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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Poeciliidae: [ 422 ] records


acutiventralis, Alfaro Meek [S. E.] 1912:72 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 7); ref. 2960] Guapilis [Límon], Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7679. Paratypes: FMNH 7872 (30), 14377 (1); UMMZ 162476 (6). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:7 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Alfaro cultratus (Regan 1908) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:43 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:555 [ref. 27061], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:13 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:47 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Alfaro cultratus (Regan 1908). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

aestiputeus, Gambusia Fowler [H. W.] 1950:87, Figs. 42-43 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 102; ref. 12949] Freshwater well 1/2 miles from San Andres city, St. Andrews [San Andres] Island, West Indies. Holotype: ANSP 71772. Paratypes: ANSP 71773-75 (3, with holotype), 71776 (1, c&s), 71777 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:143 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Gambusia nicaraguensis Günther 1866 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:94 [ref. 7067], Fink 1971:54 [ref. 7671], Greenfield et al. 1982:131 [ref. 21395], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:88 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:58 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia nicaraguensis Günther 1866. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

affinis, Heterandria Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1853:390 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6; ref. 15636] Rio Medina and Rio Salado, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 6974 [ex 6974-6975]. Paralectotype: ANSP 6975 (1). Additional material (probably Gambusia patruelis): MCZ 41141 (1), 41150 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:143 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:59 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853), subspecies affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:430 [ref. 25598], Sakai et al. 2001:89 [ref. 25693]). •Valid as Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Berg 1949:990 [ref. 20662], Okada 1961:741 [ref. 6363], Rosen & Bailey 1963:94 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:538 [ref. 22416], Alkahem & Behnke 1983:564 [ref. 8384], Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:171 [ref. 25473], Greenfield & Wildrick 1984:931 [ref. 11453], Uyeno & Arai in Masuda et al. 1984:83 [ref. 6441], Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:184 [ref. 26639], Robins & Ray 1986:110 [ref. 23100], Smith 1986:267 [ref. 22186], Wildrick et al. 1985:1054 [ref. 11519], Robison & Buchanan 1988:338 [ref. 23393], Wooten et al. 1988:283 [ref. 22447], Paxton et al. 1989:347 [ref. 12442], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Paulin et al. 1989:146 [ref. 24556], Zheng 1989:294 [ref. 21202], McAllister 1990:126 [ref. 14674], Allen & Coates 1990:69 [ref. 25561], Page & Burr 1991:235 [ref. 18983], Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Pethiyagoda 1991:190 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:756 [ref. 20764], Pan et al. in Pan et al. 1991:326 [ref. 23876], Allen et al. 1992:299 [ref. 21400], Boschung 1992:89 [ref. 23239], Singh & Yazdani 1993:200 [ref. 24022], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:45 [ref. 22290], Skelton 1993:278 [ref. 24071], Etnier & Starnes 1993:372 [ref. 22809], La Rivers 1994:532 [ref. 23389], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Baxter & Stone 1995:216 [ref. 23374], Yang & Chen 1995:106 [ref. 23555], Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Cross & Collins 1995:179 [ref. 23394], Zhu 1995:160 [ref. 25213], Mrakovcic et al. 1995:185 [ref. 23079], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], Chilcott & Humphries 1996:147 [ref. 25528], Mettee et al. 1996:479 [ref. 25836], Sigler & Sigler 1996:227 [ref. 25943], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:746 [ref. 24702], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:922 [ref. 23897], Castro et al. 1998:79 [ref. 24271], Sato et al. 1998:38 [ref. 24972], Manimekalan 1998:440 [ref. 24989], Rema Devi & Raghunathan 1999:157 [ref. 24759], Rema Devi & Raghunathan 1999:172 [ref. 24760], Walters & Freeman 2000:555 [ref. 24473], Rema Devi et al. 1999:160 [ref. 24758], Parenti 1999:2200 [ref. 24784], Fuller et al. 1999:304 [ref. 25838], Ruiz-Campos et al. 2000:77 [ref. 24940], Nakabo 2000:546 [ref. 25086], Rafique 2000:326 [ref. 25220], Azeroual et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25366], Lyons et al. 2000:67 [ref. 26594], Matsuura et al. 2000:193 [ref. 26000], Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], Kottelat 2001:144 [ref. 25780], Hutchins 2001:24 [ref. 25847], Gabrielyan 2001:28 [ref. 25867], Ross et al. 2001:376 [ref. 25978], Skelton 2001:278 [ref. 27406], Keith et al. 2002:96 [ref. 31473], Nakabo 2002:546 [ref. 26001], Moyle 2002:317 [ref. 26449], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061], Garrett & Edwards 2003:783 [ref. 27258], Mirza 2003:22 [ref. 27265], López et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27366], Yadav 2003:23 [ref. 27711], Wydoski & Whitney 2003:163 [ref. 27816], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:277 [ref. 27931], Seegers et al. 2003:41 [ref. 28087], Larson & Pidgeon 2004:196 [ref. 28107], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:178 [ref. 28183], Mundy 2005:293 [ref. 28379], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:220 [ref. 28615], Shrestha 2008:206 [ref. 29923], Fricke et al. 2007:72 [ref. 29533], Scharpf 2007:16 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:253 [ref. 31114], Coad 2010:251 [ref. 36620], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page & Burr 2011:445 [ref. 31215], Marshall 2011:195 [ref. 31755], Langerhans et al. 2012:1530 [ref. 32308], Kottelat 2013:300 [ref. 32989], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], McDowall & Stewart 2015:971 [ref. 34275], Meyer 2015:54 [ref. 34698], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:296 [ref. 34894], Mirande & Koerber 2015:53 [ref. 35117], Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492], Zhang et al. 2016:212 [ref. 34477], Neumann et al. 2016:306 [ref. 35036], Koeda et al. 2016:15 [ref. 35333], Labatos 2017:4 [ref. 36239], Bruton et al. 2018:109 [ref. 36373], Huber 2019:58 [ref. 36941], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108] with question). Current status: Valid as Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Alabama, Indiana, Louisiana, Mississipi and Texas, U.S.A. and Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas and Veracruz, Mexico, introduced widely elsewhere for mosquito control. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

akroa, Poecilia (Pamphorichthys) Figueiredo [C. A.] & Moreira [C. R.] 2018:439, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4461 (no. 3); ref. 36088] Rio Palmeiras on the road Dianópolis - Formosa do Rio Preto, at Fazenda Nova Iguaçu, Dianópolis, Tocantins, Brazil, 11°37'52"S, 46°25'58"W. Holotype: MZUSP 121698. Paratypes: MNRJ, MZUSP, UMMZ. •Valid as Pamphorichthys akroa (Figueiredo & Moreira 2018). •Valid as Poecilia akroa Figueiredo & Moreira 2018 -- (Huber 2019:94 [ref. 36941]) Current status: Valid as Pamphorichthys akroa (Figueiredo & Moreira 2018). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Rio Palmeiras, Rio Tocantins basin, Tocantins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

alessandrae, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:139, Figs. 32-33 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Flooded areas on margins of road PR 340, ca. 25°26'S, 48°43'W, Antonina, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 30402. Paratypes: MCP 25561 (3, 1 c&s), 27005 (2, 1 c&s). •Valid as Phalloceros alessandrae Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:178 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:86 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros alessandrae Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Flooded areas near Antonia (Paraná) and Dois de Favereiro River, which flows into Paranaguá Bay, Paraná, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

altissima, Mollienesia sphenops Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:242, Pl. 9 (figs. 1-3) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] Miramar Spring, 1 kilometer southwest of Talcha, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102127. Paratypes: (37) UMMZ 102081 (1), 102115 (29, now 25), 102128 (7). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:53 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Poeser 2003:48 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:162 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:359 [ref. 27075], Meyer 2015:239 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:94 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

alvarezi, Gambusia Hubbs [Clark L.] & Springer [V. G.] 1957:310, Figs. 3g, 14 [Texas Journal of Science v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 12145] El Ojo de San Gregorio, Chihuahua, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 168979. Paratypes: (650) ENCB P 349 (?), FMNH 61605 (34), CAS-SU 48134 (?), THNC 4207 (?), UMMZ 168980 (40), USNM 164253 (39). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:36 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:5 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Gambusia gaigei Hubbs 1929 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:104 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Gambusia alvarezi Hubbs & Springer 1957 -- (Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:45 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:5 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:221 [ref. 28615], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:16 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:56 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:59 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia alvarezi Hubbs & Springer 1957. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Ojo de San Gregoria and adjacent creek, Chihuahua, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

alvarezi, Xiphophorus helleri Rosen [D. E.] 1960:126, Figs. 19, 20, 23, 32 [Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 11945] Río Santo Domingo, a tributary of Río Jatate, Río Usumacinta system, Chiapas, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 177304. Paratypes: UMMZ 177305 (1, allotype). Other material: BMNH 1950.12.12.1-2 (2), UMMZ 160727 (2), J. Alvares coll. (16). •Synonym of Xiphophorus helleri Heckel 1848, but a valid subspecies -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:66 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Xiphophorus alvarezi Rosen 1960 -- (Rosen 1979:357 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:54 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Meyer & Schartl 2003:62 [ref. 27477], Kallman et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27790], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:254 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:368 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:143 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus alvarezi Rosen 1960. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Guatemala and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

amates, Poecilia Miller [N.] 1907:108, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 23 (art. 2); ref. 15160] Pond and its outlet, an affluent of Río Montagua, Guatemala. Holotype: CAS 22554 [ex IU 11375]. Paratypes: CAS 22554 [ex IU 11375] (114, incl. holotype), FMNH 56168 (6), ?NMW 84425 (1), UMMZ 65220 [ex IU 11375] (6), USNM 73924 (7). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Phallichthys amates (Miller 1907) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:140 [ref. 7067], Villa 1982:132 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:141 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:213 [ref. 24179], Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072], Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:42 [ref. 29205], Matamoros et al. 2009:14 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:169 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:85 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phallichthys amates (Miller 1907). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica and western Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonica, Poecilia Garman [S.] 1895:64, Pl. 4 (fig. 9) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Santa Cruz, Pará, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 168870 [ex MCZ 27573]. Paralectotypes: MCZ 27573 (127), 69635 (97); UMMZ 146750 [ex MCZ 27573] (5); USNM 120286 [ex MCZ 27573a] (6). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]. Original description based on specimens of P. parae and P. branneri; lectotype selected by Lucinda et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31137] (a specimen of P. parae). •Valid as Poecilia amazonica Garman 1895 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:57 [ref. 7067], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205]). •Synonym of Poecilia parae Eigenmann 1894 -- (Poeser 2003:144 [ref. 26783], Lucinda et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31137], Meyer 2015:264 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:94 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia parae Eigenmann 1894. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonum, Petalosoma Regan [C. T.] 1911:659, Fig. (p. 660) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 8 (no. 47); ref. 14807] Amazon River at Obidos, Pará state, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1911.10.28.1-2 (2). The correct spelling of this species is amazonum, a noun that does not decline (see note under Curimatus amazonum). •Synonym of Alfaro cultratus (Regan 1908) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:43 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:555 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:13 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:47 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Alfaro cultratus (Regan 1908). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

amistadensis, Gambusia Peden [A. E.] 1973:211, Fig. 3 [Copeia 1973 (no. 2); ref. 7579] Goodenough Spring, Val Verde County, Texas, U.S.A., 29°32'10"N, 101°15'10"W. Holotype: UMMZ 190407. Paratypes: (250) NMC 70-373, TNHC 7247, UMMZ 190408 (65, 3 c&s), USNM 205858 (62); UMMZ 190407 (3?). Additional material: (23). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:5 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia amistadensis Peden 1973 -- (Lee et al. 1980:539 [ref. 22416], Hubbs & Jensen 1984:529 [ref. 25571], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Parenti et al. 1999:5 [ref. 24072], Garrett & Edwards 2003:783 [ref. 27258], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:16 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page & Burr 2011:449 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:57 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:59 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia amistadensis Peden 1973. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Goodenough Spring and its outflow, Texas, U.S.A. [extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

andersi, Xiphophorus Meyer [M. K.] & Schartl [M.] 1980:148, Figs. 1-2 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 60 (nos 3/4) (for 1979); ref. 8688] Río Atoyac at Finca St. Anita near Chico, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: SMF 15118. Paratypes: SMF 15119-21 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Xiphophorus andersi Meyer & Schartl 1980 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:54 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Kallman et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27790], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807] dating to 1979, Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:254 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:22 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:371 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:143 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus andersi Meyer & Schartl 1980. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Río Atoyac basin, Veracruz, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

anisophallos, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:147, Figs. 44-45 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Rio São Roque nearby road BR 101, north of Paratim Parati, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 23°25'00"S, 44°40'05"W. Holotype: MCP 30403. Paratypes: MCP 12603 (87, 4 c&s), 31132 (18), 31134 (69), 31136 (53); MNRJ 12502 (6); UMMZ 215227 (121); UNT 6772 (6); USNM 307821 (16), 307827 (6). Species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Phalloceros anisophallos Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:178 [ref. 34698], Souto-Santos et al. 2019:182 [ref. 36560], Huber 2019:86 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros anisophallos Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Small coastal drainages of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

annectens, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1907:259 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 19 (no. 111); ref. 15175] Irazu, Costa Rica. Lectotype: BMNH 1907.2.11.5. Paralectotypes: (numerous) BMNH 1907.2.11.6-10 (5), 1907.2.11.11-14 (30), 1907.2.11.15-23 (9), 1907.6.28.38-42 (5); MNHN 1913-0228 [ex BMNH] (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:31 [ref. 19576]. Lectotype mentioned in Huber 2019:134 [ref. 36941], in preparation. •Valid as Priapichthys annectens (Regan 1907) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:124 [ref. 7067], Bussing 1987:153 [ref. 22927], Meyer & Etzel 1996:3 [ref. 22946], Bussing 1998:230 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:39 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:317 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:134 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Priapichthys annectens (Regan 1907). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southern tributaries of Lake Nicaragua, Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

anonas, Poeciliopsis de Buen [F.] 1943:263, Figs. 1-7 [Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad de Mexico v. 14 (no. 1); ref. 13096] Anonas Creek of the Río Marqués basin, Mexico. Holotype: ex Estación Limnol. Pátzcuaro. Paratypes: Estación Limnol. Pátzcuaro (66), probably all types lost. •Synonym of Poeciliopsis balsas Hubbs 1926 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:138 [ref. 7067], Meyer 2015:282 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:125 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poeciliopsis balsas Hubbs 1926. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

anzuetoi, Heterandria Rosen [D. E.] & Bailey [R. M.] in Rosen 1979:324, Figs. 5, 6, 11, 17, 21, 24, 25 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 162 (art. 5); ref. 22796] Río Achuelo, south side of Gualán, Río Motagua drainage, Zacapa, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 36319. Paratypes: AMNH 1416 (7), 36321-27 (152), 35138 (99), 35145 (91), 35149-50 (8, 79), 35177 (20), 35215 (67); UMMZ (33 lots); USNM (5 lots, 103); LACM (278); ANSP (22). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Heterandria anzuetoi Rosen & Bailey 1979 -- (Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:40 [ref. 29205], McEachran & DeWitt 2008:52 [ref. 29720], Matamoros et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31241], McMahan et al. 2013:447 [ref. 32422]). •Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus anzuetoi (Rosen & Bailey 1979) -- (Radda 1985:128 [ref. 31261], Morales-Cazan & Albert 2012:22 [ref. 31911], Meyer 2015:334 [ref. 34698], González-Murcia et al. 2019:297 [ref. 36544], Huber 2019:136 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus anzuetoi (Rosen & Bailey 1979). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Central America: Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras. Habitat: freshwater.

araguaiensis, Pamphorichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1991:40, Figs. 1-4 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 19717] Lagoon near Aruana, Araguaia basin, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 42313. Paratypes: MZUSP 42314 (3); MNRJ 389-390 (2, 6). •Valid as Pamphorichthys araguaiensis Costa 1991 -- (Rodriguez 1997:672 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:137 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:161 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia araguaiensis (Costa 1991) -- (Figueiredo & Moreira 2018:443 [ref. 36088], Huber 2019:94 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pamphorichthys araguaiensis Costa 1991. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Araguaia-Tocantins and Xingú River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

arnoldi, Limia Regan [C. T.] 1913:1016, Pl. 101 (fig. 5) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Miragoâne, Haiti, West Indies. Syntypes: BMNH 1912.8.30.2-3 (3, now 2), 1912.9.4.15-21 (9, now 7); USNM 151462 [ex BMNH 1912.9.4.21] (1). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Limia nigrofasciata Regan 1913 -- (Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783] as nigrofaciata, Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:140 [ref. 34698]). •Synonym of Poecilia nigrofasciata (Regan 1913) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:59 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:95 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia nigrofasciata (Regan 1913). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

arubensis, Poecilia vandepolli van Lidth de Jeude [T. W.] 1887:138, Pl. 2 (figs. 6-10) [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 9 (no. 1, art. 8); ref. 14474] Aruba Island, off coast of northwestern Venezuela. Syntypes: RMNH 5156 (6). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia vandepolli van Lidth de Jeude 1887 -- (Poeser 1992:89 [ref. 21511], Poeser 2003:54 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:143 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:364 [ref. 27075], Meyer 2015:253 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:95 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia vandepolli van Lidth de Jeude 1887. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

aspilos, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:128, Figs. 19-20 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Rio Parati-Mirim, near kilometer 202 of road BR 101, upstream of Vila do Patrimônio, ca. 23°14'S, 44°38'W, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 23607. Paratypes: MCP 20594 (7), 30509 (6, 2 c&s), 31350 (36); MNRJ 11727 (7). •Valid as Phalloceros aspilos Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:179 [ref. 34698], Souto-Santos et al. 2019:182 [ref. 36560], Huber 2019:87 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros aspilos Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Parati-Mirim River, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

atherinoides, Glaridichthys Rivas [L. R.] 1944:3, Figs. 2, 3b [Contribuciones ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural del Colegio de "La Salle", Caracas No. 2; ref. 13074] Warm spring in vicinity of Mabuya, Arroyo Blanco, Camagüey Province [Ciego de Avila], Cuba. Holotype: USNM 203155 [ex Rivas coll. 130]. Paratypes: Rivas coll. 119 (19). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072]. Type information: Rivas 1969:202-203 [ref. 25092]. •Synonym of Girardinus falcatus (Eigenmann 1903) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:111 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:117 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:73 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Girardinus falcatus (Eigenmann 1903). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

atrilatus, Zygonectes Jordan [D. S.] & Brayton [A. W.] 1878:84 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 12; ref. 2436] Neuse River near Goldsboro, North Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1880.1.21.48 (1), USNM 23464 (1). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:19 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859 -- (Parenti et al. 1999:19 [ref. 24072], Meyer 2015:74 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:59 [ref. 36941]). •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

atrizona, Quintana Hubbs [C. L.] 1934:4, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-4) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 301; ref. 2244] Uncertain as Baracoa, Cuba [probably southwest Cuba]. Holotype: UMMZ 106459 (descendant of aquarium stock). Paratypes: UMMZ 102075 (4), 106458 (4), 106460 (56, 5 c&s), 106461 (6); USNM 93936 (2), 108251 (1), 117597 (2). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:18 [ref. 24072], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35177]. •Valid as Quintana atrizona Hubbs 1934 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:114 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1983:51 [ref. 22527], Parenti et al. 1999:18 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:349 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:139 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Quintana atrizona Hubbs 1934. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Western Cuba and Isle of Pines. Habitat: freshwater.

atrora, Gambusia Rosen [D. E.] & Bailey [R. M.] 1963:102, Figs. 40C, 43, Pl. 2 (f. 2) [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 126 (art. 1); ref. 7067] Río Axtla, Xilitla, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, elevation 300 feet. Holotype: UMMZ 179999. Paratypes: UMMZ 169499 (537), 124172 (1), 124335 (8), 124348-49 (13), 124361 (5). •Valid as Gambusia atrora Rosen & Bailey 1963 -- (Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:45 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:221 [ref. 28615], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:59 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:60 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia atrora Rosen & Bailey 1963. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic Slope of northeast Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

attenuata, Heterandria Rosen [D. E.] & Bailey [R. M.] in Rosen 1979:315, Figs. 4, 6, 8, 15, 21, 24, 26 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 162 (art. 5); ref. 22796] Río Candelaria Yalicar halfway between source and mouth, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 36332. Paratypes: AMNH 32911 (67), 36333-34 (45, 23); UMMZ 190491 (23, now 17), 197091 (54). •Valid as Heterandria attenuata Rosen & Bailey 1979 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:40 [ref. 29205], McEachran & DeWitt 2008:52 [ref. 29720]). •Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus attenuatus (Rosen & Bailey 1979) -- (Radda 1985:128 [ref. 31261], Meyer 2015:337 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:136 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus attenuatus (Rosen & Bailey 1979). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Candelaria Yalicar River drainage, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

atzi, Gambusia Rosen [D. E.] & Gordon [M.] 1951:267, Figs. 2-3 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 36 (pt 4, no. 21); ref. 12912] "Laguna de la Sapote", northwest of Jesus Carranza, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 167098. Paratypes: UMMZ 167099 (46, 5 c&s). •Synonym of Gambusia rachovii (Regan 1914) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:107 [ref. 7067] as rachowi, Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Heterophallus rachovii Regan 1914 -- (Meyer 2015:132 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:70 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Heterophallus rachovii Regan 1914. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

aurata, Gambusia Miller [R. R.] & Minckley [W. L.] 1970:249, Fig. 1 [Southwestern Naturalist v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 7782] Lateral canal flowing north off main canal from Río Mante, southern Ciudad Mante, Río Tamesi basin, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 188736. Paratypes: ASU 36 (7), 68 (5), 501 (1), 515 (2), 519 (5), 521 (18), 741 (1), 756 (2); UMMZ 97544 (3), 97545 (1), 97546 (3), 186498 (93 or 94, 2 c&s), 188737 (1, allotype); USNM 212231 (19). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:5 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia aurata Miller & Minckley 1970 -- (Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:45 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:5 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:222 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Langerhans et al. 2012:1530 [ref. 32308], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:60 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:60 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia aurata Miller & Minckley 1970. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Tamesí River basin, Taumalipas, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

aurata, Lebistes reticulatus Schreitmüller [W.] 1934:242 Syntypes: ZMB 21084 (7). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:174 [ref. 19981]. Original not seen; needs research. •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

aurata, Lebistes reticulatus var. Stoye [F. H.] 1935:49 [Tropical fishes for the home; ref. 19824] No types known. Not available, based on an aquaristic variety. Name first used by Schreitmüller 1934. •In the synonymy of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 -- (Huber 2019:116 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

aurata, Platypoecilus maculatus var. Schreitmüller [W.] 1928:68 [Leitfaden zur Pflege und Zucht von einheimischen und exotischen Zierfischen, Schnecken und Wasserpflanzen 1st. ed.; ref. 20640] Aquarium specimen, locality unknown. No types known. Probably based on an aquarist-made variety. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:147 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

aurata, Platypoecilus maculatus Stoye [F. H.] 1932:35, Plate 4 [ ref. 34705] Aquarium specimen, locality unknown. No types known. Also in Stoye 1935:51 [ref. 19824]. Described earlier by Schreitmüller 1928:68 [ref. 20640]. Probably based on an aquarist-made variety. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

australis, Gambusia yucatana Greenfield [D. W.] 1985:375 [Copeia 1985 (no. 2); ref. 8971] Saint George's Cay, Barrier Reef, Belize. Holotype: FMNH 94901. Paratypes: FMNH 93919 (20), 94896 (9), 94898 (11), 94900 (18). Other material: FMNH (9 lots, 359 specimens), UMMZ (7 lots, 95 specimens). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:38 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Gambusia yucatana Regan 1914, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:121 [ref. 22947], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Meyer 2015:108 [ref. 34698]). •Synonym of Gambusia yucatana Regan 1914 -- (Pérez-León & Schmitter-Soto 2007: 171 [ref. 32537], Huber 2019:60 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia yucatana Regan 1914. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

austrocolumbiana, Pseudopoecilia Radda [A. C.] 1987:173, Fig. 10 [Aquaria: Vivaristische Fachzeitschrift mit Vereinsmitteilungen v. 34 (no. 11); ref. 9124] Rainforest stream, 25 kilometers from western El diviso, on road from Tuquerres to Tumaco, Nariño Province, Colombia, elevation 475 meters. Holotype: NMW 85922:1. Paratypes: NMW 85922:2-6 (5), 85923 (12). •Valid as Pseudopoecilia austrocolumbiana Radda 1987 -- (Meyer & Etzel 1996:3 [ref. 22946], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:330 [ref. 34698] dated 1985, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Huber 2019:135 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudopoecilia austrocolumbiana Radda 1987. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southern Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

baenschi, Poeciliopsis Meyer [M. K.], Radda [A. C.], Riehl [R.] & Feichtinger [W.] 1986:p. 80, Figs. 1-8 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 12 (no. 3) (1985); ref. 8069] Stream near El Tuito, Jalisco, Mexico. Holotype: SMF 19988. Paratypes: SMF 19989-93 (5), 19994-20000 (7), 20001-07 (7). •Valid as Poeciliopsis baenschi Meyer, Radda, Riehl & Feichtinger 1986 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:50 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:240 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:20 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:280 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:125 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis baenschi Meyer, Radda, Riehl & Feichtinger 1986. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of western central Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

balsas, Poeciliopsis Hubbs [C. L.] 1926:66 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 16; ref. 2233] Río Balsas, Guerrero, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3702. Paratypes: FMNH 3697 (29), 4540 (1), 4546 (10), 4553 (27), 4563 (7), 14074-96 (now 17); UMMZ 164097 [ex FMNH] (6). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:68 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis balsas Hubbs 1926 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:138 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:51 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:241 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:20 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Huber 2019:125 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis balsas Hubbs 1926. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Michoacán, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

baracoana, Gambusia Rivas [L. R.] 1944:46 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 23; ref. 13184] Small freshwater pond, near mouth of Río Miel, vicinity of Baracoa, Oriente Province, Cuba. Holotype: USNM 203150 [ex Rivas coll. 134]. Paratypes: (several) Rivas coll. (? now 0); MCZ 36178 (6); UHMP 456 (?); UMMZ 143375 (6, 3 C&S); USNM 130214 (6), 204442 (539). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:5-6 [ref. 24072], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177]. Type information: Rivas 1969:202 [ref. 25092]. •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854, but a valid subspecies -- (Fink 1971:31 [ref. 21211], Lee et al. 1983:17 [ref. 22527]). •Status uncertain -- (Parenti et al. 1999:5 [ref. 24072]). •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Gambusia bucheri Rivas 1944 but a valid subspecies as described -- (Meyer 2015:64 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Gambusia baracoana Rivas 1944 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:98 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:60 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia baracoana Rivas 1944. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Eastern Cuba. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

beebei, Gambusia Myers [G. S.] 1935:305, Figs. 273-274 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 3110] Southwestern end of Lake Miragoâne, from Aux Cayes road, southwestern peninsula, Dépt. du Sud, Haiti, West Indies. Neotype: USNM 203161. Type catalog: Mead 1958:132 [ref. 20648], Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072]. Original specimens (NYZS 7168 (holotype) and 7299 (paratype) missing). Neotype designated by Rivas 1969:782 [ref. 7839]. •Valid as Gambusia beebei Myers 1935 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:101 [ref. 7067], Greenfield 1983:457 [ref. 8337], Lee et al. 1983:11 [ref. 22527], Wildrick et al. 1985:1055 [ref. 11519], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:61 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:60 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia beebei Myers 1935. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Tiburon peninsula, Haiti, West Indies. Habitat: freshwater.

belizanus, Belonesox Kner [R.] 1860:419, Pl. [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 40 (no. 10); ref. 2632] Belize. Possible syntypes: USNM 117504 (2). On p. 3 of separate. •Valid as Belonesox belizanus Kner 1860 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:107 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:537 [ref. 22416], Villa 1982:129 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:132 [ref. 22927], Page & Burr 1991:239 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:44 [ref. 22290], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:117 [ref. 22947], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:921 [ref. 23897], Bussing 1998:194 [ref. 24179], Fuller et al. 1999:303 [ref. 25838], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Smith et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:218 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:16 [ref. 30398] with subspecies, Matamoros et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31241], Page & Burr 2011:450 [ref. 31215] with 2 subspecies, Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:18 [ref. 34698], Robins et al. 2018:226 [ref. 35886], Huber 2019:50 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Belonesox belizanus Kner 1860. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua; introduced elsewhere, including Florida. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bifurcus, Acanthophacelus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:52 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Christianburg, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53539 [ex CM 1088]. Paratypes: (74, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.502-503 (2), 1911.10.31.504 (1); CAS 22557 [ex IU 11763-64] (7), 22558 [ex IU 11765-66] (6); FMNH 7526 (2), 52719-20 (5, 5), 52721 (2), 53539-40 (1, 3), 69530 (14), 72623 (5); MCZ 30119 (2); CAS-SU 21930 (2); USNM 66115 (3); ZMA 109208 (1); ZMB 18066 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:86 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:55 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:69 [ref. 19236], Paepke & Seegers 1986:172 [ref. 19981], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:4 [ref. 12367] as 36 paratypes from 2 localities, Parenti et al. 1999:3 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Poecilia parae Eigenmann 1894 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:56 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:3 [ref. 24072], Poeser 2003:146 [ref. 26783]). •Valid as Micropoecilia bifurca (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Keith et al. 2000:64 [ref. 24547], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205]). •Valid as Poecilia bifurca (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Bragança & Costa 2011:370 [ref. 31195], Bragança et al. 2012:337 [ref. 31747], Meyer 2015:258 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:95 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia bifurca (Eigenmann 1909). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Orinoco Delta: Venezuela to French Guyana. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bimaculatus, Poeciliodes Steindachner [F.] 1863:176 [15], Pl. 4 (figs. 2-2a) [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 48 (1. Abth.); ref. 4208] Mountain stream near Tepeyacac, Mexico [corrected to Teapa, boundary between Chiapas and Tabasco, Mexico]. Syntypes: (several). On p. 15 of separate. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848). •Synonym of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:131 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848) -- (Meyer 2015:338 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:137 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bimaculatus, Xiphophorus Heckel [J. J.] 1848:297, Pl. 9 (figs. 1-2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 1 (pt 1-5) [1848]; ref. 2069] Veracruz, Mexico. Syntypes: NMW 59918 (4). •Valid as Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:131 [ref. 7067], Rosen 1979:330 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:47 [ref. 22290], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:121 [ref. 22947], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:40 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:228 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:19 [ref. 30398], McEachran & DeWitt 2008:52 [ref. 29720], Matamoros et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848) -- (Radda 1985:128 [ref. 31261], Morales-Cazan & Albert 2012:22 [ref. 31911], Meyer 2015:338 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:137 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico, widely introduced in Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

birchmanni, Xiphophorus montezumae Lechner [P.] & Radda [A. C.] 1987:191, Figs. 3-5 [Aquaria: Vivaristische Fachzeitschrift mit Vereinsmitteilungen v. 34 (no. 12); ref. 9181] Río Talol-River Tempoal subsystem of Río Panuco systems, Orizatlán village, Hidlago, Mexico, elevation 400 meters. Holotype: SMF 21154. Paratypes: SMF 21155-56 (11, 4). •Valid as Xiphophorus birchmanni Lechner & Radda 1987 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:54 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Morris et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25123], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:255 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:22 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:372 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:143 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus birchmanni Lechner & Radda 1987. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Highlands of the Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

boesemani, Poecilia Poeser [F. N.] 2003:61, Figs. 4 a-b [Chapter 5 (Thesis); ref. 26769] Maraval River, Port of Spain, Trinidad. Holotype: RMNH 21543. Paratypes: RMNH 32428 (1). Also appeared as new in Poeser 2003:370 [ref. 27075]. •Valid as Poecilia boesemani Poeser 2003 -- (Poeser 2003:149 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:364 [ref. 27075], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Phillip et al. 2013:20 [ref. 32896], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:95 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia boesemani Poeser 2003. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Northeastern Trinidad. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bonita, Gambusia Meek [S. E.] 1904:132, Fig. 39 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] Río Tonto at Refugio, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 4630 (1 of 2). Paratypes: (57, 2 localities) FMNH 4619 (1), 4631 (52), 72583 (3); MNHN 1905-0426 (5); USNM 94299 [ex FMNH 4631] (2), BMNH (6). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367] with remark that holotype may be lost or mixed with paratypes [it may be in USNM 94299, L. Parenti pers. comm.]. •Valid as Priapella bonita (Meek 1904) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:61 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:53 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:251 [ref. 28615], Schartl et al. 2006:59 [ref. 28754], Lucinda & Reis 2005:39 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:22 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2011:91 [ref. 31377], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:309 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:132 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Priapella bonita (Meek 1904). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Papaloapan River basin, Veracruz, Atlantic slope of Mexico [probably extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

boucardii, Poecilia Steindachner [F.] 1878:386 [8], Pl. 3 (figs. 2-3) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 77 (1. Abth.); ref. 18774] Aspinwall (Colón), (Atlantic) Panama. Syntypes: (many) ?MCZ 32959 (10); NMW 14931-33 (1, 1, 1), 61266 (3), 77475-78 (2, 2, 2, 1), 22839-40 (1, 1), 10669-71 (1, 1, 1), 10672-73 (1). On p. 8 of separate. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) -- (Poeser 2003:49 [ref. 26769] as boucardi, Poeser 2003:163 [ref. 26783] as boucardi, Poeser 2003:360 [ref. 27075] as boucardi, Huber 2019:95 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

brachypterus, Zygonectes Cope [E. D.] 1880:34 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 17; ref. 14285] Trinity River at Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 20446. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:95 [ref. 13621]. Appeared first without description as Cope in Jordan 1878:433 [ref. 2379]. •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:95 [ref. 7067], La Rivers 1994:532 [ref. 23389], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:54 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:61 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

branneri, Poecilia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1894:629 [Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences v. 7 (art. 5); ref. 1214] Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: (23) BMNH 1894.5.18.60 [from Eigenmann] (1); CAS-SU 2158 (2), 22550 [ex IU 5082] (2), 22551 [ex IU 5084] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:55 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Micropoecilia branneri (Eigenmann 1894) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205]). •Synonym of Poecilia parae Eigenmann 1894 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:56 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:3 [ref. 24072], Poeser 2003:145 [ref. 26783]). •Valid as Poecilia branneri Eigenmann 1894 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:57 [ref. 7067], Costa & Sarraf 1997:186 [ref. 23280], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Lucinda et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31137], Bragança & Costa 2011:370 [ref. 31195], Bragança et al. 2012:337 [ref. 31747], Meyer 2015:260 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:95 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia branneri Eigenmann 1894. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lower Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevirostratus, Cnesterodon Rosa [R. S.] & Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1993:705, Fig. 17 [Copeia 1993 (no. 3); ref. 20993] Arroio Camisa, tributary to Rio das Antas, Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 41399. Paratypes: MCP 8628 (26), 8631 (65), 10651 (10), 10653 (59), 10657 (25); MZUSP 37699 (45), 37670 (9, 2 c&s), 37698 (11), 40789 (102, 2 c&s), 41669 (2), 41670 (9, 2 c&s); UFPB 22215 (27, 3 c&s); USNM 279005 (15), 279180 (44, 4 c&s), 279541 (3), 279542 (now 40, 2 c&s), 314034 [ex USNM 279542] (2 c&s). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:5 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Cnesterodon brevirostratus Rosa & Costa 1993 -- (Parenti et al. 1999:5 [ref. 24072], Lucinda & Garavello 2001:122 [ref. 25093], Meyer & Etzel 2001:248 [ref. 25973], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:557 [ref. 27061], Lucinda 2005:266 [ref. 28272], Lucinda et al. 2006:27 [ref. 28858], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Aguilera et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30366], Meyer 2015:42 [ref. 34698], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Huber 2019:54 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Cnesterodon brevirostratus Rosa & Costa 1993. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevis, Xiphophorus Regan [C. T.] 1907:65 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 19 (no. 109) (art. 6); ref. 15174] Stann Creek, Belize. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.9.8.18-19 (2). •Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:66 [ref. 7067] as helleri, Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:383 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:143 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bucheri, Gambusia Rivas [L. R.] 1944:42 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 23; ref. 13184] Río Jicotea, of Moa system, at bridge of road between Aserrio de Moa and Punta Gorda, Province of Oriente, Cuba. Holotype: USNM 203149 [ex Rivas coll. 132]. Paratypes: Rivas coll. 133 (? now 0); MCZ 36175 (6); UHMP 455 (?); UMMZ 143373 (6, 3 c&s); USNM 130213 (6), 204443 (392, 2 c&s). Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35177]. Type information: Rivas 1969:202 [ref. 25092]. •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854, but a valid subspecies -- (Fink 1971:29 [ref. 21211], Lee et al. 1983:17 [ref. 22527]). •Valid as Gambusia bucheri Rivas 1944 -- (Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:62 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:61 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia bucheri Rivas 1944. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Oriente [Holguin] province, eastern Cuba. Habitat: freshwater.

buckupi, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:146, Figs. 42-43 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Paranaguá, rio Jacareí at kilometer 18 on toad BR-277, border Paranguá - Morretes, ca. 25°35'S, 48°43'W, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 30472. Paratypes: MCP 12549 (4, 1 c&s), 12584 (7), 31190 (102); UMMZ 215249 (4). •Valid as Phalloceros buckupi Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:179 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:87 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros buckupi Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Jacarei River drainage and neighboring drainages flowing into Paranaguá Bay, coast of Paraná, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

butleri, Poecilia Jordan [D. S.] 1889:330 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 719); ref. 10479] Río Presidio, near Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 37158 (orig. 6, now 4). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:50 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Poecilia butleri Jordan 1889 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:48 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:164 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:232 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:19 [ref. 30398], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], McMahan et al. 2013:447 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Palacios et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32935], Meyer 2015:211 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:96 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia butleri Jordan 1889. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Panama. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

caliensis, Gambusia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] in Henn 1916:113 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 9); ref. 2093] Cali, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 57721 [ex CM 6700a]. Paratype or additional material: FMNH [ex CM 6700b] (1, not found). Type catalog: Henn 1928:87 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Alloheterandria caliensis (Eigenmann & Henn 1916) -- (Meyer & Etzel 1996:3 [ref. 22946]). •Valid as Pseudopoecilia caliensis (Eigenmann & Henn 1916) -- (Meyer 2015:324 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Priapichthys caliensis (Eigenmann & Henn 1916) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:124 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:39 [ref. 29205], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Huber 2019:134 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Priapichthys caliensis (Eigenmann & Henn 1916). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Western Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cana, Gambusia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:87 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Río Satiganti, Cana [Seteganti River, Darién], Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7596. Paratypes: FMNH 8643 (1, allotype), 8644-77 (34); USNM 78859 (35, now 34). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Neoheterandria cana (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:128 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:157 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:82 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Neoheterandria cana (Meek & Hildebrand 1913). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of southwestern Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

carnea, Platypoecilus maculatus var. Schreitmüller [W.] 1928:68 [Leitfaden zur Pflege und Zucht von einheimischen und exotischen Zierfischen, Schnecken und Wasserpflanzen 1st. ed.; ref. 20640] Aquarium specimen, locality unknown. No types known. Probably based on an aquarist-made variety. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Huber 2019:147 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

carnegiei, Cnesterodon Haseman [J. D.] 1911:385, Pl. 83 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (19); ref. 2048] Río Iguaçú, Serrinha Paraná [25°27'S, 49°42'W], Brazil. Holotype: FMNH [ex CM 2868] (missing). Paratypes: FMNH 54247 (45, 1 c&s), 54258 (15, 7 c&s), 54249 (13, now 12, 2 c&s), 54250-51 (27, 23), 15291-94 (1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:87 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:27 [ref. 12367]. See Lucinda & Garavello 2001:125 [ref. 25093] for comments on locality and types. •Valid as Cnesterodon carnegiei Haseman 1911 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:77 [ref. 7067], Rosa & Costa 1993:703 [ref. 20993], Lucinda & Garavello 2001:123 [ref. 25093], Meyer & Etzel 2001:248 [ref. 25973], López et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26808] as camegiei, Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:557 [ref. 27061], Lucinda 2005:266 [ref. 28272], Lucinda et al. 2006:27 [ref. 28858], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Aguilera et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30366], Meyer 2015:43 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:54 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Cnesterodon carnegiei Haseman 1911. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Iguaçu River and its upper tributaries, Paraná, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cascajalensis, Gambusia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:86 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Río Cascajal at Porto Bello, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7594. Paratypes: FMNH 8791-8806 (16), 8828 (1), 55261 (1); USNM 78767 (24), 78768 (10). Additional material or paratypes: USNM 78769 (now 26), 78770-79 (4, 1, 4, 5, 2, 1, 5, 4, 1, 10). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Brachyrhaphis parismina (Meek 1912) -- (Meyer & Etzel 1998:156 [ref. 23986]). •Valid as Brachyrhaphis cascajalensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:90 [ref. 7067], Mojica et al. 1997:301 [ref. 22823], Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072], Bussing 1998:200 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:38 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:21 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Hiatirhaphis cascajalensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Huber 2019:79 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Hiatirhaphis cascajalensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica and western Panama. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cataractae, Heterandria Rosen [D. E.] 1979:328, Figs. 7, 12, 18, 21, 24, 26 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 162 (art. 5); ref. 22796] Arroyo Sachicha, 20 kilometers northwest of Cobán, 6-8 kilometers north of Cancal, Río Usumacinta system, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 36381. Paratypes: AMNH 24486 (93), 36357 (105); UMMZ 193888 (110). •Valid as Heterandria cataractae Rosen 1979 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:40 [ref. 29205], McEachran & DeWitt 2008:52 [ref. 29720]). •Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus cataractae (Rosen 1979) -- (Radda 1985:128 [ref. 31261], Morales-Cazan & Albert 2012:22 [ref. 31911], Meyer 2015:340 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:137 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus cataractae (Rosen 1979). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Río Senizo, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

catemaco, Poeciliopsis Miller [R. R.] 1975:35, Fig. 11 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 672; ref. 9272] West side of Laguna Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico, 18°25'N, 95°07'W, elevation about 340 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 176977. Paratypes: UF 7340 (89 or 88); UMMZ 173760-61 (52, 33), 173765 (35, now 30, 3 c&s, 5 discarded), 176978 (3), 178554 (294, now 291), 181677 (7), 181806 (1, allotype), 183908 (9), 184540 (280 or 279), ?197599 (37). •Valid as Poeciliopsis catemaco Miller 1975 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:51 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:242 [ref. 28615], Bussing 2008:834 [ref. 29806], Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:283 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:126 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis catemaco Miller 1975. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Laguna Catemaco, Atlantic slope of Veracruz, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

catemaconis, Poecilia Miller [R. R.] 1975:13, Fig. 4 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 672; ref. 9272] Laguna Catemaco, Playa Azul, about 3.2 kilometers east of Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico, 18°25'N, 95°05'W, elevation 340 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 195953. Paratypes: UMMZ 176976 (26), 178555 (67), 184541 (24 or 23), 196392 (17), 196395 (55, 3 c&s). •Valid as Poecilia catemaconis Miller 1975 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:48 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Poeser 2002:246 [ref. 26215], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:168 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:232 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:19 [ref. 30398], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Palacios et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32935], Meyer 2015:212 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:96 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia catemaconis Miller 1975. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Río Grande basin, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

caucanus, Girardinus Steindachner [F.] 1880:87 [35], Pl. 6 (figs. 4-5) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 42; ref. 14403] Río Cauca, Cáceres, Colombia. Lectotype: NMW 81128-1. Paralectotypes: NMW 99730 (2, ex 81128 2-3), 59607 (33). On p. 35 of separate. Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:96 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Mollienisia caucana (Steindachner 1880) -- (Galvis et al. 1997:106 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Poecilia caucana (Steindachner 1880) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:47 [ref. 7067], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Radda 2000:79 [ref. 25029], Poeser 2003:53 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:143 [ref. 26783], Meyer et al. 2002:49 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:364 [ref. 27075], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Poeser 2011:418 [ref. 31550], Meyer 2015:213 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Allopoecilia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Allopoecilia, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Huber 2019:96 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia caucana (Steindachner 1880). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Central and northern South America: Panama, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

caudata, Poecilia Meek [S. E.] 1909:209 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 7); ref. 14388] Turrubares, Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 6360. Paratypes: FMNH 6093 (2), 6258 (7), 96297 (1, allotype). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:52 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) but a valid subspecies -- (Poeser 2003:49 [ref. 26769] as a variation, Poeser 2003:360 [ref. 27075], Huber 2019:97 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

caudimaculatus, Girardinus Hensel [R.] 1868:362 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 34 (pt 1); ref. 14075] Costa da Serra, São Leopoldo, Brazil [Rio Cadeia drainage]. Lectotype: ZMB 7425. Paralectotypes: (41) ?BMNH 1894.5.18.60 (1); ZMB 7426 (5), 31496 (25), 33220 [ex 7425] (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:173 [ref. 19981]. Misspelled caudomaculatus by Eigenmann 1907:427, 431 [ref. 1219]. Lectotype selected by Lucinda 2008:121 [ref. 20669]. See Lucinda 2008:124 for locality information. •Valid as Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel 1868) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:72 [ref. 7067], Paxton et al. 1989:347 [ref. 12442], Malabarba 1989:161 [ref. 14217], Skelton 1993:279 [ref. 24071], Gómez & Chebez 1996:67 [ref. 23791], Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], Hutchins 2001:24 [ref. 25847], Casatti et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25929], Skelton 2001:279 [ref. 27406], Allen et al. 2002:365 [ref. 25930], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:566 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:147 [ref. 28130] dated 1888, Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131], Hoese & Gates 2006:743 [ref. 28997], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Lucinda 2008:121 [ref. 29669], Koerber & Litz 2009:2 [ref. 31159], Hammer et al. 2012:66 [ref. 32389], Larson et al. 2013:71 [ref. 32988], Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622], McDowall & Stewart 2015:972 [ref. 34275], Meyer 2015:180 [ref. 34698], Mirande & Koerber 2015:53 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565], Huber 2019:87 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel 1868). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southeastern Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

caudofasciata, Limia Regan [C. T.] 1913:1017, Pl. 101 (fig. 6) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Jamaica. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1905.8.16.13-21 (?21), MNHN 1913-0227 (2), USNM 151463 [ex BMNH 1905.8.16.22] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:31 [ref. 19576], Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Limia melanogaster (Günther 1866) -- (Lee et al. 1983:34 [ref. 22527], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783]). •Valid as Poecilia caudofasciata (Regan 1913) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:60 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205]). •Synonym of Poecilia melanogaster Günther 1866 -- (Huber 2019:97 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia melanogaster Günther 1866. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

caudovittata, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1913:471 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 3656] Río Condoto, western Colombia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1913.10.1.68. •Synonym of Priapichthys nigroventralis (Eigenmann & Henn 1912) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:124 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:134 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Priapichthys nigroventralis (Eigenmann & Henn 1912). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

caymanensis, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1913:990 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Grand Cayman Island, West Indies. Syntypes: BMNH 1911.3.2.3-4 (2). •Valid as Gambusia caymanensis Regan 1913 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:98 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687]). •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854 but a valid subspecies as described -- (Meyer 2015:95 [ref. 34698]). •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854 -- (Fink 1971:18 [ref. 21211], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:61 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

caymanensis, Limia Rivas [L. R.] & Fink [W. L.] 1970:271, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1970 (no. 2); ref. 7775] Coastal lagoon, 2 miles west of Old Man Bay, Grand Cayman Island, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 203511. Paratypes: UMMZ 200766 [ex USNM 203512] (25); USNM 203512 [ex UMIM 2582] (orig. 339, now 314), 204100 [ex UMIM 2582] (1, lost). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Limia caymanensis Rivas & Fink 1970 -- (Lee et al. 1983:28 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:135 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia caymanensis (Rivas & Fink 1970) -- (Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:97 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia caymanensis (Rivas & Fink 1970). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Grand Cayman Island, West Indies. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

chamulae, Priapella Schartl [M.], Meyer [M. K.] & Wilde [B.] 2006:61, Figs. 1-5 [Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Tierkunde. v. 55; ref. 28754] Arryo 3 kilometers northwest of Tapijulapa, río Tacotalpa system, Tabasco, Mexico. Holotype: MTD F 28717. Paratypes: BMNH 2005.5.10.4-9 (6); MTD F 28718-22 (5); SMF 30086 (1). 30087 (6); ZEMK 39938-41 (4). •Valid as Priapella chamulae Schartl, Meyer & Wilde 2006 -- (Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2011:91 [ref. 31377], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:310 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:133 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Priapella chamulae Schartl, Meyer & Wilde 2006. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Grijalva River system, Tabasco and Chiapas, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

chica, Poecilia Miller [R. R.] 1975:2, Figs. 1-2 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 672; ref. 9272] Tributary of Río Purificación La Concepción, about 8.5 kilometers east of La Herta, Jalisco, Mexico, 19°30'N, 104°34'W, elevation 305 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 172134. Paratypes: LACM 34315-1 (20); KU 15497 (10); UMMZ 166452 (14), 167857 (39), 172129 (9), 172135 (198), 172213 (1016, 5 c&s), 173583 (4), 173798 (1), 178370 (224), 178374 (62), 187895 (5, c&s), 192213 (843), 192217 (122), 195951 (1, allotype); USNM 214088 [ex UMMZ 192213] (30). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Poecilia chica Miller 1975 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:49 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:167 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:233 [ref. 28615], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:20 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:215 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:97 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia chica Miller 1975. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southern Jalisco, Pacific slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

chisoyensis, Poecilia Günther [A.] 1866:342 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Río Chisoy, Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.190 (3). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Poeser 2003:47 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:162 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:359 [ref. 27075], Meyer 2015:239 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:97 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

chocoensis, Diphyacantha Henn [A. W.] 1916:114, Fig. 2, Pl. 19 (figs. 1-2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 9); ref. 2093] Río Calima, Chocó, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 22547 [ex IU 13618]. Paratypes: CAS 22560 [ex IU 13619] (orig. 25, now 12), FMNH 57009 (10, 3 c&s), UMMZ 65223 [ex IU 13619] (2). Other original material: CAS 22761 [ex IU 13620] (orig. 6, now 4), ?UMMZ 102190 (7). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:32 [ref. 12367]. Original as chocoënsis. •Valid as Diphyacantha chocoensis Henn 1916 -- (Meyer & Etzel 1996:3 [ref. 22946], Huber 2019:57 [ref. 36941]). •Valid as Pseudopoecilia chocoensis (Henn 1916) -- (Meyer 2015:326 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Priapichthys chocoensis (Henn 1916) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:124 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:39 [ref. 29205], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Priapichthys chocoensis (Henn 1916). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of northwestern Colombia and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

clarkhubbsi, Gambusia Garrett [G. P.] & Edwards [R. J.] 2003:783, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2003 (no. 4); ref. 27258] San Felipe spring run near Canal Street in Del Rio, Val Verde County, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: TNHC 29073. Paratypes: TNHC 29076 (1, allotype), 29077-83 (33, 92, 31, 13, 2, 17, 41). •Valid as Gambusia clarkhubbsi Garrett & Edwards 2003 -- (Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page & Burr 2011:446 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Huber 2019:61 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia clarkhubbsi Garrett & Edwards 2003. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: San Felipe creek, Val Verde County, Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

clemenciae, Xiphophorus Álvarez [J.] 1959:69 [Ciencia (Mexico City) v. 19 (nos 4-5); ref. 11974] Cascada Stream, tributary of Río Sarabia, close to junction with Río Coatzacoalcos, 24 kilometers east of Palomares, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: ENCB-IPN P403a. Paratypes: (29) AMNH 28598 (2). •Valid as Xiphophorus clemenciae Álvarez 1959 -- (Rosen 1979:357 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:54 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Meyer & Schartl 2003:62 [ref. 27477], Kallman et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27790], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:255 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:374 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:143 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus clemenciae Álvarez 1959. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Coatzacoalcos and Grijalva River basins, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

colombianus, Heterandria Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] in Eigenmann 1912:27 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Brackish water, mouth of Río Dagua, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56047 [ex CM 4837]. Paratypes: CAS 22766 (2), FMNH 56048 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:87 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:46 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Poeciliopsis turrubarensis (Meek 1912) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:136 [ref. 7067], Bussing 1998:230 [ref. 24179] as colombiensis, Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:305 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:126 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poeciliopsis turrubarensis (Meek 1912). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

compressa, Priapella Álvarez [J.] 1948:335, Figs. 1-2 [Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural v. 9 (nos 3-4); ref. 12994] Ruinas de Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico. Holotype: ENCB-IPN P188. Paratypes: (22) FMNH 50207 (1). •Valid as Priapella compressa Álvarez 1948 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:61 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:53 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Schartl et al. 2006:59 [ref. 28754], Lucinda & Reis 2005:39 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:252 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2011:91 [ref. 31377], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:311 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:133 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Priapella compressa Álvarez 1948. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Grijalva River system, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

continens, Xiphophorus Rauchenberger [M.], Kallman [K. D.] & Morizot [D. C.] 1990:9, Fig. 5 [American Museum Novitates No. 2975; ref. 15688] Río Ojo Frío at El Quince, north of Rascón, Río Gallinas - Río Pánuco drainage, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: AMNH 88335. Paratypes: AMNH 75942 (24). Additional material: AMNH (25 lots, 608). •Valid as Xiphophorus continens Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot 1990 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:54 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Morris et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25123], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:256 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:22 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:375 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:144 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus continens Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot 1990. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Panuco River basin, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

cortezi, Xiphophorus montezumae Rosen [D. E.] 1960:96, Figs. 10, 11, 13, 30 [Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 11945] Arroyo Matlapa at Comoca, north of Axtla, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 177302. Paratypes: UMMZ 177303 (1, allotype). Other material: UMMZ 108602 (21), 108678 (1), 108679 (3), 124174 (4), 124331 (312), 124341 (46), 124353 (55), 124364 (9), 124374 (128), 194958 (53), 196923 (67), 196930 (37). •Synonym of Xiphophorus montezumae Jordan & Snyder 1899, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:65 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Xiphophorus cortezi Rosen 1960 -- (Rosen 1979:357 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:54 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Morris et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25123], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Meyer & Schartl 2003:63 [ref. 27477], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:256 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:22 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:376 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:144 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus cortezi Rosen 1960. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Panuco River basin, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

couchiana, Limia Girard [C. F.] 1859:116 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27410] Río San Juan at Cadereita and Monterey, Nuevo León, Mexico. Possible syntypes USNM 3507 (2, from Cadereita) not located. Poecilia couchii in an unjustified emendation. •Valid as Xiphophorus couchianus (Girard 1859) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:63 [ref. 7067], Rosen 1979:353 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:55 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266] as cochianus, Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Kallman et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27790], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:257 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:23 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:378 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:144 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus couchianus (Girard 1859). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: San Juan River basin, Nuevo Léon, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

couchii, Poecilia Günther [A.] 1866:347 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] •Unjustified emendation of Limia couchiana Girard 1859. •Synonym of Xiphophorus couchianus (Girard 1859) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:144 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus couchianus (Girard 1859). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

creolus, Girardinus Garman [S.] 1895:47, Pl. 5 (fig. 9) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Cuba [probably central Cuba]. Syntypes: MCZ 6399 (2), 100254 [ex MCZ 6399a] (8). Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35177]. •Valid as Girardinus creolus Garman 1895 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:110 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1983:20 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez et al. 1992 [ref. 19892], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:42 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:112 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:74 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Girardinus creolus Garman 1895. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southern slope of the Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Río, western Cuba. Habitat: freshwater.

ctenolepis, Xenodexia Hubbs [C. L.] 1950:9, Pls. 1-4 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 78; ref. 2250] Río Senisio at Finca Chamá, Quiche, Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 105460. Paratypes: UMMZ 105459 (39, 1 c&s). •Valid as Xenodexia ctenolepis Hubbs 1950 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:143 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:253 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:361 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:141 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xenodexia ctenolepis Hubbs 1950. Poeciliidae: Xenodexiinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of northwestern Guatemala and adjacent Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

cubensis, Heterandria Eigenmann [C. H.] 1903:227, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 1217] Los Palacios, Pinar del Río, Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 32958 [ex IU 7663]. Paratypes: FMNH 3900 (1), USNM 126675 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:46 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Girardinus cubensis (Eigenmann 1903) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:111 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1983:21 [ref. 22527], Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:42 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:114 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:74 [ref. 36941]). •Synonym of Girardinus metallicus Poey 1854 -- (Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35177]). Current status: Synonym of Girardinus metallicus Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Western Cuba [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

cubensis, Limia Poey [F.] 1854:388, 391, Pls. 31 (12-13), 32 (10-11) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: (apparently 2 of following were basis of description) ANSP 6814 (1), MCZ 6403 (now 55), plus some to Rivas; USNM 659 (6, missing). Non-types: USNM 120419 [ex MCZ 6403] (2), 37425 (11). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:178 [ref. 22926], Böhlke 1984:143 [ref. 13621], Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Limia vittata (Guichenot 1853) -- (Poeser 2003:135 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:151 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35177]). •Synonym of Poecilia vittata Guichenot 1853 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:59 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:97 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia vittata Guichenot 1853. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cultratum, Petalosoma Regan [C. T.] 1908:458 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 2 (no. 11); ref. 3637] Río Iroquois, Costa Rica. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1909.3.13.58. •Valid as Alfaro cultratus (Regan 1908) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:42 [ref. 7067], Villa 1982:128 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:129 [ref. 22927], Rodriguez 1997:670 [ref. 23266], Bussing 1998:192 [ref. 24179], Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:555 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:37 [ref. 29205], Matamoros et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31241], Meyer 2015:13 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:48 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Alfaro cultratus (Regan 1908). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central America: Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama and Nicaragua. Habitat: freshwater.

cuneata, Poecilia Garman [S.] 1895:62, Pl. 5 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Turbo, Gulf of Darién, Panama. Syntypes: MCZ 6458 (now 10), USNM 120285 [ex MCZ 6458] (3). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863, but a valid subspecies -- (Poeser 1992:89 [ref. 21511], Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) but a valid subspecies -- (Poeser 2003:49 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:163 [ref. 26783] as a variation, Poeser 2003:360 [ref. 27075]). •Valid as Poecilia cuneata Garman 1895 -- (Meyer et al. 2002:49 [ref. 26721], Meyer 2015:216 [ref. 34698]). •Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) -- (see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[30] [ref. 35679], Huber 2019:98 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cyanellus, Platypoecilus maculatus var. Meinken [H.] 1934:261, Fig. [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 45 (no. 14); ref. 13901] Río Pánuco, Mexico. no types known. •Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:145 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

darienensis, Gambusia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:88 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Darién, Río Capetí, Río Tuyra basin, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7597. Paratypes and additional material: FMNH 8608-16 (9), 8617-22 (1, 19, 20, 8, 2, 1), 8623-25 (1, 2, 1); USNM 78852-53 (2, 1), 78855-57 (16, 16, 10). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072]. Specific name also seen as dariensis. •Valid as Diphyacantha darienensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Meyer & Etzel 1996:3 [ref. 22946], Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:57 [ref. 36941]). •Valid as Pseudopoecilia darienensis (Meek & Hldebrand 1913) -- (Meyer 2015:327 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Priapichthys darienensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:124 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:39 [ref. 29205], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Priapichthys darienensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Tuira River basin, Panama and ? Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

dauli, Poecilia Meyer [M. K.] & Radda [A. C.] 2000:77, Figs. 1-2, 4 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 102 B; ref. 25029] Brook near Miranda, Venezuela. Holotype: NMW 94540. Paratypes: NMW 94541 (1), SMF 28884 (1). •Valid as Poecilia dauli Myer & Radda 2000 -- (Poeser 2003:146 [ref. 26783], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:217 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Allopoecilia, Huber 2019:98 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia dauli Meyer & Radda 2000. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of Venezuela, east of Lake Maracaibo. Habitat: freshwater.

decemmaculata, Poecilia Jenyns [L.] 1842:115, Pl. 22 (figs. 1, 1a) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Laguna del Diario, 34°54'S, 55°00'W, in Maldonado, Uruguay. Lectotype: BMNH 1917.7.14.25. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1843.2.8.42 (1), 1917.7.14.26 (1). Originally decem-maculata. See Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:557 [ref. 27061] for comments on type locality. Lectotype selected by Lucinda 2005:262 [ref. 28272]. See Calviño 2007:40 [ref. 29380] for information on the original type locality (but species misspelled decenmaculatus). •Valid as Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:77 [ref. 7067], Malabarba 1989:160 [ref. 14217], Pequeño 1989:50 [ref. 14125], Rosa & Costa 1993:701 [ref. 20993], Fernández & Butí 1996:255 [ref. 22775], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004] as decenmaculatus, Dyer 2000:89 [ref. 26678], Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], Lucinda & Garavello 2001:122 [ref. 25093], Meyer & Etzel 2001:248 [ref. 25973], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:557 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:146 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131], Lucinda 2005:262 [ref. 28272], Lucinda et al. 2006:29 [ref. 28858], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Aguilera et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30366], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622], Meyer 2015:44 [ref. 34698], Mirande & Koerber 2015:52 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565], Huber 2019:55 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns 1842). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Argentina, southeastern Brazil and Uruguay; introduced in Chile. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

denticulatus, Girardinus Garman [S.] 1895:47 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Remedios, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 1412 (now 4), 36037 (2), 100255 [ex MCZ 1412a] (11); ?USNM 120265 [ex MCZ 1412a] (3), 206325 [ex MCZ 1412a] (1); Rivas Coll. [ex MCZ 1412a] (1). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:10 [ref. 24072], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35177]. •Valid as Girardinus denticulatus Garman 1895 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:111 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1983:22 [ref. 22527], Parenti et al. 1999:10 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:42 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:115 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:74 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Girardinus denticulatus Garman 1895. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central and eastern Cuba. Habitat: freshwater.

dirempta, Heterandria Rosen [D. E.] 1979:329, Figs. 7, 13, 18, 21, 24, 26 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 162 (art. 5); ref. 22796] Tributary of Río Chajmaic, 15 kilometers south (by road) of Sebol, Río Usumacinta system, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 36380. Paratypes: AMNH 24501 (4), 24564 (12), 36361-63 (16, 76, 102); UMMZ 187934 (91), 187940 (55), 187950 (262). •Valid as Heterandria dirempta Rosen 1979 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:40 [ref. 29205], McEachran & DeWitt 2008:52 [ref. 29720]). •Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus diremptus (Rosen 1979) -- (Radda 1985:128 [ref. 31261], Morales-Cazan & Albert 2012:22 [ref. 31911], Meyer 2015:342 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:137 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus diremptus (Rosen 1979). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Chajmaic River drainage, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

dispilos, Phallotorynus Lucinda [P. H. F.], Rosa [R. S.] & Reis [R. E.] 2005:619, Fig. 8 [Copeia 2005 (no. 3); ref. 28318] Creek crossing road from Colonia Sommerfield to Repatriación, District of Pueblo de Dios, Caaguazú, Paraguay. Holotype: MNHNP 4620. Paratypes: MCP 35026 (1), NRM 41848 (19), 42090 (2), 42097 (3), 42284 (3), 42823 (8, 2 c&s). •Synonym of Phallotorynus victoriae Oliveros 1983 -- (Meyer & Etzel 2006:84 [ref. 30730], Mirande & Koerber 2015:53 [ref. 35117]). •Valid as Phallotorynus dispilos Lucinda, Rosa & Reis 2005 -- (Meyer 2015:196 [ref. 34698], Lucinda & da Graça 2015:90 [ref. 35435], Koerber et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35267], Huber 2019:92 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phallotorynus dispilos Lucinda, Rosa & Reis 2005. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Middle portions of Paraná River drainage, Department de Caaguazú, Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

dominicensis, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1913:989, Pl. 99 (fig. 7); Fig. 169c [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Haiti, West Indies. Syntypes: BMNH 1913.1.22.10-11 (3 or 4). •Valid as Gambusia dominicensis Regan 1913 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:96 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1983:12 [ref. 22527], Allen et al. 2002:364 [ref. 25930], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:65 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:61 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia dominicensis Regan 1913. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Dominican Republic and Haiti, introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

dominicensis, Platypoecilus Evermann [B. W.] & Clark [H. W.] 1906:852, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1478); ref. 15656] Small stream in San Francisco Mts., Santo Domingo [Dominican Republic]. Holotype: USNM 53277. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9350 (1), USNM 126137 [ex USBF 1434] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:55 [ref. 12291], Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Poecilia by Poecilia dominicensis Valenciennes 1846, to be replaced by Poecilia montana, if both species are in Poecilia [Art. 59.4]. •Valid as Mollienisia dominicensis (Evermann & Clark 1906) -- (Trewavas 1948:410 [ref. 13077]). •Rivas 1978 [ref. 8887] restored the genus Limia as valid and treated it as separate from Poecilia, so he recognized Poecilia dominicensis (Evermann & Clark) and Limia dominicensis (Valenciennes) as valid species based on Art. 59. •Wrongly treated as a synonym of Limia dominicensis (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061]). •Treated as a valid species in Poecilia if the genus Limia is valid -- (Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:150 [ref. 26783], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Psychropoecilia). •Synonym of Poecilia montana Rosen & Bailey 1963 -- (Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:98 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia montana Rosen & Bailey 1963. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

dominicensis, Poecilia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:131, Pl. 525-526, top [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Santo Domingo [Dominican Republic and Haiti], West Indies. Lectotype: MNHN B-2882 [ex MNHN 4390]. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1913.1.25.1-2 [ex MNHN] (2); MNHN 1893 (13), 4390 (20); USNM 94584 [ex MNHN] (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:30-31 [ref. 19576], Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]. Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:99 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Limia dominicensis (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Trewavas 1948:411 [ref. 13077], Lee et al. 1983:29 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:135 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:136 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia dominicensis Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:60 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:99 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia dominicensis Valenciennes 1846. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Sud River basin, southwestern Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsalis, Platypoecilus variatus Stoye [F. H.] 1932:1, Fig. [The Home Aquarium Bulletin v. 2 (no. 10); ref. 36955] Tampico, Mexico. No types known. Description induced by a miscommunication with C. L. Hubbs, see Stoye 1933:306 [ref. 36956]. •Synonym of Xiphophorus variatus (Meek 1904) -- (Huber 2019:145 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus variatus (Meek 1904). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsalis, Platypoecilus variatus Stoye [F. H.] 1933:307 [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 44 (no. 18); ref. 36956] Río Canzones, Vera Cruz, Mexico. No types known. Nomen nudum, not available. Not the same as Platypoecilus variatus dorsalis Stoye 1932. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus variatus (Meek 1904) -- (Huber 2019:145 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus variatus (Meek 1904). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

dovii, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1913:986 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Lake Nicaragua, Nicaragua. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1952.12.31.7. •Synonym of Gambusia nicaraguensis Günther 1866 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:94 [ref. 7067], Fink 1971:54 [ref. 7671], Greenfield et al. 1982:131 [ref. 21395], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:87 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:62 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia nicaraguensis Günther 1866. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

dovii, Poecilia Günther [A.] 1866:344 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Lake Nicaragua. Lectotype: BMNH 1863.12.16.77. Paralectotypes: (several) BMNH 1862.6.6.11-12 (2?) Mexico, 1863.12.16.78-92 (10) Lake Nicaragua, BMNH uncat. (?) Lake Amatitlan. Lectotype of dovii is Poecilia gillii Kner 1863 and was designated by Poeser 2003:47-48 [ref. 26769]. •Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 in part but not lectotype -- (Poeser 2003:47 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:163 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:359 [ref. 27075] in part). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061]). •Possibly valid as Poecilia dovii Günther 1866 -- (Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) -- (Huber 2019:99 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

echeagarayi, Dicerophallus Álvarez [J.] 1952:95, Figs. 1-3 [Ciencia (Mexico City) v. 12 (nos 3-4); ref. 102] Río Michol, near Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico. Holotype: ENCB-IPN P279. Paratypes: (13) UMMZ 164098 (2). •Valid as Gambusia echeagarayi (Álvarez 1952) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:107 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:45 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205]). •Valid as Heterophallus echeagarayi (Álvarez 1952) -- (Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:230 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:129 [ref. 34698], Álvarez-Pliego et al. 2016:178 [ref. 34825], Huber 2019:79 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Heterophallus echeagarayi (Álvarez 1952). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Chiapas to Veracruz, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Phalloptychus Henn [A. W.] 1916:121, Pl. 20 (fig. 2-3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 9); ref. 2093] Rio Catu at Alagoinhas, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 55876 [ex CM 4665]. Paratypes: AMNH 22657 [ex FMNH 55062] (2, c&S, 1 missing), FMNH 55877 [ex CM 4666] (10, now 7). Type catalog: Henn 1928:87 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:64 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Phalloptychus eigenmanni Henn 1916 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:74 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:566 [ref. 27061], Lucinda 2005:375 [ref. 28403], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:193 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:91 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloptychus eigenmanni Henn 1916. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Catu River drainage, Alagoinhas, Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

elachistos, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:129, Figs. 21-22 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Córrego, Limoeiro, at Praça Oito, ca. 19°55'S, 40°50'W, Itarana, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 30468. Paratypes: MCP 29435 (3), 30021 (6), 30022 (1), 30023 (90, 5 c&s); MNRJ 11640 (29), 11645 (13).; UMMZ 215307 (31, 4 c&s), 215314 (13); USNM 257031 (13). •Valid as Phalloceros elachistos Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:182 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:87 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros elachistos Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Drainages of the Doce, Santa Maria da Vitória, Jacu, and Timbu rivers, coastal drainages of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Mollienesia Trewavas [E.] 1948:409, Pl. 1 (fig. 4); Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 118 (pt 2); ref. 13077] Jarabocoa, San Domingo, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: BMNH 1947.11.27.4-5 (1 of 2). Paratypes: BMNH 1947.11.27.4-5 (1 of 2, allotype). •Valid as Poecilia elegans (Trewavas 1948) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:48 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1983:49 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:151 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:220 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Curtipenis, Huber 2019:99 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia elegans (Trewavas 1948). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Neoheterandria Henn [A. W.] 1916:118, Fig. 5, Pl. 19 (figs. 4-5) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 9); ref. 2093] Río Truandó, a tributary of lower Río Atrato, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 57007 [ex CM 5823]. Paratypes: AMNH 22705sw [ex FMNH 57008] (1), 36481 [ex IU 13612] (4); CAS 22768 [ex IU 13612] (4); FMNH 57008 [ex CM 5824a-g] (6); UMMZ 65232 [ex IU 13612] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:87 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:60 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Neoheterandria elegans Henn 1916 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:127 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:157 [ref. 34698], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Huber 2019:82 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Neoheterandria elegans Henn 1916. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Trundo River drainage, Pacific slope of Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Xiphophorus Paepke [H.-J.] & Seegers [L.] 1986:175 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 62 (no. 1); ref. 19981] Not available; name in museum catalog included in type catalog by Paepke & Seegers 1986:175 [ref. 19981]. •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

elongata, Poecilia Günther [A.] 1866:342 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.1.14.23. •Valid as Poeciliopsis elongata (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:139 [ref. 7067], Bussing 1987:148 [ref. 22927], Allen & Robertson 1994:91 [ref. 22193], Bussing 1998:223 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:284 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:126 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis elongata (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Costa Rica and Panama. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

enneaktinos, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:132, Figs. 23-24 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Córrego de Toca do Boi, near Condomínio Laranjeiras, ca. 23°13'S, 44°42'W, Parati, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 23609. Paratypes: MCP 30510 (6, 4 c&s), 31139 (40); MNRJ 14847 (14); Species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Phalloceros enneaktinos Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:182 [ref. 34698], Souto-Santos et al. 2019:182 [ref. 36560], Huber 2019:88 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros enneaktinos Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Small coastal drainages, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

episcopi, Gambusia Steindachner [F.] 1878:387 [9], Pl. 2 (figs. 3-4) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 77 (1. Abth.); ref. 18774] Streams near Obispo Station, Canal Zone, Panama. Lectotype: NMW 14705-1. Paralectotypes: NMW 99729 (4, ex 14705 2-5), 75072 (12), 76102 (6), 81132 (9). On p. 9 of separate. Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:51 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Brachyrhaphis episcopi (Steindachner 1878) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:89 [ref. 7067], Mojica et al. 1997:301 [ref. 22823], Meyer & Etzel 1998:156 [ref. 23986], Meyer & Etzel 2001:39 [ref. 25344], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:38 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:22 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:51 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhaphis episcopi (Steindachner 1878). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific and Atlantic slopes of central Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

eurystoma, Gambusia Miller [R. R.] 1975:19, Fig. 5 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 672; ref. 9272] Arroyo del Azufre, Baños de Azufre, 10 kilometers west of of Teapa, Tabasco, Mexico, 17°34'N, 93°01'W, elevation 150 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 197600. Paratypes: UMMZ 197601 (1, allotype), 184717 (290, now 260, 3 c&s); USNM 211263 [ex UMMZ 184717] (30). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia eurystoma Miller 1975 -- (Greenfield 1983:457 [ref. 8337], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:45 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:6 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:222 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:66 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:62 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia eurystoma Miller 1975. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Baños de Azufre, Tabasco, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

evelynae, Xiphophorus variatus Rosen [D. E.] 1960:87, Figs. 1, 4, 7 [Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 11945] Side branch of the Río Xaltepuztla, Puebla, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 177306. Paratypes: UMMZ 177307 (1, allotype). Other material (or paratypes): UMMZ 124303 (12), 124309 (1), 124312-13 (25, 20), 124317-18 (40, 9), 124321 (17). •Synonym of Xiphophorus variatus (Meek 1904), but a valid subspecies -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:65 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Xiphophorus evelynae Rosen 1960 -- (Rosen 1979:354 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:55 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Chen & Borowsky 2004:27 [ref. 27672] doubtfully distinct from variatus, Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:257 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:23 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:380 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:145 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus evelynae Rosen 1960. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Tecolutla River basin, Puebla, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

evides, Dextripenis Turner [C. L.] 1940:88 [Copeia 1940 (no. 2); ref. 26913] Not available, no description. •In the synonymy of Phallichthys fairweatheri Rosen & Bailey 1959 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Phallichthys fairweatheri Rosen & Bailey 1959. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

fairweatheri, Phallichthys Rosen [D. E.] & Bailey [R. M.] 1959:(17), 24 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 44 (pt 1, no. 1); ref. 12020] Río San Pedro de Mártir, Río Usumacinta basin, El Petén, Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 172456. Paratypes: AMNH 36480 [ex NYZS] (8), 37303 [ex NYZS] (38), 37307 [ex NYZS] (72); UMMZ 172457 (1, allotype). Other specimens at UMMZ (13 lots). •Valid as Phallichthys fairweatheri Rosen & Bailey 1959 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:140 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:48 [ref. 22290], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:122 [ref. 22947], Bussing 1998:218 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:42 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:231 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:171 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:85 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phallichthys fairweatheri Rosen & Bailey 1959. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras. Habitat: freshwater.

falcatus, Glaridichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] 1903:224, Figs. 2-3 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 1217] San Cristobal [Pinar del Río], Cuba. Holotype: CAS 22548 [ex IU 9664]. Paratypes: (22) AMNH 1460 (1); BMNH 1904.1.28.84-86 (3); CAS 22762-63 (3, 2); FMNH 3901-03 (1, 1, 1), 72582 (2); MCZ 34186 (2); USNM 55692 (1), 55704 (1), 126673 (1), 130035-36 (1, 1) Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:40 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35177]. •Valid as Girardinus falcatus (Eigenmann 1903) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:111 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1983:23 [ref. 22527], Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:42 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:117 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:74 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Girardinus falcatus (Eigenmann 1903). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Cuba. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciata, Gambusia Meek [S. E.] 1904:129, Fig. 37 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] Pacific coast streams of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, San Gerónimo, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 4715. Paratypes: FMNH 4716 (17), 4722 (3), 72582 (2); UMMZ 164096 [ex FMNH 4716] (6); USNM 55774 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis fasciata (Meek 1904) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:138 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:51 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:242 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:286 [ref. 34698], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], Huber 2019:126 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis fasciata (Meek 1904). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Mexico and Coatzacoalcos River basin, Oaxaca, central Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

fasciata, Molinesia Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1844:36 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1844; ref. 19738] Suriname [not Mexico]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3472. Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:174 [ref. 19981]. Locality corrected by Paepke & Meyer 1995:286 [ref. 21889]. •Status uncertain -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067]). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Poeser 2003:161 [ref. 26783], Huber 2019:100 [ref. 36941]). •Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Paepke & Meyer 1995:285 [ref. 21889], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:1 [ref. 33696]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

fasciolatus, Phallotorynus Henn [A. W.] 1916:129, Figs. 8-13, Pl. 21 (fig. 1-2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 9); ref. 2093] One miles north of Jacarehy, São Paulo, Rio Parahyba basin, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 55061 [ex CM 3752]. Paratypes: AMNH 22656 [ex FMNH 55062] (1, c&s, 2 missing), FMNH 55062 [ex CM 3753a-b] (10, now 7). Type catalog: Henn 1928:87 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:64 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Phallotorynus fasciolatus Henn 1916 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:68 [ref. 7067], López et al. 2002:61 [ref. 26808], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:566 [ref. 27061], Lucinda et al. 2005:613 [ref. 28318], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Meyer & Etzel 2006:82 [ref. 30730], Meyer 2015:197 [ref. 34698], Lucinda & da Graça 2015:90 [ref. 35435], Huber 2019:92 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phallotorynus fasciolatus Henn 1916. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, and upper Tietê River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

festae, Poecilia Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:13 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 13 (no. 329); ref. 14677] Thermal sources of Santa Vicenta, Santa Elena, western Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1898.11.4.80-85 (6), MSNG [ex Mus. Torino] 36549 (19), MZUT 1496 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:142 [ref. 21559], Tortonese 1963:313 [ref. 10351]. •Valid as Priapichthys festae (Boulenger 1898) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:126 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Pseudopoecilia festae (Boulenger 1898) -- (Meyer & Etzel 1996:3 [ref. 22946], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Meyer 2015:331 [ref. 34698], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:300 [ref. 34894], Huber 2019:135 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudopoecilia festae (Boulenger 1898). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Hot springs in Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

filamentosa, Gambusia Poey [F.] 2000:726, Pl. 411 (fig. 1) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

finlayi, Gambusia Santa Maria [M. A. de] 1956:96 [Acuario v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 19810] Camagüey, Cuba. No types known. Apparently not available, name assigned to figures only (one male and one female), and based on an unpublished manuscript by Torre; no text or distinguishing features included (see also Rosen & Bailey 1963:101 [ref. 7067]). •In the synonymy of Gambusia punctata Poey 1854 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:93 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia punctata Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

formosa, Limia Girard [C. F.] 1859:115 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27410] Site of Palo Alto battlefield, 19.3 kilometers northeast of Brownsville, Cameron County Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 3508 (apparently lost). Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-0439 [ex USNM 3508] (1, not this species) Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072]. Locality information and lectotype designation in Miller & Hubbs 1983:816 [ref. 21259]. •Valid as Poecilia formosa (Girard 1859) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:54 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:548 [ref. 22416], Page & Burr 1991:233 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:49 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072], Fuller et al. 1999:309 [ref. 25838], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:157 [ref. 26783], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:234 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:20 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:441 [ref. 31215], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:221 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:100 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia formosa (Girard 1859). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Texas (U.S.A.) and Atlantic slope of northern Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

formosus, Girardinus Girard [C. F.] (ex Agassiz) 1859:63 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 1821] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Lectotype: SMNS Z-PI-001152a. Paralectotypes: SMNS Z-PI-001152b (3) Charleston. Appeared first without distinguishing features and unavailable in Agassiz 1855:136 [ref. 20569]; description above is by Girard so he is the author of the species. On page 62 listed as Heterandria formosa Ag. (MS.). Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:78 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Heterandria formosa (Girard 1859) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:130 [ref. 7067], Rosen 1979:314 [ref. 22796], Lee et al. 1980:547 [ref. 22416], Radda 1985:128 [ref. 31261], Page & Burr 1991:239 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:89 [ref. 23239], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Mettee et al. 1996:481 [ref. 25836], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:926 [ref. 23897], Fuller et al. 1999:308 [ref. 25838], Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], Ross et al. 2001:379 [ref. 25978], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807] with author as Agassiz dating to 1855, Boschung & Mayden 2004:411 [ref. 27995] with author as Agassiz dating to 1955 [sic], Lucinda & Reis 2005:40 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:19 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:450 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:126 [ref. 34698] with author as Agassiz dating to 1855, Robins et al. 2018:230 [ref. 35886] with author as Agassiz dating to 1855, Huber 2019:78 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Heterandria formosa (Girard 1859). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic and Gulf Coast drainages, southeastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

fosteri, Priapichthys Hildebrand [S. F.] 1925:260, Figs. 14-15 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 41 (no. 985); ref. 15590] Río Lempa, San Marcos, El Salvador. Holotype: USNM 87263. Paratypes: FMNH 12094-99 [ex USNM 87264] (6), 12100-11 [ex USNM 87265] (12); UMMZ (9); USNM 87264 (orig. 52, now 29), 87265 (now 27), 87266 (2), 338683 (1); to El Salvador organization (6 + 6). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:16-17 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Poeciliopsis turrubarensis (Meek 1912) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:136 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:17 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:305 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:126 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poeciliopsis turrubarensis (Meek 1912). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fredlini, Lebistes reticulatus var. Stoye [F. H.] 1935:49 [Tropical fishes for the home; ref. 19824] No types known. Not available, based on an aquaristic variety. •In the synonymy of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 -- (Huber 2019:116 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

fria, Poecilia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:13 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Vinces, Ecuador. Holotype: ?FMNH 56603 [ex CM 5420] (28-mm female specimen). Paratypes: AMNH 5324 (26); BMNH 1924.3.3.87-88 (2); CAS 22549 [ex IU 13107] (3), 22770 [ex IU 13107] (517); FMNH 56604 (112); UMMZ 65275 [ex IU 13107] (4). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Priapichthys fria (Eigenmann & Henn 1914) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:126 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Pseudopoecilia fria (Eigenmann & Henn 1914) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:302 [ref. 34894], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Huber 2019:136 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudopoecilia fria (Eigenmann & Henn 1914). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

fuscomaculata, Limia Rivas [L. R.] 1980:31, Fig 1c [Northeast Gulf Science v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3763] Southwestern bight of Lake Miragoâne, Dépt. de l'Ouest, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 220525. Paratypes: USNM 220526 (3). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Limia fuscomaculata Rivas 1980 -- (Lee et al. 1983:30 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:137 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia fuscomaculata (Rivas 1980) -- (Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:100 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia fuscomaculata (Rivas 1980). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lake Miragoâne, Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

gaigei, Gambusia Hubbs [C. L.] 1929:3 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 198; ref. 15900] A slough close to the Rio Grande at Boquillas, Brewster County, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 84527. Paratypes: UMMZ 84528 (orig. 62, now 59, 5 c&s), USNM 117534 [ex UMMZ 84528] (3). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia gaigei Hubbs 1929 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:104 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:540 [ref. 22416], Wildrick et al. 1985:1054 [ref. 11519], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Page & Burr 1991:238 [ref. 18983], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072], Garrett & Edwards 2003:783 [ref. 27258], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:221 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page & Burr 2011:448 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:67 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:62 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia gaigei Hubbs 1929. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Rio Grande drainage, Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

garmani, Girardinus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1903:226, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 1217] Los Palacios, Pinar del Río, Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 32780 [ex IU 9661, ex CAS]. Paratypes: (2) FMNH 3907 (1), USNM 126671 [ex USBF 1469] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:39 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:10 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Girardinus garmani Eigenmann 1903 -- (Parenti et al. 1999:10 [ref. 24072]). •Synonym of Girardinus metallicus Poey 1854 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:112 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:118 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35177] as germanis, Huber 2019:75 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Girardinus metallicus Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

garnieri, Limia Rivas [L. R.] 1980:31, Figs. 2a-b [Northeast Gulf Science v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3763] North end of Lake Miragoâne, Dept. de l'Ouest, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 220527. Paratypes: USNM 220528 (1). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:12-13 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Limia garnieri Rivas 1980 -- (Lee et al. 1983:31 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:137 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia garnieri (Rivas 1980) -- (Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:101 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia garnieri (Rivas 1980). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lake Miragoâne, Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

geiseri, Gambusia Hubbs [Clark L.] & Hubbs [C. L.] in Hubbs & Springer 1957:285, Figs. 2a-b, 4-5 [Texas Journal of Science v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 12145] San Marcos River just downstream from the Rio Vista Dam, San Marcos, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 168974. Paratypes: (435) TNHC 5 (?), 19 (?), 60 (?), 2651 (?); UMMZ 72565 (11), 72570-71 (179, 128), 108090 (1), 111005 (12), 1220247 (130, 3 c&s), 166018 (33, 5 c&s), 166043 (51). Additional material: (3,627 specimens) TNHC (10 lots); UMMZ (5 lots). •Valid as Gambusia geiseri Hubbs & Hubbs 1957 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:104 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:541 [ref. 22416], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Page & Burr 1991:238 [ref. 18983], Fuller et al. 1999:306 [ref. 25838], Garrett & Edwards 2003:783 [ref. 27258], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page & Burr 2011:449 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:69 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:63 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia geiseri Hubbs & Hubbs 1957. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

georgei, Gambusia Hubbs [Clark L.] & Peden [A. E.] 1969:357, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1969 (no. 2); ref. 7818] San Marcos River at highway I-35 bridge, Hays County, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 187447. Paratypes: UMMZ 187448 (44, 3 c&s). Other material (97 specimens): TNHC 7195-7197, 7199, 7201-7207 and 7212; also UMMZ 65250 (2); plus hybrids. •Valid as Gambusia georgei Hubbs & Peden 1969 -- (Lee et al. 1980:542 [ref. 22416], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Garrett & Edwards 2003:783 [ref. 27258], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page & Burr 2011:448 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:70 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:63 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia georgei Hubbs & Peden 1969. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: San Marcos Spring and river, Texas, U.S.A. [probably extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

gillii, Xiphophorus Kner [R.] 1863:224, "Fig. 9" (unpublished) [Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu München 1863, v. 2; ref. 5002] Río Chagres, Panama. Holotype (unique): ZSM 176 [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Non-types: NMW 21608-09 (2). Type catalog: Neumann 2006:279 [ref. 28925]. Also appeared as new in Kner & Steindachner 1864:25, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [ref. 2649]. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) -- (Villa 1982:134 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:145 [ref. 22927], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Bussing 1998:219 [ref. 24179], Meyer et al. 2002:49 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:48 [ref. 26769] as a valid subspecies, Poeser 2003:163 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:360 [ref. 27075], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Matamoros et al. 2009:14 [ref. 31241], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], McMahan et al. 2013:447 [ref. 32422], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:223 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Huber 2019:101 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic and Pacific coastal area rivers in Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

gordoni, Xiphophorus Miller [R. R.] & Minckley [W. L.] 1963:538, Figs. 1, 3-5 [Copeia 1963 (no. 3); ref. 5040] Laguna Santa Tecla, about 10 miles south-southeast of El Candido, Cuarto Ciénegas, Coahuila, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 179866. Paratypes: UMMZ 179867 (1, allotype), 179868 (193). •Synonym of Xiphophorus couchianus (Girard 1859), but a valid subspecies -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:63 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Xiphophorus gordoni Miller & Minckley 1963 -- (Rosen 1979:353 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:55 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:258 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:23 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:381 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:146 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus gordoni Miller & Minckley 1963. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Cuatro Ciénegas valley, Coahuila, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilior, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1913:989, Pl. 99 (fig. 5-6); Fig. 168c [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Jamaica. Syntypes: (13) BMNH 1969.9.8.1-14 (14 now 6); CAS-SU 24179 [ex BMNH] (2). •Valid as Gambusia gracilior Regan 1913 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:96 [ref. 7067]). •Synonym of Gambusia wrayi Regan 1913 -- (Fink 1971:61 [ref. 7671], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:105 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:63 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia wrayi Regan 1913. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

gracilis, Gambusia Girard [C. F.] 1859:121 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27410] Matamoras, Mexico. Syntypes: ANSP 6973 (1), MCZ 1309 (1), MNHN [ex USNM 3506] (1), ?USNM 3506 (7, not found). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:143 [ref. 13621], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Xiphophorus gracilis Heckel 1848, replaced by Gambusia humilis Günther 1866. •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:95 [ref. 7067], La Rivers 1994:532 [ref. 23389], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:54 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:63 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

gracilis, Mollienesia Regan [C. T.] 1913:1012 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Lake Petén [Petén Itza], Guatemala. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.26.377. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.375 (1), 1864.1.26.379 (2), 2004.12.1.1-2 [ex BMNH 1864.1.26.377] (2), 2008.5.27.2 (1, skeleton). Replacement name for Poecilia petenensis Günther 1866, preoccupied by Mollienisia petenensis Günther 1866. Mollienesia gracilis itself is secondarily preoccupied by Poecilia gracilis Valenciennes 1846 (see Greenfield 1990:452 [ref. 16548]). Lectotype selected for Poecilia petenensis Günther 1866 by Poeser 2002:243 [ref. 26215]. Poecilia petenensis Günther 1866 is treated as valid on the basis of Art. 59.4. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:52 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Poecilia gracilis (Regan 1913) -- (Meyer et al. 2004:ca. 145 [ref. 28000]). •Synonym of Poecilia petenensis Günther 1866 -- (Poeser 2002:245 [ref. 26215], Poeser 2003:159 [ref. 26783], Huber 2019:101 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia petenensis Günther 1866. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Poecilia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:133 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Environs of Montevideo, Uruguay. Syntypes: MNHN B-0939 (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:31 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:77 [ref. 7067], Rosa & Costa 1993:701 [ref. 20993], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:557 [ref. 27061], Lucinda 2005:262 [ref. 28272], Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622], Meyer 2015:44 [ref. 34698], Mirande & Koerber 2015:52 [ref. 35117], Huber 2019:55 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns 1842). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

gracilis, Tomeurus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:53 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Mud Creek in Aruka River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53541 [ex CM 1093]. Paratypes: BMNH 1911.10.31.537 (1); CAS 22774 [ex IU 12076] (3); FMNH 53542 [ex CM 1094] (1), 52722 [ex CM 1095] (1), 53541-42 (1, 1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:87 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367] as 2 paratypes from 2 localities. •Valid as Tomeurus gracilis Eigenmann 1909 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:39 [ref. 7067], Keith et al. 2000:62 [ref. 24547], Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], Lazara 2001:307 [ref. 25711], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:37 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:358 [ref. 34698]). Current status: Valid as Tomeurus gracilis Eigenmann 1909. Poeciliidae: Tomeurinae. Distribution: Brazil, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Xiphophorus Heckel [J. J.] 1848:300, Pl. 9 (figs. 3-4) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 1 (pt 1-5) [1848]; ref. 2069] Orizaba, Mexico. Syntypes: (13) NMW 59600 (3), 76512 (6), 76514 (2, dry), 81118 (4). •Valid as Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:136 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:552 [ref. 22416], Villa 1982:135 [ref. 36708], Page & Burr 1991:240 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:51 [ref. 22290], Fuller et al. 1999:314 [ref. 25838], Moyle 2002:324 [ref. 26449], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:243 [ref. 28615] restricted to e. Mexico, Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398], Bussing 2008:834 [ref. 29806], Minckley & Marsh 2009:257 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:452 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:287 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:127 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel 1848). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Mexico to Honduras: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico; California (U.S.A.) and Venezuela (introduced). Habitat: freshwater.

greenwayi, Scolichthys Rosen [D. E.] 1967:4, Figs. 1-6 [American Museum Novitates No. 2303; ref. 3808] Headwater stream of Río Salbá, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 22713. Paratypes: AMNH 22714 (130, 4 c&s), 22715 (55, now 53); UMMZ 190112 (6). •Valid as Scolichthys greenwayi Rosen 1967 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:353 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:140 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Scolichthys greenwayi Rosen 1967. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Chixoy and Salinas River basins, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

grossidens, Limia Rivas [L. R.] 1980:29, Fig. 1a-b [Northeast Gulf Science v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3763] Northern end of Lake Miragoâne, Dépt. de l'Ouest, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 220523. Paratypes: MCZ 54408 (37), UMMZ 204195 (15), USNM 220524 (92). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Limia grossidens Rivas 1980 -- (Lee et al. 1983:32 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:137 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia grossidens (Rivas 1980) -- (Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:101 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia grossidens (Rivas 1980). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lake Miragoâne, Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

guntheri, Xiphophorus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896:702 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2443] Río Chisoy, basin of Río Usumacinta, Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.185 (1), 1894.1.26.193 (1). •Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848, but a valid subspecies -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:66 [ref. 7067], as helleri guentheri). •Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:382 [ref. 34698] as guentheri, Huber 2019:146 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

guppii, Girardinus Günther [A.] 1866:353 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Trinidad Island, West Indies or Venezuela. Syntypes: (many) BMNH 1847.7.18.9-11 (?3) Venezuela, 1865.11.30.8 (1) Trinidad; ZMB 6081 (2). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:173 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:56 [ref. 7067], Poeser 2003:140 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:102 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

harpagos, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:134, Figs. 27-29 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Rio São Francisco, tributary to rio Paquequer Fazenda São Francisco de Paula, ca. 21°59'S, 42°54'W, Sapucaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 23610. Paratypes: MCP 20569 (165, 10 c&s), 30508 (6, 4 c&s); MNRJ 14745 (59). Plus non-type specimens. Species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Phalloceros harpagos Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:183 [ref. 34698], Koerber et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35632], Souto-Santos et al. 2019:182 [ref. 36560], Koerber et al. 2019:10 [ref. 36736], Huber 2019:88 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros harpagos Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Paraná-Paraguay river basin and coastal drainages from Itaboapana River to Araranguá River: Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

hartwegi, Brachyrhaphis Rosen [D. E.] & Bailey [R. M.] 1963:87, Fig. 41, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 126 (art. 1); ref. 7067] Tributary to Río Jalapa at Finca Esperanza, Soconusco District, Chiapas, Mexico, 15°20'N, 92°36'W, elevation 450 feet. Holotype: UMMZ 179539. Paratypes: UMMZ 168904 (3), 168918 (61, now 54), 169069 (10, now 9), 169071 (52); USNM 202174 [ex UMMZ 168918] (7). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:4 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Brachyrhaphis hartwegi Rosen & Bailey 1963 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:44 [ref. 22290], Mojica et al. 1997:301 [ref. 22823], Meyer & Etzel 1998:156 [ref. 23986], Bussing 1998:199 [ref. 24179], Parenti et al. 1999:4 [ref. 24072], Meyer & Etzel 2001:33 [ref. 25344], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:38 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:219 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:23 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:51 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhaphis hartwegi Rosen & Bailey 1963. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Guatemala and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Heterandria Henn [A. W.] 1916:116, Pl. 20 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 9); ref. 2093] Puerto Suárez, Río Paraguay basin, Bolivia. Holotype: FMNH 55874 [ex CM 4663]. Paratypes: FMNH 55875 [ex CM 4664a-c] (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:87 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:46 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Poecilia hasemani (Henn 1916) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:58 [ref. 7067], Figueiredo & Moreira 2018:443 [ref. 36088], Huber 2019:102 [ref. 36941]). •Valid as Pamphorichthys hasemani (Henn 1916) -- (Rodriguez 1997:672 [ref. 23266], Britski et al. 1999:137 [ref. 24147], Poeser 2003:137 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Meyer 2015:162 [ref. 34698]). Current status: Valid as Pamphorichthys hasemani (Henn 1916). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Paraguay River drainage, Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heckeli, Gambusia Bleeker [P.] 1860:485 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 7 (art. 2); ref. 380] Orizaba, Mexico. Syntypes: (13) NMW 59600 (3), 76512 (6), 76514 (2, dry), 81118 (4). Unneeded replacement name for Xiphophorus gracilis Heckel 1848, not preoccupied by the later Gambusia gracilis Girard 1859. •Synonym of Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:136 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:287 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:127 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel 1848). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

hellerii, Xiphophorus Heckel [J. J.] 1848:291, Pl. 8 (figs. 1-3) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 1 (pt 1-5) [1848]; ref. 2069] Orizaba, Mexico [Atlantic]. Syntypes: NMW 60543 (8). •Valid as Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848 [often as helleri] -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:65 [ref. 7067], Rosen 1979:362 [ref. 22796], Lee et al. 1980:554 [ref. 22416], Paxton et al. 1989:348 [ref. 12442], Page & Burr 1991:234 [ref. 18983], Pethiyagoda 1991:194 [ref. 20075], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:55 [ref. 22290], Kottelat et al. 1993:91 [ref. 23448], Skelton 1993:281 [ref. 24071] as helleri, McDowall in McDowall 1996:120 [ref. 22909], Rema Devi et al. 1996:140 [ref. 24021], Coad 1996:85 [ref. 25304], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:126 [ref. 22947], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Fricke 1999:114 [ref. 24106], Keith et al. 1999:94 [ref. 24548], Rema Devi et al. 1999:161 [ref. 24758], Fuller et al. 1999:316 [ref. 25838], Morris et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25123], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:72 [ref. 25191], Sakai et al. 2001:89 [ref. 25693], Morgan & Gill 2001:349 [ref. 25843], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Skelton 2001:281 [ref. 27406], Allen et al. 2002:367 [ref. 25930], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lim et al. 2002:00 [ref. 28310], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Meyer & Schartl 2003:61 [ref. 27477], Kallman et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27790] as helleri, Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:295 [ref. 28379], Miller 2006:258 [ref. 28615], Hoese & Gates 2006:744 [ref. 28997], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:23 [ref. 30398], Fricke et al. 2009:32 [ref. 30213], Minckley & Marsh 2009:257 [ref. 31114], Matamoros et al. 2009:15 [ref. 31241] as helleri, Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Page & Burr 2011:442 [ref. 31215], Fricke et al. 2011:371 [ref. 31242], Marshall 2011:200 [ref. 31755] as helleri, Hammer et al. 2012:66 [ref. 32389], Kottelat 2013:300 [ref. 32989], Larson et al. 2013:71 [ref. 32988], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Morgan et al. 2014:42 [ref. 36567], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:304 [ref. 34894], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895 [ref. 34062], McDowall & Stewart 2015:975 [ref. 34275], Meyer 2015:382 [ref. 34698], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35367] as heller, Esmaeili et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35254], Bruton et al. 2018:110 [ref. 36373], Esmaeili et al. 2018:75 [ref. 36089], Fricke et al. 2018:109 [ref. 35805], Robins et al. 2018:234 [ref. 35886], Huber 2019:146 [ref. 36941], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico; introduced widely elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

heptaktinos, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:119, Figs. 8-9 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Stream affluent to arroio dos Ratos, at Horto Florestal Mariana (RIOCELL), ca. 30°21'S, 51°36'W, Mariana Pimentel, Rop Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 30406. Paratypes: MCP 19831 (20, 4 c&s), 19832 (19), 26071 (5), 30569 (2). Species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Phalloceros heptaktinos Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:183 [ref. 34698], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Huber 2019:88 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros heptaktinos Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Tributaries of the arroio dos Ratos, Jacuí basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hesperis, Priapichthys annectens Hubbs [C. L.] 1924:22 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 13; ref. 2231] Río María Aguilar, upper tributary to Río Grande de Tárcoles, San Jóse, Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 14106. Paratypes: FMNH (630, 62 catalog numbers). See Bussing 1998:232 [ref. 24179]. •Synonym of Priapichthys annectens (Regan 1907) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:124 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:134 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Priapichthys annectens (Regan 1907). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

hessfeldi, Brachyrhaphis Meyer [M. K.] & Etzel [V.] 2001:34, Figs. 1-6 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 51 (no. 4); ref. 25344] Ditch near Palenque, 40 kilometers northeast from Portobelo, 9°35'N, 79°23'W, Colon, Panama. Holotype: MTD F 22534. Paratypes: MTD F 22535-37 (3, 4, 2); SMF 28883 (7). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:27 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Brachyrhaphis hessfeldi Meyer & Etzel 2001 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:38 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:25 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:51 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhaphis hessfeldi Meyer & Etzel 2001. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: East of Canal Zone, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

heterandria, Limia Regan [C. T.] 1913:1017, Pl. 101 (figs. 3-4) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] La Guayra [Guaira], Venezuela. Syntypes: BMNH 1909.4.2.30-32 (3). •Valid, but genus placement uncertain -- (see Rodriguez 1997:672 [ref. 23266]). •Valid as Pseudolimia heterandria (Regan 1913) -- (Poeser 2002:55 [ref. 26788], Meyer 2015:321 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Limia heterandria Regan 1913 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205]). •Valid as Poecilia heterandria (Regan 1913) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:58 [ref. 7067], Huber 2019:102 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia heterandria (Regan 1913). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Northern Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

heteristia, Poecilia Regan [C. T.] 1909:235 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 3 (no. 14); ref. 14416] Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1908.12.5.23-24 (2). •Synonym of Micropoecilia branneri (Eigenmann 1894) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia branneri Eigenmann 1894 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:57 [ref. 7067], Poeser 2003:145 [ref. 26783], Meyer 2015:260 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:102 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia branneri Eigenmann 1894. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

heterochir, Gambusia Hubbs [Clark L.] 1957:3, Figs. 1, 3a, 4, 5a [Tulane Studies in Zoology v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 12146] Headwater spring of Clear Creek, 10.4 miles west of Menard, Menard County, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 170936. Paratypes: (125) FMNH 61805 (7); MCZ 39684 (7); CAS-SU 46445-51 (1 ea. = 7); TNHC 3065 (?), 4652 (1); UMMZ 170937 (6); USNM 164573 (7). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia heterochir Hubbs 1957 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:104 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:543 [ref. 22416], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Page & Burr 1991:238 [ref. 18983], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072], Garrett & Edwards 2003:783 [ref. 27258], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:18 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page & Burr 2011:449 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:71 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:64 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia heterochir Hubbs 1957. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Headwater springs of Clear Creek, Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hispaniolae, Gambusia Fink [W. L.] 1971:57, Fig. 4 [Publications of the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Museum No. 2; ref. 7671] Source Trou-Caiman, Cul-de-Sac Plain, Dept. de l'Ouest, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 204865. Paratypes: ?UMMZ 136377 (1), USNM 204866-67 (1, 366). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia hispaniolae Fink 1971 -- (Lee et al. 1983:13 [ref. 22527], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:73 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:64 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia hispaniolae Fink 1971. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Western Dominican Republic and Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

hispaniolana, Poecilia Rivas [L. R.] 1978:101, Figs. 1a-b, 2a, 3 [Northeast Gulf Science v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 8887] Río Mijo at road from Azua to San Juan, Province of Benefactor, Dominican Republic. Holotype: USNM 218706. Paratypes: MCZ 54057 (808); UF 25275 (701); UMMZ 200218 (569 or 570), 208138 (45, 6 c&s); USNM 218707-17 (324 now 282, 240, 238, 157, 110, 212, 496, 26, 433, 194, 94). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:15 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Poecilia hispaniolana Rivas 1978 -- (Lee et al. 1983:50 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Parenti et al. 1999:15 [ref. 24072], Meyer & Radda 2000:76 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:152 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:224 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Psychropoecilia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Psychropoecilia, Huber 2019:103 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia hispaniolana Rivas 1978. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Hispaniola Island: Dominican Republic and Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

hnilickai, Poeciliopsis Meyer [M. K.] & Vogel [D.] 1981:358, Figs. 1-3 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 61 (nos 5/6) (1980); ref. 8570] Mountain creek 1 kilometer west of Ixtapa, Chiapas, Mexico. Holotype: SMF 15526. Paratypes: SMF 15527-34 (8). •Valid as Poeciliopsis hnilickai Meyer & Vogel 1981 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:51 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:243 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:288 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:127 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis hnilickai Meyer & Vogel 1981. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Mexico to Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

holacanthus, Neopoecilia Hubbs [C. L.] 1924:11 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 13; ref. 2231] Ponce and Fajardo; Arroyo and Hucares; Puerto Rico [an introduced stock]. Syntypes: FMNH 3240 (6). •Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Poeser 2003:46 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:139 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:358 [ref. 27075], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:1 [ref. 33696], Huber 2019:103 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

holbrooki, Gambusia Girard [C. F.] (ex Agassiz) 1859:62 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 1821] Palatka, eastern Florida, [Palatka, eastern Florida and Charleston, South Carolina], U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 6976. Paralectotypes: ANSP 6977 (1) Palatka, MCZ 35999 [ex USNM 8301] (5) Charleston, USNM 8301 (45). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:143 [ref. 13621], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072]. Name taken from Agassiz manuscript (as Heterandria holbrookii), but author of description is Girard. Name spelled holbrooki by Girard on p. 62. Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:64 [ref. 36941]. •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853), but a valid subspecies -- (La Rivers 1994:532 [ref. 23389], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:746 [ref. 24702], Seegers et al. 2003:41 [ref. 28087], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:174 [ref. 28369], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169 [ref. 31251]). •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:95 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:538 [ref. 22416], Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:214 [ref. 25473], Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061], Heemstra et al. 2004:3317 [ref. 27945], Hammer & Walker 2004:91 [ref. 28129], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:178 [ref. 28183], Miller 2006:227 [ref. 28615], Hoese & Gates 2006:742 [ref. 28997], Fricke et al. 2007:72 [ref. 29533], Scharpf 2007:18 [ref. 30398]). •Valid as Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859 -- (Wooten et al. 1988:283 [ref. 22447], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Hernandez-Martich & Smith 1990:619 [ref. 21032], Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:618 [ref. 21581], Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], McDowall in McDowall 1996:116 [ref. 22909], Coad 1996:85 [ref. 25304], Mettee et al. 1996:479 [ref. 25836], Murdy et al. 1997:129 [ref. 23144], Savvaitova & Reshetnikov 1998:107 [ref. 23592], Kullander et al. 1999:151 [ref. 23689], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:924 [ref. 23897], Morgan et al. 1998:41 [ref. 24611], Fuller et al. 1999:304 [ref. 25838], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072], Fricke 1999:114 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:180 [ref. 25013], Dyer 2000:89 [ref. 26678], Walters & Freeman 2000:555 [ref. 24473], Freyhof et al. 2000:96 [ref. 25184], Gabrielyan 2001:28 [ref. 25867], Ross et al. 2001:378 [ref. 25978], Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:201 [ref. 26728], Allen et al. 2002:365 [ref. 25930], Doadrio et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26616], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:410 [ref. 27995], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:482 [ref. 29996], Fricke et al. 2009:32 [ref. 30213], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817] as holbrookii, Minckley & Marsh 2009:254 [ref. 31114], Coad 2010:251 [ref. 36620], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Page & Burr 2011:446 [ref. 31215], Morgan et al. 2011:22 [ref. 31262], Hammer et al. 2012:66 [ref. 32389], Langerhans et al. 2012:1530 [ref. 32308], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:70 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:300 [ref. 32989], Morgan et al. 2014:40 [ref. 36567], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:894 [ref. 34062], Meyer 2015:74 [ref. 34698] as holbrookii, Barbieri et al. 2015:92 [ref. 35029], Esmaeili et al. 2015:122 [ref. 35030], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492], Esmaeili et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35254], Koerber et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35632], Esmaeili et al. 2018:74 [ref. 36089], Fricke et al. 2018:108 [ref. 35805], Kuiter 2018:101 [ref. 36369], Robins et al. 2018:228 [ref. 35886], Ćaleta et al. 2019:184 [ref. 37026], Koerber et al. 2019:10 [ref. 36736], Özuluğ & Saç 2019:32 [ref. 36599], Huber 2019:64 [ref. 36941], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: North America: Atlantic and Gulf Coast drainages, eastern U.S.A.; widely introduced elsewhere for mosquito control. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

holdridgei, Brachyrhaphis Bussing [W. A.] 1967:223, Fig. 4 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 14 (no. 2) (1966); ref. 7946] Spring 100 meters east of Quebrada los Murciélagos between Tronadora and Arenal, Guanacaste, Costa Rica, elevation 500 meters. Holotype: LACM 9240-1. Paratypes: LACM 2799 (1), 2911 (3), 9241-1 (6), 9243-1 (82); UCR 29-1 (5), 30-1 (18), 44-1 (10); UMMZ 187455 (4). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:370 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Brachyrhaphis holdridgei Bussing 1967 -- (Villa 1982:130 [ref. 36708], Mojica et al. 1997:301 [ref. 22823], Meyer & Etzel 1998:156 [ref. 23986], Bussing 1998:195 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:38 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:26 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:51 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhaphis holdridgei Bussing 1967. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Habitat: freshwater.

hollandi, Limia Henn [A. W.] 1916:138, Fig. 17, Pl. 19 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 9); ref. 2093] Rio São Francisco at Penedo, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 55861 [ex CM 4643a]. Paratypes: FMNH 59520 [ex CM 4643] (3). Plus additional material: now FMNH and CAS. Type catalog: Henn 1928:87 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:52 [ref. 12367] as 56 specimens from 11 localities, but most specimens they list are not types. •Valid as Poecilia hollandi (Henn 1916) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:58 [ref. 7067], Figueiredo & Moreira 2018:443 [ref. 36088], Huber 2019:103 [ref. 36941]). •Valid as Pamphorichthys hollandi (Henn 1916) -- (Rodriguez 1997:672 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:137 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Ramos et al. 2014:5 [ref. 35321], Meyer 2015:164 [ref. 34698], Melo et al. 2016:377 [ref. 35317]). Current status: Valid as Pamphorichthys hollandi (Henn 1916). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: São Francisco River and Parnaíba River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

holopteros, Cnesterodon Lucinda [P. H. F.], Litz [T.] & Recuero [R.] 2006:24, Figs. 2-4 [Zootaxa No. 1350; ref. 28858] Arroyo Catralancito, Río Cuareim drainage, Ruta 30, kilometer 156.4, 30°37.87'S, 56°22.75'W, Departmento Artigas, Uruguay. Holotype: MUNHINA 3218. Paratypes: MCP 39803 (2); MUNHINA 3219 (2); UNT 1946 (4, 2 c&s), 1964 (3). •Valid as Cnesterodon holopteros Lucinda, Litz & Recuero 2006 -- (Aguilera et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30366], Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622], Meyer 2015:46 [ref. 34698], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565], Huber 2019:55 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Cnesterodon holopteros Lucinda, Litz & Recuero 2006. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Uruguay River drainage, Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

hondurensis, Poecilia (Mollienesia) Poeser [F. N.] 2011:418, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2011 (no. 3); ref. 31550] Confluence of Río San José and Río Conquire, under new cement bridge of the new San Estebán-Trujillo highway, Olancho, Honduras. Holotype: UMMZ 213664. Paratypes: UMMZ 248253 (1, allotype), plus more paratypes at UMMZ •Valid as Poecilia hondurensis Poeser 2011 -- (Meyer 2015:226 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:103 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia hondurensis Poeser 2011. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Caribbean drainage basins, northern Honduras. Habitat: freshwater.

howelli, Gambusia Rivas [L. R.] 1944:44 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 23; ref. 13184] Brackish water lagoon near Punta del Este, Isle of Pines, Cuba. Holotype: UHMP 454. Paratypes: (numerous) Rivas coll. 4 (? now 0); MCZ 36171 [ex USNM 255] (12); UHMP 253-258 (?); UMMZ 143374 (9), USNM 130212 (14, 2 c&s). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia howelii Rivas 1944 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:98 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687]). •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854 -- (Fink 1971:18 [ref. 21211], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:94 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:65 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hubbsi, Gambusia Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1934:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 719; ref. 16413] Southern part of Andros Island, Bahamas. Holotype: AMNH 12454. Paratypes: AMNH 12455 (5). •Valid as Gambusia hubbsi Breder 1934 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:98 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Martin & Wainwright 2013:232 [ref. 32978], Meyer 2015:75 [ref. 34698]). •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854 -- (Fink 1971:18 [ref. 21211], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:65 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

huberi, Priapichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1923:27 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 75; ref. 15402] Marceligo Creek, tributary of Río Tunky at Miranda, Nicaragua. Holotype: ANSP 51220. Paratypes: ANSP 51221 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Alfaro huberi (Fowler 1923) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:43 [ref. 7067], Villa 1982:128 [ref. 36708], Rodriguez 1997:670 [ref. 23266], Bussing 1998:193 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:37 [ref. 29205], Matamoros et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31241], Meyer 2015:15 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:48 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Alfaro huberi (Fowler 1923). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central America: southern Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Habitat: freshwater.

humilis, Gambusia Günther [A.] 1866:335 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Matamoras, Mexico. Syntypes: ANSP 6973 (1), MCZ 1309 (1), MNHN [ex USNM 3506] (1). Replacement name for Gambusia gracilis Girard 1859, secondarily preoccupied by Xiphophorus gracilis Heckel 1848. •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:95 [ref. 7067], La Rivers 1994:532 [ref. 23389], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:54 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:65 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hurtadoi, Gambusia Hubbs [Clark L.] & Springer [V. G.] 1957:307, Figs. 1, 3c-f, 13, 15 [Texas Journal of Science v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 12145] El Ojo de la Hacienda Dolores, 7 miles south of Jiminez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 168975. Paratypes: (2196) ENCB P 350 (?); FMNH 61604 (30); CAS-SU 48133 (?); TNHC 4204 (278), 4205-06 (?), 4377 (31); UMMZ 168976-77 (25, 38); USNM 164252 (61). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Gambusia gaigei Hubbs 1929 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:104 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Gambusia hurtadoi Hubbs & Springer 1957 -- (Wildrick et al. 1985:1054 [ref. 11519], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:46 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:223 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:18 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:77 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:65 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia hurtadoi Hubbs & Springer 1957. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Conchos River basin, Chihuahua, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

hypselurus, Cnesterodon Lucinda [P. H. F.] & Garavello [J. C.] 2001:129, Figs. 5-6 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 13 (no. 2) [Dec.]; ref. 25093] Rio Cilada, bridge of road BR 151, rio Paranapanema drainage, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 22743. Paratypes: MCP 22744 (9, 2 c&s), 22745 (5); MHNCI 5890 (10), 5892 (3); MZUEL 1600 (14); UMMZ 215219 (20), USNM 356395 (2). •Valid as Cnesterodon hypselurus Lucinda & Garavello 2001 -- (Meyer & Etzel 2001:248 [ref. 25973] with reservation in Cnesterodon, Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:557 [ref. 27061], Lucinda 2005:265 [ref. 28272], Lucinda et al. 2006:27 [ref. 28858], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Aguilera et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30366], Meyer 2015:47 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:55 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Cnesterodon hypselurus Lucinda & Garavello 2001. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Paraná, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

iguape, Cnesterodon Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2005:263, Figs. 5-6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28272] Apiaí, creek on headwaters of rio Iporanga, inside Mineradora Oxical, 24°24'42"S, 48°39'25"W, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 79672. Paratypes: MZUSP 54978 (12). •Valid as Cnesterodon iguape Lucinda 2005 -- (Lucinda et al. 2006:27 [ref. 28858], Aguilera et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30366], Meyer 2015:48 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:55 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Cnesterodon iguape Lucinda 2005. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Iporanga River drainage, Ribeiro de Iguape River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

iheringii, Girardinus Boulenger [G. A.] 1889:266 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 22) (art. 33); ref. 17019] Mouth of rio Camaquã, about 31°15'S, 51°47'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1866.1.21.73. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1886.1.21.74-82 (9), CAS 62348 (33), CAS-SU 1132 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:55 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Lucinda 2005:378 [ref. 28403]. •Synonym of Phalloptychus januarius (Hensel 1868) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:74 [ref. 7067], Malabarba 1989:161 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Phalloptychus iheringii (Boulenger 1889) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:566 [ref. 27061], Lucinda 2005:377 [ref. 28403], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:193 [ref. 34698], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Huber 2019:91 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloptychus iheringii (Boulenger 1889). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

immaculata, Limia Rivas [L. R.] 1980:32, Figs. 2c-d [Northeast Gulf Science v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3763] Northern end of Lake Miragoâne, Dépt. de l'Ouest, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 220529. Paratypes: USNM 220530 (3). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Limia immaculata Rivas 1980 -- (Lee et al. 1983:33 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:138 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia immaculata (Rivas 1980) -- (Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:103 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia immaculata (Rivas 1980). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lake Miragoâne, Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

immaculatus, Platypoecilus maculatus var. Myers [G. S.] 1922:15 [The aquarium and its denizens; ref. 34713] Aquarium specimen, locality unknown. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8109 [not found]. Type specimen designated by Myers 1922:89 [ref. 18467], at which time Myers stated, "It is doubtful if this subspecies is a natural one. It has probably been developed by German aquarists, from whom specimens were secured in 1921." The name is not available (not known to occur in nature (Art. 1a of 1985 edition; less precisely included in 1999 edition in Art. 1.1)) unless it is found to occur naturally. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Huber 2019:146 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

infans, Gambusia Woolman [A. J.] 1894:62, Pl. 2 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 14 (art. 8) (for 1894); ref. 4804] Río Lerma at Salamanca, Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 45570. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1894.1.27.14-18 (5); FMNH 6756 (8); CAS-SU 859 (8); USNM 47508 (2), 125036 (2). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072], Böhlke 1953:55 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367]. Lectotype selected by Jordan & Evermann 1896:680 [ref. 2443]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis infans (Woolman 1894) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:137 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:51 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:7 [ref. 24072], Galindo-Villegas & Sosa-Lima 2002:1152 [ref. 26952], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807] dating to 1894, Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:244 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:289 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:127 [ref. 36941], Conway et al. 2019:114 [ref. 37045]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis infans (Woolman 1894). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedia, Priapella Álvarez [J.] & Carranza [J.] 1952:284 [Ciencia (Mexico City) v. 11 (nos 10-12) 1951; ref. 12633] Santa María Chimalapa, Arroyo El Zacatal, Oaxaca, southeastern Mexico. Holotype: CJA. Paratypes: (114) AMNH 27484 [ex USNM 162502] (2, c&s); CAS-SU 17486 (3); UMMZ 163236 (5); USNM 162502 (orig. 11, now 9). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:55 [ref. 12291], Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Priapella intermedia Álvarez & Carranza 1952 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:61 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:53 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:252 [ref. 28615], Schartl et al. 2006:59 [ref. 28754], Lucinda & Reis 2005:39 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:22 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2011:91 [ref. 31377], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:313 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:133 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Priapella intermedia Álvarez & Carranza 1952. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Veracruz and Oaxaca, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

inurus, Zygonectes Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:143 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 273); ref. 10612] Cache Creek, southern Illinois, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 29666. Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:19 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Fundulus dispar (Agassiz 1854) -- (Lazara 2001:146 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:95 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:19 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:54 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:65 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

iota, Scolichthys Rosen [D. E.] 1967:9, Figs. 1, 7-11 [American Museum Novitates No. 2303; ref. 3808] Tiny creek emptying into River Chajmayic, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 22716. Paratypes: AMNH 22717 (142, 4 c&s). •Valid as Scolichthys iota Rosen 1967 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:355 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:140 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Scolichthys iota Rosen 1967. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Chajmaic River basin, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

isthmensis, Poeciliopsis Regan [C. T.] 1913:997, Pl. 100 (fig. 3-4); Fig.171b [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Syntypes: (14) BMNH 1913.1.22.14-15. •Synonym of Phallichthys amates (Miller 1907) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:140 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:85 [ref. 36941]). •Synonym of Phallichthys pitieri (Meek 1912) -- (Meyer 2015:173 [ref. 34698]). Current status: Synonym of Phallichthys amates (Miller 1907). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

jackschultzi, Poeciliopsis Conway [K. W.], Mateos [M.] & Vrijenhoek [R. C.] 2019:94, Figs. 1-4a, 5-7a, 8-9 [ZooKeys No. 883; ref. 37045] Small spring at right side bank of the tributary of the Alisos-Bambuto branch of the Río Concepción at highway 15 road crossing close to Rancho Semarnap, La Atascosa, Sonora, Mexico, 30°58'47.86"N, 110°52'21.07"W. Holotype: CNP-IBUNAM 23406. Paratypes: TCWC. •Valid as Poeciliopsis jackschultzi Conway, Mateos & Vrijenhoek 2019. Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis jackschultzi Conway, Mateos & Vrijenhoek 2019. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Río Concepción drainage, Sonora, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

jalapae, Xiphophorus Meek [S. E.] 1902:107, Pl. 26 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 3 (no. 6); ref. 2957] Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3724. Paratypes: ?BMNH 1905.12.6.512-520 and 591-600; CAS 22775 [ex IU 10953] (8), 22776 [ex IU 10992] (11); FMNH 3725 (97), 14465 (1), 72586 (13); UMMZ 162464 (10). •Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:66 [ref. 7067] as helleri, Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:383 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:147 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

januarius, Girardinus Hensel [R.] 1868:360 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 34 (pt 1); ref. 14075] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMB 7422. Paralectotypes: (40) ZMB 7423-24 (4, 1), 31479 [or 31497] (20), 33219 [ex ZMB 7422] (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:173-174 [ref. 19981]. Lectotype selected by Lucinda 2005:380 [ref. 28403]. •Valid as Phalloptychus januarius (Hensel 1868) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:74 [ref. 7067], Malabarba 1989:161 [ref. 14217], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:566 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131], Lucinda 2005:378 [ref. 28403], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Koerber & Litz 2009:1 [ref. 31159] with earlier misidentifications, range only Brazil, Meyer 2015:194 [ref. 34698], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565], Huber 2019:91 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloptychus januarius (Hensel 1868). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southeastern Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

jonesii, Mollienesia Günther [A.] 1874:371 [5] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 14 (no. 83) (art. 47); ref. 2006] Lake Alcohuaca [Aljojuca], near Huamantla, Mexico, elevation 8000 feet [2385 meters]. Syntypes: BMNH 1873.1.13.2 (15). •Synonym of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:131 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Heterandria jonesii (Günther 1874) -- (Rosen 1979:319 [ref. 22796] as jonesi, Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:48 [ref. 22290] as jonesi, Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061], Chen & Borowsky 2004:27 [ref. 27672] as jonesi, Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:40 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:229 [ref. 28615], McEachran & DeWitt 2008:53 [ref. 29720], Scharpf 2007:19 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus jonesii (Günther 1874) -- (Radda 1985:128 [ref. 31261], Morales-Cazan & Albert 2012:22 [ref. 31911], Meyer 2015:343 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:138 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus jonesii (Günther 1874). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

jucundus, Phallotorynus Ihering [R. von] 1930:98, Fig. 9 [Archivos do Instituto Biológico, São Paulo v. 3; ref. 16237] Neotype locality: Rio Tamanduá headwaters, affluent to Rio Pardo, São Simão, São Paulo, Brazil. Neotype: MCP 30467. Misspelled jacundus in 1998 edition of the Catalog of Fishes. See Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:566 [ref. 27061] for information on types. Neotype designated by Lucinda et al. 2005:617 [ref. 28318]. •Valid as Phallotorynus jucundus Ihering 1930 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:68 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:566 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27366], López et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27366] as jacundus, Lucinda et al. 2005:617 [ref. 28318], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Meyer & Etzel 2006:84 [ref. 30730], Meyer 2015:198 [ref. 34698], Lucinda & da Graça 2015:90 [ref. 35435], Huber 2019:93 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phallotorynus jucundus Ihering 1930. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Pardo River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kallmani, Xiphophorus Meyer [M. K.] & Schartl [M.] 2003:59, Figs. 2-4 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 53; ref. 27477] Estuary zone of a small brook, 1.5 kilometers north of Ojoxapan, Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: MTD F 27815. Paratypes: MTD F 27816 (1), F 27817-19 (3), F 27820-22 (3), F 27823 (1), F 27824-25 (2); SMF 29697 (1). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:28 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Xiphophorus kallmani Meyer & Schartl 2003 -- (Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:23 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:385 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:147 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus kallmani Meyer & Schartl 2003. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lake Catemaco drainage, Veracruz, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

kempkesi, Poecilia Poeser [F. N.] 2013:38, Figs. 4b, 6 [Das Lebendgebärenden Magazin v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 32662] Paramaribo, Suriname. Syntypes: RMNH 34387 (424). •Valid as Poecilia kempkesi Poeser 2013 -- (Huber 2019:104 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia kempkesi Poeser 2013. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Suriname River drainage, Surinam. Habitat: freshwater.

kidderi, Allophallus Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:236, Pl. 8 (figs. 2-3) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] Río Champoton, 11 miles from mouth, Yucatán, southeastern Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102199. Paratypes: UMMZ 102200 (3), 102206 (orig. 71, now 68); USNM 117503 [ex UMMZ 102206] (3). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:3-4 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Carlhubbsia kidderi (Hubbs 1936) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:115 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:45 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:4 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:557 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:219 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:38 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:54 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Carlhubbsia kidderi (Hubbs 1936). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Guatemala and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

koperi, Poecilia Poeser [F. N.] 2003:58, Figs. 3 a-b [Chapter 5 (Thesis); ref. 26769] Rio Curipe at Higuerote, Venezuela. Holotype: UMMZ 223343. Paratypes: UMMZ 223344 (1). Plus additional material [not designated as paratypes]. Also appeared as new in Poeser 2003:365 [ref. 27075]. •Valid as Poecilia koperi Poeser 2003 -- (Poeser 2003:149 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:364 [ref. 27075], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Meyer 2015:227 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Huber 2019:104 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia koperi Poeser 2003. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Peninsula of Araya, northern Venezuela to eastern part of Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

kosszanderi, Xiphophorus Meyer [M. K.] & Wischnath [L.] 1981:130, Figs. 1-3 [Aquaria: Vivaristische Fachzeitschrift mit Vereinsmitteilungen v. 28 (no. 8); ref. 8441] Arroyo Chapultepec, 7 kilometers northeast of Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. Holotype: SMF 16200. Paratypes: SMF 16201-03 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Xiphophorus kosszanderi Meyer & Wischnath 1981 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205]). •A hybrid between X. variatus and X. xiphidium -- (Meyer 1983:286 [ref. 34714], Meyer 2015:411 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:147 [ref. 36941]). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

krumholzi, Gambusia Minckley [W. L.] 1963:154, Fig. 2 [Southwestern Naturalist v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 5072] Río de Nava, small stream 5.6 miles south-southwest of Nava, Coahuila, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 180320. Paratypes: UMMZ 180321 (1, allotype), 180322 (not 101, 87, 3 c&s). •Valid as Gambusia krumholzi Minckley 1963 -- (Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:46 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:223 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:18 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:78 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:66 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia krumholzi Minckley 1963. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: De Nava River, Coahuila, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

kykesis, Poecilia Poeser [F. N.] 2002:244 [Contributions to Zoology v. 70 (no. 4); ref. 26215] Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.375 (3), 1864.1.26.376 (1), 2008.5.27.1 (1, skeleton); ZMB 6082 (1). Replacement name for Mollienesia petenensis Günther 1866 [not Poecilia petenensis Günther in same work]. •Valid as Poecilia kykesis Poeser 2002 -- (Poeser 2003:155 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061] as kykensis, Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Meyer 2015:229 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:104 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia kykesis Poeser 2002. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southeastern Mexico, Belize and into Lake Petén, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

lacandonae, Priapella Meyer [M. K.], Schories [S.] & Schartl [M.] 2011:93, Figs. 1-5 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 61 (no. 1); ref. 31377] Río Mizola, above Cascada Misol-Ha, about 20 km south of Palenque along the road 186, río Tulijá basin, Chiapas, Mexico. Holotype: MTD F 32299. Paratypes: MTD F 32299-32307 (9); SMF 33545 (8), 33546 (10). •Valid as Priapella lacandonae Meyer, Schories & Schartl 2011 -- (Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:314 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:133 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Priapella lacandonae Meyer, Schories & Schartl 2011. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Río Mizola drainage, upper Grijalva River system, Chiapas, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

latidens, Glaridodon Garman [S.] 1895:42, Pl. 5 (fig. 11) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Chihuahua, Mexico [probably Río del Fuerte basin]. Syntypes: MCZ 1307 (4). •Valid as Poeciliopsis latidens (Garman 1895) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:138 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:51 [ref. 22290], Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:245 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:290 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:128 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis latidens (Garman 1895). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of western Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

latipinna, Mollienesia Lesueur [C. A.] 1821:3, Pl. 3 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2736] Freshwater ponds in the vicinity of New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. Lectotype: MNHN B-0929. Paralectotypes: MNHN 2019-0187 [ex MNHN B-0929] (7). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:30 [ref. 19576]. Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:105 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:54 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:549 [ref. 22416], Robins & Ray 1986:111 [ref. 23100], Paxton et al. 1989:347 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:146 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:126 [ref. 14674], Page & Burr 1991:232 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:89 [ref. 23239], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:49 [ref. 22290], Kottelat et al. 1993:91 [ref. 23448], Randall 1995:92 [ref. 22896], McDowall in McDowall 1996:119 [ref. 22909], Coad 1996:85 [ref. 25304], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:927 [ref. 23897], Parenti 1999:2200 [ref. 24784], Fuller et al. 1999:309 [ref. 25838], Ross et al. 2001:381 [ref. 25978], Allen et al. 2002:366 [ref. 25930], Poeser 2002:246 [ref. 26215], Moyle 2002:321 [ref. 26449], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:153 [ref. 26783], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:412 [ref. 27995], Mundy 2005:295 [ref. 28379], Miller 2006:234 [ref. 28615], Hoese & Gates 2006:743 [ref. 28997], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:20 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:255 [ref. 31114], Coad 2010:256 [ref. 36620], Page & Burr 2011:440 [ref. 31215], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Palacios et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32935], Kottelat 2013:300 [ref. 32989], McDowall & Stewart 2015:973 [ref. 34275], Meyer 2015:230 [ref. 34698], Barbieri et al. 2015:93 [ref. 35029], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Kells et al. 2016:120 [ref. 35888], Esmaeili et al. 2018:75 [ref. 36089], Robins et al. 2018:232 [ref. 35886], Huber 2019:104 [ref. 36941], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: North America: southeastern U.S.A. to Tuxpan, Mexico; introduced widely elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

latipunctata, Gambusia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1913:87 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 8); ref. 12295] Arriján, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7595. Paratypes: FMNH 8699-8714 (16), ?8715 (1); USNM 78780 (16). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987: 37 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:7-8 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Brachyrhaphis episcopi (Steindachner 1878) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:89 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072], Meyer 2015:22 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:51 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyrhaphis episcopi (Steindachner 1878). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

latipunctata, Poecilia Meek [S. E.] 1904:150, Fig. 48 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] Forlón, Río Pánuco basin, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 4484. Paratypes: CAS 22771 [ex IU 10947] (1), FMNH 4485 (12). Possible types: BMNH 1905.12.6.452 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Poecilia latipunctata Meek 1904 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:55 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:49 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Fuller et al. 1999:310 [ref. 25838], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:160 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Miller 20065:235 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:20 [ref. 30398], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Palacios et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32935], Meyer 2015:232 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Huber 2019:105 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia latipunctata Meek 1904. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Panuco River basin, Atlantic slope of Mexico, introduced in La Media Luna, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

laurae, Hubbsichthys Schultz [L. P.] 1949:96, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 99 (no. 3235); ref. 3967] Near Pampán (probably Río Motatán drainage), Estado de Trujillo, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): USNM 120999. Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072]. •Status uncertain -- (Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072]). •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia caucana (Steindachner 1880) -- (Huber 2019:105 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia caucana (Steindachner 1880). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

lemaitrei, Gambusia Fowler [H. W.] 1950:2, Figs. 1-4 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 222; ref. 12947] Totumo Lake, Bolívar state, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 71938. Paratypes: ANSP 71939-40 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Gambusia lemaitrei Fowler 1950 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:94 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Schiwok & Bork 2002:31 [ref. 25833], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Langerhans et al. 2012:1530 [ref. 32308], Meyer 2015:79 [ref. 34698], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Huber 2019:66 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia lemaitrei Fowler 1950. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Colombia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

leptokeras, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:126, Figs. 15-17 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Rio São Francsico, tributary to rio Paquequer, Fazanda São Franciosco de Paula, ca. 22°02'S, 42°47"W, Sapucaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 23606. Paratypes: MCP 30512 (6, 4 c&s), 13736 (3); MNRJ 14497 (8), 15525 (2), 22509 (36), 22510 (5). Species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Phalloceros leptokeras Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:184 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:88 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros leptokeras Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Middle portions of the Paraíba do Sul River drainage, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

leticiae, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:117, Figs. 5-6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Rio Araguaia drainage, ca 14°54'S, 51°04'W, Aruanã, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 30551. Paratypes: MCP 30550 (2), USNM 330339 (5, 2 c&s). •Valid as Phalloceros leticiae Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:184 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:88 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros leticiae Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Araguaia River, Tocantins River basin, Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

letonai, Priapichthys Hildebrand [S. F.] 1925:258, Figs. 12-13 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 41 (no. 985); ref. 15590] Río San Miguel, San Miguel, El Salvador. Holotype: USNM 87251. Paratypes: FMNH 12055-60 (6), 12061-66 (5), 12067-72 (6), 120373-82 (10), 12083-92 (10), 12093 (6); UMMZ (3+8); USNM 87252-57 (18, 15, 28, 26, 32, 15), 87259-62 (30, 11, 22, 15), 339268 (1, allotype). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:17 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:137 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:17 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Bussing 2008:834 [ref. 29806], Huber 2019:128 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel 1848). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

limantouri, Poecilia Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1899:129, Fig. 10 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 2501] Río Tamesoe near Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 6165. Paratypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.108-117 (10) from Jordan, CUMV [ex CAS-SU 6190], CAS-SU 6190 (now 2, orig. 11). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:55 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:51 [ref. 7067]). •Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Poeser 1992:86 [ref. 21511], Poeser 2003:47 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:162 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:359 [ref. 27075], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Palacios et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32935]). •Valid as Poecilia limantouri Jordan & Snyder 1899 -- (Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] with date 1900 in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:106 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia limantouri Jordan & Snyder 1899. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Tamaulipas, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

lineolata, Poecilia Girard [C. F.] 1858:170 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] Rio Grande, Brownsville and Fort Brown, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 1296 [ex USNM 667] (1); USNM 667 (3) missing, 668 (4) missing. Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:15 [ref. 24072]. See also Girard 1859:70, Pl. 35 (figs. 9-11) [ref. 13405]. •Synonym of Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:54 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:549 [ref. 22416] with question, Parenti et al. 1999:15 [ref. 24072], Poeser 2003:153 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:106 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

litoperas, Heterandria Rosen [D. E.] & Bailey [R. M.] in Rosen 1979:320, Figs. 4, 6, 9, 15, 21, 24 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 162 (art. 5); ref. 22796] Tributary of Río Cahabón, 1 kilometer north-northwest of Lanquín, Río Polochic system, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 36328. Paratypes: AMNH 24489 (9), 24492 (33), 35003 (59), 36329-31 (2, 1, 16), 37666 (19); UMMZ 146106-07 (35), 190586 (2), 190753 (12), 197134 (38); USNM 114258 (3), 134585-86 (38, 152). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Heterandria litoperas Rosen & Bailey 1979 -- (Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:40 [ref. 29205], McEachran & DeWitt 2008:52 [ref. 29720]). •Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus litoperas (Rosen & Bailey 1979) -- (Radda 1985:128 [ref. 31261], Morales-Cazan & Albert 2012:22 [ref. 31911], Meyer 2015:345 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:138 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus litoperas (Rosen & Bailey 1979). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

longispinis, Gambusia Minckley [W. L.] 1962:391, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 1962 (no. 2); ref. 6259] Small marsh adjacent to La Angostura Canal, about 4 miles west of Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 179620. Paratypes: UMMZ 130382 (50, 8 c&s), 130393 (1), 130394 (19), 179619 (3), 179621 (15 or 17), 179622 (6). •Valid as Gambusia longispinis Minckley 1962 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:103 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:46 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:18 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:80 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:66 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia longispinis Minckley 1962. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Cuatro Ciénegas basin, Coahuila, northern Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

lucenorum, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:143, Figs. 38-39 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Jaquiá, creek on road BR 116, near Juquiá (affluent to rio Jiquiá), ca. 24°19'S, 47°37'W, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 30404. Paratypes: MCP 12197 (87, 6 c&s), 12553 (3), 27373 (2); MZUSP 43470 (30). •Valid as Phalloceros lucenorum Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:185 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:8 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros lucenorum Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Jaquiá River, a tributary of the Ribeiro de Iguape River, São Paulo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lucida, Poeciliopsis Miller [R. R.] 1960:2, Pl. 1 (figs. A-B) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 619; ref. 10418] Small tributary of the Río Mocorito, 0.9 miles north of San Benito, Sinaloa, Sinaloa, northwestern Mexico, 25°32'N, 107°46'W. Holotype: UMMZ 177266. Paratypes: (184) UMMZ 177267 (1, allotype), 184874 (77, 1 c&s), remainder unaccounted for. •Valid as Poeciliopsis lucida Miller 1960 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:137 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:52 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:245 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:291 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:128 [ref. 36941], Conway et al. 2019:114 [ref. 37045]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis lucida Miller 1960. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

luma, Gambusia Rosen [D. E.] & Bailey [R. M.] 1963:99, Figs. 40B, 42, Pl. 2 (f. 3) [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 126 (art. 1); ref. 7067] Puerto Barrios, Izabal, Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 143565. Paratypes: UMMZ 134566 (43, 5 c&s), 146087 (1); USNM 114276 (11), 114321 (24), 114343 (15), 134587-90 (9, 3, 2, 3), 134592 (3), 197518 [ex USNM 134591] (5). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia luma Rosen & Bailey 1963 -- (Greenfield et al. 1982:135 [ref. 21395], Greenfield 1983:457 [ref. 8337], Wildrick et al. 1985:1054 [ref. 11519], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:118 [ref. 22947], Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Pérez León & Schmitter Soto 2007:169 [ref. 32537], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:81 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:66 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia luma Rosen & Bailey 1963. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Belize, Guatemala and Honduras. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lutzi, Heterandria Meek [S. E.] 1902:106, Pl. 20 lower [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 3 (no. 6); ref. 2957] Río Quiotepec at Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3718. Paratypes: CAS 22767 [ex IU 10991] (13); FMNH 3710 (53), 3719 (104), 72567 (14), 3723 (200); UMMZ 162463 (9); USNM 126184 [ex USBF 1613] (now 3). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:136 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24072], Minckley & Marsh 2009:257 [ref. 31114], Meyer 2015:287 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poeciliopsis lutzi (Meek 1902) -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:52 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Bussing 2008:834 [ref. 29806], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Huber 2019:128 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis lutzi (Meek 1902). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Oaxaca, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

macrura, Mollienesia sphenops Hubbs [C. L.] 1935:12, Pl. 2 (figs. 2-3) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 28; ref. 11676] Río San Pedro de Mártir, at El Paso de Los Caballos, Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 95516. Paratypes: UMMZ 95517 (1, allotype). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:53 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Poeser 2003:47 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:162 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:359 [ref. 27075], Meyer 2015:239 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:106 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

maculatus, Platypoecilus Günther [A.] 1866:350 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Mexico [Central America]. Syntypes: BMNH 1857.7.31.11-12 (2). See Gordon 1927:259 [ref. 34715] for an account of the various named color forms. •Valid as Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:63 [ref. 7067], Rosen 1979:356 [ref. 22796], Lee et al. 1980:555 [ref. 22416], Paxton et al. 1989:348 [ref. 12442], Page & Burr 1991:234 [ref. 18983], Pethiyagoda 1991:196 [ref. 20075], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:55 [ref. 22290], Kottelat et al. 1993:91 [ref. 23448], McDowall in McDowall 1996:122 [ref. 22909], Coad 1996:85 [ref. 25304], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:128 [ref. 22947], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Fricke 1999:115 [ref. 24106], Castro et al. 1998:79 [ref. 24271], Rema Devi et al. 1999:161 [ref. 24758], Fuller et al. 1999:317 [ref. 25838], Allen et al. 2002:367 [ref. 25930], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Skelton 2002:172 [ref. 26839], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Meyer & Schartl 2003:63 [ref. 27477], Kallman et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27790], Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:296 [ref. 28379], Miller 2006:259 [ref. 28615], Hoese & Gates 2006:744 [ref. 28997], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:23 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:258 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:443 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:71 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:300 [ref. 32989], Meyer 2015:387 [ref. 34698], Fricke et al. 2018:109 [ref. 35805], Robins et al. 2018:235 [ref. 35886], Huber 2019:147 [ref. 36941], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Central America: Mexico, Belize and Guatemala; introduced widely elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

maculifer, Poeciliopsis Fowler [H. W.] 1916:390, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 68; ref. 15056] Río Guapilis, Guapilis [Guapiles], Costa Rica. Holotype: ANSP 45391. Paratypes: ANSP 45392-94 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Neoheterandria umbratilis (Meek 1912) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:128 [ref. 7067]). •Synonym of Xenophallus umbratilis (Meek 1912) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:364 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:142 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xenophallus umbratilis (Meek 1912). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

malabarbai, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:140, Figs. 34-35 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Creek near Itapoá, ca. 24°14'S, 48°38'W, São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 79669. Paratypes: MZUSP 35422 (7, 2 c&s). •Valid as Phalloceros malabarbai Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:186 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:89 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros malabarbai Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

malinche, Xiphophorus Rauchenberger [M.], Kallman [K. D.] & Morizot [D. C.] 1990:10, Fig. 7 [American Museum Novitates No. 2975; ref. 15688] Río Clara at Tlatzintla, River Pánuco drainage, Hidalgo, Mexico. Holotype: AMNH 88336. Paratypes: AMNH 88338 (284, published as 266), UMMZ 223206 [ex AMNH 88338] (9). Additional material: AMNH (4 lots, 271). •Valid as Xiphophorus malinche Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot 1990 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:55 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:259 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:23 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:390 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:148 [ref. 36941]), Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus malinche Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot 1990. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pánuco River drainage, Hidalgo, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

manni, Gambusia Hubbs [C. L.] 1927:61 [Copeia No. 164; ref. 15793] Freshwater lake [Lake Cunningham] on New Providence Island, Bahamas. Holotype: UMMZ 72183. Paratypes: UMMZ 72184 (3), USNM 88500 (2). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854, but a valid subspecies -- (Fink 1971:27 [ref. 21211], Lee et al. 1983:17 [ref. 22527]). •Valid as Gambusia manni Hubbs 1927 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:98 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:83 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:66 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia manni Hubbs 1927. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Bahamas. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

marcellinoi, Poecilia Poeser [F. N.] 1995:241, Figs. 2, 3, 6a. [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 64 (no. 4); ref. 22070] Lago de Ilopango, El Salvador. Holotype: RMNH 31771. Paratypes: RMNH 19811 (9), 19813 (202), 19816 (50), 31759 (2), 31772 (1, allotype). •Valid as Poecilia marcellinoi Poeser 1995 -- (Meyer & Radda 2000:76 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:165 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Matamoros et al. 2009:14 [ref. 31241], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], McMahan et al. 2013:447 [ref. 32422], Meyer 2015:235 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, González-Murcia et al. 2019:297 [ref. 36544], Huber 2019:106 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia marcellinoi Poeser 1995. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central America: Pacific drainages of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Habitat: freshwater.

marmoratus, Xiphophorus Obregón-Barboza [H.] & Contreras-Balderas [S.] 1988:95, Fig. 2 [Publicaciones biológicas. Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas y Facultat de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 20908] Cascada La Alberca, sw of Múzquiz, road to airport, Coahuila, Mexico. Holotype: UANL 8077. Paratypes: AMNH 47836 (2); TU 157267 [UANL 7275] (2); UMMZ 215479 [ex UANL 7275] (2); UNAL 7275 (orig. 229), 7280 (25), 7285 (29), 7290 (62), 7304 (29), 7397 (5, cleared), 7398 (4, cleared), 7399 (4, cleared), 8052 (17), 8057 (39), 8061 (20), 8069 (15), 8071 (3), 8078 (1, allotype), 8079 (24); USNM 308112 [ex UNAL 7275] (2). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:53 [ref. 20906], Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:5 [ref. 23752], Parenti et al. 1999:18-19 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Xiphophorus marmoratus Obregón-Barboza & Contreras-Balderas 1988 -- (Parenti et al. 1999:18 [ref. 24072]). •Synonym of Xiphophorus meyeri Schartl & Schröder 1988 -- (Meyer 2015:393 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:148 [ref. 36941]). •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus meyeri Schartl & Schröder 1988. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

marshi, Gambusia Minckley [W. L.] & Craddock [J. E.] in Minckley 1962:393, Figs. 4, 5a-b, 6a-b [Copeia 1962 (no. 2); ref. 6259] Río Salado de los Nadadores, near junction with Río Salado de Monclova, 1 mile south of Hermanas, Coahuila, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 179167. Paratypes: UMMZ 179168 (63). Plus additional material. •Valid as Gambusia marshi Minckley & Craddock 1962 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:105 [ref. 7067], Meffe 1985:898 [ref. 22489], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:46 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:224 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:18 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:84 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:67 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia marshi Minckley & Craddock 1962. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Coahuila, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

matamorensis, Limia Girard [C. F.] 1859:117 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27410] Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Syntypes: AMNH 29833SW [ex USNM 3509] (3, c&s), USNM 3509 (now 67). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:54 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072], Poeser 2003:153 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:107 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

maxillosus, Belonesox belizanus Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:228, Pl. 7 (figs. 3-5) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] Roadside pool south of Progreso, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102137. Paratypes: UMMZ 102132 (2), 102138 (5), 102146 (1), 102155 (orig. 17); USNM 117504 [ex UMMZ 102155] (2). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:4 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Belonesox belizanus Kner 1860 -- (Parenti et al. 1999:4 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:18 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:50 [ref. 36941]). •Synonym of Belonesox belizanus Kner 1860, but a valid subspecies -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:107 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:537 [ref. 22416], Scharpf 2007:16 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:450 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Belonesox belizanus Kner 1860. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Yucatan Peninsula, introduced in Florida [this subspecies when recognized]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

mayae, Xiphophorus Meyer [M. K.] & Schartl [M.] 2002:60, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 26066] Castillo de San Felipe, near hotel Marimonte, Lago de Izabal, Guatemala. Holotype: SMF 28885. Paratypes: SMF 28886 (9). •Valid as Xiphophorus mayae Meyer & Schartl 2002 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Meyer & Schartl 2003:61 [ref. 27477], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Matamoros et al. 2009:15 [ref. 31241], Meyer 2015:391 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:148 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus mayae Meyer & Schartl 2002. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Guatemala and Honduras. Habitat: freshwater.

maylandi, Poecilia Meyer [M. K.] 1983:56, Figs. 1-7 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 8304] Arroyo Chacambero near Altamirano, Guerrero, Mexico. Holotype: SMF 17855. Paratypes: SMF 17853 (1), 17854 (1, missing), 17856-63 (1 ea.). •Synonym of Poecilia pallida de Buen 1943 -- (Poeser 2003:167 [ref. 26783]). •Valid as Poecilia maylandi Meyer 1983 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:49 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Radda 2000:76 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:236 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:20 [ref. 30398], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:236 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:107 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia maylandi Meyer 1983. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

mcnieli, Gambusia Fowler [H. W.] 1916:433, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 68; ref. 1394] Panama. Holotype (unique): ANSP 6818 (poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Gambusia nicaraguensis Günther 1866 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:94 [ref. 7067] with question, Fink 1971:54 [ref. 7671], Greenfield et al. 1982:131 [ref. 21395], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:87 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:67 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia nicaraguensis Günther 1866. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

meadi, Gambusia (Toluichthys) Dahl [G.] in Dahl & Medem 1964:80, Figs. [Informe sobre la fauna acuatica del Rio Sinu; ref. 19185] Vicinity of Tolú, Colombia. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: allotype and paratypes (whereabouts unknown). •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Gambusia meadi Dahl 1964 -- (Huber 2019:67 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Uncertain as Gambusia meadi Dahl 1964. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Colombia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

mechthildae, Poecilia (Mollienesia) Meyer [M. K.], Etzel [V.] & Bork [D.] 2002:50, Figs. 1-4 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 52; ref. 26721] 6 kilometers upstream of the mouth of Río Acandi, near Acandi, Colombia. Holotype: MTD F 26473. Paratypes: MTD F 26474-76 (3); SMF 28889 (6). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:27 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Poecilia mechthildae Meyer, Etzel & Bork 2002 -- (Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Meyer 2015:238 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Huber 2019:107 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia mechthildae Meyer, Etzel & Bork 2002. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Northern Colombia and possibly southern Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

megapolos, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:142, Figs. 36-37 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Rio Lindo, affluent to rio Cubatão, ca. 1 kilometer from bifurcation on road from Pirabeiraba to Campo Alegre (road SC 301), ca. 26°10'S, 18°57'W, Pirabeiraba, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 30405. Paratypes: MCP 10507 (3), 13735 (11, 4 c&s), 13972 (1), 31000 (564), 31137 (127), 31343 (2), 31348 (7); MHNCI 6525 (3), 6780 (2); USNM 320321 (12). Species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Phalloceros megapolos Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:186 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:89 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros megapolos Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: São João and Cubatão (norte) rivers and small adjacent drainages which flow into Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanistia, Mollienesia sphenops Hubbs [C. L.] 1937:296 [University of Michigan Studies, Science Series v. 12; ref. 10704] Nomen nudum, not available; From Marmolejo, Arroyo San Carlos, Tamaulipas, Mexico. •In the synonymy of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Poeser 2003:48 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:162 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:359 [ref. 27075], Huber 2019:107 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

melanogaster, Poecilia Günther [A.] 1866:345 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Jamaica or North America [probably Kingston, Jamaica]. Lectotype: BMNH 1848.1.12.1546. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1848.1.12.1547-1550 (4). ? Lectotype selection by Chambers 1987 in Journal of Fish Biology v. 30 (no. 4). •Valid as Limia melanogaster (Günther 1866) -- (Lee et al. 1983:34 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:135 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:138 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia melanogaster Günther 1866 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:60 [ref. 7067], Huber 2019:108 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia melanogaster Günther 1866. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southern and western Jamaica. Habitat: freshwater.

melanonotata, Limia Nichols [J. T.] & Myers [G. S.] 1923:1 [American Museum Novitates No. 79; ref. 15415] Las Lagas [Lajas], on Étang Saumâtre, San Domingo [Haiti, West Indies]. Holotype: AMNH 8220. Paratypes: (22) AMNH 8253 (21), BMNH 1924.7.19.2 (1) [from Myers]. •Valid as Limia melanonotata Nichols & Myers 1923 -- (Lee et al. 1983:35 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205]). •Synonym of Limia perugiae (Evermann & Clark 1906) -- (Meyer 2015:144 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia melanonotata (Nichols & Myers 1923) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:59 [ref. 7067], Huber 2019:108 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia melanonotata (Nichols & Myers 1923). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Hispaniola Island: Dominican Republic and Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

melanopleurus, Haplochilus Günther [A.] 1866:317 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] See Poecilia melapleura Gosse 1851. •In the synonymy of Gambusia melapleura (Gosse 1851) -- (Meyer 2015:87 [ref. 34698]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia melapleura (Gosse 1851). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

melanops, Haplochilus Cope [E. D.] 1870:457 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11 (no. 84); ref. 913] Neuse River basin, Wake County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 7143 (17). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:96 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:95 [ref. 7067], La Rivers 1994:532 [ref. 23389], Ross et al. 2001:378 [ref. 25978], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859 -- (Meyer 2015:74 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:67 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

melanosticta, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1913:987 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: BMNH 1884.7.7.158-160 (3). •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:97 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:94 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:67 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

melanzonus, Acanthophacelus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:51 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] In trenches, Georgetown, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52717 [ex CM 1086]. Paratypes: (several, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.501 (1); CAS 22559 [ex IU 11762] (4); FMNH 7523 (1), 52718 (5); MCZ 30121 (1); NMW 81109 (1); USNM 66115 [not 66113] (1); ZMB 18063 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:86 [ref. 12305], Paepke & Seegers 1986:172 [ref. 19981], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:4 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:3 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Micropoecilis parae (Eigenmann 1894) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia parae Eigenmann 1894 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:56 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:3 [ref. 24072], Poeser 2003:144 [ref. 26783], Huber 2019:108 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia parae Eigenmann 1894. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

melapleura, Poecilia Gosse [P. H.] 1851:84, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [A naturalist's sojourn in Jamaica; ref. 18149] Bluefields, Jamaica. Lectotype: BMNH 1847.12.27.90. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1849.12.27.91-95 (6). As Halochilus melanopleurus in Günther 1866: 317 [ref. 1983], also emended to melanopleura by Bleeker 1860:486 [ref. 380]. Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:68 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Gambusia melapleura (Gosse 1851) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:95 [ref. 7067], Fink 1971:65 [ref. 7671], Lee et al. 1983:14 [ref. 22527], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:87 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:68 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia melapleura (Gosse 1851). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Western Jamaica. Habitat: freshwater.

mentalis, Platypoecilus Gill [T. N.] 1877:335 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 28 (for 1876); ref. 17633] Stream on Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 16675. Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) -- (Poeser 2003:49 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:163 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:360 [ref. 27075], Huber 2019:108 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

metallicus, Girardinus Poey [F.] 1854:387, 391, Pl. 31 (figs. 8-11) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Havana and Güines, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: ANSP 6971 (1); MCZ 6407 (11); USNM 652 (7, not found). 120263 [ex MCZ 6407] (4), 37422 (4), 37481 (2), 130031 (3). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:178 [ref. 22926], Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621], Parenti et al. 1999:10 [ref. 24072], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35177]. •Valid as Girardinus metallicus Poey 1854 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:112 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1983:24 [ref. 22527], Parenti et al. 1999:10 [ref. 24072], Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:42 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:118 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:75 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Girardinus metallicus Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Cuba. Habitat: freshwater.

mexicana, Poecilia Steindachner [F.] 1863:178 [17], Pl. 4 (figs. 1-1a) [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 48 (1. Abth.); ref. 4208] Orizaba, southern Mexico. Syntypes: (16) NMW 61288 (14). On p. 17 of separate. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Bussing 1987:146 [ref. 22927], Greenfield 1990:450 [ref. 16548], Page & Burr 1991:233 [ref. 18983], Poeser 1992:86 [ref. 21511], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:49 [ref. 22290], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:123 [ref. 22947], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:929 [ref. 23897], Bussing 1998:222 [ref. 24179], Marquet et al. 1999:43 [ref. 23934], Fuller et al. 1999:311 [ref. 25838], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Romero & Paulson 2001:33 [ref. 26040], Poeser 2002:246 [ref. 26215], Moyle 2002:323 [ref. 26449], Meyer et al. 2002:49 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:47 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:162 [ref. 26783], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Poeser 2003:359 [ref. 27075], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:236 [ref. 28615], Proudlove 2006:181 [ref. 28992], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:20 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:255 [ref. 31114], Matsunuma & Motomura 2010:21 [ref. 30966], Page & Burr 2011:442 [ref. 31215], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Palacios et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32935] subspecies mexicaus, Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:33 [ref. 33341], Meyer 2015:239 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Huber 2019:108 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic coast of Central America, from Texas (U.S.A.) border, through Yucatán southward to Río Cuango, Panama; Pacific coast from Río Goascorán (El Salvador / Guatemala) to western Río Bayano, Panama, introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

mexicana, Poecilia De Filippi [F.] in Tortonese 1940:142 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino. (Ser. 3) v. 48 (no. 111); ref. 21559] Not available, manuscript name and specimens mentioned in a type catalog; name also preoccupied. •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

meyeri, Xiphophorus Schartl [M.] & Schröder [J. H.] 1988:312, Figs. 1-2 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 68 (nos 4/6); ref. 16280] Near Múzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico. Holotype: SMF 21192. Paratypes: SMF 21193-95 (1, 1, 1). Plus other material. •Valid as Xiphophorus meyeri Schartl & Schröder 1988 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:55 [ref. 22290], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:260 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:23 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:392 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:148 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus meyeri Schartl & Schröder 1988. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Springs in the vicinity of Múzquiz, Coahuila, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

microdactylus, Girardinus Rivas [L. R.] 1944:51 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 23; ref. 13184] Spring-fed creek, tributary to Río Taco Taco of San Cristobal system at Jardin de Blain, northwestern Santa Cruz de los Pinos, Cuba. Holotype: USNM 203154 [ex Rivas coll. 110]. Paratypes: MCZ 36177 (1); UHMP 280 (?); UMMZ 143372 (10, 4 c&s); USNM 130216 (10), 206322-23 (126, 41). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:10 [ref. 24072], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35177]. Type information: Rivas 1969:202 [ref. 25092]. •Synonym of Girardinus metallicus Poey 1854 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:112 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Girardinus microdactylus Rivas 1944 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:112 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1983:25 [ref. 22527], Barus & Wohlgemuth 1994:245 [ref. 22069], Parenti et al. 1999:10 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:42 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:120 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:75 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Girardinus microdactylus Rivas 1944. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Río, Cuba. Habitat: freshwater.

mikrommatos, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:116, Figs. 2-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Unnamed Stream, rio João de Tiba drainage, Estação Ecológica Pau Brazil, 15 kilometers from Porto Seguro, ca. 16°26'S, 39°04'W, Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: UFPB 5370. Paratypes: UFPB 1751 (14), 1759 (7), 2214 (37, 1 c&s), 2688 (4), 2710 (1), 2718 (8), 2724 (10), 2748 (21, 2 c&s). 2758 (7), 2776 (5). Species name is an adjective. •Valid as Phalloceros mikrommatos Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:187 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:89 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros mikrommatos Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: João de Tiba River drainage, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

milleri, Heterophallus Radda [A. C.] 1987:127, Figs. 2, 4 [Aquaria: Vivaristische Fachzeitschrift mit Vereinsmitteilungen v. 34 (no. 8); ref. 9125] Río Teapa at Teapa, western side of river, under bridge, Tabasco State, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 184705. Paratypes: UMMZ 184706 (1, allotype) 184707 (39). Other material: UMMZ 202702 (3 or 68), 210834 (68), 210841 (1). Also appeared as new in Radda 1988:14 [ref. 34621]. •Species inquirenda in Gambusia -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Heterophallus milleri Radda 1987 -- (Radda 1988:14 [ref. 34621], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:230 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Riesch et al. 2011:95 [ref. 31292], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:130 [ref. 34698], Álvarez-Pleigo et al. 2016:178 [ref. 34825], Huber 2019:79 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Heterophallus milleri Radda 1987. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Grijalva River basin, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

milleri, Xiphophorus Rosen [D. E.] 1960:89, Figs. 8-10 [Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 11945] Small tributary of Laguna Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 177308. Paratypes: UMMZ 177309 (1, allotype). Other material: UMMZ 177310 (241), 184556 (93 or 94). •Valid as Xiphophorus milleri Rosen 1960 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:65 [ref. 7067], Rosen 1979:356 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:56 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:260 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:23 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:394 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:149 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus milleri Rosen 1960. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Streams tributary to Lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

minima, Poecilia Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Sarraf [A.] 1997:185, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 23280] Stream (igarapé) in Ourém, rio Guamá basin, Estado do Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MPEG 3393. Paratypes: MCP 19252 (4); MNHN 1996-0971 (4); MPEG 3394 (4); MZUSP 51037 (3); UFRJ 3727 (8), 3728 (28), 3729 (6, c&s); UMMZ 231993 (3); USNM 342605 (3). •Valid as Micropoecilia minima (Costa & Sarraf 1997) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205]). •Valid as Poecilia minima Costa & Sarraf 1997 -- (Costa & Le Bail 1999:1028 [ref. 24187], Poeser 2003:148 [ref. 26783], Bragança & Costa 2011:370 [ref. 31195], Bragança et al. 2012:338 [ref. 31747], Meyer 2015:262 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:109 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia minima Costa & Sarraf 1997. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Guamá River basin, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

minor, Heterandria Garman [S.] 1895:92, Pl. 4 (fig. 8) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Villa Bella [city of Parintins], Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: AMNH 22647 [ex MCZ 6254] (5, c&s); MCZ 6254 [not 6294] (orig. 33, now 20); USNM 120268 [ex MCZ 6254] (6). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Poecilia minor (Garman 1895) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:58 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24072], Figueiredo & Moreira 2018:443 [ref. 36088], Huber 2019:109 [ref. 36941]). •Valid as Pamphorichthys minor (Garman 1895) -- (Rodriguez 1997:672 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:165 [ref. 34698]). Current status: Valid as Pamphorichthys minor (Garman 1895). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

minor, Xiphophorus Weyenbergh [H.] 1877:20, Pl. 4 (fig. 19) [Actas de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Buenos Aires. v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 14248] Catamarca, Argentina. Syntypes: (several) MACN (not found), also not at MSNG. •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Jenynsia lineata (Jenyns 1842) -- (Huber 2019:14 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Jenynsia lineata (Jenyns 1842). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

miragoanensis, Limia Rivas [L. R.] 1980:33, Figs. 3a-b [Northeast Gulf Science v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3763] Northeastern end of Lake Miragoâne, at Aux Cayes Road, Dépt. de L'Ouest, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 220531. Paratypes: USNM 220532 (15). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Limia miragoanensis Rivas 1980 -- (Lee et al. 1983:36 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:139 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia miragoanensis (Rivas 1980) -- (Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:109 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia miragoanensis (Rivas 1980). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lake Miragoâne, Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

mixei, Xiphophorus Kallman [K. D.], Walter [R. B.], Morizot [D. C.] & Kazianis [S.] 2004:9, Figs. 1A-B, 4B [American Museum Novitates No. 3441; ref. 27790] Tributary to the Rio Cuchara, 16°58.42'N, 95°17.31'W, Rio Aguacatengo drainage, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: UANL 15253. Paratypes: IBUNAM 13100 (10); UANL 15254-55 (1, 1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Xiphophorus mixei Kallman, Walter, Morizot & Kazianis 2004 -- (Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Meyer 2015:395 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:149 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus mixei Kallman, Walter, Morizot & Kazianis 2004. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Río del Sol basin, Oaxaca, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

modesta, Gambusia Ahl [E.] 1923:220 [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 34 (no. 10); ref. 15395] Mexico [erroneous]. Syntypes: ZMB 21004 (8). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:172 [ref. 19981]. •Permanently invalid, preoccupied by Gambusia modesta Troschel 1865, replaced by Gambusia myersi Ahl 1925. •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (La Rivers 1994:532 [ref. 23389]). •Objective synonym of Gambusia myersi Ahl 1925 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:96 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859 -- (Meyer 2015:74 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:68 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

modesta, Gambusia Troschel [F. H.] in Müller 1865:639 (v. 3) [Reisen in den Vereinigten Staaten, Canada und Mexico; ref. 14184] Mexico. Holotype (unique): ZMB (apparently lost). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:172 [ref. 19981]. •Questionably a synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Poeser 2003:47 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:162 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:359 [ref. 27075], Huber 2019:110 [ref. 36941]). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

monacha, Poeciliopsis Miller [R. R.] 1960:3, Pl. 1 (figs. C-D) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 619; ref. 10418] Arroyo San Benito, about 1.5 miles east-southeast of Rancho Guirocoba, Sonora, northwestern Mexico, 25°56'N, 108°40'W, elevation 1300 feet. Holotype: UMMZ 177268. Paratypes: (381) UMMZ 177269 (1, allotype), 178246 (orig. 379); USNM 196175 [ex UMMZ 178246] (11, now 10). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis monacha Miller 1960 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:138 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:52 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:246 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:292 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:128 [ref. 36941], Conway et al. 2019:115 [ref. 37045]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis monacha Miller 1960. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

montana, Poecilia Rosen [D. E.] & Bailey [R. M.] 1963:48 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 126 (art. 1); ref. 7067] Small stream in San Francisco Mts., Santo Domingo [Dominican Republic]. Holotype: USNM 53277. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9350 (1), USNM 126137 [ex USBF 1434] (1). Replacement name for Platypoecilus dominicensis Evermann & Clark 1906, secondarily preoccupied in Poecilia by Poecilia dominicensis Valenciennes 1846. •Valid as Poecilia montana Rosen & Bailey 1963 -- (Parenti et al. 1999:15 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:110 [ref. 36941]). •An objective synonym of Poecilia dominicensis (Evermann & Clark 1906) -- (Lee et al. 1983:48 [ref. 22527]) after restoration by Rivas 1978 (see Art. 59(c)). •Wrongly as a synonym of Limia dominicensis (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia dominicensis (Evermann & Clark 1906) -- (Poeser 2003:150 [ref. 26783], Meyer 2015:218 [ref. 34698]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia montana Rosen & Bailey 1963. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central and northern Santo Domingo, Hispaniola Island. Habitat: freshwater.

montezumae, Xiphophorus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1899:131, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 2501] Río Verde near Rascon, San Luis Potosi, eastern Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 6145. Paratypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.158-167 (10); NMW 81679 (57); CAS-SU 7146 (31, 4 c&s), 6194 (105). •Valid as Xiphophorus montezumae Jordan & Snyder 1899 -- (Rosen 1979:357 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:56 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Morris et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25123], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Kallman et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27790], Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:261 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:23 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:396 [ref. 34698] with date 1900, Huber 2019:149 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus montezumae Jordan & Snyder 1899. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: San Luis Potosi basin, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

monticola, Gambusia punctulata Rivas [L. R.] 1971:5, Fig. 1 [Publications of the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Museum v. 2; ref. 19800] Río Yao, a left tributary of Río Cauto, 15 kilometers upstream from Bueycito, Munic. of Bayamo, Oriente Province, Cuba. Holotype: USNM 203913. Paratypes: GCRL 3636, USNM 203914 (6). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35177]. •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Fink 1971:35 [ref. 21211], Lee et al. 1983:17 [ref. 22527]). •Synonym of Gambusia bucheri Rivas 1944 but a valid subspecies as described -- (Meyer 2015:64 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Gambusia monticola Rivas 1971 -- (Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:68 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia monticola Rivas 1971. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Eastern Cuba. Habitat: freshwater.

monticolus, Xiphophorus Kallman [K. D.], Walter [R. B.], Morizot [D. C.] & Kazianis [S.] 2004:11, Figs. 1C-D, 4C [American Museum Novitates No. 3441; ref. 27790] Rio Cahuitepec, upper Rio del Sol, Rio Coatzacoalcos basin, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: UNAL 15256. Paratypes: IBUN-AM 13101 (5), UANL 15257 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Xiphophorus monticolus Kallman, Walter, Morizot & Kazianis 2004 -- (Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Meyer 2015:397 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:149 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus monticolus Kallman, Walter, Morizot & Kazianis 2004. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Río del Sol basin, Oaxaca, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

multilineata, Poecilia Lesueur [C. A.] 1821:4, Pl. 1 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2736] New Orleans or eastern Florida, U.S.A. •Synonym of Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:54 [ref. 7067], Poeser 2003:153 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:110 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

multilineatus, Xiphophorus Rauchenberger [M.], Kallman [K. D.] & Morizot [D. C.] 1990:15, Fig. 13 [American Museum Novitates No. 2975; ref. 15688] Río Coy near confluence with Río Tampaón, Río Pánuco drainage, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: AMNH 88337. Paratypes: AMNH 45322 (85, 6 c&s). Additional material: AMNH (6 lots, 214). •Valid as Xiphophorus multilineatus Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot 1990 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:56 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Morris et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25123], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807] as mutilineatus, Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:261 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:24 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:399 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:149 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus multilineatus Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot 1990. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Panuco River basin, San Luis Potosí, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

myersi, Gambusia Ahl [E.] 1925:42, Fig. [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 17302] Mexico [erroneous]. Syntypes: ZMB 21004 (8). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:173 [ref. 19981]. Replacement name for Gambusia modesta Ahl 1923, preoccupied by Gambusia modesta Troschel 1865. •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (La Rivers 1994:532 [ref. 23389]). •Valid as Gambusia myersi Ahl 1925 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:96 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:559 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205]). •Synonym of Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859 -- (Miller 2006:222 [ref. 28615], Meyer 2015:74 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:68 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nelsoni, Platypoecilus Meek [S. E.] 1904:147, Fig. 46 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] Papayo, Río Balsas basin, Guerrero, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 51484. Paratypes: USNM 59996-97 (1, 2), 125676 [ex USBF 1609] (1). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Poecilia butleri Jordan 1889 -- (Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:51 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Poecilia nelsoni (Meek 1904) -- (Poeser 2003:164 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Meyer 2015:242 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:296 [ref. 36544], Huber 2019:110 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia nelsoni (Meek 1904). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central America: Mexico to El Salvador. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

nezahualcoyotl, Xiphophorus Rauchenberger [M.], Kallman [K. D.] & Morizot [D. C.] 1990:6, Fig. 4 [American Museum Novitates No. 2975; ref. 15688] Arroyo Gallitos, 0.5 kilometers west of Gallitos, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Holotype: AMNH 88334. Paratypes: AMNH 75845 (orig. 30), ?UMMZ 223205 [ex AMNH 75845] (4). Additional material: AMNH (22 lots, 1070). •Valid as Xiphophorus nezahualcoyotl Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot 1990 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:56 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Morris et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25123], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:262 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:24 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:401 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:150 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus nezahualcoyotl Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot 1990. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Río Tamesi basin, San Luis Potosí, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

nicaraguensis, Gambusia Günther [A.] 1866:336 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Lake Nicaragua, Nicaragua. Syntypes: BMNH 1952.12.31.1-5 (5), USNM 151461 (1), ZMB 6069 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:173 [ref. 19981], Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072], Smith 2018:70 [ref. 36061]. •Valid as Gambusia nicaraguensis Günther 1866 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:94 [ref. 7067], Fink 1971:53 [ref. 7671], Greenfield et al. 1982:131 [ref. 21395], Villa 1982:130 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:138 [ref. 22927], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:119 [ref. 22947], Bussing 1998:209 [ref. 24179], Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Smith et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27621], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Pérez León & Schmitter Soto 2007:167 [ref. 32537], Matamoros et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:87 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:69 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia nicaraguensis Günther 1866. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Guatemala to Panama: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

nicholsi, Limia Myers [G. S.] 1931:2 [American Museum Novitates No. 503; ref. 16309] San Juan River at Samaná, Santo Domingo [Dominican Republic]. Holotype: AMNH 5239. Paratypes: AMNH 20925 (4). •Synonym of Limia zonata (Nichols 1915) -- (Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Meyer 2015:154 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Limia nicholsi Myers 1931 -- (Trewavas 1948:413 [ref. 13077], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205]). •Valid as Poecilia nicholsi (Myers 1931) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:60 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia zonata (Nichols 1915) -- (Huber 2019:110 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia zonata (Nichols 1915). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nigra, Platypoecilus Brind [W. L.] 1914:22 [Domesticated fish; ref. 21099] Mexico. No types known. Described earlier as a variety by Gerlach 1912:677 [ref. 34711]. •Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nigra, Platypoecilus maculatus var. Gerlach [G.] 1912:677, Fig. 1 [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 23 (no. 42); ref. 34711] Aquarium specimen, locality unknown. No types known. Can be based on an aquarist-made variety or a natural one. •Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrensis, Xiphophorus pygmaeus Rosen [D. E.] 1960:100, Figs. 10, 11, 14, 15, 31 [Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 11945] Nacimiento del Río Choy, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 177301. Paratypes: LSUMZ 6264 (1), 6265 & 6388 (6); UMMZ 202825 (now 25). •Synonym of Xiphophorus pygmaeus Hubbs & Gordon 1943, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:65 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Xiphophorus nigrensis Rosen 1960 -- (Rosen 1979:356 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:56 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Morris et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25123], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:262 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:24 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:403 [ref. 34698]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus nigrensis Rosen 1960. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Choy River, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrofasciata, Limia Regan [C. T.] 1913:1015, Pl. 101 (figs. 1-2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Miragoâne, Haiti, West Indies. Lectotype: BMNH 1913.3.6.21. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1913.3.6.30-31 (2), 1913.7.25.15 (1). Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:111 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Limia nigrofasciata Regan 1913 -- (Lee et al. 1983:37 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:140 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia nigrofasciata (Regan 1913) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:59 [ref. 7067], Huber 2019:111 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia nigrofasciata (Regan 1913). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lake Miragoâne, Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

nigropunctata, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1913:987, Fig. 168f [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Fermina, Bemba, Cuba. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.10.20.2-4 (3). •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:97 [ref. 7067], Fink 1971:17 [ref. 21211], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:94 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:69 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

nigroventralis, Gambusia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] in Eigenmann 1912:26 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Río San Juan at Itsmina, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56045 [ex CM 4835]. Paratypes: (20, CM and IU) BMNH 1924.3.3.85-86 (2) Itrsmina, CAS 22765 [ex IU 12689] (5), FMNH 54046 (5), USNM 79205 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:87 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Alloheterandria nigroventralis (Eigenmann & Henn 1912) -- (Meyer & Etzel 1996:3 [ref. 22946], Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072]). •Valid as Pseudopoecilia nigroventralis (Eigenmann & Henn 1912) -- (Meyer 2015:325 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Priapichthys nigroventralis (Eigenmann & Henn 1912) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:124 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:39 [ref. 29205], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Huber 2019:135 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Priapichthys nigroventralis (Eigenmann & Henn 1912). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atrato and San Juan River basins, Pacific slope of northwestern Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

nobilis, Heterandria Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1853:390 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6; ref. 15636] Leona Springs, Valley of the Rio Grande del Norte, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: MCZ 1455 [ex MCZ 1298]. Paralectotypes: MCZ 1298 (now 3). Lectotype established by Hubbs & Springer 1957:297 [ref. 12145]. •Valid as Gambusia nobilis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:103 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:544 [ref. 22416], Wildrick et al. 1985:1054 [ref. 11519], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Page & Burr 1991:237 [ref. 18983], Fuller et al. 1999:307 [ref. 25838], Garrett & Edwards 2003:783 [ref. 27258], Nelson et al. 2004:103 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:18 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page & Burr 2011:447 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:89 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:69 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia nobilis (Baird & Girard 1853). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: New Mexico and Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

obliqua, Heterandria Rosen [D. E.] 1979:321, Figs. 5, 6, 10, 16, 21, 24, 26 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 162 (art. 5); ref. 22796] Upper Río San Ramón basin, Río Usumacinta system, Huehuetenango, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 36311. Paratypes: AMNH 24638 (11), 32909 (124), 32915 (10), 36313-18 (21, 43, 113, 17, 7, 13); UMMZ 188010 (1), 190507 (1), 190768 (7), 193893 (97), 193911 (39), 193935 (18), 197073 (11), 197079 (138). •Valid as Heterandria obliqua Rosen 1979 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:40 [ref. 29205], McEachran & DeWitt 2008:52 [ref. 29720]). •Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus obliquus (Rosen 1979) -- (Radda 1985:128 [ref. 31261], Morales-Cazan & Albert 2012:22 [ref. 31911], Meyer 2015:347 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:138 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus obliquus (Rosen 1979). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central western Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

obscura, Poecilia (Acanthophacelus) Schories [S.], Meyer [M. K.] & Schartl [M.] 2009:39, Figs. 2a-c, 3, 6 [Zootaxa No. 2266; ref. 30534] Oropuche River, 10°43.052'N, 61°08.871'W, below bridge where road from Cumaca to Cumaca Caves crosses the river, ca. 2.5 kilometers past Cumaca, Trinidad. Holotype: MTD F31503. Paratypes: MTD F31504-31511 (8) •Valid as Poecilia obscura Schories, Meyer & Schartl 2009 -- (Meyer 2015:204 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:111 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia obscura Schories, Meyer & Schartl 2009. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Northeastern Trinidad, Lesser Antillies. Habitat: freshwater.

occidentalis, Heterandria Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1853:390 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6; ref. 15636] Río Santa Cruz of the Río Gila, Mexico [not Rio Santa Cruz, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A.]. Syntypes: ANSP 6972 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis occidentalis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:137 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:553 [ref. 22416], Page & Burr 1991:239 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:52 [ref. 22290], Swift et al. 1993:123 [ref. 22379], Fuller et al. 1999:315 [ref. 25838], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:246 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398] with subspecies, Minckley & Marsh 2009:246 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:451 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:293 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:129 [ref. 36941], Conway et al. 2019:114 [ref. 37045]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis occidentalis (Baird & Girard 1853). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: New Mexico and Arizona (U.S.A.) and Pacific slope of northern Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellatus, Girardinus Lachmann [H.] 1902:819, Fig. [Nerthus (Wochenschrift für Pflanzen- und Blumenfreunde, Aquarien-, Terrarien- und Vogelliebhaber) v. 4 (no. 51); ref. 36029] Based on aquarium specimen. No types known. Proposed as another possible name for Girardinus ocula-maculatus. •In the synonymy of Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel 1868). Current status: Synonym of Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel 1868). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

ocellatus, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:138, Figs. 30-31 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Fourth stream flowing east at 26 kilometers from Prado to Cumuruxatiba, ca. 17°10'S, 39°14'W, Prado, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 30549. Paratypes: MCP 30548 (14, 4 c&s), 27838 (3); MZUSP 39121 (25); USNM 331088 (19), 331086 (4). Species name is an adjective. •Valid as Phalloceros ocellatus Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:188 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:89 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros ocellatus Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of Bahia and Espírto Santo states, between Prodo and Sooretama, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

oculamaculatus, Girardinus Lachmann [H.] 1902:819, Fig. [Nerthus (Wochenschrift für Pflanzen- und Blumenfreunde, Aquarien-, Terrarien- und Vogelliebhaber) v. 4 (no. 51); ref. 36029] Based on aquarium specimen. No types known. Original name ocula-maculatus. •In the synonymy of Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel 1868) -- (Huber 2019:87 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel 1868). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

oligosticta, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1913:988, Pl. 99 (fig. 1-2); Fig. 169b [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Jamaica. Syntypes: BMNH 1897.7.1.17-19 (3), 1905.8.16.3-12 (10, now 8); CAS-SU 24178 [ex BMNH] (2); USNM 151460 [ex BMNH 1905.8.16.3-12] (2). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia oligosticta Regan 1913 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:98 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687]). •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854 but a valid subspecies as described -- (Meyer 2015:95 [ref. 34698]). •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854 -- (Fink 1971:17 [ref. 21211], Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:69 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

olmecae, Priapella Meyer [M. K.] & Espinosa Pérez [H.] 1990:122, Figs. 1-6 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 45 (no. 12); ref. 20156] Río de la Palma, about 10 kilometersnorth-northwest of Sontecomapan, 25 kilometersnorth-northeast of Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: SMF 21157. Paratypes: IBUNAM-P 2798 (2), 2799 (orig. 7); UANL 10211 [ex IBUNAM P-2799] (2); SMF 21158 (now 7). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:5 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Priapella olmecae Meyer & Espinosa Pérez 1990 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:53 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:253 [ref. 28615], Schartl et al. 2006:59 [ref. 28754], Lucinda & Reis 2005:39 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:22 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2011:91 [ref. 31377], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:315 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:133 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Priapella olmecae Meyer & Espinosa Pérez 1990. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Veracruz, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

olomina, Priapichthys Meek [S. E.] 1914:114 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 10); ref. 2961] Río Grande de Tárcoles, Orotina [Alajuela], (Pacific) Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7827. Paratypes: FMNH 6227-28 (1, 1), 6255 (3), 7834 (3), 7878 (now 123), 11350 (1), 35380-81 (1, 1); UMMZ 162477 [ex FMNH] (10), ?USNM [ex FMNH 7878] (5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:17-18 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Regan 1908) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:89 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:18 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Brachyrhaphis olomina (Meek 1914) -- (Meyer & Etzel 1998:156 [ref. 23986], Bussing 1998:198 [ref. 24179], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:27 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:52 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhaphis olomina (Meek 1914). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Habitat: freshwater.

omorgmatos, Cnesterodon Lucinda [P. H. F.] & Garavello [J. C.] 2001:126, Figs. 3-4 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 13 (no. 2) [Dec.]; ref. 25093] Rio das Torres, rio Iguaçu basin, Pinhão, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 22741. Paratypes: MCP 22742 (21, 4 c&s), MHNCI 7657 (22), USNM 356394 (4). •Valid as Cnesterodon omorgmatos Lucinda & Garavello 2001 -- (Meyer & Etzel 2001:248 [ref. 25973] with reservation in Cnesterodon, Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:557 [ref. 27061], Lucinda 2005:267 [ref. 28272], Lucinda et al. 2006:27 [ref. 28858], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Aguilera et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30366], Meyer 2015:48 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:55 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Cnesterodon omorgmatos Lucinda & Garavello 2001. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Iguaçu River basin, Paraná, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ornata, Limia Regan [C. T.] 1913:1016, Pl. 101 (fig. 7) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Haiti, West Indies. Syntypes: BMNH 1912.9.4.12-14 (5, now 3) plus BMNH 1913.3.6.34 (6, in 1 jar, now 3). •Valid as Limia ornata Regan 1913 -- (Lee et al. 1983:38 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:142 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia ornata (Regan 1913) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:59 [ref. 7067], Huber 2019:111 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia ornata (Regan 1913). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lake Miragoâne, Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

orri, Poecilia Fowler [H. W.] 1943:1, Figs. 1-3 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 117; ref. 13201] Lagoon and salt water ditch on Bonacca Island, Bay Islands, off northern Honduras. Holotype: ANSP 70158. Paratypes: AMNH 29835SW [ex ANSP 70161] (1, c&s); ANSP 70159-60 (2), 70161 (now 0), 70162 (1), 70163-69 (7). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621]. Needs redescription -- (Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721]). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:53 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Poecilia orri Fowler 1943 -- (Greenfield 1990:450 [ref. 16548], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:50 [ref. 22290], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:124 [ref. 22947], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:147 [ref. 26783], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Smith et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:237 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Matamoros et al. 2009:14 [ref. 31241], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:243 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Huber 2019:111 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia orri Fowler 1943. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Eastern Yucatán Peninsula, Quintana Roo, northern Honduras, Belize, and offshore islands: Belize, Colombia, Honduras and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pallida, Mollienesia sphenops de Buen [F.] 1943:252, Figs. 1-3 [Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad de Mexico v. 14 (no. 1); ref. 13095] Plaza La Bocana del Río Marqués, Mexico. Syntypes: (24) probably lost. •Valid as Poecilia pallida (de Buen 1943) -- (Poeser 2003:166 [ref. 26783], Huber 2019:112 [ref. 36941]). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:53 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia pallida (de Buen 1943). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Balsas River basin, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

panamensis, Priapichthys Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1916:322 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 15); ref. 2962] Brackish pool at Chame Point, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: FMNH 8950. Paratypes: CAS 22773 [ex IU 14049] (1); FMNH 8679 (1, allotype), 8680-96 (now 14), 8697 (1), 8950 (1); USNM 78858 (17). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:18 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Pseudopoecilia festae (Boulenger 1898) -- (Parenti et al. 1999:18 [ref. 24072]). •Valid as Priapichthys panamensis Meek & Hildebrand 1916 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:124 [ref. 7067], Villa 1982:136 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:154 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:232 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:39 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194]). •Valid as Pseudopoecilia panamensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1916) -- (Meyer 2015:328 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Panamichthys panamensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1916) -- (Huber 2019:84 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Priapichthys panamensis Meek & Hildebrand 1916. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Habitat: freshwater.

pankalos, Phallotorynus Lucinda [P. H. F.], Rosa [R. S.] & Reis [R. E.] 2005:624, Fig. 11 [Copeia 2005 (no. 3); ref. 28318] Road to Paranhos on creek [23°32'11"S, 55°08'55"W], at fazenda Sossego, tributary to Rio Puitá, affluent of Rio Iguatemi, Tacuru, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 79671. Paratypes: MZUSP 69189 (7, 1 c&s). •Valid as Phallotorynus pankalos Lucinda, Rosa & Reis 2005 -- (Meyer & Etzel 2006:84 [ref. 30730] with distribution as Paraguay, Meyer 2015:198 [ref. 34698], Lucinda & da Graça 2015:87 [ref. 35435], Huber 2019:93 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phallotorynus pankalos Lucinda, Rosa & Reis 2005. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Affluent of Iguatemi River, Paraná River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

panuco, Gambusia Hubbs [C. L.] 1926:30 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 16; ref. 2233] Río Valles, Valles, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 14060. Paratypes: FMNH 14061-68 (8). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Gambusia panuco Hubbs 1926 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:105 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:46 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:18 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:91 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:70 [ref. 36941]). •Mention as possibly the same as Gambusia regani Hubbs 1926 -- (Miller 2006:225 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia panuco Hubbs 1926. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Panuco River basin, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

parae, Poecilia vivepara var. Eigenmann [C. H.] 1894:628 [Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences v. 7 (art. 5); ref. 1214] Ditches of Rua das Mongubas of Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: (about 150) CAS 22552 [ex IU 5079] (25), BMNH 1894.5.18.57-59 (3). The spelling parae [not parai] is acceptable; early workers almost certainly Latinized the name first, and then added an 'e' (Art. 31.1.1) [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012], the species was originally vivipara; also misspelled. •Valid as Micropoecilia parae (Eigenmann 1894) -- (Keith et al. 2000:66 [ref. 24547], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205]). •Valid as Poecilia parae Eigenmann 1894 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:56 [ref. 7067], Costa & Sarraf 1997:186 [ref. 23280], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Poeser 2003:144 [ref. 26783], Lucinda et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31137], Bragança & Costa 2011:370 [ref. 31195], Bragança et al. 2012:337 [ref. 31747], Meyer 2015:264 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:112 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia parae Eigenmann 1894. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Guyana to Brazil: Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

parismina, Gambusia Meek [S. E.] 1912:71 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 7); ref. 2960] Parismina [Limón], Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7678 [not 7578]. Paratypes: FMNH 7836 (39), UMMZ 162478 [ex FMNH 7836] (4). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Brachyrhaphis parismina (Meek 1912) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:90 [ref. 7067], Bussing 1987:133 [ref. 22927], Mojica et al. 1997:301 [ref. 22823], Meyer & Etzel 1998:156 [ref. 23986], Bussing 1998:200 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:38 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:29 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Hiatirhaphis parismina (Meek 1912) -- (Huber 2019:80 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Hiatirhaphis parismina (Meek 1912). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Costa Rica and western Panama, Atlantic slope of Central America. Habitat: freshwater.

parvianalis, Lembesseia Fowler [H. W.] 1949:267, Figs. 69-74 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 101; ref. 1461] Oka, 18 miles north of Eovo, Congo system, French Equatorial Africa [introduced]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71924. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:97 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:53 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061] with question). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) -- (Poeser 2003:49 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:163 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:360 [ref. 27075], Huber 2019:113 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

patruelis, Heterandria Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1853:390 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6; ref. 15636] Rio Sabanal; Rio Leona; Rio Neuces; and Elm Creek, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 1300 (6, now 5). •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853), but a valid subspecies -- (Indra 1991:241 [ref. 24005], Indra 1993:187 [ref. 24009], Rema Devi & Ilango 1993:248 [ref. 24017], Indra 1994:422 [ref. 24015]). •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:94 [ref. 7067], La Rivers 1994:532 [ref. 23389], Ross et al. 2001:378 [ref. 25978], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:54 [ref. 34698], Zhang et al. 2016:212 [ref. 34477], Huber 2019:70 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

paucimaculata, Poeciliopsis Bussing [W. A.] 1967:227, Fig. 5 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 14 (no. 2) (1966); ref. 7946] Río General, 15 kilometers south of San Isidro del General at Interamerican highway, San José, Costa Rica, elevation 500 meters. Holotype: LACM 9236-1. Paratypes: LACM 2897 (5), 2920 (3); UCR 45-1 (1). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:381 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis paucimaculata Bussing 1967 -- (Bussing 1987:149 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:225 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:296 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:129 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis paucimaculata Bussing 1967. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

pauciradiata, Limia Rivas [L. R.] 1980:34, Figs. 3c-d [Northeast Gulf Science v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3763] Grande Rivière du Nord at town of Grande Rivière, Dépt. du Nord, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 220533. Paratypes: AMNH 38233 (?); MCZ 54409 (1); UF 29823 (102); UMMZ 204196 (171), ?209797 (10); USNM 220534 (400). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Limia pauciradiata Rivas 1980 -- (Lee et al. 1983:39 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:143 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia pauciradiata (Rivas 1980) -- (Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072], Figueiredo & Moreira 2018:443 [ref. 36088], Huber 2019:113 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia pauciradiata (Rivas 1980). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Northern coastal drainages, Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

pauciradiatus, Pseudoxiphophorus Regan [C. T.] 1904:256 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 13 (no. 76) (art. 30); ref. 15198] Orizaba, Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1894.1.27.19-26 (8). •Synonym of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:131 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848) -- (Meyer 2015:338 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:138 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pavonina, Limia Poey [F.] 1876:184 [142] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 5 Apr. 1876); ref. 3510] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (?): MCZ 6400. Non-types: MCZ 100256 [tracking number] (2) missing. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:178 [ref. 22926]. On p. 142 of separate. •Synonym of Limia vittata Guichenot 1853 -- (Poeser 2003:135 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:154 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35177] as povanuna). •Synonym of Poecilia vittata Guichenot 1853 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:59 [ref. 7067], Huber 2019:113 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia vittata Guichenot 1853. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pellos, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:149 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Antonina, lateral pond on road near rio Nunes, Paraná, Brazil, 25°20'29"S, 48°46'29"W. Holotype: MCP 31142. Paratypes:MCP 31138 (2), 31141 (121); MHNCI 6151 (8, 2 c&s), 6237 (3), 6262 (4, 2 c&s), 9068 (1). Species name is an adjective. •Valid as Phalloceros pellos Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:188 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:89 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros pellos Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Small coastal drainages flowing into Paranaguá Bay, Paraná, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

peninsulae, Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:230, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] Vicinity of Progreso, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102078. Paratypes: UMMZ 102079 (1). •Synonym of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:131 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848) -- (Meyer 2015:338 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:138 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pertapeh, Pamphorichthys Figueiredo [C. A.] 2008:61, Figs. 1, 3-6. [Zootaxa No. 1918; ref. 29880] Lagoa (lake) Perta-Pé at the left side of rio Bezerra, tributary of Preto River, São Francisco River basin, 15°59'02"S, 47°11'51"W, Municipality of Formosa, State of Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 32467. Paratypes: MCP 41345 (20); MNRJ 18090 (listed 49, probably 48); MZUSP 99750 (20); UF 171129 (20); UMMZ 248719 (20); USNM 393312 (20). •Valid as Pamphorichthys pertapeh Figueiredo 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:166 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia pertapeh (Figueiredo 2008) -- (Figueiredo & Moreira 2018:443 [ref. 36088], Huber 2019:113 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pamphorichthys pertapeh Figueiredo 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Marginal lake on left side of Bezerra River, tributary of the Negro River, São Francisco basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

perugiae, Platypoecilus Evermann [B. W.] & Clark [H. W.] 1906:851, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1478); ref. 15656] Small stream in San Francisco Mts., Santo Domingo [Dominican Republic]. Holotype (unique): USNM 53278 (poor condition). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Limia perugiae (Evermann & Clark 1906) -- (Trewavas 1948:413 [ref. 13077], Lee et al. 1983:41 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:144 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia perugiae (Evermann & Clark 1906) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:59 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:14 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:113 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia perugiae (Evermann & Clark 1906). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southern Hispaniola Island. Habitat: freshwater.

petenensis, Mollenesia Günther [A.] 1866:348 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Lake Petén, Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.375 (3), 1864.1.26.376 (3), 2008.5.27.1 (1, skeleton); ZMB 6082 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:174 [ref. 19981]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Poecilia petenensis Günther 1866 when both are in Poecilia; replaced by Poecilia kykesis Poeser 2002:244 [ref. 26215]. Original genus is correctly Mollienesia. •Synonym of Poecilia kykesis Poeser 2002 -- (Poeser 2003:155 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:114 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia kykesis Poeser 2002. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

petenensis, Poecilia Günther [A.] 1866:342 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Lake Petén, Guatemala. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.26.377. Paralectotypes: (at least 4) BMNH 1864.1.26.375 (1), 1864.1.26.379 (2), 2004.12.1.1-2 [ex BMNH 1864.1.26.377] (2), 2008.5.27.2 (1, skeleton). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Mollienisia petenensis Günther 1866, replaced by Mollienesia gracilis Regan 1913. Mollienesia gracilis itself is subjectively invalid; preoccupied by Poecilia gracilis Valenciennes 1846 (see Greenfield 1990:452 [ref. 16548]). Lectotype selected by Poeser 2002:243 [ref. 26215]. On the basis of Art. 59.4, Poecilia petenensis Günther 1866 can be retained. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Poecilia petenensis Günther 1866 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:55 [ref. 7067], Greenfield 1990:450 [ref. 16548], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:50 [ref. 22290], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:125 [ref. 22947], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Fuller et al. 1999:312 [ref. 25838], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Poeser 2002:245 [ref. 26215], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:159 [ref. 26783], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Meyer et al. 2004:150 [ref. 28000], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:238 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:244 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:114 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia petenensis Günther 1866. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Endemic to Lake Petén area, central Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

petersi, Mollienesia sphenops Schindler [O.] 1959:1, Figs. 1-2 [Opuscula Zoologica. Herausgegeben von der Zoologischen Staatssammlung in München No. 31; ref. 12024] Lago Yojoa, northwestern Honduras. Holotype: ZSM 15639. Paratypes: NMW 61117 (3); ZSM 15640 (1), 15716-23 (8), 15724-69 (46, now 44). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:275 [ref. 31652]. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:53 [ref. 7067]). •Synonym of Poecilia salvatoris Regan 1907 -- (Poeser 1995:244 [ref. 22070]). •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) -- (Poeser 2003:49 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:163 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:360 [ref. 27075], Huber 2019:114 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

picta, Poecilia Regan [C. T.] 1913:1007, Pl. 100 (fig. 1-2); Fig.173a [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Demerara River, Guyana. Lectotype: BMNH 1872.6.11.11b. Syntypes: (many) BMNH 1872.6.11.11 (?), MNHN 1913-0226 [ex BMNH] (2), USNM 151459 (4). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:31-32 [ref. 19576], Parenti et al. 1999:15 [ref. 24072]. Lectotype selection to be published. •Valid as Micropoecilia cf. picta (Regan 1913) -- (Keith et al. 2000:68 [ref. 24547]). •Valid as Poecilia picta Regan 1913 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:56 [ref. 7067], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Parenti et al. 1999:15 [ref. 24072], Poeser 2003:146 [ref. 26783]). •Valid as Micropoecilia picta (Regan 1913) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205]). •Valid as Poecilia picta Regan 1913 -- (Bragança & Costa 2011:370 [ref. 31195], Bragança et al. 2012:337 [ref. 31747], Phillip et al. 2013:20 [ref. 32896], Meyer 2015:268 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:115 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia picta Regan 1913. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Trinidad and Venezuela to French Guiana: Brazil, French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, and Trinidad and Tobago. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

picturada, Gambusia Poey [F.] 1868:410 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] San Diego de las Banos, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:97 [ref. 7067], Fink 1971:17 [ref. 21211], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:94 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:70 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pirai, Cnesterodon Aguilera [G.], Mirande [J. M.] & Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] 2009:36, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 2195; ref. 30366] Aristóbulo del Valle, Río Paraná basin, arroyo Almeida, tributary of arroyo Cuña Pirú, 27°00'24"S, 54°50'22"W, Misiones, Argentina. Holotype: CI-FML 3853. Paratypes: AI 223 (6); ANSP 187060 (4); CI-FML 3854 (4), 3855 (2, c&s), 3965 (8). •Valid as Cnesterodon pirai Aguilera, Mirande & Azpelicueta 2009 -- (Koerber 2011:7 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:12 [ref. 33621], Meyer 2015:49 [ref. 34698], Mirande & Koerber 2015:52 [ref. 35117], Huber 2019:55 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Cnesterodon pirai Aguilera, Mirande & Azpelicueta 2009. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Río Paraná basin, Misiones, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

pittieri, Poecilia Meek [S. E.] 1912:71 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 7); ref. 2960] Río Reventazón at La Junta [Limón], Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7680 [not 7580]. Paratypes: FMNH 7839 (14), 11352 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Phallichthys amates (Miller 1907), but a valid subspecies -- (Bussing 1998:214 [ref. 24179]). •Synonym of Phallichthys amates (Miller 1907) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:140 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:86 [ref. 36941]). •Valid as Phallichthys pittieri (Meek 1912) -- (Meyer 2015:173 [ref. 34698]). Current status: Synonym of Phallichthys amates (Miller 1907). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pleurospilus, Girardinus Günther [A.] 1866:353 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Lake of Dueñas, Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.180 (24), ZMB 6078 (3). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:174 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:136 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:552 [ref. 22416], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Poeciliopsis pleurospilus (Günther 1866) -- (Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:247 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Bussing 2008:829 [ref. 29806], Matamoros et al. 2009:14 [ref. 31241], McMahan et al. 2013:448 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:297 [ref. 34698], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:297 [ref. 36544], Huber 2019:129 [ref. 36941], Conway et al. 2019:115 [ref. 37045]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis pleurospilus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central America: Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

plumbea, Gambusia Troschel [F. H.] in Müller 1865:640 (v. 3) [Reisen in den Vereinigten Staaten, Canada und Mexico; ref. 14184] Mexico. Holotype (unique): ZMB (missing). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:173 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Poeser 2003:47 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:162 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:359 [ref. 27075], Huber 2019:115 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

poecilioides, Lebistes De Filippi [F.] 1861:70, Pl. 4 (figs. 6, 6a-d) [Archivio per la Zoologia, l'Anatomia e la Fisiologia v. 1; ref. 1328] Barbados, West Indies. No types known. •Synonym of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:56 [ref. 7067] as poeciloides). •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). •Species incertae sedis in Poeciliinae -- (Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205]). •Possibly a synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Poeser & Isbrücker 2002:49 [ref. 34635], Huber 2019:115 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

poeciloides, Limia Girard [C. F.] 1858:170 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] Indianola, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 670 (2, missing). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072]. See also Girard 1859:70, Pl. 38 (figs. 8-14) [ref. 13405]. •Synonym of Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:54 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072], Poeser 2003:153 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:115 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

porosus, Poeciliopsis de Buen [F.] 1943:273, Figs. 9-11 [Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad de Mexico v. 14 (no. 1); ref. 13096] Lago de Camécuaro, Michoacán State, Mexico. Holotype: ex Estación Limnol. Pátzcuaro. Paratypes: Estación Limnol. Pátzcuaro (9), probably all types lost. •Synonym of Poeciliopsis infans (Woolman 1894) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:137 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:289 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:129 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poeciliopsis infans (Woolman 1894). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

presidionis, Poecilia Jordan [D. S.] & Culver [G. B.] in Jordan 1895:413, Pl. 29 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Río Presidio, Sinaloa, Mexico. Lectotype: CAS-SU 2687 (not separated). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.259-267 (10); CAS-SU 2687 (15 in one bottle, incl. lectotype, 2nd bottle 67 spec.); USNM 47493 [ex CAS-SU 2687] (9), 86252 [ex CAS-SU 2687] (8). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:55 [ref. 12291], Parenti et al. 1999:15-16 [ref. 24072] with a holotype and paratypes. Lectotype established as figured specimen in in caption to Pl. 114, p. 3257 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis presidionis (Jordan & Culver 1895) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:136 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:52 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:298 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:130 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis presidionis (Jordan & Culver 1895). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

prolifica, Poeciliopsis Miller [R. R.] 1960:5, Pl. 2 C-D [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 619; ref. 10418] Arroyo Sonolona, tributary to Río Culiacán, 18.5 miles by road east of Culiacán, Sinaloa, northwestern Mexico, 24°48'N, 107°08'W. Holotype: UMMZ 177272. Paratypes: (462) UMMZ 177273 (1, allotype), 172267 (orig. 461); USNM 196174 [ex UMMZ 173367] (11). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis prolifica Miller 1960 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:138 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:52 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:248 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:250 [ref. 31114], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:300 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:130 [ref. 36941], Conway et al. 2019:114 [ref. 37045]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis prolifica Miller 1960. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of central Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

psammophilus, Arizonichthys Nichols [J. T.] 1940:1 [American Museum Novitates No. 1084; ref. 3181] 3.5 miles east of Tanque Verde, Pima County, Arizona, U.S.A. Holotype: AMNH 15373 (not found in 1996). No diagnosis, so the name could be treated as not available, Huber 2019:130 [ref. 36941]. •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poeciliopsis occidentalis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Minckley & Marsh 2009:249 [ref. 31114], Huber 2019:130 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poeciliopsis occidentalis (Baird & Girard 1853). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pseudomontezumae, Xiphophorus Ahl [E.] 1938:53, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 124 (no. 3-4); ref. 17128] Mexico [?]. Holotype: ZMB 21083 (spec. in Fig. 1, dry). Paratypes: ZMB 21083 (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:175-176 [ref. 19981] as syntypes. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:95 [ref. 21847]. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848 -- (Gordon 1938:21 [ref. 36222]). •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). •Hybrid of Xiphophorus hellerii x Xiphophorus maculatus or possibly Xiphophorus hellerii x Xiphophorus variatus -- (Kallman & Atz 1967:118 [ref. 36224]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

pseudopunctata, Gambusia Rivas [L. R.] 1969:784, Figs. 1C-D, 3B [Copeia 1969 (no. 4); ref. 7839] Spring at Roseaux, 15 kilometers east of Jéremie, Départément du Sud, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 203163. Paratypes: GCRL [ex USNM 203164] (4), UMMZ 208139 [ex USNM 203164] (25), USNM 203164 (125, now 96). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:8-9 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia pseudopunctata Rivas 1969 -- (Greenfield 1983:457 [ref. 8337], Lee et al. 1983:15 [ref. 22527], Wildrick et al. 1985:1055 [ref. 11519], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:92 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:70 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia pseudopunctata Rivas 1969. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southern Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

psittakos, Phallotorynus Lucinda [P. H. F.], Rosa [R. S.] & Reis [R. E.] 2005:621, Fig. 9 [Copeia 2005 (no. 3); ref. 28318] Arroyo Clementina, east of Santa Rosa, San Pedro, Paraguay. Holotype: MNHNP 4621. Paratypes: AMNH 20441 (5); ANSP 173593 (11), 17593 (11); MCP 30469 (6), 30470 (6); MNHNP 1093 (10); NRM 22689 (2), 33530 (1), 33591 (5), 33614 (3); UFPB 2165 (4, 2 c&s); UMMZ 240156 (80, 9 c&s). •Synonym of Phallotorynus victoriae Oliveros 1983 -- (Meyer & Etzel 2006:84 [ref. 30730], Mirande & Koerber 2015:53 [ref. 35117]). •Valid as Phallotorynus psittakos Lucinda, Rosa & Reis 2005 -- (Meyer 2015:199 [ref. 34698], Lucinda & da Graça 2015:90 [ref. 35435], Koerber et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35267], Dickens 2019:167 [ref. 37135], Huber 2019:93 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phallotorynus psittakos Lucinda, Rosa & Reis 2005. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: South America: lower portions of Paraguay River drainage (Paraguay). Habitat: freshwater.

puetzi, Priapichthys Meyer [M. K.] & Etzel [V.] 1996:4, Figs. [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 49 (no. 1); ref. 22946] Small brook of upper Río Guarumo system, 20 kilometers on road from Punta Peña towards Gualaca, Bocas del Toro, Panama. Holotype: MTD F 16250. Paratypes: MTD F 16251-57 (7), SMF 21162 (1), UMMZ 230353 (2), ZMB 32532 (5). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:27 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Priapichthys puetzi Meyer & Etzel 1996 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:572 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:39 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:319 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:135 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Priapichthys puetzi Meyer & Etzel 1996. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Guarumo River basin, northern Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

pulchra, Platypoecilus Brind [W. L.] 1914:22, Fig. [Domesticated fish; ref. 21099] Mexico. No types known. Appeared as Platypoecilus pulchra (Boul.). Probably not an original description. Described earlier as a variety by Schreitmüller 1910:759 [ref. 34712]. •Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:151 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

pulchra, Platypoecilus maculatus var. Schreitmüller [W.] 1910:759, Fig. [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 21 (no. 47); ref. 34712] Aquarium specimen, locality unknown. No types known. Appeared as Platypoecilus maculatus var. pulchra (Boul. in litt.). There is no description of Boulenger for this species. Could be based on an aquarist-made variety or a natural one. •Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:150 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

punctata, Gambusia Poey [F.] 1854:384, 390, Pl. 32 (figs. 5-9) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Río Almendares, near Havana, Cuba. Syntypes or Poey specimens: ANSP 6978 (1); MCZ 6424 (3), 6393-94 (5, 53); USNM 4867 (9), 120411 [ex MCZ 6394] (1), plus other USNM lots. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:177 [ref. 22926], Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177]. Neotype (USNM 203165, fountain at Botanical Garden, Havana) designated by Rivas 1969, but potential syntypes are available and need further study. •Valid as Gambusia punctata Poey 1854 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:101 [ref. 7067], Greenfield 1983:457 [ref. 8337], Lee et al. 1983:16 [ref. 22527], Wildrick et al. 1985:1055 [ref. 11519], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Smith et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27621], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:93 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:70 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia punctata Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Cuba. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

puncticulata, Gambusia Poey [F.] 1854:386, 390, Pl. 31 (figs. 6-7) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Moats of the old city wall of Havana, Cuba. Lectotype: MCZ 46568 [ex MCZ 6401]. Paralectotypes: MCZ 6391 (5), 6397 (6), 6401 (about 31); USNM 120259 [ex MCZ 6401] (6). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:177 [ref. 22926], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177]. Lectotype selected by Fink 1971:18 [ref. 21211]. •Valid as Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:97 [ref. 7067], Fink 1971:17 [ref. 21211], Lee et al. 1983:17 [ref. 22527], Greenfield & Wildrick 1984:931 [ref. 11453], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:94 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:71 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Caribbean islands: Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba and Jamaica. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

punctifer, Trigonophallus Hubbs [C. L.] 1926:49 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 16; ref. 2233] Quibari Creek, a tributary of Río Cricamola, Caribbean slope of Panama. Holotype: UMMZ 72573. Paratypes: UMMZ 72572 (1), 72574-75 (4, 3). •Valid as Brachyrhaphis punctifer (Hubbs 1926) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:90 [ref. 7067], Mojica et al. 1997:301 [ref. 22823], Meyer & Etzel 1998:156 [ref. 23986], Meyer & Etzel 2001:39 [ref. 25344], Lucinda & Reis 2005:38 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:30 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:52 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhaphis punctifer (Hubbs 1926). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of western Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

punctulata, Gambusia punctata var. Garman [S.] 1895:87 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Remedios, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 1409 (1), 1410 (4) •Synonym of Gambusia punctata Poey 1854 -- (Huber 2019:71 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Gambusia punctata Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pygmaeus, Girardinus Rivas [L. R.] 1944:49 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 23; ref. 13184] Río Negro, of the Hatiguanico system (Ciénaga de Zapata), at Los Cristales, Matanzas Province, Cuba. Holotype: USNM 203153 [ex Rivas coll. 128]. Paratypes: MCZ 36179 (4); USNM 130215 [ex Rivas coll. 47] (4), 205458 [ex Rivas coll. 47] (184). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:10 [ref. 24072]. Type information: Rivas 1969:202 [ref. 25092]. •Synonym of Girardinus metallicus Poey 1854 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:112 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:10 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:118 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:75 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Girardinus metallicus Poey 1854. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pygmaeus, Xiphophorus Hubbs [C. L.] & Gordon [M.] 1943:31, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Copeia 1943 (no. 1); ref. 10860] Río Axtla of Río Panuco system, at Axtla, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 124365. Paratypes: UMMZ 108601 (1), 124366 (orig. 173, now 168, 5 c&s); USNM 214158 (29); ZMA [ex UMMZ] 109800 (5). Additional material: UMMZ 196924 [? ex UMMZ 12430] (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:72 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Xiphophorus pygmaeus Hubbs & Gordon 1943 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:65 [ref. 7067], Rosen 1979:356 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:56 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Morris et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25123], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:263 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:24 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:111 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:405 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:151 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus pygmaeus Hubbs & Gordon 1943. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Pánuco River basin, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

quadripunctatus, Phallichthys Bussing [W. A.] 1979:3, Figs. 2-4 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 301; ref. 6946] Small tributary of Río Sixaola, .5 kilometers northeast of Chase on road between Puerto Viejo and Bratsi, Limón Province, Costa Rica. Holotype: LACM 36018-1. Paratypes: LACM 36018-2 (16); UCR 897-2 (18, 2 cs), 1017-1 (8); USNM 216559 [ex UCR 897-2] (5). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:13-14 [ref. 24072], Angulo et al. 2015:381 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Phallichthys quadripunctatus Bussing 1979 -- (Bussing 1987:142 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:216 [ref. 24179], Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:42 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:174 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:86 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phallichthys quadripunctatus Bussing 1979. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Sixaola River basin, eastern Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

quadruncus, Gambusia Langerhans [R. B.] in Langerhans, Gifford, Domínguez-Domínguez, Garcí-B. & Dewitt 2012:1520, Figs. 2-3 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 81 (issue 5); ref. 32308] Río Guayalejo, El Limón, Tamailipas, 19 km south of Xicoténcati, 22°49'53"N, 99°00'39"W, México. Holotype: UMMZ 248855. Paratypes: TNHC45833 (1), 45834 (22), 457835 (5), 248857 (26), 248858 (2). •Valid as Gambusia quadruncus Langerhans 2012 -- (Meyer 2015:96 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:71 [ref. 36941] as quadrunca). Current status: Valid as Gambusia quadruncus Langerhans 2012. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of central Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

rachovii, Heterophallus Regan [C. T.] 1914:66, Fig. A [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 14 (no. 79); ref. 3664] Veracruz [probably the city of], Mexico. Lectotype: BMNH 1914.3.23.16. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1914.3.23.17-21 (5). Original spelling rachovii probably should be used, not the emended spelling rachowi. Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:79 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Gambusia rachowi (Regan 1914) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:107 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:46 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205]). •Valid as Heterophallus rachovii Regan 1914 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:231 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398] as ranchovii, Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:132 [ref. 34698], Álvarez-Pleigo et al. 2016:178 [ref. 34825], Huber 2019:79 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Heterophallus rachovii Regan 1914. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Middle Coatzacoalcos River basin, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

rachovii, Xiphophorus Regan [C. T.] 1911:373 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 8 (no. 45); ref. 5762] Porto Barrios between Lake Yzabal [Izabal] and Río Motagua, eastern coast of Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1911.8.14.4-8 (6). •Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:66 [ref. 7067], as helleri, Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:383 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:151 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

raddai, Cnesterodon Meyer [M. K.] & Etzel [V.] 2001:248, Figs. 1-4 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 51 (no. 17); ref. 25973] Swamp near Resistencia, Rio Paraná basin, Province Formosa, Argentina. Holotype: MTD F 25416. Paratypes: MTD F 25417-27 (11); SMF 28888 (8). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:27 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Cnesterodon raddai Meyer & Etzel 2001 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:557 [ref. 27061], Lucinda 2005:262 [ref. 28272], Lucinda et al. 2006:27 [ref. 28858], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Aguilera et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30366] once as radai, Koerber 2011:7 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:12 [ref. 33621], Meyer 2015:50 [ref. 34698], Mirande & Koerber 2015:52 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35267], Huber 2019:56 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Cnesterodon raddai Meyer & Etzel 2001. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Paraguay and lower Paraná River basins: Argentina and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

ramsdeni, Dactylophallus Rivas [L. R.] 1944:48 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 23; ref. 13184] Río Guaso at the city of Guantánamo, Oriente Province, Cuba. Holotype: USNM 203152 [ex Rivas coll. 73]. Paratypes: MCZ 36176 (5); UMMZ 143371 (5, 2 c&s); USNM 130217 (5), 203152 (1), 206324 (136). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:5 [ref. 24072]. Type information: Rivas 1969:202 [ref. 25092]. •Synonym of Girardinus denticulatus Garman 1895, but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1983:22 [ref. 22527], Meyer 2015:116 [ref. 34698]). •Synonym of Girardinus denticulatus Garman 1895 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:111 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:5 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:75 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Girardinus denticulatus Garman 1895. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

regani, Gambusia Hubbs [C. L.] 1926:28 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 16; ref. 2233] Río Forlón, Forlón, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 14033. Paratypes: FMNH 14034-45 (12). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Gambusia regani Hubbs 1926 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:105 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:46 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:225 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:18 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:97 [ref. 34698], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Huber 2019:71 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia regani Hubbs 1926. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Tamesi River basin, Tamaulipas, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

reisi, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:151, Figs. 50-51 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Creek on Iporanga exit to Apiaí, São Paulo, Brazil, 24°31'37"S, 48°49'55"W. Holotype: MCP 30407. Paratypes: MCP 20571 (10), 20579 (117, 4 c&s), 20581 (17), 20589 (10), 27004 (8). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Phalloceros reisi Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:189 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:89 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros reisi Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Headwaters of Tietê River, Paraíba do Sul River, Ribeira de Iguape River and small coastal drainages in São Paulo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

reticulata, Phalloceros caudomaculatus var. Stoye [F. H.] 1935:61, Pl. 10 (top fig.) [Tropical fishes for the home; ref. 19824] Not available, not an original description. Name dates to a German aquarist publication of the early 20th century [ref. 34703]. •In the synonymy of Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel 1868). Current status: Synonym of Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel 1868). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

reticulata, Poecilia Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1859:412 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1859; ref. 18542] Guayre River, Caracas, Venezuela. Syntypes: BMNH 1866.6.6.3 [ex ZMB] (1); ZMB 3468 (9), 3469 (8, lost). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:175 [ref. 19981]. •Valid as Lebistes reticulata (Peters 1859) -- (Raju Thomas et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26359]). •Valid as Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:56 [ref. 7067], Lee et a, Esmaeili et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35254]l. 1980:550 [ref. 22416], Uyeno & Arai in Masuda et al. 1984:83 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:347 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:146 [ref. 24556], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:431 [ref. 25598], Page & Burr 1991:234 [ref. 18983], Pethiyagoda 1991:192 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:758 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:91 [ref. 23448], Skelton 1993:280 [ref. 24071], McDowall in McDowall 1996:118 [ref. 22909], Coad 1996:85 [ref. 25304], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:746 [ref. 24702], Savvaitova & Reshetnikov 1998:108 [ref. 23592], Marquet et al. 1999:43 [ref. 23934], Fricke 1999:114 [ref. 24106], Castro et al. 1998:79 [ref. 24271], Keith et al. 1999:92 [ref. 24548], Rema Devi & Raghunathan 1999:173 [ref. 24760], Rema Devi et al. 1999:161 [ref. 24758], Parenti 1999:2200 [ref. 24784], Fuller et al. 1999:312 [ref. 25838], Nakabo 2000:546 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:72 [ref. 25191], Freyhof et al. 2000:96 [ref. 25184], Lyons et al. 2000:67 [ref. 26594], Rafique 2000:326 [ref. 25220], Matsuura et al. 2000:194 [ref. 26000], Sakai et al. 2001:89 [ref. 25693], Kottelat 2001:144 [ref. 25780], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Skelton 2001:280 [ref. 27406], Allen et al. 2002:366 [ref. 25930], Keith et al. 2002:96 [ref. 31473], Nakabo 2002:546 [ref. 26001], Lim et al. 2002:72 [ref. 28310], Poeser 2003:140 [ref. 26783], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Yadav 2003:23 [ref. 27711], Seegers et al. 2003:41 [ref. 28087], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3317 [ref. 27945], Larson & Pidgeon 2004:196 [ref. 28107], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:179 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:174 [ref. 28369], Poeser et al. 2005:97 [ref. 28493], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Mundy 2005:295 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:743 [ref. 28997], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:484 [ref. 29996], Scharpf 2007:20 [ref. 30398], Fricke et al. 2009:32 [ref. 30213], Schories et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30534], Minckley & Marsh 2009:256 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:442 [ref. 31215], Fricke et al. 2011:371 [ref. 31242], Marshall 2011:199 [ref. 31755], Hammer et al. 2012:66 [ref. 32389], Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194], Kottelat 2013:300 [ref. 32989], Larson et al. 2013:71 [ref. 32988], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Phillip et al. 2013:20 [ref. 32896], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Morgan et al. 2014:41 [ref. 36567], Ramos et al. 2014:5 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:33 [ref. 33341], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:298 [ref. 34894], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:894 [ref. 34062], McDowall & Stewart 2015:974 [ref. 34275], Meyer 2015:205 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Acanthophacelus, Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492], Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496], Costa et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35684], Esmaeili et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35254], Koerber et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35267], Labatos 2017:4 [ref. 36239], Lucinda 2017:1 [ref. 35162], Bruton et al. 2018:109 [ref. 36373], Esmaeili et al. 2018:75 [ref. 36089], Fricke et al. 2018:109 [ref. 35805], Koerber et al. 2019:10 [ref. 36736], Ng et al. 2019:537 [ref. 36606], Huber 2019:116 [ref. 36941], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Northern South America and Western Atlantic: coastal drainages of Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, the Brazilian States Amapá and Pará, and Trinidad and Tobago; widely introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

reticulata, Xiphophorus helleri var. Schreitmüller [W.] 1928:65 [Leitfaden zur Pflege und Zucht von einheimischen und exotischen Zierfischen, Schnecken und Wasserpflanzen 1st. ed.; ref. 20640] Aquarium specimen. No types known. Based on an aquarium variety, not available. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848 -- (Huber 2019:146 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

reticulatus, Girardinus januarius var. Gippius [K.] 1910:392, Figs. 31-32 [v. 2 (no. 4) [1909]; ref. 18294] Unknown locality. No types known. •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

reticulatus, Girardinus januarius var. Köhler [W.] 1906:495, fig. [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 17 (no. 50); ref. 34702] Santos, Brazil [aquarium import]. No types known. Species confused with Poecilia reticulata in early aquarium literature. •In the synonymy of Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel 1868) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:566 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622], Meyer 2015:180 [ref. 34698], Mirande & Koerber 2015:53 [ref. 35117]). •Valid as Phalloceros reticulatus (Köhler 1906) -- (Huber 2019:90 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel 1868). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

reticulatus, Pseudoxiphophorus Troschel [F. H.] in Müller 1865:638 (v. 3) [Reisen in den Vereinigten Staaten, Canada und Mexico; ref. 14184] Mexico. Holotype (unique): ZMB (lost). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:175 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:131 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848) -- (Meyer 2015:338 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:138 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

retropinna, Poecilia Regan [C. T.] 1908:458 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 2 (no. 11); ref. 3637] Boruca, Costa Rica. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1909.3.13.69. •Valid as Poeciliopsis retropinna (Regan 1908) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:139 [ref. 7067], Bussing 1987:150 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:227 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:301 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:130 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis retropinna (Regan 1908). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Costa Rica and southwestern Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

rhabdophora, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1908:457 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 2 (no. 11); ref. 3637] Río Grande de Térraba, Costa Rica. Lectotype: BMNH 1909.3.13.54. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1909.3.13.48-53 (6), 1909.3.13.55-56 (2). Lectotype selected by Bussing 1998:205 [ref. 24179]; the six syntypes, BMNH 1909.3.13.48-53 from Volcán Tenorio, are a different species B. olomina Meek. •Valid as Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Regan 1908) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:89 [ref. 7067], Bussing 1987:134 [ref. 22927], Reznick et al. 1993 [ref. 20309] as Brachyraphis, Mojica et al. 1997:301 [ref. 22823], Meyer & Etzel 1998:156 [ref. 23986] as Brachyraphis, Bussing 1998:203 [ref. 24179], Lucinda & Reis 2005:38 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:31 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:52 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Regan 1908). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pirris and Terraba regions, Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

rhizophorae, Gambusia Rivas [L. R.] 1969:791, Figs. 2C-D, 3D [Copeia 1969 (no. 4); ref. 7839] Mangrove swamp at Matheson Hammock, Biscayne Bay, Miami, Dade County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 203223. Paratypes: GCRL [ex USNM 205493] (4); UMMZ 145059 [ex USNM 203228] (3); USNM 203224 (26, now 25), 205493 [ex UMIM 4792] (59, now 55). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia rhizophorae Rivas 1969 -- (Lee et al. 1980:545 [ref. 22416], Greenfield 1983:457 [ref. 8337], Wildrick et al. 1985:1054 [ref. 11519], Robins & Ray 1986:111 [ref. 23100], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:925 [ref. 23897], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072], Musick et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24959], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:98 [ref. 34698], Robins et al. 2018:435 [ref. 35886], Huber 2019:71 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia rhizophorae Rivas 1969. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Florida [ U.S.A.] and Cuba. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

riddlei, Toxus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1903:226, Figs. 6-7 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 1217] San Cristóbal, Cuba. Holotype: CAS 78944 [ex IU 9656]. Paratypes: CAS 213277 [ex 78944, IU 9656] (1), FMNH 3915 (1), USNM 126699 [ex Bur. Fish, 1463] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:18 [ref. 24072]. •Synonym of Girardinus creolus Garman 1895 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:111 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:18 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:112 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:75 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Girardinus creolus Garman 1895. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

rivasi, Girardinus microdactylus Barus [V.] & Wohlgemuth [E.] 1994:250, Figs. 1-2 [Folia Zoologica: international journal of vertebrate zoology. v. 43 (no. 3); ref. 22069] Man-made freshwater pool near Rancho Tesoro Hotel, Nueva Gerona, Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. Holotype: Inst. Landscape Ecol., Acad. Sci. Czech R. 11993. Paratypes: Inst. Landscape Ecol., Acad. Sci. Slovakia 21933 (1), 31933 (8), 41993 (4), 51993 (14); MNHN 1993-0110 and 1993-0111 (total 27). •Synonym of Girardinus microdactylus Rivas 1944, but a valid subspecies as described. •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Girardinus microdactylus Rivas 1944 -- (Huber 2019:76 [ref. 36941]) Current status: Synonym of Girardinus microdactylus Rivas 1944. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

rivasi, Limia (Limia) Franz [R.] & Burgess [G. H.] 1983:51, Figs. 1-3 [Northeast Gulf Science v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 8350] 1 kilometer southeast of Anse à Galet, Ile de la Gonave, Dépt. de l'Ouest, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: UF 31434. Paratypes: AMNH 49735 (10); FMNH 94412 (10); MNHNSD 340-041-1; UF 28007 (48), 31435 (1, allotype); UMMZ 209797 (10); USNM 232484 (10). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:52 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Limia rivasi Franz & Burgess 1983 -- (Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:563 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:146 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia rivasi (Franz & Burgess 1983) -- (Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:116 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia rivasi (Franz & Burgess 1983). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Gonave Island near Port au Prince, Haiti. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

roseni, Brachyrhaphis Bussing [W. A.] 1988:81, Figs. 1-2 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 16224] Quebrada la Palma, 3 kilometers west of Paso Canoas, Costa Rica, elevation 90 meters. Holotype: LACM 44220-1 [ex UCR 103-4]. Paratypes: ANSP (28 lots, 640), BMNH 1974.9.19.30-39 (10), LACM (6 lots, 377, 2 c&s), UCR (9 lots, 370, 1 c&s), UMMZ [ex USNM] (6 lots, 41), USNM (16 lots, orig. 374). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:4-5 [ref. 24072], Angulo et al. 2015:370 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Brachyrhaphis roseni Bussing 1988 -- (Mojica et al. 1997:301 [ref. 22823], Meyer & Etzel 1998:156 [ref. 23986], Bussing 1998:205 [ref. 24179], Parenti et al. 1999:4 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:38 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:32 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:53 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhaphis roseni Bussing 1988. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southern Costa Rica and western Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

roseni, Xiphophorus Meyer [M. K.] & Wischnath [L.] 1981:133, Figs. 4-6 [Aquaria: Vivaristische Fachzeitschrift mit Vereinsmitteilungen v. 28 (no. 8); ref. 8441] Arroyo Cahpultepec, 7 kilometers northeast of Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. Holotype: SMF 16204. Paratypes: SMF 16205-06 (1, 1), 16207 (1). •Valid as Xiphophorus roseni Meyer & Wischnath 1981 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061]). •A hybrid between X. couchianus and X. variatus -- (Meyer 1983:287 [ref. 34714], Meyer 2015:409 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:151 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

rositae, Poecilia (Mollienesia) Meyer [M. K.], Schneider [K.], Radda [A. C.], Wilde [B.] & Schartl [M.] 2004:147, Figs. 1-4 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 54; ref. 28000] About 11 kilometers south of Lanquín, río Cahabón system, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: MTD F 28312. Paratypes: MTD F 28313-15 (3), F 28316-18 (3); SMF 29772-29775 (4). •Valid as Poecilia rositae Meyer, Schneider, Radda, Wilde & Schartl 2004 -- (Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Meyer 2015:245 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:116 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia rositae Meyer, Schneider, Radda, Wilde & Schartl 2004. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Belize and Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

roswithae, Brachyrhaphis Meyer [M. K.] & Etzel [V.] 1998:157, Figs. 1-6 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 77 (no. 2); ref. 23986] Brook near El Valle (8°58'N, 80°22'W), Coclé, Panama. Holotype: MTD F 17046. Paratypes: MTD F 17047 (3), SMF 28133-34 (9, 5) Type catalog: Zarske 2003:27 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Brachyrhaphis roswithae Meyer & Etzel 1998 -- (Meyer & Etzel 2001:39 [ref. 25344], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:38 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:34 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:53 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhaphis roswithae Meyer & Etzel 1998. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Coclé, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

rubra, Platypoecilus Brind [W. L.] 1914:22 [Domesticated fish; ref. 21099] Mexico. No types known. Probably described earlier as a variety by Stansch 1914:196 [ref. 19661]. Named with Stanch [sic] as author. Not an original description. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:151 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

rubra, Platypoecilus var. Stansch [K.] 1914:196, Fig. [Die exotischen Zierfische in Wort und Bild; ref. 19661] Mexico (aquarium import). No types known. Mentioned earlier as a variety of Platypoecilus maculatus by Stansch 1911:404 [ref. 34710] and Gerlach 1912:677 [ref. 34711]. •Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:151 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

rubra, Platypoecilus maculatus var. Stansch [K.] 1911:404, Fig. [Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 8 (no. 28); ref. 34710] Aquarium specimen, locality unknown. No types known. Originally as Platypoecilus maculatus, rote Varietät (var. rubra?). Nomen nudum, not available. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:151 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

rubra, Platypoecilus maculatus var. Gerlach [G.] 1912:677, Fig. 2 [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 23 (no. 42); ref. 34711] Aquarium specimen, locality unknown. No types known. Mentioned earlier by Stansch 1911:404 [ref. 34710]. Nomen nudum, not available. Could be based on an aquarist-made variety or a natural one. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:151 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

salvatoris, Poecilia Regan [C. T.] 1907:65, Pl. 14 (figs. 2-3) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 19 (no. 109) (art. 6); ref. 15174] Warm springs in San Salvador, El Salvador. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.191 (34), BMNH 1977.8.10.1-6 (6). Poeser 2003:49 [ref. 26769] wrongly considers this as a replacement name. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:51 [ref. 7067]). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) but a valid subspecies -- (Poeser 2003:49 [ref. 26769] as a variation, Poeser 2003:360 [ref. 27075]). •Possibly a synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Ho et al. 2016:40 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:117 [ref. 36941]). •Valid as Poecilia salvatoris Regan 1907 -- (Poeser 1995:244 [ref. 22070], Meyer & Radda 2000:76 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:49 [ref. 26721], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], McMahan et al. 2013:447 [ref. 32422], Meyer 2015:247 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, González-Murcia et al. 2019:297 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia salvatoris Regan 1907. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Both slopes of Central America: El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. Habitat: freshwater.

sanguinea, Platypoecilus maculatus Stoye [F. H.] 1932:35 [ ref. 34705] Aquarium specimen, locality unknown. No types known. Also in Stoye 1935:51 [ref. 19824]. Not an original description, described earlier by Schreitmüller 1928:68 [ref. 20640]. Probably based on an aquarist-made variety. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

sanguinea, Platypoecilus maculatus var. Schreitmüller [W.] 1928:68 [Leitfaden zur Pflege und Zucht von einheimischen und exotischen Zierfischen, Schnecken und Wasserpflanzen 1st. ed.; ref. 20640] Aquarium specimen, locality unknown. No types known. Probably based on an aquarist-made variety. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:574 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:147 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

sanguinea, Xiphophorus helleri var. Schreitmüller [W.] 1928:65 [Leitfaden zur Pflege und Zucht von einheimischen und exotischen Zierfischen, Schnecken und Wasserpflanzen 1st. ed.; ref. 20640] Aquarium specimen. No types known. Based on an aquarium variety, not available. •In the synonymy of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848 -- (Huber 2019:146 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

santaelena, Poeciliopsis Bussing [W. A.] 2008:830, Figs. 1-4 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 29806] Río Potrero Grande, approximately 8 kilometers from river mouth, Sector Santa Elena, Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, elevation 100 meters. Holotype: LACM 56480-1[ex. UCR 2696-1]. Paratypes: LACM 56479-1 (10); UCR 2507-2 (3), 2508-1 (6), 2618-1 (64), 2696-1 (41), 2697-1 (4). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:381 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis santaelena Bussing 2008 -- (Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194], Huber 2019:130 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis santaelena Bussing 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Potrero Grande River, Santa Elena peninsula, Pacific slope of Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

sarrafae, Poecilia Bragança [P. H. N.] & Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2011:370, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 21 (no. 4) [Dec. 2010]; ref. 31195] Pond near rio Parnaíba, Jandira, 3°01'19"S, 41°54'32"W, Estado do Maranhão, Brazil, elevation 7 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 7786. Paratypes: UFRJ 3811 (98, 5 c&s), 3897 (53), 3905 (5, c&s),4614 (4), 4961 (15); MZUSP 51070 (4); USNM 342715 (4). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Poecilia sarrafae Bragança & Costa 2011 -- (Bragança et al. 2012:338 [ref. 31747], Ramos et al. 2014:5 [ref. 35321], Meyer 2015:274 [ref. 34698], Melo et al. 2016:377 [ref. 35317], Huber 2019:117 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia sarrafae Bragança & Costa 2011. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Parnaíba and Mearim River basins, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

scalpridens, Cnesterodon Garman [S.] 1895:45, Pls. 5 (fig. 12), 8 (fig. 17) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Santarém, Amazon basin, Brazil [Obidos; Santarém; Tapajos; Villa Bella; and Trombetas, Amazon River basin]. Lectotype: MCZ 6830. Paralectotypes: MCZ 6261 (1), 6355 (1), 6839 (6). Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:117 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Poecilia scalpridens (Garman 1895) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:57 [ref. 7067], Figueiredo & Moreira 2018:443 [ref. 36088], Huber 2019:117 [ref. 36941]). •Valid as Pamphorichthys scalpridens (Garman 1895) -- (Rodriguez 1997:672 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:167 [ref. 34698]). Current status: Valid as Pamphorichthys scalpridens (Garman 1895). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Amazon River channel and Tapajós River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

scarlli, Poeciliopsis Meyer [M. K.], Riehl [R.], Dawes [J. A.] & Dibble [I.] 1985:26, Figs. 102 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 8133] Canal at El Bordqueral, 40 kilometers north on highway 200 from the state boundary Guerrero/Michoacán, Michoacán, Mexico. Holotype: SMF 19715. Paratypes: SMF 19716-19 (4), 19720-23 (4). •Synonym of Poeciliopsis turrubarensis (Meek 1912) -- (Miller 2006:250 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Poeciliopsis scarlli Meyer, Riehl, Dawes & Dibble 1985 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:52 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:302 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:131 [ref. 36941], Conway et al. 2019:115 [ref. 37045]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis scarlli Meyer, Riehl, Dawes & Dibble 1985. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Guerrero/Michoacán border area, Pacific slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

schneideri, Poecilia Valenciennes [A.] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:159 [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Suriname. No types known. Proposed as a replacement name for Poecilia vivipara. •Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Poeser 2003:46 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:139 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:358 [ref. 27075], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:1 [ref. 33696], Huber 2019:117 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

senilis, Gambusia Girard [C. F.] 1859:122 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27410] Río Chihuahua, Río Grande drainage, Mexico. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0418 [ex USNM 3503]. Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:72 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Gambusia senilis Girard 1859 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:104 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:546 [ref. 22416], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Page & Burr 1991:237 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:46 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Garrett & Edwards 2003:783 [ref. 27258], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:225 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:18 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page & Burr 2011:447 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:100 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:72 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia senilis Girard 1859. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Texas (U.S.A.) [now extinct], and Atlantic slope of northern Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

septentrionalis, Cnesterodon Rosa [R. S.] & Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1993:706, Figs. 13, 18 [Copeia 1993 (no. 3); ref. 20993] Swamp near the Córrego do Rancho fountainhead, Município de Alto Araguaia, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 41380. Paratypes: MZUSP 41370 (19, 2 c&s), 41371 (3), 41381-82 (4, 8). •Valid as Cnesterodon septentrionalis Rosa & Costa 1993 -- (Lucinda & Garavello 2001:123 [ref. 25093], Meyer & Etzel 2001:248 [ref. 25973], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:557 [ref. 27061], Lucinda 2005:265 [ref. 28272], Lucinda et al. 2006:27 [ref. 28858], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Aguilera et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30366], Meyer 2015:51 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:56 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Cnesterodon septentrionalis Rosa & Costa 1993. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Araguaia River basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

serripenis, Toxus Rivas [L. R.] 1958:283, Figs. 1 (5-6), 11 (2) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 102 (no. 3); ref. 12107] Upper Río Taco Taco at Rangel, Pinar del Río Province [Artemisa], Cuba. Holotype: USNM 203151 [ex Rivas coll. 69]. Paratypes: (32 listed) MNHN [ex USNM 206295] (2, not found), USNM 206295 [ex Rivas coll. 10] (orig. 33, now 31). Type information: Rivas 1969:202 [ref. 25092]. •Valid as Toxus serripenis Rivas 1958 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:110 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1983:26 [ref. 22527]). •Synonym of Girardinus creolus Garman 1895 -- (Rodriguez et al. 1992 [ref. 19892], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:112 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:76 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Girardinus creolus Garman 1895. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

sexradiatus, Gambusia nicaraguensis Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:225 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] Río Papaloapan at Papaloapan, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102989. Paratypes: UMMZ 65278 (1), 92115 (25), 97540 (10, now 9), 97542-43 (4, 5), 108570 (28), 108581-82 (1, 3); USNM 117537 [ex UMMZ 102989] (2). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia sexradiata Hubbs 1936 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:98 [ref. 7067], Greenfield 1983:457 [ref. 8337], Greenfield et al. 1982:137 [ref. 21395], Wildrick et al. 1985:1054 [ref. 11519], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:47 [ref. 22290], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:120 [ref. 22947], Parenti et al. 1999:8 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:226 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:19 [ref. 30398], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Pérez León & Schmitter Soto 2007:169 [ref. 32537], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:101 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:72 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia sexradiata Hubbs 1936. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Central America: Belize, Guatemala and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

signum, Xiphophorus helleri Rosen [D. E.] & Kallman [K. D.] 1969:5, Figs. 1A, 2A, 3, 4A, 5-7 [American Museum Novitates No. 2379; ref. 7841] Río Semococh, tributary of Río Chajmaic, 15 kilometers by road south of Sebol, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 27675. Paratypes or additional material: AMNH 27671 (413, 2 c&s), 27677-78 (18, 551); UMMZ 187935 (205), 187941 (441), 187951 (305). •Valid as Xiphophorus signum Rosen & Kallman 1969 -- (Rosen 1979:364 [ref. 22796], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061], Meyer & Schartl 2003:61 [ref. 27477], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:407 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:152 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus signum Rosen & Kallman 1969. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Río de la Pasion basin, Alta Verapaz, Atlantic slope of Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

sonoriensis, Girardinus Girard [C. F.] 1859:120 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27410] San Bernardino Creek, tributary of Río Yaqui, Sonora, Mexico. Syntypes: MCZ 1310 (1), 1461 (1). •Synonym of Poeciliopsis occidentalis (Baird & Girard 1853), but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1980:553 [ref. 22416], Fuller et al. 1999:315 [ref. 25838], Scharpf 2007:21 [ref. 30398], Meyer 2015:295 [ref. 34698]). •Synonym of Poeciliopsis occidentalis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:137 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:570 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Poeciliopsis sonoriensis (Girard 1859) -- (Miller 2006:249 [ref. 28615], Minckley & Marsh 2009:252 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:451 [ref. 31215], Huber 2019:131 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis sonoriensis (Girard 1859). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Río Yaqui system, Arizona (U.S.A.) and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

speciosa, Gambusia Girard [C. F.] 1859:121 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11; ref. 27410] Río San Diego, near Cadereita, Nuevo León, Mexico. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:95 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Gambusia speciosa Girard 1859 -- (Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:47 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Garrett & Edwards 2003:783 [ref. 27258], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:227 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:19 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:254 [ref. 31114], Meyer et al. 2010:13 [ref. 30817], Page & Burr 2011:446 [ref. 31215], Langerhans et al. 2012:1530 [ref. 32308], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:103 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:72 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia speciosa Girard 1859. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Texas (U.S.A.) and Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

sphenops, Poecilia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:130, Pl. 525-526, bottom [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Veracruz, Mexico. Lectotype: MNHN B-0930. Paralectotypes: MNHN 2007-001 (7, ex B-0930). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:30 [ref. 19576]. Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:118 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Villa 1982:134 [ref. 36708], Poeser 1992:81 [ref. 21511], Kottelat et al. 1993:91 [ref. 23448], Paepke & Meyer 1995:287 [ref. 21889], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:50 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Parenti 1999:2200 [ref. 24784], Fuller et al. 1999:313 [ref. 25838], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Parenti in Randall & Lim 2000:599 [ref. 25122], Marín 2000:70 [ref. 26252], Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], Keith et al. 2002:94 [ref. 31473], Poeser 2002:246 [ref. 26215], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:238 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:20 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:442 [ref. 31215], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], McMahan et al. 2013:447 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Palacios et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32935], Kottelat 2013:300 [ref. 32989], Meyer 2015:248 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:297 [ref. 36544], Huber 2019:118 [ref. 36941], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Both slopes of Central America: Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua. Introduced in Tobago, Society Islands and elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

spilonota, Poecilia Regan [C. T.] 1908:460 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 2 (no. 11); ref. 3637] San José, Costa Rica. Syntypes: BMNH 1907.2.11.44-50 (7). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:52 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) -- (Poeser 2003:49 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:163 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:360 [ref. 27075], Huber 2019:118 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

spiloura, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:150, Figs. 48-49, 52 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Creek about 200 meters from arroio do Padre, Itati, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 29°29'04"S, 50°06'58"W. Holotype: MCP 30401. Paratypes: MCP 20293 (18), 28776 (2), 29270 (256, 6 c&s), 28731 (8), 29082 (27). Plus non-type specimens. Species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Phalloceros spiloura Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:189 [ref. 34698], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Huber 2019:90 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros spiloura Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Iguaçu River and coastal drainages, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

spilurus, Poecilia Günther [A.] 1866:345 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] Central America. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1971.6.9.1 [bad condition]. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061], Huber 2019:118 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

strigatus, Xiphophorus Regan [C. T.] 1907:65 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 19 (no. 109) (art. 6); ref. 15174] Veracruz and Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Syntypes: ? BMNH. •Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848, but a valid subspecies -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:66 [ref. 7067] as helleri). •Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:383 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:152 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel 1848. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

stuarti, Carlhubbsia Rosen [D. E.] & Bailey [R. M.] 1959:5, Pl. 1; Figs. 1, 3, 5 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 44 (pt 1, no. 1); ref. 12020] Río Polochic, Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 146084. Paratypes: UMMZ 172455 (1, allotype). Other specimens: UMMZ 146078 (290, 2 c&s), UMMZ 146093 (5). •Valid as Carlhubbsia stuarti Rosen & Bailey 1959 -- (Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:118 [ref. 22947], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:557 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:39 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:54 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Carlhubbsia stuarti Rosen & Bailey 1959. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Polochic River and Lake Izabal basins: Belize and Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

sulphuraria, Mollienesia Álvarez [J.] 1948:276, Figs. 1-2 [Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México v. 5 (no. 3-4); ref. 12931] Sulphur spring near Teapa, Tabasco, Mexico. Holotype: ENCB-IPN P-186. Paratypes: BMNH 1951.12.3.5-9 (6). •Valid as Poecilia sulphuraria (Álvarez 1948) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:55 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:50 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:167 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:239 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Palacios et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32935], Meyer 2015:250 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:118 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia sulphuraria (Álvarez 1948). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Grijalva River basin, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

sulphurophila, Limia Rivas [L. R.] 1980:36, Fig. 4c-d [Northeast Gulf Science v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3763] Balneario (spa) La Zurza, a sulfur spring 5 kilometers west northwest of Duverge, Province of Independecia, Dominican Republic. Holotype: MCZ 54401. Paratypes: AMNH 38235 (?); MCZ 54402 (?); UF 29825 (25), UF [ex FSU, ex MCZ 54402] (?); UMMZ 204198 (25); USNM 220537 [ex MCZ 54402] (22). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Limia sulphurophila Rivas 1980 -- (Lee et al. 1983:42 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:146 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia sulphurophila (Rivas 1980) -- (Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:119 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia sulphurophila (Rivas 1980). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lake Enriquillo, southern Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Habitat: freshwater.

surinamensis, Molinesia Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1844:36 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1844; ref. 19738] Mexico [erroneous, possibly Suriname]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3473. Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:174 [ref. 19981]; not the same species as Poecilia surinamensis Valenciennes 1821. Locality corrected by Paepke & Meyer •Senior synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846, but Molinesia surinamensis Müller & Troschel 1844 is secondarily preoccupied in Poecilia by Poecilia surinamensis Valenciennes 1821. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Poeser 2003:139 [ref. 26783], Huber 2019:119 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

surinamensis, Poecilia Valenciennes [A.] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:158, Pl. 51 (fig. 1) [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Suriname. Syntypes: MNHN B-0932 (5). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:29 [ref. 19576]. Also appeared in Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:120 [ref. 1011]. Syntypes corrected by Huber 2019:119 [ref. 36941]. •Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Poeser 2003:46 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:139 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:358 [ref. 27075], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:1 [ref. 33696], Huber 2019:119 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

taeniatus, Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus var. Regan [C. T.] 1905:363 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 16 (no. 93) (art. 41); ref. 18456] San Domingo de Guzman, Atlantic Slope of southeastern Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.10.10.116-120 (now 6, was 5). •Synonym of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel 1848) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:131 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:562 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848) -- (Meyer 2015:338 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:138 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel 1848). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tenuis, Poecilia Meek [S. E.] 1907:147 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 5); ref. 15159] Tiribi, Costa Rica [probably near the mouth of Río Torres]. Holotype: FMNH 6028. Paratypes: FMNH 6029 (2), 6226 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:68 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:51 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) -- (Poeser 2003:49 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:163 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:360 [ref. 27075], Huber 2019:120 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

teresae, Poecilia Greenfield [D. W.] 1990:449, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1990 (no. 2); ref. 16548] Macal River on Mountain Pine Ridge, tributary of eastern branch of Belize River, Belize, 16°52'N, 89°01'W. Holotype: FMNH 82918. Paratypes: FMNH 99270 (33), UMMZ 214591 (4, 2 c&s), USNM 305307 (4). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Poecilia teresae Greenfield 1990 -- (Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:126 [ref. 22947], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072], Meyer & Radda 2000:76 [ref. 25029], Poeser 2002:246 [ref. 26215], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:168 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Meyer 2015:252 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:120 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia teresae Greenfield 1990. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central Belize. Habitat: freshwater.

terrabensis, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1907:260 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 19 (no. 111); ref. 15175] Río Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica. Syntypes: BMNH 1907.2.11.31-32 (2), 1907.2.11.33-36 (4). •Valid as Brachyrhaphis terrabensis (Regan 1907) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:83 [ref. 7067], Bussing 1987:136 [ref. 22927], Mojica et al. 1997:301 [ref. 22823], Meyer & Etzel 1998:156 [ref. 23986], Bussing 1998:207 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:38 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:35 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:53 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhaphis terrabensis (Regan 1907). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southern Costa Rica and western Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

thermalis, Poecilia Steindachner [F.] 1863:181 [20], Pl. 4 (figs. 3-3a) [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 48 (1. Abth.); ref. 4208] La Esperanza sulphur spring, Chiapas, Mexico. Syntypes: (40) NMW 15153 (5), 59834 (4), 60645 (5), 76504-07 (7, 7, 7, 4). On p. 20 of separate. Poeser 2003:49 wrongly considers thermalis Günther 1866 as an original description with a type locality. •Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Poeser 2003:47 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:359 [ref. 27075], Meyer 2015:239 [ref. 34698]). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:568 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Poecilia thermalis Steindachner 1863 -- (Poeser 2003:166 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Palacios et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32935], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:120 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia thermalis Steindachner 1863. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Chiapas, Atlantic slope of southern Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

tico, Phallichthys Bussing [W. A.] 1963:3, Figs. 1-3 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 77; ref. 4328] Río Puerto Viejo, Sarapiquí drainage, Heredia Province, Costa Rica. Holotype: LACM 2780. Paratypes: LACM 2781 (112), 2782 (30); UMMZ 180304 (6, 1 c&s). •Valid as Phallichthys tico Bussing 1963 -- (Villa 1982:132 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:143 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:217 [ref. 24179], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:565 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:42 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:996 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:175 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:86 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phallichthys tico Bussing 1963. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Central Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

titthos, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:133, Figs. 25-26, 53 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Creek near beach, ca. 25°53'S, 48°37'W, Guaratuba, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 79670. Paratypes: MZUSP 43467 (26, 3 c&s). Plus non-types: USNM 297945 (13, 2 c&s). •Valid as Phalloceros titthos Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:190 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:90 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros titthos Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages flowing to Guaratuba Bay and Paranaguá Bay, Paraná State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

torralbasi, Glaridichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] 1903:225, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 1217] Pinar del Río, Cuba. Holotype: Apparently MCZ 32957, not CAS [ex CM 9662]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8500 (3). •Synonym of Girardinus uninotatus Poey 1860, but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1983:27 [ref. 22527]). •Synonym of Girardinus uninotatus Poey 1860 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:111 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:123 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:76 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Girardinus uninotatus Poey 1860. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tricolor, Limia caudofasciata var. Mayer [F.] (ex Myers) 1935:417, Abb. 1 [Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 32 (no. 27); ref. 30185] Small stream near Kingston, Jamaica. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Limia caudofasciata tricolor Stoye 1933. Based on Stoye (ex Myers) 1935, Tropical Fish for the Home, 2nd ed., p. 65, pl. 14, as Limia tricolor. Not an original description. •In the synonymy of Poecilia melanogaster Günther 1866 -- (Huber 2019:120 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia melanogaster Günther 1866. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

tricolor, Limia caudofasciata var. Stoye [F. H.] (ex Myers) 1933:13, 1 fig. [The Home Aquarium Bulletin v. 3 (no. 6); ref. 30184] Small stream near Kingston, Jamaica. No types known. •Synonym of Limia melanogaster (Günther 1866) -- (Lee et al. 1983:34 [ref. 22527], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Meyer 2015:138 [ref. 34698]). •Synonym of Poecilia caudofasciata (Regan 1913) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:60 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:567 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia melanogaster Günther 1866 -- (Huber 2019:120 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia melanogaster Günther 1866. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tridens, Poecilia (Acropoecilia) Hilgendorf [F. M.] 1889:52 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1889; ref. 2164] Port-au-Prince, Haiti, West Indies. Lectotype: ZMB 30958 [ex ZMB 12758]. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1889.3.20.59-62 (4); ZMB 12758-59 (5, 6). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:175 [ref. 19981]. Lectotype selected by Paepke & Seegers 1986:175 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Limia dominicensis (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Trewavas 1948:411 [ref. 13077]). •Questionably a synonym of Poecilia versicolor (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:60 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Limia tridens (Hilgendorf 1889) -- (Lee et al. 1983:43 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:148 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia tridens Hilgendorf 1889 -- (Huber 2019:121 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia tridens Hilgendorf 1889. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

tridentiger, Gambusia Garman [S.] 1895:89, Pl. 4 (fig. 10) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Fresh waters, Panama [Chilibre, Canal Zone, central Panama]. Syntypes: MCZ 6389 (orig. 10, now 7), 100253 [ex MCZ 6389a] (11); USNM 120260 [ex MCZ 6389a] (3). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Neoheterandria tridentiger (Garman 1895) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:128 [ref. 7067], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:158 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:82 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Neoheterandria tridentiger (Garman 1895). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

tristani, Panamichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1932:384, Fig. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 84; ref. 1411] Escobal, Costa Rica, elevation 400 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 53935. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Regan 1908) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:89 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:556 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:31 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:53 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Regan 1908). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tropicus, Platypoecilus Meek [S. E.] 1907:146 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 5); ref. 15159] Turrialba, Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 6027. Paratypes: FMNH 59535 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:51 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863) -- (Poeser 2003:49 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:163 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:360 [ref. 27075], Huber 2019:121 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia gillii (Kner 1863). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

tupinamba, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:125, Figs. 13-14 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Rio Macacu, about 1.5 kilometers southeast from Macacu, near road RJ 116, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 22°29'09"S, 42°39'34"W. Holotype: MCP 30408. Paratypes: MCP 20585 (26, 2 c&s). Species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Phalloceros tupinamba Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:190 [ref. 34698], Souto-Santos et al. 2019:182 [ref. 36560], Huber 2019:90 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros tupinamba Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Itamambuca, Macacu and Japuíba river drainages, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

turneri, Poeciliopsis Miller [R. R.] 1975:27, Figs. 8, 10 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 672; ref. 9272] Río Apamila, 4.5 kilometers west northwest of La Huerta, Jalisco, Mexico, 19°29'N, 104°39'W, elevation about 280 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 183942. Paratypes: KU 15496 (45); UMMZ 183941 (374), 183943 (1, allotype), 160926 (1), 167859 (2), 172137 (32), 172212 (56), 173582 (133, 3 c&s), 173796 (2), 178373 (152, now 149), 192215 (236), 192219 (19); USNM 214087 [ex UMMZ 192215] (30). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis turneri Miller 1975 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:52 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:249 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:22 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:303 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:131 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis turneri Miller 1975. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Purificación River basin, Jalisco, Pacific slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

turrubarensis, Gambusia Meek [S. E.] 1912:71 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 7); ref. 2960] Turrubares, San José, (Pacific slope) Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7676 [not 7576]. Paratypes: FMNH 7829 (94), 11351 (1, allotype); USNM 74242 (8). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:37 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis turrubarensis (Meek 1912) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:136 [ref. 7067], Villa 1982:135 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:151 [ref. 22927], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:53 [ref. 22290], Bussing 1998:228 [ref. 24179], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:250 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:22 [ref. 30398], Matamoros et al. 2009:14 [ref. 31241], McMahan et al. 2013:448 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:305 [ref. 34698], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:297 [ref. 36544], Huber 2019:131 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis turrubarensis (Meek 1912). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Central America: Mexico south to Colombia, and adjacent freshwater habitats. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tuxtlaensis, Heterandria McEachran [J. D.] & DeWitt [T. J.] 2008:49, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 1824; ref. 29720] South shore near Miniagua, Laguna Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 248620. Paratypes: AMNH 242324 (15); IBUNAM 14632 (15); TCWC 762.03 (77); UMMZ 248621 (15); USNM 392813 [not 14632] (15). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Heterandria tuxtlaensis McEachran & DeWitt 2008 -- (Scharpf 2008:6 [ref. 30399], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus tuxtlaensis (McEachran & DeWitt 2008) -- (Meyer 2015:348 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:139 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Pseudoxiphophorus tuxtlaensis (McEachran & DeWitt 2008). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Laguna Catemaco and tributaries, and Rio Grande de Catemaco, northern Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

uai, Phalloceros Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2008:144, Figs, 40-41 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29669] Córrego do Jaque, tributary to the left margin of the rio das Velhas, 19°34'28"S, 43°55'26"W, Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 23608. Paratypes: MCP 30511 (6, 2 c&s); MNRJ 21604 (1), 21617 (14). Species name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Phalloceros uai Lucinda 2008 -- (Meyer 2015:191 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:90 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phalloceros uai Lucinda 2008. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Das Velhas River, São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

umbratilis, Gambusia Meek [S. E.] 1912:70 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 7); ref. 2960] Guapilis [Limón], Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7684 [not 7584]. Paratypes: FMNH 7826 (47), UMMZ 162479 [ex FMNH 7826] (10). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:38 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Neoheterandria umbratilis (Meek 1912) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:128 [ref. 7067], Villa 1982:131 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:139 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:210 [ref. 24179]). •Valid as Xenophallus umbratilis (Meek 1912) -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:573 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:364 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:142 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xenophallus umbratilis (Meek 1912). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Costa Rica and southern Nicaragua. Habitat: freshwater.

unimaculata, Poecilia Valenciennes [A.] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:158, Pl. 51 (figs. 2, 5, 6 ) [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Rio de Janerio, Brazil. Syntypes: RMNH 2724 (2), MNHN B-0933 (3), B-0934 (5, now 6). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:30 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Poeser 2003:46 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:139 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:358 [ref. 27075], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:1 [ref. 33696], Huber 2019:121 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

uninotatus, Girardinus Poey [F.] 1860:309 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Río Taco Taco, Pinar del Río Province, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 6243 (6); USNM 120264 [ex MCZ 6406] (6), 37432 (2), 37465 (24). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:177-178 [ref. 22926], Parenti et al. 1999:10-11 [ref. 24072], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35177]. Spelled as uninotatns on p. 309; regarded as a typesetting error. Spelled uninotatus in conspectus (p. 383) and index (p. 432), but not mentioned in errata (pp. 356, 442) or addition to errata [all of above published July 1861]. •Valid as Girardinus uninotatus Poey 1860 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:111 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1983:27 [ref. 22527], Parenti et al. 1999:10 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:42 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:123 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35177], Huber 2019:76 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Girardinus uninotatus Poey 1860. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Río, Cuba. Habitat: freshwater.

unipunctata, Poecilia Guérin-Méneville [F. E.] 1829-38:28, Pl. 47 (fig. 3) [Iconographie du Règne animal de G. Cuvier IV, Poissons; ref. 18162] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. No types known. Error for Poecilia unimaculata, could date to the figure.. •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). • In the synonymy of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Poeser 2003:139 [ref. 26783], Koerber & Litz 2014:1 [ref. 33696], Huber 2019:121 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae.

vandepolli, Poecilia van Lidth de Jeude [T. W.] 1887:137, Pl. 2 (figs. 4-5) [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 9 (no. 1, art. 8); ref. 14474] Curaçao. Lectotype: RMNH 5155. Paralectotypes: RMNH 33843 [ex RMNH 5155] (5). Lectotype selection by Poeser 2003:54 [ref. 26769] does not conform to the 1999 Code, but is here accepted. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Poecilia vandepolli van Lidth de Jeude 1887 -- (Poeser 1992:79 [ref. 21511], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Meyer & Radda 2000:76 [ref. 25029], Marín 2000:70 [ref. 26252], Meyer et al. 2002:49 [ref. 26721], Poeser & Isbrücker 2002:49 [ref. 34635], Poeser 2003:54 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:143 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:364 [ref. 27075], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Meyer 2015:253 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400] in subgenus Mollienesia, Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:121 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia vandepolli van Lidth de Jeude 1887. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: West Indies: Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire; introduced on St. Maarten. Habitat: freshwater.

vantynei, Mollienesia sphenops Hubbs [C. L.] 1935:11, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 28; ref. 11676] Río Hondo basin, Uaxactún, Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 97874. Paratypes: UMMZ 97875 (17). •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:52 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 -- (Poeser 2003:47 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:162 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:359 [ref. 27075], Meyer 2015:239 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:122 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

variatus, Platypoecilus Meek [S. E.] 1904:146, Pl. 10 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] Valles, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 4501. Paratypes: FMNH 4449 (40), 4461 (6), 4471 (24), 4486 (18), 4501-02 (1, 10), 14360-61 (5, 1), 14435-36 (4, 3), 72570 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Xiphophorus variatus (Meek 1904) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:64 [ref. 7067], Rosen 1979:353 [ref. 22796], Lee et al. 1980:556 [ref. 22416], Page & Burr 1991:234 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:56 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Fuller et al. 1999:319 [ref. 25838], Morris et al. 2001:69 [ref. 25123], Sakai et al. 2001:89 [ref. 25693], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061], Chen & Borowsky 2004:27 [ref. 27672], Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:296 [ref. 28379], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:263 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:24 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:258 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:443 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:997 [ref. 33194], Meyer 2015:408 [ref. 34698], Robins et al. 2018:237 [ref. 35886], Huber 2019:152 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus variatus (Meek 1904). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Mexico; Colombia (introduced), and introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

velifera, Mollienesia Regan [C. T.] 1914:338 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 13 (no. 75); ref. 14171] Progresso, Yucatán, Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1914.2.18.6-8 (3). •Valid as Poecilia velifera (Regan 1914) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:55 [ref. 7067], Lee et al. 1980:549 [ref. 22416] with question, Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:50 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Castro et al. 1998:79 [ref. 24271], Meyer & Radda 2000:75 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Poeser 2003:154 [ref. 26783], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:240 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398], Poeser 2011:420 [ref. 31550], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Kottelat 2013:300 [ref. 32989], Meyer 2015:255 [ref. 34698], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Mollienesia, Huber 2019:122 [ref. 36941], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia velifera (Regan 1914). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of southeast Mexico, also Colombia (introduced) and elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

versicolor, Girardinus Günther [A.] 1866:352 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] San Domingo. Lectotype: BMNH 1857.10.28.64. Paralectotype: BMNH 19816.4.1 (1). Lectotype selected by Chambers 1987. •Valid as Limia versicolor (Günther 1866) -- (Trewavas 1948:415 [ref. 13077], Lee et al. 1983:44 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:150 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia versicolor (Günther 1866) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:60 [ref. 7067], Huber 2019:122 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia versicolor (Günther 1866). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Southeastern Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Habitat: freshwater.

vetiprovidentiae, Poecilia Fowler [H. W.] 1950:77, Figs. 12-16 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 102; ref. 12949] Huffington's Creek, 1/4 mile south of Ironwood Hill, eastern side of Old Providence Island, West Indies. Holotype: ANSP 71750. Paratypes: ANSP 71751-66 (16), 71767-68 (2, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621]. Originally as veti-providentiae. •Synonym of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes 1846 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:53 [ref. 7067], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Poecilia orri Fowler 1943 -- (Poeser 2003:147 [ref. 26783], Huber 2019:122 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Poecilia orri Fowler 1943. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.

victoriae, Phallotorynus Oliveros [O. B.] 1983:19, Figs 2-7 plus cover [Revista de la Asociatión de Ciencias Naturales del litoral v. 14 (no. 1); ref. 20167] Isla Los Mellados, about 31°45'S, 60°45'W, middle Río Paraná basin, Santa Fe, Argentina. Holotype: INALI 10. Paratypes: INALI 30 (1), plus more paratypes. •Valid as Phallotorynus victoriae Oliveros 1983 -- (Ghedotti 2000:38 [ref. 27228], López et al. 2002:61 [ref. 26808], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:566 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131], Lucinda et al. 2005:615 [ref. 28318], Lucinda & Reis 2005:47 [ref. 29205], Meyer & Etzel 2006:84 [ref. 30730], Meyer 2015:200 [ref. 34698], Mirande & Koerber 2015:53 [ref. 35117], Lucinda & da Graça 2015:90 [ref. 35435], Koerber et al. 2017:73 [ref. 35267], Chuctaya et al. 2018:160 [ref. 35756], Huber 2019:93 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Phallotorynus victoriae Oliveros 1983. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Paraná River and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

viriosa, Poeciliopsis Miller [R. R.] 1960:4, Pl. 2 (figs. A-B) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 619; ref. 10418] Spring-fed creek about 4.5 miles southwest of Las Palmas, Jalisco, northwestern Mexico, 20°48'N, 105°10'W, elevation 180 feet. Holotype: UMMZ 177270. Paratypes: (321) UMMZ 172074 (orig. 320), 177271 (1, allotype), USNM 196173 [ex UMMZ 172074] (11). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Poeciliopsis viriosa Miller 1960 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:138 [ref. 7067], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:53 [ref. 22290], Parenti et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24072], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:571 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:105 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:43 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:22 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:110 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:306 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:132 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poeciliopsis viriosa Miller 1960. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

vittata, Gambusia Hubbs [C. L.] 1926:26 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 16; ref. 2233] Río Forlón, Forlón, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 14046. Paratypes: FMNH 14047-58 (12); UMMZ 196899 (9). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:38 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Gambusia vittata Hubbs 1926 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:106 [ref. 7067], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:47 [ref. 22290], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:560 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:227 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:19 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:104 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:72 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia vittata Hubbs 1926. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

vittata, Poecilia Guichenot [A.] 1853:146, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Sagra, R. de la, Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l'Ile de Cuba; ref. 18164] Cuba [probably Havana]. Lectotype: MNHN B-2883 [ex MNHN 0000-4398]. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-4398 (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:31 [ref. 19576], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35177]. Lectotype selected by Huber 2019:123 [ref. 36941]. •Valid as Limia vittata (Guichenot 1853) -- (Lee et al. 1983:45 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Fuller et al. 1999:308 [ref. 25838], Poeser 2003:135 [ref. 26783], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Mundy 2005:293 [ref. 28379], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:151 [ref. 34698], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35177]). •Valid as Poecilia vittata Guichenot 1853 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:59 [ref. 7067], Figueiredo & Moreira 2018:443 [ref. 36088], Huber 2019:123 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia vittata Guichenot 1853. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Cuba and Isle of Pines; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

vivipara, Poecilia Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:452, Pl. 86 (lower fig.) [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3465. Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:175 [ref. 19981], Paepke 1999:116 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:49 [ref. 7067], Malabarba 1989:162 [ref. 14217], Cervigón 1991:205 [ref. 24472], Rodriguez 1997:673 [ref. 23266], Torelli et al. 1997:70 [ref. 24612], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:70 [ref. 24547], Meyer & Radda 2000:76 [ref. 25029], Meyer et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26721], Lim et al. 2002:74 [ref. 28310], Poeser & Isbrücker 2002:49 [ref. 34635], Poeser 2003:46 [ref. 26769], Poeser 2003:139 [ref. 26783], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Poeser 2003:358 [ref. 27075], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:569 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Phillip et al. 2013:20 [ref. 32896], Koerber & Litz 2014:1 [ref. 33696] not Argentina, Ramos et al. 2014:5 [ref. 35321], Meyer 2015:277 [ref. 34698], Ho et al. 2016:Fig. 1 [ref. 34400], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629] in subgenus Poecilia, Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Costa et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35684], Figueiredo & Moreira 2018:443 [ref. 36088], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506], Huber 2019:123 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider 1801. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Venezuela to south Brazil; also islands of the Lesser Antilles: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Puerto Rico and Martinique (introduced), Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

waiapi, Poecilia Bragança [P. H. N.], Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Gama [C. S.] 2012:338, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 31747] Bank of rio Jari north of Laranjal do Jari, 0°43'38"S, 52°30'54"W, Estado do Amapá, Brazil, elevation 35 meters. Holotype: IEPA 2763. Paratypes: IEPA 2026 (2), 2755 (37); UFRJ 8141 (23, 8 c&s), 8142 (2, c&s). •Valid as Poecilia waiapi Bragança, Costa & Gama 2012 -- (Meyer 2015:275 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:123 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia waiapi Bragança, Costa & Gama 2012. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lower Jari River, Amapá, northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

wandae, Poecilia Poeser [F. N.] 2003:63, Figs. 5 a-b [Chapter 5 (Thesis); ref. 26769] Hot spring, creek tributary to Rio Mechango, 20 kilometers above bridge, Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121683. Paratypes: USNM 326142 (1). Plus additional material [not treated as paratypes]. Also appeared as new in Poeser 2003:372 [ref. 27075]. Not a member of the subgenus Molllienesia, see, Huber 2019:124 [ref. 36941] •Synonym of Poecilia dauli Meyer & Radda 2000 -- (Meyer (2015):217 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia wandae Poeser 2003 -- (Poeser 2003:149 [ref. 26783], Poeser 2003:364 [ref. 27075], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Ho et al. 2016:40 [ref. 34400], Palacios et al. 2016:232 [ref. 34629], Huber 2019:123 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia wandae Poeser 2003. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

wingei, Poecilia (Acanthophacelus) Poeser [F. N.], Kempkes [M.] & Isbrücker [I. J. H.] 2005:103, Figs. 3a-d. 6b-c [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 74 (nos 1/2); ref. 28493] At bridge on the road from Cariaco to Carúpano, division between Laguna Buena Vista and Laguna Campoma, about 3 kilometers north of Caricaco, Paría Peninsula, Estado Sucre, Venezuela. Holotype: ZMA 123704. Paratypes: ZMA 123705 (allotype), 123636 (18), 123637 (67), 123638 (25), 123645 (7), 123647 (38), 123648 (10); UMMZ 158715 (30). •Valid as Poecilia wingei Poeser, Kempkes & Isbrücker 2005 -- (Schories et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30534], Meyer 2015:206 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:124 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia wingei Poeser, Kempkes & Isbrücker 2005. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Streams along the coast of central north Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

wrayi, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1913:988, Pl. 99 (fig. 3-4); Fig. 168b [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 4) (art. 58); ref. 3653] Jamaica. Lectotype: BMNH 1912.12.20.7. Paralectotypes: (11) BMNH 1912.12.20.8-16 (9). Lectotype selected by Fink 1971:61 [ref. 7671]. •Valid as Gambusia wrayi Regan 1913 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:96 [ref. 7067], Fink 1971:61 [ref. 7671], Lee et al. 1983:18 [ref. 22527], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:105 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:73 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia wrayi Regan 1913. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Eastern Jamaica. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

xanthosoma, Gambusia Greenfield [D. W.] 1983:459, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 1983 (no. 2); ref. 8337] A ditch along road opposite the Taraquin Manor at West Bay, Grand Cayman Island, West Indies. Holotype: FMNH 94188. Paratypes: FMNH 94189 (10), MCZ 58879 (1), UMMZ 210200 (1), USNM 236058 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:38 [ref. 12367], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Gambusia xanthosoma Greenfield 1983 -- (Lee et al. 1983:19 [ref. 22527], Wildrick et al. 1985:1054 [ref. 11519], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Parenti et al. 1999:9 [ref. 24072], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:106 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:73 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia xanthosoma Greenfield 1983. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Grand Cayman Island, West Indies. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

xiphidium, Platypoecilus Hubbs [C. L.] & Gordon [M.] in Friedman & Gordon 1934:447, Fig. 1 [American Naturalist v. 68 (no. 718); ref. 36954] Río Corona at La Corona, 15 miles north of Ciudad, Victoria, Río Soto la Marina system, Tamualipas, Mexico. Lectotype: UMMZ 97573. Paralectotypes: UMMZ 108663 (164), plus other specimens at UMMZ. As nomen nudum in Gordon 1932:287 [ref. 22232]. Lectotype selected by Rosen 1960:83 [ref. 11945]. •Synonym of Xiphophorus variatus (Meek 1904), but a valid subspecies -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:65 [ref. 7067]). •Valid as Xiphophorus xiphidium (Hubbs & Gordon 1934) [often seen as Gordon 1932] -- (Rosen 1979:354 [ref. 22796], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:57 [ref. 22290], Rodriguez 1997:674 [ref. 23266], Meyer & Schartl 2002:59 [ref. 26066], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:106 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:44 [ref. 29205], Scharpf 2007:24 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:411 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:152 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Xiphophorus xiphidium (Hubbs & Gordon 1934). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Soto La Marina River drainage, Tamaulipas, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

yaguajali, Limia Rivas [L. R.] 1980:35, Figs. 4a-b [Northeast Gulf Science v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3763] Río Yaguajal at Santiago Rodriguez (Sabaneta), Province of Rodriguez [sic, in Montecristi], Dominican Republic. Holotype: USNM 220535. Paratypes: AMNH 38234 (?); MCZ 54410 (1); UF 29824 (53); UMMZ 204197 (59); USNM 220536 (181). Type catalog: Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072]. •Valid as Limia yaguajali Rivas 1980 -- (Lee et al. 1983:46 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Lucinda & Reis 2005:46 [ref. 29205], Meyer 2015:153 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia yaguajali (Rivas 1980) -- (Parenti et al. 1999:13 [ref. 24072], Huber 2019:124 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia yaguajali (Rivas 1980). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic and Haiti. Habitat: freshwater.

yucatana, Gambusia Regan [C. T.] 1914:67, Fig. B [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 14 (no. 79); ref. 3664] Progresso, Yucatán, Mexico. Lectotype: BMNH 1914.3.23.12. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1914.3.23.13-15 (3). Lectotype selected by Fink 1971:23 [ref. 21211]. •Synonym of Gambusia puncticulata Poey 1854, but a valid subspecies -- (Fink 1971:23 [ref. 21211], Lee et al. 1983:17 [ref. 22527]). •Valid as Gambusia yucatana Regan 1914 -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:97 [ref. 7067], Greenfield et al. 1982:139 [ref. 21395], Greenfield & Wildrick 1984:931 [ref. 11453], Greenfield 1985:374 [ref. 8971], Rauchenberger 1989:3 [ref. 15687], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:47 [ref. 22290], Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157 [ref. 27019], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:561 [ref. 27061], Smith et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:104 [ref. 27807], Lucinda & Reis 2005:41 [ref. 29205], Miller 2006:228 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:17 [ref. 30398] with subspecies, Pérez León & Schmitter Soto 2007:169 [ref. 32537], Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:107 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:73 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia yucatana Regan 1914. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope of Central America: Belize, Guatemala and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

zarskei, Gambusia Meyer [M. K.], Schories [S.] & Schartl [M.] 2010:13, Figs. 1-5 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 60 (no. 1); ref. 30817] Outlet of Balneario San Diego de Alcalá, near San Diego de Alcalá, Rio Chuviscar drainage, Rio Conchos system, Chihuahua, Mexico. Holotype: MTD F 31802. Paratypes: MTD F 31803 (1), 31924 (1); SMF 32173 (9). •Valid as Gambusia zarskei Meyer, Schories & Schartl 2010 -- (Page et al. 2013:109 [ref. 32708], Meyer 2015:109 [ref. 34698], Huber 2019:73 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Gambusia zarskei Meyer, Schories & Schartl 2010. Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Conchos system, Chihuahua, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

zonata, Heterandria Nichols [J. T.] 1915:603, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 34 (art. 20); ref. 15002] San Juan River at Sanchez, Samaná Province, Santo Domingo [Dominican Republic]. Holotype: AMNH 5232. Paratypes: AMNH 5238 (4). •Valid as Limia zonata (Nichols 1915) -- (Lee et al. 1983:47 [ref. 22527], Rodriguez 1997:671 [ref. 23266], Poeser 2003:136 [ref. 26783], Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:564 [ref. 27061], Meyer 2015:154 [ref. 34698]). •Valid as Poecilia zonata (Nichols 1915) -- (Rosen & Bailey 1963:60 [ref. 7067], Lucinda & Reis 2005:45 [ref. 29205], Huber 2019:124 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Valid as Poecilia zonata (Nichols 1915). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Distribution: Northern Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Habitat: freshwater.

zonatus, Girardinus Schreiner [C.] & Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:7 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 12 (1902); ref. 15045] Brazil. Syntypes: (10, uncataloged and missing) •Species inquirenda in Poeciliidae -- (Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:575 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Phalloptychus januarius (Hensel 1868) -- (Huber 2019:91 [ref. 36941]). Current status: Synonym of Phalloptychus januarius (Hensel 1868). Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae. Habitat: freshwater.