Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 4 November 2019

SEARCH RESULTS FROM

Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
Select the database to search:
GENERA   SPECIES   REFERENCES
Include unavailable names

         Comments: ,

    Please look in Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes for authorships of sections, Families of Fishes (all), and related information.

Species in the family or subfamily Polynemidae: [ 103 ] records


agonasi, Polydactylus Jordan [D. S.] & McGregor [R. C.] 1906:814, Fig. [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1470); ref. 10634] Tokyo, Japan. Holotype: USNM 55608. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9879 (2). Additional material: BMNH 1923.2.26.217-218 (2), USNM 56398 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:68 [ref. 12291]. Specimens from literature sources regarded as additional material. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:187 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

americanus, Polynemus Cuvier [G.] 1829:155 (footnote 2) [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] American seas. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5504 (1) Dominican Republic, A-3028 (1) Cayenne, A-3031 (1) Martinique. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:717, 728 [ref. 21541]. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:393 [ref. 4879]. •Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Motomura et al. 2002:365 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

antillarum, Polynemus Perugia [A.] 1896:16 [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 16; ref. 14615] St. Pierre, Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MSNG 6695. •Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Motomura et al. 2002:365 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

approximans, Polynemus Lay [G. T.] & Bennett [E. T.] 1839:57 [The zoology of Captain Beechey's voyage; ref. 2730] San Blas and Mazatlán, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): not preserved. Based on a sketch and a brief description by Mr. Collie. See Motomura et al. 2002:362 [ref. 26500] for remarks about type specimens. •Valid as Polydactylus approximans (Lay & Bennett 1839) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:235 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:63 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:195 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:138 [ref. 23101], Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1386 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:467 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:192 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:353 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:125 [ref. 25206], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura et al. 2002:359 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:5 [ref. 27601], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:44 [ref. 27970], Motomura 2004:44 [ref. 27970], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:248 [ref. 35888], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:305 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus approximans (Lay & Bennett 1839). Polynemidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aquilonaris, Polynemus Motomura [H.] 2003:155, Figs. 1, 3 [Ichthyological Research v. 50 (no. 2); ref. 26829] Caho Phraya River, Thailand (purchased at Samyan market). Holotype: URM-P 13930. Paratypes: ANSP 177982 (1), 177984 (2); CAS 92821 (1); NRM 24267 (1); UMMZ 181145 (3), 195407 (1), 224815 (1), 232331 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Polynemus aquilonaris Motomura 2003 -- (Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:81 [ref. 27970], Motomura & Tsukawaki 2006:462 [ref. 28914], Kottelat 2013:355 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:152 [ref. 34464], Kang et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Polynemus aquilonaris Motomura 2003. Polynemidae. Distribution: Thailand, Cambodia and South Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

artedii, Polynemus Bennett [E. T.] 1831:146 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 5778] Atlantic coast of northern Africa. No types known. •Synonym of Pentanemus quinquarius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Njock 1986:353 [ref. 6216], Njock 1990:866 [ref. 18540], Motomura 2004:5 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:37 [ref. 27970], Motomura 2004:37 [ref. 27970], Motomura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2626 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Pentanemus quinquarius (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

astrolabi, Polynemus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1881:102 [2] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 5; ref. 18664] Mauritius [probably erroneous, probably western coast of Africa]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9727. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Polydactylus sextarius (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:307 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch 1795) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:197 [ref. 25384] with comments on locality, Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:31 [ref. 27970], Motomura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2624 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch 1795). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

auratus, Polydactylus McKay [R. J.] 1970:9 [Western Australian Fisheries Bulletin v. 9 (no. 5); ref. 19157] Napier Broome Bay, 2 miles west of the Drysdale River, Western Australia, depth 5 fathoms. Holotype: WAM P.16792-001. Paratypes: WAM P.16793-001 (1), P.16794-001 (1), P.16795-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:32 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:35 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860) -- (Feltes 2001:3108 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:183 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:268 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:59 [ref. 27970], Hoese et al. 2006:1254 [ref. 29092]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aureus, Polynemus Hamilton [F.] 1822:232, 381 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Calcutta, India. No types known. •Synonym of Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Motomura et al. 2002:311 [ref. 26494], Motomura 2004:11 [ref. 27601], Ataur Rahman 2003:293 [ref. 31338], Motomura 2004:92 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:356 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758. Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barakuan, Pogonais Montrouzier [X.] 1857:428 [150] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. On p. 150 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Polynemus plebeius; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. •In the synonymy of Polydactylus plebeius Broussonet 1782. •Nomen nudum in Polynemidae -- (Motomura 2004:13 [ref. 27601]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebius Broussonet 1782. Polynemidae.

bidentatus, Polynemus Motomura [H.] & Tsukawaki [S.] 2006:460, Figs. 1, 2B [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 54 (no. 2); ref. 28914] Cho Gao Canal in Mekong River drainage, My Tho Province, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): UMMZ 213346. •Valid as Polynemus bidentatus Motomura & Tsukawaki 2006 -- (Kottelat 2013:355 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Polynemus bidentatus Motomura & Tsukawaki 2006. Polynemidae. Distribution: Mekong River basin, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

bifurcus, Polydactylus Motomura [H.], Kimura [S.] & Iwatsuki [Y.] 2001:299, Figs. 1, 2, 3A [Ichthyological Research v. 48 (no. 3); ref. 25548] Kuta beach, Lombok Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 60494. •Valid as Polydactylus bifurcus Motomura, Kimura & Iwatsuki 2001 -- (Motomura 2002:175 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:5 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:46 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:2 [ref. 28177]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus bifurcus Motomura, Kimura & Iwatsuki 2001. Polynemidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

borneensis, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1856:3 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2; ref. 13960] Bandjarmasin, Pontianak and Sampit, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 6013 (3). Original as borneënsis but correction is required. Replacement name for Polynemus macronema Bleeker 1852; preoccupied by Polynemus macronemus Pel 1851. •Valid as Polynemus borneensis Bleeker 1856 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:128 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:187 [ref. 22772]). •Synonym of Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831 -- (Feltes 2001:3115 [ref. 26107]). •Synonym of Polynemus melanochir, subspecies melanochir Valenciennes 1831 -- (Motomura & Sabaj 2002:184 [ref. 26155], Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:89 [ref. 27970], Parenti & Lim 2005:193 [ref. 28285], Motomura & Tsukawaki 2006:463 [ref. 28914], Kottelat 2013:355 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831. Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

californiensis, Polynemus Thominot [A.] 1886:161 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 10; ref. 17904] California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1884-0487. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:717-718 [ref. 21541]. •Synonym of Polydactylus approximans (Lay & Bennett 1839) -- (Motomura et al. 2002:359 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:5 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:44 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus approximans (Lay & Bennett 1839). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

coecus, Polynemus Macleay [W.] 1878:354, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 17573] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.9791 (1), I.16295-001 [ex MAMU F325] (1). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518] as caecus and incorrectly with a holotype. Original spelling appears to be coecus. •Synonym of Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw 1804) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:365 [ref. 23967], Motomura et al. 2002:52 [ref. 25954], Motomura 2004:2 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:16 [ref. 27970], Hoese et al. 2006:1252 [ref. 29092], Larson et al. 2013:147 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:353 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw 1804). Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

commersonii, Polynemus Shaw [G.] 1804:156 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian seas. No types known. Unnecessary rpplacement for Polynemus lineatur Lacepede 1803. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:187 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

decadactylus, Polynemus Bloch [M. E.] 1795:26, Pl. 401 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Guinea. Holotype (unique): ZMB 569 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:116 [ref. 24282]. On p. 18 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch 1795) -- (Monod 1973:575 [ref. 7193], Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:1205 [ref. 13677], Daget & Njock 1986:352 [ref. 6216], Njock 1990:865 [ref. 18540], Daget in Lévêque et al. 1992:793 [ref. 21590], Afonso et al. 1999:75 [ref. 25466], Motomura et al. 2001:269 [ref. 25705], Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:31 [ref. 27970], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:445 [ref. 30079], Wirtz et al. 2007:35 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Félix et al. 2016:D [4] [ref. 34346], Motomura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2624 [ref. 34618], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch 1795). Polynemidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Namibia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diagrammicus, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1849:60 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Appeared first in Bleeker 1845:527 [ref. 312], apparently without distinguishing features [not translated]. •Questionably a synonym of Filimanus xanthonema (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Feltes 1991:318 [ref. 14760], Motomura et al. 2001:204 [ref. 25385], Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:29 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Filimanus xanthonema (Valenciennes 1831). Polynemidae. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1853:92 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 8); ref. 341] Banjarmasin and Sampit, Kalimantan, and Palembang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6014. Paralectotypes: RMNH 34452 (7). Lectotype selected by Motomura 2003:159, 161 [ref. 26829]. •Valid as Polynemus dubius Bleeker 1853 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:128 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:187 [ref. 22772], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Feltes 2001:3113 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2003:158 [ref. 26829], Motomura & van Oijen 2003:406 [ref. 27209], Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:82 [ref. 27970], Motomura & Tsukawaki 2006:462 [ref. 28914], Kottelat 2013:355 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Polynemus dubius Bleeker 1853. Polynemidae. Distribution: Malaysia and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dulcis, Polynemus melanochir Motomura [H.] & Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] 2002:182, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Research v. 49 (no. 2); ref. 26155] Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia. Holotype: ANSP 178011. Paratypes: AMS I.40968-001 (1), BSKU 14850 (1). •Synonym of Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831, but a valid subspecies dulcis Motomura & Sabaj Pérez 2002 as described -- (Motomura 2003:162 [ref. 26829], Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:87 [ref. 27970], Motomura & Tsukawaki 2006:462 [ref. 28914], Lim et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30734], Kottelat 2013:356 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831. Polynemidae. Distribution: This subspecies is known only from Lake Tonle Sap, Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

emoi, Polynemus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:410, 412 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Tahiti, Tana Island, Tropical America, East Indies, Gulf of Bengal, Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], Malabar, Coromandel. No types known. Based in part of Polynemus plebeius Broussonet 1782. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:186 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:275 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

enneadactylus, Polynemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:392 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Tangier, Morocco, Strait of Gibraltar, eastern Atlantic. No types known. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:728 [ref. 21541]. Appeared as name only in Cuvier 1829:155 [ref. 995]. •Synonym of Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch 1795) -- (Daget & Njock 1986:352 [ref. 6216], Motomura et al. 2001:198 [ref. 25384], Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:31 [ref. 27970], Motomura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2624 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch 1795). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gelatinosus, Polynemus McClelland [J.] 1843:181, Pl. 6 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 3 (no. 10); ref. 17620] Bengal, India. No types known. An unneeded new name for Polynemus sele Hamilton 1822 -- (see Motomura 2004:33 [ref. 27970]). •Synonym of Leptomelanosoma indicum (Shaw 1804) -- (Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:16 [ref. 25242], Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:33 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Leptomelanosoma indicum (Shaw 1804). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guichenoti, Polynemus Bocourt [F.] in Bleeker 1864:174 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 413] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy. •Nomen nudum in Polynemidae -- (Motomura 2004:13 [ref. 27601]). Polynemidae.

heptadactylus, Polynemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:390 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Non-types: SMF 425 [ex RMNH in 1829] (2) Java. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:722 [ref. 21541]. Based on a drawing; this drawing reproduced in Feltes 1991:313 [ref. 14760]. •Valid as Polydactylus heptadactylus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:909 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Filimanus heptadactyla (Cuvier 1829) -- (Feltes 1991:312 [ref. 14760], Kottelat et al. 1993:128 [ref. 23448], Mishra & Krishnan 1993:290 [ref. 23743], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Motomura et al. 2001:204 [ref. 25385], Feltes 2001:3098 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2004:3 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:23 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:353 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2019:173 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Filimanus heptadactyla (Cuvier 1829). Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern coast of Malay Peninsula and Indonesia east to New Ireland ( Papua New Guinea). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hexanemus, Polynemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:389 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:722 [ref. 21541]. Based on a drawing; this drawing reproduced in Feltes 1991:313 [ref. 14760]. •Valid as Filimanus hexanema (Cuvier 1829) -- (Feltes 1991:311 [ref. 14760], Motomura et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25193], Motomura et al. 2001:204 [ref. 25385], Feltes 2001:3099 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2004:3 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:24 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Valid as Filimanus hexanema (Cuvier 1829). Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Java, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

hilleri, Trichidion Fowler [H. W.] 1905:502, Fig. 11 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 57; ref. 1370] Baram River, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 114895 [ex WIAP 2400]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Polynemus hilleri (Fowler 1905) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:128 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:246 [ref. 23210]). •Synonym of Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831 -- (Feltes 2001:3115 [ref. 26107]). •Synonym of Polynemus melanochir, subspecies melanochir Valenciennes 1831 -- (Motomura & Sabaj 2002:184 [ref. 26155], Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:89 [ref. 27970], Parenti & Lim 2005:193 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:356 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831. Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hornadayi, Polynemus Myers [G. S.] 1936:376, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 26 (no. 9); ref. 3112] Ensengi River, tributary of Sadong River, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype: USNM 100632 [ex 35719]. Paratypes: BMNH 1935.8.29.31 [ex USNM 35719] (1), USNM 35719 (orig. 10, now 8). •Valid as Polynemus hornadayi Myers 1936 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:128 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:246 [ref. 23210], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Feltes 2001:3114 [ref. 26107], Motomura et al. 2002:308 [ref. 26494], Motomura 2003:162 [ref. 26829], Motomura & van Oijen 2003:406 [ref. 27209], Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:84 [ref. 27970], Parenti & Lim 2005:193 [ref. 28285], Motomura & Tsukawaki 2006:462 [ref. 28914], Kottelat 2013:355 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Polynemus hornadayi Myers 1936. Polynemidae. Distribution: Sarawak, Borneo, East Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

indicus, Polynemus Shaw [G.] 1804:155 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. P. indicus was described on the basis of a drawing in Russell (1803:68, Fig. 184 [ref. 13862]); this drawing reproduced in Motomura & Iwatsuki (2001:16, Fig. 5a [ref. 25242]). •Valid as Polynemus indicus Shaw 1804 -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:270 [ref. 24860], Mishra & Krishnan 1993:289 [ref. 23743], Kottelat & Lim 1995:246 [ref. 23210], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:208 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Polydactylus indicus (Shaw 1804) -- (Smith 1986:721 [ref. 5712], Ataur Rahman 1989:270 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:910 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:128 [ref. 23448], Fricke 1999:305 [ref. 24106], Mishra et al. 1999:88 [ref. 25315], Motomura et al. 2000:331 [ref. 25060], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187 [ref. 25703], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Feltes 2001:3104 [ref. 26107], Khan 2003:10 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:295 [ref. 31338]). •Valid as Leptomelanosoma indicum (Shaw 1804) -- (Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:16 [ref. 25242], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:33 [ref. 27970], Motomura 2004:33 [ref. 27970], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:371 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:67 [ref. 30213], Kottelat 2013:353 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:281 [ref. 34104], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Fricke et al. 2018:222 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:25 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Leptomelanosoma indicum (Shaw 1804). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar and western Mascarenes; Pakistan to New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

intermedius, Polynemus Nichols [J. T.] 1954:3, Figs. 2-3 [American Museum Novitates No. 1680; ref. 12660] Merauke River [? = Meranbe River], southern New Guinea. Holotype: AMNH 20114. Paratypes: AMNH 20115-16 (1, 15). •Synonym of Parapolynemus verekeri (Saville-Kent 1889) -- (Feltes 1993:211 [ref. 20316], Feltes 2001:3103 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2004:5 [ref. 27601]). Current status: Synonym of Parapolynemus verekeri (Saville-Kent 1889). Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

kapuasensis, Polynemus Motomura [H.] & van Oijen [M. J. P.] 2003:394, Figs. 1, 3a [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 77; ref. 27209] Fish market at Sintang, from Kapuas River basin, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Holotype: CAS 47198. Paratypes: CAS 217161 (3), 217348 (3), 49454 (5) •Valid as Polynemus kapuasensis Motomura & van Oijen 2003 -- (Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:86 [ref. 27970], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:165 [ref. 28284], Motomura & Tsukawaki 2006:462 [ref. 28914], Kottelat 2013:355 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Polynemus kapuasensis Motomura & van Oijen 2003. Polynemidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

konadaensis, Polydactylus Mishra [S. S.] & Krishnan [S.] 1993:285, Fig. [Records of the Zoological Survey of India v. 92 (nos 1-4); ref. 23743] Konada, Andhra Pradesh, India. Holotype: ZSI/MBS-F-631. Paratypes: ZSI/MBS-F-632 (1). Also appeared in Krishnan & Mishra 1993:231 [ref. 24016]; date on inside of journal cover says vol. 92 (nos. 1-4) was published Nov. 1993 and vol. 93 (nos. 1-2) in Sept. 1993; if these are correct then the species dates to 1993:231 [based on same 2 specimens]. •Synonym of Filimanus xanthonema (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:203 [ref. 25385], Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:29 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Filimanus xanthonema (Valenciennes 1831). Polynemidae. Habitat: marine.

kuru, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1853:600 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 337] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 6006 (2). •Valid as Polydactylus kuru (Bleeker 1853) -- (Mishra & Krishnan 1993:290 [ref. 23743]). •Synonym of Polydactylus sexfilis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:84 [ref. 25248], Motomura et al. 2001:1087 [ref. 25826], Feltes 2001:3111 [ref. 26107], Motomura & Senou 2002:27 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:188 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Ataur Rahman 2003:296 [ref. 31338] as dura Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Randall 2005:290 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:387 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:257 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus sexfilis (Valenciennes 1831). Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lineatus, Polynemus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:410, 412, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Tahiti, Society Islands (erroneous, is evidently Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean). Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5440 (dry). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:718 [ref. 21541]. •Synonym of Polynemus plebeius Broussonet 1782 -- (Daget & Njock 1986:353 [ref. 6216]). •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Fricke 1999:305 [ref. 24106] with remark on locality, Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:186 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:275 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lineatus, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1860:327 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Ambon Island, Moluccs Islands, Indonesia; Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: BMNH 1858.4.21.85 (1) Ambon, BMNH 1855.11.7.35 (1) Guadalcanal. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Polynemus lineatus Lacepède 1803; replaced by Polynemus taeniatus Günther 1860. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Randall 2005:290 [ref. 28239], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:222 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longifilis, Polynemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:365 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Puducherry, India; Ganges River mouth, India; Manila, Philippines [but probably erroneous]. Syntypes: MHNG 148.24 (1); MNHN 0000-2200 (3) Ganges, A-3045 (1) Manilla, A-4803 (1, dry) Puducherry; SMF 439 [ex MNHN in 1829] (1) Ganges. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:718, 729 [ref. 21541], Weber 1998:13 [ref. 23532]. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Fricke 1999:305 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Motomura et al. 2002:311 [ref. 26494], Ataur Rahman 2003:293 [ref. 31338], Motomura 2004:11 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:92 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:356 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758. Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longipectoralis, Polynemus Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1922:213 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 4; ref. 4598] Fish market of Bandjermassin, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMA 112570. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:91 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Polynemus longipectoralis Weber & de Beaufort 1922 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:912 [ref. 20764], Mishra & Krishnan 1993:290 [ref. 23743], Rainboth 1996:188 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 2001:150 [ref. 25780]). •Synonym of Polynemus dubius Bleeker 1853 -- (Feltes 2001:3113 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2003:158 [ref. 26829], Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:82 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:355 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus dubius Bleeker 1853. Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

longipes, Polydactylus Motomura [H.], Okamoto [M.] & Iwatsuki [Y.] 2001:1087, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2001 (no. 4); ref. 25826] Davao market, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 363173. Paratypes: FSKU-P 19840 (1), MUFS 20290 (1). •Valid as Polydactylus longipes Motomura, Okamoto & Iwatsuki 2001 -- (Motomura 2002:176 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:48 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Lim et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30734], Motomura et al. 2011:159 [ref. 31633]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus longipes Motomura, Okamoto & Iwatsuki 2001. Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

luparensis, Polydactylus Lim [P. K. A.], Motomura [H.] & Gambang [A. C.] 2010:64, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 2405; ref. 30734] Mouth of Batang Lupar River, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia, 1°27'68"N, 111°01'83"E, depth 3-5 meters. Holotype: IPPS 08-01. Paratypes: IPPS 08-02 (1), 08-231 (1); KAUM-I.13252 (1). •Valid as Polydactylus luparensis Lim, Motomura & Gambang 2010 -- (Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus luparensis Lim, Motomura & Gambang 2010. Polynemidae. Distribution: Batang Lupar River, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

lydiae, Polynemus Curtiss [A.] 1938:43 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:187 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrochir, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1867:60 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 20 (no. 115); ref. 1988] New South Wales, Australia [but probably in error for Queensland]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.2.13.17. •Valid as Polydactylus macrochir (Günther 1867) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:365 [ref. 23967], Motomura et al. 2000:328 [ref. 25060], Motomura et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25546], Feltes 2001:3105 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:176 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:274 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:49 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Hoese et al. 2006:1253 [ref. 29092], Larson 2013:147 [ref. 32988], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus macrochir (Günther 1867). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: southern New Guinea and northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

macronema, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1852:419 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 16827] Bandjarmasin and Pontianak; Sampit, Borneo. Syntypes: (3) RMNH 6013 (3). Apparently independent of (and preoccupied by) Polynemus macronemus Pel 1851; replaced by Polynemus borneensis Bleeker 1856. Objectively invalid. •Synonym of Polynemus melanochir, subspecies melanochir Valenciennes 1831 -- (Motomura & Sabaj 2002:184 [ref. 26155], Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:89 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:355 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831. Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

macronemus, Polynemus Pel [H. S.] 1851:9-10, Pl. [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 1 (Pt. 2); ref. 18526] Gold Coast, Gulf of Guinea ["littoribus Guineae septentrionalis"]. Syntypes: RMNH 6016 (4). •Synonym of Pentanemus quinquarius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Njock 1986:353 [ref. 6216], Motomura 2004:5 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:37 [ref. 27970], Motomura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2626 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Pentanemus quinquarius (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrophthalmus, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1858:10 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 6); ref. 16961] Palembang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6015. Paralectotypes: RMNH 33967 [ex RMNH 6015] (1). Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25546]. •Valid as Polynemus macrophthalmus Bleeker 1858 -- (Roberts 1989:166 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:129 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:165 [ref. 28284]). •Valid as Polydactylus macrophthalmus (Bleeker 1858) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:290 [ref. 25546], Motomura et al. 2001:1087 [ref. 25826], Feltes 2001:3106 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:178 [ref. 26356], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:51 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Lim et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30734], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus macrophthalmus (Bleeker 1858). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indonesia: Sumatra and Kalimantan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

malagasyensis, Polydactylus Motomura [H.] & Iwatsuki [Y.] 2001:338, Figs. 1, 7a, 8a [Ichthyological Research v. 48 (no.4 ); ref. 25783] Estuary of Mananjary River, about 100 meters from sea, Mananjary, eastern Madagascar, 21°05'S, 48°27'E. Holotype: AMNH 88029. Paratypes: AMNH 231222 (3); AMS I.28114-009 (2); ANSP 54807 (1), 77390 (1), 86372 (2); CAS 66577 (3), 131390 (2); MUFS 20381 (1); NRM 10479-80 (3, 4); SAM 34057 (3); USNM 171045 (1), 278209 (1), 301505 (1), 307631 (1), 358684 (3), 363484 (3). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:222 [ref. 35805]. •Valid as Polydactylus malagasyensis Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001 -- (Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:179 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:54 [ref. 27970], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:371 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Fricke et al. 2018:222 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus malagasyensis Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001. Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa and Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mango, Polynemus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:411, 413 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] America. No types known. •Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanochir, Polynemus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:513 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Kuching Bay, Sarawak, Kalimantan, Malaysia. Neotype: ZRC 37829. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:722 [ref. 21541]. Based on a drawing; this drawing reproduced in Feltes 1991:305 [ref. 14760]. Neotype designated by Motomura & Sabaj 2002:184 [ref. 26155]. Two subspecies are recognized: P. melanochir dulcis from Lake Tonle Sap and P. m. melanochir from other localities. •Valid as Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831 -- (Feltes 1991:304 [ref. 14760], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Motomura et al. 2001:269 [ref. 25705], Feltes 2001:3115 [ref. 26107]). •Valid as Polynemus melanochir, subspecies melanochir Valenciennes 1831 -- (Motomura & Sabaj 2002:184 [ref. 26155], Motomura 2003:162 [ref. 26829], Motomura & van Oijen 2003:406 [ref. 27209], Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:89 [ref. 27970], Parenti & Lim 2005:193 [ref. 28285], Motomura & Tsukawaki 2006:462 [ref. 28914], Lim et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30734], Kottelat 2013:355 [ref. 32989], Kang et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831. Polynemidae. Distribution: Cambodia, Vietnam, and Kalimantan, Malaysia and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

melanopoma, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1864:148 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] San José, (Pacific) Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.321. •Synonym of Polydactylus opercularis (Gill 1863) -- (Motomura et al. 2002:362 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:65 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus opercularis (Gill 1863). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanopus, Polynemus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1881:101 [1] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 5; ref. 18664] Saigon, southern Vietnam. Syntypes: MNHN A-3048 (2), A-3049 (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:718-719 [ref. 21541]. On p. 1 of separate. •Synonym of Polynemus melanochir, subspecies melanochir Valenciennes 1831 -- (Motomura & Sabaj 2002:184 [ref. 26155], Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:89 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:356 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831. Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

microps, Galeoides Steindachner [F.] 1869:126 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 16) (for 17 June 1869); ref. 20469] China [but probably erroneus]. Holotype (unique): NMW 77569. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1869:136 [p. 18 of separate] [ref. 4216]. •Synonym of Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831 -- (Motomura et al. 2001:269 [ref. 25705]). •Synonym of Polynemus melanochir, subspecies melanochir Valenciennes 1831 -- (Motomura & Sabaj 2002:184 [ref. 26155], Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:89 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:356 [ref. 32989]), Current status: Synonym of Polynemus melanochir Valenciennes 1831. Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

microstoma, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1851:217 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 330] Bulucomba [Balukumba], southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6044. •Valid as Polydactylus microstoma (Bleeker 1851) (sometimes seen as microstomus) -- (Mishra & Krishnan 1993:289 [ref. 23743], Motomura et al. 2000:331 [ref. 25060], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:338 [ref. 25783], Feltes 2001:3107 [ref. 26107], Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:180 [ref. 26356], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:55 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Randall 2005:289 [ref. 28239], Motomura 2009:169 [ref. 30446], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:94 [ref. 33932], Miesen et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34492], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Motomura et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35490] as microstomus). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus microstoma (Bleeker 1851). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mullani, Polynemus sextarius var. Hora [S. L.] 1926:453, Fig. 1 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 27 (pt 6); ref. 2207] Mumbai, India. Holotype: ZSI F10747. Paratypes: ZSI F10748-10750 (3). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:142 [ref. 20743]. •Valid as Polydactylus mullani (Hora 1926) -- (Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:344 [ref. 25783], Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:182 [ref. 26356], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:57 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Béarez et al. 2011:167 [ref. 31636], Psomadakis et al. 2015:281 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus mullani (Hora 1926). Polynemidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Oman to India. Habitat: marine.

multifilis, Polynemus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:29 (footnote) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Near Banjarmasin, southern Kalimantan, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 436. Also described as new in Schlegel 1852:11 [ref. 20719]. •Valid as Polynemus multifilis Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Roberts 1989:166 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:129 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:188 [ref. 22772], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Feltes 2001:3116 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2003:162 [ref. 26829], Motomura & van Oijen 2003:396 [ref. 27209], Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:91 [ref. 27970], Motomura & Tsukawaki 2006:462 [ref. 28914], Kottelat 2013:356 [ref. 32989], Kang et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Polynemus multifilis Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Polynemidae. Distribution: Thailand and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

multiradiatus, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1860:324 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] China coast [but probably erroneous]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.5.4.5 (stuffed). •Valid as Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:176 [ref. 23977], Johnson 1999:743 [ref. 25471], Motomura et al. 2000:293 [ref. 25546], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Feltes 2001:3108 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:183 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:268 [ref. 26389], Motomura et al. 2002:364 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:6-7 [ref. 27601], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:107 [ref. 27510], Motomura 2004:59 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Hoese et al. 2006:1254 [ref. 29092], Larson 2013:147 [ref. 32988], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: southern Indonesia and northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

naso, Polynemus Walbaum [J. J.] 1793:108 [J. T. Kleinii ichthyologia enodata; ref. 12604] Probably Brazil. No types known. Polynemus naso Walbaum 1793 is a nomen oblitum that can be suppressed if conditions of Art. 23.9.1.1 and Art. 23.9.1.2 are met. Donndorff 1798:681 [ref. 17407] cited Klein, Walbaum and others and was not an original description. •Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigripinnis, Polydactylus Munro [I. S. R.] 1964:156, Fig. 4 [Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 3058] 2.5 miles off east head of Purari River, Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea, depth 4.75 fathoms. Holotype: CSIRO A 1828. Paratypes: CSIRO A 1827 (1), A 1829-30 (1, 1). •Valid as Polydactylus nigripinnis Munro 1964 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:176 [ref. 23977], Motomura et al. 2001:86 [ref. 24248], Motomura et al. 2001:1087 [ref. 25826], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Feltes 2001:3109 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:184 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:275 [ref. 26389], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:107 [ref. 27510], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:61 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Hoese et al. 2006:1254 [ref. 29092], Larson 2013:147 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus nigripinnis Munro 1964. Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: southern New Guinea and northern Australia, Arafura Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

niloticus, Polynemus Shaw [G.] 1804:151 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Nile River [in error]. No types known. Based on literature sources. •Synonym of Polynemus plebeius Broussonet 1782 -- (Daget & Njock 1986:353 [ref. 6216]). •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:187 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:275 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

octofilis, Trichidion Gill [T. N.] 1861:280 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 13; ref. 1779] New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 15074 (poor condition). •Synonym of Polydactylus octonemus (Girard 1858) -- (Feltes 2003:1580 [ref. 27096], Motomura 2004:62 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus octonemus (Girard 1858). Polynemidae. Habitat: marine.

octonemus, Polynemus Girard [C. F.] 1858:167 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] Brazos Santiago, and Galveston, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 22900 [ex USNM] (1), USNM 739 (orig. 8, now 2), 762 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621]. See also Girard 1859:19, Pl. 10 (figs. 5-9) [ref. 13405]. •Valid as Polydactylus octonemus (Girard 1858) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:215 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:154 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:381 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:388 [ref. 24474], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:354 [ref. 24550], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Feltes 2003:1580 [ref. 27096], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:62 [ref. 27970], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:407 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus octonemus (Girard 1858). Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

oligodon, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1860:322 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Jamaica. Lectotype: BMNH 1853.4.18.23. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1848.1.12.890 (1, skin) Jamaica. Lectotype was designated by Randall 1966:601 [ref. 27197]. •Valid as Polydactylus oligodon (Günther 1860) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:396 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:215 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:381 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:386 [ref. 24474], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Feltes 2003:1581 [ref. 27096], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Dennis et al. 2004:78 [ref. 31601], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:63 [ref. 27970], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:408 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708] Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:56 [ref. 33341], Nión et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35565], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus oligodon (Günther 1860). Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

opercularis, Polydactylus Seale [A.] & Bean [B. A.] 1907:234, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1568); ref. 4002] Zamboanga, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 57844. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Trichidion opercularis Gill 1863; replaced by Polydactylus sealei Jordan & Richardson 1910. •Objective synonym of Filimanus sealei (Jordan & Richardson 1910) -- (Feltes 1991:319 [ref. 14760], Motomura 2004:3 [ref. 27601], Tashiro et al. 2013:45 [ref. 33132]). Current status: Synonym of Filimanus sealei (Jordan & Richardson 1910). Polynemidae. Habitat: marine.

opercularis, Trichidion Gill [T. N.] 1863:168 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] Western coast of Central America [probably Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico]. Holotype (unique): USNM 4954 or 4955 (both lost). Type catalog: Smith 2018:81 [ref. 36061]. See Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500] for comment about type locality. •Valid as Polydactylus opercularis (Gill 1863) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:236 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:63 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:195 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:138 [ref. 23101] as operularis [sic], Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1387 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:192 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:125 [ref. 25206], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:65 [ref. 27970], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:248 [ref. 35888], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:305 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus opercularis (Gill 1863). Polynemidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: California (U.S.A.) south to Chile. Habitat: brackish, marine.

paradiseus, Polynemus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:317 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Gariahat, Calcutta, India. Neotype: NRM 47529. Spelled paradisiacus by Walbaum 1792:631 [ref. 4572]. Neotype designated by Motomura et al. 2002:311, 314 [ref. 26494]. •Valid as Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:268 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:911 [ref. 20764], Feltes 1991:304 [ref. 14760], Mishra & Krishnan 1993:290 [ref. 23743], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:209 [ref. 27969], Mishra et al. 1999:88 [ref. 25315], Motomura et al. 2002:311 [ref. 26494], Motomura 2003:162 [ref. 26829], Khan 2003:10 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:293 [ref. 31338], Motomura 2004:11 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:92 [ref. 27970], Motomura & Tsukawaki 2006:462 [ref. 28914], Kottelat 2013:356 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:282 [ref. 34104], Kang et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758. Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan and India to Thailand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

paradiseus, Polynemus Cuvier [G.] in Guérin-Méneville 1828:no page number, Livraison 13 [Planches de Seba v. 3; ref. 29508] No types known. Text applies to Pl. 27 (no. 2) published in 1827. See Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:395, 400 [ref. 29508]. •Synonym and homonym of Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:395, 400 [ref. 29507]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758. Polynemidae.

paradisiacus, Polynemus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:631 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Walbaum cites Linnaeus's species 522 which is Polynemus paradiseus. Thus technically is an incorrect subsequent spelling. •Incorrect subsequent spelling of paradiseus -- (Motomura 2004:14 [ref. 27601]). Polynemidae.

peli, Polynemus Njock [J. C.] 1990:866 [CLOFETA; ref. 18540] Name only, not available. Above from Fowler (manuscript) and Njock 1990:866 [ref. 18540]; name appeared in the synonymy of Pentanemus quinquarius (Linnaeus 1758) and credited to Pel 1851, but this name did not appear in Pel 1851. Earlier use of the name not found. •In the synonymy of Pentanemus quinquarius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Njock 1990:866 [ref. 18540]). •Nomen nudum in Polynemidae -- (Motomura 2004:14 [ref. 27601]). Polynemidae.

pentadactyla, Sciaena Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:310, 316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Tahiti, Society Islands. Neotype: FMNH 108655. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:32 [ref. 6382]. Based on Commerson manuscript. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:306 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Neotype designated by Kottelat (2013). •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Fricke 1999:305 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). •Nomen nudum in Polynemidae -- (Motomura 2004:14 [ref. 27601]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pentedactyla, Trigla Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:17 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tahiti, Society Islands [French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Neotype: FMNH 108655. Neotype designated by Motomura et al. 2001:119 [ref. 25379]. Based on the Trigla asiatica of Forster, MS III, 27; see Forster 1844:236 [ref. 18092]. Unnecessary replacement name for Polynemus plebeius Broussonet 1782. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

perplexa, Filimanus Feltes [R. M.] 1991:307, Fig. 5 [Copeia 1991 (no. 2); ref. 14760] West of Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, 8°43'S, 115°00'E, depth 33-34 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1988.4.6.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1988.4.6.2-10 (9); CAS 59177 (1); FMNH 97100 (2, 1 c&s); MCZ 30869 (1); MNHN A-3054 (1); NMW 12479 (1), 12548-49 (3, 2), 22598 (1); USNM 72742 (1), 280288 (1). In Opinion 1761, the Commission established this species as the type species of Filimanus Feltes 1991. •Valid as Filimanus perplexa Feltes 1991 -- (Motomura et al. 2000:17 [ref. 25298], Motomura et al. 2001:204 [ref. 25385], Feltes 2001:3100 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2004:3 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:25 [ref. 27970], Motomura 2009:168 [ref. 30446]). Current status: Valid as Filimanus perplexa Feltes 1991. Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea to Sumatra and Java, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

persicus, Polydactylus Motomura [H.] & Iwatsuki [Y.] 2001:347, Figs. 5, 7d, 8b [Ichthyological Research v. 48 (no.4 ); ref. 25783] Kuwait Bay, Kuwait, Persian Gulf, 29°30'N, 47°50'E. Holotype: MCZ 60001. Paratypes: AMS I.40432-001 (1); BMNH 2000.9.25.1 (1); KU 10528 (1); MCZ 592251 (5, 1 c&s), 158350 (2); MUFS 20410 (1); USNM 363075 (1). •Valid as Polydactylus persicus Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001 -- (Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:185 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:66 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus persicus Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001. Polynemidae. Distribution: Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

pfeifferi, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1853:249 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): probably in RMNH 6008 (5 specimens). •Synonym of Filimanus xanthonema (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Feltes 1991:318 [ref. 14760], Motomura et al. 2001:204 [ref. 25385], Feltes 2001:3102 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:29 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Filimanus xanthonema (Valenciennes 1831). Polynemidae. Habitat: marine.

playfairi, Polynemus Day [F.] 1876:178, footnote [The fishes of India Part 2; ref. 1081] East Africa, Malay Archipelago, probably seas of India. No types known. Based on account in Playfair, Fishes of Zanzibar. Not treated by Whitehead & Talwar 1976 [ref. 23762]. •Incertae sedis in Polynemidae -- (Motomura 2004:13 [ref. 27601]). Polynemidae.

plebeius, Polynemus Broussonet [P. M. A.] 1782:[35], Pl. [8] [Ichthyologia, sistens piscium descriptiones et icones. Decas I.; ref. 17287] Tahiti, Society Islands [French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Neotype: FMNH 108655. On unnumbered p. 35 and unnumbered Pl. 8. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:306 [ref. 24106] as the specimen figured in Pl. 8 of the original description (specimen lost). Neotype (FMNH 108655) was designated by Motomura et al. 2001:119 [ref. 25379]. •Valid as Polynemus plebeius Broussonet 1782 -- (Daget & Njock 1986:353 [ref. 6216] as plebius, Mohsin & Ambak 1996:209 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:38 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:121 [ref. 6441] as plebejus, Smith 1986:721 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Kottelat et al. 1993:128 [ref. 23448] as plebejus, Mishra & Krishnan 1993:289 [ref. 23743] as plebius, Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356] as plebius, Allen 1997:176 [ref. 23977] as plebius, Fricke 1999:305 [ref. 24106], Motomura et al. 2000:331 [ref. 25060], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:968 [ref. 25182], Motomura et al. 2000:115 [ref. 25299], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:254 [ref. 27511], Motomura et al. 2001:87 [ref. 24248], Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Sakai et al. 2001:105 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Feltes 2001:3110 [ref. 26107], Nakabo 2002:968 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:346, 618 [ref. 26218], Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:186 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:275 [ref. 26389], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3327 [ref. 27945], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:371 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Randall 2005:290 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:387 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1254 [ref. 29092], Fricke et al. 2009:68 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:169 [ref. 30446], Motomura et al. 2010:127 [ref. 31256], Psomadakis et al. 2015:282 [ref. 34104], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Motomura et al. 2017:181 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:222 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:25 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:173 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Philippines, Society and Marquesas islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Port Stephens (New South Wales), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: brackish, marine.

plumierii, Polydactylus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:419, 420, Pl. 14 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] No locality stated. No types known. •Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

polydactylus, Polynemus Vahl [M.] 1798:164 [Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet Kiøbenhavn v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 17848] Near Tangier, Morocco, Strait of Gibraltar, eastern Atlantic. No types known. •Synonym of Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch 1795) -- (Monod 1973:575 [ref. 7193], Daget & Njock 1986:352 [ref. 6216], Njock 1990:865 [ref. 18540], Motomura et al. 2001:198 [ref. 25384], Motomura & van Oijen 2003:403 [ref. 27209], Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27601], Motomura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2624 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch 1795). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

polydactylus, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1852:417 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 16827] Bandjarmasin, southern Kalimantan, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6001. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Polynemus polydactylus Vahl 1798. •Synonym of Polynemus multifilis Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Motomura & van Oijen 2003:396 [ref. 27209], Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus multifilis Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

quadrifilis, Polynemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:390, Pl. 68 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0756 (poor condition). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:719 [ref. 21541]. •Valid as Polynemus quadrifilis Cuvier 1829 -- (Daget & Njock 1986:354 [ref. 6216], Njock 1990:867 [ref. 18540]). •Valid as Polydactylus quadrifilis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Daget in Lévêque et al. 1992:794 [ref. 21590], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:70 [ref. 27970], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:447 [ref. 30079], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Motomura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2628 [ref. 34618], Skelton 2019:228 [ref. 36564]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus quadrifilis (Cuvier 1829). Polynemidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

quadrinarius, Polynemus Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1846:218 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Not available, Solander name mentioned in synonymy of Polynemus tetradactylus Shaw 1804. •Nomen nudum in Polynemidae -- (Motomura 2004:14 [ref. 27601]). Polynemidae.

quaternarius, Polynemus Parkinson [S.] in Bleeker 1849:57 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Not available, name in synonymy under Polynemus tetradactylus Shaw 1804. •Incertae sedis in Polynemidae -- (Motomura 2004:13 [ref. 27601]). Polynemidae.

quatordecimfilis, Polynemus Pel [H. S.] 1851:10 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 1 (Pt. 2); ref. 18526] Near Banjarmasin, Kalimantan, Indonesia ["littoribus meridionalibus insulae Borneo"]. Holotype (unique): RMNH 436. Often misspelled as quatuordecimalis or quaterdecimfilis -- see Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601]. •Synonym of Polynemus multifilis Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Roberts 1989:166 [ref. 6439] as quaterdecimfilis, Motomura & van Oijen 2003:396 [ref. 27209], Motomura 2004:10 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:91 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:356 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus multifilis Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

quinquarius, Polynemus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:317 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America [but probably erroneous, probably western coast of Africa]. No types known. Species name spelled qvinqvarivs by Kielsen 1835:vi [ref. 30365]. •Valid as Pentanemus quinquarius (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Njock 1986:353 [ref. 6216], Njock 1990:866 [ref. 18540], Daget in Lévêque et al. 1992:795 [ref. 21590], Motomura 2004:5 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:37 [ref. 27970], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:445 [ref. 30079], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Motomura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2626 [ref. 34618], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Pentanemus quinquarius (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rhadinus, Polydactylus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1902:351, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1289); ref. 2447] Linkou, Taipei, Taiwan, depth 5-8 meters. Neotype: ASIZP 60745. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:47 [ref. 31432]. Neotype designated by Motomura et al. 2002:51 [ref. 25954]. •Valid as Eleutheronema rhadinum (Jordan & Evermann 1902) -- (Motomura et al. 2002:50 [ref. 25954], Nakabo 2002:968 [ref. 26193], Motomura 2003:33 [ref. 27186], Motomura 2004:2 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:15 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2007:8 [ref. 299494], Ho & Shao 2011:47 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:353 [ref. 32989], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Motomura et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35490], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:189 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Eleutheronema rhadinum (Jordan & Evermann 1902). Polynemidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam, southern China and Taiwan to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

risua, Polynemus Hamilton [F.] 1822:228, 381 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Vicinity of Lukhipur, India. No types known. •Synonym of Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Motomura et al. 2002:311 [ref. 26494], Motomura 2004:11 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:92 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:356 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758. Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

salliah, Polynemus Cantor [T. E.] 1839:166 [Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 5; ref. 17333] Cantor specimens: BMNH 1857.6.13.68 (1, dry), 1857.6.12.122 (1, dry). Not available (see Motomura et al. 2002:52 [ref. 25954]). Appeared as a vernacular name only, "To the genus Polynemus, I shall add a species, called by the natives Sallíah, or Saccolíh." •In the synonymy of Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw 1904) -- (Motomura et al. 2002:54 [ref. 25954]). •Unavailable vernacular name in Polynemidae -- (Motomura 2004:14 [ref. 27601]). Polynemidae.

sealei, Polydactylus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1910:16 [Philippine Islands, Bureau of Science Publ. no. 1; ref. 6598] Zamboanga, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 57884. Polydactylus opercularis Seale & Bean 1907 is a junior secondary homonym of Trichidion opercularis Gill 1863. Polydactylus sealei Jordan & Richardson 1910 is a replacement name for P. opercularis Seale & Bean. •Valid as Filimanus sealei (Jordan & Richardson 1910) -- (Feltes 1991:319 [ref. 14760], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Motomura et al. 2001:204 [ref. 25385], Feltes 2001:3101 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2004:3 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:27 [ref. 27970], Tashiro et al. 2013:45 [ref. 33132], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Motomura et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Filimanus sealei (Jordan & Richardson 1910). Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines to Taiwan, to New Guinea and Solomon Islands. Habitat: marine.

sele, Polynemus Hamilton [F.] 1822:226, 381 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges estuaries, India. No types known. •Synonym of Leptomelanosoma indicum (Shaw 1804) -- (Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:16 [ref. 25242], Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:33 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:353 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Leptomelanosoma indicum (Shaw 1804). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

senarius, Polynemus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:176 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean? Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.60 [not 59]. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:237 [ref. 13434]. •Synonym of Polynemus hexanemus Cuvier 1829 -- (Wheeler 1958:237 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Filimanus hexanema (Cuvier 1829) -- (Feltes 1991:311 [ref. 14760], Motomura 2004:3 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:24 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Filimanus hexanema (Cuvier 1829). Polynemidae. Habitat: marine.

sexfilis, Polynemus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:515 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-9731. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-9728 (1), A-3027 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:719 [ref. 21541]. Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2001:84 [ref. 25248]. •Synonym of Polydactylus sextarius (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:306 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Polydactylus sexfilis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:122 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:51 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:293 [ref. 15987], Mishra & Krishnan 1993:290 [ref. 23743], Randall et al. 1997:293 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:158 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:968 [ref. 25182], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:255 [ref. 27511], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:345 [ref. 25191], Motomura et al. 2000:115 [ref. 25299], Motomura et al. 2001:84 [ref. 25248], Motomura et al. 2001:1087 [ref. 25826], Feltes 2001:3111 [ref. 26107], Nakabo 2002:968 [ref. 26193], Motomura & Senou 2002:27 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:188 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Ataur Rahman 2003:296 [ref. 31338], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Motomura 2004:72 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Randall 2005:290 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:387 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:257 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:502 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus sexfilis (Valenciennes 1831). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sextarius, Polynemus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:18, Pl. 4 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 565. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:117 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Polynemus sextarius Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:210 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:38 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Polydactylus sextarius (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:45 [ref. 19754], Smith 1986:721 [ref. 5712], Daget & Njock 1986:354 [ref. 6216], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:910 [ref. 20764], Mishra & Krishnan 1993:290 [ref. 23743], Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:233 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:188 [ref. 23922], Motomura et al. 1999:57 [ref. 23928], Fricke 1999:306 [ref. 24106], Mishra et al. 1999:88 [ref. 25315], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:968 [ref. 25182], Motomura et al. 2000:115 [ref. 25299], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:256 [ref. 27511], Motomura et al. 2001:86 [ref. 24248], Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:350 [ref. 25783], Motomura et al. 2001:1087 [ref. 25826], Feltes 2001:3112 [ref. 26107], Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Nakabo 2002:968 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:346, 618 [ref. 26218], Motomura 2002:189 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:10 [ref. 27710] with author as Bloch, Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:74 [ref. 27970], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:371 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2015:61 [ref. 34319], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Ali et al. 2018:334 [ref. 36183], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:189 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus sextarius (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India east to New Guinea, north to southern Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sheridani, Polynemus Macleay [W.] 1884:21 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 1); ref. 4932] Mary River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): ?MAMU (whereabouts unknown, probably lost). •Valid as Polydactylus sheridani (Macleay 1884) -- (Mishra & Krishnan 1993:289 [ref. 23743], Johnson 1999:743 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Polydactylus macrochir (Günther 1867) -- (Motomura et al. 2000:328 [ref. 25060], Motomura et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25548], Feltes 2001:3105 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:176 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:274 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:49 [ref. 27970], Hoese et al. 2006:1253 [ref. 29092]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus macrochir (Günther 1867). Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

siamensis, Polydactylus Motomura [H.], Iwatsuki [Y.] & Yoshino [T.] 2001:122, Fig. 1B [Ichthyological Research v. 48 (no. 2); ref. 25379] Samyan market, Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype: URM-P 14050. Paratypes: MUFS 18280 (1). •Valid as Polydactylus siamensis Motomura, Iwatsuki & Yoshino 2001 -- (Motomura et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25548], Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:190 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:364 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:75 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Motomura 2009:170 [ref. 30446], Kottelat 2013:355 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus siamensis Motomura, Iwatsuki & Yoshino 2001. Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Sea to Gulf of Thailand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

similis, Filimanus Feltes [R. M.] 1991:318, Fig. 12 [Copeia 1991 (no. 2); ref. 14760] Beruwala, Sri Lanka. Holotype: USNM 304495. Paratypes: AMS 211033-004 (3); ANSP 74846 (2); BMNH 1860.3.19.56 (1); BPBM 19048 (2); CAS-SU 14591 (1), 22901 (1); FMNH 58982 (1); LACM 38134-17 (19); USNM 149704 (3), 278202 (2), 278215 (1), 278242 (7). •Valid as Filimanus similis Feltes 1991 -- (Motomura et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25298], Motomura et al. 2001:204 [ref. 25385], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Motomura 2004:3 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:28 [ref. 27970], Motomura 2009:168 [ref. 30446], Psomadakis et al. 2015:281 [ref. 34104], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Filimanus similis Feltes 1991. Polynemidae. Distribution: Pakistan to western coast of Malay Peninsula. Habitat: marine.

specularis, Polynemus De Vis [C. W.] 1883:285 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 1088] Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM I.28 (1, apparently lost). •Synonym of Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860) -- (Feltes 2001:3108 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:183 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:268 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:59 [ref. 27970], Hoese et al. 2006:1254 [ref. 29092]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taeniatus, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1860:526 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Ambon Island, Moluccs Islands, Indonesia; Guadalcanal, Solomon Island, western Pacific. Syntypes: BMNH 1858.4.21.85 (1) Ambon, BMNH 1855.11.7.35 (1) Guadalcanal. Replacement name for Polynemus lineatus Günther 1860, preoccupied by Polynemus lineatus Lacepède 1803. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25548], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

teria, Polynemus Hamilton [F.] 1822:224, 381 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Gangetic estuaries and Vizagapatham, India. No types known. •Synonym of Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw 1904) -- (Motomura et al. 2002:52 [ref. 25954], ?Ataur Rahman 2003:294 [ref. 31338] as ria, Motomura 2004:2 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:16 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:353 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw 1804). Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tetradactylus, Polynemus Shaw [G.] 1804:155 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Gariahat, Calcutta, India. Neotype: NSMT-P 60912. Based on literature sources, especially Russell, Fig. 183 [ref. 13862]. Neotype designated by Motomura et al. 2002:52 [ref. 25954]. •Valid as Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw 1804) -- (Wu & Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:211 [ref. 26639], Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Ataur Rahman 1989:269 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:907 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:27 [ref. 15702], Liang in Pan et al. 1991:355 [ref. 23876], Kottelat et al. 1993:128 [ref. 23448], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:207 [ref. 27969], Rainboth 1996:187 [ref. 22772] in Eleuthronema, Mishra & Krishnan 1993:289 [ref. 23743], Randall 1995:233 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:176 [ref. 23977], Cheng & Zhou 1997:244 [ref. 26385], Larson & Williams 1997:365 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:188 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:38 [ref. 26476] as tetradactylus, Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:251 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:88 [ref. 25315], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:968 [ref. 25182], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187 [ref. 25703], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Motomura et al. 2002:52 [ref. 25954], Feltes 2001:3096 [ref. 26107], Motomura et al. 2001:42 [ref. 26354], Wang et al. 2001:207 [ref. 26566], Youn 2002:346, 618 [ref. 26218], Motomura 2003:33 [ref. 27186], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:106 [ref. 27510], Motomura 2004:2 [ref. 27601], Khan 2003:10 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:294 [ref. 31338], Motomura 2004:16 [ref. 27970], Hoese et al. 2006:1252 [ref. 29092], Motomura et al. 2007:7 [ref. 299494], Motomura 2009:167 [ref. 30446], Larson 2013:146-147 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:151 [ref. 34464], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2015:60 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:280 [ref. 34104], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Motomura et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:334 [ref. 36183], Suresh et al. 2018:260 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw 1804). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Papua New Guinea, north to southern China, south to northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

toposui, Polynemus Hamilton [F.] 1822:232, 381 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Estuary of Ganges River, India. No types known. •Synonym of Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Motomura et al. 2002:311 [ref. 26494], Motomura 2004:11 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:92 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:356 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus 1758. Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tridactylus, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1849:57 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia and Parsuruan. Syntypes: RMNH 6012 (1). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1880.4.21.143 (1). Appeared first without distinguishing features in Bleeker 1845:524 [ref. 312] and spelled tridactijlus (all instances of the letter "y" were consistently replaced with "ij" in the paper). •Valid as Eleutheronema tridactylum (Bleeker 1849) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:128 [ref. 23448], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Feltes 2001:3097 [ref. 26107], Motomura et al. 2002:56 [ref. 25954], Motomura 2003:33 [ref. 27186] dated 1845, Motomura 2004:2 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:19 [ref. 27970], Motomura 2009:168 [ref. 30446]). Current status: Valid as Eleutheronema tridactylum (Bleeker 1849). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Thailand, Malaysia, and western Indonesia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

uronemus, Polynemus Cuvier [G.] 1829:155 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Puducherry, India and mouth of Adrian-Coupang River. No types known. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:722, 729 [ref. 21541]. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:385 [ref. 4879]. Based on Russel 1803: Fig. 184. •Synonym of Leptomelanosoma indicum (Shaw 1804) -- (Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:16 [ref. 25242], Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:33 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:353 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Leptomelanosoma indicum (Shaw 1804). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

verekeri, Polynemus Saville-Kent [W.] 1889:222, 234, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 6 (pt 5); ref. 18382] Ord River, Cambridge Gulf, Northern Territory, Australia. Lectotype: AMS I.2770. Paralectotypes: AMS I.2771 (1). Lectotype selected by Feltes 1993:212 [ref. 20316]. •Valid as Parapolynemus verekeri (Saville-Kent 1890) -- (Feltes 1993:211 [ref. 20316], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Feltes 2001:3103 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2004:5 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:35 [ref. 27970] dating to 1889, Hoese et al. 2006:1252 [ref. 29092], Larson 2013:147 [ref. 32988], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Parapolynemus verekeri (Saville-Kent 1889). Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: southern New Guinea and northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

virginicus, Polynemus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:317 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. Misspelled verginicus by Walbaum 1792:630 [ref. 4572]. •Valid as Polynemus virginicus Linnaeus 1758 -- (López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808]). •Valid as Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:215 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:381 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:387 [ref. 24474], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:218 [ref. 22947], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:269 [ref. 25013], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Feltes 2003:1582 [ref. 27096], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Smith et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970], Dennis et al. 2004:78 [ref. 31601], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:409 [ref. 28815], Matamoros et al. 2009:19 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1003 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:56 [ref. 33341], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Nión et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35565], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Spier et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

xanthonemus, Polynemus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:517 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-3033 (larger specimen). Paralectotypes: MNHN A-3033 (smaller specimen). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:720 [ref. 21541]. Lectotype selected by Feltes 1991:319 [ref. 14760]. •Valid as Polydactylus xanthonemus (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Mishra & Krishnan 1993:290 [ref. 23743]). •Valid as Filimanus xanthonema (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Feltes 1991:318 [ref. 14760], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Motomura et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25298], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:253 [ref. 27511], Feltes 2001:3102 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2004:3 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:29 [ref. 27970], Motomura 2009:169 [ref. 30446], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Filimanus xanthonema (Valenciennes 1831). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: east coast of India to western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

zophomus, Polydactylus Jordan [D. S.] & McGregor [E. A.] in Jordan & Seale 1907:11, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 606) (for 1906); ref. 2498] Cavite Province, Manila Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: CAS-SU 20113 [not USNM 55598]. Paratypes: ?CAS-SU 20111 (1), USNM 55598 (1 of 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:69 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Polydactylus microstomus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25548], Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:339 [ref. 25783], Feltes 2001:3107 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:180 [ref. 26356], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:55 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Polydactylus microstoma (Bleeker 1851). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus microstoma (Bleeker 1851). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.