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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Pleuronectidae: [ 179 ] records


acadianus, Glyptocephalus Gill [T. N.] 1873-74:362 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 25; ref. 17659] Eastport, Maine, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 12685. •Synonym of Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:5 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

achirus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:158 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] India orientali. No types known. Described independently of and preoccupied by Pleuronectes achirus Linnaeus 1758; objectively invalid. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:27 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

achne, Veraequa Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:625, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 2526] Matsushima Bay, Japan, Albatross station 3772, depth 79 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 51447. •Valid as Microstomus achne (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Sakamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:353 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:165 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:119 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:258 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:457 [ref. 26385], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:712 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1372 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Wang et al. 2001:315 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:1372 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 685 [ref. 26218], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:10 [ref. 27606], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2011:57 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:276 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:539 [ref. 33547], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Microstomus achne (Jordan & Starks 1904). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

albus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:159 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Ambon Island, Molucca, Indonesia. No types known. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:27 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

americanus, Hippoglossus Gill [T. N.] 1864:220 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 1704] Eastern coast of North America. No types known. •Synonym of Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Evseenko 2003:S62 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

americanus, Pleuronectes Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Schöpf) 1792:113 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated [Rhode Island, New York, U.S.A.]. No types known. Originally genus misspelled Pleruonectes, changed in emendata. Based on 'Pleuronectes, Flounder auf Rhode Island genannt' in Schöpf 1788:148 [ref. 18700]. •Valid as Pleuronectes americanus Walbaum 1792 -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:117 [ref. 21500], Murdy et al. 1997:272 [ref. 23144]). •Valid as Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Smith 1986:457 [ref. 22186], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Robins, Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:579 [ref. 26158], Evseenko 2004:13 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic: coast of North America. Habitat: marine.

angustirostris, Limanda Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] (ex Kitahara) 1906:208, Fig. 15 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1484); ref. 2532] Aomori, Japan. Holotype: USNM 55645. Paratypes: (7) CAS-SU 9825 (1), 9888 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:141 [ref. 12291]. Author is Jordan & Starks; description made from their specimens. •Synonym of Pleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:130 [ref. 21500]). •Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1901). •Synonym of Limanda herzensteini Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (Choi et al. 2003:684 [ref. 26218]). •Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:199 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

annulatus, Pleuronectes solea var. Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Gronow) 1792:110 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Based on 'Pleuronectes oblongus, laevis ... of Growow 1763:75 , no. 255 [ref. 1910]. See also Pleuronectes barbatus Bonnaterre 1788. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:27 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

aramaca, Pleuronectes Cuvier [G.] 1829:341 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Brazil. Available from footnote as, "Pl. aramaca, N., Margr., 181, ..." •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:27 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

argenteus, Pleuronectes Shaw [G.] 1803:308 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian Seas. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:27 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

ariommus, Araias Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:624, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 2526] Matsushima Bay, Japan, depth 42-45 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51417. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8386 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:141 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Dexistes rikuzenius Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:111 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 2004:4 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Dexistes rikuzenius Jordan & Starks 1904. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

asper, Pleuronectes Pallas [P. S.] 1814:425 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Sea between Kamchatka, Russia and Alaska, U.S.A. Syntypes: ZMB 7414 (1). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). Species name should be aspera when combined with Limanda (feminine gender). •Valid as Pleuronectes asper Pallas 1814 -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:120 [ref. 21500], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1379 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1379 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2011:57 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:277 [ref. 33330], Tohkairin et al. 2015:14 [ref. 35331]). •Valid as Limanda aspera (Pallas 1814) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:290 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:352 [ref. 6441], Matarese et al. 1989:602 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:222 [ref. 14674], Kim & Youn 1994:115 [ref. 22286], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:715 [ref. 26711], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:844 [ref. 25968], Choi et al. 2003:432, 684 [ref. 26218], Fedorov et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27579], Evseenko 2003:S64 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Mecklenburg et al. 2007:183 [ref. 29448], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Parin et al. 2014:535 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:165 [ref. 34033], Pietsch & Orr 2015:69 [ref. 34694], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:229 [ref. 34440], Kells et al. 2016:330 [ref. 35888], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:196 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:434 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Limanda aspera (Pallas 1814). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: North Pacific and adjacent Arctic. Habitat: marine.

asperrima, Platessa Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:177, Pl. 91 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1338 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1337 (1, dry), ZMB 2372 (1). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:145 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Clidoderma asperrimum (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:287 [ref. 9277], Sheiko 1983:19 [ref. 37041], Sakamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:163, 217, 307, 349 [ref. 8379], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:353 [ref. 6441], Lea et al. 1989:234 [ref. 21534], McAllister 1990:221 [ref. 14674], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:173 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:114 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:249 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:451 [ref. 26385], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:705 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1371 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:834 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1371 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 682 [ref. 26218], Fedorov et al. 2003:134 [ref. 27579], Evseenko 2003:S60 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:4 [ref. 27606], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2011:55 [ref. 31715], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:95 [ref. 32413], Shinohara et al. 2014:275 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:528 [ref. 33547], Tohkairin et al. 2015:13 [ref. 35331], Kells et al. 2016:326 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:96 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Clidoderma asperrimum (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

asprella, Limanda Hubbs [C. L.] 1915:482, Pl. 27 (fig. 7) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 48 (no. 2082); ref. 2224] Market of Korsakov, Aniwa Bay, Sakhalin Island, west of Okhotsk Sea. Holotype (unique): USNM 75668. •Synonym of Pleuronectes asper Pallas 1814 -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:121 [ref. 21500]). •Synonym of Limanda aspera (Pallas 1814) -- (Mecklenburg et al. 2002:844 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2003:S64 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:196 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Limanda aspera (Pallas 1814). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

ater, Leptosoma Nardo [G. D.] 1827:32, 39 (no. 139) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 481 and 487 [ref. 19740]. Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Pleuronectoides solea Nardo 1824. Also seen as Leptosoma atrum and Leptosoma atra. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

ayresii, Parophrys Günther [A.] 1862:456 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1862.8.16.1. •Synonym of Hypsopsetta guttulata (Girard 1856) -- (Evseenko 2004:7 [ref. 27606]). •Synonym of Pleuronichthys guttulatus Girard 1856. Current status: Synonym of Pleuronichthys guttulatus (Girard 1856). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

baltica, Pleuronectes flesus race Suvorov [E. K.] 1925:280 [Annals of Institute of Experimental Agronomy v. 3; ref. 19828] Not available, infrasubspecific; from the Baltic Sea. •In the synonymy of Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:1185 [ref. 20662]). •In the synonymy of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:540 [ref. 33547], Momigliano et al. 2018:11 [ref. 35980]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae.

baltica, Pleuronectes platessa var. Nilsson [S.] 1855:616 [Skandinavisk fauna; ref. 3205] Sund, Baltic Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Dorofeeva 1998:160 [ref. 23573]). •Synonym of Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:183 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2003:S67 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:543 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

barbatus, Pleuronectes Shaw [G.] 1803:309 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Locality unknown. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pleuronectes barbatus Bonnaterre 1788; apparently based on Gronow -- the same source as Bonnaterre's name. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

barbatus, Pleuronectes Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Gronow) 1788:74 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Locality unknown. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]. Based on 'Pleuronectes oblongus, laevis ... of Growow 1763:75 , no. 255 [ref. 1910]. See also Pleuronectes annulatus Walbaum 1792. •Unidentifiable -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]). •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606] based on placement of barbatus Shaw 1803). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

bathybius, Cynicoglossus Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:123 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Santa Barbara Channel, off southern California, U.S.A., 33°49'45"N, 119°24'30"W, Albatross station 2980, depth 603 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM (not found). Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 193 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:141 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1898: 2656 [ref. 2444]. •Valid as Embassichthys bathybius (Gilbert 1890) -- (Amaoka et al. 1981 [ref. 5578], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:287 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:353 [ref. 6441], Matarese et al. 1989:580 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:221 [ref. 14674], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Nakabo 2000:1372 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:846 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1372 [ref. 26193], Evseenko 2003:S60 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:4 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:529 [ref. 33547], Kells et al. 2016:326 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:96 [ref. 37205]). •Valid as Microstomus bathybius (Gilbert 1890) -- (Cooper & Chapleau 1998:712 [ref. 26711], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Microstomus bathybius (Gilbert 1890). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

bicolorata, Platessa Basilewsky [S.] 1855:260 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Shantung, China. Holotype or syntypes: ZIN 6354 (1, lost). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:279 [ref. 37075]. Date and types uncertain -- see Evseenko 2004:7 [ref. 27606]. Type specimen ZIN 6354 lost during WWII; see Voronina & Volkova 2019:279 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Kareius bicoloratus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Okada 1961:715 [ref. 6363], Sakamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:353 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:161 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:113 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:253 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:458 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:491 [ref. 24032], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1376 [ref. 25182], Pietsch et al. 2001:147 [ref. 25688], Shimizu 2001:44 [ref. 25799], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Wang et al. 2001:316 [ref. 26566], Kim & Park 2002:411 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:1376 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 683 [ref. 26218], Hagiwara 2003:40 [ref. 27188], Evseenko 2003:S63 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:7 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:534 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:195 [ref. 35257]). •Valid as Platichthys bicoloratus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:668 [ref. 25598], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Platichthys bicoloratus (Basilewsky 1855). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bilineata, Platessa Ayres [W. O.] 1855:[2] col. 5 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 4 (nos 7-22); ref. 13428] Gulf of the Farallones, off San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Neotype: CAS 42650. Appeared first as above on 6 Apr. Then in Ayres 1855:40 [ref. 159]. Neotype designated by Orr & Matarese 2000:561, 567 [ref. 24744]. •Valid as Pleuronectes bilineatus, but when in Pleuronectes the species is apparently preoccupied by Pleuronectes bilineatus Bloch 1787. •Wrongly valid as Pleuronectes bilineatus (Ayres 1855) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Robins et al. 1991:68, Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:115 [ref. 21500], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:709 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1378 [ref. 25182], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:837 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1378 [ref. 26193], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606], Shinohara et al. 2011:57 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:277 [ref. 33330]). •Valid as Lepidopsetta bilineata (Ayres 1855) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:289 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:352 [ref. 6441], Matarese et al. 1989:596 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:222 [ref. 14674], Kim & Youn 1994:114 [ref. 22286], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Orr & Matarese 2000:561 [ref. 24744], Choi et al. 2003:432, 683 [ref. 26218], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:69 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:330 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:96 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Lepidopsetta bilineata (Ayres 1855). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

bogdanovii, Pleuronectes Sandeberg [H.] 1878:236, Figs. [Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou v. 53 (pt. 2, no. 3); ref. 18653] White Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1949:1188 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Reshetnikov et al. 1997:761 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:159 [ref. 23573]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:540 [ref. 33547], Momigliano et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35980]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

borealis, Pleuronectes Faber [F.] 1828:244 [Tidsskrift for naturvidenskaberne, Kjöbenhavn v. 5 (no. 15); ref. 18075] Iceland; North and West Jutland and Kattegat, Denmark. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Nielsen 1973:623 [ref. 6885], Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2003:S67 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

camtchaticus, Hippoglossus hippoglossus Rendahl [H.] 1931:61 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 22 (pt 4) A (no. 18); ref. 16326] Kamtchatka, Russia, northwestern Pacific. Holotype (unique): NRM 10104. •Synonym of Hippoglossus stenolepis Schmidt 1904 -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:79 [ref. 21500], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Evseenko 2003:S63 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:7 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:534 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossus stenolepis Schmidt 1904. Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

caninensis, Pleuronectes flesus natio Suvorov [E. K.] 1929:111 [Trudy Instituta po Izucheniya Severa, Nauchno-Technicheskoe Upravlenie VSNC, Moskva No. 43; ref. 19829] Rivers flowing into Cheshskaya Bay, southern Barents Sea, Russia. Syntypes: (14) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). Not available, infrasubspecific. Misspelled once as canineesis on p. 111; genus misspelled Eleuronectes on p. 111. •In the synonymy of Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies septentrionalis Suvorov 1925 -- (Berg 1949:1189 [ref. 20662]). •In the synonymy of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2003:S67 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:540 [ref. 33547], Momigliano et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35980]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae.

caninensis, Pleuronectes glacialis natio Suvorov [E. K.] 1929:119 [Trudy Instituta po Izucheniya Severa, Nauchno-Technicheskoe Upravlenie VSNC, Moskva No. 43; ref. 19829] Cheshskaya [Chosha] Bay, southern Barents Sea, Russia. Syntypes: (19) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). •Synonym of Pleuronectes glacialis Pallas 1776 -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776) -- (Berg 1949:1181 [ref. 20662], Evseenko 2003:S65 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:538 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

carnaria, Platessa Brown [T.] 1830:99, Pl. 2 (not 3) [The Edinburgh Journal of Natural and Geographical Science. Edinburgh. v. 2 (art. 4); ref. 17288] Prestonpans, southeastern Scotland, U.K. No types known. •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Momigliano et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35980]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cicatricosus, Pleuronectes Pallas [P. S.] 1814:424 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Sea between Kamchatka, Russia and Alaska, U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). •Synonym of Pleuronectes glacialis Pallas 1776 -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776) -- (Berg 1949:1181 [ref. 20662], Evseenko 2003:S65 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:538 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

coenosus, Pleuronichthys Girard [C. F.] 1854:139 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1817] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 697 (1). •Valid as Pleuronichthys coenosus Girard 1854 -- (Fitch 1963:28 [ref. 21219], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:292 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Matarese et al. 1989:616 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:223 [ref. 14674], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:711 [ref. 26711], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:839 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:71 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:334 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:97 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Pleuronichthys coenosus Girard 1854. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronichthyinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cornuta, Platessa Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:179, Pl. 92 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 1336 (stuffed) [? = D1336]. Paralectotypes: (8) RMNH D1334-1335 (2, stuffed), 3496 (3), 3501 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:146 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Pleuronichthys cornutus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Fitch 1963:18 [ref. 21219], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:352 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:621, 740 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:153 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:121 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:238 [ref. 16193], Chen et al. 1997:176 [ref. 26476] dated 1844, Cheng & Zhou 1997:453 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:494 [ref. 24032], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:711 [ref. 26711], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1372 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:44 [ref. 25799], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Wang et al. 2001:310 [ref. 26566], Kim & Park 2002:413 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:1372 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 686 [ref. 26218], Evseenko 2003:S68 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606], Ho et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31461], Suzuki et al. 2009:284 [ref. 30301], Yokogawa & Watanabe 2011:24 [ref. 31146], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:98 [ref. 32413], Parin et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33547], Yokogawa et al. 2014:385 [ref. 35476], Yokogawa et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34955], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Pleuronichthys cornutus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronichthyinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cynoglossus, Pleuronectes Nilsson [S.] 1832:53 [Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae; ref. 3204] •Apparently appeared first as Pleuroncetes cynoglossus in Nilsson 1829:401 [ref. 18475] -- needs investigation. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

cynoglossus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:269 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Belgium. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.126 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:243-244 [ref. 13434]. •Valid as Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:623 [ref. 6885], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1299 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:294 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:542 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:221 [ref. 14674], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1995:221 [ref. 22531], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:712 [ref. 26711], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:561 [ref. 26158], Moore et al. 2003:232 [ref. 27076], Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:5 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Møller et al. 2010:69 [ref. 31169], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:530 [ref. 33547], Afonso et al. 2016:73, 157 [ref. 36199], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:424 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Distribution: North Atlantic and adjacent Arctic Ocean. Habitat: marine.

decurrens, Pleuronichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1881:453 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 173) [v. for 1880]; ref. 12598] Point Reyes and the Farallons, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 8884 (1) San Francisco; MNHN A-3280 (1), A-3368 (1); MTD F 131 [ex USNM] (1); UMMZ 162042 (1); ?USNM 26978 (30, missing in 1980) Monterey, ?USNM 27115 (2) San Francisco; ?ZMB 11734 [ex USNM] (1), ZMUC (?). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:143 [ref. 13621], Desoutter et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25922], Zarske 2003:32 [ref. 27474]. Based on Pleuronichthys quadrituberculatus of Jordan & Gilbert 1880:50 [ref. 2366]. •Valid as Pleuronichthys decurrens Jordan & Gilbert 1881 -- (Fitch 1963:20 [ref. 21219], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:292 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Matarese et al. 1989:618 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:224 [ref. 14674], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:711 [ref. 26711], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:840 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2004:13 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:71 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:334 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:97 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Pleuronichthys decurrens Jordan & Gilbert 1881. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronichthyinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

dignabilis, Pseudopleuronectes Kendall [W. C.] 1912:392, Pl. 57 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 30 (Doc. 764) (for 1910); ref. 14848] Georges Bank, New England coast, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 73918. Paratypes: USNM 74258-68 (1 each). •Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

digrammus, Pleuronectes Günther [A.] 1862:445 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Victoria Harbor, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.11.19.39-40 (2, skins). •Synonym of Parophrys vetulus Girard 1854 -- (Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Parophrys vetulus Girard 1854. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

diurus, Scophthalmus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:14, 53 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Questinable synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:116 [ref. 37117] in Scophthalmidae). Current status: Uncertain as Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dubius, Hippoglossoides Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1904:227, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Fishes of the eastern seas of the Russian Empire; ref. 3946] Mauka, western Sakhalin Island, Sea of Japan, depth 46-47 Russian fathoms; Aniva Bay, southern Sakhalin Island, Okhotsk Sea, depth 29 Russian fathoms. Syntypes: ZIN 12366-67 (1, 1). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:267 [ref. 37075]. Appeared first without distinguishing featuers as Cynopsetta dubia in Schmidt 1903:521 (19 of separate) [ref. 3945]. •Valid as Hippoglossoides dubius Schmidt 1904 -- (Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:161, 217, 307, 348 [ref. 8379], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:351 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:101 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:111 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:232 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:707 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1375 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Nakabo 2002:1375 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 683 [ref. 26218], Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:5 [ref. 27606], Shinohara et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:276 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:531 [ref. 33547], Tohkairin et al. 2015:14 [ref. 35331], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:226 [ref. 34440] see remarks, Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossoides dubius Schmidt 1904. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

dwinensis, Platessa Lilljeborg [N.] 1851:5 [Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens förhandlingar, Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien. 1850; ref. 17538] Mouth of River Dvina [Dwina], Arkhangelski Oblast, Russia. Syntypes: ZMUU (?). Type catalog: Wallin 1996:62 [ref. 32133]. Name given as Pleuronectes dvinensis Lilljeborg 1850 by Mela 1882:307 [ref. 17637]. •Synonym of Pleuronectes glacialis Pallas 1776 -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776) -- (Berg 1949:1181 [ref. 20662], Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Dorofeeva 1998:159 [ref. 23573], Evseenko 2003:S65 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:538 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

elassodon, Hippoglossoides Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:278 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 147); ref. 10580] Seattle and Tacoma, Washington, U.S.A. Syntypes: (about 20) MCZ 35950 [ex USNM 27263] (1); MNHN A-3349 (1); NMW 43866 (1); USNM 27263 (now 7); UMMZ 162066 [ex USNM 27263] (1); ZMUC [ex USNM 27263] (?). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:312 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Hippoglossoides elassodon Jordan & Gilbert 1880 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:288 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:217, 348 [ref. 8379], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:351 [ref. 6441], Matarese et al. 1989:588 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:221 [ref. 14674], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:97 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:707 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1375 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:828 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1375 [ref. 26193], Fedorov et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27579], Evseenko 2003:S62 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Kartavtsev et al. 2007:757 [ref. 34456], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Shinohara et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31715] dated 1881, Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Shinohara et al. 2014:276 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:532 [ref. 33547], Pietsch & Orr 2015:68 [ref. 34694], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:226 [ref. 34440] see remarks, Kells et al. 2016:328 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:426 [ref. 36370], Burton & Lea 2019:96 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossoides elassodon Jordan & Gilbert 1880. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: North Pacific and adjacent Arctic Region. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Platessa Yarrell [W.] 1839:33, Fig. [pt. 2] [A history of British fishes, illustrated by nearly 400 wood-cuts. Supplement.; ref. 17748] Stoford, Bridgewater Bay, England. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown (dry specimen). •Synonym of Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:623 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:5 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

evermanni, Atheresthes Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:621, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 2526] Matsushima Bay, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 51410 [not 51490]. •Valid as Reinhardtius evermanni (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Cooper & Chapleau 1998:702 [ref. 26711]). •Valid as Atheresthes evermanni Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:303, 347 [ref. 8379], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:351 [ref. 6441], Matarese et al. 1989:576 [ref. 26885], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:70 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Nakabo 2000:1374 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:832 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1374 [ref. 26193], Fedorov et al. 2003:133 [ref. 27579], Evseenko 2004:3 [ref. 27606], Evseenko 2003:S59 [ref. 28535], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Shinohara et al. 2014:275 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:527 [ref. 33547], Tohkairin et al. 2015:13 [ref. 35331], Kells et al. 2016:326 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:95 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Atheresthes evermanni Jordan & Starks 1904. Pleuronectidae: Atheresthinae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

exilis, Hippoglossoides Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:154 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 136); ref. 10584] Between the Golden Gate Bridge and Point Reyes, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (upwards of 100) ANSP 8721 (1); BMNH 1896.7.23.233 [ex USNM]; MCZ 35946 [ex USNM 27121] (1); MNHN A-3307 (1); MSNG 8332 (1); MTD F 141 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 27061 (2, not found in 1980), 27121 (12); ZMB 11625 (1), 11652 (1), 11693 (1); ZMUB 1465 [ex USNM 27121] (1); ZMUC (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:314 [ref. 10351], Frøiland 1979:148 [ref. 21547], Böhlke 1984:143 [ref. 13621], Desoutter et al. 2001:312-313 [ref. 25922], Zarske 2003:32 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Eopsetta exilis (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:84 [ref. 21500]). •Valid as Lyopsetta exilis (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:290 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:606 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:223 [ref. 14674], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:99 [ref. 21805], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:706 [ref. 26711], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:825 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2004:10 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:71 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:332 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:96 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Lyopsetta exilis (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Pleuronectes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:91 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] East Indies. No types known. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

ferruginea, Platessa Storer [D. H.] 1839:477 [141], Pl. 7 [Pl. 2] [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 2 (nos 3-4) (art. 12); ref. 4278] Cape Ann, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 141 and Pl. 2 of separate. •Valid as Pleuronectes ferrugineus (Storer 1839) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:116 [ref. 21500]). •Valid as Limanda ferruginea (Storer 1839) -- (Smith 1986:457 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:294 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:550 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:222 [ref. 14674], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:715 [ref. 26711], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:572 [ref. 26158], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Myzopsetta ferruginea (Storer 1839) -- (Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Myzopsetta ferruginea (Storer 1839). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fitzingerii, Rhombus Heckel [J. J.] 1848:194 [Berichte über die Mittheilungen von Freunden der Naturwissenschaften in Wien v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 18256] Not available, no distinguishing features. •Nomen nudum -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae.

flesoides, Pleuronectes Pontoppidan [E.] 1766:188, Pl. 15 [Dänischer Atlas, oder Beschreibung des Königreichs Dänemark; ref. 18567] Denmark. No types known. Also appeared on p. 420 [ref. 18567]. •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Momigliano et al. 2018:11 [ref. 35980]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

flesus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:270 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European seas. Lectotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.133 (skin). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.132 and .134 [Gronovius coll.] (2, skins). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:244 [ref. 13434], Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:272-273 [ref. 20707]. Spelled Pleuronectes flessus by Berkenhout 1789:73 [ref. 12437]. Lectotype selected by Momigliano et al. 2018:11 [ref. 35980]. •Valid as Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:1185 [ref. 20662], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Valid as Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:626 [ref. 6885], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1304 [ref. 13677], Lelek 1987:314 [ref. 22962], McAllister 1990:223 [ref. 14674], Coad 1995:32 [ref. 23608], Chereshnev 1996:607 [ref. 24659], Coad 1996:86 [ref. 25304], Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:761 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:159 [ref. 23573], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Voronina 1999:612 [ref. 24880], Fricke 1999:51 [ref. 24101], Fuller et al. 1999:482 [ref. 25838], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:48 [ref. 26178], Hanel 2003:66 [ref. 27894], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:242 [ref. 28183], Hanel & Lusk 2005:371` [ref. 28804], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:593 [ref. 29996], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:173 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:73 [ref. 36649], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Parin et al. 2014:540 [ref. 33547], Barbieri et al. 2015:111 [ref. 35029], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2959 [ref. 34618], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844], Momigliano et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35980], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:445 [ref. 36370] see remarks, Martins & Carneiro 2018:82 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Ćaleta et al. 2019:184 [ref. 37026], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:253 [ref. 37108]). Current status: Valid as Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Northeastern Atlantic and adjacent Arctic Ocean: Baltic Sea, North Sea, eastern North Atlantic and western Europe; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

franklinii, Pleuronectes Günther [A.] 1862:442 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Arctic seas of America. Syntypes: BMNH 1855.9.19.1224 (1), 2013.1.31.2 (1). Based on specimens and literature citations. •Synonym of Pleuronectes glacialis Pallas 1776 -- (authors). •Synonym of Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776) -- (Berg 1949:1181 [ref. 20662], Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S65 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gigas, Hippoglossus Swainson [W.] 1839:302 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] No locality stated. No types known. Based on Bloch, pl. 47 -- which is Bloch 1783:Pl. 47 [ref. 19644]. •Synonym of Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:624 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S62 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

gilli, Pleuronectes Steindachner [F.] 1868:120 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 5 (no. 14) (for 22 May 1867); ref. 20463] "Eismeer bei Nordisland". Holotype (unique): not yet found at NMW. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1868:1004 [p. 40 of separate] [ref. 14081]. •Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:10 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

glabra, Platessa Storer [D. H.] 1843:130 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 1 (1841-1844); ref. 18831] Boston harbor, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Objectively invalid; apparently preoccupied by Platessa glabra Rathke 1837. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

glabra, Platessa Rathke [H.] 1836:27 [352] [Mémoires présentés à l'Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg par divers savaus et lus dans ses assemblées. Mémoires des savaus étrangers v. 3; ref. 18611] Kerch, Crimea. No types known. •Synonym of Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies luscus Pallas 1814 -- (Berg 1949:1190 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) subspecies luscus (Pallas 1814) -- (Evseenko 2003:S67 [ref. 28535]). •Synonym of Platichthys luscus (Pallas 1814) -- (Parin et al. 2014:541 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys luscus (Pallas 1814). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

glacialis, Pleuronectes Pallas [P. S.] 1776:706 [Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reiches; ref. 18509] Arctic Ocean, Kara Bay. No types known. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). There is no concensus on the generic placement at this time. •Valid as Pleuronectes glacialis Pallas 1776 -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lelek 1987:315 [ref. 22962], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:118 [ref. 21500], Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:836 [ref. 25968], Fedorov et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27579], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776) -- (Berg 1949:1181 [ref. 20662], Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1303 [ref. 13677], Matarese et al. 1989:604 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:223 [ref. 14674], Chereshnev 1996:607 [ref. 24659], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:761 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:159 [ref. 23573], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Voronina & Evseenko 2001:443 [ref. 25618], Pietsch et al. 2001:147 [ref. 25688], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:48 [ref. 26178], Evseenko 2003:S65 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:241 [ref. 28183], Fricke 2007:29 [ref. 30577], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:593 [ref. 29996], Dolgov 2013:921 [ref. 33112], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Parin et al. 2014:538 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:165 [ref. 34033], Afonso et al. 2016:74, 253 [ref. 36199], Kells et al. 2016:332 [ref. 35888], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:235 [ref. 34440], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:441 [ref. 36370] see remarks). Current status: Valid as Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Arctic Ocean and adjacent northeastern and North Pacific; White Sea; Baltic Sea (possibly introduced). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

grigorjewi, Hippoglossus Herzenstein [S. M.] 1890:134 [56 in n. s.] [Mélanges Biologiques, tirés du Bulletin physico-mathématique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 13; ref. 18286] Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZIN 8732. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:264 [ref. 37075]. On p. 56 in Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb. (Ser. 2):49-65. •Valid as Eopsetta grigorjewi (Herzenstein 1890) -- (Sheiko 1983:19 [ref. 37041], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:351 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:619, 739 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:84 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:111 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:229 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:448 [ref. 26385] dated 1891, Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670] as Eposeta, Cooper & Chapleau 1998:706 [ref. 26711], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1374 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1374 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 682 [ref. 26218], Evseenko 2003:S60 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:4 [ref. 27606], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2011:55 [ref. 31715], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:98 [ref. 32413], Parin et al. 2014:529 [ref. 33547], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Eopsetta grigorjewi (Herzenstein 1890). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

groenlandicus, Hippoglossus Günther [A.] 1862:404 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Greenland. Syntypes: (at least 5 at BMNH, 4 stuffed): BMNH 1850.11.9.7 (1, stuffed/mounted), 1850.11.9.1.10 (stuffed). Based on literature sources and specimens. •Synonym of Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:627 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S69 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:547 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

gronovii, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:472 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Atlantic coast of tropical America. Syntypes: BMNH 1959.12.16.1 (1) West Indies, 1959.12.16.2 (1) and 1959.12.16.3 (1) Demerara, 2012.10.24.9 (1) Suriname. Based on literature sources and specimens. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

guttulatus, Pleuronichthys Girard [C. F.] 1856:137 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 8; ref. 1809] Tomales Bay, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Hypsopsetta guttulatus (Girard 1856) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:289 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Swift et al. 1993:132 [ref. 22379], Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1384 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:257 [ref. 24545], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Fuller et al. 1999:482 [ref. 25838], Ruiz-Campos et al. 2000:76 [ref. 24940], Evseenko 2004:7 [ref. 27606], Kells et al. 2016:330 [ref. 35888] as H. guttulata). •Valid as Pleuronichthys guttulatus Girard 1856 -- (Cooper & Chapleau 1998:711 [ref. 26711], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:97 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Pleuronichthys guttulatus Girard 1856. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hamiltoni, Hippoglossoides Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2616 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Off Dalnoi Point, Kamchatka, Russia, Albatross station 3641, depth 16 fathoms. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 5769. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:141 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Hippoglossoides robustus Gill & Townsend 1897 -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:104 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 2003:S62 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:532 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossoides robustus Gill & Townsend 1897. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

herzensteini, Hippoglossoides Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1904:229 [Fishes of the eastern seas of the Russian Empire; ref. 3946] Mauka, western Sakhalin Island; Peter the Great Bay, 55-63 m; and Wonsan, Korea, Seas of Japan. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1929.4.15.2 (1, ex ZIN 12363), ZIN 12361-65 (2, 1, 4 now 3, 1, 1). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:267 [ref. 37075]. •Synonym of Cleisthenes pinetorum Jordan & Starks 1904, but a valid subspecies -- (Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:351 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Hippoglossoides herzensteini Schmidt 1904 -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:94 [ref. 21500], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670]). •Valid as Cleisthenes herzensteini (Schmidt 1904) -- (Kim & Youn 1994:110 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:225 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:447 [ref. 26385], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:707 [ref. 26711], Wang et al. 2001:307 [ref. 26566], Evseenko 2003:S60 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:3 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:528 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:194 [ref. 35257]). •Synonym of Cleisthenes pinetorum Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Vinnikov et al. 2018:158 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Synonym of Cleisthenes pinetorum Jordan & Starks 1904. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

herzensteini, Limanda Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:746 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1235); ref. 2504] Vladivostok, Russia; Hakodate, Japan. Syntypes: ZIN 1583 (3), 6163 (1), 8730 (1). Replacement name for Pleuronectes japonicus Herzenstein 1890, preoccupied by Pleuronectes japonicus Houttuyn 1782 in Cynoglossidae. •Valid as Pleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:130 [ref. 21500], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1379 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1379 [ref. 26193], Wang et al. 2001:313 [ref. 26566], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:98 [ref. 32413], Tohkairin et al. 2015:14 [ref. 35331]). •Valid as Limanda herzensteini Jordan & Snyder 19/01 -- (Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:352 [ref. 6441], Kim & Youn 1994:114 [ref. 22286], Choi et al. 2003:432, 684 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Li & Wang 1995:244 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:456 [ref. 26385], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Evseenko 2003:S68 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Parin et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:199 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hippoglossoides, Pleuronectes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:115 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Northern Ocean. No types known. •Valid as Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:627 [ref. 6885], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:294 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:305, 347 [ref. 8379], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:351 [ref. 6441], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1306 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:295 [ref. 23100], Alton et al. 1988 [ref. 21390], Scott & Scott 1988:557 [ref. 25518], Matarese et al. 1989:622 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:224 [ref. 14674], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:74 [ref. 21500], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1995:226 [ref. 22531], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Kubota & Tsukada 1996:56 [ref. 24966] in Reinhaordtius, Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:702 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1374 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:585 [ref. 26158], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:830 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1374 [ref. 26193], Moore et al. 2003:232 [ref. 27076], Evseenko 2003:S69 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Møller et al. 2010:70 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Dolgov 2013:921 [ref. 33112], Shinohara et al. 2014:277 [ref. 33330], Mecklenburg et al. 2014:143 [ref. 33463], Parin et al. 2014:546 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:165 [ref. 34033], Tohkairin et al. 2015:14 [ref. 35331], Afonso et al. 2016:75, 263 [ref. 36199], Kells et al. 2016:336 [ref. 35888], Chernova 2017:114 [ref. 35207], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:453 [ref. 36370], Burton & Lea 2019:101 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Distribution: Arctic Ocean and adjacent North Pacific and North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hippoglossoides, Reinhardtius Gill [T. N.] 1861:50 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 13 (Suppl.); ref. 1766] Not a new name, only a new combination for Pleuronectes hippoglossoides Walbaum 1792. •In the synonymy of Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum 1792) -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae.

hippoglossus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:269 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.127 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:242 [ref. 13434]. •Valid as Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:624 [ref. 6885], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1301 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:294 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:547 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:222 [ref. 14674], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1995:223 [ref. 22531], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:705 [ref. 26711], Musick 2000:19 [ref. 24959], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:569 [ref. 26158], Moore et al. 2003:232 [ref. 27076], Evseenko 2003:S62 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:533 [ref. 33547], Afonso et al. 2016:73, 169 [ref. 36199], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:430 [ref. 36370], Iglésias et al. 2019:282 [ref. 37098]). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Distribution: North Atlantic and adjacent Arctic Ocean, south to North Sea. Habitat: marine.

hireguro, Microstomus Tanaka [S.] 1916:67 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 28 (no. 328); ref. 15075] Obama, Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Syntypes: ZUMT 6987-89 (3, lost). •Synonym of Glyptocephalus stelleri (Schmidt 1904) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:157 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:5 [ref. 27606], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:195 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Glyptocephalus stelleri (Schmidt 1904). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

hubbardii, Parophrys Gill [T. N.] 1862:281 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1666] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 4482. •Synonym of Parophrys vetulus Girard 1854 -- (Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Parophrys vetulus Girard 1854. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

innominatus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:xxxv, 163 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] North America. The word innominatus appears in the index (p.xxxv) referring to unnamed species (f.) described on p. 163. Apparently not a new name proposal, but rather an indication that the indexer did not find a name for this species. •Unavailable in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae.

iridorum, Limanda Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1906:206, Fig. 14 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1484); ref. 2532] Mororan, Japan. Holotype: USNM 55644 (not found in 1980 or in 56366). Paratypes: (5) CAS-SU 9824 (1), 9887 [not 9824] (1), 9943 (2), USNM 56366 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:141 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Pleuronectes punctatissimus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:126 [ref. 21500]). •Synonym of Limanda punctatissima (Steindachner 1879) -- (Evseenko 2003:S64 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:197 [ref. 35257]). •Synonym of Myzopsetta punctatissima (Steindachner 1879). Current status: Synonym of Myzopsetta punctatissima (Steindachner 1879). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

ischyrus, Parophrys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:276 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 147); ref. 10580] Seattle harbor, Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A. Syntypes: (4) USNM 27266 (orig. 3, now 2). Parophrys ischyrus Jordan & Gilbert 1880 is thought to be a hybrid between Platichthys stellatus (Pallas 1788) and Parophrys vetulus Girard 1854. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

isolepis, Lepidopsetta Lockington [W. N.] 1880:325 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 158); ref. 17554] San Francisco market, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 8872 (1); ZMUB 1191 [ex USNM 26982] (1); USNM 26982 (orig. 6, now 3), 27116 (3). Type catalog: Frøiland 1979:148 [ref. 21547], Böhlke 1984:143 [ref. 13621]. Also appeared in Lockington 1880:597 [ref. 14280]. •Valid as Pleuronectes isolepis (Lockington 1880) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273]). •Valid as Isopsetta isolepis (Lockington 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:289 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:594 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:222 [ref. 14674], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:709 [ref. 26711], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:842 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2004:7 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:69 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:330 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:96 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Isopsetta isolepis (Lockington 1880). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

italicus, Pleuronectes Günther [A.] 1862:452 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Mediterranean Sea; Dalmatia, Croatia, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Syntype: BMNH 1842.6.7.3 (1). Based on literature sources and one specimen. •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Nielsen 1973:626 [ref. 6885], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Dorofeeva 1998:160 [ref. 23573]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Momigliano et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35980]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) subspecies luscus (Pallas 1814) -- (Evseenko 2003:S67 [ref. 28535]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Pleuronectes Herzenstein [S. M.] 1890:130 [52] [Mélanges Biologiques, tirés du Bulletin physico-mathématique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 13; ref. 18286] Vladivostok, Russia; Hakodate, Japan. Syntypes: ZIN 1583 (3), 6163 (1), 8730 (1). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:268 [ref. 37075]. On p. 52 in Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Pétersb. (n. s.) v. 2:49-65. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pleuronectes japonicus Houttuyn 1782, replaced by Limanda herzensteini Jordan & Snyder 1901. •Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1801) -- (Li & Wang 1995:244 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:199 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Pleuronichthys Suzuki [S.], Kawashima [T.] & Nakabo [T.] 2009:277, Figs. 1a-c, e, f, 2a-e [Ichthyological Research v. 56 (no. 3); ref. 30301] Off Hamada, ca. 35°22'N, 132°15'E, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 90216. Paratypes: (29) at FAKU (27), HUMZ (2). Plus many non-type specimens. •Valid as Pleuronichthys japonicus Suzuki, Kawashima & Nakabo 2009 -- (Yokogawa & Watanabe 2011:24 [ref. 31146], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:99 [ref. 32413]). •Synonym of Pleuronichthys cornutus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Yokogawa et al. 2014:385 [ref. 35476], Yokogawa et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34955]). Current status: Synonym of Pleuronichthys cornutus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronichthyinae. Distribution: Sea of Japan and Pacific coast of Japan, to southern East China Sea and Seto Inland Sea [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Hippoglossoides Lockington [W. N.] 1879:235 [Mining and Scientific Press. An illustrated journal of mining, popular sciences and general news v. 38 (no. 15) 12 Apr.; ref. 20589] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: CAS (4, lost). Apparently appeared first as above on 12 April. Also appeared in Lockington 1879:73 [ref. 17560], 1879:242 [ref. 17558] and 1879:40 [ref. 17559]. •Valid as Eopsetta jordani (Lockington 1879) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:287 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Matarese et al. 1989:582 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:221 [ref. 14674], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:84 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:706 [ref. 26711], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:826 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2004:4 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:68 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:328 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:96 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Eopsetta jordani (Lockington 1879). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

katakurae, Hippoglossoides Snyder [J. O.] 1911:546 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 40 (no. 1836); ref. 4152] Otaru, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 68244. •Synonym of Hippoglossoides dubius Schmidt 1904 -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:101 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossoides dubius Schmidt 1904. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

kitaharae, Microstomus Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:625, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 2526] Matsushima Bay, Japan, Albatross station 3770, depth 42-45 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51418. Paratypes: BMNH 1930.9.2.25 [ex SU] (1); CAS-SU 8390 (not found), 8995 (10), 8996 (7); USNM 51402 (4), 51409 (2), 51419 (4), 51450 (6), 51840 (7). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:142 [ref. 12291]. The spelling kitaharae is acceptable; early workers almost certainly Latinized the name first, and then added an 'e' (Art. 31.1.1) [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012]-- we now suggest using kitaharae (both names are in current use). •Valid as Tanakius kitaharae (Jordan & Starks 1904) (also seen as kitaharai) -- (Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:301, 407 [ref. 8256], Sakamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:353 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:623, 741 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:169 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:123 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:256 [ref. 16193], Shinohara et al. 1996:184 [ref. 26605], Cheng & Zhou 1997:452 [ref. 26385], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Nakabo 2000:1376 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1376 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 686 [ref. 26218], Evseenko 2004:15 [ref. 27606], Shinohara et al. 2005:443 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2011:57 [ref. 31715], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:100 [ref. 32413], Shinohara et al. 2014:277 [ref. 33330]). •Valid as Glyptocephalus kitaharae (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Cooper & Chapleau 1998:712 [ref. 26711], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Glyptocephalus kitaharae (Jordan & Starks 1904). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

kitt, Pleuronectes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:120 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] British seas. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1991:51 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Sakamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5273], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1304 [ref. 13677], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:712 [ref. 26711], Fricke 1999:51 [ref. 24101], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:10 [ref. 27606], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Bañon et al. 2010:23 [ref. 31029], Møller et al. 2010:69 [ref. 31169]. Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:540 [ref. 33547], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:443 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, eastern North Atlantic, southeast coast of Greenland. Habitat: marine.

knipowitschi, Liopsetta glacialis Essipov [V. K.] 1939:171, Fig. 2 [Sbornik Posvyashchionnyj Nauchnoj Deyatelnosti N. M. Knipovicha, Moskva.; ref. 21768] Gulf of Ob at Cape Drovyanyi, 72°25'N, 72°45'E, Siberia, Arctic Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). •Synonym of Pleuronectes glacialis Pallas 1776 -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776) -- (Berg 1949:1181 [ref. 20662], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:538 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Liopsetta glacialis (Pallas 1776). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

korigarei, Limanda Hubbs [C. L.] 1915:483, Pl. 27 (fig. 8) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 48 (no. 2082); ref. 2224] Aniwa Bay, Sakhalin Island, west of Okhotsk Sea, Albatross station 5008, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 75669. Paratypes: CAS-SU 22532 (1). Plus additional material: CAS-SU 23841-42 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:141 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Limanda korigarei Hubbs 1915 -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650]). •Synonym of Pleuronectes sakhalinensis (Hubbs 1915) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:124 [ref. 21500]). •Synonym of Limanda sakhalinensis Hubbs 1915 -- (Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Evseenko 2003:S64 [ref. 28535], Parin et al. 2014:537 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:198 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Limanda sakhalinensis Hubbs 1915. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Pleuronectes Shaw [G.] 1803:299 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] London, England. No types known. •Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:10 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

latidens, Microstomus Gottsche [C. M.] 1835:150 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 2 (pt 2, no. 2); ref. 1862] Copenhagen fish market. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:10 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

latus, Platessa Cuvier [G.] 1829:339 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] France. No types known. Probable syntypes: MNHN 1999-0997 (1) Norway. Originally as "Pl. latus. N." with Pl. probably standing for Pleuronectes; if Platessa then species should be lata. •Synonym of Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Nielsen 1973:623 [ref. 6885], Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2003:S67 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

leiurus, Pleuronectes flesus var. Duncker [G.] 1892:280, 291, Fig. 1 [Schriften des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schleswig-Holstein. v. 9; ref. 17428] Elbe River at Hamburg, Germany. No types known. •Synonym of Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:1185 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:626 [ref. 6885], Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Momigliano et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35980]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lighti, Pleuronichthys Wu [H.-W.] 1929:66, Fig. 54 [Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China. (Zoological Series) v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 17843] Island of Amoy or vicinity. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Wu credits to Herre, but we are unable to locate a species lighti in this family described by Herre. •Synonym of Pleuronichthys cornutus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Li & Wang 1995:239 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 2003:S68 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:13 [ref. 27606], Suzuki et al. 2009:285 [ref. 30301]). •Valid as Pleuronichthys lighti Wu 1929 -- (Yokogawa et al. 2014:390 [ref. 35476], Yokogawa et al. 2016:4 [ref. 34955], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Pleuronichthys lighti Wu 1929. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronichthyinae. Distribution: East Asia. Habitat: marine.

limanda, Hippoglossoides Gottsche [C. M.] 1835:168 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 2 (pt 2, no. 2); ref. 1862] Apparently a new combination for Pleuronectes limanda Linnaeus 1758. From Denmark. •In the synonymy of Hippoglossoides platessoides (Fabricius 1780), subspecies limandoides (Bloch 1787) -- (Nielsen 1973:624 [ref. 6885]). •Unavailable name in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossoides platessoides (Fabricius 1780). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae.

limanda, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:270 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European seas. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:50 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Pleuronectes limanda Linnaeus 1758 -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:116 [ref. 21500]). •Valid as Limanda limanda (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1302 [ref. 13677], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:715 [ref. 26711], Fricke 1999:50 [ref. 24101], Evseenko 2003:S64 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Parin et al. 2014:536 [ref. 33547], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:436 [ref. 36370], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Limanda limanda (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Eastern North Atlantic and adjacent Arctic Region. Habitat: marine.

limandoides, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] 1787:24, Pl. 186 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Eastern North Atlantic. Lectotype: whereabouts unknown. On p. 18 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Gmelin's (1789:1232) use of this name refers to Bloch's account, even though Bloch is not cited. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:50 [ref. 24101] as the [specimen illustrated in] Pl. 186 in the original description [specimen not in existence]. This subspecies is known from the e. North Atlantic. •Synonym of Hippoglossoides platessoides (Fabricius 1780), but a valid subspecies limandoides (Bloch 1787) -- (Nielsen 1973:624 [ref. 6885], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1301 [ref. 13677], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1995:222 [ref. 22531], Fricke 1999:50 [ref. 24101], Evseenko 2003:S62 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:532 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossoides platessoides (Fabricius 1780). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

limandula, Pleuronectes Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Duhamel de Monceau & LaMarre) 1788:75 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:339 [ref. 25922] as type not at MNHN. •Synonym of Limanda limanda (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:339 [ref. 25922], Evseenko 2003:S64 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Limanda limanda (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

linnei, Hippoglossus Malm [A. W.] 1877:508 [ ref. 2881] European seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.127 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Original as Linnéi. Tentatively regarded as an unneeded new name for Pleuronectes hippoglossus Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid "Strickland tautonomy"). •Synonym of Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Evseenko 2003:S62 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

luscus, Pleuronectes Pallas [P. S.] 1814:427 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Feodosiya [Feodosia], Crimea, Ukraine [Black Sea]. No types known. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). •Synonym of Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1949:1190 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Vasil'eva 2007:188 [ref. 30517]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Nielsen 1973:626 [ref. 6885], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1305 [ref. 13677], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:761 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:159 [ref. 23573], Voronina 1999:612 [ref. 24880], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:151 [ref. 26753] dated to 1811, Evseenko 2003:S67 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:184 [ref. 28369]). •Valid as Platichthys luscus (Pallas 1814) -- (Fricke et al. 2007:114 [ref. 29533], Çiçek et al. 2015:152 [ref. 35151]). Current status: Valid as Platichthys luscus (Pallas 1814). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Black Sea, Sea of Azov and northeastern Mediterranean Sea; introduced into Caspian Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

macrocephala, Hypsopsetta Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1936:4, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 2 (art. 3); ref. 634] San Francisquito Bay, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): YPM 809. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:24 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Hypsopsetta macrocephala Breder 1936 -- (Evseenko 2004:7 [ref. 27606] provissionally valid). •Valid as Pleuronichthys macrocephala (Breder 1936). Current status: Valid as Pleuronichthys macrocephala (Breder 1936). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculosa, Limanda angustirostris var. Pavlenko [M. N.] 1910:58, Fig. 12 [Trudy Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelej Imperatorskom' Kazanskom' Universiteti, Kazan v. 42 (no. 2); ref. 3393] Peter the Great Bay, Russia, Sea of Japan. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). •Synonym of Pleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:130 [ref. 21500]). •Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Evseenko 2003:S68 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:544 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:199 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

maculosus, Pleuronectes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:89 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] American seas. No types known. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

mancus, Pleuronectes lunatus var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:154 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Perhaps not an original description, same as Pleuronectes mancus [now Bothus mancus] Broussonet 1782. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

marmorata, Platessa flesus var. Nordmann [A. von] 1840:534, Pl. 28 (fig. 1) [Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée; ref. 3209] Locality unknown. No types known. •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies luscus (Pallas 1814) -- (Nielsen 1973:626 [ref. 6885]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottel at 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606]). •Synonym of Platichthys luscus (Pallas 1814) -- (Parin et al. 2014:541 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys luscus (Pallas 1814). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

matsuurae, Reinhardtius Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:309, Pl. 16 (figs. 7-8) [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 15 (pt 2); ref. 2506] Misaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, Sagami Sea, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 456 (stuffed) not seen in 1997. The spelling matsuurae is acceptable; early workers almost certainly Latinized the name first, and then added an 'e' (Art. 31.1.1) [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012]. •Synonym of Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum 1792), but a valid subspecies -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:74 [ref. 21500], Kim & Biryukov 1998:151 [ref. 24671], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Fedorov et al. 2003:143 [ref. 27579]). •Synonym of Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:627 [ref. 6885], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:830 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2003:S69 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:547 [ref. 33547], Chernova 2017:114 [ref. 35207]). Current status: Synonym of Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

maximus, Hippoglossus Gottsche [C. M.] 1835:164 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 2 (pt 2, no. 2); ref. 1862] European seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.127 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Unneeded new name for Pleuronectes hippoglossus Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid "Strickland tautonomy"). •Synonym of Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:624 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S62 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

melanogaster, Platessa Higgins [E. T.] 1855:4596, 4914 [The Zoologist: a Popular Miscellany of Natural History v. 13; ref. 20919] Still researching. Described but not named on pp. 4596 and 4914, origin of name not yet established. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

melanostictus, Psettichthys Girard [C. F.] 1854:140 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1817] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Psettichthys melanostictus Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:293 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Matarese et al. 1989:620 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:224 [ref. 14674], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:708 [ref. 26711], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:824 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2004:13 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:71 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:336 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:97 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Psettichthys melanostictus Girard 1854. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microcephalus, Pleuronectes Donovan [E.] 1803:3 unnum. pp., Pl. 42 [The natural history of British fishes, including scientific and general descriptions of the most interesting species, and an extensive selection of accurately finished coloured plates.; ref. 17408] England. No types known. •Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:10 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:540 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

microstomus, Pleuronectes Faber [F.] 1828:245 [Tidsskrift for naturvidenskaberne, Kjöbenhavn v. 5 (no. 15); ref. 18075] No types known. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

minutus, Pleuronectes Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Venice, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Apparently available as above, overlooked. See also Ninni 1872:62 [ref. 17995] where Chiereghini manuscript is quoted but name not treated as valid. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

mochigarei, Lepidopsetta Snyder [J. O.] 1911:547 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 40 (no. 1836); ref. 4152] Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype: USNM 68245. Paratypes: CAS-SU 21430 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:141 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Pleuronectes mochigarei (Snyder 1911) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:118 [ref. 21500], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1378 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1378 [ref. 26193], Tohkairin et al. 2015:14 [ref. 35331]). •Valid as Lepidopsetta mochigarei Snyder 1911 -- (Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:352 [ref. 6441], Kim & Youn 1994:114 [ref. 22286], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:709 [ref. 26711], Orr & Matarese 2000:568 [ref. 24744], Choi et al. 2003:432, 683 [ref. 26218], Evseenko 2003:S63 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:534 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:196 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Lepidopsetta mochigarei Snyder 1911. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

moseri, Verasper Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2619 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Shana Bay, Iturup Island, Kuril Islands. Holotype: USNM 48797. Paratypes: ?BMNH 1930.9.2.26 [ex SU] (1), CAS-SU 9415 (6). Also in Jordan & Gilbert 1899:490, Pl. 85 [ref. 2478]. •Valid as Verasper moseri Jordan & Gilbert 1898 -- (Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:351 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:88 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:236 [ref. 16193], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:705 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1373 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1373 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 686 [ref. 26218], Evseenko 2003:S70 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:15 [ref. 27606], Shinohara et al. 2014:277 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:547 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:201 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Verasper moseri Jordan & Gilbert 1898. Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nadeshnyi, Acanthopsetta Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1904:237, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Fishes of the eastern seas of the Russian Empire; ref. 3946] Aniva Bay, Okhotsk Sea; Sea of Japan: Amerika Bay and Peter the Great Bay, Primorye, Russia; Wonsan, Korea; depth 55-110 meters. Syntypes: BMNH [ex ZIN 12340] (1); ZIN 12339-46 (1, 3 now 2, 7, 3, 2 now 1, 2,, 8, 6+), 12764 (1), 13066 (1), 56375 (4), USNM 51489? (1, ex ZIN 12343). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:266 [ref. 37075]. Appeared first without distinguishing features in Schmidt 1903:521 [p. 19 of separate] [ref. 3945]. Syntype ZIN 12345 is apparently illustrated on Pl. 5 (fig. 1); see Voronina & Volkova 2019:267 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Acanthopsetta nadeshnyi Schmidt 1904 -- (Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:305, 348 [ref. 8379], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:351 [ref. 6441], Matarese et al. 1989:574 [ref. 26885], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:108 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:111 [ref. 22286], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:707 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1374 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:827 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1374 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 681 [ref. 26218], Fedorov et al. 2003:133 [ref. 27579], Evseenko 2003:S59 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:3 [ref. 27606], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Shinohara et al. 2011:55 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:275 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:526 [ref. 33547], Tohkairin et al. 2015:13 [ref. 35331], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:194 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopsetta nadeshnyi Schmidt 1904. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: North Pacific and Bering Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nephelus, Pleuronichthys Starks [E. C.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1910:282, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 38 (no. 1744); ref. 10117] San Juan Islands, Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 74606. Paratypes and non-types: (11) AMNH 3924-25 (1, 1); BMNH 1930.8.6.18 [ex USNM] (1); FMNH 52363 (1); CAS-SU 21414 (7); USNM 74559 (2), 74600 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:142 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Pleuronichthys coenosus Girard 1854 -- (Fitch 1963:30 [ref. 21219], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Pleuronichthys coenosus Girard 1854. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronichthyinae. Habitat: marine.

nigromanus, Pleuronectes Nilsson [S.] 1829:401 [Isis (Oken) v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 18475] North Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:623 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:5 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

obscurus, Pleuronectes Herzenstein [S. M.] 1890:127 [49] [Mélanges Biologiques, tirés du Bulletin physico-mathématique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 13; ref. 18286] Vladivostok, Russia; Japan. Syntypes: ZIN 8725-29 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:269 [ref. 37075]. On p. 49 in Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Pétersb. (n. s.) v. 2. •Valid as Pleuronectes obscurus Herzenstein 1890 -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:142 [ref. 21500], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1377 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1377 [ref. 26193]). •Valid as Liopsetta obscura (Herzenstein 1890) -- (Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:353 [ref. 6441], Kim & Youn 1994:124 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:247 [ref. 16193], Voronina & Evseenko 2001:442 [ref. 25618], Choi et al. 2003:432, 685 [ref. 26218], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:241 [ref. 28183]). •Valid as Pseudopleuronectes obscurus (Herzenstein 1890) -- (Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Evseenko 2003:S69 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606], Kartavtsev et al. 2007:757 [ref. 34456], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Parin et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:200 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Pseudopleuronectes obscurus (Herzenstein 1890). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

oceanica, Limanda Bonaparte [C. L.] 1846:48 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano 7a Adunanza, Napoli, Part 2; ref. 519] "Ocean". No types known. •Synonym of Limanda limanda (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S64 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Limanda limanda (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Pleuronichthys Starks [E. C.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1910:285, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 38 (no. 1744); ref. 10117] 31°21'N, 113°49'W, Gulf of California, Mexico, Albatross station 3024, depth 11 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 74605. Paratypes: (16) BMNH 1930.9.2.18 [ex CAS-SU] (1); CAS-SU 198 (6), 5569 (2); USNM. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:142 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Pleuronichthys ocellatus Starks & Thompson 1910 -- (Fitch 1963:26 [ref. 21219], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1384 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:293 [ref. 25640], Evseenko 2004:13 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Pleuronichthys ocellatus Starks & Thompson 1910. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

oleosus, Reinhardtius Tanaka [S.] 1918:226 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 30 (no. 356); ref. 17357] Tokyo fish market, probably from Iwate [Ibaraki] Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT. •Synonym of Atheresthes evermanni Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:70 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 2003:S59 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:3 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Atheresthes evermanni Jordan & Starks 1904. Pleuronectidae: Atheresthinae. Habitat: marine.

oshorensis, Pseudoplatichthys Hikita [T.] 1934:189 [English p. 11], Pl. 2 (figs. 1-2) [Bulletin of the School of Fisheries Hokkaido v. 4; ref. 2160] Oshoro, Hokkaido, Japan. Syntypes: (2). This species is thought to be a hybrid between Platichthys stellatus (Pallas 1788) and Kareius bicoloratus (Basilewsky 1855). •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

ostroumowi, Glyptocephalus Pavlenko [M. N.] 1910:59, Figs. 13a, b [Trudy Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelej Imperatorskom' Kazanskom' Universiteti, Kazan v. 42 (no. 2); ref. 3393] Peter the Great Bay, Russia, Sea of Japan, depth 245-280 feet (35-40 Russian fathoms). Syntypes: (5) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). •Synonym of Glyptocephalus stelleri (Schmidt 1904) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:157 [ref. 21500] as ostroumovi, Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650] as ostroumovi, Mecklenburg et al. 2002:849 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:5 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:530 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:195 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Glyptocephalus stelleri (Schmidt 1904). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

otakii, Verasper Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1900:378 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1213); ref. 2502] Tokyo, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 49396. •Synonym of Eopsetta grigorjewi (Herzenstein 1890) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:84 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:229 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 2003:S60 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:4 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:529 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Eopsetta grigorjewi (Herzenstein 1890). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

pacificus, Glyptocephalus Lockington [W. N.] 1879:254 [Mining and Scientific Press. An illustrated journal of mining, popular sciences and general news v. 38 (no. 16) 19 Apr.; ref. 20590] Markets of San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: CAS (2, lost in 1906). Apparently appeared first as above on 19 April. Also appeared in Lockington 1879:86 [ref. 17560], 1879:243 [ref. 17558] and 1879:43 [ref. 17559]. •Valid as Microstomus pacificus (Lockington 1879) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:290 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5273], Matarese et al. 1989:608 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:223 [ref. 14674], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:98 [ref. 21805], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:165 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:712 [ref. 26711], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:847 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:10 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:540 [ref. 33547], Pietsch & Orr 2015:71 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:332 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:96 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Microstomus pacificus (Lockington 1879). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pallasii, Pleuronectes Steindachner [F.] 1879:163 [45], Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Kamchatka, Russia. Syntypes: (several) NMW 42642 (2). On p. 45 of separate. •Valid as Pleuronectes pallasii Steindachner 1879 -- (Kim & Youn 1994:120 [ref. 22286]). •Synonym of Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus Pallas 1814 -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:139 [ref. 21500], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:835 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2003:S68 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:543 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:199 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus Pallas 1814. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

passarinus, Pleuronectes Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy. Also not available from Ninni 1872:59 [ref. 17995] where Chiereghini manuscript is quoted but name not treated as valid. •Unavailable name in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:29 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae.

passer, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:271 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European seas. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:52 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:1185 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:626 [ref. 6885], Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Dorofeeva 1998:159 [ref. 23573], Fricke 1999:50 [ref. 24101], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:540 [ref. 33547], Momigliano et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35980]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

perarcuatus, Pleuronectes Cope [E. D.] 1873:32 [9] [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 13 (for 17 Jan. 1873); ref. 929] Alaska, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8725. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:143 [ref. 13621]. On p. 9 of separate. •Synonym of Lepidopsetta bilineata (Ayres 1855) -- (Orr & Matarese 2000:561 [ref. 24744], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:837 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Lepidopsetta bilineata (Ayres 1855). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

pictus, Pleuronectes Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:161 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in account of Pleuronectes spinosus. Based on description and drawing in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Nomen nudum in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:29 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae.

pinetorum, Cleisthenes Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:622, Fig. [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 2526] Kinkwazan Island, Matsushima Bay, Japan. Holotype: USNM 51403. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8391 (17), USNM 51407 (9). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:141 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Hippoglossoides pinetorum (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:93 [ref. 21500], Nakabo 2000:1375 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1375 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 682 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:276 [ref. 33330], Tohkairin et al. 2015:14 [ref. 35331]). •Valid as Cleisthenes pinetorum Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Cooper & Chapleau 1998:707 [ref. 26711], Evseenko 2004:3 [ref. 27606], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Cleisthenes pinetorum Jordan & Starks 1904. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pinguis, Pleuronectes Fabricius [O.] 1824:45 [Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Naturvidenskabelige og Mathemastiske Afhandlinger, København (Series 4) v. 1; ref. 17474] Greenland. No types known. •Synonym of Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:627 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S69 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

pinnifasciatus, Pleuronectes Kner [R.] in Steindachner & Kner 1870:422 [2], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4250] Decastris Bay, Tatar Strait, northern Sea of Japan. Holotype (unique): NMW [ex MGH 5583]. On p. 2 of separate. The correct spelling when in Liopsetta is pinnifasciata. •Valid as Pleuronectes pinnifasciatus Kner 1870 -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:145 [ref. 21500], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1377 [ref. 25182], Zemnukhov et al. 2001:420 [ref. 25412], Nakabo 2002:1377 [ref. 26193]). •Valid as Liopsetta pinnifasciata (Kner 1870) (also seen as pinnifasciatus) -- (Berg 1949:1183 [ref. 20662], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:353 [ref. 6441], Kim & Youn 1994:124 [ref. 22286], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:761 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:159 [ref. 23573], Voronina & Evseenko 2001:443 [ref. 25618], Pietsch et al. 2001:147 [ref. 25688], Choi et al. 2003:432, 685 [ref. 26218], Evseenko 2003:S65 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:241 [ref. 28183], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Parin et al. 2014:539 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:198 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Liopsetta pinnifasciata (Kner 1870). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

planus, Pleuronectes Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:8 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Mitchill 1815:387 [ref. 13292]. •Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Smith 1986:457 [ref. 22186]). •Synonym of Pleuronectes americanus Walbaum 1792 -- (Evseenko 2004:13 [ref. 27606]). •Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum 1792). Current status: Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

platessa, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:269 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European Seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.130-131 [Gronovius coll.] (2, skins). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:243 [ref. 13434]. Although Pleuronectes is masculine, platessa being a noun [as clearly indicated by Linnaeus' use of a capital P] does not decline. •Valid as Platessa platessa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1179 [ref. 20662]). •Valid as Pleuronectes platessus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606], Møller et al. 2010:70 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Parin et al. 2014:542 [ref. 33547]). •Valid as Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Nielsen 1973:623 [ref. 6885], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1305 [ref. 13677], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:117 [ref. 21500], Chereshnev 1996:607 [ref. 24659], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Arruda 1997:120 [ref. 24952], Dorofeeva 1998:160 [ref. 23573], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:48 [ref. 26178], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:179 [ref. 26753], Evseenko 2003:S67 [ref. 28535], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:243 [ref. 28183], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:595 [ref. 29996], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:73 [ref. 36649], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2959 [ref. 34618], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:449 [ref. 36370], Martins & Carneiro 2018:83 [ref. 36550]). Current status: Valid as Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: North Atlantic and adjacent Arctic Region. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

platessoides, Pleuronectes Fabricius [O.] 1780:164 [Fauna groenlandica, systematice sistens animalia Groenlandiae occidentalis, etc.; ref. 17464] Western Greenland. No types known. Two subspecies are recognized: platessoides from the western North Atlantic and limandoides from the eastern North Atlantic. •Valid as Hippoglossoides platessoides (Fabricius 1780) -- (Nielsen 1973:624 [ref. 6885], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1300 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:294 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:544 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:222 [ref. 14674], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1995:222 [ref. 22531], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:707 [ref. 26711], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:564 [ref. 26158], Moore et al. 2003:232 [ref. 27076], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Møller et al. 2010:69 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Dolgov 2013:921 [ref. 33112], Parin et al. 2014:532 [ref. 33547], Afonso et al. 2016:73, 167 [ref. 36199], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:428 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossoides platessoides (Fabricius 1780). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pola, Platessa Cuvier [G.] 1829:339 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:339 [ref. 25922] Brief description plus citation to "Duham. Sect. IX, pl. vi, f. 3 et 4, sous le nom de Vraie Limandelle." •Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Desoutter et al. 2001:339 [ref. 25922], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:10 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

pola, Pleuronectes Gistel [J.] 1848:105 [Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs; ref. 1822] Apparently no distinguishing features, not available. •Unavailable name in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:29 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae.

polyxystra, Lepidopsetta Orr [J. W.] & Matarese [A. C.] 2000:571, 21-23 [Fishery Bulletin v. 98 (no. 3); ref. 24744] Constantine Harbor, Amchitka Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, U.S.A., depth 19-42 meters. Holotype: UW 014826. Paratypes: ABL (8 lots, 16 spec.), CAS (6 lots, 14), KIE (8 lots, 8), OS (9 lots, 31), SIO (5 lots, 15), UBC (11 lots, 16), USNM (6 lots, 9), UW (30 lots, 107). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Lepidopsetta polyxystra Orr & Matarese 2000 -- (Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:838 [ref. 25968], Kuznetsova & Kunin 2002:336 [ref. 26171], Fedorov et al. 2003:137 [ref. 27579], Evseenko 2003:S63 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:535 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:165 [ref. 34033], Pietsch & Orr 2015:69 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:330 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Lepidopsetta polyxystra Orr & Matarese 2000. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Bering Sea to North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ponticus, Hippoglossus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1846:47 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano 7a Adunanza, Napoli, Part 2; ref. 519] No types known. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

proboscidea, Limanda Gilbert [C. H.] 1896:460, Pl. 33 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 19 (for 1893) (art. 6); ref. 1628] Bristol Bay, Alaska, U.S.A., depth 11.5-21 fathoms. Syntypes (incl. potential lectotype): BMNH 1896.7.23.232 [ex USNM] (1); MCZ 28220 (1); CAS-SU 3087 (1), 3089 (2), 5429 (1); USNM 48629 (1), 64131 (1); ZMUO J1861 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:142 [ref. 12291], Pethon 1969:6 [ref. 19268]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 378, p. 3311 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Valid as Pleuronectes proboscidea (Gilbert 1896) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273] as proboscideus, Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:116 [ref. 21500], Nakabo 2000:1378 [ref. 25182] as proboscideus, Nakabo 2002:1378 [ref. 26193] as proboscideus). •Valid as Limanda proboscidea Gilbert 1896 -- (Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:352 [ref. 6441], McAllister 1990:223 [ref. 14674], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:715 [ref. 26711], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:843 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2003:S64 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Mecklenburg et al. 2007:183 [ref. 29448], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Parin et al. 2014:536 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:165 [ref. 34033], Afonso et al. 2016:73, 182 [ref. 36199], Kells et al. 2016:332 [ref. 35888], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:231 [ref. 34440], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:196 [ref. 35257], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:438 [ref. 36370]). •Valid as Myzopsetta proboscidea (Gilbert 1896) -- (Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Fedorov et al. 2003:140 [ref. 27579], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Myzopsetta proboscidea (Gilbert 1896). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: North Pacific and adjacent Arctic Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

propinquus, Hippoglossoides Hubbs [C. L.] 1915:469, Pl. 26 (fig. 5) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 48 (no. 2082); ref. 2224] Aniwa Bay, Sakhalin Island, Albatross station 5005, depth 40-43 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 75667. Paratypes: (12) BMNH 1930.9.2.16 [ex CAS-SU] (1); CAS-SU 22529 (now 3), 23886 (?now 1), 68687-89 (1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Hippoglossoides robustus Gill & Townsend 1897 -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:104 [ref. 21500], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:829 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2003:S62 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossoides robustus Gill & Townsend 1897. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

punctatissimus, Hippoglossoides (Hippoglossina) Steindachner [F.] 1879:167 [49] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Hakodate, Oshima Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype (unique): NMW 43879. On p. 49 of separate. •Valid as Pleuronectes punctatissimus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:123 [ref. 21500], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1378 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1378 [ref. 26193]). •Valid as Limanda punctatissima (Steindachner 1879) -- (Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:352 [ref. 6441], Kim & Youn 1994:116 [ref. 22286], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:715 [ref. 26711], Choi et al. 2003:432, 684 [ref. 26218], Evseenko 2003:S64 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:537 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:197 [ref. 35257]). •Valid as Myzopsetta punctatissima (Steindachner 1879) -- (Fedorov et al. 2003:140 [ref. 27579] as punctatissimus, Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Myzopsetta punctatissima (Steindachner 1879). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific and adjacent Arctic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pusilla, Platessa DeKay [J. E.] 1842:296, Pl. 47 (fig. 153) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Shallow bays about New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Smith 1986:457 [ref. 22186]). •Synonym of Pleuronectes americanus Walbaum 1792 -- (Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

putnami, Euchalarodus Gill [T. N.] 1864:216 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 1704] Harbor of Salem, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 5368 (2). Also appeared Gill 1864:222 [ref. 5773]. •Valid as Pleuronectes putnami (Gill 1864) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:118 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:577 [ref. 26158], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Afonso et al. 2016:74, 254 [ref. 36199]). •Valid as Liopsetta putnami (Gill 1864) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:295 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:553 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:223 [ref. 14674], Voronina & Evseenko 2001:443 [ref. 25618], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:236 [ref. 34440], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Liopsetta putnami (Gill 1864). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Northwestern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quadridens, Pleuronectes Faber [F.] 1828:884 [Isis (Oken) v. 21 (no. 8); ref. 18076] Iceland. No types known. Apparently described first in Fabricius 1824 (still researching). •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

quadridens, Pleuronectes Fabricius [O.] 1824:39, Pl. 1 figs. 10, 11 [Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Naturvidenskabelige og Mathemastiske Afhandlinger, København (Series 4) v. 1; ref. 17474] •Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792) -- (Norman 1934:356 [ref. 6893]). Current status: Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

quadrituberculatus, Pleuronectes Pallas [P. S.] 1814:423 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Sea between Kamchatka, Russia and Alaska, U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). •Valid as Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus Pallas 1814 -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:353 [ref. 6441], Matarese et al. 1989:614 [ref. 26885], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:139 [ref. 21500], Dorofeeva 1998:160 [ref. 23573] as quadrituberculata, Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1377 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:835 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1377 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 685 [ref. 26218], Fedorov et al. 2003:142 [ref. 27579], Evseenko 2003:S68 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Shinohara et al. 2011:57 [ref. 31715], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Shinohara et al. 2014:277 [ref. 33330], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Parin et al. 2014:543 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:165 [ref. 34033], Kells et al. 2016:334 [ref. 35888], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:199 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:451 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus Pallas 1814. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: North Pacific and adjacent Arctic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quenselii, Pleuronectes Hollberg [L.] 1821:59 [Goetheborgs Kongliga Wettenskaps- och Witterhets-Samhaellets nya handlingar. v. 4; ref. 18304] No types known. •Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792) -- (Norman 1934:356 [ref. 6893]). •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Microstomus kitt (Walbaum 1792). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

ramosus, Rhombus Michahelles [C. W.] 1831:199 [Isis (Oken) v. 24 (no. 2); ref. 17702] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

rhombeus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:145 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. No types known. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

rhomboides, Pleuronectes Cuvier [G.] 1816:222 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:339 [ref. 25922]. In footnote 2, as "pl. rhomboides, Rondel. 313." •Unidentifiable -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:339 [ref. 25922]). •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

rikuzenius, Dexistes Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:624, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 2526] Matsushima Bay, Japan, Albatross station 3774, depth 84 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51423. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8388 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:141 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Dexistes rikuzenius Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:352 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:619, 739 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:111 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:122 [ref. 22286], Shinohara et al. 1996:184 [ref. 26605], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:711 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1376 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1376 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 682 [ref. 26218], Evseenko 2004:4 [ref. 27606], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2011:55 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:275 [ref. 33330], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Dexistes rikuzenius Jordan & Starks 1904. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ritteri, Pleuronichthys Starks [E. C.] & Morris [E. L.] 1907:243, Pl. 21 [University of California Publications in Zoology v. 3 (no. 11); ref. 10118] San Diego Bay, California, U.S.A. Holotype: CAS-SU 9786. Paratypes: CAS-SU 21131 (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:142 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Pleuronichthys ritteri Starks & Morris 1907 -- (Fitch 1963:23 [ref. 21219], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:293 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1385 [ref. 22830], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:711 [ref. 26711], Evseenko 2004:13 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:336 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Pleuronichthys ritteri Starks & Morris 1907. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern North Pacific off western coast of U.S.A. Habitat: marine.

robustus, Hippoglossoides Gill [T. N.] & Townsend [C. H.] 1897:234 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 11; ref. 1749] Bering Sea, 56°14'N, 164°08'W, Albatross station 3541, depth 49 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 48766. •Valid as Hippoglossoides robustus Gill & Townsend 1897 -- (Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:217, 348 [ref. 8379], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:351 [ref. 6441], Matarese et al. 1989:590 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:222 [ref. 14674], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:104 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:707 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1375 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:829 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1375 [ref. 26193], Fedorov et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27579], Evseenko 2003:S62 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Mecklenburg et al. 2007:183 [ref. 29448], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:532 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:165 [ref. 34033], Afonso et al. 2016:73, 168 [ref. 36199], Kells et al. 2016:328 [ref. 35888], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:225, 226 [ref. 34440]). •Synonym of Hippoglossoides elassodon Jordan & Gilbert 1880 -- (Vinnikov et al. 2018:158 [ref. 35844] with question). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossoides robustus Gill & Townsend 1897. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Arctic Ocean. Habitat: marine.

rondeletii, Pleuronectes Shaw [G.] 1803:307 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

roseus, Pleuronectes Shaw [G.] in Shaw & Nodder 1796:no page number, Pl. 238 [The Naturalist's Miscellany; ref. 4013] Thames River, U.K. Holotype (unique): HLM [Leverian Mus.] (not researched). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Momigliano et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35980]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rostrata, Platessa Storer [H. R.] 1850:268, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 6 (no. 2) (art. 15); ref. 18109] Bras d'Or and Red Bay, Labrador, Canada. No types known. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Pleuronectes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:89 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. No types known. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

rugosus, Platichthys Girard [C. F.] 1854:139 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1817] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) subspecies luscus (Pallas 1814) -- (Evseenko 2003:S67 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606]). •Synonym of Platichthys stellatus (Pallas 1787) -- (Okada 1961:713 [ref. 6363], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:148 [ref. 21500], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Parin et al. 2014:542 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:198 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys stellatus (Pallas 1787). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sakhalinensis, Limanda Hubbs [C. L.] 1915:480, Pl. 26 (fig. 6) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 48 (no. 2082); ref. 2224] Aniwa Bay, Sakhalin Island, west of Okhotsk Sea, Albatross station 5013, depth 43 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 75674. Paratypes: CAS-SU 22530 (1). Additional material: (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:142 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Pleuronectes sakhalinensis (Hubbs 1915) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:123 [ref. 21500], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1379 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1379 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2014:277 [ref. 33330], Tohkairin et al. 2015:14 [ref. 35331]). •Valid as Limanda sakhalinensis Hubbs 1915 -- (Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:715 [ref. 26711], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:845 [ref. 25968], Fedorov et al. 2003:138 [ref. 27579], Evseenko 2003:S64 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:9 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:537 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:165 [ref. 34033], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:233 [ref. 34440], Kells et al. 2016:351 [ref. 35888], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:198 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:439 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Limanda sakhalinensis Hubbs 1915. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific and adjacent Arctic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sasae, Glyptocephalus Snyder [J. O.] 1911:548 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 40 (no. 1836); ref. 4152] Otaru market, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype: USNM 68246. Paratypes: (2) CAS-SU 21431 (1), 23243 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:141 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Glyptocephalus stelleri (Schmidt 1904) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:157 [ref. 21500], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:849 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:5 [ref. 27606], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:195 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Glyptocephalus stelleri (Schmidt 1904). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

saxicola, Pleuronectes Faber [F.] 1828:244 [Tidsskrift for naturvidenskaberne, Kjöbenhavn v. 5 (no. 15); ref. 18075] Denmark. No types known. •Synonym of Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:623 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:5 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:530 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Habitat: marine.

schrenki, Limanda Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1904:235 [Fishes of the eastern seas of the Russian Empire; ref. 3946] Korsakov [Korsakovsky Post], Aniva Bay, southern Sea of Okhotsk; Kholmsk [Mauka], south-western Sakhalin Island, Sea of Japan. Syntypes: ZIN 12377A-B (3, 1, 56341 (2)). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:268 [ref. 37075]. Appeared first without distinguishing features in Schmidt 1903:520 [p. 18 of separate] [ref. 3945]. •Valid as Pleuronectes schrenki (Schmidt 1904) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:136 [ref. 21500], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1377 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1377 [ref. 26193]). •Valid as Limanda schrenki Schmidt 1904 -- (Sheiko 1983:19 [ref. 37041], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:352 [ref. 6441], Kim & Youn 1994:118 [ref. 22286], Choi et al. 2003:432, 684 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Pseudopleuronectes schrenki (Schmidt 1904) -- (Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Evseenko 2003:S69 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606], Kartavtsev et al. 2007:757 [ref. 34456], Parin et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:200 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Pseudopleuronectes schrenki (Schmidt 1904). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scutifer, Pleuronectes Steindachner [F.] 1870:628 [6], Pl. 2 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4218] Chefoo, Shantung Province, China. Holotype (unique): NMW 42671. On p. 6 of separate. •Synonym of Kareius bicoloratus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Okada 1961:715 [ref. 6363], Li & Wang 1995:253 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 2003:S63 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:7 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:534 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:195 [ref. 35257]). •Synonym of Platichthys bicoloratus (Basilewsky 1855). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys bicoloratus (Basilewsky 1855). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

septentrionalis, Hippoglossus Thon [F.] in Ersch & Gruber 1831:335 [Allgemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften Part 8; ref. 19965] May be an unneeded replacement name for Pleuronectes hippoglossus Linnaeus 1758. •Unavailable name in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:29 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae.

septentrionalis, Pleuronectes flesus natio Suvorov [E. K.] 1925:280 [Annals of Institute of Experimental Agronomy v. 3; ref. 19828] Kola Bay, southern Barents Sea, Russia. No types at ZIN. Not available, infrasubspecific. Validly published by Berg 1932. Also appeared as a new natio in Suvorov 1929:131 [ref. 19829]. •In the synonymy of Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Berg 1932:5 [ref. 26819], Berg 1949:1189 [ref. 20662]). •In the synonymy of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Reshetnikov et al. 1997:761 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:160 [ref. 23573]). •In the synonymy of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535]). •Unavailable name (infrasubspecific) in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:29 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:540 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae.

septentrionalis, Pleuronectes flesus Berg [L. S.] 1932:5, Fig. 3 [Notas y Resúmenes, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Serie II (Madrid) No. 58; ref. 26819] Coast of Mourman and coasts of Kanin Peninsula. Syntypes: (many) ZIN? 18.772 [figured, 25 cm]. Data given from 366-1,067 specimens. Museum given as Musée Zoologique de l'Académie des Sciences. •Valid publication as a subspecies of the infrasubspecific Pleuronectes flesus natio septentrionalis Suvorov 1925. •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:541 [ref. 33547], Momigliano et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35980]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

shuntovi, Microstomus Borets [L. A.] 1983:718, Fig. [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 23 (no. 5); ref. 8248] North Pacific, 35°17'N, 171°19'E, depth 270-290 meters. Holotype: ZIN 45771 (lost; not in collection in 1996). Paratypes: (3) not at ZIN. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:279 [ref. 37075]. Holotype lost in the period 1986-1996; see Voronina & Volkova 2019:279 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Microstomus shuntovi Borets 1983 -- (Sakamoto 1984:210 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:165 [ref. 21500], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:712 [ref. 26711], Evseenko 2004:10 [ref. 27606], Mundy 2005:520 [ref. 28379], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Microstomus shuntovi Borets 1983. Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

solea, Pleuronectoides Nardo [G. D.] 1824:233 [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) v. 7; ref. 3144] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Apparently an overlooked genus and species, not Pleuronectes solea Linnaeus, which Nardo treats on p. 232. Renamed Leptosoma ater in Nardo 1827:32, 39 [ref. 3146]. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

solemdali, Platichthys Momigliano [P.], Denys [G. P. J.], Jokinen [H.] & Merilä [J.] 2018:11, Figs. 6-7 [Frontiers in Marine Science v. 5; ref. 35980] Tvärminne, Furuskär (island), northern side, western Gulf of Finland, 59°50'N, 23°15'E. Holotype: MZH KS.3052. Paratypes: MZH. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Platichthys solemdali Momigliano, Denys, Jokinen & Merilä 2018. Current status: Valid as Platichthys solemdali Momigliano, Denys, Jokinen & Merilä 2018. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Endemic to the Baltic Sea, North Europe. Habitat: brackish.

stellatus, Pleuronectes Pallas [P. S.] 1787:347, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Nova Acta Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae v. 1 (Physica) (for 1783); ref. 18507] Kuril Islands; circa Kamtschatcam [Kamchatka Peninsula]. Possible types: ZMB 7415 (1). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) subspecies luscus (Pallas 1814) -- (Evseenko 2003:S67 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807] dating to 1788, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:243 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:354 [ref. 30085], Scharpf 2009:15 [ref. 30400], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page & Burr 2011:620 [ref. 31215], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419]). •Valid as Platichthys stellatus (Pallas 1787) -- (Berg 1949:1192 [ref. 20662], Okada 1961:713 [ref. 6363], Lee et al. 1980:830 [ref. 22416], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:291 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:353 [ref. 6441], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:670 [ref. 25598], Matarese et al. 1989:612 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:223 [ref. 14674], Swift et al. 1993:132 [ref. 22379], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:148 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:121 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:251 [ref. 16193], Chereshnev 1996:607 [ref. 24659], Kim 1997:492 [ref. 24032], Nikiforov et al. 1997:330 [ref. 24694], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:761 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:160 [ref. 23573], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Fuller et al. 1999:483 [ref. 25838], Nakabo 2000:1371 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Zemnukhov et al. 2001:420 [ref. 25412], Kolpakov & Barabanshchikov 2001:423 [ref. 25413], Pietsch et al. 2001:147 [ref. 25688], Kim & Park 2002:412 [ref. 25913], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:833 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1371 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 685 [ref. 26218] dated 1811, Moyle 2002:444 [ref. 26449], Hagiwara 2003:40 [ref. 27188], Fedorov et al. 2003:141 [ref. 27579], Wydoski & Whitney 2003:216 [ref. 27816], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:541 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:165 [ref. 34033], Pietsch & Orr 2015:71 [ref. 34694], Afonso et al. 2016:73, 251 [ref. 36199], Kells et al. 2016:334 [ref. 35888], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:198 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:447 [ref. 36370] see remarks, Burton & Lea 2019:97 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Platichthys stellatus (Pallas 1787). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Arctic Ocean and North Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

stelleri, Microstomus Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1904:247 [Fishes of the eastern seas of the Russian Empire; ref. 3946] Aniva Bay, Okhotsk Sea; Sea of Japan from Tatar Strait to Wonsan, Korea; depth about 50-80 meters. Syntypes: ZIN 12347 (6), 12349-52 (3, 1, 2, 2), 12437 (1), 13069-70 (1, 1). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:263 [ref. 37075]. Appeared first without distinguishing features in Schmidt 1903:20 [ref. 3945]. •Synonym of Microstomus achne (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Li & Wang 1995:259 [ref. 16193]). •Valid as Glyptocephalus stelleri (Schmidt 1904) -- (Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:407 [ref. 8256], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:309, 349 [ref. 8379], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:353 [ref. 6441], Matarese et al. 1989:584 [ref. 26885], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:157 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:123 [ref. 22286], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1995:221 [ref. 22531], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:712 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1376 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:849 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1376 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 683 [ref. 26218], Fedorov et al. 2003:135 [ref. 27579], Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:5 [ref. 27606], Shinohara et al. 2011:57 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:275 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:530 [ref. 33547], Tohkairin et al. 2015:13 [ref. 35331], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:195 [ref. 35257], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Glyptocephalus stelleri (Schmidt 1904). Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

stenolepis, Hippoglossus Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1904:224, Fig. 15 [Fishes of the eastern seas of the Russian Empire; ref. 3946] Aniva Bay, s Sakhalin Island, Okhotsk Sea. Holotype (unique): ZIN 12588 (lost). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:279 [ref. 37075]. Appeared first without distinguishing features in Schmidt 1903:519 [p.17 of separate] [ref. 3945]. Holotype lost between 2000 and 2010; see Voronina & Volkova 2019:279 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Hippoglossus stenolepis Schmidt 1904 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:288 [ref. 9277], Sheiko 1983:19 [ref. 37041], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:351 [ref. 6441], Scott & Scott 1988:550 [ref. 25518], Matarese et al. 1989:592 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:222 [ref. 14674], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:79 [ref. 21500], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1995:223 [ref. 22531], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:705 [ref. 26711], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1373 [ref. 25182], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:41 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:823 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1373 [ref. 26193], Fedorov et al. 2003:136 [ref. 27579], Evseenko 2003:S63 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:7 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Shinohara et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31715], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Shinohara et al. 2014:276 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:533 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:165 [ref. 34033], Pietsch & Orr 2015:69 [ref. 34694], Tohkairin et al. 2015:14 [ref. 35331], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:227 [ref. 34440], Kells et al. 2016:328 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:432 [ref. 36370] see remarks, Burton & Lea 2019:96 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossus stenolepis Schmidt 1904. Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Distribution: North Pacific and adjacent Arctic. Habitat: marine.

stomias, Platysomatichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:301 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 152); ref. 10581] Just outside the Golden Gate Bridge (obtained at San Francisco market), California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ?USNM 27186 (1 of 3). •Valid as Reinhardtius stomias (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Cooper & Chapleau 1998:702 [ref. 26711]). •Valid as Atheresthes stomias (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:286 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Matarese et al. 1989:578 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:221 [ref. 14674], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:70 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Suzuki et al. 2001:39 [ref. 25386], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:831 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2003:S59 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:3 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:528 [ref. 33547], Pietsch & Orr 2015:68 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:326 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:95 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Atheresthes stomias (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Pleuronectidae: Atheresthinae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

striatopinnatus, Pleuronectes Tilesius [W. G. von] 1805:443 [Magazin für den neuesten Zustand der Naturkunde mit Rücksicht auf die dazu gehörigen Hilfswissenschaften, herausgegeben von Johann Heinricht Voigt v. 9 (no. 5) (art. 11); ref. 19843] Originally as striato-pinnatus. Not available, no distinguishing features. •Unavailable name in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:29 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae.

taniguchii, Pluviopsetta Tanaka [S.] 1916:142 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 28 (no. 330); ref. 4326] Obama, Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 7077. •Incertae sedis in Pleuronectidae -- (Evseenko 2004:28 [ref. 27606]). Pleuronectidae. Habitat: marine.

trachurus, Pleuronectes flesus var. Duncker [G.] 1892:280, 291, Fig. 2 [Schriften des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schleswig-Holstein. v. 9; ref. 17428] Mouth of Trave River, Germany, southern Baltic Sea. Syntypes: (several) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758, but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1949:1186 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Reshetnikov et al. 1997:761 [ref. 24702], Dorofeeva 1998:159 [ref. 23573]). •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:626 [ref. 6885], Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:540 [ref. 33547], Momigliano et al. 2018:11 [ref. 35980]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

umbrosus, Platichthys Girard [C. F.] 1856:136 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 8; ref. 1809] Cape Flattery, Washington, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. •Synonym of Lepidopsetta bilineata (Ayres 1855) -- (Orr & Matarese 2000:561 [ref. 24744], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:837 [ref. 25968], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Lepidopsetta bilineata (Ayres 1855). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Platessa Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:176, Pl. 90 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1333 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1332 (1, stuffed), D1339 (1, stuffed); ZMB 2365 [ex RMNH] (1, dry), 7489 [ex RMNH] (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:145 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Verasper variegatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Sakamoto 1984:208 [ref. 5273], Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:351 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:90 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:113 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:234 [ref. 16193], Shinohara et al. 1996:184 [ref. 26605], Cheng & Zhou 1997:449 [ref. 26385], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:705 [ref. 26711], Nakabo 2000:1373 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:44 [ref. 25799], Wang et al. 2001:308 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:1373 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:432, 687 [ref. 26218], Evseenko 2003:S70 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:15 [ref. 27606], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:100 [ref. 32413], Shinohara et al. 2014:278 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:548 [ref. 33547], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Verasper variegatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

verticalis, Pleuronichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:49 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 117); ref. 2366] Outside the Golden Gate Bridge, near San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 8885 (1); Genova Mus. [ex USNM] (1); MTD F 130 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 26979 (orig. 25, now 8), ?27230 (2); ?ZMB 11732 (1); ZMUB 1212 [ex USNM 26982] (1); ZMUC [ex USNM] (some). Type catalog: Frøiland 1979:148 [ref. 21547], Böhlke 1984:143 [ref. 13621], Desoutter et al. 2001:355 [ref. 25922], Zarske 2003:33 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Pleuronichthys verticalis Jordan & Gilbert 1880 -- (Fitch 1963:15 [ref. 21219], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:293 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1385 [ref. 22830], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:711 [ref. 26711], Evseenko 2004:13 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:187 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:336 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:97 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Pleuronichthys verticalis Jordan & Gilbert 1880. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronichthyinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: off western coast of U.S.A. Habitat: marine.

vetulus, Parophrys Girard [C. F.] 1854:140 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1817] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Pleuronectes vetulus (Girard 1854) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:841 [ref. 25968]). •Valid as Parophrys vetulus Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:291 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:610 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:223 [ref. 14674], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:713 [ref. 26711], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:71 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:332 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:97 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Parophrys vetulus Girard 1854. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Flesus Moreau [É.] 1881:299 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Moreau); ref. 3040] Non-type: MNHN 1898-0941 (1) [syntype of Desoutter et al.]. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:312 [ref. 25922] who do not treat as an unneeded new name and list a syntype (which is not a type). Apparently an unneeded new name for Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758 to avoid Strickland tautonymy. •Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:626 [ref. 6885], Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Dorofeeva 1998:159 [ref. 23573], Evseenko 2003:S66 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:11 [ref. 27606], Momigliano et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35980]). Current status: Synonym of Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Hippoglossus Fleming [J.] 1828:199 [A history of British animals; ref. 1339] Rivers and estuaries of England. Based in part on Pleuronectes hippoglossus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:624 [ref. 6885], Scott & Scott 1988:550 [ref. 25518], Evseenko 2003:S62 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:6 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Hippoglossinae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Limanda Gottsche [C. M.] 1835:160 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 2 (pt 2, no. 2); ref. 1862] European seas. No types known. Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Limanda limanda (Linnaeus 1758). •Synonym of Limanda limanda (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:625 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S64 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:8 [ref. 27606]). Current status: Synonym of Limanda limanda (Linnaeus 1758). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Platessa Cloquet [H.] 1826:403 (v. 41) [Dictionnaire des sciences Naturelles; ref. 852] European seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.130-131 [Gronovius coll.] (2, skins). Unneeded new name for Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Nielsen 1973:623 [ref. 6885], Kottelat 1997:182 [ref. 22952], Evseenko 2003:S67 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:12 [ref. 27606], Parin et al. 2014:543 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus 1758. Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

yokohamae, Pleuronectes Günther [A.] 1877:442 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] Yokohama Bay, Japan. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.61-62 (2). Also described as new in Günther 1880:69 [ref. 2011] with second locality added. •Valid as Pleuronectes yokohamae Günther 1877 -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:133 [ref. 21500], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Mizuno et al. 1999:13 [ref. 25311], Nakabo 2000:1379 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:44 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:1379 [ref. 26193]). •Valid as Limanda yokohamae (Günther 1877) -- (Sakamoto in Masuda et al. 1984:352 [ref. 6441], Kim & Youn 1994:119 [ref. 22286], Choi et al. 2003:432, 684 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Limandella yokohamae (Günther 1877) -- (Ohashi & Motomura 2011:98 [ref. 32413]). •Valid as Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae (Günther 1877) -- (Li & Wang 1995:242 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:454 [ref. 26385], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:716 [ref. 26711], Wang et al. 2001:312 [ref. 26566], Evseenko 2003:S69 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:14 [ref. 27606], Kartavtsev et al. 2007:757 [ref. 34456], Voronina & Chanet 2014:45 [ref. 33419], Parin et al. 2014:545 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:201 [ref. 35257] with question, Vinnikov et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35844]). Current status: Valid as Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae (Günther 1877). Pleuronectidae: Pleuronectinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

zachirus, Glyptocephalus Lockington [W. N.] 1879:88 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 72); ref. 17560] Markets of San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: CAS (6, lost). Also appeared in Lockington 1879:243 [ref. 17558] and 1879:70 [ref. 20591]. •Valid as Errex zachirus (Lockington 1879) -- (Sakamoto 1984:209 [ref. 5273]). •Valid as Glyptocephalus zachirus Lockington 1879 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:288 [ref. 9277], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:349 [ref. 8379], Matarese et al. 1989:586 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:221 [ref. 14674], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:157 [ref. 21500], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1995:221 [ref. 22531], Evseenko 1998:59 [ref. 23643], Cooper & Chapleau 1998:712 [ref. 26711], Tokranov & Vinnikov 2000:397 [ref. 24898], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:40 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:848 [ref. 25968], Orlov et al. 2002:91 [ref. 26197], Evseenko 2003:S61 [ref. 28535], Evseenko 2004:5 [ref. 27606], Nelson et al. 2004:181 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:531 [ref. 33547], Pietsch & Orr 2015:68 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:328 [ref. 35888], Vinnikov et al. 2018:159 [ref. 35844], Burton & Lea 2019:96 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Glyptocephalus zachirus Lockington 1879. Pleuronectidae: Microstominae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.