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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Pimelodidae: [ 220 ] records


absconditus, Pimelodus Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] 1995:72, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 21673] Uruguay River, San Javier, Misiones, Argentina. Holotype: MLP 8781. Paratypes: FMNH 104890 (1); IML 439-1a (1), 1597 (1); MACN 514 (1); MLP (12 lots, 23, 3 c&s); MZUSP 49078 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:16 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Pimelodus absconditus Azpelicueta 1995 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Vidal & Lucena 1999:122 [ref. 24269], Azpelicueta 2001:198 [ref. 25639], López et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26808], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:58 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155], Souza-Filhol & Shibatta 2007:478 [ref. 29504], Azpelicueta et al. 2008:155 [ref. 29736], Ribeiro & Lucena 2010:277 [ref. 30865], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus absconditus Azpelicueta 1995. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Rio Uruguay drainage: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

abuelo, Sovichthys Schultz [L. P.] 1944:191, Pl. 1 (fig. A) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río de Los Pájaros, 3 kilometers above Lago Maracaibo, Venezuela, depth 15 feet. Holotype: USNM 121183. Paratypes: CAS 11392 [ex USNM 121212] (4); G. Dahl coll. (2), FMNH 94178 [ex USNM 121212] (3), 94823 [ex USNM 121212] (1, c&s); MCZ 37216 [ex USNM 121211] (1); UMMZ 142496 [ex USNM 121211] (1); USNM 121184 (4, now 2), 121185-88 (3, 2, 3, 3), 121198 (4), 121211 (17, now 14), 121212 (57, now 46), ZMA 102.132 [ex USNM 121184] (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:62 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:80 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:38 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sovichthys abuelo Schultz 1944 -- (Stewart & Pavlik 1985:365 [ref. 5240], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:69 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Cheirocerus abuelo (Schultz 1944) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Cheirocerus abuelo (Schultz 1944). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

affine, Platystoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:24 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN A-9360 (mounted). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:57 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155] Based on one specimen and literature source. •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:434 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

agassizii, Pimelodus Steindachner [F.] 1876:147 [99] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Amazon River at Tefé, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) not yet found at NMW. On p. 99 of separate. Apparently the same as Pirinampus agassizii Streindachner 1876 [or 1877?]. Possibly Ichthyologische Beiträge IV was the first description (the species was later returned to Pimelodus ?), but exact publication dates are needed. •Valid as Perugia agassizii (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Burgess 1989:275 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:7 [ref. 24302] with question). Current status: Synonym of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

agassizii, Pirinampus Steindachner [F.] 1876:607 [57], Pl. 12 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] Parà, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 45955. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]. On p. 57 of separate. Also appeared as Pimelodus agassizii in Steindachner 1876:147 [99] [ref. 4225]. Dates of publication need documentation. •Synonym of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155] dated 1876). Current status: Synonym of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

aguanai, Exallodontus Lundberg [J. G.], Mago-Leccia [F.] & Nass [P.] 1991:847, Figs. 2-10, 13 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 104 (no. 4); ref. 19175] Río Orinoco near Los Castillos, Territorio Federal, Delta Amacuro, Venezuela, 8°32'N, 62°23'W, depth 20-30 meters. Holotype: MBUCV-V-18930. Paratypes: AMNH 59041 (3); ANSP 150177-78 (2), 160185 (1), 165812-14 (5, 2, 1); BMNH 1990.4.23.2-3 (2); CAS 63850 (2); DU F-865 (5, 1 c&s), F-977 (4, 1 dry skel.); FMNH 99441-42 (4, 3); INPA 4450-51 (1, 2); LACM 43311-1 (2); MBUCV (32, 13 lots); MZUSP 41395 (1); UMMZ 217309 (2); USNM 308421-22 (1, 1), 308423 (7), 320097 (1); plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:33 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:8 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Exallodontus aguanai Lundberg, Mago-Leccia & Nass 1991 -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Exallodontus aguanai Lundberg, Mago-Leccia & Nass 1991. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

albicans, Arius Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:80 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9400 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:54 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155] Based on one specimen and literature sources. As Arius albidus Valenciennes 1835: Pl. 3 (fig. 2). Unneeded new name for Arius albidus Valenciennes 1835, but following recent authors, Arius albidus Valenciennes 1835 is regarded as a forgotten name and Arius albicans is retained in use. •Valid as Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:58 [ref. 23791], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], Azpelicueta 1998:92 [ref. 24175], Sverlij et al. 1998:55 [ref. 27632], Vidal & Lucena 1999:122 [ref. 24269], Butí & Cancino 1999:71 [ref. 25277], Azpelicueta 2001:198 [ref. 25639], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:58 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:170, 192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

albidus, Arius Valenciennes [A.] 1834:Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9400. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950 [ref. 19575]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:6 [ref. 5010], as Arius moroti. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:80 [ref. 1008] as Arius albicans. The name albicans is retained for stability over albidus by Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061]. Pl. 3 was published in 1834. •Synonym of Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

albofasciatus, Pimelodus Mees [G. F.] 1974:137, Pl. 4 [Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) No. 132; ref. 2969] Sipaliwini, Suriname. Holotype: RMNH 26516. Paratypes: RMNH 26514-15 (35, 1), 26517 (13), 26518-20 (10, 7, 2); ZMA 106839 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:60 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus albofasciatus Mees 1974 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Lucinda et al. 2016:343 [ref. 34916], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus albofasciatus Mees 1974. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon, Orinoco, upper Corantijn and Sipaliwini River basins: Brazil, Colombia, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

altissimus, Pimelodus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Pearson [N. E.] in Eigenmann & Allen 1942:106, Pl. 5 (fig. 5) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Río Ucayali near Orellana, Amazon system, Peru. Holotype (unique): CAS 55369 [ex IU 15797]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus altissimus Eigenmann & Pearson 1942 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Sarmiento et al. 2014:170, 192 [ref. 35004], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). •See Le Bail et al. 2000:100 [ref. 24549]. Current status: Valid as Pimelodus altissimus Eigenmann & Pearson 1942. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia (?) and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

amaxanthum, Megalonema Lundberg [J. G.] & Dahdul [W. M.] 2008:447, Fig. 6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29853] Río Tahuamanu from Boca Nareuda to below Cachuelita, 11°18'S, 68°44'W, Pando State, Bolivia. Holotype: CBF 11896 [ex FMNH 106769]. Paratypes: many at ANSP, FMNH, IAvH-P, MBUCV-V, MUSM, MZUSP, NPA, USNM. Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Megalonema amaxanthum Lundberg & Dahdul 2008 -- (Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Megalonema amaxanthum Lundberg & Dahdul 2008. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru (and probably Colombia). Habitat: freshwater.

amblyurus, Steindachneria Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:137 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Jequitinhonha, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 7324 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]. The genus Steindachneridion is neuter, so name is amblyurum if an adjectrive. •Valid as Steindachneridion amblyura (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Steidachneridion amblyurus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Steindachneridion amblyurum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Garavello 2005:612 [ref. 28464], Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Steindachneridion amblyurum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Jequitinhonha River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

araguayae, Propimelodus Rocha [M. S.], de Oliveira [R. R.] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2007:280, Figs. 1, 2a, 3, 5, 6c [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 29281] Barra do Garças, rio Araguaia, 15°50'15"S, 51°58'43"W, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 26119. Paratypes: INPA 26120 (8 + 2 c&s), 26121 (5 + 1 c&s). •Valid as Propimelodus araguayae Rocha, de Oliveira & Rapp Py-Daniel 2007. Current status: Valid as Propimelodus araguayae Rocha, de Oliveira & Rapp Py-Daniel 2007. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Middle Araguaia River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

araguayensis, Galeichthys Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:37, Pl. 17 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio Araguay, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9366 (mounted). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:57 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Platynematichthys araguayensis (Castelnau 1855), but genus questionable -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

arekaima, Pimelodus Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:178, Pl. 5 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Upper Essequibo River and Río Branco. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia arekaima (Jardine 1841) -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Species inquirenda in Leiarius, family Pimelodidae -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Guyana and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

argenteus, Pimelodus Perugia [A.] 1891:631 [31] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 10; ref. 3431] Río de la Plata; Río Paraná, Argentina. Syntypes: MSNG 14570 (2). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:310 [ref. 10351]. On p. 31 of separate. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pimelodus argenteus Lacepède 1803, but retained as valid under Art. 23.9.5; see Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061]. Not treated in Ferraris 2007 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus argenteus Perugia 1891 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:58 [ref. 23791], Azpelicueta 1998:94 [ref. 24175], Britski et al. 1999:102 [ref. 24147], Vidal & Lucena 1999:122 [ref. 24269], Azpelicueta 2001:198 [ref. 25639], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:58 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Souza-Filhol & Shibatta 2007:478 [ref. 29504], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Sarmiento et al. 2014:170, 192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber & Litz 2016:4 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus argenteus Perugia 1891. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

argentina, Perugia MacDonagh [E. J.] 1938:157 [Revista del Museo de La Plata, Sección Zoología N. S., v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 17156] Río Paraná, Posadas, Terriotrio de Misiones, Argentina. Holotype: MLP 1650 [ex 5.VI.35-20]. Paratypes: (5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:18 [ref. 33466], Grant 2019:15 [ref. 36756]. The species epithet is a noun [named after the Republic of Argentina]. •Valid as Luciopimelodus argentina (MacDonagh 1938) -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:60 [ref. 23791] as argentinus, López et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27366] as argentinus). •Valid as Megalonema argentina (MacDonagh 1938) -- (Burgess 1989:275 [ref. 12860], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35267] as argentinum). •Valid as Pinirampus argentinus (MacDonagh 1938) -- (Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Pinirampus argentina (MacDonagh 1938) -- (Grant 2019:15 [ref. 36756]). Current status: Valid as Pinirampus argentina (MacDonagh 1938). Pimelodidae. Distribution: South America: Paraná River basin, Argentina and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

argentinus, Pimelodus Humboldt [F. H. A. von] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:171 [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Río Magdalena near Chilloa, Colombia. No types known. •Valid as Rhamdia argentina (Humboldt 1821) -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Status uncertain -- (Nico 2001:141 [ref. 25828]). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Colombia [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

artedii, Platystoma Günther [A.] 1864:106 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] South America. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]. Based on literature sources. •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:8 [ref. 29327], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus 1766). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ascita, Mystus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:661 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. •Synonym of Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803 -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117] with question, Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267] with question). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803. Pimelodidae.

ascita, Pseudorhamdia Bleeker [P.] 1862:384 [14] [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 14; ref. 390] Suriname. Syntypes: (4). On p. 14 of separate. •Species inquirenda in Pimelodus -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061]). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

atrobrunneus, Pimelodus Vidal [E. S.] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] 1999:123, Figs. 103 [Biociências, Porto Alegre v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 24269] Rio Ligeiro ne estrada entre Marcelino Ramos e Maximiliano de Almeida, Marcelino Ramos, 27°38'S, 51°52'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 19678. Paratypes: MCP 13340 (11), 12354-55 (1, 1), 13422 (12), 12481 (1), 12859 (2), 12904 (5, 1 c&s), 13398 (9), 18866 (2), 21152 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus atrobrunneus Vidal & Lucena 1999 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus atrobrunneus Vidal & Lucena 1999. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper Uruguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bahiensis, Pimelodus Bleeker [P.] 1864:66 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 20; ref. 14181] Name only, not available. Pimelodidae.

barbancho, Pimelodus Humboldt [F. H. A. von] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:172 [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Río Guarico and Río Apuré, Venezuela. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]. Name suppressed in favor of pirinampu. •Possible senior synonym of Pimelodus pirinampu pix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Nico 2001:142 [ref. 25828]. •Regarded as a forgotten name -- Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

barbatus, Platysilurus Haseman [J. D.] 1911:320, Pl. 52 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (17); ref. 2047] São Antonio de Río Madeira, Bolivia. Holotype: FMNH 60306 [ex CM 2987]. Paratypes: CAS 63724 [ex IU 13330; ex CM 2988] (1), FMNH 54341 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:78 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Platysilurus barbatus Haseman 1911 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Platysilurus mucosus (Vailland 1880) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Platysilurus mucosus (Vaillant 1880). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

bicolor, Phractocephalus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:23, Pl. 6 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Amazon River. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155]. As Pirarara bicolor on plate. •Synonym of Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Boeseman 1983:108 [ref. 5329], Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

blochii, Pimelodus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:188 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Suriname. Lectotype: MNHN B-0072. Paralectotype: ZMB 2995 (1). Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:168 [ref. 24006], Paepke 1999:113 [ref. 24282], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155]. Based in part on Silurus clarias of Bloch, Pl. 35 (figs. 1-2). •Valid as Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes 1840 -- (Mees 1986:313 [ref. 5693], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Cervigón 1992:379 [ref. 23827], Le Bail et al. 2000:96, 98 [ref. 24549], Azpelicueta 2001:198 [ref. 25639], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Ferraris 2003:858 [ref. 26999], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:411 [ref. 28899], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2008:464 [ref. 29855], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:170, 192 [ref. 35004], Lucinda et al. 2016:343 [ref. 34916], Melo et al. 2016:376 [ref. 35317], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324], Villa-Navarro et al. 2017:356 [ref. 35495], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:80 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes 1840. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon, Corantijn, Essequibo and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

brevifile, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:31 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Goiás, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 7317. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061],Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau 1855) -- (Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:21 [ref. 29327]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau 1855). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

brevis, Pimelodus Marini [T. L.], Nichols [J. T.] & La Monte [F. R.] 1933:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 618; ref. 2889] Río Durazno, Río de la Plata, San Fernando, Argentina. Holotype (unique): AMNH 12240 (missing since 1960s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus brevis Marini, Nichols & La Monte 1933 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Azpelicueta 1995:75 [ref. 21673], Vidal & Lucena 1999:122 [ref. 24269], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:58 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565]). •Synonym of Pimelodus argenteus Perugia 1891 -- (Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber & Litz 2016:4 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus argenteus Perugia 1891. Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

britskii, Pimelodus Garavello [J. C.] & Shibatta [O. A.] 2007:287, Figs. 4-5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 29282] União da Vitória, rio Iguaço, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 105098 [ex FMNH 54241 and CM 2858]. Paratypes: many at FMNH, MZUEL and MZUSP. •Valid as Pimelodus britskii Garavello & Shibatta 2007 -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2008:155 [ref. 29736], Koerber 2011:6 [ref. 31122], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus britskii Garavello & Shibatta 2007. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Iguaçu River basin, Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

caerulorostris, Platypogon Starks [E. C.] 1913:29, Pl. 5 [Leland Stanford Jr. University Publications, University Series; ref. 4197] Pará market, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 22228. Paratypes: AMNH 3951 (1); CAS-SU 22209 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:44 [ref. 12291]. Holotype designated in Pl. 5. Spelled caerulirostris by Starks in Jordan 1920:551 [ref. 4905]. •Status doubtful, may equal Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine 1841) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine 1841) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Lundberg et al. 2011:169 [ref. 31593]). Current status: Synonym of Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine 1841). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

caesius, Propimelodus Parisi [B. M.], Lundberg [J. G.] & DoNascimiento [C.] 2006:68, Figs. 1, 2, 4A, 5A, 6A-c, 7A [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 155; ref. 28772] Rio Amazonas above Rio Trombetas, 20 kilometers above Obidos 1°56'07.3"S, 55°41'18.5"W, Pará State, Brazil, depth 4-7 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 88582. Paratypes: Many at AMNH, ANSP, FMNH, INPA, MBUCV, MHNLS, MNHN, MZUSP, USNM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Propimelodus caesius Parisi, Lundberg & DoNascimiento 2006 -- (Rocha et al. 2007:279 [ref. 29281], Ferraris 2007:443 [ref. 29155] with third author as DoNascimiento). Current status: Valid as Propimelodus caesius Parisi, Lundberg & DoNascimiento 2006. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River channels and tributaries: Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

capapretum, Brachyplatystoma Lundberg [J. G.] & Akama [A.] 2005:501, Figs. 1, 2, 8 [Copeia 2005 (no. 3); ref. 28312] Rio Tefé sand beach, Lago Mucura, Supiã-Pucu, Tefé, 3°22'S, 64°43'W, Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 78481. Paratypes: ANSP 178101 (1), 179218 (1), 179758 (1), 180484 (1); INPA 10302 (2); MZUSP 55516 (2), 78478 [ex MZUSP 5634] (1). Plus many non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Brachyplatystoma capapretum Lundberg & Akama 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[24] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Brachyplatystoma capapretum Lundberg & Akama 2005. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Widespread in the Amazon River basin: Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

caparary, Sorubim Spix [J. B. von] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:Pl. 13 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Name is available from the plate legend. •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

carapary, Sorubim Spix [J. B. von] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:Pl. 13 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Published in the synonymy of Platystoma corruscans but name is available from the plate. See Littmann et al. 2001:2 [ref. 25400]. •In the synonymy of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:11 [ref. 29327], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

coprophagus, Pimelodus clarias Schultz [L. P.] 1944:203, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Agua Caliente, 2-3 kilometers above southwestern corner of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, depth 15 feet. Holotype: USNM 121150. Paratypes: FMNH 84585 [ex USNM 121147] (3), 95495 (1, c&s); MCZ 36212 [ex USNM 121148] (5); UMMZ 142494 [ex USNM 121147] (2); USNM 121145-46 (6, 1), 121147 (25, now 19), 121148-49 (31, 5), 121151 (11, now 9, 2 to G. Dahl), 121152-53 (1, 6), 121154 (10, now 8), 121155 (7), 121156 (9, not 15), 121157-59 (5, 2, 2); ZMA 102124 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:60 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:36 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pimelodus clarias [but see that account], but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:62 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Pimelodus coprophagus Schultz 1944 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta et al. 2008:159 [ref. 29736], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Villa-Navarro et al. 2017:339 [ref. 35495], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus coprophagus Schultz 1944. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

corruscans, Platystoma Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:26, Pl. 13 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rio São Francisco, Tres Marias e Pirapora, 18°13'S, 45°15'W, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Neotype: MCP 14071. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]. As Sorubim caparary on plate. Misspelled coruscans by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:17 [ref. 1008]; not an original description contra Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061]. Neotype designated by Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:15 [ref. 29327]. •Valid as Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz 1829) [often as coruscans, authorship varies] -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:60 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:60 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:108 [ref. 24147], Butí & Cancino 1999:72 [ref. 25277], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:61 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131] as coruscans, Swarça et al. 2005:325 [ref. 28520] as corruscans, Buitrago-Suárez 2006:118 [ref. 28917], Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:14 [ref. 29327], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155] as corruscans, Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:172, 192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561] as corruscans, Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Distribution: São Francisco and Paraná River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

coruscans, Pimelodus Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1819:58 [Zoologisches Magazin (Wiedemann) 1819, v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 17526] Brazil. Holotype (unique): Not known, not ZMB 2978. Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:168 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:37 [ref. 29155]. See Marceniuk & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:448 [ref. 27061] for problems with the type and with family placement. •Valid as Paradiplomystes coruscans (Lichtenstein 1819) -- (Burgess 1989:168 [ref. 12860]). •Questionably a synonym of Bagre bagre (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Marceniuk & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:448 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:37 [ref. 29155]). •Species inquirenda -- (Marceniuk & Menezes 2007:31 [ref. 29031]). •Synonym of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes 1840 or Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken 1874) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:18 [ref. 33622]). •Synonym of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes 1840) and in family Pimelodidae -- (Kailola 2004:144 [ref. 28108] on personal communications but apparently with wrong type, Mirande & Koerber 2015:31 [ref. 35117] with question, Koerber et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35267] with question). Current status: Synonym of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae.

crypticus, Pimelodus Villa-Navarro [F. A.] & Cala [P.] in Villa-Navarro, Acero P. & Cala 2017:354, Fig. 14 [Zootaxa 4299 (no. 3); ref. 35495] Cauca River, La Balastrera sector, Timba, Departament of Cauca, Colombia, 03°03'03"N, 76°39'56"’W. Holotype: CZUT-IC 1986. Paratypes: CZUT-IC; ICNMHN 16391 (1); IMCN. Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:48 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Pimelodus crypticus Villa-Navarro & Cala 2017 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus crypticus Villa-Navarro & Cala 2017. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper Cauca River drainage, Cauca, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

ctenodus, Pimelodus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:21, Pl. 8a [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rivers of Equatorial Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]. As no Spix name is given anywhere, this name is attributed to Agassiz. •Synonym of Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein 1819) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein 1819). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cunaguaro, Ginesia Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1951:[2], Fig. [Evencias No. 10; ref. 14283] Río Apure, 3 kilometers east of San Fernando de Apure, Venezuela. Holotype: AFY 51189. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]. On second unnumbered page. •Status uncertain, family Pimelodidae -- (Burgess 1989:283 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger 1898) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Lundberg & Akama 2005:497 [ref. 28312], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger 1898). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cuspicaudus, Sorubim Littmann [M. W.], Burr [B. M.] & Nass [P.] 2000:903, Figs. 2b, 3, 4c [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 113 (no. 4); ref. 25063] Río Magdalena drainage, at Puerto Soplaviento, Departamento de Tolima, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56223. Paratypes: AUM 28756 (2); CAS 150404 (1), 150406 (1); FMNH 60305 (3), 107492 (2); INHS 35428 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sorubim cuspicaudus Littmann, Burr & Nass 2000 -- (Littmann et al. 2001:2 [ref. 25400], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Littmann 2007:17 [ref. 29028], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Sorubim cuspicaudus Littmann, Burr & Nass 2000. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo, Magdalena and Sinu River basins: Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

dawall, Hypophthalmus Röhl [E.] 1942:385 [Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela; ref. 20992] •Refers to Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840) -- (J. Lundberg, 2/04/2015, not available, no description except massive size). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae.

devall, Hypophthalmus Röhl [E.] 1942:383 [Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela; ref. 20992] Venezuela, rios Aupre y Orinoco. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]. Original not seen. •Species inquirenda in Hypophthalmus -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

doceana, Steindachneria Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:30 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Rio Doce, between Linhares and Aimors, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 23792-94 (1, 1, 7). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]. Steindachneridion is neuter, so name is doceanum if an adjective. •Valid as Steindachneridion doceana (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], de Oliveira & de Moraes Junior 1997:5 [ref. 23460], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Steindachneridion doceanum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Garavello 2005:613 [ref. 28464], Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Steindachneridion doceanum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Doce River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dundu, Silurus Natterer [J.] in Kner 1858:418 [48] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] On p. 48 of separate. Not available, Natterer manuscript name mentioned in passing under Pimelodus gracilis. Pimelodidae.

edentatus, Hypophthalmus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:16, Pl. 9 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rivers of equatorial Brazil. Syntypes: MHNN 0000-0706 (2). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:149 [ref. 21784], Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380], Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155]. Name first published in Cuvier 1829 [ref. 995]. •Valid as Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:294 [ref. 12860], Cervigón 1992:341 [ref. 23827], Chang & Ortega 1995:6 [ref. 24302], Gómez & Chebez 1996:61 [ref. 23791], de Pinna 1998:321 [ref. 23847], Britski et al. 1999:97 [ref. 24147], López-Fernández & Winemiller 2000:37 [ref. 24443], Le Bail et al. 2000:150 [ref. 24549], Ferraris 2003:858 [ref. 26999], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321] as cf. edentatus, Sarmiento et al. 2014:167, 192 [ref. 35004], Littmann et al. 2015:161, 172 [ref. 33933], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], Melo et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:80 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins and Atlantic coastal rivers of Guyana and Suriname: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

eigenmanni, Pimelodus Van der Stigchel [J. W. R.] 1946:64 [The South American Nematognathi; ref. 13094] Brazil. Holotype: RMNH 15465. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]. Based on one specimen and literature sources. Preoccupied by Pimelodus eigenmanni Boulenger 1891. See Mees 1986:314 [ref. 5693]. But Lundberg & Parisi 2002:76 [ref. 26381] point out that the two species were never simultaneously considered congeners so they retain both species as available [but 23.9.5 also requires a petition to the Commission]. •Valid as Pimelodus eigenmanni Van der Stigchel 1946 -- (Lundberg & Parisi 2002:77 [ref. 26381]). •Valid as Propimelodus eigenmanni (Van der Stigchel 1946) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Parci et al. 2006:67 [ref. 28772], Rocha et al. 2007:279 [ref. 29281], Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Propimelodus eigenmanni (Van der Stigchel 1946). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon, Approuague, Kourou and Oyapack River basins: Brazil and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Sorubim Littmann [M. W.], Burr [B. M.], Schmidt [R. E.] & Isern [E. R.] 2001:4, Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 25400] Río Itaya drainage, 50 meters upstream of confluence wth Moena Caño, Río Amazonas basin (ca. 3°46'20"S, 73°14'17"W), Ullpa Caño, Maynas Province, Depto Loreto, Peru. Holotype: SIUC 30303. Paratypes: ANSP 177851 (3); AUM 29743 (3); CAS 202084 (5); FMNH 107493 (5); INHS 39291 (15), 40250 (2), 46300 (5), 61518 (1); MBUCV-V-29370 (2); MHNJP [= MUSM] 16158 (3); MZUSP 7012 (40 of 66); SIUC 32065 (6); USNM 349717 (5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sorubim elongatus Littmann, Burr, Schmidt & Isern 2001 -- (Littman et al. 2001:87 [ref. 25810], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Littmann 2007:18 [ref. 29028], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:173, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Sorubim elongatus Littmann, Burr, Schmidt & Isern 2001. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon, Essequibo and Orinoco river basins and Mamore River: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

emarginatum, Platystoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:25 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Rio São Francisco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9353 (mounted). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:60 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Duopalatinus emarginatus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Duopalatinus emarginatus (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

eques, Cheirocerus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:398, Pl. 39 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 11 (nos 3-4) (art. 14); ref. 1235] Villa Bella, Río Beni into Río Madeira, Bolivia. Holotype: FMNH 58255 [ex CM 7254]. Paratypes: FMNH 58256-58 (1, 3, 1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:76 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:23 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cheirocerus eques Eigenmann 1917 -- (Stewart & Pavlik 1985:361 [ref. 5240], Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[24] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Cheirocerus eques Eigenmann 1917. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, ?Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Silurus Linnaeus [C.] 1766:505 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Mazaruni-Potaro tributaries of Essequibo River, Guyanas, 5°31'39.5"N, 58°37'43.6"W. Neotype: FMNH 116903. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]. Neotype [INHS 48973] mentioned by Buitrago-Suárez 2006:120 [ref. 28917] should be disregarded (pers. comm. Buitrago-Suárez 11/07). Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:9 [ref. 29327] selected FMNH 116903 as the neotype. Based on multiple sources including the 'Mystus maculosus ...' of Seba 1759:84, Pl. 19, fig. 6 (v. 3) [ref. 18716], the 'Mystus cirris sex ...' of Gronow 1763:125 [ref. 1910], which latter work was based on the 'Bagre alia species (No. 5)' of Markgraf von Liebstadt 1648:174 (v. 4) [ref. 30347], the 'Bagre quinta' of Ray 1713:82 [ref. 30231], and the 'Bagre' of Willughby 1686: Pl. H7, fig. 2 [ref. 30164]. •Valid as Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:60 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:61 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:108 [ref. 24147], Loubens & Panfili 2000:13 [ref. 24465], Le Bail et al. 2000:104 [ref. 24549], Lasso et al. 2001:99 [ref. 25928], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:61 [ref. 27366], Gallo & Díaz-Sarmiento 2003:599 [ref. 27701], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Swarça et al. 2005:325 [ref. 28520], Buitrago-Suárez 2006:120 [ref. 28917], Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:8 [ref. 29327], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745] as cf. fasciatum, Sarmiento et al. 2014:172, 192 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], DoNascimiento 2016:534 [ref. 34727], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus 1766). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Ecuador, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Uruguay and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

filamentosus, Pimelodus Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1819:60 [Zoologisches Magazin (Wiedemann) 1819, v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 17526] Brazil. Syntypes: ZMB 2973 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:169 [ref. 24006] with a holotype, Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155] with a holotype. Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:434 [ref. 27061] regard ZMB 2973 as the holotype. •Valid as Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Cervigón 1992:379 [ref. 23827], Gómez & Chebez 1996:60 [ref. 23791], Le Bail et al. 2000:84 [ref. 24549], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Ferraris 2003:857 [ref. 26999], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:434 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Lundberg & Akama 2005:498 [ref. 28312], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:164, 192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], Melo et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins and major rivers of Guianas and northeastern Brazil: ?Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

fimbriatus, Hypophthalmus Kner [R.] 1858:444 [74], Pl. 9 (fig. 30) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] Rio Negro, South America. Syntypes: NMW 50519 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155]. On p. 74 of separate. •Valid as Hypophthalmus fimbriatus Kner 1858 -- (de Pinna 1998:321 [ref. 23847], López-Fernández & Winemiller 2000:41 [ref. 24443], Le Bail et al. 2000:150 [ref. 24549], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155] dated 1857, Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:167, 192 [ref. 35004], Littmann et al. 2015:160, 173 [ref. 33933], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypophthalmus fimbriatus Kner 1858. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

flavicans, Bagrus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:32, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8823 (mounted). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:58 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Brachyplatystoma flavicans (Castelnau 1855) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Le Bail et al. 2000:86 [ref. 24549], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639]). •Synonym of Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt 1821) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt 1821). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

flavipinnis, Pimelodina Steindachner [F.] 1876:150 [102], Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Amazon River at Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 45498. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155]. On p. 102 of separate. As Pimelodus (Pimelodina) flavipinnis on legend page (192) for plates. •Valid as Pimelodina flavipinnis Steindachner 1876 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Stewart 1986:657 [ref. 5211], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento 2016:534 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodina flavipinnis Steindachner 1876. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

flavus, Silurus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:376 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Corresponds to Silurus 10-radiatus on p. 385. Appeared as Silurus flavus vel 10-radiatus in Devincenzi 1925: 307, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Pimelodus clarias (Linnaeus 1758). Pimelodidae.

fluviatilis, Barbatus Feuillée [L.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:177 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Not available, name mentioned in passing in account of Pimelodus pati. Pimelodidae.

forschammeri, Platystoma Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1875:154 [34] [Det. Kongelige Danske visenskabernes selskabs skrifter. Naturvidenskabelig og mathematisk afdeling. 5te Raekk [Ser. 5]. v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 19674] On p. 34 of separate. Not available, name in the synonymy of Platystoma orbignianum Valenciennes 1836. •Species inquirenda in genus Pseudoplatystoma -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061]). Pimelodidae.

frenata, Breviglanis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1910:384 [Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of tropical and south temperate America v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 1224] Not available, name and locality but no description; from Amatuk, Guyana. Pimelodidae.

fur, Pseudorhamdia Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1874:33 [5] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 1); ref. 2855] Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 44443 (3), 45765 (2); SMNS 2026 (1); ZMB 9181 (2); ZMUC P 29643-51 (1 ea.) -- previously ZMUC 285-286 (2), 289 (1), 291 (1), 297 (1), 300 (1), 302-303 (2), 306 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:50 [ref. 9588], Fricke 1995:17 [ref. 28100], Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:171 [ref. 24006], Fricke 2005:42 [ref. 29864] On p. 5 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:169 (and p. VI of summary), Pl. 2 (fig. 3), Pl. 3 (fig. 3a) [ref. 19674]. •Valid as Pimelodus fur (Lütken 1874) -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Azpelicueta 1995:75 [ref. 21673], Britski et al. 1999:99 [ref. 24147] as cf. fur, Azpelicueta 2001:198 [ref. 25639], Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:411 [ref. 28899], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155] with author as Reinhardt, Azpelicueta et al. 2008:155 [ref. 29736], Ribeiro & Lucena 2010:277 [ref. 30865], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Azpelicueta & Britski 2012:51 [ref. 31850], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus fur (Lütken 1874). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Das Velhas River basin in São Francisco River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

garciabarrigai, Pimelodus Dahl [G.] 1961:494, Fig. [Novedades Colombianas v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 1027] Deep pool in Caño Lozada, about 11 kilometers above its junction with Río Guayabero, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN 744. Paratypes: ICNMHN 410 (5). Type catalog: Cala 1981:4 [ref. 23525], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:49 [ref. 36127]. Originally as garcia-barrigai. •Valid as Pimelodus garciabarrigai Dahl 1961 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860] as garciabarringi, Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus garciabarrigai Dahl 1961. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Guayabero River basin in Orinoco River drainage, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

garciamarquezi, Pseudoplatystoma Royero [R.], Buitrago-Suárez [U.], Mojica [I.], Valderrama [M.] & Galvis [G.] 2008:no page number [ ref. 29974] Appeared in a manuscript posted on the internet. Not an available publication, apparently withdrawn. Perhaps the same as Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007. •In the synonymy of Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007. Current status: Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007. Pimelodidae.

gerupensis, Silurus Natterer [J.] in Kner 1858:399 [29] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] On p. 29 of separate. Not available, Natterer manuscript name mentioned in synonymy under Platysoma lima. See Littmann et al. 2000:902 [ref. 25063], Littmann et al. 2001:2 [ref. 25400]. •In the synonymy of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Littmann 2007:8 [ref. 29028], Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pimelodidae.

gerupoca, Silurus Natterer [J.] in Kner 1858:399 [29] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] On p. 29 of separate. Not available, Natterer manuscript name mentioned in passing under Platysoma platyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1840). Not mentioned in Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155]. •In the synonymy of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes 1840 or Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken 1874) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:18 [ref. 33622]). •In the synonymy of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:31 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae.

gigantea, Paulicea Goeldi ex Ihering 1900:474 [Prometheus v. 11 (no. 550); ref. 36916] Rio Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil. No types known. Unnecessary replacement name for Paulicea jahu Ihering 1898 (see Koerber 2019:122 [ref. 36915]). Also appeared in Goeldi 1900:384 [ref. 36917]. •Synonym of Zungaro jahu (Ihering 1898) -- (Koerber 2019:122 [ref. 36915]). Current status: Synonym of Zungaro jahu (Ihering 1898). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

gigas, Platystoma Günther [A.] 1872:450 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 10 (no. 60) (art. 66); ref. 18193] Río Huallaga, Amazon system, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1872.12.3.1 (stuffed). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155]. The original number for the holotype may have been 1872.12.3.1; it was recataloged in 2005. •Valid as Sorubimichthys gigas (Günther 1872) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819) -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:434 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

goeldii, Brachyplatystoma Eigenmann [C. H.] & Bean [B. A.] 1907:661, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1503); ref. 1247] Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): USNM 52561. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:32 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

goeldii, Duoplatinus Steindachner [F.] 1908:65 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 6) (for 13 Feb. 1908); ref. 13415] Rio Purus, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Duoplatinus goeldii Steindachner 1908 -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Platysilurus mucosus (Vaillant 1880) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Platysilurus mucosus (Vaillant 1880). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

goeldii, Pimelodina Steindachner [F.] 1908:83 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 7) (for 20 Feb. 1908); ref. 18801] Rio Purus, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cheirocerus goeldii (Steindachner 1908) -- (Stewart & Pavlik 1985:364 [ref. 5240], Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta & Britski 2012:51 [ref. 31850], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Cheirocerus goeldii (Steindachner 1908). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

goliath, Bagrus Kner [R.] (ex Heckel) 1858:379 [9] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] Salto Theotonio, Brazil. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]. On p. 9 of separate. •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Castelnau 1855) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155] dated 1857). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Castelnau 1855). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

grosskopfii, Pimelodus (Pimelodus) Steindachner [F.] 1879:194 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 18) (for 17 July 1879); ref. 20479] Río Cauca, Colombia. Syntypes: (several) NMW 45781-82 (4, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155]. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:186 [p. 68 of separate] [ref. 4229]. •Valid as Pimelodus grosskopfii Steindachner 1879 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:62 [ref. 23651], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Azpelicueta 1998:94 [ref. 24175], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta et al. 2008:159 [ref. 29736], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Villa-Navarro et al. 2017:344 [ref. 35495], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus grosskopfii Steindachner 1879. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Magdalena, Cauca and San Jorge River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

grunniens, Pimelodus Humboldt [F. H. A. von] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:172 [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Río Orinoco, South America. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia grunniens Humboldt 1821, but perhaps a synonym of Phractocephalus hemiliopterus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Machado-Allison et al. 2000:71 [ref. 26045], Nico 2001:147 [ref. 25828], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnocephalus, Pimelodus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1852:592 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 334] Not available, name mentioned in the synonymy of Pimelodus platypogon. Pimelodidae.

halisodous, Pimelodus Ribeiro [F. R. V.], Lucena [C. A. S. de] & Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:458, Fig. 3, 5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29855] Rio Paranã, 12°30'S, 48°12'W, fazenda Traçadal, Paranã, Tocantins, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 41738. Paratypes: MCP 41921 (2); UNT 3438 (2, 1 c&s), 3443 (1), 3449 (1), 3450 (1), 3452 (1), 3455 (1), 3899 (1), 3900 (2), 5837 (1). •Valid as Pimelodus halisodous Ribeiro, Lucena & Lucinda 2008 -- (Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus halisodous Ribeiro, Lucena & Lucinda 2008. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hemioliopterus, Silurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:385 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Rio Maranham, Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:171-172 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155].. Spelled hemiolicopterus in index, p. xlviii; hemioliopterus is the correct spelling (see Boeseman 1983:106 [ref. 5329]); often seen as hemiliopterus. •Valid as Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Boeseman 1983:105 [ref. 5329], Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Fuller et al. 1999:217 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:66 [ref. 26594], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155], Aguilera Coro et al. 2008:232 [ref. 29877], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:169, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

heraldoi, Pimelodus Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] 2001:194, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 25639] Rio Mogi-Guaçu in Emas, Município de Pirassununga, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 22713. Paratypes: MLP 9186 (1, c&s); MZUSP 21637 (3), 22695-96 (7, 18), 22712 (29), 38915 (6). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus heraldoi Azpelicueta 2001 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ribeiro & Lucena 2007:77 [ref. 29174], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta et al. 2008:155 [ref. 29736]). •Synonym of Pimelodus microstoma Steindachner 1877 -- (Ribeiro & Lucena 2010:277 [ref. 30865]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus microstoma Steindachner 1877. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

humboldtii, Zungaro Bleeker [P.] 1858:207 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 4 (art. 2); ref. 365] Tomedenda, Río Marañón, Amazon River basin, Peru. Holotype (unique): not preserved. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]. Unneeded substitute for Pimelodus zungaro Humboldt 1821 -- (Boeseman 1972:306 [ref. 19698], Silfvergrip 1992:306 [ref. 19999], Grant 1999:55 [ref. 24295]). •Synonym of Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt 1821) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt 1821). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

infraoculare, Sorubim Spix [J. B. von] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:Pl. 15 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Equatorial Brazil. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]. Name available from plate caption. •In the synonymy of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Littmann 2007:8 [ref. 29028], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pimelodidae.

inpai, Aguarunichthys Zuanon [J.], Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] & Jégu [M.] 1993:258, Figs. 2b, 6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 21103] Rio Solimões drainage, north of Marchantaria Island, about 15 kilometers above confluence with Rio Negro drainage, Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): INPA 5398. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:329 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Aguarunichthys inpai Zuanon, Rapp Py-Daniel & Jégu 1993 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:434 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:329 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Aguarunichthys inpai Zuanon, Rapp Py-Daniel & Jégu 1993. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Middle Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

insignis, Pimelodus Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:180, Pl. 6 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Rio Branco, South America. No types known. •Synonym of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedium, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum var. Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:138 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Obidos, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 7321. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155], Ferraris 2007:126 [29155]. •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Buitrago-Suárez 2004:120 [ref. 28917], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau 1855) -- (Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:21 [ref. 29327]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau 1855). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

jahu, Paulicea Ihering [H. von] 1898:108 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 50; ref. 2292] Rio Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Paulicea jahu Ihering 1898 -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt 1821) -- (Grant 1999:55 [ref. 24295]). •Valid as Zungaro jahu (Ihering 1898) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:175, 192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565] with author as Humbolt 1821, Pires et al. 2017:335 [ref. 35378], Koerber 2019:122 [ref. 36915]). Current status: Valid as Zungaro jahu (Ihering 1898). Pimelodidae. Distribution: South America: Paraná-Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

jahu, Silurus Natterer [J.] in Diesing 1836:25 [Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 18471] Not available, no distinguishing characters mentioned; from Cuyaba, Brazil. Pimelodidae.

jandia, Sorubim Spix [J. B. von] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:Pl. 14 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Possible type: MNHN 0000-811 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]. Name available from the plate. •In the synonymy of Sorubimichthys spatula (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Littmann et al. 2000:901 [ref. 25063]). •In Sorubim Cuvier 1829 -- (Littmann et al. 2001:2 [ref. 25400]). •In the synonymy of Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae.

jivaro, Pimelodus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Pearson [N. E.] in Eigenmann & Allen 1942:105, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Río Morona, upper Amazon River system. Syntypes: (5) CAS 55891 [ex IU 15813a and 15859] (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus jivaro Eigenmann & Pearson 1942 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus jivaro Eigenmann & Pearson 1942. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

joannis, Pimelodus Ribeiro [F. R. V.], Lucena [C. A. S. de] & Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:460, Figs. 4, 6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29855] Ipueiras, rio Tocantins near the confluence with rio Manoel Alves, about 11°19'S, 48°38'W, Tocantins State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 41739. Paratypes: MCP 41919 (5); UNT 5641 (1 c&s), 5644 (1), 5655 (15), 5751 (1), 5760 (1), 5790 (1), 8241 (1). •Valid as Pimelodus joannis Ribeiro, Lucena & Lucinda 2008 -- (Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus joannis Ribeiro, Lucena & Lucinda 2008. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Tocantins River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

juruense, Platystoma Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:421, Pl. 39 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 14 (pt 7, no. 2); ref. 543] Rio Juruá, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1897.11.26.11. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger 1898) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Lundberg & Akama 2005:498 [ref. 28312], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:164, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger 1898). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

labrosus, Pimelodus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Krøyer) 1874:200 [11] [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1874 (nos 12-16); ref. 17564] Río de la Plata, Argentina. Syntypes: ZMUC P 29633-36 (4). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:50 [ref. 9588], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]. On p. 11 of separate. •Valid as Pimelodus labrosus Lütken 1874 -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:59 [ref. 23791]). •Valid as Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken 1874) -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Sverlij et al. 1998:52 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:102 [ref. 24147], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:57 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta & Britski 2012:45 [ref. 31850], Litz & Koerber 2014:18 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:31 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken 1874). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Río de la Plata: Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

lateralis, Pimeletropis Gill [T. N.] 1859:196 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 1756] Amazon River, South America. Holotype (unique): Lyceum Nat. Hist. NY (lost). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein 1819) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein 1819). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

latirostris, Sorubim Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1920:14, Unnum. Pl. 12 [Peixes (excl. Characinidae) No. 58 (Annexo 5); ref. 3727] Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 631. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1953:404 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sorubim latirostris Miranda Ribeiro 1920 -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Littmann et al. 2000:902 [ref. 25063], Littmann et al. 2001:2 [ref. 25400], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Littmann 2007:8 [ref. 29028], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

leptus, Pimelodus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Pearson [N. E.] in Eigenmann & Allen 1942:104, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Río Pachitea, Ucayali system, Peru. Holotype (unique): CAS 47288 [ex IU 15858]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus leptus Eigenmann & Pearson 1942 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Cheirocerus goeldii (Steindachner 1908) -- (Stewart & Pavlik 1985:364 [ref. 5240], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Cheirocerus goeldii (Steindachner 1908). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

lima, Silurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:384 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Rio Maranham, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3185 (stuffed, poor condition). Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:172 [ref. 24006], Paepke 1999:113 [ref. 24282], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:72 [ref. 23651], Gómez & Chebez 1996:60 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:62 [ref. 27632] with author as Schneider, Britski et al. 1999:105 [ref. 24147] as cf. lima, Littmann et al. 2000:902 [ref. 25063], Littmann et al. 2001:2 [ref. 25400], Littman et al. 2001:90 [ref. 25810], López et al. 2003:61 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Littmann 2007:8 [ref. 29028], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:173, 192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633], Koerber et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35267], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:80 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon, Orinoco, Paraná and Parnaíba River basins: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

lima, Silurus Natterer [J.] in Kner 1858:414 [44] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] On p. 44 of separate. Not available, Natterer manuscript name mentioned in passing under Pimelodus maculatus. •In the synonymy of Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803. Pimelodidae.

longibarbis, Arius Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:36, Pl. 15 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1189 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:55 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]. Placed originally in "Arius ?". •Species inquirenda in Leiarius, family Pimelodidae -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Leiarius longibarbis (Castelnau 1855) -- (Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Leiarius longibarbis (Castelnau 1855). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Brazil and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

longifilis, Hypophthalmus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:230 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Suriname. Syntypes: RMNH D1931 (1), 2974 (1), 2988 (1). Type information: Boeseman 1972:303 [ref. 19698]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]. For locality information see Boeseman 1972:303 [ref. 19698]. •Species inquirenda in Hypophthalmus -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

longifilis, Pimelodus Posada [A.] 1909:294 [Los peces del norte de Colombia; ref. 5005] Río Cauca, Colombia. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155]. Originally "Pimelodus ?". •Synonym of Pimelodus grosskopfii Steindachner 1879 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Villa-Navarro et al. 2017:344 [ref. 35495]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus grosskopfii Steindachner 1879. Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

luceri, Platystoma Weyenbergh [H.] 1877:10, Pl. 3 (figs. 1-3) [Actas de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Buenos Aires. v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 14248] Santa Fe, Argentina. Syntypes: (several) ? Mus. Nacional Argentina, Buenos Aires. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Littmann et al. 2000:902 [ref. 25063], Littmann et al. 2001:2 [ref. 25400], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Littmann 2007:8 [ref. 29028], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

luciae, Pimelodus Rocha [M. S.] & Ribeiro [F. R. V.] 2010:58, Figs.1-2 [Zootaxa No. 2343; ref. 30700] Rio Itacaiúnas, Cachoeira Carroeira Comprida, Caldeirão, Poço de Pedral, Serra dos Carajás, municipality of Parauapeba, rio Tocantins basin, state of Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MPEG 3174. Paratypes: INPA 33831 (1). •Valid as Pimelodus luciae Rocha & Ribeiro 2010 -- (Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Lucinda et al. 2016:344 [ref. 34916], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus luciae Rocha & Ribeiro 2010. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Rio Itacaiúnas, rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

luetkeni, Platystoma Steindachner [F.] 1876:609 [59], Pl. 13 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] Middle Amazon. Syntypes: (several) not yet found at NMW. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]. On p. 59 of separate. Species originally spelled as lütkeni. •Valid as Paulicea luetkeni (Steindachner 1876) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:60 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:105 [ref. 24147], López et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131]). •Synonym of Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt 1821) -- (Grant 1999:55 [ref. 24295], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt 1821). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrocephalus, Silurus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:386 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Corresponds to Silurus mangrullo on p. 377 as name only. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:310, 322, 310 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Spix & Agassiz 1829). •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:15 [ref. 29327], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

macronema, Pseudorhamdia Bleeker [P.] 1864:79, Pls. 13 (fig 7), 14 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 20; ref. 14181] Suriname. Lectotype: RMNH 3069. Paralectotypes: RMNH 3070-72 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1972:317 [ref. 19698]. •Synonym of Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes 1840 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes 1840. Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

macropterus, Pimelodus Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1819:59 [Zoologisches Magazin (Wiedemann) 1819, v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 17526] Brazil. Syntypes or holotype: ZMB 3055 (1). Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:170 [ref. 24006] as holotype, Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155] as holotype. •Valid as Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein 1819) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708] as Callophysus, Burgess 1989:275 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:5 [ref. 24302], Lasso et al. 2001:99 [ref. 25928], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:165, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], Grant 2019:16 [ref. 36756]). Current status: Valid as Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein 1819). Pimelodidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

macrospila, Piramutana Günther [A.] 1880:10, Pl. 2 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 6 (no. 31) (art. 2); ref. 14279] Rio de la Plata. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1878.9.10.14. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]. •Species inquirenda in Pimelodus -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Pimelodus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:94, 103 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Río de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pimelodus clarias (Bloch 1782), but a valid subspecies -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:59 [ref. 23791]). •Valid as Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Malabarba 1989:142 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Azpelicueta 1995:75 [ref. 21673], Azpelicueta 1998:90 [ref. 24175], Sverlij et al. 1998:56 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:99 [ref. 24147], Vidal & Lucena 1999:122 [ref. 24269], Azpelicueta 2001:198 [ref. 25639], Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:58 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:411 [ref. 28899], Ribeiro & Lucena 2007:77 [ref. 29174], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:170, 192 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565] with author in parentheses, Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[24] [ref. 35679], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraná and São Francisco River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Pimelodus (Bagrus) Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:175, Fig. [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Most rivers of Guyana, also Rio Negro and Amazon River. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:345 [ref. 29155]. Based on Schomburgk drawing 43, no specimens. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803. •Species inquirenda in Pimelodidae -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:345 [ref. 29155]). Pimelodidae.

magdaleniatum, Pseudoplatystoma Buitrago-Suárez [U. A.] & Burr [B. M.] 2007:27, Figs. 25, 26A [Zootaxa No. 1512; ref. 29327] Soplaviento, town on the dique de Cartagena road to Calamar, Magdalena River, dept. Bolivar, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 19165. Paratypes: FMNH 56278 (1), 59234 (1). Plus additional material examined. •Valid as Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Magdalena River drainage, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

malarmo, Platysilurus Schultz [L. P.] 1944:234, Pl. 3 (fig. C); Fig. 3g [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Lake Maracaibo near Concho River mouth, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121179. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-10937 [ex USNM 121182] (1); MCZ 37231 [ex USNM 121180] (2); UMMZ 142486 [ex USNM 121181] (1); USNM 121180 (orig. 4, now 2), 121181 (orig. 4, now 3), 121182 (orig. 4, now 3), 121201 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:36 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Duopalatinus malarmo (Schultz 1944) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Platysilurus malarmo Schultz 1944 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:67 [ref. 23651], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Platysilurus malarmo Schultz 1944. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

maniradii, Sorubim Littmann [M. W.], Burr [B. M.] & Buitrago-Suarez [U. A.] 2001:88, Figs. 1 a-c [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 151; ref. 25810] Río Yasuni, Río Napo drainage, 0°59'06"S, 75°25'36"W, Napo State, Ecuador. Holotype: FMNH 108814. Paratypes:ANSP 139064 (1), 177772 (1); CAS 133411 (1), 213567 (1); INHS 52009-10 (1, 1); MCZ 7251 (1); MZUSP 7011 (6); NRM 47814 (1); SIUC 39758 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sorubim maniradii Littmann, Burr & Buitrago-Suarez 2001 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Littmann 2007:19 [ref. 29028], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:173, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Sorubim maniradii Littmann, Burr & Buitrago-Suarez 2001. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

manni, Pteroglanis Eigenmann [C. H.] & Pearson [N. E.] in Pearson 1924:9, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Little Río Negro, tributary to Río Beni, Amazon system, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): CAS 59623 [ex IU 16001]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pteroglanis manni Eigenmann & Pearson 1924 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

marginatus, Hypophthalmus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:225, Pl. 439 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Cayenne, French Guiana; Suriname. Syntypes: MNHN A-8961 (1), A-8963 (1); RMNH D1932 (1, dry), D1933 (1, dry). Type information: Boeseman 1972:302 [ref. 19698]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155]. For locality information see Boeseman 1972:302 [ref. 19698]. •Valid as Hypophthalmus marginatus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:294 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:6 [ref. 24302], de Pinna 1998:321 [ref. 23847], López-Fernández & Winemiller 2000:39 [ref. 24443], Le Bail et al. 2000:150 [ref. 24549], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:167, 192 [ref. 35004], Littmann et al. 2015:160, 173 [ref. 33933], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypophthalmus marginatus Valenciennes 1840. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins and major rivers of French Guiana and Suriname: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, French Guiana, Peru and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

marmoratus, Sciades Gill [T. N.] 1870:95 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 22; ref. 17630] Río Marañon or Río Napo, Amazon system, Peru or Ecuador. Holotype: USNM 8447 (head and attached skin). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:38 [ref. 19771] as possible holotype, Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Leiarius marmoratus (Gill 1870) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:168, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:80 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Leiarius marmoratus (Gill 1870). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon, Essequibo and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

megalops, Iheringichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] & Ward [D. P.] in Eigenmann, McAtee & Ward 1907:115, Pl. 32 (figs. 3-4) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2) (art. 7); ref. 1261] Bahia Negra, Río Paraguay, Paraguay. Holotype (unique): CAS 63631 [ex IU 10126]. Non-types: ZMB 16875 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]. See Gómez & Chebez 1996:59 [ref. 23791], •Valid as Iheringichthys megalops Eigenmann & Ward 1907 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta & Britski 2012:45 [ref. 31850], Mirande & Koerber 2015:31 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Iheringichthys megalops Eigenmann & Ward 1907. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper río Paraguay, Paraguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

melanodermatum, Steindachneridion Garavello [J. C.] 2005:618, Fig. 9 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28464] Rio Iguaçu, down river of the Salto Osório dam, about 25°35'S, 53°05'W, Municipality of Quedas do Iguaçu, Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 87983. Paratypes: MZUSP 87984 (5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Steindachneridion melanodermatum Garavello 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Steindachneridion melanodermatum Garavello 2005. Pimelodidae. Distribution: South America: Iguaçu River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

melas, Breviglanis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1910:384 [Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of tropical and south temperate America v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 1224] Not available, name and locality but no description; from British Guiana. Pimelodidae.

mena, Sorubim Natterer [J.] in Kner 1858:397 [27] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] On p. 27 of separate. Not available, Natterer manuscript name mentioned in passing under Platystoma sturio. See Littmann et al. 2000:902 [ref. 25063], Littmann et al. 2001:2 [ref. 25400]. Pimelodidae.

metaense, Pseudoplatystoma Buitrago-Suárez [U. A.] & Burr [B. M.] 2007:25, Fig. 23 [Zootaxa No. 1512; ref. 29327] Metica River, about 1.5 kilometers east of Rajote, 3°56'N, 73°03'W, Meta River, Dept. of Meta, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 146858. Paratypes: ANSP 128135 (1), 149541 (2). Plus additional material examined. •Valid as Pseudoplatystoma metaense Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007 -- (DoNascimiento 2016:534 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:80 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoplatystoma metaense Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

microstoma, Pimelodus Steindachner [F.] 1877:604 [46] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Irisanga, rio Mogi-Guaçu drainage, upper rio Paraná, São Paulo State, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 45823-24 (1, 2). See Ribeiro & Lucena 2007:77 [ref. 29174] for comments on the type locality. •Valid as Pimelodus microstoma Steindachner 1877 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ribeiro & Lucena 2007:75 [ref. 29174], Azpelicueta et al. 2008:155 [ref. 29736], Ribeiro & Lucena 2010:277 [ref. 30865], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus microstoma Steindachner 1877. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin,Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

moli, Pimelabditus Parisi [B. M.] & Lundberg [J. G.] 2009:5, Figs. 1-4A, B. [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 480; ref. 30597] Tapanahony River, Kumaru Konde Sula, 3°21.960'N, 55°25.926'W, Sipaliwini District, Suriname. Holotype: MHNG 2709.100. Paratypes: ANSP 188900 [ex MHNG 2709.100] (1); MNHN 1998-1612 (1), 2000-5865 (1); MHNG 2709.099 (1). •Valid as Pimelabditus moli Parisi & Lundberg 2009 -- (Lundberg et al. 2012:105 [ref. 31997]). Current status: Valid as Pimelabditus moli Parisi & Lundberg 2009. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper tributaries of Maroni River system: French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

moroti, Arius Valenciennes [A.] 1847:6 [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale v. 5 (art. 2); ref. 5010] No locality (= South America). Proposed as a replacement name for Arius albidus Valenciennes; apparently unneeded, as albidus is apparently not preoccupied by either Pimelodus albidus Spix & Agassiz or Pimelodus albidus Lesueur. •Synonym of Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

mucosa, Platystoma Vaillant [L. L.] 1880:151 [10] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 17855] Upper Amazon at Calderon, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-1955. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:58 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]. On p. 10 of separate. •Valid as Platystomatichthys mucosus (Vaillant 1880) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Platysilurus mucosus (Vaillant 1880) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:80 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Platysilurus mucosus (Vaillant 1880). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

multicratifer, Pimelodus Ribeiro [F. R. V.], Lucena [C. A. S. de] & Oyakawa [O. T.] 2011:128, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 31238] Confluence of the rios Pariquera and Pariquera-Mirim, near mouth to the rio Ribeira de Iguape, Pariquera-Açú, about 24°37'58"S, 47°44'11"W, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 91287. Paratypes: many at INPA, MCP, MZUSP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Pimelodus multicratifer Ribeiro, Lucena & Oyakawa 2011 -- (Lucinda et al. 2016:344 [ref. 34916], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus multicratifer Ribeiro, Lucena & Oyakawa 2011. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

multimaculatus, Zungaropsis Steindachner [F.] 1908:67 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 6) (for 13 Feb. 1908); ref. 13415] Rio Xingú, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 43537. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]. •Questionably a synonym of Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt 1821) -- (Grant 1999:55 [ref. 24295]). •Species inquirenda in Pimelodidae -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Zungaropsis multimaculatus Steindachner 1908 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Zungaropsis multimaculatus Steindachner 1908. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

multiradiatus, Pimelodus Kner [R.] 1858:414 [44] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] Borba at Rio Madeira and Forte do Rio Branco at Rio Facutu, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 16515 (1, dry), 16518 (1, dry). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]. On p. 44 of separate. •Species inquirenda in Leiarius, family Pimelodidae -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

muticus, Silurus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:386 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155]. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:322, 308 [ref. 2032]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Pimelodus albicans (C. V.) [= Arius albicans Valenciennes 1840]. •Synonym of Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

mysteriosus, Pimelodus Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] 1998:88, Figs. 1-3, 5-6, 8, 10, 12, 14 [Neotropica (La Plata) v. 44 (no. 111-112); ref. 24175] Arroyo Anselmo, Candelaria, Misiones, Argentina. Holotype: MLP 9191. Paratypes: FML 149 (2), 265 (1), 460 (1), 1997 (1); MLP 9190 (2), 9192-95 (2 ea.), 9196 (1, c&s); MZUSP 44403 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:17 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Pimelodus mysteriosus Azpelicueta 1998 -- (Azpelicueta 2001:198 [ref. 25639], López et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26808], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Souza-Filhol & Shibatta 2007:478 [ref. 29504], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:105 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus mysteriosus Azpelicueta 1998. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

nasus, Pimelodina Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:120 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 7490. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pimelodina flavipinnis Steindachner 1876 -- (Stewart 1986:657 [ref. 5211], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodina flavipinnis Steindachner 1876. Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

navarroi, Pimelodus grosskopfii Schultz [L. P.] 1944:207, Pl. 1 (fig. C) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Palmar at bridge 70 kilometers southwest of Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121174. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-10934 [ex USNM 121172] (1); MCZ [ex USNM 121173] (1); UMMZ 142489 [ex USNM 121172] (1); USNM 101614 (1), 121172 (17, now 16), 121173 (4, now 3). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:36 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pimelodus grosskopfii Steindachner 1879, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:62 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Pimelodus navarroi Schultz 1944 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta et al. 2008:159 [ref. 29736], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Villa-Navarro et al. 2017:340 [ref. 35495], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus navarroi Schultz 1944. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

nigribarbis, Pimelodus (Pseudorhamdia) Boulenger [G. A.] 1889:266 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 22) (art. 33); ref. 17019] Rio Camaquã, Laguna dos Patos system, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1889.8.24.6. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1889.8.24.7 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Lucena et al. 1992:145 [ref. 17616]. •Synonym of Parapimelodus valenciennis (Lütken 1874) -- (Malabarba 1989:141 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Parapimelodus nigribarbis (Boulenger 1889) -- (Lucena et al. 1992:144 [ref. 17616], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155], Koerber & Litz 2014:3 [ref. 34967], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:4 [ref. 35098]). Current status: Valid as Parapimelodus nigribarbis (Boulenger 1889). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos basin, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

nigricans, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum var. Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:31 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Xingú, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 7301 (1), 7311 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Buitrago-Suárez 2004:120 [ref. 28917], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau 1855) -- (Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:21 [ref. 29327]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau 1855). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

nigripunctatus, Bagrus Kner [R.] 1858:345, Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 18423] Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]. Replacement for Bagrus punctulatus Kner 1858, preoccupied by Bagrus punctulatus Castelnau 1855. Possibly published in 1859. •Synonym of Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine 1841) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061] as nigropunctatus, Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155] as nigripunctatus). Current status: Synonym of Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine 1841). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

notatus, Pimelodus Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:181, Pl. 7 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Fort St. Joaquin on Rio Branco, Amazon River, Rio Negro. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdella notatus (Jardine 1841) -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine 1841) -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine 1841). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru (?) and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

novemradiatus, Silurus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:385 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Originally as Silurus 9-radiatus; corresponds to Silurus ribularis on p. 376. Appeared as Silurus rivularis vel 9-radiatus in Devincenzi 1925:307, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Pimelodidae.

olallae, Duopalatinus Orcés V. [G.] 1977:78, Fig. 4 [Politécnica [N.S.] v. 3; ref. 28079] Bobonaza Plain, Bobonaza River drainage, Amazon River basin, Ecuador. Holotype: EPN. Paratypes: (3) EPN uncat. (3). An overlooked species until 2004. •Valid as Platysilurus olallae (Orcés V. 1977) -- (Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Platysilurus olallae (Orcés V. 1977). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

orbignianus, Platystoma Valenciennes [A.] 1835:Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-0160. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:59 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:6 [ref. 5010], as Platystoma orbignyanum. Pl. 4 was published in 1835. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:12 [ref. 1008]. •Species inquirenda in genus Pseudoplatystoma -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267] with question). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

oremaculatus, Hypophthalmus Nani [A.] & Fuster [M. L.] 1947:3, Figs. 2-3 [Comunicaciones del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" Buenos Aires, Ciencias Zoológicas No. 2; ref. 13088] Puerto Gaboto, Rio Paraná, Sante Fe Province, Argentina, 32°25'58"S, 60°48'33"W. Holotype (unique): MACN 3496. Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:103 [ref. 23697], Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypophthalmus oremaculatus Nani & Fuster 1947 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131] with question of validity, Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155], Littmann et al. 2015:159, 162 [ref. 33933], Mirande & Koerber 2015:31 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypophthalmus oremaculatus Nani & Fuster 1947. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

orinocoense, Pseudoplatystoma Buitrago-Suárez [U. A.] & Burr [B. M.] 2007:18, Figs. 19-20 [Zootaxa No. 1512; ref. 29327] Near mouth of El Caujavito River, tributary of Orinoco River, southeast of Cajarote, 7°41'N, 66°21'W, State of Guarico, Venezuela. Holotype: INHS 35880. Paratypes: AMNH 96662 (1), 96663 (1): ANSP 166790 (1); USNM 233830 (2). Plus additional material examined. •Valid as Pseudoplatystoma orinocoense Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007 -- (DoNascimiento 2016:534 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:80 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoplatystoma orinocoense Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

orixanthum, Megalonema Lundberg [J. G.] & Dahdul [W. M.] 2008:450, Fig. 7 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29853] Río Metica, about 3 kilometers southeast of Hacienda Mozambique, 3°57'N, 73°02'W, Meta State, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 187449. Paratypes: many at ANSP (most specimens), FMNH, IAvH-P, MBUCV-V, MZUSP, USNM. Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Megalonema orixanthum Lundberg & Dahdul 2008 in subgenus Eretmomegalonema -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Megalonema orixanthum Lundberg & Dahdul 2008. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

ornatus, Pimelodus Kner [R.] 1858:411 [41], Pl. 6 (fig. 18) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] Suriname; Rio Negro and Cuiabá, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 45832 (2), 45843 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155]. On p. 41 of separate. •Valid as Pimelodus ornatus Kner 1858 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Gómez & Chebez 1996:59 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:99 [ref. 24147], Le Bail et al. 2000:102 [ref. 24549], López et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155] dated 1857, Souza-Filhol & Shibatta 2007:478 [ref. 29504], Ribeiro et al. 2008:464 [ref. 29855], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Lundberg et al. 2012:109 [ref. 31997] and to be removed from Pimelodus (p. 112), Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:170, 192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Lucinda et al. 2016:344 [ref. 34916], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633], Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35734], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:80 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus ornatus Kner 1858. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Guyana, Suriname and Amazon River basin, South America. Habitat: freshwater.

ortmanni, Pimelodus Haseman [J. D.] 1911:379, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (19); ref. 2048] Rio Iguaçú at União da Vitória, Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54240 [ex CM 2856]. Paratypes: CAS 63723 [ex CM 2860; ex IU 13328] (1), FMNH 54241 (5, now 3), 105098-99 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:78 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus ortmanni Haseman 1911 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Azpelicueta 1995:75 [ref. 21673], Gómez & Chebez 1996:59 [ref. 23791], Azpelicueta 1998:90 [ref. 24175], Azpelicueta 2001:198 [ref. 25639] as ortmani, Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27366], Garavello & Shibatta 2007:286 [ref. 29282], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta et al. 2008:155 [ref. 29736], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus ortmanni Haseman 1911. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Argentina and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ortoni, Sorubimichthys Gill [T. N.] 1870:94 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 22; ref. 17630] Río Marañon or Río Napo, Amazon system, Peru or Ecuador. Holotype (unique): USNM 8238. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:38 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pantaneiro, Pimelodus Souza-Filho [H. S.] & Shibatta [O. A.] 2007:474, Figs. 2A-2B [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) v. 97 (no. 4); ref. 29504] Bonito (rio Miranda), Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 87808. Paratypes: MZUSP 87809 (3); MZUL 1912 (3), 3398 (3), 3399 (10), 3554 (1), 3599 (4), 6635 (2); NUP 2225 (5); UEL 3567 (1), 3601 (2). •Valid as Pimelodus pantaneiro Souza-Filho & Shibatta 2007 -- (Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus pantaneiro Souza-Filho & Shibatta 2007. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper rio Paraguai basin, region of Pantanal, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

panthale, Platystoma Valenciennes [A.] 1847:6 [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale v. 5 (art. 2); ref. 5010] No locality. Holotype: MNHN A-8833. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]. New name proposed for Platystoma pardale Valenciennes 1836, without explanation. •Species inquirenda in genus Pseudoplatystoma -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pantherinus, Pseudariodes Lütken [C. F.] 1874:192 [3] [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1874 (nos 12-16); ref. 17564] Caracas, Venezuela. Syntypes: BMNH 1876.1.10.10 [ex ZMUC] (1), NMW 45851 (1), USNM 44970 (1), ZMB 9180 [ex ZMUC] (1), ZMUC 228-230 (3). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:50 [ref. 9588], Ferraris & Vari 1992:37 [ref. 19771], Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:171 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]. On p. 3 of separate. •Species inquirenda in Pimelodus -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

paraense, Brachyplatystoma Steindachner [F.] 1909:195 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 46 (no. 12) (for 13 May 1909); ref. 18808] Fish market, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 47590. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:3317 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Brachyplatystoma paraense Steindachner 1909 -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Castelnau 1855) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Castelnau 1855). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

parahybae, Platystoma Steindachner [F.] 1877:640 [82], Pl. 9 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Parahyba at Juiz de Fora; Rio Jequitinhonha, southeastern Brazil. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 7323 (2), 7295 (1), 25521 (1, skeleton); NMW (?). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]. On p. 82 of separate. •Valid as Steindachneridion parahybae (Steindachner 1877) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Oliveira & de Moraes Junior 1997:3 [ref. 23460], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061], Garavello 2005:610 [ref. 28464], Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Steindachneridion parahybae (Steindachner 1877). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul and Jequitinhonha river basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

paranaensis, Pimelodus Britski [H. A.] & Langeani [F.] 1988:410, Figs. 1-2 [Revista Brasileira de Zoologia v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 16222] Ilha Solteira, Rio Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 23089. Paratypes: MZUSP 2862 (1), 24454 (1), 28422-28430 (9), 28431-28435 (5), 28436-28438 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus paranaensis Britski & Langeani 1988 -- (Azpelicueta 1995:75 [ref. 21673] as paranensis, Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ribeiro & Lucena 2007:77 [ref. 29174], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta et al. 2008:155 [ref. 29736], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Azpelicueta & Britski 2012:50 [ref. 31850] as paranensis, Costa e Silva et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus paranaensis Britski & Langeani 1988. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

pardalis, Platystoma Valenciennes [A.] 1835:Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8833. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:59 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:6 [ref. 5010], as Platystoma panthale. Also in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:15 [ref. 1008] as Platystoma pardale. Pl. 4 was published in 1835. •Species inquirenda in genus Pseudoplatystoma -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

parnahybae, Brachyplatystoma Steindachner [F.] 1908:126 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 9) (for 11 Mar. 1908); ref. 18803] Rio Parnahyba, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Brachyplatystoma parnahybae Steindachner 1908 -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pati, Pimelodus Valenciennes [A.] 1835:Pl. 1 (figs. 7-9) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype: ?MNHN A-9419 (1, dry). Non-types: MNHN A-9418 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:59 [ref. 19575] as syntypes; technically the figured specimen is the unique holotype, Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:7 [ref. 5010]. Pl. 1 was published in 1835. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:176 [ref. 1008]. •Valid as Luciopimelodus pati (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Burgess 1989:275 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:60 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:59 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:104 [ref. 24147], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:31 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Luciopimelodus pati (Valenciennes 1835). Pimelodidae. Distribution: La Plata and Blanco River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

pati, Silurus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:376 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Perhaps not intended as new; corresponds to Silurus 11-radiatus on p. 386. Appeared as Silurus pati vel 11-radiatus in Devincenzi 1925:322, 308 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Luciopimelodus pati (C. V.) [= Pimelodus pati Valenciennes 1835]. •Synonym of Luciopimelodus pati (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:31 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Luciopimelodus pati (Valenciennes 1835). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pauciradiatum, Megalonema Eigenmann [C. H.] in Driver 1919:455 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 58 (no. 7); ref. 12423] Villa Rica, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 63672 [ex IU 15029]. Paratypes: CAS 63673 [ex IU 15029] (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155]. Author is C. H. Eigenmann. •Valid as Megalonema pauciradiatum Eigenmann 1919 -- (Burgess 1989:275 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Koerber et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Megalonema pauciradiatum Eigenmann 1919. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Paraguay and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

perporosus, Hypophthalmus Cope [E. D.] 1878:673 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Probably Nauta, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 132589. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:115 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]. •Valid, or possible synonym of Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Burgess 1989:294 [ref. 12860]). •Species inquirenda in Hypophthalmus -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix and Agassiz 1829 -- (Littmann et al. 2015:172 [ref. 33933]). Current status: Synonym of Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

perruno, Perrunichthys Schultz [L. P.] 1944:230, Pl. 3 (fig. B); Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Negro, below River Yasa mouth, about 75 kilometers south of Rosario, western side of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121189. Paratypes: USNM 121200 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:34 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Perrunichthys perruno Schultz 1944 -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:63 [ref. 23651], Fuller et al. 1999:216 [ref. 25838], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:336 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Leiarius perruno (Schultz 1944) -- (Lundberg et al. 2011:169 [ref. 31593], Reis et al. 2016:16 [ref. 34496], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leiarius perruno (Schultz 1944). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

peruanus, Duopalatinus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:107, Pl. 4 (fig. 4) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Río Puinagua, mouth of Río Pacaya, Río Ucayali system, Peru. Holotype (unique): CAS 63630 [ex IU 15798]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Duopalatinus peruanus Eigenmann & Allen 1942 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860] as puruanus, Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:332 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Duopalatinus peruanus Eigenmann & Allen 1942. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil (?), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

phalacra, Breviglanis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1910:384 [Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of tropical and south temperate America v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 1224] Not available, name and locality but no description; from Amatuk, Guyana. Pimelodidae.

pictus, Bagrus (Sciades) Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:8 [Horae Ichthyologicae No. 3; ref. 3073] No locality. Holotype (unique): ZMB 2991. Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:165 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Leiarius pictus (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:104 [ref. 24147], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:334 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:168, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leiarius pictus (Müller & Troschel 1849). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

pictus, Pimelodus Steindachner [F.] 1876:144 [96] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Rio Hyavary, Peru-Brazil border. Syntypes: (several) ?MCZ 7204 (2), NMW 45859 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155]. On p. 96 of separate. •Valid as Pimelodus pictus Steindachner 1876 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Ribeiro & Lucena 2006:326 [ref. 28962], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Rocha & Ribeiro 2010:63 [ref. 37000], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:170, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus pictus Steindachner 1876. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

pintado, Pimelodus Azpelicueta [M. de las M.], Lundberg [J. G.] & Loureiro [M.] 2008:150, Figs. 2-3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 157; ref. 29736] Río Cebollatí in Paso de Averías, close to bridge of Ruta 14, 33°36'49"S, 54°19'50"W, Merín-Patos System, Departamento Rocha, Uruguay. Holotype: ZVC P 6482. Paratypes: AI 225 (1), 224 (1); ANSP 54060 (1), 187381 (3); MHNM 3217 (1); NRM 48001 (4); ZVC-P-6483 (5), P-6484 (1). Plus a non-type skeleton. Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:412, 414 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Pimelodus pintado Azpelicueta, Lundberg & Loureiro 2008 -- (Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus pintado Azpelicueta, Lundberg & Loureiro 2008. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Rivers draining into Laguna Merín, Laguna dos Patos system, Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

piraaiba, Piratinga Goeldi [E. A.] 1898:464, 477, Pl. (fig. 4) [Boletim do Museu Paraense de Historia Natural e Ethnographia v. 2 (no. 4, art. 3) (for 1897-1898); ref. 1826] Pará, Brazil. Holotype: Whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155]. Original as pirá-aïba; no description but available from plate caption. •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:434 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

piracatinga, Silurus Natterer [J.] in Kner 1858:417 [47] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] On p. 47 of separate. Originally as pirá catinga. Not available, Natterer manuscript name mentioned in passing under Pimelodus pati. Current status: Synonym of Luciopimelodus pati (Valenciennes 1835). Pimelodidae.

piramuta, Bagrus Kner [R.] 1858:382 [12] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] Manaus, Brazil; Borba Rio Madeira, Brazil. Syntypes: at NMW. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]. On p. 12 of separate. •Valid as Piramutana piramuta (Kner 1858) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860] but may equal Brachyplatystoma vaillanti). •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pirarara, Silurus Natterer [J.] in Kner 1858:375 [5] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] On p. 5 of separate. Not available, name mentioned in passing. Current status: Synonym of Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pimelodidae.

piratinga, Silurus Natterer [J.] in Diesing 1836:25 [Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 18471] Not available, no distinguishing characters mentioned. Pimelodidae.

pirauaca, Sorubim Spix [J. B. von] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:Pl. 12 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Name available from the plate legend. •In the synonymy of Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae.

pirinampu, Pimelodus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:20, Pl. 8 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:102 [ref. 24147], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565] as pinirampu, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon, Essequibo, Orinoco and Paraná River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

piscatrix, Pseudorhamdia Cope [E. D.] 1870:569 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pebas, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 8386-87 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes 1840 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:439 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:337 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes 1840. Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

planiceps, Platystoma Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:25, Pl. 12 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Amazon River basin, Solimões, Rio Negro. Lectotype (?): MNHN 0000-0811. Type information: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155]. As Sorubim pirauáca on plate. See Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155] for issues of priority of names and synonyms for this species. •Valid as Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Littmann et al. 2000:902 [ref. 25063], Littmann et al. 2001:2 [ref. 25400], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:61 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:343 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:174, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

platana, Bergiella Steindachner [F.] 1908:111 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 8) (for 5 Mar. 1908); ref. 18802] Río de la Plata, Argentina. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Bergiella platana (Steindachner 1908) -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Iheringichthys platanus (Steindachner 1908) -- (López et al. 2003:57 [ref. 27366]). •Valid as Bergiaria platana (Steindachner 1908) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:434 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta & Britski 2012:51 [ref. 31850], Litz & Koerber 2014:18 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:31 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565] with author without parentheses). Current status: Valid as Bergiaria platana (Steindachner 1908). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

platanus, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1880:10 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 6 (no. 31) (art. 2); ref. 14279] Río Paraná, tributary of Río de la Plata. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1872.6.8.18. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Megalonema platanus (Günther 1880) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708]). •Valid as Iheringichthys platanus (Günther 1880) -- (Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Megalonema platanum (Günther 1880) -- (Burgess 1989:275 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:60 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:104 [ref. 24147], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Megalonema platanum (Günther 1880). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

platicirris, Pimelodus Borodin [N. A.] 1927:2 [American Museum Novitates No. 271; ref. 15778] Salto de Pirassunungo, Rio Mogy Guassu, São Paulo Province, Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8628. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus platicirris Borodin 1927 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Azpelicueta 2001:198 [ref. 25639], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ribeiro & Lucena 2007:77 [ref. 29174], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta et al. 2008:155 [ref. 29736], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus platicirris Borodin 1927. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

platycephalum, Megalonema Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:150, Fig. 31, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Tumatumari, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53224 [ex CM 1684]. Paratypes: (4) FMNH 53225 [?ex CM 1685a; IU 12060] (2), CAS 75768 [ex IU 12060] (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:76 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:383 [ref. 1224] •Valid as Megalonema platycephalum Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:275 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:61 [ref. 23651], Le Bail et al. 2000:94 [ref. 24549] as cf. platycephalum, Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:80 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Megalonema platycephalum Eigenmann 1912. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon, Essequibo and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

platynema, Brachyplatystoma Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:477 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 2 (no. 12) (art. 58); ref. 545] Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1898.10.11.20. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Goslinia platynema (Boulenger 1898) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Brachyplatystoma platynemum Boulenger 1898 -- (Lundberg & Akama 2005:498 [ref. 28312], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:164, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Brachyplatystoma platynemum Boulenger 1898. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

platyrhynchos, Platystoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:27 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] No locality [Brazil]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000- 1203. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:58 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:60 [ref. 23791] as platyrhynchus, Britski et al. 1999:105 [ref. 24147], Le Bail et al. 2000:92 [ref. 24549], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27366] as platyrhynchus, Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Litz & Koerber 2014:18 [ref. 33622], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:166, 192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:31 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633], Koerber et al. 2017:47 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon, Maroni, Orinoco and Paraná River basins: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

pohli, Pimelodus Ribeiro [F. R. V.] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2006:412, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 28899] Rio São Francisco drainage, rio Pará, 19°13'28"S, 45°56'07"W, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 38775. Paratypes: MCP 14061 (1), 16661 (6), 16671 (7, 2 c&s), 16668 (4), 37078 (8), 37339 (1), 38776 (4); MZUSP 24704 (2), 28782 (1), 39320 (6). •Valid as Pimelodus pohli Ribeiro & Lucena 2006 -- (Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus pohli Ribeiro & Lucena 2006. Pimelodidae. Distribution: São Francisco River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

portalegrensis, Pimelodella Hensel Name attributed to Hensel. Not available, nomen nudum -- (Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:172 [ref. 24006] with ZMB specimens listed). Pimelodidae.

psammium, Megalonema platycephalum Schultz [L. P.] 1944:216, Pl. 2 (fig. B) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Palmar at the bridge 70 kilometers southwest of Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121175. Paratypes: Dahl coll. [ex USNM 121176] (2); MBUCV-V-10936 [ex USNM 121177] (2); MCZ 37243 [ex USNM 121176] (2); UMMZ 142491 [ex USNM 12177] (3); USNM 121176 (14, now 10), 121177 (46, now 41), 121178 (15). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:33 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:12 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Megalonema platycephalum Eigenmann 1912, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:275 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Megalonema platycephalum Eigenmann 1912 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:61 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Megalonema psammium Schultz 1944 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Megalonema psammium Schultz 1944. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

punctata, Steindachneria scripta var. Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:642 [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] Rio Uruguay, Itaqui, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 1167. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Steindachneridion punctatum (Miranda Ribeiro 1918) -- (Garavello 2005:616 [ref. 28464], Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Steindachneridion punctatum (Miranda Ribeiro 1918). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River and Uruguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

punctatum, Megalonema Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:77 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Río Tuyra, Boca de Cupe, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7577. Paratypes: USNM 78279 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:34 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155].. Ferraris & Vari 1992:34 [ref. 19771] remark: probable paratypes; original description specifically cited only type but is based on more than one specimen. •Valid as Pimelodus punctatus (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta et al. 2008:159 [ref. 29736], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Villa-Navarro et al. 2017:348 [ref. 35495], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus punctatus (Meek & Hildebrand 1913). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Colombia and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

punctatum, Platystoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:20 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Name only, not available. •In the synonymy of of Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061] as an available name). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae.

punctifer, Platystoma Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:40, Pl. 19 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1582. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:59 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]. •Species inquirenda in genus Pseudoplatystoma -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau 1855) -- (Buitrago-Suárez 2006:120 [ref. 28917], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau 1855). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Colombia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

punctulatus, Bagrus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:33, Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Amazon River. Holotype: MNHN (whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]. •Species inquirenda in Brachyplatystoma -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

punctulatus, Bagrus Kner [R.] 1858:380 [10] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] Rio Guaporé and Rio Branco, Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]. On p. 10 of separate. •Valid as Platynematichthys punctulatus (Kner 1858) -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine 1841) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine 1841). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

quadratus, Pimelodus Lucinda [P. H. F.], Ribeiro [F. R. V.] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2016:339, Figs. 1, 2b [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 27 (no. 4) for Dec.; ref. 34916] Porto Nacional, rio Tocantins, Tocantins State, Brazil, 10°35'50"S, 48°24'21"W. Holotype: MCP 42419. Paratypes: MCP, UNT. •Valid as Pimelodus quadratus Lucinda, Ribeiro & Lucena 2016 -- (Costa e Silva et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus quadratus Lucinda, Ribeiro & Lucena 2016. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Middle Rio Tocantins drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

quatuordecimradiatus, Silurus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:376, 386 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Originally as Silurus 14-radiatus. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:309 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Pseudoplatystoma coruscans Ag. [= Platystoma coruscans Valenciennes 1840]. Pimelodidae.

reinhardti, Bagropsis Lütken [C. F.] 1874:32 [4] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 1); ref. 2855] Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1876.1.10.9 [ex ZMUC] (1); NMW 45905 (1); ZMUC 223 (1), 225 (1), 227 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:50 [ref. 9588], Ferraris 2007:329 [ref. 29155]. On p. 4 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:160 (and p. V of summary), Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [ref. 19674]. •Valid as Bagropsis reinhardti Lütken 1874 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860] as reinhardtii, Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:434 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:329 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Bagropsis reinhardti Lütken 1874. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Das Velhas River basin, São Francisco River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

reticulatum, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum var. Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:30 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 23813. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Buitrago-Suárez 2004:120 [ref. 28917], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 -- (Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:30 [ref. 29327], Koerber 2011:6 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Koerber et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Central Amazon basin and Paraná River: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

reticulatus, Bagrus Kner [R.] 1858:376 [6], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] Salto Theotonio, at Rio Araguay, Forte do Rio branco and Rio Madeira, Brazil. Syntypes: at NMW. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155] with a holotype. On p. 6 of separate. •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

rhabdostigma, Megalonema Fowler [H. W.] 1914:256, Fig. 10 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 66; ref. 1390] Rupununi River, Guyana, 2°-3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype (unique): ANSP 39338. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pimelodus ornatus Kner 1858 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:338 [ref. 29155], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus ornatus Kner 1858. Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

rigidus, Pimelodus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:19, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Equatorial Brazil. Holotype: No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]. •Species inquirenda in Pimelodus -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

robustum, Megalonema Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:78 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Río Tuyra [Tuira], Marriganti, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7578. Paratypes: FMNH 26657-58 (2), 26659 (1); USNM 78278 (1, tail missing). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:34 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155].. •Synonym of Pimelodus punctatus (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155], Villa-Navarro et al. 2017:348 [ref. 35495]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodus punctatus (Meek & Hildebrand 1913). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

rousseauxii, Bagrus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:32, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9457 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:58 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819) -- (Le Bail et al. 2000:84 [ref. 24549]). •Valid as Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Castelnau 1855) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Lundberg & Akama 2005:498 [ref. 28312], Batista & Alves-Gomes 2006:1 [ref. 28901], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:164, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Castelnau 1855). Pimelodidae. Distribution: South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

schandia, Silurus Natterer [J.] in Kner 1858:415 [45] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] On p. 45 of separate. Not available, Natterer manuscript name mentioned in passing under Pimelodus multiradiatus. •Species inquirenda in Leiarius, family Pimelodidae -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:437 [ref. 27061]). Pimelodidae.

scripta, Steindachneria Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:640 [12] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] Itaqui, Estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 2286. Paralectotypes: (2) MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 1236 (1, dry). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]. On p. 12 of separate. Spelled inscripta in Miranda Ribeiro 1953:391 [ref. 12732]. Steindachnerdion in neuter, so species is scriptum if an adjective. Lectotype selected by Britski 1969. •Valid as Steindachneridion scripta (Miranda Ribeiro 1918) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Sverlij et al. 1998:63 [ref. 27632] as inscripta, Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:61 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131] as inscripta). •Valid as Steindachneridion inscriptum (Miranda Ribeiro 1918) -- (Garavello 2005:615 [ref. 28464], Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Steindachneridion scriptum (Miranda Ribeiro 1918). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper Paraná and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

spatula, Platystoma Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:26, Pl. 14 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rivers of equatorial Brazil. No types known. As Sorubim jandiá on plate. •Valid as Sorubimichthys spatula (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860]). •Possibly a synonym of Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901]). •Synonym of Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

speciosus, Pimelodus Costa e Silva [T.], Ribeiro [F. R. V.], Lucena [C. A. S. de] & Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2018:99, Figs. 1,2, 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 28 (no. 2); ref. 35734] Rio Tocantins below confluence with rio Santa Tereza, Peixe, Tocantins, Brazil, 11°46'49"S, 48°37'06"W. Holotype: MCP 51687. Paratypes: MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP, UFOPA, UNT. •Valid as Pimelodus speciosus Costa e Silva, Ribeiro, Lucena & Lucinda 2018. Current status: Valid as Pimelodus speciosus Costa e Silva, Ribeiro, Lucena & Lucinda 2018. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Middle Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

spegazzinii, Pimelodus Perugia [A.] 1891:632 [32] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 10; ref. 3431] Rio Durazno, near Buenos Aires, Argentina. Syntypes: MSNG 8026 (2). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:310 [ref. 10351], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155]. On p. 32 of separate. •Valid as Pimelodus spegazzinii Perugia 1891 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Parapimelodus valenciennis (Lütken 1874) -- (Vidal & Lucena 1999:122 [ref. 24269], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Parapimelodus valenciennis (Lütken 1874). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

spixii, Hypophthalmus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:231 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Brazil. Possible syntypes: MHNN 0000-0706 (2). Type catalog: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380], Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155]. Unneeded new name for Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz 1829. •Synonym of Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:333 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

steerei, Taenionema Eigenmann [C. H.] & Bean [B. A.] 1907:662, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1503); ref. 1247] Amazon River, between Para and Manaos [Manaus], Brazil. Holotype (unique): USNM 52571. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:39 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Goslinia platynema (Boulenger 1888) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:436 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Brachyplatystoma platynemum Boulenger 1898 -- (Lundberg & Akama 2005:497 [ref. 28312], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyplatystoma platynemum Boulenger 1898. Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

stewarti, Pimelodus Ribeiro [F. R. V.], Lucena [C. A. S. de] & Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:456, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29855] Rio Paranã, near lagoa Verde, about 12°30'S, 48°12'W, Paranã, Tocantins, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 41737. Paratypes: MCP 41920 (5); UNT 5642 (38, 1 c&s), 5649 (2), 5748 (1), 5754 (8), 5756 (2), 5766 (2), 5798 (1), 5801 (1), 5856 (3). •Valid as Pimelodus stewarti Ribeiro, Lucena & Lucinda 2008 -- (Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus stewarti Ribeiro, Lucena & Lucinda 2008. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Tocantins River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sturio, Platystoma Kner [R.] 1858:395 [25], Pl. 3 (figs. 9-9a) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] Rio Branco, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 44335 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155]. On p. 25 of separate. •Valid as Platystomatichthys sturio (Kner 1858) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:340 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Platystomatichthys sturio (Kner 1858). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

syi, Iheringichthys Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] & Britski [H. A.] 2012:46, Figs. 1, 2a, 3-5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 31850] Três Lagaos Municipality, rio Paraná basin, rio Paraná in Jupiá, 20°45'04"S, 51°40'42"W, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 108404. Paratypes: AI 279 (1 c&s); MZUSP 22507 (15), 22626 (5), 23082 (3). •Valid as Iheringichthys syi Azpelicueta & Britski 2012. Current status: Valid as Iheringichthys syi Azpelicueta & Britski 2012. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

tetramerus, Pimelodus Ribeiro [F. R. V.] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2006:322, Figs. 1-3 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) v. 96 (no. 3); ref. 28962] Rio Palmeiras, drenagem do rio Tocantins, Ponte Alta do Bom Jesus, 12°15'43"S, 46°53'36"W, Tocantins, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 85809. Paratypes: MZUSP 34514 (2), 24620 (10), 35828 (2), 40439 (2), 54085 (2), 62812 (1), 63045 (3), 83811 (1), 83813 (2 c&s), 84004 (3), 85810 (1); MCP 35830 (2) •Valid as Pimelodus tetramerus Ribeiro & Lucena 2006 -- (Ribeiro et al. 2008:464 [ref. 29855], Ribeiro et al. 2011:128 [ref. 31238], Lucinda et al. 2016:344 [ref. 34916], Costa e Silva et al. 2018:106 [ref. 35734]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus tetramerus Ribeiro & Lucena 2006. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Tapajós and Tocantins rivers, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

tigrinum, Platystoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:10, Pl. 422 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9354 (mounted and stuffed). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:58 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]. The name tigrinum is maintained over its senior unused synonym truncatum. •Valid as Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum but may equal Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus 1776). •Valid as Pseudoplatystoma tigrinus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Swarça et al. 2005:325 [ref. 28520], Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:11 [ref. 29327], Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Loubens & Panfili 2000:13 [ref. 24465], Le Bail et al. 2000:106 [ref. 24549], Lasso et al. 2001:99 [ref. 25928], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Buitrago-Suárez 2006:118 [ref. 28917], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:172, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento 2016:540 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

tigrinus, Merodontotus Britski [H. A.] 1981:110, Figs. 1-2 [Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo v. 34 (no. 7); ref. 645] Cachoeira do Teotônio, Rio Madeira, Território de Rondônia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 14004. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Merodontotus tigrinus Britski 1981 -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Brachyplatystoma tigrinum (Britski 1981) -- (Lundberg & Akama 2005:498 [ref. 28312], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:164, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Brachyplatystoma tigrinum (Britski 1981). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

tocantinsensis, Aguarunichthys Zuanon [J.], Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] & Jégu [M.] 1993:252, Figs. 2a, 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 21103] Rapids above Marabá, Rio Tocantins drainage, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 5400. Paratypes: INPA 5399 (3), 5401 (3); MNHN uncat. (1); MZUSP uncat. (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:329 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Aguarunichthys tocantinsensis Zuanon, Rapp Py-Daniel & Jégu 1993 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:434 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:329 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Aguarunichthys tocantinsensis Zuanon, Rapp Py-Daniel & Jégu 1993. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

torosus, Aguarunichthys Stewart [D. J.] 1986:663, Figs. 7-8 [Copeia 1986 (no. 3); ref. 5211] Río Cenepa, Departo. Amazonas, Peru, about 4°28'S, 78°10'W, elevation about 210 meters. Holotype (unique): LACM 39651-1. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:329 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Aguarunichthys torosus Stewart 1986 -- (Burgess 1989:283 [ref. 12860], Zuanon et al. 1993:252 [ref. 21103], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:434 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:329 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:192 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Aguarunichthys torosus Stewart 1986. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon River drainage: Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

trigonocephalus, Sorubim Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1920:12, Unnum. Pls. 10-11 [Peixes (excl. Characinidae) No. 58 (Annexo 5); ref. 3727] Arinos River, downstream from the mouth of Preto River, Juruena drainage, Tapajós basin, Porto Velho, Diamantino, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 14°05'32.25"S, 56°19'26.44"W. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 882 (lost). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1953:404 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda Ribeiro 1920 -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860], Littmann et al. 2000:902 [ref. 25063], Littmann et al. 2001:2 [ref. 25400], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:442 [ref. 27061], Littmann 2007:16 [ref. 29028], Ferraris 2007:342 [ref. 29155], Ohara & Neuhaus 2016:292 [ref. 34536] with change in type locality). Current status: Valid as Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda Ribeiro 1920. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Madeira and Tapajós River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

truncatum, Platystoma Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:27, Pl. 13a [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Japurá and Solimões rivers, Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma [no species given] -- (Littmann et al. 2001:2 [ref. 25400]). •Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:441 [ref. 27061], Buitrago-Suárez & Burr 2007:1 [ref. 29327] with author as Spix & Agassiz, Ferraris 2007:341 [ref. 29155] ). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

typus, Pinirampus Bleeker [P.] 1862:11 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 393] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Boeseman 1972:316 [ref. 19698], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]. Unneeded replacement name for Pimelodus pirinampu Spix & Agassiz 1829, apparently to avoid "Strickland tautonymy." Also in Bleeker 1863:100 [ref. 401]. •Synonym of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:339 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

undecimradiatus, Silurus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:386 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Originally as Silurus 11-radiatus. Same as Silurus pati on p. 376. Appeared as Silurus pati vel 11-radiatus in Devincenzi 1925:322, 308 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Luciopimelodus pati (C. V.) [= Pimelodus pati Valenciennes 1836]. •Synonym of Luciopimelodus pati (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:31 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Luciopimelodus pati (Valenciennes 1835). Pimelodidae.

vaillantii, Platystoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:21, Pl. 423 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Cayenne, French Guiana; Suriname; Colombia. Syntypes: MNHN B-0158 (1) Suriname or Cayenne, B-0159 (1) Suriname. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:57 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]. See Silurus vaillantii Cuvier 1816. •Valid as Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Burgess 1989:282 [ref. 12860] as vaillanti, Cervigón 1992:379 [ref. 23827], Le Bail et al. 2000:88 [ref. 24549], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Ferraris 2003:857 [ref. 26999], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061], Lundberg & Akama 2005:498 [ref. 28312], Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:164, 192 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:80 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins and major rivers of Guianas and northeastern Brazil: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

vaillantii, Silurus Cuvier [G.] 1816:204 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Brazil. No types known. Based on "bagre primus." Marcgrave p.173. Apparently not treated by Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:435 [ref. 27061]. Apparently available. •Questionably the same as Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Ferraris 2007:331 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Uncertain as Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840). Pimelodidae. Habitat: freshwater.

valenciennei, Bagrus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:31, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8831 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:12 [ref. 19575]. Pimelodidae.

valenciennis, Pimelodus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Krøyer) 1874:200 [11] [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1874 (nos 12-16); ref. 17564] Río de La Plata, Argentina. Holotype: ZMUC P 293677 [ex 250]. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:50 [ref. 9588], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155]. On p. 11 of separate. Author is Lütken (see Lucena et al. 1992:144 [ref. 17616]). •Valid as Parapimelodus valenciennis (Lütken 1874) -- (Malabarba 1989:141 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Lucena et al. 1992:144 [ref. 17616], Sverlij et al. 1998:53 [ref. 27632] as Kröyer 1874, Vidal & Lucena 1999:122 [ref. 24269], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:58 [ref. 27366] with author as Krøyer 1874, Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:19 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:32 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:420 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565] with author as Kröyer 1874, Koerber et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Parapimelodus valenciennis (Lütken 1874). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

verrucosum, Platystoma Boulenger [G. A.] 1881:19 [Zoological Record v. 17 (for 1880); ref. 19664] Boulenger cites Vaillant, Bull. Soc. Philom, p. 151, but Vaillant described Platystoma mucosa as new in that work; regarded as an error by Boulenger who did not cite mucosa; not a replacement name. Current status: Synonym of Platysilurus mucosus (Vaillant 1880). Pimelodidae.

westermanni, Pimelodus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1874:33 [5] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 1); ref. 2855] Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Syntypes: ZMUC 258-259 (2); ZMB 9174 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:50 [ref. 9588], Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:171 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155]. On p. 5 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:167 (and p. VI of summary), Pls. 2 (fig. 4), 3 (fig. 4a-b) [ref. 19674]. •Valid as Iheringichthys westermanni (Lütken 1874) -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:58 [ref. 23791], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Bergiaria westermanni (Lütken 1874) -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:434 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:58 [ref. 27366], Ferraris 2007:330 [ref. 29155], Azpelicueta & Britski 2012:50 [ref. 31850], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[24] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Bergiaria westermanni (Lütken 1874). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Das Velas River basin in São Francisco River drainage and River de la Plata: ?Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

xanthum, Megalonema Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:16 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Girardot, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56032 [ex CM 4822]. Paratypes: (CM and IU) AMNH 5340 (7, 1 c&s); BMNH 1920.12.20.112-113 (2), 1924.3.3.83-84 (2); CAS 63674-75 [ex IU 12681-82] (11, 127); FMNH 10251 (1), 10284-89 (6), 77909 (7), 56032-33 (1, 9), 69818 (71), 95984 (3, c&s); MCZ 30961; UMMZ 190406 (7, 1 c&s); USNM 76930 (24), 79222 (5), 167852 (5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:76 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:44 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:34 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Megalonema xanthum Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:275 [ref. 12860] as xanthus, Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:438 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:335 [ref. 29155], Lundberg & Dahdul 2008:442 [ref. 29853] in subgenus Eretmomegalonema, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:93 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Megalonema xanthum Eigenmann 1912. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

yuma, Pimelodus Villa-Navarro [F. A.] & Acero P. [A.] in Villa-Navarro, Acero P. & Cala 2017:350, Fig. 12 [Zootaxa 4299 (no. 3); ref. 35495] Puerto Caracolí, río Magdalena, Honda, Tolima, Colombia, 05°14'06"N, 74°49'04"W. Holotype: CZUT-IC 8525. Paratypes: AMNH, ANSP, CZUT-IC, FMNH, IAVHP; ICNMHN 11733 (3), 11543 (17); IMCN, USNM. Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:49 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Pimelodus yuma Villa-Navarro & Acero P. 2017 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodus yuma Villa-Navarro & Acero P. 2017. Pimelodidae. Distribution: Cauca, Magdalena and Sinú River drainages, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

zungaro, Pimelodus Humboldt [F. H. A. von] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:170, Pl. 46 (fig. 1) [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Near Tomependa, Río Marañon, Amazon River basin, Peru. Holotype (unique): not preserved. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155]. Based on field observation and sketch. Zungaro humboldtii Bleeker 1858 is an unneeded substitute. •Valid as Pseudopimelodus zungaro (Humboldt 1821) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:69 [ref. 23651], Gómez & Chebez 1996:59 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:97 [ref. 24147], Machado-Allison et al. 2000:66 [ref. 26045]). •Valid as Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt 1821) -- (Silfvergrip 1992:306 [ref. 19999], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Sverlij et al. 1998:57 [ref. 27632] dated 1833, Grant 1999:55 [ref. 24295], Nico 2001:152 [ref. 25828], Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:443 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:344 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:175, 192 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:33 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:34 [ref. 35565] with author as Valenciennes 1821, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35633], Pires et al. 2017:335 [ref. 35378] and cf. zungaro, Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:80 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt 1821). Pimelodidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River systems: ?Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.