66886 [not 66888] (2); SIUC 20340 (2); UAIC 2912.03 (4), 6219.04 (1), 9169.11 (6), 9811.08 (1), 9822.10 (3); UF 84777 (8); UMMZ 157952 (5); USNM 319924 (2). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:280 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma etowahae Wood & Mayden 1993 -- (Mettee et al. 1996:627 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:562 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma etowahae Wood & Mayden 1993. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Georgia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

eulepis, Boleosoma nigrum Hubbs [C. L.] & Greene [C. W.] 1935:96, Pl. 3 (figs. 1-3) [Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences Arts and Letters v. 29; ref. 11678] A tributary of West Branch Rock River, 2 miles north of Atwater, Dodge County, Wisconsin, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 77225. Paratypes: UMMZ (1265); UW; USNM 74927 (2), 117505 (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:16-18 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820 -- (Page 1983:84 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

euzonus, Poecilichthys Hubbs [C. L.] & Black [J. D.] 1940:8, 16, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 416; ref. 10848] Buffalo River, 4 miles southeast of St. Joe, Searcy County, Arkansas, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 123548. Paratypes: UMMZ 123391 (2), 123504 (1), 124594 (4); USNM 117587 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:62 [ref. 20211]. Main description is under the subspecies P. e. euzonus; a second subspecies described at the same time. •Valid as Etheostoma euzonum (Hubbs & Black 1940) -- (Lee et al. 1980:645 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:61 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:418 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:298 [ref. 18983], Switzer & Wood 2002:450 [ref. 26023], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:549 [ref. 31215] with 2 subspecies, Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma euzonum (Hubbs & Black 1940). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Missouri and Arkansas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

evermanni, Hadropterus Moenkhaus [W. J.] 1903:19 [Bulletin Indiana University v. 1; ref. 17799] Lake Tippecanoe, Indiana, U.S.A. Holotype: IU 9785 (not found). Paratypes: IU 9786 (1, not found); CAS-SU (1, not found); USNM 50834 (1), 126919 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:43 [ref. 20211]. Published in 3 places, see under ref. 17799; earliest not researched; author's name also spelled Moekhaus by authors. •Hybrid between Percina caprodes semifasciatus (DeKay) x Percina maculatus (Girard). Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

evides, Alvordius Jordan [D. S.] & Copeland [H. E.] in Jordan 1877:51 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 29 (pt 1); ref. 2372] White River near Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 17872. Paralectotypes: ?MCZ 24399 (2). Non-types: USNM 20119, MCZ 35957, BMNH 1880.1.21[or 20].12-14 (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:11 [ref. 20211]. Appeared first without distinguishing features as Etheostoma evides Nelson (ex Jordan) 1876:36 [ref. 3154]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:11 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina evides (Jordan & Copeland 1877) -- (Lee et al. 1980:724 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:341 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:449 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:284 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:123 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:572 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:806 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:323 [ref. 23376], Mettee et al. 1996:703 [ref. 25836], Lyons et al. 2000:46 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:502 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:583 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:37 [ref. 30399] with subspecies and remarks, Page & Burr 2011:525 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina evides (Jordan & Copeland 1877). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central U.S.A., scattered localities. Habitat: freshwater.

evides, Etheostoma Nelson [E. W.] (ex Jordan) 1876:36 [Bulletin of the Illinois Museum of Natural History v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 3154] Not available, no distinguishing features. See Alvordius evides. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

exilis, Boleichthys Girard [C. F.] 1859:103 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] Little Muddy River, a tributary of upper Missouri River, North Dakota, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 24728 [ex USNM 1336 and MCZ 114] (6), SMNS 12135 [ex USNM and MCZ] (1), UMMZ 86492 (1), USNM 1336 (24). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:13 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859) -- (Lee et al. 1980:646 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:152 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:324 [ref. 22186], McAllister 1990:143 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:325 [ref. 18983], Baxter & Stone 1995:244 [ref. 23374], Chereshnev 1996:606 [ref. 24659], Scott & Crossman 1998:783 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:381 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:45 [ref. 26594], Bailey et al. 2004:192 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:601 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Hudson Bay and much of Canada, Greast Lakes region, and south to Ohio, Illinois and Colorado. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Catonotus Girard [C. F.] 1859:68 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 1821] Grass River near Madrid, New York, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1345. Paralectotypes: MCZ 26452 + 24656 [ex USNM and MCZ 221 and 222] (now 6); USNM 1393 (4), 197997 [ex USNM 1345] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:20 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:20 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819 -- (Page 1983:147 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:326 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Diplesion Girard [C. F.] 1859:101 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] Chihuahua River, Mexico. Lectotype: MCZ 24625 [ex USNM 743 and MCZ 87]. Paralectotypes: MCZ 43092 [ex MCZ 24625] (now 2), UMMZ 86349 [ex MCZ 24625] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:22 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:22 [ref. 20211]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Etheostoma by Catonotus fasciatus Girard 1859, replaced by Etheostoma australe Jordan 1889. •Synonym of Etheostoma australe Jordan 1889. Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma australe Jordan 1889. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Lutianus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:328 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. Based on "Perca maxilla inferiore longiore; albescens cum lineis transversis ..." of Seba 1759:78, Pl. 27 (fig. 14) [ref. 18716]. •Uncertain in genus Perca Linnaeus 1758. Percidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciolaris, Catostomus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1820:304 [302 on page] [Western Revue and Miscellaneous Magazine: a monthly publ., devoted to literature and science, Lexington, KY v. 2 (no. 5); ref. 5006] Lower part of Ohio River, U.S.A. No types known. Described as belonging to subgenus Teretulus, but listed as above. Also in Rafinesque 1820:58 [ref. 3592]. •Not a sucker, synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818), subspecies caprodes -- (Gilbert 1998:182 [ref. 23395]). •Based on a Audubon drawing; mythical; see Markle 1997:446 [ref. 23370]. Current status: Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

fiscellata, Perca Meuschen [F. C.] 1778:42 [Museum Gronovianum; ref. 17682] Original not seen. Not available, published in a rejected work (Opinion 260). Percidae.

fischeri, Acerina Eichwald [C. E. von] 1873:15, Pl. 2 [Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale (Paris) v. 2; ref. 20999] Lakes of the Tomsk Province, Russia. No types known. •Synonym of Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1046 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

flabellaris, Etheostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1819:419 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 88; ref. 3590] U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:27 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819 -- (Lee et al. 1980:647 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:147 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:325 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:419 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:143 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:320 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:118 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:489 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:873 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:299 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:223 [ref. 23394], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Mettee et al. 1996:629 [ref. 25836], Scott & Crossman 1998:787 [ref. 24570], Poly & Wilson 1998:6 [ref. 26025], Lyons et al. 2000:45 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:465 [ref. 25978], Ceas & Burr 2002:215 [ref. 26533], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:352 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:533 [ref. 27995], Blanton & Schuster 2008:844 [ref. 29948], Page & Burr 2011:592 [ref. 31215] with 3 subspecies (one unnamed), Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819, subspecies flabellare -- (Bailey et al. 2004:193 [ref. 27882], Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399] with remarks, Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

flabellata, Etheostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1820:56 [Western Revue and Miscellaneous Magazine: a monthly publ., devoted to literature and science, Lexington, KY v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 7305] Ohio River at falls, U.S.A. No types known. Described as belonging to subgenus Aplesion, but listed as above. Also in Rafinesque 1820:36 [ref. 3592]. •Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819. Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

flavescens, Morone Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:18 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Mitchill 1815:421 [ref. 13292] as Bodianus flavescens. •Valid as Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1452 [ref. 5845], Lee et al. 1980:713 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:337 [ref. 22186], McAllister 1990:143 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:200 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:275 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:122 [ref. 23239], Shcherbuka 1992:25 [ref. 21089], Etnier & Starnes 1993:558 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:775 [ref. 21581], La Rivers 1994:538 [ref. 23389], Baxter & Stone 1995:250 [ref. 23374], Stauffer et al. 1995:318 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:234 [ref. 23394], Chereshnev 1996:606 [ref. 24659], Mettee et al. 1996:689 [ref. 25836], Sigler & Sigler 1996:280 [ref. 25943], Murdy et al. 1997:221 [ref. 23144], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:749 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:118 [ref. 23588], Scott & Crossman 1998:755 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:386 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:45 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:496 [ref. 25978], Moyle 2002:411 [ref. 26449], Roe et al. 2002:903 [ref. 26504], Wydoski & Whitney 2003:193 [ref. 27816], Bailey et al. 2004:200 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:380 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:569 [ref. 27995], McPhail 2007:524 [ref. 31199], Scharpf 2008:35 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:511 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552], Robins et al. 2018:333 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814). Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: North America, introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

flavum, Etheostoma (Ulocentra) Etnier [D. A.] & Bailey [R. M.] 1989:3, Fig. [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 717; ref. 20134] Kentucky, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 213929. Paratypes: AMNH 55781 (10); INHS 68219 (23); NLU 56292 (3); TU 30312 (66), 139774 (15); UF 42177 (11); UMMZ (84 lots); USNM 270859 (35). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:59 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:280 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma flavum Etnier & Bailey 1989 -- (Page & Burr 1991:301 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:492 [ref. 22809], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:555 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma flavum Etnier & Bailey 1989. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

fluviatilis, Cernua Fleming [J.] 1828:212 [A history of British animals; ref. 1339] Rivers of England. No types known. Based in part on Perca cernua Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

fluviatilis, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:289 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Europe. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.3 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin), LS 1 (right half-skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:219 [ref. 13434], Wheeler 1985:52 [ref. 20705]. Perhaps intentionally shortened to fluvialis by Cuvier 1829:132 [ref. 995]. See remarks on systematics in Kottelat 2006:59-60 [ref. 28831]. •Valid as Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:1032 [ref. 20662], Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1452 [ref. 5845], Coad 1981:16 [ref. 22348], Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:174 [ref. 25473], Paxton et al. 1989:561 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:179 [ref. 24556], Oliva et al. 1989:214 [ref. 26138], Shcherbuka 1992:25 [ref. 21089], Skelton 1993:289 [ref. 24071], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Zhu 1995:172 [ref. 25213], McDowall in McDowall 1996:183 [ref. 22909], Chereshnev 1996:606 [ref. 24659], Coad 1996:86 [ref. 25304], Chilcott & Humphries 1996:147 [ref. 25528], Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:749 [ref. 24702], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Morgan et al. 1998:43 [ref. 24611], Popova 1998:118 [ref. 23588], Azeroual et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25366], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:47 [ref. 26178], Chereshnev et al. 2001:123 [ref. 26736], Hutchins 2001:32 [ref. 25847], Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:201 [ref. 26728], Sideleva 2001:56 [ref. 26181], Skelton 2001:289 [ref. 27406], Allen et al. 2002:368 [ref. 25930], Fedorov et al. 2003:132 [ref. 27579], Sideleva 2003:11 [ref. 27815], Hanel 2003:63 [ref. 27894], Parin 2003:S4 [ref. 28536], Hammer & Walker 2004:91 [ref. 28129], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:205 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:177 [ref. 28369], Hanel & Lusk 2005:355 [ref. 28804], Kottelat 2006:59 [ref. 28831], Ocock et al. 2006:59 [ref. 28933], Paxton et al. 2006:1080 [ref. 28994], Fricke 2007:29 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:81 [ref. 29533], McPhail 2007:000 [ref. 31199], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:171 [ref. 31251], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Marshall 2011:209 [ref. 31755], Hammer et al. 2012:66 [ref. 32389], Parin et al. 2014:355 [ref. 33547], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895 [ref. 34062], Roberts & McDowall 2015:1215 [ref. 34197], Barbieri et al. 2015:103 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Zhang et al. 2016:195 [ref. 34477], Esmaeili et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35254], Romanov et al. 2017:826 [ref. 35687], Esmaeili et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36089], Kuiter 2018:100 [ref. 36369], Özuluğ & Saç 2019:32 [ref. 36599]). Current status: Valid as Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: Europe, introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

fonticola, Alvarius Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1886:23 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 549) (for 14 Aug. 1886); ref. 10626] San Marcos River at San Marcos, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36523. Paralectotypes: USNM 198004 [ex USNM 36523] (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:10 [ref. 20211]. Also appeared as new in Gilbert 1887:63 [ref. 17814] as Etheostoma (Alvarius) fonticola. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 177, p. 3271 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. A lectotype also designated by Collette & Knapp 1967:10 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma fonticola (Jordan & Gilbert 1886) -- (Lee et al. 1980:648 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:158 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:323 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:598 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma fonticola (Jordan & Gilbert 1886). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

fontinalis, Etheostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1820:85 [Ichthyologia Ohiensis; ref. 3592] Near Lexington, Kentucky, U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:27 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819 -- (Page 1983:147 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

forbesi, Etheostoma Page [L. M.] & Ceas [P. A.] in Page et al. 1992:633, Fig. 1C, 2D [Copeia 1992 (no. 3); ref. 19865] Duke Creek, 3.2 kilometers southeast of Hollow Springs, Cannon County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 58632. Paratypes: INHS 58359 (1), UMMZ 217892 (3), USNM 313756 (3), plus non-type material. Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:280 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma forbesi Page & Ceas 1992 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:588 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma forbesi Page & Ceas 1992. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

formosa, Etheostoma Henshall [J. A.] 1889:32 [Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History v. 12; ref. 18278] Small tributary of Tennessee River at Whiteside, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHSC (lost). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:27 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma caeruleum Storer 1845 -- (Page 1983:133 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma caeruleum Storer 1845. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

fragi, Etheostoma spectabile Distler [D. A.] 1968:162, Pl. (fig. E) [Kansas University Science Bulletin v. 48 (no. 5); ref. 17402] Spring Creek, tributary of Big Creek, Sharp County, Arkansas, U.S.A. Holotype: KU 7481. Paratypes: KU 7482 and 7483 (145); UMMZ 188902 [ex KU] (10); USNM 204129 [ex KU 7483] (10). •Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Lee et al. 1980:695 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:136 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:439 [ref. 23393]). •Valid as Etheostoma fragi Distler 1968 -- (Ceas & Page 1997:512 [ref. 22902], Ceas & Burr 2002:213 [ref. 26533], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:580 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma fragi Distler 1968. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Arkansas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

fricksia, Etheostoma Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:7, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 39 (Doc. 940) (for 1923-24); ref. 15449] Small creek on Sanitary Dairy Farm near Augusta, Richmond County, Georgia, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 82633. Paratypes: USNM 92818 (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:27-28 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma fricksium Hildebrand 1923 -- (Lee et al. 1980:649 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:112 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:309 [ref. 18983], Layman 1993:959 [ref. 22439], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:570 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma fricksium Hildebrand 1923. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South Carolina and Georgia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

fulvitaenia, Percina caprodes Morris [M. A.] & Page [L. M.] 1981:96, Figs. 1, 2B [Copeia 1981 (no. 1); ref. 8993] Big Piney River, 5 kilometers west of Houston, Texas County, Missouri, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 75633. Paratypes: INHS 75631 (2), 79415 (2); KU 2963 (8), 8262 (18); TU 110587 (2); UMMZ 142314 (1); USNM 219366 (3); UT 91.1716 (3). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:63 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:281 [ref. 23225]. •Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Page 1983:50 [ref. 22189], Thompson 1985:14 [ref. 17281], Robison & Buchanan 1988:447 [ref. 23393], Cross & Collins 1995:236 [ref. 23394], Page & Burr 2011:529 [ref. 31215]). •Valid as Percina fulvitaenia Morris & Page 1981 -- (Thompson 1997:10 [ref. 23154], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:38 [ref. 30399], Near et al. 2017:303 [ref. 35622]). Current status: Valid as Percina fulvitaenia Morris & Page 1981. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South-central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

fusiforme, Boleosoma Girard [C. F.] 1854:41 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 5 (1854-1856); ref. 18029] Tributary of Charles River at Framingham, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1188. Paralectotypes: MCZ 24589 [ex USNM 1188] (4), UMMZ 86582 [ex MCZ 24589] (1), USNM 94686 (25). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:14 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Hubbs & Cannon 1935:78 [ref. 2255]. •Valid as Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854) -- (Collette 1962:151 [ref. 5865], Lee et al. 1980:650 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:155 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:328 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:421 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:324 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:118 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:493 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:884 [ref. 21581], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Mettee et al. 1996:631 [ref. 25836], Fuller et al. 1999:381 [ref. 25838], Ross et al. 2001:467 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:354 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:535 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:597 [ref. 31215] with 2 subspecies, Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:319 [ref. 35886] with 2 subspecies). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern and central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

gelida, Ammocrypta Hay [O. P.] 1881:490 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 179); ref. 2053] Chickasawa River at Enterprise, Mississippi, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 27425 (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:12 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Ammocrypta beanii Jordan 1877 -- (Page 1983:55 [ref. 22189] as beani, Ross et al. 2001:451 [ref. 25978] as beani). Current status: Synonym of Ammocrypta beanii Jordan 1877. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gibba, Perca fluviatilis var. Smitt [F. A.] 1892:29, 30, Figs. 3-4 [A history of Scandinavian fishes; ref. 4146] Regarded as infrasubspecific, not available. •In the synonymy of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae.

gigas, Cernua Costa [O. G.] 1849:Cernua p. 1, Pl. 7, bis [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Probabl;y Percinae. Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Ulocentra Evermann [B. W.] & Thoburn [W. W.] in Jordan & Evermann 1896:1049 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2443] Clinch River at Walker's Ford, near Tazewell, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 47531. Paratypes: CAS-SU 1954 (2), USNM 125373 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:71-72 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina copelandi (Jordan 1877) -- (Page 1983:44 [ref. 22189], Suttkus et al. 1994:6 [ref. 21916]). Current status: Synonym of Percina copelandi (Jordan 1877). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

glaucum, Stizostedion Hubbs [C. L.] 1926:58, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 15; ref. 12022] Lake Erie, off Ashtabula, Ohio, U.S.A., depth 40 feet. Holotype: UMMZ 55674. Paratypes: FMNH 13955-56 (1, 1); UMMZ 72090-93 (26, 33, 16, 59), 72097-98 (55, 64); USNM 117481 (5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill 1818) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1458 [ref. 5845]). •Synonym of Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill 1818), but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1980:747 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:349 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:464 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:144 [ref. 14674], Scharpf 2008:41 [ref. 30399]). Current status: Synonym of Sander vitreus (Mitchill 1818). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

gore, Etheostoma Layman [S. R.] & Mayden [R. L.] 2012:23, Fig. 3, 10 [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bull. 30; ref. 32285] Turnbull Creek 0.8 km west Kingston Springs on county road, Cheatham County, Tennessee, USA. Holotype: UAIC 10707.02. Paratypes: CUNV, INHS, SIUC, UAIC, UMMZ, USNM, UT. •Valid as Etheostoma gore Layman & Mayden 2012. Current status: Valid as Etheostoma gore Layman & Mayden 2012. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky and Tennessee, USA. Habitat: freshwater.

gracile, Boleosoma Girard [C. F.] 1859:103 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] Rio Seco near Fort Inge, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1328. Paralectotypes: MCZ 113 [ex USNM 1328] (1), USNM 1329 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:15 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Hubbs & Cannon 1935:44 [ref. 2255]. •Valid as Etheostoma gracile (Girard 1859) -- (Collette 1962:133 [ref. 5865], Lee et al. 1980:651 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:154 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:422 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:324 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:118 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:495 [ref. 22809], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Cross & Collins 1995:224 [ref. 23394], Mettee et al. 1996:633 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:469 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:354 [ref. 27931], Miller & Robison 2004:356 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma gracile (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Perca Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:50 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Skaneateles Lake, New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6533 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:82 [ref. 12478]. •Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814) -- (Smith 1986:338 [ref. 22186], La Rivers 1994:538 [ref. 23389]). Current status: Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

gracilis, Perca fluviatilis infra. Pokrovsky [V. V.] 1951 [Trudy Karelo-finskogo otdeleniya VNIORKH v. 3; ref. 23067] Not available, infrasubspecific; also preoccupied by Perca gracilis Cuvier 1828. Percidae: Percinae.

grahami, Oligocephalus Girard [C. F.] 1859:102 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] Devil's River, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MCZ 24576 [ex USNM 1182 and MCZ 85]. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:56 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma grahami (Girard 1859) -- (Lee et al. 1980:652 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:144 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:312 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:64 [ref. 22290], Norris & Minckley 1997:174 [ref. 23278], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:336 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:584 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma grahami (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Texas (U.S.A.) and northern Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

granulata, Perca Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:48, Pl. 9 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Waters from Blue Mountains to the Atlantic, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4175 (2) Philadelphia, 0000-6575 (2) New York, A-5741 (1, dry) U.S.A. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:82 [ref. 12478]. •Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814) -- (La Rivers 1994:538 [ref. 23389]). Current status: Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

grisea, Lucioperca DeKay [J. E.] 1842:19 [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] The Ohio, through all the Great Lakes, and through the rivers of the fur countries to 58th parallel, U.S.A. Locality given as "found with the preceding" [species, the locality of which is repeated here]. Percidae: Luciopercinae.

guentheri, Etheostoma Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1892:962 [American Naturalist v. 26 (no. 311); ref. 12339] Red River of the North at Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Lectotype: BMNH 1892.12.30.151. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1892.12.30.152-153 (2), UMMZ 187522 [ex IU 1449] (2), USNM 45567 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:28 [ref. 20211]. Original as güntheri. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:28 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina shumardi (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:45 [ref. 22189], Scott & Crossman 1998:806 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Percina shumardi (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gutselli, Poecilichthys Hildebrand [S. F.] 1932:78, Pl. 3 [Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 16374] Tuckasegee River at Ela, Swain County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 92402. Paratypes: USNM 92580 (1), 197411 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:62-63 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819, but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1980:628 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:69 [ref. 22189], Stauffer et al. 1995:295 [ref. 23376], Ross et al. 2001:460 [ref. 25978]). •Valid as Etheostoma gutselli (Hildebrand 1932) -- (Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:544 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708], Piller & Bart 2017:569 [ref. 35619]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma gutselli (Hildebrand 1932). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnocephala, Percina Beckham [E. C.] 1980:1, Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, Louisiana State University No. 57; ref. 5464] South Fork of New River at crossing of county road 1181, Ashe County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 106911. Paratypes: INHS 27291 (2); TU 70059 (3), 70102 (12), 71144 (3), 105084 (2), 105124 (1), 105137 (3), 106912 (2); UAIC 4421.01 (4); UMMZ 203834 (4); USNM 194774 (2); UT 91.1860 (4). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:63-64 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:281 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Percina gymnocephala Beckham 1980 -- (Page 1983:39 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:279 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:798 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:324 [ref. 23376], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:38 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:517 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina gymnocephala Beckham 1980. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: West Virginia, Virginia and North Carolina. Habitat: freshwater.

harrisi, Ulocentra Fowler [H. W.] 1945:38 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 7; ref. 1453] Not available, name only. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

helvetica, Perca Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:113 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Near Basil, Switzerland. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.2 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:219 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1958:219 [ref. 13434], Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hildebrandti, Etheostoma Evermann [B. W.] & Clark [H. W.] 1910:87, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 23; ref. 9560] Fletcher Lake, about 40°55'30"N, 86°18'16"W, Fulton County, Indiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 64616. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:28 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:152 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

histrio, Etheostoma (Ulocentra) Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] in Gilbert 1887:47 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] West of Hackett City (Arkansas), Poteau River, Oklahoma, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36386. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 569 (1), 2682 (2); USNM 36409 (4), 36448 (3), 188972 [ex USNM 36386] (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:29 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:29 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma histrio Jordan & Gilbert 1887 -- (Lee et al. 1980:653 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:72 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:423 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:295 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:118 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:496 [ref. 22809], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Mettee et al. 1996:635 [ref. 25836], Steinberg et al. 2000:141 [ref. 24469], Ross et al. 2001:471 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:133 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:358 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:537 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:545 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552], Robins et al. 2018:320 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma histrio Jordan & Gilbert 1887. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central and southeastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

hopkinsi, Poecilichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1945:249, Figs. 205-206 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 7; ref. 1453] Osewitchee Springs, 14 miles north of Fitzgerald, Wilcox County, Georgia, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 71548. Paratypes: ANSP 71567-69 (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:63 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Etheostoma hopkinsi (Fowler 1945) -- (Lee et al. 1980:654 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:140 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:316 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:585 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma hopkinsi (Fowler 1945). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Georgia and South Carlina (U.S.A.). Habitat: freshwater.

humeralis, Oligocephalus Girard [C. F.] 1859:67 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 1821] James River, Virginia, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1203. Paralectotypes: MCZ 24634 [ex USNM 1203], 35975 [ex USNM 1203 and MCZ 16] (2); USNM 198001 [ex USNM 1203] (45). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:56 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:56 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819 -- (Page 1983:147 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819, but a valid subspecies humerale (Girard 1839) -- (Scharpf 2008:25 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:592 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Atlantic drainages, U.S.A. [subspecies humeralis]. Habitat: freshwater.

inscriptus, Nothonotus Jordan [D. S.] & Brayton [A. W.] 1878:34 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 12; ref. 2436] Upper waters of Oconee River at Sulphur Springs, Hall County, Georgia, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 31145. Paralectotypes: USNM 197439 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:55 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:55 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma inscriptum (Jordan & Brayton 1878) -- (Lee et al. 1980:655 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:65 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:296 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:546 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma inscriptum (Jordan & Brayton 1878). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. Habitat: freshwater.

insulae, Hololepis fusiformis Hubbs [C. L.] & Cannon [M. D.] 1935:83, Pl. 1 (fig. 15) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 30; ref. 2255] Gibbs Pond, Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype: MCZ 28274. Paratypes: MCZ 42078 [ex MCZ 28274] (8), UMMZ 86601 (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:50 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854) -- (Collette 1962:151 [ref. 5865], Page 1983:156 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedius, Perca fluviatilis Svetovidov [A. N.] & Dorofeeva [E. A.] 1963:638 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 3 (4, 29); ref. 23069] Kolyma River, Siberia, Russia. Holotype: ZIN 23998. Diagnosis and new name in key, holoype mentioned in footnate. •Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2006:59 [ref. 28831]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

iowae, Etheostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Meek [S. E.] 1885:10 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 470); ref. 10637] Chariton River at Chariton, Iowa, U.S.A. Lectotype: CAS-SU 1457. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 62430 [ex CAS-SU 1457] (1), plus 1 missing. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:30 [ref. 20211]. Misspelled ioae by Boulenger 1895:72 [ref. 537]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:30 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:152 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:325 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

italica, Perca Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:45 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Bologna, Italy. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6570 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:82 [ref. 12478]. •Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

jenkinsi, Percina (Percina) Thompson [B. A.] 1985:4, Fig. 1a [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, Louisiana State University No. 61; ref. 17281] Conasauga River at Tennessee highway 74 bridge, Bradley County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 106075. Paratypes: CUMV 69366 (2); INHS 74582 (1); TU 69140 (6), 78369 (2), 80506-08 (1, 6, 8); UAIC 3901 (2); UG 1394 F (1); UMMZ 213400 [ex UT 91.1646] (2); USNM 268480 [ex UT 91.1646] (2); UT 91.380 (1), 91.688 (1), 91.691 (1), 91.1176 (2), 91.1545 (1), 91.1646 (5, now 1), 91.2621 (2), 91.2702 (2). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:64 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:281 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Percina jenkinsi Thompson 1985 -- (Page & Burr 1991:287 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:123 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:574 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:705 [ref. 25836], Thompson 1997:2 [ref. 23154], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Williams et al. 2007:11 [ref. 29253], Scharpf 2008:38 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:530 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Near et al. 2017:303 [ref. 35622]). Current status: Valid as Percina jenkinsi Thompson 1985. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Georgia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

jessiae, Poecilichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Brayton [A. W.] in Jordan 1878:227 [Manual of the vertebrates of the northern United States (second edition); ref. 2376] Chickamauga River at Ringgold, Georgia, U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:63 [ref. 20211]. Also appeared in Jordan & Brayton 1878:59 [ref. 2436]. Syntype figured in Collette & Knapp 1967:64, Fig. 4 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma jessiae (Jordan & Brayton 1878) -- (Lee et al. 1980:656 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:80 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:294 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:118 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:637 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:538 [ref. 27995], Layman & Mayden 2009:166 [ref. 30060], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:542 [ref. 31215], Layman & Mayden 2012:13 [ref. 32285], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma jessiae (Jordan & Brayton 1878). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: southern Virginia to northeastern Mississippi. Habitat: freshwater.

jimmycarter, Etheostoma Layman [S. R.] & Mayden [R. L.] 2012:26, Fig. 3, 14 [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bull. 30; ref. 32285] Trammel Fork at Old State Road, 1.6 km north-northeast of Red Hill, Allen County, Kentucky, USA. Holotype: UAIC 10708.01. Paratypes: INHS, NLU, SIUC, TU, UAIC, UF, UMMZ, UT, USNM. •Valid as Etheostoma jimmycarter Layman & Mayden 2012. Current status: Valid as Etheostoma jimmycarter Layman & Mayden 2012. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Kentucky, USA. Habitat: freshwater.

jordani, Etheostoma (Nothonotus) Gilbert [C. H.] 1891:156, Pl. 43 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 9 (art. 10) (for 1889); ref. 12400] Choccolo Creek, tributary of Coosa River at Oxford, Calhoun County, Alabama, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 125110. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1893.5.5.9-10 (2), CAS 22854 [ex IU 4693] (4), UMMZ 61706 [ex IU 4693] (1, dry), USNM 198107 [ex USNM 125110] (8). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:30 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:30 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma jordani Gilbert 1891 -- (Lee et al. 1980:657 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:108 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:304 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:119 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:497 [ref. 22809], Wood & Mayden 1993:30 [ref. 21303], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Mettee et al. 1996:639 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:540 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:561 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma jordani Gilbert 1891. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: Georgia, Alabama and southeastern Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

juliae, Etheostoma Meek [S. E.] 1891:130, Pl. 42 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 9 (art. 9) (for 1889); ref. 12399] James River, tributary of White River, near Springfield, Green County, Missouri, U.S.A. Lectotype: to be determined. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 1010 (1), USNM 125116 [ex USBF 311] (2, ? including lectotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:30 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 176, p. 3271 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Valid as Etheostoma juliae Meek 1891 -- (Lee et al. 1980:658 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:96 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:425 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:307 [ref. 18983], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:568 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma juliae Meek 1891. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Missouri and Arkansas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

kanawhae, Poecilichthys Raney [E. C.] 1941:6, Pl. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 434; ref. 13033] North Fork of New River on rt. 16 at Crumpler, Ashe County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 131837. Paratypes: CUMV 7663 (13), 7688 (5), 7693 (3); UMMZ 95371 (2), 131834-36 (2, 2, 2), 131838 (7); USNM 107679 (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:63-64 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Poecilichthys kanawhae Raney 1941 -- (Lee et al. 1980:659 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:63 [ref. 22189]). •Valid as Etheostoma kanawhae (Raney 1941) -- (Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:824 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:301 [ref. 23376], Switzer & Wood 2002:450 [ref. 26023], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:547 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma kanawhae (Raney 1941). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: New River drainage, Virginia and North Carolina, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

kantuckeense, Etheostoma Ceas [P. A.] & Page [L. M.] 1997:517, Fig. 1G [Copeia 1997 (no. 3); ref. 22902] Sharps Branch, West Fork Drakes Creek, 4 kilometers south of Franklin at County Road 1522, Simpson County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 37505. Paratypes: INHS 32395 (15), SIUC 25127 (5), TU 177764 (5), UAIC 11347.01 (5), UMMZ 231177 (5), USNM 339904 (5), UT 91.4753 (5). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:281 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma kantuckeense Ceas & Page 1997 -- (Ceas & Burr 2002:213 [ref. 26533], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:579 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma kantuckeense Ceas & Page 1997. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Upper Barren River system, Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

kathae, Percina Thompson [B. A.] 1997:4, Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science Louisiana State University No. 73; ref. 23154] Cahaba River, 4 kilometers west of Helena, County highway 52, Shelby County, Alabama, Mobile River system. Holotype: TU 121416. Paratypes: (25 paratopotypes, 190 other paratypes) at AUM, CUMV, INHS, Geol. Surv. Alabama, LSUMZ, MMNS, MSU, NLU, SAU, TU, UF, UAIC, UAMZ, UMMZ, UNOVC, USNM, UT. •Valid as Percina kathae Thompson 1997 -- (Ross et al. 2001:503 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:584 [ref. 27995], Williams et al. 2007:11 [ref. 29253], Scharpf 2008:38 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:531 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Near et al. 2017:303 [ref. 35622]). Current status: Valid as Percina kathae Thompson 1997. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and southeastern Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

kennicotti, Catonotus Putnam [F. W.] 1863:3 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 3567] A rocky brook, Union County, Illinois, U.S.A. Lectotype: MCZ 24665. Paralectotypes: MCZ 24665 [ex USNM 1811 and MCZ 37] (3); UMMZ 86347 [ex MCZ 24665, not 24658] (1); USNM 154784 [ex Wesleyan Univ.] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:20 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype as USNM 1365 selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:20 [ref. 20211] shown to be invalid by Smith & Page 1975:777 [ref. 21526]; Smith & Page designate MCZ 24665 (male) as lectotype. •Valid as Etheostoma kennicotti (Putnam 1863) -- (Lee et al. 1980:660 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:149 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:320 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:119 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:498 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:641 [ref. 25836], Poly & Wilson 1998:6 [ref. 26025], Ross et al. 2001:472 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:541 [ref. 27995], Blanton & Schuster 2008:844 [ref. 29948], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:591 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma kennicotti (Putnam 1863). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South-central U.S.A.: Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi. Habitat: freshwater.

kusha, Percina Williams [J. D.] & Burkhead [N. M.] in Williams, Neely, Walsh & Burkhead 2007:4, Fig. 2a [Zootaxa No. 1549; ref. 29253] Conasauga River at mouth of Minnewauga Creek, 9.6 air kilometers south-southwest of the center of Bueton, 35°00'18"N, 34°[sic = 84°]41'28"W, Polk County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: UF 110303. Paratypes: many at ANSP, GMNH, INHS, NCSM, TU, UAIC, UF, UT, and USNM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Percina kusha Williams & Burkhead 2007 -- (Scharpf 2008:38 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:514 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina kusha Williams & Burkhead 2007. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Headwaters of the Coosa River, Tennessee and Georgia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

lachneri, Etheostoma Suttkus [R. D.] & Bailey [R. M.] in Suttkus, Bailey & Bart 1994:109, Fig. 2 [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 21393] Wolf Creek, tributary to Little Souwilpa Creek at Alabama highway 17, Choctaw County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 162631. Paratypes: ANSP 170040 (2); CUMV 73782 (2); TU (17 lots, 378); UAIC 10682.01 (2); UF 100286 (2); UMMZ 222913-14 (4, 10); USNM 325769 (2); UT 91.3567 (64). •Valid as Etheostoma lachneri Suttkus & Bailey 1994 -- (Mettee et al. 1996:643 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:474 [ref. 25978], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:542 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:558 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma lachneri Suttkus & Bailey 1994. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama and Mississippi, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

lawrencei, Etheostoma Ceas [P. A.] & Burr [B. M.] 2002:205, Figs. 1 c-d, 2 a-d [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 26533] Koger Creek (Wolf River - Obey River - Cumberland River), about 0.8 kilometers northwest of Roland along highway 415 at confluence of McIver Creek, 36°39.44'N, 85°02.77'W, Clinton County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 56855 [ex SIUC 34947]. Paratypes: AUM 31020 (10), INHS 56854 (10), SIUC 38838 (10), TU 191386 (10), UAIC 12666.01 (10), UF 114588 [ex SIUC 34947] (10), UMMZ 237514 (10), USNM 363319 (10), UT 91.5759 (10). •Valid as Etheostoma lawrencei Ceas & Burr 2002 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:581 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma lawrencei Ceas & Burr 2002. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

lemniscatum, Etheostoma Blanton [R. E.] in Blanton & Jenkins 2008:20, Fig. 4d [Zootaxa No. 1963; ref. 29947] Big South Fork of Cumberland River, 1.2 kilometers upstream of the mouth of Troublesome Creek, McCreary County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Holotype: UF 172576. Paratypes: ANSP 189239 (2), INHS 102269 (2), NCSM 49702 (3), TU 200493 (2), UF 172577 (2), USNM 394527 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Etheostoma lemniscatum Blanton 2008 -- (Scharpf 2009:20 [ref. 30400], Page & Burr 2011:594 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma lemniscatum Blanton 2008. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Big South Fork system of Cumberland River drainage, Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

lenticula, Percina Richards [W. J.] & Knapp [L. W.] 1964:695, Figs. 1A-C [Copeia 1964 (no. 4); ref. 3299] Cahaba River at Ala. highway 27, 8.5 miles north of Centerville, Alabama River drainage, Bibb County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: CUMV 43592. Paratypes: CUMV 43435 (2), 43593 (1), 43594 (1); TU 15291 (7); UGAMNH 209 (4), UMMZ 180074 (1); USNM 197491 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:57 [ref. 20211], Suttkus 1970:127 [ref. 20861], Bart & Taylor 1993:64 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Percina lenticula Richards & Knapp 1964 -- (Lee et al. 1980:725 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:31 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:281 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:123 [ref. 23239], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Mettee et al. 1996:707 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:505 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:585 [ref. 27995], Williams et al. 2007:11 [ref. 29253], Scharpf 2008:38 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:521 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina lenticula Richards & Knapp 1964. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. Habitat: freshwater.

leonensis, Oligocephalus Girard [C. F.] 1859:102 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] Leona River, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 24580 [ex USNM 748 and MCZ 83] (2, dry). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:56 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma lepidum (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Page 1983:140 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma lepidum (Baird & Girard 1853). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

lepida, Boleosoma Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1853:388 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6; ref. 15636] Upper tributaries of Nueces River, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 24575 [ex USNM 744 and MCZ 82] (3); UMMZ 86335 [ex MCZ 24575] (1); USNM 744 (1), USNM 223024 [ex 744] (5). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:15 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma lepidum (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Lee et al. 1980:661 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:140 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:316 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:584 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma lepidum (Baird & Girard 1853). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Texas and New Mexico, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

lepidinion, Etheostoma collis Collette [B. B.] 1962:194, Figs. 17-18 [Tulane Studies in Zoology v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 5865] Tributary of Horsepen Creek, 2.4 miles northwest of Wylliesburg on Va. highway 907, Charlotte County, Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 179847. Paratypes: CUMV 29992 (8), 34544 (7); DU uncat. (8 in 4 lots); USNM 100215 (3), 101330 (1), 101334 (12). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:24-25 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma collis (Hubbs & Cannon 1935) -- (Page 1983:157 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma collis (Hubbs & Cannon 1935). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

lepidogenys, Etheostoma Evermann [B. W.] & Kendall [W. C.] 1894:114, Pl. 35 (fig. 3) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 12 (art. 3) (for 1892); ref. 12392] Largest of the Comal Springs, Comal Creek, New Braunfels, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 44840. Paralectotypes: USNM 44840 (1 of 2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:31 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 174, p. 3270 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Etheostoma lepidum (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Page 1983:140 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma lepidum (Baird & Girard 1853). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

leucops, Pogostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1818:447 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 3 (no. 6) (art. 6) (Oct.); ref. 3587] Ohio River, U.S.A. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1820:55 [ref. 7305] and in Rafinesque 1820:35 [ref. 3592]. Based on a Audubon drawing. •Mythical; see Markle 1997:446 [ref. 23370]. Percidae.

lineolatus, Catonotus Agassiz [L.] 1854:305 [11] [American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 2) v. 17; ref. 69] Small creek near Quincy, Illinois, U.S.A. Lectotype: MCZ 24637 + 24657 [ex USNM 1801 and MCZ 1]. Paralectotypes: MCZ 1 (8), 43093 (5), 24637 + 24657 (2) [ex USNM 1811 and MCZ 1]; MNHN 0000-2785 (1); UMMZ 86481 [ex MCZ] (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:21 [ref. 20211], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:80 [ref. 12478]. On p. 11 of separate. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:21 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819 -- (Page 1983:147 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819, but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1980:647 [ref. 22416], Robison & Buchanan 1988:420 [ref. 23393], Scott & Crossman 1998:787 [ref. 24570], Bailey et al. 2004:194 [ref. 27882] as lineolatum, Scharpf 2008:26 [ref. 30399] lineolatum). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

linnei, Lucioperca Malm [A. W.] 1877:381 [ ref. 2881] Original as Linnéi. Tentatively regarded as an unneeded replacement name for Perca lucioperca Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid "Strickland tautonomy"). Locality Sweden. •Synonym of Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758) Current status: Synonym of Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

linsleyi, Etheostoma Storer [H. R.] 1851:37 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 4 (1851-1854); ref. 18846] Streams at Wolcott, Wayne County, New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:31 [ref. 20211]. Spelled linslii by Girard 1859:67 [ref. 1821]. •Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819 -- (Page 1983:147 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:326 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

longimana, Etheostoma (Imostoma) Jordan [D. S.] 1888:179 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 40; ref. 10476] Tributary of James River, Virginia, U.S.A. Lectotype: MCZ 24619 [ex MCZ 50]. Paralectotypes: MCZ 43074 [ex MCZ 24619] (2); UMMZ 86603 [ex MCZ 24619] (3); USNM 120258 [ex MCZ 24619] (2), 197414 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:31 [ref. 20211]. The name was misspelled as Etheostoma longimane in Jordan 1889:361, Pl. 45 (fig. 14) [ref. 10478]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:31 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma longimanum Jordan 1888 -- (Lee et al. 1980:662 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:89 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:293 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:840 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:302 [ref. 23376], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:541 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma longimanum Jordan 1888. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Upper james River system, Virginia and West Virginia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

longimanus, Cottogaster Jordan [D. S.] (ex Agassiz) 1888:179 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 40; ref. 10476] An Agassiz manuscript name appearing on the lot of type specimens of Etheostoma (Imostoma) longimanum Jordan 1888 and mentioned as such in the original description of that species. •In the synonymy of Etheostoma longimanum Jordan 1888. Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma longimanum Jordan 1888. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

lucioperca, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:289 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European lakes. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:40 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Lucioperca lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1020 [ref. 20662], Zhu 1995:172 [ref. 25213], Zhang et al. 2016:212 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Stizostedion lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1457 [ref. 5845], Coad 1981:17 [ref. 22348], Lelek 1987:294 [ref. 22962], Coad 1991:21 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184 [ref. 23079], Coad 1996:86 [ref. 25304], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:750 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:119 [ref. 23588], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Fricke 1999:39 [ref. 24101], Fuller et al. 1999:392 [ref. 25838], Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:201 [ref. 26728], Parin 2003:S4 [ref. 28536]). •Valid as Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:54 [ref. 22798], Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952], Azeroual et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25366], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:47 [ref. 26178], Hanel 2003:62 [ref. 27894], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:207 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:177 [ref. 28369], Hanel & Lusk 2005:350 [ref. 28804], Fricke 2007:29 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:81 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:534 [ref. 29996], McPhail 2007:529 [ref. 31199], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:171 [ref. 31251], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:356 [ref. 33547], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895 [ref. 34062], Barbieri et al. 2015:103 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Esmaeili et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35254], Romanov et al. 2017:826 [ref. 35687], Esmaeili et al. 2018:77 [ref. 36089], Özuluğ & Saç 2019:32 [ref. 36599]). Current status: Valid as Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Distribution: Eastern and central Europe, introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lugoi, Etheostoma Norris [S. M.] & Minckley [W. L.] 1997:161, Figs. 3-7 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 23278] Río Puente Chiquito, 6.7 kilometers south of Cuatro Ciénegas, 26°55'N, 102°05'W, Coahuila, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 233089. Paratypes: ASU 5128 (13), 5928 (30), 5995 (30, 3 c&s); IBUNAM-P 8810 (8); KU 4408 (1), 7409 (1); UANL 13718 [ex ASU 5995] (8); UMMZ 179179 (2), 197213 (5), 179862 (11), 179875 (15), 198941 (2). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:6 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Etheostoma lugoi Norris & Minckley 1997 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:336 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma lugoi Norris & Minckley 1997. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Coahuila, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

luteovinctum, Etheostoma (Etheostoma) Gilbert [C. H.] & Swain [W.] in Gilbert 1887:58 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] Stone River, near Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36139. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 3945 (2), UMMZ 121454 (8), 121464 (1); USNM 198003 [ex USNM 36139] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:31 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:31 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma luteovinctum Gilbert & Swain 1887 -- (Lee et al. 1980:663 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:136 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:314 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:500 [ref. 22809], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:27 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:582 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma luteovinctum Gilbert & Swain 1887. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

luteus, Centropomus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1814:19 [Précis des découvertes et travaux somiologiques de Mr. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz; ref. 3582] Rivers of U.S.A., including Chesapeake Bay, etc. No types known. •Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814) -- (La Rivers 1994:538 [ref. 23389]). Current status: Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lynceum, Etheostoma Hay [O. P.] in Jordan 1885:868 [80] [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 13 (1885); ref. 2385] Shallow rocky branch of Chickasawha River at Enterprise, Clarke County, Mississippi, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 27445. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 627 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:31-32 [ref. 20211]. On p. 80 of separate. Replacement name for Nanostoma elegans Hay 1881, preoccupied by Boleichthys elegans Girard 1859 when both are in Etheostoma; same types as elegans Hay. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1896:1075 [ref. 2443] for elegans. •Synonym of Etheostoma zonale (Cope 1868), but a valid subspecies -- (Page 1983:73 [ref. 22189]). •Valid as Etheostoma lynceum Hay 1885 -- (Etnier & Starnes 1986:832 [ref. 22455], Page & Burr 1991:298 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:119 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:502 [ref. 22809], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Mettee et al. 1996:645 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:475 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:543 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:550 [ref. 31215], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma lynceum Hay 1885. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South-central U.S.A.: Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. Habitat: freshwater.

macedonica, Perca fluviatilis var. Karaman [S.] 1924:79 [Pisces Macedoniae; ref. 15902] Vadar River at Veles, Lake Dojran, Republic of Macedonia. Syntypes: (several) IEBMT. •Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

macrocephalum, Etheostoma Cope [E. D.] 1867:400 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 13 (pt 3) (art. 13); ref. 18027] Youghiogheny River, western Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 22626. Paralectotypes: (2, whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:32 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:32 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina macrocephala (Cope 1867) -- (Lee et al. 1980:726 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:36 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:342 [ref. 22186], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:394 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:277 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:575 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:791 [ref. 21581], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Page & Near 2007:605 [ref. 29260], Scharpf 2008:38 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:513 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina macrocephala (Cope 1867). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A., New York to Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepida, Percina (Percina) Stevenson [M. M.] 1971:66, Figs. 1-3a [Southwestern Naturalist v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 862] Guadalupe River, 150 feet below a dam at Kerrville State Park, 6 miles east of Kerrville, Kerr County, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 188091. Paratypes: (43) TNHC; UMMZ 188092 (3). •Valid as Percina macrolepida Stevenson 1971 -- (Lee et al. 1980:727 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:51 [ref. 22189], Thompson 1985:12 [ref. 17281], Page & Burr 1991:288 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:65 [ref. 22290], Thompson 1997:2 [ref. 23154], Fuller et al. 1999:388 [ref. 25838], Ross et al. 2001:516 [ref. 25978], Moyle 2002:409 [ref. 26449], Buchanan & Stevenson 2003:454 [ref. 27167], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:384 [ref. 27931], Miller 2006:338 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2008:38 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:533 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Near et al. 2017:303 [ref. 35622]). Current status: Valid as Percina macrolepida Stevenson 1971. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South-central U.S.A. and northern Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

maculata, Etheostoma Kirtland [J. P.] 1840:276, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 3 (nos 1-2) (art. 3); ref. 18403] Mahoning River, Ohio, U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:32 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma maculatum Kirtland 1840 -- (Lee et al. 1980:664 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:100 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:329 [ref. 22186], Page & Burr 1991:305 [ref. 18983], Stauffer et al. 1995:303 [ref. 23376], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:564 [ref. 31215]). •Valid as Nothonotus maculatus (Kirtland 1840) -- (Keck & Near 2013:4 [ref. 32583]). Current status: Valid as Nothonotus maculatus (Kirtland 1840). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A., scattered localities in Ohio River drainage basin. Habitat: freshwater.

maculata, Perca fluviatilis var. Smitt [F. A.] 1892:29, 30, Fig. 5 [A history of Scandinavian fishes; ref. 4146] Lake Tisaren, Nerike [Närke], Sweden. Syntypes: ?NRM 35749 (1). Possilby can be treated as infrasubspecific and not available (see Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952]). If regarded as available, then objectively invalid; preoccupied by Perca maculata Bloch 1792. •In the synonymy of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae.

maculaticeps, Boleosoma Cope [E. D.] 1870:269 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11 (for 7 Jan. 1870); ref. 14127] Upper waters of Catawba River, North Carolina, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 13862. Paralectotypes: ANSP 13863-76 (14). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:15 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype selected by Fowler 1907:523, fig. 6 [ref. 1375]. •Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842 -- (Page 1983:85 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842 but a valid subspecies -- (Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:539 [ref. 31215]) Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: North Carolina to Florida, U.S.A. [subspecies maculaticeps]. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatum, Boleosoma Agassiz [L.] 1850:305, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Lake Superior; ref. 66] Fort William, Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. Lectotype: USNM 1840. Paralectotypes: MCZ 187 [ex USNM 1840] (1, apparently lost), USNM 197633 [ex USNM 1840] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:15 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:15 [ref. 20211]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Etheostoma by Etheostoma maculata Kirtland 1840.. •Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820 -- (Page 1983:84 [ref. 22189], Scott & Crossman 1998:797 [ref. 24570], Ross et al. 2001:480 [ref. 25978]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Alvordius Girard [C. F.] 1859:68 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 1821] Fort Gratiot, Lake Huron, Michigan, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 1346 (2, apparently discarded). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:11 [ref. 20211], Beckham 1986:4 [ref. 36112]. •Valid as Percina maculata (Girard 1859) -- (Lee et al. 1980:728 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:37 [ref. 22189], Beckham 1986:4 [ref. 36112], Smith 1986:343 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:450 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:144 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:278 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:123 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:577 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:793 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:327 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:238 [ref. 23394], Mettee et al. 1996:709 [ref. 25836], Mettee et al. 1996:709 [ref. 25836], Scott & Crossman 1998:8030 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:389 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:46 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:506 [ref. 25978], Bailey et al. 2004:203 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:386 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:587 [ref. 27995], Williams et al. 2007:15 [ref. 29253], Scharpf 2008:38 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:515 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Percina maculata (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern North America. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Hadropterus Girard [C. F.] 1859:100 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] Eastern tributary of Potomac River, Patuxent, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1157. Paralectotypes: ?MCZ 24525 [ex USNM 1303] (2), ?MCZ 24546 [ex USNM 1157] (2), USNM 197773 [ex USNM 1157] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:43-44 [ref. 20211]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Etheostoma maculata Kirtland 1841 when both are in Etheostoma and secondarily preoccupied in Percina by Alvordius maculatus Girard 1859, replaced by Hadropterus notogrammus Raney & Hubbs 1948. Lectotype selected in Collette & Knapp 1967:43 [ref. 20211]. •Objective synonym of Percina notogramma (Raney & Hubbs 1948) -- (Page 1983:38 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Percina. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

maeotica, Percarina Kuznetsov [I. D.] 1888:202 [Trudy St.-Peterburgskogo Obscestva Estestvoispytatelej = Travaux de la Société des Naturalistes de St. Pétersbourg. v. 19; ref. 18441] Northeastern Sea of Azov, Russia/Ukraine. Syntypes: ZIN 3312 (2), 5088 (1), 7208 (6). •Synonym of Percarina demidoffi Nordmann 1840 -- (Berg 1949:1044 [ref. 20662], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:47 [ref. 26178]). •Valid as Percarina maeotica Kuznetsov 1888 -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:206 [ref. 28183], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:532 [ref. 29996]). •Synonym of Percarina demidoffii [or demidoffi] Nordmann 1840, but a valid subspecies -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1454 [ref. 5845], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:750 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:119 [ref. 23588], Parin 2003:S4 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:355 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Percarina demidoffii Nordmann 1840. Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: Eastern and northeastern Azov Sea watersheds (if valid). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

manitou, Percina Jordan [D. S.] 1877:53 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 29 (pt 1); ref. 2372] Lake Manitou, Fulton County, Indiana, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 23458. Paralectotypes: Indiana State coll. (2, not found). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:57 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:57 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818) -- (Page 1983:50 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818), but a valid subspecies manitou. Current status: Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Great Lakes region, Canada and U,S.A. [subspecies manitou]. Habitat: freshwater.

mariae, Belophlox Fowler [H. W.] 1947:2, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 191; ref. 1457] Tributary of outlet of Watson's Lake, near Southern Pines, eastern Moore County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71731. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:12 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Etheostoma mariae (Fowler 1947) -- (Lee et al. 1980:665 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:113 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:308 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:570 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma mariae (Fowler 1947). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: North Carolina and South Carolina. Habitat: freshwater.

marina, Lucioperca Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:120 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Black Sea; Sea of Azov. No types known. •Valid as Lucioperca marina Cuvier 1828 -- (Berg 1949:1029 [ref. 20662]). •Valid as Stizostedion marinum (Cuvier 1828) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1457 [ref. 5845], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:750 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:120 [ref. 23588], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Parin 2003:S4 [ref. 28536]). •Valid as Sander marinus (Cuvier 1828) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:207 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:177 [ref. 28369], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:534 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:88 [ref. 30517], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Parin et al. 2014:356 [ref. 33547], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:77 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Sander marinus (Cuvier 1828). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Distribution: Eastern Europe and Asia: northern Black Sea and Caspian Sea. Habitat: brackish.

marmorpinnum, Etheostoma Blanton [R. E.] & Jenkins [R. E.] 2008:15, Fig. 4b [Zootaxa No. 1963; ref. 29947] Little River just below TN highway 33 bridge, Blount County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: UF 172572. Paratypes: ANSP 189238 (2), INHS 102268 (2), NCSM 49701 (3), TU 140998 (2), UF 172573 (3), USNM 394525 (2), UT 91.2615 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Etheostoma marmorpinnum Blanton & Jenkins 2008 -- (Scharpf 2009:20 [ref. 30400], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma marmorpinnum Blanton & Jenkins 2008. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee River drainage, Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

maxinkuckiensis, Hadropterus Evermann [B. W.] 1900:366, Pl. 17 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner Pt. 25 (for 1899); ref. 14726] Aubeenaubee Creek, eastern inlet of Lake Maxinkuckee, about 0.5 mile from the lake, Marshall County, Indiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 49378. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:44 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina maculata (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:37 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Percina maculata (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

maydeni, Etheostoma Powers [S. L.] & Kuhajda [B. R.] in Powers, Kuhajda & Ahlbrand 2012:52, Fig. 5A-B [Zootaxa No. 3277; ref. 31949] New River at U. S. Highway 27 near New River, Scott County, Tennessee, 36.3827°N, 84°5529°W. Holotype: USNM 403641. Paratypes: UT 91.4886 (3); SIUC 24738 (2),62618 (2), 61665 (1). •Valid as Etheostoma maydeni Powers & Kuhajda 2012 -- (Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma maydeni Powers & Kuhajda 2012. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A: Tennessee and Kentucky. Habitat: freshwater.

meadiae, Ulocentra Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1898:2852 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Indian Creek, tributary of Powell River at Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 48903. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6312 (1, not found), USNM 125623 [ex USBF 711] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:72 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma stigmaeum (Jordan 1877) -- (Page 1983:81 [ref. 22189]). •See Layman & Mayden 2009:166 [ref. 30060]. •Valid as Etheostoma meadiae (Jordan & Evermann 1898) -- (Lee et al. 1980:666 [ref. 22416], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Layman & Mayden 2012:16 [ref. 32285]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma meadiae (Jordan & Evermann 1898). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: Tennessee and Virginia. Habitat: freshwater.

meridiana, Ammocrypta Williams [J. D.] 1975:21, Fig. 6 [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 1; ref. 7402] Cedar Creek, 7.5 miles south-southwest of Sardis on Alabama highway 41, Dallas County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 213494. Paratypes: AU 1222 (62), 5635 (3), 6772 (37); TU (31 lots, 124); UAIC (11 lots, 40); UMMZ 111226-27 (5, 1), 197722 [ex AU 6772] (37 or 16); USNM 210650-51 (4, 6), 210661 (5), 213495 (10). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:56-57 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma meridianum (Williams 1975) -- (Page & Burr 1991:290 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:119 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:583 [ref. 25836]). •Valid as Ammocrypta meridiana Williams 1975 -- (Lee et al. 1980:619 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:54 [ref. 22189], Ross et al. 2001:452 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:482 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:19 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:536 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ammocrypta meridiana Williams 1975. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama and Mississippi, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

mesaeus, Poecilichthys Cope [E. D.] 1864:232 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 906] Platte River near Fort Kearney, Nebraska, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 13943. Paralectotypes: ANSP 13944-46 (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:64 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype established by Fowler 1907:524, Fig. 7 [ref. 1375]. •Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820 -- (Page 1983:84 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

metaegadi, Hololepis fusiformis Hubbs [C. L.] & Cannon [M. D.] 1935:81, Pl. 1 (fig. 14) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 30; ref. 2255] Tempies Pond, Osterville, Barnstable County, Cotuit Harbor drainage basin, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 77860. Paratypes: USNM 94683 (36, now 34), UMMZ 107093 [ex USNM 94683] (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:50 [ref. 20211]. Originally as metae-gadi. •Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854) -- (Collette 1962:151 [ref. 5865], Page 1983:156 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepidum, Etheostoma (Nothonotus) Raney [E. C.] & Zorach [T.] 1967:94, Fig. 1 [American Midland Naturalist v. 77 (no. 1); ref. 7990] East fork of Stones River at highway 231, 6 miles north of Murfreesboro, Cumberland drainage, Rutherford County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: CUMV 46916. Paratypes: CUMV 37284 (8), 42006 (3), 48640 (25); TU 19479 (19), 32983 (71), 32989 (6); UMMZ 168392 (14), 168421 (2), 173901 (3), 174470 (2), 174882 (1); USNM 36133 (7). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:126 [ref. 20861], Bart & Taylor 1993:59-60 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma microlepidum Raney & Zorach 1967 -- (Lee et al. 1980:667 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:96 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:305 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:503 [ref. 22809], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:564 [ref. 31215]). •Valid as Nothonotus microlepidus (Rainey & Zorach 1967) -- (Keck & Near 2013:4 [ref. 32583]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma microlepidum Raney & Zorach 1967. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: Kentucky and Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

microperca, Etheostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan 1888:134 [A manual of vertebrate animals of the northern United States (fifth edition); ref. 2390] Michigan; Wisconsin; Illinois; Alabama, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 24566 [ex USNM 1377, MCZ 95] (2), 24570 [ex USNM 1283, MCZ 93] (9), 24582 [ex USNM 1294, MCZ 96] (1), 24690 [ex USNM 1288, MCZ 94] (11); UMMZ 86316 [ex USNM 1288] (3, poor condition), 86457 [ex USNM 1283] (3); USNM 1276 (1, not found), 1283 (20, now 19), 1288 (28), 1377 (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:32 [ref. 20211]. Replacement name for Microperca punctulata Putnam 1863, secondarily preoccupied in Etheostoma by Poecilichthys punctulatus Agassiz 1854; same types as punctulata Putnam. •Valid as Etheostoma microperca Jordan & Gilbert 1888 -- (Lee et al. 1980:668 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:158 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:426 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:144 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:322 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:505 [ref. 22809], Cross & Collins 1995:225 [ref. 23394], Scott & Crossman 1998:790 [ref. 24570], Lyons et al. 2000:45 [ref. 26594], Bailey et al. 2004:195 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:360 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:597 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma microperca Jordan & Gilbert 1888. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Ontario, Canada and eastern U.S.A., especially in the Great Lakes region. Habitat: freshwater.

micropterus, Etheostoma Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:289 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 823); ref. 18115] Chihuahua, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 38245. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:32 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma pottsii (Girard 1859) [usually seen as pottsi] -- (Page 1983:144 [ref. 22189], Smith et al. 1984:396 [ref. 22691]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma pottsii (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

mihileze, Etheostoma Mayden [R. L.] 2010:722, Figs. 1B, 1C, 2 [Copeia 2010 (no. 4); ref. 31085] Spring River at US Hwy 60, just south of Verona, 36°56'54"N, 93°47'36"W, Lawrence County, Kansas, Missouri, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 398660 [UAIC 10710.05]. Paratypes: INHS 103121 (2), KU 2945 (7), SIUC 81058 (2), TU 200885 (2), UAIC 10710.05 (47), UF 178390 [ex. UAIC 10710.05] (2), UMMZ 248865 (2). Plus additional non-type specimens. •Valid as Etheostoma mihileze Mayden 2010 -- (Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma mihileze Mayden 2010. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Arkansas River system: Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

minima, Perca Haldeman [S. S.] 1842:330 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 2029] Susquehanna River [?Marietta, Lancaster County], Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13928 (skin). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:56 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842 -- (Page 1983:85 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

minor, Perca lucioperca Forster [J. R.] 1767:355 [Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London v. 57 (art. 33); ref. 18088] Volga River, Russia. No types known. Name originally spelled Perca Lucio-perca minor. Forgotten name, not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority in favor of Lucioperca marina Cuvier 1828 is followed (Art. 23.9). •In the synonymy of Sander marinus (Cuvier 1828). Current status: Synonym of Sander marinus (Cuvier 1828). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: marine.

montanus, Poecilichthys whipplii Hubbs [C. L.] & Black [J. D.] 1941:15, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 429; ref. 10850] Near head of Blue Hole Creek, tributary of Clear Creek, 1 mile south of Winslow, Washington County, Arkansas, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 127777. Paratypes: UMMZ 123842 (2), 123352 (1), 123802 (220), 123806 (100), 123813 (107), 123821 (53), 127778 (7), 128678 (2); USNM 117589 (7). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:68-69 [ref. 20211]. The original spelling whipplii is an acceptable spelling, but based on Art. 33.2.3.1 of the Code, the spelling whipplei can be retained. •Synonym of Etheostoma whipplii (Girard 1859) -- (Robison & Buchanan 1988:444 [ref. 23393] as whipplei). •Synonym of Etheostoma whipplei (Girard 1859), but a valid subspecies montanum with spelling of species as whipplei -- (Lee et al. 1980:709 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:125 [ref. 22189], Stauffer et al. 1995:329 [ref. 23376]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma whipplei (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

montuosa, Percina notogramma Hogarth [W. T.] & Woolcott [W. S.] 1966:101, Fig. 2 [Chesapeake Science v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 9035] Beaver Creek, 4 miles east of Lynchburg on U.S. highway 460, Campbell County, Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 199556. Paratypes: CUMV 47321 (2), 47322 (1); UMMZ 95194 (1), 144697 (3), 175103 (5), 175121 (1); UR 1797 (3), 2294 (6), 2321 (12), 2337 (3), 2350 (1); USNM 199557 (3); VPI 954 (2), 963 (1), 981 (1), 1005-06 (1, 2), 1014 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:58-59 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina notogramma (Raney & Hubbs 1948), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Lee et al. 1980:730 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:39 [ref. 22189], Stauffer et al. 1995:329 [ref. 23376], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:516 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Percina notogramma (Raney & Hubbs 1948). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: James River system, Virginia and West Virginia, U.S.A.[subspecies montuosa]. Habitat: freshwater.

moorei, Etheostoma (Nothonotus) Raney [E. C.] & Suttkus [R. D.] 1964:130, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1964 (no. 1); ref. 3292] 2.5 miles southwest of Woodrow, Devils Fork of the Little Red River, Cleburne County, Arkansas, U.S.A. Holotype: CUMV 42883. Paratypes: CUMV 41966 (15); KU 6652 (5); TU 22697 (41), 26227 (22), 26249 (21); UMMZ 181397 (15), 188357 (108). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:126-127 [ref. 20861], Collette & Knapp 1967:32-33 [ref. 20211], Bart & Taylor 1993:60 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma moorei Raney & Suttkus 1964 -- (Lee et al. 1980:669 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:104 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:427 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:304 [ref. 18983], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Mitchell et al. 2002:129 [ref. 26184], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:563 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma moorei Raney & Suttkus 1964. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Little Red River system, Arkansas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

mutatum, Boleosoma Vaillant [L. L.] 1873:88 [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 9 (pt 1, Mémoire); ref. 4492] Unneeded replacement name for Boleosoma maculatum Agassiz 1850; for types see Boleosoma maculatum. •Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820 -- (Page 1983:84 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nasutus, Hadropterus Bailey [R. M.] 1941:3, Pl. 1 (figs. 1, 3) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 440; ref. 13229] Middle Fork, Little Red River, near bridge on U.S. highway 65, 1.5 mile southeast of Leslie, Searcy County, Arkansas, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 132898. Paratypes: USNM 198146 [ex ISC 2] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:44 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina nasuta (Bailey 1941) -- (Lee et al. 1980:729 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:34 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:452 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:286 [ref. 18983], Turner et al. 1996:2023 [ref. 25532], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:388 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:38 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:527 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina nasuta (Bailey 1941). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

nebra, Etheostoma Near [T. J.] & Thomas [M. R.] 2015:131, Figs. 2, 3A-B, 4A-C, 5 [Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 34008] Flat Lick Creek, immediately below confluence with Big Spring Branch, 37.15689'N, 84.4789'E, Pulaski Co., Kentucky. Holotype: YPM ICH 27033. Paratypes: INHS, UMMZ, UF, UPM. Plus additional non-type specimens. •Valid as Etheostoma nebra Near & Thomas 2015. Current status: Valid as Etheostoma nebra Near & Thomas 2015. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

nebulosa, Perca (Percina) Haldeman [S. S.] 1842:330 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 2029] Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 22652. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:56-57 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:138 [ref. 13621]. Preoccupied by Perca nebulosa Rafinesque 1814. •Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818) -- (Page 1983:50 [ref. 22189]). •In the synonymy of Percina bimaculata Haldeman 1844 -- (Near 2008:7 [ref. 29672]). Current status: Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

neopterum, Etheostoma (Catonotus) Howell [W. M.] & Dingerkus [G.] 1978:14, Figs. 1a-b, 2a, c [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 3; ref. 8925] Little Butler Creek, Shoal Creek system, Wayne County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 217529. Paratypes: AMNH 36545-54 (111, 4, 4, 8, 3, 30, 1, 2, 1, 2); CUMV 64511 (21), 64513 (9), 64515 (7), 65049 (1); TU 102024 (7); UAIC 5342.01 (5), 5344.01 (3), 5343.01 (4); UMMZ 200767 (4); USNM 217530 (1); UT 91.1389 (2), 91.1067 (2). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:60 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma neopterum Howell & Dingerkus 1978 -- (Lee et al. 1980:670 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:147 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:319 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:119 [ref. 23239], Page et al. 1992:624 [ref. 19865], Etnier & Starnes 1993:506 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:647 [ref. 25836], Ceas & Burr 2002:214 [ref. 26533], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:544 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:589 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma neopterum Howell & Dingerkus 1978. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

nerensis, Zingel streber Bănărescu [P. M.] & Nalbant [T. T.] 1979:353 [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 9007] Nere River at Sasca Montana, Romania. Holotype: ISBB 2534. Paratypes: (40) BMNH 1983.11.30.13 (1); FMNH 85790 (1); MNHN 1962-1289 (2); USNM 214164 (5), 273405 (2); ZMH 5639 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:85 [ref. 12367], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:417 [ref. 21161]. •Synonym of Zingel streber (Siebold 1863) -- (Kottelat 1997:174 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Zingel streber (Siebold 1863). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nevisense, Etheostoma Cope [E. D.] 1870:261 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11 (for 7 Jan. 1870); ref. 14127] Falls of Neuse River, 8 miles east of Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:33 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:139 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Percina peltata (Stauffer 1864), but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1980:736 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:40 [ref. 22189], Stauffer et al. 1995:332 [ref. 23376]). •Valid as Percina nevisense (Cope 1870) -- (Goodin et al. 1998:186 [ref. 26749], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:517 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina nevisense (Cope 1870). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Virginia and North Carolina, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

newmanii, Hyostoma Agassiz [L.] 1854:305 [11] [American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 2) v. 17; ref. 69] Near Huntsville, Alabama, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1865. Paralectotypes: MCZ 24602 [ex USNM 1865 and MCZ 237] (5), UMMZ 86764 [ex MCZ 24602] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:53 [ref. 20211]. On p. 11 of separate. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:53 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819 -- (Boschung & Mayden 2004:510 [ref. 27995]). •Synonym of Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819, but a valid subspecies newmanii -- (Page 1983:69 [ref. 22189] as newmannii, Robison & Buchanan 1988:411 [ref. 23393], Stauffer et al. 1995:295 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:218 [ref. 23394], Ross et al. 2001:460 [ref. 25978], Scharpf 2008:22 [ref. 30399], Piller & Bart 2017:574 [ref. 35619]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nianguae, Etheostoma (Hadropterus) Gilbert [C. H.] & Meek [S. E.] in Gilbert 1887:52 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] Niangua River near Marshfield, Missouri, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36214. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 5299 [? ex Univ. Cincinnati] (1), USNM 38319 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:33 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1896:1043 [ref. 2443]. •Valid as Etheostoma nianguae Gilbert & Meek 1887 -- (Lee et al. 1980:671 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:59 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:308 [ref. 18983], Mattingly & Galat 2002:573 [ref. 26227], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:569 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma nianguae Gilbert & Meek 1887. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Missouri, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

nigra, Etheostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1820:169 [Western Revue and Miscellaneous Magazine: a monthly publ., devoted to literature and science, Lexington, KY v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 7309] Green River, Kentucky, U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:34 [ref. 20211]. Described as belonging to subgenus Aplesion, but listed as above. Also in Rafinesque 1820:37 [ref. 3592]. •Valid as Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820 -- (Lee et al. 1980:672 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:84 [ref. 22189], Chapleau & Pageau 1985 [ref. 14225], Smith 1986:330 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:429 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:144 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:291 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:119 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:510 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:846 [ref. 21581], Baxter & Stone 1995:246 [ref. 23374], Stauffer et al. 1995:305 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:226 [ref. 23394], Chereshnev 1996:606 [ref. 24659], Mettee et al. 1996:651 [ref. 25836], Scott & Crossman 1998:793 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:382 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:45 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:478 [ref. 25978], Bailey et al. 2004:196 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:362 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:547 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:537 [ref. 31215] with 2 subspecies, Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern Canada and eastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrescens, Perca fluviatilis var. Heckel [J. J.] 1839:155 [Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 2079] Not available, no distinguishing features; from Marizza R. near Philippoli in Rumelia, s. Bulgaria. •In the synonymy of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae.

nigripinne, Etheostoma Braasch [M. E.] & Mayden [R. L.] 1985:28, Figs. 2e, 3e, 10 (bottom), 11 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas No. 119; ref. 6874] Pikes Peak Branch, 1.6 kilometers west of Tennessee Route 20 bridge, Decatur County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: KU 20000. Paratypes: INHS 68092 (7); KU 20893-95 (7, 2, 7); SIUC 9718 (3); TU 139110 (3); UAIC [ = ALA] 7712.01 (2); UMMZ 212481 (7); USNM 268083 (7); UT 91.2768 (7); plus non-type material. Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:60 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:281-282 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma nigripinne Braasch & Mayden 1985 -- (Page & Burr 1991:319 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:119 [ref. 23239], Page et al. 1992:634 [ref. 19865], Etnier & Starnes 1993:508 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:649 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:476 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:546 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:588 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma nigripinne Braasch & Mayden 1985. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: East-central U.S.A.: Alabama, Tennessee and Mississippi. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrofasciatus, Hadropterus Agassiz [L.] 1854:305 [11] [American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 2) v. 17; ref. 69] Near Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A. Lectotype: MCZ 24603 [ex USNM 1197]. Paralectotypes: MCZ 43094 [ex MCZ 24603, ex MCZ 122] (now 11), UMMZ 86300 (3); USNM 1197 (2 or 4), USNM 86300 [ex MCZ 24603] (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:44 [ref. 20211]. On p. 11 of separate. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:44 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz 1854) -- (Lee et al. 1980:730 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:33 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:281 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:123 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:579 [ref. 22809], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Mettee et al. 1996:711 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:508 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:588 [ref. 27995], Williams et al. 2007:11 [ref. 29253], Freeman et al. 2008:25 [ref. 29946], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:520 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:336 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

nigropunctata, Perca Rafinesque [C. S.] 1820:371 [Western Revue and Miscellaneous Magazine: a monthly publ., devoted to literature and science, Lexington, KY v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 7308] Lower Ohio River, U.S.A. Also in Rafinesque 1820:23 [ref. 3592]. Based on a Audubon drawing. Mythical; see Markle 1997:446 [ref. 23370]. Percidae.

notata, Perca Rafinesque [C. S.] 1818:205 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 13337] Lake Erie, North America. No types known. •Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814) -- (Smith 1986:338 [ref. 22186], La Rivers 1994:538 [ref. 23389], Scott & Crossman 1998:761 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

notata, Perca Bosc [L. A. G.] in Lacepède 1802:717 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Not available, name only; from Carolinas, U.S.A. Percidae.

notatum, Etheostoma Agassiz [L.] 1850:299 [Lake Superior; ref. 66] Not available, no distinguishing features provided. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

notiale, Etheostoma caeruleum Knapp [L. W.] 1964 Appeared in an unpublished thesis, unavailable. •Sometimes cited as a valid subspecies -- (e.g., Scott & Crossman 1998:781 [ref. 24570]). •In the synonymy of Etheostoma caeruleum Storer 1845. Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma caeruleum Storer 1845. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

notogrammus, Hadropterus Raney [E. C.] & Hubbs [C. L.] 1948:1, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2), 2 (figs. 1-2) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 512; ref. 11764] Eastern tributary of Potomac River, Patuxent, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1157. Paralectotypes: ?MCZ 24525 [ex USNM 1303] (2), ?MCZ 24546 [ex USNM 1157] (2), USNM 197773 [ex USNM 1157] (1). UMMZ specimens are not types. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:45 [ref. 20211] as a replacement name. Described as a new species, but in their abstract the authors state, "The cotypes of Hadropterus maculatus (Girard, 1859b:100), in the United States National Museum (No. 1157), upon re-examination prove to be the species herein described as new. The name, however, is preoccupied ..." Regarded as a replacement name for Hadropterus maculatus Girard 1859, preoccupied by Etheostoma maculata Kirtland 1841 when both are in Etheostoma; types same as for H. maculatus. •Valid as Percina notogramma (Raney & Hubbs 1948) -- (Hogarth & Woolcott 1966 [ref. 9035] with subspecies, Lee et al. 1980:731 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:38 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:278 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:795 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:329 [ref. 23376], Goodin et al. 1998:192 [ref. 26749], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:515 [ref. 31215] with 2 subspecies, Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina notogramma (Raney & Hubbs 1948). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

nuchale, Etheostoma Howell [W. M.] & Caldwell [R. D.] 1965:101, Fig. 1 [Tulane Studies in Zoology v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 9036] Glen Spring at Bessemer along county highway 20, Jefferson County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 187523. Paratypes: TU 34591 (20); UAIC 1227 (9); UMMZ 187524 (1, allotype) 187525 (20); ?187476 (6); USNM 231720 [ex 259800-F1] (20). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:127 [ref. 20861], Collette & Knapp 1967:34 [ref. 20211], Bart & Taylor 1993:60 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma nuchale Howell & Caldwell 1965 -- (Lee et al. 1980:673 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:129 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:316 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:120 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:653 [ref. 25836], Fuller et al. 1999:382 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:548 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:583 [ref. 31215], Suttkus et al. 2012:14 [ref. 12288], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma nuchale Howell & Caldwell 1965. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

obama, Etheostoma Mayden [R. L.] & Layman [S. R.] in Layman & Mayden 2012:20, Fig. 3, 10 [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bull. 30; ref. 32285] Duck River below dam at TN Hwy 64/US Hwy 231 in Shelbyville, Bedford County, Tennessee, USA. Holotype: UAIC 10337.29. Paratypes: INHS, UAIC, NLU, SIUC, TU, UF, UMMZ, USNM, UT. •Valid as Etheostoma obama Mayden & Layman 2012. Current status: Valid as Etheostoma obama Mayden & Layman 2012. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

obeyense, Etheostoma Kirsch [P. H.] 1892:292, Fig. [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 10 (art. 9) [1890]; ref. 14512] Tributary of Cumberland River, Clinton County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 45565. Paralectotypes: (orig. 210 syntypes) BMNH 1892.12.20.136-139 (4), 1892.12.30.140 (1); FMNH 6867 (36); CAS-SU 1918 (38), 5116 (41); UMMZ 61558 (42); USNM 46207 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:34 [ref. 20211], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:35 [ref. 12367]. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1896:1092 [ref. 2443]. •Valid as Etheostoma obeyense Kirsch 1892 -- (Lee et al. 1980:674 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:150 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:321 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:512 [ref. 22809], Page et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27127], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:595 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:138 [ref. 32708], Near & Thomas 2015:136 [ref. 34008]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma obeyense Kirsch 1892. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

occidentale, Etheostoma Powers [S. L.] & Mayden [R. L.] 2007:15, Figs. 3E, 4E, 5E [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 25; ref. 29367] Whippoorwill Creek in Ferguson at KY highway 1151, Logan County, Kentucky (36°46'45"N, 86°58'36"W). Holotype: UAIC 13625.05. Paratypes: INHS 96335 (2); SIUC 48976 (2); TU 195083 (2); UAIC 13625.04 (8); USNM 372745 (2); UT 91.6382 (2). •Valid as Etheostoma occidentale Powers & Mayden 2007 -- (Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:553 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). •Synonym of Etheostoma atripinne (Jordan 1877) -- (Harrington & Near 2012:64 [ref. 31699]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma occidentale Powers & Mayden 2007. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

okaloosae, Villora Fowler [H. W.] 1941:242, Fig. 12 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92 (for 1940); ref. 13235] Little Rocky Creek, 7 miles northeast of Niceville, route 218 [now Fla. 285], Okaloosa County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69159. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:73 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:139 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Etheostoma okaloosae (Fowler 1941) -- (Collette & Yerger 1962:223 [ref. 21930], Lee et al. 1980:675 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:113 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:309 [ref. 18983], Burkhead et al. 1992 [ref. 20287], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:570 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:322 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma okaloosae (Fowler 1941). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Florida, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

oligoporus, Hololepis thermophilus Bailey [J. R.] 1951:193, Pls. 6(9-18), 7(11-19), 8(5-11) [Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society v. 67 (no. 2); ref. 12880] Jones Lake, Bladen County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 161969. Paratypes: DU uncat. (15); UMMZ 161965-68 (2, 25, 5, 44), 161970-75 (2, 3, 38, 2, 46, 2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:52 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854) -- (Collette 1962:151 [ref. 5865], Page 1983:156 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

olivaceum, Etheostoma Braasch [M. E.] & Page [L. M.] 1979:2, Figs. 1, 2a-b [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas No. 78; ref. 8845] Rock Springs Branch at Rock Springs Church, 2 kilometers north of Buffalo Valley, 36°10'N, 85°47'W, Putnam County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 75734. Paratypes: INHS 75735 (10), 75576 (8); TU 101391 (6); NLU 35160 (6); USNM 216895 (6); UAIC 5341.01 (6); UT 91.1332 (6); UMMZ 200208 (6). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:60 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:282 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma olivaceum Braasch & Page 1979 -- (Lee et al. 1980:676 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:146 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:317 [ref. 18983], Page et al. 1992:636 [ref. 19865], Etnier & Starnes 1993:514 [ref. 22809], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:584 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma olivaceum Braasch & Page 1979. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

olmstedi, Etheostoma Storer [D. H.] 1842:61, Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 4 (no. 1) (art. 7); ref. 18833] Connecticut River at Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 24781 [ex MCZ 151] (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:35 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Ehteostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820 -- (Ross et al. 2001:480 [ref. 25978]). •Valid as Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842 -- (Lee et al. 1980:677 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:85 [ref. 22189], Chapleau & Pageau 1985 [ref. 14225], Smith 1986:331 [ref. 22186], McAllister 1990:144 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:292 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:849 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:306 [ref. 23376], Murdy et al. 1997:220 [ref. 23144], Fuller et al. 1999:383 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:539 [ref. 31215] with 3 subspecies, Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:323 [ref. 35886] with 3 subspecies). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Quebec and east-central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

oophylax, Etheostoma Ceas [P. A.] & Page [L. M.] in Page et al. 1992:629, Fig. 2J [Copeia 1992 (no. 3); ref. 19865] Little Bacon Creek (tributary of Big Sandy River), 3.2 kilometers northeast of Clarksburg, Carroll County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 59110. Paratypes: INHS 61820 (6), SIUC 18065 (3), UAIC 9999.01 (3), UMMZ 217891 (3), USNM 313755 (3), UT 91.3847 (3). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:282 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma oophylax Ceas & Page 1992 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:590 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma oophylax Ceas & Page 1992. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Kentucky, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

oreium, Etheostoma caeruleum Knapp [L. W.] 1964 Appeared in an unpublished thesis, unavailable. •Sometimes cited as a valid subspecies -- (e.g., Scott & Crossman 1998:781 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma caeruleum Storer 1845. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

orientale, Etheostoma Powers [S. L.] & Mayden [R. L.] 2007:16, Figs. 3E, 4E, 5E [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 25; ref. 29367] West Fork of the Obey River, 14 kilometers east of Livingston at TN highway 52, Overton County, Tennessee (36°23'47"N, 85°10'26"W). Holotype: UAIC 13630.14. Paratypes: INHS 96336 (2), SIUC 48977 (2), TU 195084 (2), UAIC 13630 (11), USNM 372746 (2), UT 91.6383 (2). •Valid as Etheostoma orientale Powers & Mayden 2007 -- (Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:554 [ref. 31215]). •Synonym of Etheostoma atripinne (Jordan 1877) -- (Harrington & Near 2012:64 [ref. 31699]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma orientale Powers & Mayden 2007. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tributaries to the Cumberland River, Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

osburni, Poecilichthys Hubbs [C. L.] & Trautman [M. B.] 1932:34, Fig. 2 [Ohio Journal of Science v. 32 (no. 1); ref. 11675] Stony Creek, tributary of Greenbrier River, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 92409. Paratypes: OSM 12946 (4); UMMZ 92410 (5), 95370 (7); USNM 39542 (1), 117588 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:64 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma osburni (Hubbs & Trautman 1932) -- (Lee et al. 1980:678 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:64 [ref. 22189], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:384 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:297 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:827 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:309 [ref. 23376], Switzer & Wood 2002:450 [ref. 26023], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:547 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma osburni (Hubbs & Trautman 1932). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: West Virginia and Virginia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

ouachitae, Etheostoma (Hadropterus) Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] in Gilbert 1887:49 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] Saline River, tributary of the Wachita River, at Benton, Saline County, Arkansas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36449. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 552 (3), UMMZ 187509 [ex IU] (1), USNM 211261 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73-74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:35 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype isolated at USNM but perhaps not formally designated; not designated here. •Valid as Percina ouachitae (Jordan & Gilbert 1887) -- (Etnier 1976:472 [ref. 7327], Lee et al. 1980:732 [ref. 22416], Robison & Buchanan 1988:454 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:283 [ref. 18983]). •Possibly the same as Percina vigil (Hay 1882) -- (Page 1983:47 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Percina vigil (Hay 1882) -- (Suttkus 1985:227 [ref. 22487], Ross et al. 2001:518 [ref. 25978]). Current status: Synonym of Percina vigil (Hay 1882). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

oxyrhynchus, Hadropterus Hubbs [C. L.] & Raney [E. C.] 1939:3, Pl. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 396; ref. 10906] Cheat River at Cheat Bridge, Randolph County, West Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 118422. Paratypes: UMMZ 118482 (4), 119268 (7), 119246 (2); USNM 56862 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:45 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina oxyrhyncha (Hubbs & Raney 1939) -- (Lee et al. 1980:733 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:34 [ref. 22189]). •Valid as Percina oxyrhynchus (Hubbs & Raney 1939) -- (Page & Burr 1991:285 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:779 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:330 [ref. 23376], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:526 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina oxyrhynchus (Hubbs & Raney 1939). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Pennsylvania to Kentucky and south to North Carolina, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

ozarcana, Percina evides Denoncourt [R. F.] 1969:1409 [Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 7734] Appeared in Dissertation Abstracts; regarded as unavailable. From Missouri and Arkansas, U.S.A. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

ozarcanum, Boleosoma olmstedi Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan 1885:866 [78] [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 13 (1885); ref. 2385] Apparently not available, no description; from Ozark region, U.S.A. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

pagei, Etheostoma Meek [S. E.] 1894:957 [American Naturalist v. 28 (no. 335); ref. 14556] Spring Branch, tributary of Neosho River at U.S. Fish Hatchery, Neosho, Missouri, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 45566. Paralectotypes: USNM 197969 [ex USNM 45566] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:35 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 175, p. 3270 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable; lectotype also selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:35 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma cragini Gilbert 1885 -- (Page 1983:120 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma cragini Gilbert 1885. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pallasii, Schilus Krynicki [J.] 1832:443, Pl. 25 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 2; ref. 5624] Dnieper and Donets rivers, Ukraine. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Lucioperca volgensis (Gemlin 1789) -- (Berg 1949:1028 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Stizostedion volgensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (authors). •Synonym of Sander volgensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Sander volgensis (Gmelin 1789). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pallididorsum, Etheostoma Distler [D. A.] & Metcalf [A. L.] 1962:556, Figs. 1A-E [Copeia 1962 (no. 3); ref. 5881] 8.5 miles west of Black Springs, Caddo River, Montgomery County, Arkansas, U.S.A. Holotype: KU 7144. Paratypes: CUMV 44004 [ex KU] (10); KU 6158 (18), 6921 (now 21), 6922 (8); UMMZ [publ. as 178997] (10); USNM 196547 (10). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:35-36 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma pallididorsum Distler & Metcalf 1962 -- (Lee et al. 1980:679 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:121 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:431 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:310 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:134 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399], Mayden 2010:716 [ref. 31085], Page & Burr 2011:572 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma pallididorsum Distler & Metcalf 1962. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Arkansas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

palmaris, Hadropterus Bailey [R. M.] 1940:525, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 30 (no. 12); ref. 11642] Etowah River, tributary of Coosa River, just above bridge on US highway 19, 4 miles southwest of Dahlonega, Lumpkin County, Georgia, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 126179. Paratypes: UMMZ 11132 (1, 22), 111234 (4, now 0), 126180 (2); USNM 117881 (2), 198145 [ex ISC 1] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:45-46 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina palmaris (Bailey 1940) -- (Lee et al. 1980:734 [ref. 22416], Page & Burr 1991:284 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:124 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:580 [ref. 22809], Page 1983:41 [ref. 22189], Mettee et al. 1996:713 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:589 [ref. 27995], Williams et al. 2007:11 [ref. 29253], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:524 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Percina palmaris (Bailey 1940). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia. Habitat: freshwater.

paludosus, Poecilichthys radiosus Moore [G. A.] & Rigney [C. C.] 1952:11, Pl. 2 (figs. 3-4) [Copeia 1952 (no. 1); ref. 12791] Bois d'Arc Creek, tributary of Clear Boggy Creek, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 161368. Paratypes: MCZ 37205 (41); OAM 1703 (2); UMMZ 161369 (58); UOMZ 26156-57 (19, 36); USNM 153533 (38), 198109 [ex Tulsa Univ.] (27). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:65-66 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma radiosum (Hubbs & Black 1941) -- (Page 1983:125 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Etheostoma radiosum (Hubbs & Black 1941) but a valid subspecies -- (Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:576 [ref. 31215]) Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma radiosum (Hubbs & Black 1941). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Oklahoma, U.S.A. [subspecies paludosus]. Habitat: freshwater.

palustris, Poecilichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1884:209 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 424); ref. 14382] Switz City Swamp, Greene County, Indiana, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 34983. Paralectotypes: (1, not found). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:64-65 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Hubbs & Cannon 1935:44 [ref. 2255]. •Synonym of Etheostoma gracile (Girard 1859) -- (Collette 1962:133 [ref. 5865], Page 1983:154 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma gracile (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pantherinus, Hadropterus Moore [G. A.] & Reeves [J. D.] 1955:90, Pl. 1 [Copeia 1955 (no. 2); ref. 12463] Little River, west of Pickens, Pushmataha County, Oklahoma, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 167120. Paratypes: MCZ 38491 (1); Oklahoma Agri. & Mechan. College 2559 (1) and 4948 (1); UMMZ 167121 (6), 167122 (3), 81185 (1); USNM 198108 [ex Tulsa Univ. coll.] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:46 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina pantherina (Moore & Reeves 1955) -- (Lee et al. 1980:735 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:37 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:456 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:278 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:390 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:515 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina pantherina (Moore & Reeves 1955). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Red River drainage, Arkansas and Oklahoma, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

parvigemma, Etheostoma stigmaeum Howell [W. M.] 1968:812 [Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 7895] Appeared in Dissertation Abstracts; publication regarded as unavailable. From Collins & Rocky rivers, Tennessee. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

parvipinne, Etheostoma (Etheostoma) Gilbert [C. H.] & Swain [W.] in Gilbert 1887:59 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] Tributary to Black Warrior River at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 36716. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:36 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma parvipinne Gilbert & Swain 1887 -- (Lee et al. 1980:680 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:109 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:432 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:311 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:120 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:515 [ref. 22809], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Mettee et al. 1996:655 [ref. 25836], Bart & Taylor 1999:33 [ref. 24150], Ross et al. 2001:480 [ref. 25978], Winston 2002:187 [ref. 26142], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:364 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:549 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:573 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:325 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma parvipinne Gilbert & Swain 1887. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern and south-central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

pellucidus, Pleurolepis Putnam [F. W.] 1863:5 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 3567] Black River, below falls at Elyria, Ohio, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1311. Paralectotypes: MCZ 24616 [ex USNM 1311] (9), 24626 (4); SMNS 1243 (1); UMMZ 86479 (1), 86489 [ex USNM 1311 and MCZ 270] (3); USNM 1289 (1), 1295 (1), 164165 [ex USNM 1311 and MCZ 270] (20). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:60 [ref. 20211], Fricke 1995:13 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:53 [ref. 29864]. Lectotype selected by Linder 1959:182 [ref. 20213]. •Valid as Etheostoma pellucidum (Putnam 1863) -- (Page & Burr 1991:290 [ref. 18983], Stauffer et al. 1995:309 [ref. 23376]). •Valid as Ammocrypta pellucida (Putnam 1863) [authorship sometimes as Agassiz] -- (Lee et al. 1980:620 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:54 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:318 [ref. 22186], McAllister 1990:143 [ref. 14674], Scott & Crossman 1998:775 [ref. 24570], Bailey et al. 2004:189 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:19 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:535 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Ammocrypta pellucida (Putnam 1863). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Quebec, Canada and northeastern and north-central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

peltatum, Etheostoma Stauffer [J. R., Jr.] in Cope 1864:233 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 906] Conestoga Creek, near Lancaster, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 22627. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:36 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:139 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Percina peltata (Stauffer 1864) -- (Hogarth & Woolcott 1966 [ref. 9035], Lee et al. 1980:736 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:39 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:344 [ref. 22186], Page & Burr 1991:279 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:800 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:332 [ref. 23376], Goodin et al. 1998:186 [ref. 26749], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:516 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina peltata (Stauffer 1864). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: New York to Virginia, eastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

pepinus, Lucioperca Estes [D. C.] in Hallock 1877:322 [Sportsman's Gazetteer; ref. 17463] Lake Pepin, Minnesota, U.S.A. No types known. Description minimal but regarded as available. Percidae: Luciopercinae.

percnurum, Etheostoma Jenkins [R. E.] in Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:877, Figs. 316-317 [Freshwater fishes of Virginia.; ref. 21581] Copper Creek just below mouth of Obeys Creek, Scott County, Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 220237. Paratypes: INHS 93045 [ex USNM 220238] (10), UMMZ 220238 (55, now 30). •Valid as Etheostoma percnurum Jenkins 1994 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Blanton & Jenkins 2008:8 [ref. 29947] Blanton & Schuster 2008:844 [ref. 29948], Scharpf 2008:29 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:593 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma percnurum Jenkins 1994. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Virginia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

perlongum, Boleosoma Hubbs [C. L.] & Raney [E. C.] 1946:17, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 65; ref. 13128] North shore of Lake Waccamaw, Columbus County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 138475. Paratypes: UMMZ 138476 (16). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:19 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma perlongum (Hubbs & Raney 1946) -- (Lee et al. 1980:681 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:88 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:292 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399], McCarteny & Barreto 2010:103 [ref. 30737], Page & Burr 2011:540 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma perlongum (Hubbs & Raney 1946). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Lake Waccamaw, southeastern North Carolina, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

phlox, Boleosoma Cope [E. D.] 1880:30 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 17; ref. 14285] Trinity River near Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 20447. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:19 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:139 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854) -- (Page 1983:1082 [ref. 29994]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pholidotum, Etheostoma blennioides Miller [R. V.] 1968:26, Fig. 5 [Copeia 1968 (no. 1); ref. 20248] Bean Creek, tributary of Middle Fork River, Vermilion County, Illinois, U.S.A. Holotype: CUMV 45466. Paratypes: CUMV 42251 (14), USNM 197701 (6). Plus non-type material. •Synonym of Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819 -- (Smith 1986:321 [ref. 22186]). •Synonym of Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Page 1983:69 [ref. 22189], Stauffer et al. 1995:295 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:219 [ref. 23394], Scott & Crossman 1998:778 [ref. 24570], Ross et al. 2001:460 [ref. 25978], Scharpf 2008:22 [ref. 30399]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque 1819. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

phoxocephalum, Etheostoma Nelson [E. W.] 1876:35 [Bulletin of the Illinois Museum of Natural History v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 3154] Illinois River and tributaries, U.S.A. Syntypes: ?UMMZ 187504 [ex IU 499 and IU 4702] (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:36 [ref. 20211], Sabaj et al. 1997:290 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Percina phoxocephala (Nelson 1876) -- (Lee et al. 1980:737 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:35 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:457 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:285 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:124 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:582 [ref. 22809], Stauffer et al. 1995:333 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:239 [ref. 23394], Turner et al. 1996:2023 [ref. 25532], Mettee et al. 1996:715 [ref. 25836], Lyons et al. 2000:46 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:510 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:392 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:591 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:527 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Percina phoxocephala (Nelson 1876). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: East-central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

phragmiteti, Perca fluviatilis morpha Berg [L. S.] 1933:635 [Les poissons des eaux douces de l'U.R.S.S. Part 2; ref. 279] Original not seen. Not available, infrasubspecific. Percidae: Percinae.

phytophilum, Etheostoma Bart [H. L., Jr.] & Taylor [M. S.] 1999:27, Figs. 2a-b [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 31 (no. 1); ref. 24150] Spring run tributary to tributary to Turkey Creek along Alabama highway 79, Pinson, Jefferson County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 187503. Paratypes: ANSP 177501 (1); AUM 18747 (1), 21148 (1), 21155 (2), 27017 (orig. 17, now 5); INHS 48900 (2); TU 60078 (1), 176230 (3); UF 110739 (2); UAIC 1295.01 (1), 11064.01 (2); UMMZ 234787 (2); USNM 351328 (2). •Valid as Etheostoma phytophilum Bart & Taylor 1999 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:551 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:574 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma phytophilum Bart & Taylor 1999. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

pictum, Nanostoma Putnam [F. W.] in Jordan 1877:7 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum [v. 1] No. 10; ref. 2374] Not available, not used in a valid way. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

planasaxatile, Etheostoma Powers [S. L.] & Mayden [R. L.] 2007:14, Figs. 3D, 4D, 5D [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 25; ref. 29367] Flat Creek, 15 kilometers east-northeast of Columbia at U.S. highway 412, Maury County, Tennessee (35°38'21"N, 86°51'13"W). Holotype: UAIC 13591.11. Paratypes: INHS 96334 (2); SIUC 48975 (2); TU 195082 (2); UAIC 13591.10 (26); USNM 372744 (2); UT 91.6381 (2). •Valid as Etheostoma planasaxatile Powers & Mayden 2007 -- (Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:553 [ref. 31215], Harrington & Near 2012:64 [ref. 31699], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma planasaxatile Powers & Mayden 2007. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Duck River system, Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

podostemone, Etheostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Jenkins [O. P.] in Jordan 1889:359, Pl. 45 (fig. 11) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 723); ref. 10478] Roanoke River at Allegheny Springs, Virginia, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 39863. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1889.10.30.45 [ex USFC] (1); CAS 22857 [ex IU 7866] (12, missing); CAS-SU 622 (8); USNM 40305 (11), 125477 (3), 197635 [ex USNM 39863] (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:36 [ref. 20211] . Second author is O. P. Jenkins. Lectotype selected by : Collette & Knapp 1967:36 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma podostemone Jordan & Jenkins 1889 -- (Lee et al. 1980:682 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:89 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:293 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:844 [ref. 21581], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:541 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma podostemone Jordan & Jenkins 1889. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Virginia and North Carolina, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

post, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:330, 357 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Regarded as an unneeded new name for Perca cernua Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernus (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pottsii, Aplesion Girard [C. F.] 1859:102 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] Chihuahua River [Río Chuviscar at Chihuahua], northern Mexico. Holotype (unique): MCZ 1179 [ex USNM 1179]. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:12 [ref. 20211]. Spelled potsii (misprint); named for Mr. John Potts as cited in text so name is corrected to pottsii. •Valid as Etheostoma pottsi or pottsii [correct] (Girard 1859) -- (Smith et al. 1984:395 [ref. 22691], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:64 [ref. 22290], Norris & Minckley 1997:174 [ref. 23278], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807] as pottsii, Miller 2006:337 [ref. 28615] as pottsii, Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399] as pottsii, Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma pottsii (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Atlantic and Pacific Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

proeliaris, Microperca Hay [O. P.] 1881:496 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 179); ref. 2053] Tributary of Tuscumbia River at Corinth, Alcorn County, Mississippi, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 27418. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:54 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma proeliare (Hay 1881) -- (Lee et al. 1980:683 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:157 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:433 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:323 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:120 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:516 [ref. 22809], Taylor et al. 1994:75 [ref. 21896], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Mettee et al. 1996:657 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:483 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:366 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:552 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:598 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:327 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma proeliare (Hay 1881). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South-central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

pseudovulatum, Etheostoma Page [L. M.] & Ceas [P. A.] in Page et al. 1992:628, Fig. 1j-k, 2H [Copeia 1992 (no. 3); ref. 19865] Mill Creek, 1.6 kilometers south of Wrigley at highway 100 bridge, Hickman County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 58630. Paratypes: INHS 62825 (35), SIUC 18064 (3), UAIC 9997.01 (3), UMMZ 217890 [ex INHS 58452] (3), USNM 313757 (3), UT 91.2580 (5), plus non-type material. Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:282 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma pseudovulatum Page & Ceas 1992 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:590 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma pseudovulatum Page & Ceas 1992. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

psittacus, Perca Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:86 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Percidae.

pulchellus, Oligocephalus Girard [C. F.] 1859:102 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] A tributary of Gypsum Creek, emptying itself into Canadian River, Oklahoma, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MCZ 32950 [ex USNM 1334]. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:56 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854), but a valid subspecies pulchellum (Girard 1859) -- (Lee et al. 1980:695 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:136 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:439 [ref. 23393], Baxter & Stone 1995:248 [ref. 23374], Cross & Collins 1995:230 [ref. 23394], Ceas & Burr 2002:213 [ref. 26533], Scharpf 2008:32 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:578 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Texas [subspecies pulchellum]. Habitat: freshwater.

punctulata, Microperca Putnam [F. W.] 1863:4 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 3567] Michigan; Wisconsin; Illinois; Alabama, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 24566 [ex USNM 1377, MCZ 95] (2), 24570 [ex USNM 1283, MCZ 93] (9), 24582 [ex USNM 1294, MCZ 96] (1), 24690 [ex USNM 1288, MCZ 94] (11); SMNS 1232 (2); UMMZ 86316 [ex USNM 1288] (3, poor condition), 86457 [ex USNM 1283] (3); USNM 1276 (1, not found), 1283 (20, now 19), 1288 (28), 1377 (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:54 [ref. 20211], Fricke 1995:13 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:53 [ref. 29864]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Etheostoma by Poecilichthys punctulatus Agassizi 1854; replaced by Etheostoma microperca Jordan & Gilbert 1888. •Synonym of Etheostoma microperca Jordan & Gilbert 1888 -- (Page 1983:158 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma microperca Jordan & Gilbert 1888. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

punctulatus, Poecilichthys Agassiz [L.] 1854:304 [10] [American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 2) v. 17; ref. 69] Osage River, Missouri, U.S.A. Lectotype: MCZ 39. Paralectotypes: MCZ 43091 [ex MCZ 39] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:65 [ref. 20211]. On p. 10 of separate. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:65 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma punctulatum (Agassiz 1854) -- (Lee et al. 1980:684 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:117 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:435 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:309 [ref. 18983], Cross & Collins 1995:227 [ref. 23394], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:368 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399], Mayden 2010:716, 718 [ref. 31085], Page & Burr 2011:571 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma punctulatum (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Missouri and Arkansas (U.S.A.). Habitat: freshwater.

putnami, Cottogaster Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:498 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 16; ref. 2476] Lake Champlain, New York, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1314. Paralectotypes: USNM 198000 [ex USNM 1314 + 1193] (27). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:21-22 [ref. 20211]. Based on literature and specimens. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:21 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina copelandi (Jordan 1877) -- (Page 1983:44 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:341 [ref. 22186], Suttkus et al. 1994:6 [ref. 21916]). Current status: Synonym of Percina copelandi (Jordan 1877). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pyrrhogaster, Etheostoma Bailey [R. M.] & Etnier [D. A.] 1988:31, Pl. 1 (upper) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 175; ref. 6873] Clear Creek, tributary to North Fork Obion River, 5.1 air kilometers southwest of Puryear, Henry County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 213924. Paratypes: AUM; AMNH 55779 (3); CAS 56327 (3); INHS 68217 (3); KU; LACM 43797-1 (1); NLU 56290 (3); ROM; UAIC 7740.01 (4); SIUC; TU 139772 (4); UF 42062 (3); UMMZ 213925 (4), plus more; UOMZ; USNM 270857 (4); UT 91.705 (5), 91.2324 (9), 91.2757 (8). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:60 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:282 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma pyrrhogaster Bailey & Etnier 1988 -- (Carney & Burr 1989 [ref. 13825], Page & Burr 1991:301 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:518 [ref. 22809], Powers & Mayden 2003:576 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Powers & Warren 2009:523 [ref. 30383], Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:555 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552], Kozal et al. 2017:280 [ref. 35621]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma pyrrhogaster Bailey & Etnier 1988. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Obion River drainage, Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

quappella, Etheostoma Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1892:963 [American Naturalist v. 26 (no. 311); ref. 12339] Qu'Appelle River, Manitoba, Canada. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1892.12.30.183. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:37 [ref. 20211] as quapella. Appeared first as quappella; then in Eigenmann 1894:117 [ref. 20228] as quappelle [p. 963 changed by hand by Eigenmann to quappelle in reprint at CAS]. Misspelled quapella in current literature. •Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:152 [ref. 22189] as quapella, Scott & Crossman 1998:786 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

quiescens, Poecilichthys Jordan [D. S.] 1884:478 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 451); ref. 10625] Tributary of Altamaha River, a branch of the Suwanee River at Nashville, Georgia, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 28509. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:65 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854) -- (Collette 1962:174 [ref. 5865], Page 1983:156 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

radiosus, Poecilichthys whipplii Hubbs [C. L.] & Black [J. D.] 1941:10, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 429; ref. 10850] Sugar Loaf Creek, tributary of Caddo River, on US highway 70, Ouachita River system, Hot Spring County, Arkansas, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 123080. Paratypes: UMMZ (18 lots); USNM 36419 (5), 36442 (19), 42766 (1); probable types: TU 52871-73 (1, 5, 2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:69-70 [ref. 20211], Suttkus 1970:127 [ref. 20861], Bart & Taylor 1993:65 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma radiosum (Hubbs & Black 1941) -- (Lee et al. 1980:685 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:125 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:436 [ref. 23393], Retzer et al. 1986:631 [ref. 22453], Matthews & Gelwick 1988:543 [ref. 20729], Page & Burr 1991:312 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:370 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:575 [ref. 31215] with 3 subspecies, Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma radiosum (Hubbs & Black 1941). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southcentral U.S.A.: Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas. Habitat: freshwater.

rafinesquei, Etheostoma Burr [B. M.] & Page [L. M.] in Page & Burr 1982:9, Fig. 1b [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas No. 101; ref. 5462] Barren Run, tributary of North Fork Nolin River, 2 kilometers northwest of town of Barren Run, Kentucky, U.S.A., 37°30'N, 85°48'W. Holotype: INHS 87488. Paratypes: INHS 87482 (11), KU 19111 (11), SIUC 1025 (11), UF 32482 (10), UT 91.2359 (11). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:282-283 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma rafinesquei Burr & Page 1982 -- (Page & Burr 1991:300 [ref. 18983], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:30 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:551 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma rafinesquei Burr & Page 1982. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

ramseyi, Etheostoma Suttkus [R. D.] & Bailey [R. M.] in Suttkus, Bailey & Bart 1994:115, Fig. 3 [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 21393] Beaver Creek, tributary to Alabama River at Wilcox County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 162574. Paratypes: ANSP 170041 (2), CUMV 73783 (2), TU (26 lots, 722), UAIC (2 lots, 22), UF 100287 (2), UMMZ 222915-16 (4, 10), USNM 325770 (2), UT 91.4345 (4). •Valid as Etheostoma ramseyi Suttkus & Bailey 1994 -- (Bauer et al. 1995:11 [ref. 22529], Mettee et al. 1996:659 [ref. 25836], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:553 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:557 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma ramseyi Suttkus & Bailey 1994. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

raneyi, Etheostoma Suttkus [R. D.] & Bart [H. L., Jr.] in Suttkus, Bailey & Bart 1994:98, Fig. 1 [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 21393] Hurricane Creek, tributary to Tallahatchie River, Yazoo River system, at Mississippi highway 7, Lafayette County, Mississippi, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 162795. Paratypes: ANSP 170039 (2); AUM 20651 (4); CUMV (2 lots, 4); MSU 2038 (22); TU (21 lots, 131);UAIC 10681.01 (2); UF 100285 (2); UMMZ 222910-11 (5, 2), plus 14 more; USNM 325768 (2); UT (3 lots, 53). •Valid as Etheostoma raneyi Suttkus & Bart 1994 -- (Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Powers & Warren 2009:523 [ref. 30383], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:558 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma raneyi Suttkus & Bart 1994. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Mississippi, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

raneyi, Percina nigrofasciatus Crawford [R. W.] 1956:49, Fig. 10 [Tulane Studies in Zoology v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 12188] Calhoun Creek, tributary of Savannah River, 7.6 miles east of Calhoun Falls on rt. 72, Abbeville County, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: CUMV 23344. Paratypes: CUMV 19599 (orig. 41, now 37), USNM 188896 [ex CUMV 19599] (4). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:57-58 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz 1854) -- (Lee et al. 1980:730 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:33 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz 1854) but a valid subspecies -- (Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399]). Current status: Synonym of Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South Carolina and Georgia [raneyi subspecies]. Habitat: freshwater.

ratisbonensium, Schraitser Schaeffer [J. C.] 1761:48, Pl. 2 (figs. 4-6) [Piscium Bavarico-Ratisbonensium pentas; ref. 3910] Danube River, at Regensburg, Batavia, Germany. No types known. Not available, not described as a scientific name, but just the vernacular name 'Schraitser' and the addition 'ratisbonensium' (vernacular name at Regensburg). Based on Perca schraetser Linnaeus 1758 (name mis-spelled 'schraitser'). Species named 'ratisbonensivm' due to historical typeset (equals 'ratisbonensium'). •In the synonymy of Gymnocephalus schraetser (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocephalus schraetser (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Percinae.

rex, Etheostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] in Jordan 1889:357, Pl. 45 (fig. 9) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 723); ref. 10478] Roanoke River, near Roanoke, Virginia, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 39858 (?2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:37 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina rex (Jordan & Evermann 1889) -- (Lee et al. 1980:738 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:49 [ref. 22189], Thompson 1985:14 [ref. 17281], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:395 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:287 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:785 [ref. 21581], Thompson 1997:2 [ref. 23154], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:529 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Near et al. 2017:303 [ref. 35622]). Current status: Valid as Percina rex (Jordan & Evermann 1889). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Virginia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

roanoka, Etheostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Jenkins [O. P.] in Jordan 1889:358, Pl. 45 (fig. 10) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 723); ref. 10478] Roanoke River at Allegheny Springs, Virginia, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 39866. Paralectotypes: CUMV 46469-70 (3, 1); MCZ 3106 (1); CAS-SU 616 (now 10); UMMZ 187514 (7); USNM 197774 [ex USNM 39866] (4). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:37-38 [ref. 20211]. Second author is O. P. Jenkins. Lectotype selected in Collette & Knapp 1967:37 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina roanoka (Jordan & Jenkins 1889) -- (Lee et al. 1980:739 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:40 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:280 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:804 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:334 [ref. 23376], Fuller et al. 1999:389 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:518 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina roanoka (Jordan & Jenkins 1889). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Virginia and North Carolina, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

rossica, Acerina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:17 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:104 [ref. 12478]. Unneeded new name for Perca acerina Güldenstädt 1774. •Synonym of Acerina acerina (Güldenstädt 1774) -- (Berg 1949:1048 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Gymnocephalus acerinus (Güldenstädt 1774) -- (Popova 1998:117 [ref. 23588]). •Synonym of Gymnocephalus acerina (Gmelin 1789). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocephalus acerina (Gmelin 1789). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater.

rubrum, Etheostoma Raney [E. C.] & Suttkus [R. D.] 1966:95, Fig. 1 [Tulane Studies in Zoology v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 9055] Bayou Pierre, Mississippi, U.S.A. Holotype: CUMV 48232. Paratypes: CUMV 46665 (21), 48233 (53); UF 59275 [ex FSU 9275] (1); TU 30171 (47), 31341 (2), 32264 (11), 37305 (4), 37451 (53), 40368 (10); USNM 188899 (6). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:127 [ref. 20861], Bart & Taylor 1993:61 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Etheostoma rubrum Raney & Suttkus 1966 -- (Lee et al. 1980:686 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:104 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:305 [ref. 18983], Knight & Ross 1992:91 [ref. 19409], Ross et al. 1992:658 [ref. 20206], Ross & Wilkins 1993 [ref. 21503], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Ross et al. 2001:484 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399], Slack et al. 2010:176 [ref. 30741], Page & Burr 2011:563 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma rubrum Raney & Suttkus 1966. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southwestern Mississippi, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

rufilineatus, Poecilichthys Cope [E. D.] 1870:267 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11 (for 7 Jan. 1870); ref. 14127] Warm Springs Creek, tributary of French Broad River, Madison County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 13791. Paralectotypes: ANSP 13792-97 (6). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:66 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:139 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype established and illustrated by Fowler 1907:525, Fig. 9 [ref. 1375]. •Valid as Etheostoma rufilineatum (Cope 1870) -- (Lee et al. 1980:687 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:101 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:304 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:120 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:519 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:860 [ref. 21581], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Mettee et al. 1996:661 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:486 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:554 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:562 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma rufilineatum (Cope 1870). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky, Tennessee and surrounding states, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

rupestre, Etheostoma (Rhothoeca) Gilbert [C. H.] & Swain [W.] in Gilbert 1887:57 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] North River, tributary of Black Warrior River, near Tuscaloosa, Alabama, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36695. Paralectotypes: USNM 188971 [ex USNM 36695] (17). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:38 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected in Collette & Knapp 1967:38 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma rupestre Gilbert & Swain 1887 -- (Lee et al. 1980:688 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:69 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:295 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:120 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:521 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:663 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:488 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:555 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:544 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma rupestre Gilbert & Swain 1887. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi. Habitat: freshwater.

sagitta, Poecilichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1883:250 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (no. 378); ref. 10648] Wolf Creek, tributary of Clear Fork of Cumberland River, near Pleasant View, Whitley County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM (not found). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:66 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma sagitta (Jordan & Swain 1883) -- (Lee et al. 1980:689 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:59 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:308 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:522 [ref. 22809], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:569 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma sagitta (Jordan & Swain 1883). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

salmonea, Perca Rafinesque [C. S.] 1818:354 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 3 (no. 5) (art. 3) (Sept.); ref. 3586] Ohio River, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Sander vitreus (Mitchill 1818). Current status: Synonym of Sander vitreus (Mitchill 1818). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

saludae, Hololepis Hubbs [C. L.] & Cannon [M. D.] 1935:50, Pl. 1 (fig. 6) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 30; ref. 2255] Richland Creek, tributary to Lake Murray, 10 miles southeast of Saluda, Saluda County, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 107079. Paratypes: CHM 33.139.1 (4), 33.149.1 (now 4); FMNH 38331 [ex CHN 33.149.1] (1), UMMZ 107077-78 (4, 2); USNM 94685 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:50 [ref. 20211], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:47 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Etheostoma saludae (Hubbs & Cannon 1935) -- (Collette 1962:190 [ref. 5865], Lee et al. 1980:690 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:156 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:325 [ref. 18983]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma saludae (Hubbs & Cannon 1935). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South Carolina, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

sandat, Centropomus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:248, 255 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:104 [ref. 12478]. Regarded as an unneeded new name for Perca lucioperca Linnaeus 1758, but based on numerous literature sources so it may not be regarded as a replacement name. •Synonym of Stizostedion lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (authors). •Synonym of Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sandra, Lucioperca Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:110, Pl. 15 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Cuvier specimens: MNHN 0000-0570 (1), 0000-6620 (3), 0000-6621 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:81 [ref. 12478]. An unneeded new name for Perca lucioperca Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid Strickland tautonymy). •Synonym of Lucioperca lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1020 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Stizostedion lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Popova 1998:119 [ref. 23588]). •Synonym of Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sanguifluus, Nothonotus Cope [E. D.] 1870:264 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11 (for 7 Jan. 1870); ref. 14127] Headwaters of south fork of Cumberland River, Tennessee, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 13738. Paralectotypes: ANSP 13739-40 (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:66 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:139 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:66 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma maculatum Kirtland 1840, but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1980:664 [ref. 22416]). •Synonym of Etheostoma maculatum Kirtland 1840 -- (Page 1983:100 [ref. 22189]). •Valid as Etheostoma sanguifluum (Cope 1870) -- (Page & Burr 1991:305 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:524 [ref. 22809], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:565 [ref. 31215]). •Valid as Nothonotus sanguifluus Cope 1870 -- (Keck & Near 2013:4 [ref. 32583]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma sanguifluum (Cope 1870). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky and Tennessee, USA. Habitat: freshwater.

saxatilis, Poecilichthys Hay [O. P.] 1881:495 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 179); ref. 2053] Tributary of Chickasawha River at Enterprise, Clarke County, Mississippi, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 27433. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:67 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma stigmaeum (Jordan 1877) -- (Page 1983:81 [ref. 22189], Ross et al. 2001:490 [ref. 25978], Boschung & Mayden 2004:557 [ref. 27995]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma stigmaeum (Jordan 1877). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

schraetser, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:294 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Southern Europe. No types known. Spelled Acerina schraetser by Reisinger 1830:19 [ref. 18620]. Spelled schraitzer by Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:13 [ref. 4879]. •Valid as Acerina schraetser (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1049 [ref. 20662]). •Valid as Gymnocephalus schraetser (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1453 [ref. 5845], Lelek 1987:288 [ref. 22962], Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952], Popova 1998:117 [ref. 23588], Hanel 2003:64 [ref. 27894], Parin 2003:S3 [ref. 28536], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:177 [ref. 28369], Hanel & Lusk 2005:364 [ref. 28804], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:529 [ref. 29996], Geiger & Schliewen 2010:131 [ref. 30887], Parin et al. 2014:354 [ref. 33547], Ćaleta et al. 2015:30 [ref. 34877]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocephalus schraetser (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: Southern Europe: Danube River drainage. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

schrenkii, Perca Kessler [K. F.] 1874:50, Pl. 8 (fig. 36-37) [Izvestiia Imperatorskago Obschchestva Liubitelei Estestvozaniia, Antropologii i Etnografii v. 11; ref. 2596] Lake Balchhach, Turkistan. Syntypes: SMNS 2379 (1), ZIN 2326-27 (1, 4). Type catalog: Fricke 1995:17 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:53 [ref. 29864]. Fig. 36 erroneously repeats number 35 from previous plate. •Valid as Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874 -- (Berg 1949:1039 [ref. 20662], Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1453 [ref. 5845], Shcherbuka 1992:25 [ref. 21089], Zhu 1995:172 [ref. 25213], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:749 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:119 [ref. 23588], Dukravets 1998:373 [ref. 25045], Mamilov 2000:572 [ref. 24624], Zhang et al. 2016:196 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Percidae: Percinae. Distribution: Central Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

sciaenoides, Zingel Cloquet [H.] 1817:240 (v. 9) [Dictionnaire des sciences Naturelles; ref. 852] Still researching. Percidae: Luciopercinae.

scierus, Hadropterus Swain [J.] 1883:252 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (no. 379); ref. 18865] Bean Blossom Creek, tributary of White River, 6 miles north of Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 34350. Paralectotypes: USNM (1, not found). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:46 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:46 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina sciera (Swain 1883) -- (Lee et al. 1980:740 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:31 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:458 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:281 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:124 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:583 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:777 [ref. 21581], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Stauffer et al. 1995:336 [ref. 23376], Mettee et al. 1996:717 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:512 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:394 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:592 [ref. 27995], Williams et al. 2007:15 [ref. 29253], Robins & Page 2007:51 [ref. 29318], Scharpf 2008:39 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:519 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Percina sciera (Swain 1883). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central and south-central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

sciotense, Etheostoma Osburn [R. C.] & Williamson [E. B.] 1898:17 [Annual Report of the Ohio State Academy of Science v. 6; ref. 14690] Big Walnut Creek, tributary of Scioto River, near Columbus, Franklin County, Ohio, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 48846. Paralectotypes: USNM 197995 [ex USNM 48846] (1), plus 1 missing. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:38 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:38 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma tippecanoe Jordan & Evermann 1890 -- (Page 1983:109 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma tippecanoe Jordan & Evermann 1890. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

scotti, Etheostoma Bauer [B. H.], Etnier [D. A.] & Burkhead [N. M.] 1995:2, Figs. 1B-C [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin v. 17; ref. 22529] McCannless Creek, tributary to Shoal Creek, south of center of Waleska, Cherokee County, Georgia, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 223256. Paratypes: Many at AMNH, ANSP, AUM, CUMV, INHS, ROM, SIUC, TU, UF, UGAMNH, UAIC, UK, UMMZ, UT (190), USNM, Northeastern La. Univ. (6). Plus additional non-typpe material. Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:283 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma scotti Bauer, Etnier & Burkhead 1995 -- (Mettee et al. 1996:665 [ref. 25836], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:560 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma scotti Bauer, Etnier & Burkhead 1995. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Georgia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

scovellii, Etheostoma Woolman [A. J.] 1892:260 [American Naturalist v. 26 (no. 303); ref. 12393] Río de las Conchos, Chihuahua, Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 44155. Paralectotypes: (several) BMNH 1892.12.30.186-188 (3); CAS 22856 [ex IU 4841] (3); USNM 197970 [ex USNM 44155] (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:38-39 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected in Collette & Knapp 1967:38 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma australe Jordan 1889 -- (Page 1983:141 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma australe Jordan 1889. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

segrex, Etheostoma Norris [S. M.] & Minckley [W. L.] 1997:170, Fig. 9 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 23278] Río Salado de los Nadadores at El Cariño de la Montaña, 27°00'N, 101°48'W, Coahuila, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 233090. Paratypes: ASU 918 (44, 3 c&s), 1728 (3), 5985 (11, 2 c&s); IBUNAM-P 8811 (15); TU 84762 (4), 87573 (35); UANL 2961 (5), 7315 (1); UMMZ 179174 (8), 179815 (1), 179824 (42). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:6 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Etheostoma segrex Norris & Minckley 1997 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:337 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma segrex Norris & Minckley 1997. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Coahuila, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

sellaris, Hadropterus Radcliffe [L.] & Welsh [W. W.] 1913:31, Pl. 18 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 32 (Doc. 773) (for 1912); ref. 14974] Swan Creek, near Havre de Grace, Maryland, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 74346. Paratypes: USNM 74347 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:48 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma sellare (Radcliffe & Welsh 1913) -- (Lee et al. 1980:691 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:72 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:294 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Etheostoma (subgenus Mooreichthys) sellare (Radcliffe & Walsh 1913) -- (Stephens et al. 2014:542 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma sellare (Radcliffe & Welsh 1913). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Maryland, U.S.A. [extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

semifasciatum, Pileoma DeKay [J. E.] 1842:16, Pl. 50 (fig. 162) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Westport on Lake Champlain, New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: New York State coll. (not found). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:59 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818) -- (Page 1983:50 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:339 [ref. 22186], Scott & Crossman 1998:800 [ref. 24570]). •Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818), but a valid subspecies semifasciata (DeKay 1842) -- (Thompson 1985:12 [ref. 17281], Thompson 1997:10 [ref. 23154], Bailey et al. 2004:201 [ref. 27882], Scharpf 2008:37 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:529 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Canada and northern states: Misouri, Arkansas, Kansas and Oklahoma [subspecies semifasciata]. Habitat: freshwater.

sequatchiense, Etheostoma blennius Burr [B. M.] 1979:198, Figs. 1c-d [Copeia 1979 (no. 2); ref. 9006] Sequatchie River, 1.6 kilometers southeast of Ninemile, Bledsoe County, Tennessee, U.S.A., 35°39'N, 85°07'W. Holotype: INHS 77589. Paratypes: CUMV 22077 (3), 42120 (8); INHS 77007 (10); TU 33461 (1); UAIC 1677 (3), 2775 (9); UF 14633 (8), 15540 (10); UMMZ 168121 (93), 168142 (10). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:57 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:283 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma sequatchiense Burr 1979. •Synonym of Etheostoma blennius Gilbert & Swain 1887, but a valid subspecies -- (Scharpf 2008:22 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:547 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma blennius Gilbert & Swain 1887. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Sequatchie River, Tennessee, U.S.A. [subspecies sequrchiense]. Habitat: freshwater.

serratogranulata, Perca Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:47 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6574 (1), ?A-5742 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:82 [ref. 12478]. Originally as serrato-granulata. Also appeared as serrato granulata in Griffith & Smith 1834:102, Pl. 39 (fig. 1) [ref. 1908]. •Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814) -- (Smith 1986:338 [ref. 22186], La Rivers 1994:538 [ref. 23389]). Current status: Synonym of Perca flavescens (Mitchill 1814). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

serrifer, Hololepis Hubbs [C. L.] & Cannon [M. D.] 1935:31, Pls. 1 (fig. 2), 2 (fig. 3) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 30; ref. 2255] Buffalo Creek at Wendell, Wake County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 107053. Paratypes: UMMZ 70705 (1), 94658 (2), 107054-67 (total 25), 107073-75 (1, 2, 2); USNM 86163 (1), 93132-33 (1, 2), 200330-37 (1, 5, 1, 1, 2, 2, 4, 3); CHM 34.215.1 (1), 33.260.1 (2), 33.264.1 (1), 34.177.1 (2), 34.179.1 (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:50-51 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma serriferum (Hubbs & Cannon 1935) -- (Collette 1962:125 [ref. 5865], Lee et al. 1980:692 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:152 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:323 [ref. 18983]). •Valid as Etheostoma serrifer (Hubbs & Cannon 1935) -- (Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:882 [ref. 21581], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:599 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma serrifer (Hubbs & Cannon 1935). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: Virginia and Georgia. Habitat: freshwater.

serrula, Hadropterus scierus var. Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1886:16 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 549) (for 14 Aug. 1886); ref. 10626] Sabine River, 5 miles south of Longview, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36481. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 3934 (2), USNM 198010 [ex USNM 36481] (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:47-48 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:47 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina sciera (Swain 1883) -- (Page 1983:31 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Percina sciera (Swain 1883). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

shumardi, Hadropterus Girard [C. F.] 1859:100 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] Arkansas River, near Fort Smith, Arkansas, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 1330. •Valid as Percina shumardi (Girard 1859) -- (Etnier 1976:472 [ref. 7327], Lee et al. 1980:741 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:45 [ref. 22189], Suttkus 1985:225 [ref. 22487], Robison & Buchanan 1988:460 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:144 [ref. 14674], Dalton 1990:59 [ref. 21037], Page & Burr 1991:282 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:124 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:584 [ref. 22809], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Stauffer et al. 1995:337 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:240 [ref. 23394], Chereshnev 1996:606 [ref. 24659] as schumardi, Mettee et al. 1996:719 [ref. 25836], Scott & Crossman 1998:806 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:390 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:46 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:513 [ref. 25978], Bailey et al. 2004:204 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:396 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:594 [ref. 27995], Williams et al. 2007:11 [ref. 29253], Scharpf 2008:40 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:522 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Percina shumardi (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Canada and central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

simoterum, Hyostoma Cope [E. D.] 1868:215, Pl. [24] 28 (fig. 5) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 6 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 909] Holston River and its tributaries, Virginia, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 5368-74 (7), 14036-38 (3), 14039-54 (16), 14499-503 (5); MNHN 0000-4856 (1); USNM 36604 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:53 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:139 [ref. 13621], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:80 [ref. 12478]. •Valid as Etheostoma simoterum (Cope 1868) -- (Lee et al. 1980:693 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:76 [ref. 22189], Etnier & Bailey 1989:9 [ref. 20134], Page & Burr 1991:299 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:120 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:526 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:835 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:310 [ref. 23376], Mettee et al. 1996:667 [ref. 25836], Fuller et al. 1999:384 [ref. 25838], Powers & Mayden 2003:578 [ref. 27129], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:556 [ref. 27995], Powers & Mayden 2007:7 [ref. 29367], Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:552 [ref. 31215], Harrington & Near 2012:64 [ref. 31699], Page et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552], Near et al. 2016:142 [ref. 34865]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma simoterum (Cope 1868). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

sipsi, Percina Williams [J. D.] & Neely [D. A.] in Williams, Neely, Walsh & Burkhead 2007:12, Fig. 2b [Zootaxa No. 1549; ref. 29253] Sipsey Fork at Alabama highway 33, 3 kilometers northeast of Rock Springs, Winston County, Alabama, 34°13'06"N, 87°22'09"W, U.S.A. Holotype: UF 165737. Paratypes: many at AUM, INHS, TU, UAIC, UF, UMMZ and USNM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Percina sipsi Williams & Neely 2007 -- (Scharpf 2008:40 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:515 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina sipsi Williams & Neely 2007. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Sipsey Fork of the Black Warrior River, northeastern Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

sitikuense, Etheostoma Blanton [R. E.] in Blanton & Jenkins 2008:17, Fig. 4c [Zootaxa No. 1963; ref. 29947] Citico Creek at pool just above bridge at Cherokee Forest Service Boundary, Monroe County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: UF 172574. Paratypes: TU 191558 (2), UF 172574 (2), USNM 394526 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Etheostoma sitikuense Blanton 2008 -- (Scharpf 2009:20 [ref. 30400], Page & Burr 2011:594 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma sitikuense Blanton 2008. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Little Tennessee River system, eastern Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

smirnovi, Perca schrenki var. Nekrashevich [N. G.] 1948:122 [Uchenye Zapinski Tomskogo Universiteta No. 11; ref. 21176] Lake Sasyk-kul', east of Balkhash, Kazakhstan. Nekrashevich's names jevtuchovi and pygmea (on p. 123) are unavailable. •Synonym of Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874 -- (Berg 1949:1329 [ref. 20662] as schrenki). Current status: Synonym of Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater.

smithi, Etheostoma (Catonotus) Page [L. M.] & Braasch [M. E.] 1976:2, Figs. 1, 2 (left), 3a-c [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas No. 60; ref. 21606] Ferguson Creek, 3 kilometers east of Smithland, Livingston County, Kentucky, U.S.A., 37°06'N, 87°24'W. Holotype: INHS 75013. Paratypes: INHS 75014 (13), KU 16227 (14), NLU 32515 (13), TU 95964 (13), UAIC 5021.01 (12), UMMZ 197498 (24), USNM 214525 (24), UT 91.1099 (8). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:61 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:283 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma smithi Page & Braasch 1976 -- (Lee et al. 1980:694 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:150 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:322 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:528 [ref. 22809], Page et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27127], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:32 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:595 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Near & Thomas 2015:136 [ref. 34008]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma smithi Page & Braasch 1976. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

smithvanizi, Percina Williams [J. D.] & Walsh [S. J.] in Williams, Neely, Walsh & Burkhead 2007:15, Fig. 2c [Zootaxa No. 1549; ref. 29253] Turkey Creek, about 2.9 kilometers west of Burwell, Carroll County, Georgia, 33°35'45"N, 85°13'36"W, U.S.A. Holotype: UF 165375. Paratypes: many at AUM, INHS, NCSM, TU, UAIC, UF, UMMZ and USNM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Percina smithvanizi Williams & Walsh 2007 -- (Scharpf 2008:40 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:514 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina smithvanizi Williams & Walsh 2007. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Above the Fall Line in the Tallapoosa River system: Alabama and Georgia, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

spectabilis, Poecilichthys Agassiz [L.] 1854:304 [10] [American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 2) v. 17; ref. 69] Osage River, Missouri, U.S.A. Lectotype: UMMZ 86340 [ex MCZ]. Paralectotypes: MCZ 24503 + 24529 + 24722 (21), 42077 (3); UMMZ 179528 (6); USNM 120284 [ex MCZ 24503] (5), 196738 [ex USNM 24503] (1); SMNS 1231 (3). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:67 [ref. 20211]. On p. 10 of separate. Lectotype selected in Collette & Knapp 1967:67 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854) -- (Lee et al. 1980:695 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:136 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:439 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:314 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:529 [ref. 22809], Baxter & Stone 1995:248 [ref. 23374], Stauffer et al. 1995:313 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:229 [ref. 23394], Hrabik 1996:2 [ref. 25551], Ceas & Page 1997:508 [ref. 22902], Fuller et al. 1999:487 [ref. 25838], Ceas & Burr 2002:213 [ref. 26533], Bailey et al. 2004:197 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:372 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:32 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:578 [ref. 31215] with 3 subspecies, Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central U.S.A.: Lake Erie and Mississippi River basins: Michigan and Ohio to Texas. Habitat: freshwater.

spillmani, Hadropterus Hay [O. P.] 1881:491 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 179); ref. 2053] Chickasawha River at Enterprise, Clarke County, Mississippi, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 27432. Paralectotypes: several (not found). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:48 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Jordan & Evermann 1896:1039 [ref. 2443]. •Synonym of Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz 1854) -- (Page 1983:33 [ref. 22189], Ross et al. 2001:510 [ref. 25978]). Current status: Synonym of Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

spilotum, Etheostoma nianguae Gilbert [C. H.] 1887:53 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] Sturgeon Creek, a tributary of Kentucky River, near Traveler's Rest, Owsley County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 38319. Paralectotypes: (11) CAS-SU 4036 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:73 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:33-34 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1896:1044 [ref. 2443]. •Synonym of Etheostoma sagitta (Jordan & Swain 1883) -- (Page 1983:59 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Etheostoma sagitta (Jordan & Swain 1883) but a valid subspecies -- (Scharpf 2008:31 [ref. 30399]). •Valid as Etheostoma spilotum Gilbert 1887 -- (Page & Burr 2011:569 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma spilotum Gilbert 1887. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

squamatus, Etheostoma (Hadropterus) Gilbert [C. H.] & Swain [W.] in Gilbert 1887:50 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] French Broad River at mouth of Wolf Creek, Cocke County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 36652. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:39 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina squamata (Gilbert & Swain 1887) -- (Lee et al. 1980:742 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:34 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:285 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:585 [ref. 22809], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:40 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:524 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina squamata (Gilbert & Swain 1887). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina and Georgia. Habitat: freshwater.

squamiceps, Etheostoma Jordan [D. S.] 1877:11 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum [v. 1] No. 10; ref. 2374] Russellville, Logan County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1145 [not 1345]. Paralectotypes: USNM 197968 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:39 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected in Collette & Knapp 1967:39 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma squamiceps Jordan 1877 -- (Lee et al. 1980:696 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:146 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:318 [ref. 18983], Page et al. 1992:631 [ref. 19865], Etnier & Starnes 1993:532 [ref. 22809], Poly & Wilson 1998:6 [ref. 26025], Ross et al. 2001:477 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:32 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:587 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma squamiceps Jordan 1877. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: East-central U.S.A.: Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

squamosum, Etheostoma spectabile Distler [D. A.] 1968:173, Pl. (fig. A) [Kansas University Science Bulletin v. 48 (no. 5); ref. 17402] Indian Creek, tributary of Elk River, 2.5 miles southwest of Sweetwater, Newton County, Missouri, U.S.A. Holotype: KU 7476. Paratypes: KU 7477 (33), UMMZ 188901 [ex KU] (5), USNM 204130 [ex UK 7477] (5). •Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Lee et al. 1980:695 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:136 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:439 [ref. 23393], Cross & Collins 1995:230 [ref. 23394], Ceas & Burr 2002:213 [ref. 26533], Scharpf 2008:32 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:578 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

starnesi, Nothonotus Keck [B. P.] & Near [T. J.] 2013:6, Fig. 3F [Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History v. 54 (no. 1); ref. 32583] Cane Creek, off of Tennessee Hwy 285, just downstream of mouth of Millstone Branch, approx. 7 km northeast of Spencer, 35.782917N, 85.4038967W, Van Buren Co., Tennesssee, USA. Holotype: YPM ICH 024404. Paratypes: many at CU, NCSM. UAIC, UMMZ, UT, YPM ICH. •Valid as Nothonotus starnesi Keck & Near 2013. •Valid as Etheostoma starnesi (Keck & Near 2013). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma starnesi (Keck & Near 2013). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Caney Creek, Tennessee, USA. Habitat: freshwater.

stictogaster, Percina Burr [B. M.] & Page [L. M.] 1993:19, Figs. 1 (middle & bottom), 3 [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 16; ref. 21302] Red Bird River, tributary of South Fork Kentucky River, Clay County, Kentucky, U.S.A., 37°11'28"N, 83°35'31"W. Holotype: INHS 28535. Paratypes: INHS 64304 (16); KU 23130 [ex INHS 64304] (2); SIUC 652 (2), 677 (1); UAIC 6750.12 (2), 10470.01 (3); USNM 231070 (3); plus nontype material. Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:283-284 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Percina stictogaster Burr & Page 1993 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:40 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:513 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina stictogaster Burr & Page 1993. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

stigmaeum, Boleosoma Jordan [D. S.] 1877:311 [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 11 (nos 11-12) (art. 29); ref. 2373] Etowah River, tributary of Coosa River near Rome, Floyd County, Georgia, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 20645. Paralectotypes: ANSP 20646-48 (3), ?BMNH 1880.1.21.63 (1); USNM 17880 (5). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:19 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:139 [ref. 13621], Gilbert 2009:160 [ref. 30728] Lectotype selected by Bailey et al. 1954:142 [ref. 20218]. •Valid as Etheostoma stigmaeum (Jordan 1877) -- (Lee et al. 1980:697 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:81 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:441 [ref. 23393], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:385 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:293 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:120 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:533 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:838 [ref. 21581], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Cross & Collins 1995:231 [ref. 23394], Mettee et al. 1996:669 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:489 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:374 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:557 [ref. 27995], Layman & Mayden 2009:166 [ref. 30060], Scharpf 2008:33 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:541 [ref. 31215], Layman & Mayden 2012:8 [ref. 32285], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552], Robins et al. 2018:328 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma stigmaeum (Jordan 1877). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Central and southeastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

streber, Aspro Siebold [C. T. E. von] 1863:54 [Die Süsswasserfische von Mitteleuropa; ref. 4021] Danube and Amper rivers, Germany. Syntypes: presumed lost in WWII. Potential synypes: ZSM 16 (1). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:275 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Aspro streber Siebold 1863 -- (Berg 1949:1042 [ref. 20662]). •Valid as Zingel streber (Siebold 1863) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1459 [ref. 5845], Lelek 1987:305 [ref. 22962], Kottelat 1997:174 [ref. 22952], Hanel 2003:64 [ref. 27894], Hanel & Lusk 2005:360 [ref. 28804], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:537 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Valid as Zingel streber (Siebold 1863). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Distribution: Europe: Danube and Dniestr drainages. Habitat: freshwater.

striatulum, Etheostoma Page [L. M.] & Braasch [M. E.] 1977:1, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a-b [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas No. 63; ref. 7273] Wartrace Creek, 2 kilometers eastern Bell Buckle, 35°30'N, 86°22'W, Bedford County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 75035. Paratypes: INHS 75036-37 (16, 9); KU 16209 (1), 16211 (2), 16218 (1); NLU 33947 (10); TU 97493 (10); UAIC 2534 (3), 2858 (3); UMMZ 121269 (9), 121295 (5); USNM 213789 (10); UT 91.1174 (10). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:61 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:284 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma striatulum Page & Braasch 1977 -- (Lee et al. 1980:698 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:151 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:322 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:537 [ref. 22809], Page et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27127], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:33 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:597 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Near & Thomas 2015:136 [ref. 34008]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma striatulum Page & Braasch 1977. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Duck River system, Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

striolacauda, Percina evides Denoncourt [R. F.] 1969:1408 [Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 7734] Appeared in Dissertation Abstracts; regarded as unavailable. From the Hiwassee, Little Tennessee River, and French Broad drainages of Georgia and North Carolina, U.S.A. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

susanae, Boleosoma Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1883:249 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (no. 378); ref. 10648] Cumberland River near Pleasant View, tributary of Clear Fork, Whitley County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36501. Paralectotypes: USNM 197634 [ex USNM 36501] (7). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:19 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected in Collette & Knapp 1967:19 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque 1820, but a valid subspecies -- (Page 1983:84 [ref. 22189], Ross et al. 2001:480 [ref. 25978], Page & Burr 2011:538 [ref. 31215]). •Valid as Etheostoma susanae (Jordan & Swain 1883) -- (Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:33 [ref. 30399]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma susanae (Jordan & Swain 1883). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky and Tennessee, U.S.A. [subspecies susanae if treated as a subspecies of nigrum]. Habitat: freshwater.

suttkusi, Percina Thompson [B. A.] 1997:3, Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science Louisiana State University No. 72; ref. 23155] Pearl River (river mile 46.8), below pools Bluff Sill, about 6 kilometers south of Bogalusa, Lousiana, off La highway 21, Pearl River County, Mississippi, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 176058. Paratypes: (1445) deposited at AMNH, ANSP, AUM, CUMV, Geol. Surv. Alabama, INHS, KU, MCZ, MMNS, MSU, NLU, SLU, TU,UAIC, UF, UMMZ, UT. •Valid as Percina suttkusi Thompson 1997 -- (Thompson 1997:2 [ref. 23154], Ross et al. 2001:515 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:595 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:40 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:532 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708], Near et al. 2017:303 [ref. 35622]). Current status: Valid as Percina suttkusi Thompson 1997. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana, U.S.A. Habitat: marine.

swaini, Poecilichthys Jordan [D. S.] 1884:479 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 451); ref. 10625] Tributary of Pearl River at Monticello, Lawrence County, Mississippi, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 35308. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:67 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma swaini (Jordan 1884) -- (Lee et al. 1980:699 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:129 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:315 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:121 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:538 [ref. 22809], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Mettee et al. 1996:671 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:490 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:559 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:33 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:582 [ref. 31215], Suttkus et al. 2012:18 [ref. 32288], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:330 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma swaini (Jordan 1884). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South-central U.S.A.: Kentucky to Gulf states. Habitat: freshwater.

swannanoa, Etheostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] in Jordan 1889:360, Pl. 45 (fig. 13) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 723); ref. 10478] South Fork of Holston River at Holstein Mills, Virginia, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 39861. Paralectotypes: (should be 9) CAS-SU 992 (2), 3507 (1); ?UMMZ uncat. [ex IU] (1); USNM 125490 (1), 196777 [ex USNM 39861] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:39-40 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected in Collette & Knapp 1967:39 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma swannanoa Jordan & Evermann 1889 -- (Lee et al. 1980:700 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:65 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:296 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:540 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:819 [ref. 21581], Nelson et al. 2004:135 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:33 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:546 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma swannanoa Jordan & Evermann 1889. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Upper Tennessee River basin, Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

tallapoosae, Etheostoma (Ulocentra) Suttkus [R. D.] & Etnier [D. A.] 1991:3, Fig. 1 [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 28 (no. 1); ref. 20090] Gold Branch, tributary to Channahatchee Creek, 6 miles north of Eclectic, Alabama highway 63, Elmore County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 158215. Paratypes: ANSP 167316 (4), AUM (11 lots, 77), CUMV 72359 (4), INHS 59305 (4), SIUC 18163 (4), UAIC (20 lots, 132), UF 84454 (4), UGAMNH 2167 (4), UMMZ 218251 (4), USNM 314352 (4), UT (3 lots, 24). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:61-62 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:284 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma tallapoosae Suttkus & Etnier 1991 -- (Boschung 1992:121 [ref. 23239], Suttkus et al. 1994:97 [ref. 21393], Bauer et al. 1995:11 [ref. 22529], Mettee et al. 1996:673 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:560 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:33 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:557 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma tallapoosae Suttkus & Etnier 1991. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Georgia and Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

tanaicensis, Perca Güldenstädt [J. A. von] 1787:193 [Reisen durch Rußland und im Kaukasischen Gebürge; ref. 18175] Dnieper River, at Kamenka, Kirovohrad Oblast, Ukraine. Kottelat & Freyhof 2009:84 [ref. 30320] regard tanaicensis as an available name but not used as valid since 1899 but Perca acerina has been used. Kottelat & Freyhof 2009:84 [ref. 30320] declare that tanaicensis is a nomen oblitum and declare that Perca acerina Gmelin 1789 [they erroneously said 1788] is a nomen protectum and has precedence over P. tanaicensis. •In the synonymy of Gymnocephalus acerina (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2009:84 [ref. 30320]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocephalus acerina (Gmelin 1789). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tanasi, Percina Etnier [D. A.] 1976:473, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 88 (no. 44); ref. 7327] Little Tennessee River near mouth of Coytee Spring, Loudon County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 90858. Paratypes: CUMV 64754 (5); INHS 75000 (5); NLU 32057 (5); OAM 9536 (1); TU 83994 (2), 90859 (1); UMMZ 197413 (5); UF 20852 (5), USNM 214697-98 (2, 5); UT 91.803 (1), 91.1074 (10). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:64 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:284 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Percina tanasi Etnier 1976 -- (Lee et al. 1980:743 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:46 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:283 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:124 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:587 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:721 [ref. 25836], Fuller et al. 1999:390 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:596 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:40 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:523 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina tanasi Etnier 1976. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and on border with Georgia [U.S.A.]. Habitat: freshwater.

tecumsehi, Etheostoma Ceas [P. A.] & Page [L. M.] 1997:516, Fig. 1F [Copeia 1997 (no. 3); ref. 22902] Unnamed tributary, West Fork Pond River, 6.4 kilometers northwest of Fruit Hill at Johnson Mill Road, Christian County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Holotype: INHS 37504. Paratypes: INHS 32703 (12), 36033 (10); SIUC 25126 (5); TU 177763 (5); UAIC 11346.01 (5); UMMZ 231176 (5); USNM 339903 (5); UT 91.4752 (5). Type catalog: Sabaj et al. 1997:284 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma tecumsehi Ceas & Page 1997 -- (Ceas & Burr 2002:213 [ref. 26533], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:33 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:581 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma tecumsehi Ceas & Page 1997. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

teddyroosevelt, Etheostoma Layman [S. R.] & Mayden [R. L.] 2012:29, Fig. 3, 16 [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bull. 30; ref. 32285] Spring River at Kansas Hwy 96, Cherokee County, Kansas, USA. Holotype: UAIC 10460.21. Paratypes: KU, INHS, SIUC, UAIC, USNM, UT, TU, NLU, USNM, UMMZ. •Valid as Etheostoma teddyroosevelt Layman & Mayden 2012. Current status: Valid as Etheostoma teddyroosevelt Layman & Mayden 2012. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Missouri, Arkansas, southeastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma, USA. Habitat: freshwater.

tennesseense, Etheostoma Powers [S. L.] & Mayden [R. L.] 2007:12, Figs. 3C, 4C, 5C [Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin No. 25; ref. 29367] Clinch River at Frost Ford along Jimmie Roberts Road, Hancock County, Tennessee, U.S.A. (36°31'52"N, 83°09'02"W). Holotype: UAIC 13682.01. Paratypes: UAIC 13682.02 (21), 12433.30 (15), 12495.05 (39); INHS 96333 (2), SIUC 48974 (2); TU 195081 (2); USNM 372743 (2); UT 91.6380 (2). •Valid as Etheostoma tennesseense Powers & Mayden 2007 -- (Scharpf 2008:33 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:553 [ref. 31215]). •Synonym of Etheostoma simoterum (Cope 1868) -- (Harrington & Near 2012:64 [ref. 31699], Near et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34865]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma simoterum (Cope 1868). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tenue, Boleosoma Agassiz [L.] 1850:299, 304 [Lake Superior; ref. 66] Not available, no distinguishing features provided; for specimens from Charleston, South Carolina. Percidae: Etheostomatinae.

tessellata, Etheostoma Storer [D. H.] 1845:48 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 2 (1845-1848); ref. 18835] Tennessee River at Florence, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:40 [ref. 20211]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Boleosoma tessellatum Dekay 1842, replaced by Percina evides Jordan & Copeland 1877. •Objective synonym of Percina evides (Jordan & Copeland 1877) -- (Page 1983:42 [ref. 22189], Ross et al. 2001:503 [ref. 25978], Boschung & Mayden 2004:583 [ref. 27995]). Current status: Synonym of Percina evides (Jordan & Copeland 1877). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tessellatum, Boleosoma DeKay [J. E.] 1842:20, Pl. 20 (fig. 57) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Most streams of New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: New York State coll. (not found). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:19-20 [ref. 20211]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Etheostoma by Cottogaster tessellatus Thompson 1853; but that preoccupation set aside by the 2000 code. •Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842 -- (Page 1983:85 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:333 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tessellatus, Hadropterus Jordan [D. S.] 1877:7 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum [v. 1] No. 10; ref. 2374] Allegheny River at Foxburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1199. Paralectotypes: USNM 197416 [ex USNM 1199] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:48-49 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:48 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma variatum Kirtland 1840 -- (Page 1983:63 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma variatum Kirtland 1840. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tetrazonus, Poecilichthys Hubbs [C. L.] & Black [J. D.] 1940:11, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 416; ref. 10848] Big Niangua River at mouth of Greasy Creek, tributary of the Osage River drainage, 6 miles southeast of Buffalo, Dallas County, Missouri, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 111330. Paratypes: UMMZ 124600 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:67 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma tetrazonum (Hubbs & Black 1940) -- (Lee et al. 1980:701 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:61 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:297 [ref. 18983], Switzer & Wood 2002:450 [ref. 26023], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:33 [ref. 30399], Switzer & Wood 2009:1 [ref. 30415], Page & Burr 2011:548 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma tetrazonum (Hubbs & Black 1940). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Gasconade, Osage and Moreau river drainages, Missouri, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

thalassinus, Nothonotus Jordan [D. S.] & Brayton [A. W.] 1878:13 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 12; ref. 2436] Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 31122. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1880.1.21.68 (1), MCZ 24397 (1), CAS-SU 987 (6), USNM 257921 (2). Possible paralectotypes: MNHN A-5204 to 5206 (11, 12, 12). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:55 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1896:1072 [ref. 2443] and confirmed by Collette & Knapp 1967:55 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma thalassinum (Jordan & Brayton 1878) -- (Lee et al. 1980:702 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:64 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:295 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:34 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:545 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma thalassinum (Jordan & Brayton 1878). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: North Carolina and South Carolina. Habitat: freshwater.

thermophilus, Hololepis Hubbs [C. L.] & Cannon [M. D.] 1935:63, Pl. 1 (fig. 10) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 30; ref. 2255] Kipling, Harnett County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 107072. Paratypes: UMMZ 107068-71 (1, 1, 1, 2); USNM 52060 (8), 52071 (6), 86160 (2), 86165 (9), 200239 (2). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:51-52 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854) -- (Collette 1962:151 [ref. 5865], Page 1983:156 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

thompsoni, Etheostoma Suttkus [R. D.], Bart [H. L., Jr.] & Etnier [D. A.] 2012:8, Fig. 1-2 [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 32; ref. 32288] Neches River, along right (west) back just below Town Bluff dam, at Town Bluff, Tyley County, Texas, USA. Holotype: TU 200366. Paratypes: CUMV, FM, TU, UAIC, UMMZ, USNM, UT. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Etheostoma thompsoni Suttkus, Bart & Etnier 2012. Current status: Valid as Etheostoma thompsoni Suttkus, Bart & Etnier 2012. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern Texas and southwestern Louisiana, USA. Habitat: freshwater.

tippecanoe, Etheostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1890:3, Fig. [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 791); ref. 10576] Tippecanoe River at Marshfield, Indiana, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 40080. Paralectotypes: UMMZ 187513 [ex IU] (2), USNM 197919 [ex USNM 40080] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:40 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:40 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma tippecanoe Jordan & Evermann 1890 -- (Lee et al. 1980:703 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:109 [ref. 22189], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:387 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:308 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:541 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:862 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:313 [ref. 23376], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Stauffer & van Snik 1997:121 [ref. 22685], Skelton & Etnier 2000:1102 [ref. 25024], Kinziger et al. 2001:235 [ref. 25131], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:34 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:568 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma tippecanoe Jordan & Evermann 1890. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: North-central U.S.A.: Ohio River basin, scattered localities. Habitat: freshwater.

transversum, Poecilosoma Abbott [C. C.] 1860:326 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 12; ref. 15620] Locality unknown. Lectotype: ANSP 13810. Paralectotypes: ANSP 13811-19 (9). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:70-71 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:139 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:14 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma caeruleum Storer 1845 -- (Page 1983:133 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma caeruleum Storer 1845. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

trisella, Etheostoma Bailey [R. M.] & Richards [W. J.] 1963:14, Pl. 1 (D, E); Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 630; ref. 3964] Cowans Creek, tributary of Spring Creek, 6.7 miles southeast of Centre, Cherokee County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): UMMZ 180073 [ex CUMV 18579]. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:41 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma trisella Bailey & Richards 1963 -- (Lee et al. 1980:704 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:117 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:311 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:121 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:543 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:675 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:561 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:34 [ref. 30399], Mayden 2010:716 [ref. 31085], Page & Burr 2011:573 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma trisella Bailey & Richards 1963. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A: Georgia, Alabama and southeastern Tennessee. Habitat: freshwater.

tuscumbia, Etheostoma (Etheostoma) Gilbert [C. H.] & Swain [J.] in Gilbert 1887:63 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] Stream flowing from the large spring at Tuscumbia, Alabama, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 36154 (now fragments). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1894.5.18.26-27 (2); CAS 22855 [ex IU 4768] (4); CAS-SU 1003 (30), 2683 (2); ?UMMZ 61717 (2), UMMZ 187512 [ex IU] (44, poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:74 [ref. 12291], Collette & Knapp 1967:41 [ref. 20211] as syntypes. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 176, p. 3271 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Valid as Etheostoma tuscumbia Gilbert & Swain 1887 -- (Lee et al. 1980:705 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:58 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:311 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:121 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:545 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:677 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:562 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:34 [ref. 30399], Mayden 2010:716 [ref. 31085], Page & Burr 2011:573 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma tuscumbia Gilbert & Swain 1887. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Alabama and Tennessee, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

uniporum, Etheostoma spectabile Distler [D. A.] 1968:159, Pl. (fig. D) [Kansas University Science Bulletin v. 48 (no. 5); ref. 17402] Pigeon Creek, headwater tributary of Current River, Dent County, Missouri, U.S.A. Holotype: KU 7478. Paratypes: KU 7479 and 7480 (230); UMMZ 188903 [ex KU 7480] (10); USNM 204128 [ex UK 7480] (10). •Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Lee et al. 1980:695 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:136 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:439 [ref. 23393]). •Valid as Etheostoma uniporum Distler 1968 -- (Ceas & Page 1997:510 [ref. 22902], Ceas & Burr 2002:213 [ref. 26533], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:34 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:580 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma uniporum Distler 1968. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Missouri and Arkansas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

uranidea, Etheostoma (Cottogaster) Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] in Gilbert 1887:48 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 607); ref. 17814] Washita [= Ouachita] River at Arkadelphia, Clark County, Arkansas, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 36413 (now 1), 211262 [ex 36413] (7). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:42 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Percina uranidea (Jordan & Gilbert 1887) -- (Etnier 1976:472 [ref. 7327], Lee et al. 1980:744 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:47 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:461 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:283 [ref. 18983], Ross et al. 2001:518 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:40 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:523 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina uranidea (Jordan & Gilbert 1887). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A., scattered localities (Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Indiania and Illinois). Habitat: freshwater.

valsanicola, Romanichthys Dumitrescu [M.], Bănărescu [P. M.] & Stoica [N.] 1957:230, Figs. 1-14 [Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" v. 1; ref. 1155] Vîlsan River, tributary of Arges River at Gales, Danube basin, Romania. Holotype: MGAB 49900. Paratypes: (4) BMNH 1958.2.13.35 (1). Type catalog: Mihai-Bardan 1984:462 [ref. 21542]. •Valid as Romanichthys valsanicola Dumitrescu, Bănărescu & Stoica 1957 -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1459 [ref. 5845], Lelek 1987:291 [ref. 22962], Perrin et al. 1993 [ref. 21012], Bănărescu et al. 1995 [ref. 22145], Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:512 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Valid as Romanichthys valsanicola Dumitrescu, Bănărescu & Stoica 1957. Percidae: Luciopercinae. Distribution: Romania. Habitat: freshwater.

variata, Etheostoma Kirtland [J. P.] 1840:274 [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 3 (nos 1-2) (art. 3); ref. 18403] Mahoning River, tributary to Big Bear and Ohio rivers, Ohio, U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:42 [ref. 20211]. Appeared first without distinguishing features in Kirtland 1838:168, 192 [ref. 18399]. •Valid as Etheostoma variatum Kirtland 1840 -- (Lee et al. 1980:706 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:63 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:333 [ref. 22186], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:388 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:297 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:823 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:315 [ref. 23376], Switzer & Wood 2002:450 [ref. 26023], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:34 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:548 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma variatum Kirtland 1840. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: New York to Virginia. Habitat: freshwater.

verecundum, Etheostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] in Jordan 1889:360, Pl. 45 (fig. 12) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 723); ref. 10478] Middle Fork of Holston River, about 5 miles south of Glade Spring, Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 39862. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:42 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma simoterum (Cope 1868) -- (Page 1983:76 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma simoterum (Cope 1868). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

versicolor, Poecilichthys Agassiz [L.] 1854:304 [10] [American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 2) v. 17; ref. 69] Small creeks near Quincy, Illinois, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 1822. Paralectotypes: USNM 1816 (now mixed in MCZ 24722), USNM 197493 [ex USNM 1822] (5). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:67-68 [ref. 20211]. On p. 10 of separate. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:67 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854) -- (Page 1983:136 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

verus, Asper Schaeffer [J. C.] 1761:69, Pl. 3 (figs. 4-7) [Piscium Bavarico-Ratisbonensium pentas; ref. 3910] Danube River, at Regensburg, Batavia, Germany. No types known. Regarded as not available, work judged as non-binominal as was Schaefer 1760 [ref. 4989]. Species described as 'Asper vervs' due to historical typeset (equals Asper verus). •In the synonymy of Zingel streber (Siebold 1863) -- (Kottelat 1997:174 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Zingel streber (Siebold 1863). Percidae: Luciopercinae.

vexillare, Boleosoma Jordan [D. S.] 1880:235 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 84); ref. 2381] Rappahannock River at Warrenton, Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:20 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842 -- (Page 1983:85 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842 but a valid subspecies -- (Scharpf 2008:28 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:539 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma olmstedi Storer 1842. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Virginia, U.S.A. [subspecies vexillare]. Habitat: freshwater.

vigil, Ioa Hay [O. P.] 1882:59 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 2 (for 1882); ref. 2054] Pearl River at Jackson, Mississippi, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 32201. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:53 [ref. 20211]. •Possibly the same as Percina ouachitae (Jordan & Gilbert 1887) -- (Page 1983:47 [ref. 22189]). •Synonym of Percina shumardi (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:1083 [ref. 29994]). •Valid as Percina vigil (Hay 1882) -- (Suttkus 1985:227 [ref. 22487], Boschung 1992:124 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:590 [ref. 22809], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Mettee et al. 1996:723 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:516 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:597 [ref. 27995] with date as 1883, Scharpf 2008:40 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:524 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:338 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Percina vigil (Hay 1882). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern and south-central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

vinctipes, Nanostoma Jordan [D. S.] 1880:236 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 84); ref. 2381] Tributary of Illinois River at Naperville, Illinois, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 23454. Paralectotypes: (4, not found). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:54 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1896:1075 [ref. 2443]. •Synonym of Etheostoma zonale (Cope 1868) -- (Page 1983:73 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma zonale (Cope 1868). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

virgatus, Poecilichthys Jordan [D. S.] 1880:236 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 84); ref. 2381] Rock Castle River at Livingston, Kentucky, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 23456. Paralectotypes: (numerous) BMNH (1, not found), UMMZ 187511 [ex IU] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:68 [ref. 20211]. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1896:1093 [ref. 2443]. •Valid as Etheostoma virgatum (Jordan 1880) -- (Lee et al. 1980:707 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:149 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:321 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:546 [ref. 22809], Page et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27127], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:34 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:596 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Near & Thomas 2015:136 [ref. 34008]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma virgatum (Jordan 1880). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Kentucky, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

vitrea, Perca Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:247 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 4) (art. 1); ref. 17774] Cayuga Lake, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill 1818) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1458 [ref. 5845], Lee et al. 1980:747 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:349 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:464 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:144 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:197 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:273 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:125 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:599 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:768 [ref. 21581], Baxter & Stone 1995:254 [ref. 23374], Stauffer et al. 1995:340 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:242 [ref. 23394], Chereshnev 1996:606 [ref. 24659], Mettee et al. 1996:733 [ref. 25836], Sigler & Sigler 1996:285 [ref. 25943], Scott & Crossman 1998:767 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:393 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:46 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:520 [ref. 25978], Wydoski & Whitney 2003:195 [ref. 27816] as a subspecies, Miller & Robison 2004:400 [ref. 27931]). •Valid as Sander vitreus (Mitchill 1818) -- (Bailey et al. 2004:206 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:601 [ref. 27995], McPhail 2007:529 [ref. 31199], Scharpf 2008:41 [ref. 30399] with subspecies, Minckley & Marsh 2009:307 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:508 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sander vitreus (Mitchill 1818). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Distribution: Eastern North America, introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

vitreus, Poecilichthys Cope [E. D.] 1870:263 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11 (for 7 Jan. 1870); ref. 14127] Walnut Creek, tributary of Neuse River, Wake County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:140 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Etheostoma vitreum (Cope 1870) -- (Lee et al. 1980:708 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:92 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:291 [ref. 18983], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:852 [ref. 21581], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:34 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:532 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma vitreum (Cope 1870). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Maryland and North Carolina, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

vivax, Ammocrypta Hay [O. P.] 1882:58 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 2 (for 1882); ref. 2054] Pearl River at Jackson, Mississippi, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 32213. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:12 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma vivax (Hay 1882) -- (Page & Burr 1991:290 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:121 [ref. 23239]). •Valid as Ammocrypta vivax Hay 1882 -- (Lee et al. 1980:621 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:53 [ref. 22189], Robison & Buchanan 1988:408 [ref. 23393], Etnier & Starnes 1993:446 [ref. 22809], Ross et al. 2001:454 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:132 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:336 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:483 [ref. 27995] with date as 1883, Scharpf 2008:19 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:536 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Ammocrypta vivax Hay 1882. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South-central U.S.A.: Kentucky, Missouri to Alabama and Texas. Habitat: freshwater.

volgensis, Perca Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1309 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Volga River and Rhymus [Ural] River, Russia. No types known. Based on Perca asper of Pallas. •Valid as Lucioperca volgensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Berg 1949:1028 [ref. 20662]). •Valid as Stizostedion volgense (Gmelin 1789) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1457 [ref. 5845] with authorship as Pallas, Lelek 1987:297 [ref. 22962], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:750 [ref. 24702] with Cuvier 1828 as author, Popova 1998:120 [ref. 23588]). •Valid as Sander volgensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:47 [ref. 26178], Hanel 2003:63 [ref. 27894], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:207 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:178 [ref. 28369], Hanel & Lusk 2005:353 [ref. 28804], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:535 [ref. 29996], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151]). Current status: Valid as Sander volgensis (Gmelin 1789). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Distribution: Eastern Europe: Ponto-Caspian seas; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

vulgaris, Acerina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:4, Pl. 41 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Europe. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6604 (1), 0000-6607 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:79-80 [ref. 12478]. Based on specimens and literature sources. •Synonym of Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1046 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952], Popova 1998:117 [ref. 23588]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

vulgaris, Aspro Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:188, Pl. 26 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Rhone River, Europe. Syntypes: MNHN 1895 (2), SMF 2211 [ex MNHN in 1829] (1) Rhone. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:80 [ref. 12478]. Based on specimens and literature sources; considered by some as a replacement name for Perca asper Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Zingel asper (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:174 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Zingel asper (Linnaeus 1758). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Habitat: freshwater.

vulgaris, Lucioperca Fleming [J.] 1822:394 [The philosophy of zoology v. 2; ref. 5063] Not available, name only. Percidae: Luciopercinae.

vulgaris, Perca Schaeffer [J. C.] 1761:1, Pl. 1 (figs 4-7) [Piscium Bavarico-Ratisbonensium pentas; ref. 3910] Danube River, at Regensburg, Batavia, Germany. No types known. Regarded as not available, work judged as non-binominal as was Schaeffer 1760 [ref. 4989]. Species described as "vvlgaris" due to historical typeset (equals Asper vulgaris). •In the synonymy of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:172 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae.

vulgaris, Perca Schrank [F. von P.] 1792:99 [Abhandlungen einer Privatgesellschaft von Naturforschern und Oekonomen in Oberdeutschland, München v. 1 (art. 6); ref. 18709] Regensburg, Germany. Syntypes (?): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII if present then. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:278 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

vulgaris, Perca Fitzinger [L. J. F. J.] 1832:331 [Beiträge zur Landeskunde Österreichs unter der Enns, Wien v. 1; ref. 5019] Regensburg, Germany; Austria; rivers Danube, Leytha and Schwarza; Lake Traunsee; Austria. No types known. Based on literature sources. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Perca vulgaris Schrank 1792. •Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

vulneratus, Poecilichthys Cope [E. D.] 1870:266 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11 (for 7 Jan. 1870); ref. 14127] Warm Springs Creek, tributary of French Broad River, Madison County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13798. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:68 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:140 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Etheostoma maculatum Kirtland 1840, but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1980:664 [ref. 22416]). •Synonym of Etheostoma maculatum Kirtland 1840 -- (Page 1983:100 [ref. 22189]). •Valid as Etheostoma vulneratum (Cope 1870) -- (Page & Burr 1991:306 [ref. 18983], Etnier & Starnes 1993:548 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:868 [ref. 21581], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2008:35 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:566 [ref. 31215]). •Valid as Nothonotus vulneratus (Cope 1870) -- (Keck & Near 2013:4 [ref. 32583]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma vulneratum (Cope 1870). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Upper Tennessee River system: Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee, USA. Habitat: freshwater.

wapiti, Etheostoma Etnier [D. A.] & Williams [J. D.] 1989:989, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 102 (no. 4); ref. 17658] Richland Creek at County Road 4209 crossing, Giles County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 288069. Paratypes: AMNH 58257 (2); ANSP 16245 (2); CAS 64178 (2); CUMV 71707 (2); KU 22122 (5); INHS 68229 (3); CAS-SU 30271 (1, missing in 1995); TU 30271 (1), 148010 (2); UAIC 7851.01 (4); UF 44921 (4); UMMZ 213950 (2); USNM 288070 (1); UT 91.2203 (2), 91.3072 (4), 91.3075 (1), 91.3084 (7), 91.3097 (1), 91.3459 (1), 91.3469 (1). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:62 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:284-285 [ref. 23225], Doosey 2013:15 [ref. 32745].. •Valid as Etheostoma wapiti Etnier & Williams 1989 -- (Page & Burr 1991:306 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:121 [ref. 23239], Burkhead & Williams 1992 [ref. 20286], Etnier & Starnes 1993:549 [ref. 22809], Wood 1996:300 [ref. 22394], Mettee et al. 1996:679 [ref. 25836], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:564 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:35 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:566 [ref. 31215]). •Valid as Nothonotus wapiti (Etnier & Williams 1989) -- (Keck & Near 2013:4 [ref. 32583]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma wapiti Etnier & Williams 1989. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Tennessee and Alabama, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

warreni, Boleichthys Girard [C. F.] 1859:104 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] Cannon Ball River, North Dakota, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MCZ 32952. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:13 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:152 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Etheostoma exile (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

westfalli, Hadropterus nigrofasciatus Fowler [H. W.] 1942:9, Fig. 9 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 107; ref. 13199] Wekiwa River, tributary of St. Johns River, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69980. Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:45 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:140 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz 1854) -- (Lee et al. 1980:730 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:33 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz 1854). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

whipplii, Boleichthys Girard [C. F.] 1859:103 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27409] Coal Creek, tributary of Arkansas River, eastern Oklahoma, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 24569 [ex USNM 1333 and MCZ 41] (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:13 [ref. 20211]. The original spelling whipplii is an acceptable spelling, but based on Art. 33.2.3.1 of the Code, the spelling whipplei can be retained. •Valid as Etheostoma whipplei [rarely as whipplii] (Girard 1859) -- (Lee et al. 1980:709 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:121 [ref. 22189], Retzer et al. 1986:631 [ref. 22453], Robison & Buchanan 1988:442 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:312 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:121 [ref. 23239], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Cross & Collins 1995:232 [ref. 23394], Mettee et al. 1996:681 [ref. 25836], Piller et al. 2001:804 [ref. 25456], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:376 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2008:35 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:574 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma whipplei (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: South-central U.S.A.: Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas and Oklahoma. Habitat: freshwater.

williamsi, Percina Page [L. M.] & Near [T. J.] 2007:606, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2007 (no. 3); ref. 29260] 4.0 kilometers east of Broadford, County route 630, North Fork Holston River, Smyth County, Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype: UF 162590. Paratypes: UAIC 5953.14 (2); UF 162591 (1); UT 91.6349 (2); YPM 15471 (2), 15472 (1). •Valid as Percina williamsi Page & Near 2007 -- (Scharpf 2008:40 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:513 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Percina williamsi Page & Near 2007. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Upper Tennessee River drainage of Tennessee, Virginia and North Carolina, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

wrighti, Etheostoma McCormick [L. M.] 1892:30 [Laboratory bulletin / Oberlin College. No. 2; ref. 14515] Vermillion River, tributary of Lake Erie, near Oberlin, Lorain County, Ohio, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): OCM (not found). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:42 [ref. 20211]. •Synonym of Percina shumardi (Girard 1859) -- (Page 1983:45 [ref. 22189]). Current status: Synonym of Percina shumardi (Girard 1859). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

zaissanica, Perca fluviatilis Dianov [P. A.] 1955:p. uncertain. [The Lake Zaisan perch; ref. 23068] Lake Zaissan, Kazakhstan. No types known. Original not seen. •Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:173 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2006:59 [ref. 28831]). •Not a clearly recognized subspecies -- (Reshetnikov et al. 1997:749 [ref. 24702]). Current status: Synonym of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Percidae: Percinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

zebra, Pileoma Agassiz [L.] 1850:308, Pl. 4 (fig. 4) [Lake Superior; ref. 66] Mouth of Pic River, Lake Superior. Syntypes: MCZ 24636 [ex USNM 1175 and MCZ 257] (2), MCZ 86592 [ex MCZ 24636] (1), UMMZ 86592 (1). •Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818) -- (Page 1983:50 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:339 [ref. 22186], Scott & Crossman 1998:800 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Percina caprodes (Rafinesque 1818). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Habitat: freshwater.

zingel, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1766:482 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Danube River, Germany. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.81 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin) Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:219 [ref. 13434]. Based on multiple sources including the 'Perca dorso dipterygio: capite plagiplateo squamoso' of Gronow 1763:92 [ref. 1910], the 'Aspervlvs, Zindel Ratisbonensium' of Schaeffer 1761:58, Pl. 3, fig. 1 [ref. 3910], and the 'Perca pinnis dorsalibus distinctis ..., Zingel' of Kramer 1756:386 [ref. 30180]. •Valid as Aspro zingel (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Berg 1949:1042 [ref. 20662]). •Valid as Zingel zingel (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1459 [ref. 5845], Lelek 1987:300 [ref. 22962], Kottelat 1997:174 [ref. 22952], Hanel 2003:63 [ref. 27894], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:178 [ref. 28369], Hanel & Lusk 2005:358 [ref. 28804], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:538 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Valid as Zingel zingel (Linnaeus 1766). Percidae: Luciopercinae. Distribution: Europe: Danube and Dniestr drainages. Habitat: freshwater.

zonalis, Poecilichthys Cope [E. D.] 1868:212, Pl. [24] 28 (fig. 1) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 6 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 909] Holston River, Virginia, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 13799. Paralectotypes: ANSP 13800-01 (2), UMMZ 187507 (4). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:70 [ref. 20211], Böhlke 1984:140 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype selected by Collette & Knapp 1967:70 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma zonale (Cope 1868) -- (Lee et al. 1980:710 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:73 [ref. 22189], Smith 1986:335 [ref. 22186], Etnier & Starnes 1986:832 [ref. 22455], Robison & Buchanan 1988:444 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:298 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:122 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:550 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:832 [ref. 21581], Stauffer et al. 1995:316 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:233 [ref. 23394], Turner et al. 1996:2023 [ref. 25532], Mettee et al. 1996:683 [ref. 25836], Fuller et al. 1999:384 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:45 [ref. 26594], Bailey et al. 2004:198 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:378 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:565 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:35 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:549 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Stephens et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33552]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma zonale (Cope 1868). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern and central U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

zonifer, Hololepis Hubbs [C. L.] & Cannon [M. D.] 1935:47, Pls. 1 (fig. 5), 2 (fig. 6) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 30; ref. 2255] Pools of Catoma Creek, 5 miles southwest of Montgomery, Montgomery County, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 88803. Paratypes: UMMZ 88822 (1). Type catalog: Collette & Knapp 1967:52 [ref. 20211]. •Valid as Etheostoma zoniferum (Hubbs & Cannon 1935) -- (Collette 1962:148 [ref. 5865], Lee et al. 1980:711 [ref. 22416], Page 1983:155 [ref. 22189], Page & Burr 1991:325 [ref. 18983]). •Valid as Etheostoma zonifer (Hubbs & Cannon 1935) -- (Boschung 1992:122 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:685 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:493 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:566 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:35 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:600 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:331 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma zonifer (Hubbs & Cannon 1935). Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.: Alabama, Mississippi and Florida. Habitat: freshwater.

zonistium, Etheostoma Bailey [R. M.] & Etnier [D. A.] 1988:39, Pl. 1 (lower) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 175; ref. 6873] Leath Creek, tributary to Chambers Creek, Hardin County, Tennesse, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 213926. Paratypes: AMNH 55780 (14); AUM; CAS 56328 (4); CUMV; INHS 68218 (6); KU; LACM 43798-1; NLU 56291 (14); OS; OSM; OSUS; SIUC; TU; UF 42061 (4); UIAC; UMMZ 213927 (16); UOMZ; USNM 270858 (10); UT; plus more at UMMZ. Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:61 [ref. 20906], Sabaj et al. 1997:285 [ref. 23225]. •Valid as Etheostoma zonistium Bailey & Etnier 1988 -- (Carney & Burr 1989 [ref. 13825], Page & Burr 1991:301 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:122 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:552 [ref. 22809], Mettee et al. 1996:687 [ref. 25836], Ross et al. 2001:495 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:136 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:567 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2008:35 [ref. 30399], Page & Burr 2011:556 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32708], Kozal et al. 2017:280 [ref. 35621]). Current status: Valid as Etheostoma zonistium Bailey & Etnier 1988. Percidae: Etheostomatinae. Distribution: Eastern U.S.A.: Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama. Habitat: freshwater.