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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Pomacanthidae: [ 188 ] records


abei, Centropyge Allen [G. R.], Young [F.] & Colin [P. L.] 2006:13, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 28625] Southeast side of Manado Tua, about 1°6.20040'S, 124°7.1222'E, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): NCIP 6305. •Valid as Centropyge abei Allen, Young & Colin 2006 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:544 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge abei Allen, Young & Colin 2006. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Sulawesi (Indonesia) and Palau. Habitat: marine.

acanthops, Holacanthus Norman [J. R.] 1922:318 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 9 (no. 52); ref. 15357] Durban/eThekwini, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1922.1.13.38. •Synonym of Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) -- (Schindler & Schneidewind 2004:32 [ref. 28032]). •Valid as Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Smith & Heemstra 1986:624 [ref. 5714], Winterbottom et al. 1989:44 [ref. 13251], Randall 1995:254 [ref. 22896], Anderson et al. 1998:25 [ref. 23611], Fricke 1999:346 [ref. 24106], Burgess 2003:1678 [ref. 27101], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:280 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:404 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2009:74 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2013:262 [ref. 32706], Zajonz et al. 2019:84 [ref. 36871], Tea et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37258]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Maldives and Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

aculeatus, Chaetodon Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:72 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] "Curassaviam in Oceano Americano". Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.64 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin), 1853.11.12.65 (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:224 [ref. 13434]. •Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:224 [ref. 13434]). Current status: Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

africanus, Holacanthus Cadenat [J.] 1951:239, Fig. 175 [Initiations Africaines. III. Poissons de mer du Sénégal; ref. 12676] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: (many) MNHN 1961-0958 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:140 [ref. 20718] but wrongly as holotype and paratypes. •Valid as Holacanthus africanus Cadenat 1951 -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Maugé 1990:838 [ref. 17126], Afonso et al. 1999:76 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:36 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:128 [ref. 32972], Bailly in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2678 [ref. 34618], Deidun et al. 2020:112 [ref. 37522]). Current status: Valid as Holacanthus africanus Cadenat 1951. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to central Angola, including Cape Verde Islands; straying into southwestern Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

albofasciatus, Holacanthus Tanaka [S.] 1909:16 [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 27 (art. 8); ref. 4322] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 2146. •Synonym of Holacanthus septentrionalis Temminck & Schlegel 1845 -- (Yasuda & Tominaga 1969:148 [ref. 7855]). •Synonym of Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1845). Current status: Synonym of Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1845). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

alternans, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:193 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Madagascar. Syntypes: MNHN A-0228 (1), A-0618 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:140-141 [ref. 20718], Fricke et al. 2018:243 [ref. 35805]. •Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Fricke et al. 2018:243 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

amarus, Chaetodon asfur var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:220 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Arabian Sea. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

amboinensis, Genicanthus lamarck var. Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1933:576, Fig. 18C [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1933 (pt 3, no. 30); ref. 671] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

amiralis, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] 1829:192 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. An available name but unused and can be suppressed. In footnote as, "Holac. amiralis, N., Renard, I, xvi, 92." (see Pietsch 1995:113 [ref. 26080]). •Probably the same as Pomacanthus navarchus (Cuvier 1831) -- (R. Pyle, pers. comm. 11/10/2003). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus navarchus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

annularis, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:114, Pl. 215 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Indian Ocean. Lectotype: ZMB 1315. Paralectotypes: ZMB 8150 (1, dry, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:117 [ref. 24282]. On p. 86 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:117 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Pomacanthus annularis (Bloch 1787) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:148 [ref. 19754], Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:187 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:625 [ref. 5714], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:411 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:129 [ref. 26476] dated 1789, Khan 1998:231 [ref. 24980], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:899 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:176 [ref. 25480], Pyle 2001:3284 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:899 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Satapoomin 2009:194 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:557 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2015:292 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:242 [ref. 35805], Psomadakis et al. 2020:514 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus annularis (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Solomon Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

arcuatus, Chaetodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:273 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] "Indiis" No types known. •Valid as Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:391 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:195 [ref. 23100], Maugé 1990:840 [ref. 17126], Boschung 1992:150 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:383 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:343 [ref. 24474], Kelley 1995:826 [ref. 21350], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:278 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:148 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:163 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Collette et al. 2003:112 [ref. 26784], Burgess 2003:1682 [ref. 27101], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:479 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:155 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:60 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

arcuatus, Holacanthus Gray [J. E.] 1831:33 [Zoological Miscellany [No. 1]; ref. 18153] Hawaiian Islands. BMNH 1960.6.22.1 (skin). Illustrated in Griffith & Smith 1834:Pl. 18 (opp. p. 325) [ref. 1908]. •Valid as Apolemichthys arcuatus (Gray 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Mundy 2005:402 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:293 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Apolemichthys arcuatus (Gray 1831). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian Ridge, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

argi, Centropyge Woods [L. P.] & Kanazawa [R. H.] 1951:636, Fig. 135 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 31 (no. 53); ref. 12812] Argus Bank, Bermuda Island, depth 93 fathoms. Holotype (unique): FMNH 48494. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:21 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Centropyge argi Woods & Kanazawa 1951 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Robins & Ray 1986:194 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:383 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:346 [ref. 24474], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:276 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:163 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:112 [ref. 26784], Burgess 2003:1677 [ref. 27101], Smith et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:473 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:154 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:60 [ref. 33341], Gaither et al. 2014:44 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge argi Woods & Kanazawa 1951. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

armitagei, Apolemichthys Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:380, Pl. 4 (fig. B) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 89) (art. 46); ref. 4098] Mahé, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean, depth 6 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 5. •Synonym of Apolemichthys trimaculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764]). •Valid as Apolemichthys armitagei Smith 1955 -- (authors). •Hybrid of Apolemichthys trimaculatus X Apolemichthys xanthurus -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:278 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Synonym of Apolemichthys. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

arusa, Chaetodon Bonnaterre [J. P.] 1788:89 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P52402 (dry skin). Makes available the Chaetodon maculosus, arusa of Forsskål 1775:62 [ref. 1351]. •Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775 ) -- (Fricke 2008:45 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

arusa, Chaetodon Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:62 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P52402 (dry skin). Originally Chaetodon maculosus, arusa on p. 62, Chaetodon maculosus on p. xiii. See account of Chaetodon maculosus. Not available from this combination as the author of p. 62 (Fabricius) did not decide how to name the species, maculosus or arusa (see Fricke 2008:45 [ref. 30182]). Name made available by Bonnaterre 1788:89 [ref. 4940] (see Fricke 2008:45 [ref. 30182]). •In the synonymy of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:45 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae.

aruset, Holacanthus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:528, 535 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P52402 (dry skin). Based on vernacular name 'L'Aruset' given by Bonnaterre 1788:89 [ref. 4940] for Chaetodon arusa. Unneeded replacement name for Chaetodon arusa Bonnaterre 1788. •Synonym of Holacanthus asfur (Forsskål 1775) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). •Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:45 [ref. 30182]). • Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

asfur, Chaetodon Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:61, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. No types known. •Valid as Arusetta asfur (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:169 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:48 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Pomacanthus asfur (Forsskål 1775) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Randall 1995:254 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Jawad et al. 2018:116 [ref. 36262], Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:84 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus asfur (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra. Habitat: marine.

atratus, Chaetodon Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:72 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] India. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.62 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:224 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus (Bloch 1787) -- (Wheeler 1958:224 [ref. 13434], Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Randall & Rocha 2009:518 [ref. 30410]). Current status: Synonym of Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

aurantius, Centropyge Randall [J. E.] & Wass [R. C.] 1974:140, Fig. 2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 21 (no. 3); ref. 7536] Pago Pago Harbor, Tutuila, Aua Reef, American Samoa, depth 36 meters. Holotype: BPBM 17000. Paratypes: BMNH 1974.7.3.2 (1), CAS 30691 (1), USNM 212153 (1). •Valid as Centropyge aurantius Randall & Wass 1974 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Randall et al. 1990:237 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:237 [ref. 25919]). •Valid as Centropyge aurantia Randall & Wass 1974 -- (Myers 1999:169 [ref. 23965], Pyle 2001:3273 [ref. 26118], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1303 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:544 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:105 [ref. 33932], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge aurantia Randall & Wass 1974. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Caroline Islands and Samoa. Habitat: marine.

aurantonotus, Centropyge Burgess [W. E.] 1974:90, Fig. [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 23 (no. 3); ref. 7492] Off Oistins, Barbados, West Indies, depth 50-60 feet. Holotype: USNM 213840. Paratypes: UF 232733 [ex UMML 32733] (1). If aurantonotus is an adjective, the correct spelling when in Centropyge is aurantonota. C. aurantiontus is a defective formation but it can not be changes; it should have been aurantionotus according to M. Zarazaga, from R. Pyle, email Aug. 2016. •Valid as Centropyge aurantonotus Burgess 1974 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Robins & Ray 1986:194 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:383 [ref. 23827], Randall 1995:254 [ref. 22896], Andreata & Séret 1996:587 [ref. 16204], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1645 [ref. 25634], Burgess 2003:1678 [ref. 27101], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27192], Wirtz et al. 2007:14, 36 [ref. 30263], Gaither et al. 2014:44 [ref. 35448], Pinheiro et al. 2015:21 [ref. 34324], Brown et al. 2019:178 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge aurantonotus Burgess 1974. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena Island; eastern Atlantic: São Tomé Island. Habitat: marine.

aureus, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:49, Pl. 193 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Antilles. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Chaetoton aureus Molina 1782. On p. 37 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). •Synonym of Pomacanthus paru (Bloch 1787) -- (Burgess 2003:1683 [ref. 27101]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus paru (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

balistaeformis, Holocanthus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:25 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. No types known. Family placement uncertain. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

ballinae, Chaetodontoplus Whitley [G. P.] 1959:21, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1957-58; ref. 4730] Off Ballina Bar, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.4233. •Valid as Chaetodontoplus ballinae Whitley 1959 -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Kuiter 1993:228 [ref. 23929], Allen et al. 2006:1305 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus ballinae Whitley 1959. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

balteatus, Pomacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:208 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Puerto Rico. Syntypes: MNHN A-3857 (1) [Bauchot's holotype] Puerto Rico, MNHN A-0259 (1) Dominican Republic. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:147 [ref. 20718] with holotype and paratypes. •Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764] as baltcatus). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

bellus, Genicanthus Randall [J. E.] 1975:402, Pl. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 6490] Outside barrier reef off District of Paea, Tahiti, Society Islands, depth 60 meters. Holotype: BPBM 16840. Paratypes: ANSP 127544 (2), BPBM 16841 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:41 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Genicanthus bellus Randall 1975 -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Myers 1999:172 [ref. 23965], Pyle 2001:3282 [ref. 26118], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:339 [ref. 28239], Hobbs et al. 2007:108 [ref. 29249], Allen & Erdmann 2012:555 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Genicanthus bellus Randall 1975. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean: Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indonesia, Philippines, Mariana, Marshall and Society islands. Habitat: marine.

bermudensis, Holacanthus ciliaris var. Goode [G. B.] 1876:43 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum [v. 1] No. 5; ref. 1832] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Neotype: CAS-SU 363. Original syntypes (USNM 154852 [3], Bermuda) were set aside and replaced by a neotype (SU 363; the holotype of Angelichthys isabelita Jordan & Rutter 1898), and the name bermudensis was placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology (ICZN, Opinion 2003). •Hybrid between Holacanthus isabelita and Holacanthus ciliaris (Feddern 1968 [ref. 21623]). •Valid as Angelichthys bermudensis (Goode 1876) -- (Condé & Terver 1976:1 [ref. 37212]). •Valid as Holacanthus bermudensis Goode 1876 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:194 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:149 [ref. 23239], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:276 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:148 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:163 [ref. 27754], Burgess 2003:1679 [ref. 27101], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:474 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:154 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Holacanthus bermudensis Goode 1876. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, marine.

bicolor, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:94, Pl. 206 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Brazil [in error, actual is Pacific]. Lectotype: ZMB 1308. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:118 [ref. 24282]. On p. 70 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:118 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Centropyge bicolor (Bloch 1787) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:189 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:237 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:230 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:126 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:230 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:237 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:170 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:740 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:904 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:306 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:107 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:35 [ref. 26232], Pyle 2001:3273 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:904 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:121 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624]). Valid as Apolemichthys trimaculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:624 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:44 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:237 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:230 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:237 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:169 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:345 [ref. 24106], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:902 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:306 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3272 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:902 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:630 [ref. 27495] with author as Lacepède, Randall 2005:332 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:403 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1303 [ref. 29090], Hobbs et al. 2007:108 [ref. 29249], Motomura et al. 2010:139 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:545 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:105 [ref. 33932], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448], Fricke et al. 2019:194 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge bicolor (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) and Sumatra (Indonesia) east to Micronesia and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

bishopi, Holacanthus Seale [A.] 1901:106 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Agaña, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): BPBM 194. •Synonym of Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

bispinosus, Holacanthus Günther [A.] 1860:48, 516 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1858.4.21.461. Paralectotypes: (3). Replacement name for Holacanthus diacanthus Bleeker 1857, secondarily preoccupied by Chaetodon diacanthus Boddaert 1772. Lectotype selected for diacanthus by Fricke 1999:347 [ref. 24106] also established a lectotype for bispinosus. Fricke 1999:347 [ref. 24106] wrongly treats bispinosus as valid over the secondary homonym diacanthus, but a secondary homonym replaced before 1961 is objectively invalid. •Synonym of Centropyge diacanthus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Fricke 1999:347 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Centropyge bispinosus (Günther 1860) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:189 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:624 [ref. 5714], Winterbottom et al. 1989:44 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:238 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:163 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:131 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:230 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:154 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:232 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:238 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:170 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:740 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:306 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:107 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:281 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:332 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:403 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1303 [ref. 29090], Shen et al. 2012:417 [ref. 31830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:545 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:263 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:105 [ref. 33932]). •Valid as Centropyge bispinosa (Günther 1860) -- (Nakabo 2000:903 [ref. 25182], Pyle 2001:3273 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:903 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:630 [ref. 27495], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Fricke et al. 2009:74 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2018:241 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:195 [ref. 36673], Tea et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37258]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge bispinosa (Günther 1860). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mozambique Channel, Aldabra, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall and Tuamotu islands, north to Izu Islands (Japan), south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

boddaerti, Chaetodon Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1243 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] No locality. •Synonym of Pygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert 1772) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830]). Current status: Synonym of Pygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert 1772). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

boylei, Centropyge Pyle [R. L.] & Randall [J. E.] in Pyle 1992:17, Figs. [Freshwater and Marine Aquarium v. 15 (no. 7); ref. 19835] Matauera, east side, Rarotonga, Cook Islands, South Pacific, depth 78 meters. Lectotype: BPBM 35041. Paralectotypes: BPBM 35042 (1), CAS 77413 (1), MNHN 1992-0940 (1), USNM 323407 (1). Lectotype selected by Pyle & Randall 1993 [ref. 20968]. •Valid as Centropyge boylei Pyle & Randall 1992 -- (Pyle 2001:3274 [ref. 26118] dated 1993, Randall 2005:333 [ref. 28239], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge boylei Pyle & Randall 1992. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: South Pacific: Cook Islands. Habitat: marine.

caeruleopunctatus, Chaetodontoplus Yasuda [F.] & Tominaga [Y.] 1976:130, Fig.1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 23 (no. 3); ref. 5505] Philippines. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 52825. •Valid as Chaetodontoplus caeruleopunctatus Yasuda & Tominaga 1976 -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Pyle 2001:3279 [ref. 26118], Allen & Erdmann 2012:551 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus caeruleopunctatus Yasuda & Tominaga 1976. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

caerulescens, Holacanthus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:133 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 2834-35 (1, 1). •Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:171 [ref. 29757], Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleus, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:194 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype: MNHN A-0615 (poor condition). Possible types: ZMB 1324-25 (6, 1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:141-142 [ref. 20718]. •Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Dor 1984:171 [ref. 29757] as coeruleus, Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). •Synonym of Pomacanthus asfur (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1988:3 [ref. 12862]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus asfur (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

catesbeii, Chaetodon Shaw [G.] 1803:325 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Carolinas and Bahamas. No types known. On Catesby v. 2, pl. 31. Chaetodon catesbaei Cuvier 1816:336 (footnote 1) [ref. 993] may be independent, but is based on same Catesby figure. •Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm., 10/17/03). Current status: Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

caudibicolor, Holacanthus Sauvage [H.-E.] (ex Liénard) 1891:267, Pls. 29 (fig. 6), 33 (fig. 2) [Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar; ref. 14503] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN A-0060 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:141 [ref. 20718] with a holotype. Based on 'Holacanthe caudibicolore' of Liénard 1832:105 [ref. 30333]; description quoted from Liénard. Also based on one specimen. •Synonym of Genicanthus caudovittatus (Günther 1860) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Fricke 1999:348 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Genicanthus caudovittatus (Günther 1860). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

caudovittatus, Holacanthus Günther [A.] 1860:44 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1960.6.22.2 (dry). Spelled caudavittatus by Bleeker 1877:22 [ref. 17113]. •Valid as Genicanthus caudovittatus (Günther 1860) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Dor 1984:170 [ref. 29757], Smith & Heemstra 1986:625 [ref. 5714], Goren & Dor 1994:48 [ref. 25356], Anderson et al. 1998:25 [ref. 23611], Fricke 1999:348 [ref. 24106], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:75 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:555 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:242 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273], Tea et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37258]). Current status: Valid as Genicanthus caudovittatus (Günther 1860). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Andaman Sea and Sumatra and near Bali (western Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

caudoxanthorus, Centropyge Shen [S.-C.] 1973:70, Figs. 75-76 [Report of the Institute of Fishery Biology of Ministry of Economic Affairs and National Taiwan Unversity, Taipei v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 7590] Ho-bi-hou, southwestern tip of Taiwan, S. China Sea. Holotype (unique): NTU 72-11-23-001. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Centropyge flavicauda Fraser-Brunner 1933 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764] as caudoxanthurus). •Synonym of Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) -- (Schindler & Schneidewind 2004:32 [ref. 28032], Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

cephalareticulatus, Chaetodontoplus Shen [S.-C.] & Lim [P.-C.] 1975:97, Fig. 16 [Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology Academia Sinica (Taipei) v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 7471] Northeastern coast of Taiwan. Holotype (unique): NTUM 02696. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Chaetodontoplus chrysocephalus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764]). •Valid as Chaetodontoplus cephalareticulatus Shen & Lim 1975 -- (Allen & Steene 2004:28 [ref. 27615], Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus cephalareticulatus Shen & Lim 1975. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: southern Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

chapmani, Holacanthus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1933:19 [Copeia 1933 (no. 1); ref. 2106] Dumaguete, Oriental Negros, Philippines. Holotype: CAS-SU 25504. Paratypes: BMNH 1933.2.11.394 [from Herre] (1); CAS-SU 25505-06 (1, 2); UMMZ 100225 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:80 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Genicanthus lamarck (Lacepède 1802) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Genicanthus lamarck (Lacepède 1802). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysocephalus, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1855:428 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 16941] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Chaetodontoplus chrysocephalus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:187 [ref. 6441], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:901 [ref. 25182], Pyle 2001:3280 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:901 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:551 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus chrysocephalus (Bleeker 1855). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Java Sea, Indonesia to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

chrysurus, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:228 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. No types known. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysurus, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:188 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Dorey Harbor, New Guinea [? Madagascar]. Holotype: MNHN A-0605. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:141 [ref. 20718]. •Valid as Pomacanthus chrysurus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Smith & Heemstra 1986:625 [ref. 5714], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:282 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2018:242 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus chrysurus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: East Africa to Seychelles, Comoros and Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

ciliaris, Chaetodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:276 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Western Atlantic/Caribbean. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.65 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin), NRM 56 (1). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:224 [ref. 13434], Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:251-252 [ref. 20707]. •Valid as Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Feddern 1968 [ref. 21623], Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:392 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:195 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:150 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:382 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:340 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:277 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:149 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:163 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:112 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943] with color morphs, Burgess 2003:1680 [ref. 27101], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:39 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:476 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Page et al. 2013:155 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:60 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:22 [ref. 34324], Bailly in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2676 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Kovačić et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic, including St. Paul's Rocks; introduced in Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Habitat: marine.

cingulatus, Pomacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:209, Pl. 185 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN A-3855 (1, dry), A-7753 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:148 [ref. 20718]. Predated by Pomacanthus cingulatus Cuvier in Guérin-Méneville 1827-31, Pl. 25 [ref. 29508]. •Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

cingulatus, Pomacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Guérin-Méneville 1828:no page number, Livraison 13 [Planches de Seba v. 3; ref. 29508] No types known. Text applies to Pl. 25 (no. 5a) published in 1827. Predates Pomacanthus cingulatus Cuvier 1831. See Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:399, 400 [ref. 29507]. •Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:399 400 [ref. 29507]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

circularis, Paradiretmus Whitley [G. P.] 1948:83, Fig. 6 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 4710] Off Lord Howe Island (stomach content). Holotype (unique): AMS IB.1944. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

clarionensis, Holacanthus Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:72 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Clarion, Socorro and San Benedicto Islands, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Syntypes: CAS-SU 1986 (2) Socorro, 1987 (1) Clarion; ?? BMNH 1898.10.29.45-46 (2) Clarion. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:81 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Holacanthus clarionensis Gilbert 1890-- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Allen & Robertson 1994:182 [ref. 22193], Krupp & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1390 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:259 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:149 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:155 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:447 [ref. 34668], Hernández-Velasco et al. 2016:1 [ref. 34760], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:610 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Holacanthus clarionensis Gilbert 1890. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cocosensis, Centropyge Shen [K.-N.], Chang [C.-W.], Delrieu-Trottin [E.] & Borsa [P.] 2016:15 [Marine Biodiversity; ref. 34943] Cocos (Keeling) Islands, eastern Indian Ocean. Holotype: NMMB-P19875-2. Paratypes: NMMB-P, USNM. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Centropyge cocosensis Shen, Chang, Delrieu-Trottin & Borsa 2016. •See DiBattista et al. 2016:647 [ref. 35346]. Current status: Valid as Centropyge cocosensis Shen, Chang, Delrieu-Trottin & Borsa 2016. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Christmas Island. Habitat: marine.

colini, Centropyge Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] & Randall [J. E.] 1974:110, Figs. 2, 4-6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 126; ref. 26] Turks Reef, Cocos-Keeling Islands, 12°06'30"S, 96°49'35"E, depth 67-73 meters. Holotype: ANSP 128306. Paratypes: AMS I.17918-001 (1), ANSP 128339 (1), BPBM 17577 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:41 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Centropyge colini Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1974 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Myers 1999:170 [ref. 23965], Pyle 2001:3274 [ref. 26118], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Senou & Morishita 2003:2 [ref. 27332], Myers & Donaldson 2003:630 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:333 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2012:545 [ref. 31980], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge colini Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1974. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: South China Sea, Indonesia, Cocos-Keeling Islands, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Guam, Marshall Islands and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

conspicillatus, Holacanthus Waite [E. R.] 1900:203, Pl. 35 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 4558] Lord Howe Island. Syntypes: AMS I.3353-54 (1, 1). •Valid as Chaetodontoplus conspicillatus (Waite 1900) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Randall et al. 1990:241 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:228 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:163 [ref. 25479], Randall et al. 1997:241 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:740 [ref. 25471], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:308 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3280 [ref. 26118], Randall 2005:338 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1306 [ref. 29090], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus conspicillatus (Waite 1900). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: central Queensland south to Jervis Bay (A.C.T., Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

coronatus, Holacanthus Desmarest [A. G.] 1823:204 [44], Pl. 3 (fig. 3) of separate [Mémoires de la Société linnéenne de Paris v. 2; ref. 1120] Cuba. On p. 44 of separate, unnumbered Pl. after p. 48. •Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764] as cornutus). Current status: Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

crescentalis, Pomacanthus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:358 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28139 (2 or 1, now 0). Specimens mentioned from Panama are not considered types. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

cyanotis, Holacanthus Günther [A.] 1860:517 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Aneiteum Island, Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.7.18.45 (stuffed). •Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764] as flavissimus). Current status: Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

darwiniensis, Holacanthus Saville-Kent [W.] 1889:235 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 6 (pt 5); ref. 18382] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Chaetodontoplus duboulayi (Günther 1867) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Larson & Williams 1997:363 [ref. 23967], Allen et al. 2006:1306 [ref. 29090], Larson et al. 2013:157 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Synonym of Chaetodontoplus duboulayi (Günther 1867). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

debelius, Centropyge Pyle [R. L.] 1990:47, Figs. 1-4 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 19599] Off reef southwest of Grand Baie, northwestern Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 50 meters. Holotype: BPBM 33941. Paratypes: BPBM 22916 (1), MNHN 1979-0569 (2), USNM 308844 (1). •Valid as Centropyge debelius Pyle 1990 -- (Fricke 1999:346 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:75 [ref. 30213], Gaither et al. 2014:44 [ref. 35448], Wickel et al. 2020:434 [ref. 37728], Tea et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37258]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge debelius Pyle 1990. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Aldabra (Seychelles) and Mayotte (France) to Tromelin Island and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues). Habitat: marine.

deborae, Centropyge Shen [K.-N.], Ho [H.-C.] & Chang [C.-W.] 2012:418, Figs. 1A, B, 2 [Zoological Studies v. 51 (no. 3); ref. 31830] Bligh Water, 17°09.208'S, 177°41.397'E to 17°14.349'S, 178°41.397'E, east of Yasawa I., western Fiji, (purchase), depth 5-25 meters. Holotype: NMMB-P 12641. Paratypes: NMMB-P 12642 (1), 12643 (1), 12644 (1); USNM 404486 (1), 404487 (1). •Valid as Centropyge deborae Shen, Ho & Chang 2012. Current status: Valid as Centropyge deborae Shen, Ho & Chang 2012. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Fiji Islands. Habitat: marine.

diacanthus, Chaetodon Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:420 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Objectively invalid; preoccupied in Chaetodon by Chaetodon diacanthus Boddaert 1772. Based in part on Chaetodon boddaerti Gmelin. •Synonym of Pygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert 1772). Current status: Synonym of Pygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert 1772). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

diacanthus, Chaetodon Boddaert [P.] 1772:1, Pl. [De Chaetodonte diacantho descripto .... 1 pl.; ref. 16974] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: MJAS (whereabouts unknown). •Valid as Pygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert 1772) -- (Klausewitz 1972:368 [ref. 30491], Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Dor 1984:172 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:626 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:44 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:246 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:48 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:127 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:234 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:246 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:172 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:350 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:740 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:107 [ref. 25868], Allen 2000:90 [ref. 37268], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:311 [ref. 25191], Nakabo 2000:902 [ref. 25182], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:266 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3286 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:902 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:283 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:343 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:408 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1309 [ref. 29090], Satapoomin 2009:195 [ref. 30463], Hobbs et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30769], Motomura et al. 2010:141 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:560 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:263 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:107 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:61 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:243 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:199 [ref. 36673]). •Valid as Pygoplites diacanthus subspecies diacanthus (Boddaert 1772) -- (Coleman et al. 2016:243 [ref. 34402]). Current status: Valid as Pygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert 1772). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Maldives east to Gambier Islands, north to southern Japan and Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Red Sea and Indian Ocean as the subspecies flavescens, but misidentified, subspecies is still undescribed [ref. 34402; R. Fricke, pers. comm., 11/18]. Habitat: marine.

diacanthus, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1857:57 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1858.4.21.461. Paralectotypes: (3). Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:347 [ref. 24106]. Wrongly treated as valid by Fricke 1999:347 [ref. 24106]; see Holacanthus bispinosus Günther 1860. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

dimidiatus, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1860:11 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 5); ref. 378] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Chaetodontoplus melanosoma (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764]). •Valid as Chaetodontoplus dimidiatus (Bleeker 1860) -- (Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830], Allen & Steene 2004:28 [ref. 27615], Allen & Erdmann 2012:552 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus dimidiatus (Bleeker 1860). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

duboulayi, Holacanthus Günther [A.] 1867:67 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 20 (no. 115); ref. 1988] Northwestern coast of Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.2.23.17 (skin). Ogilby 1915 [ref. 18486], p. 112 proposes that spelling should be H. dubouleyi, and that Günther made an error in transcribing the name. •Valid as Chaetodontoplus duboulayi (Günther 1867) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:241 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:363 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:228 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:241 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:740 [ref. 25471], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3280 [ref. 26118], Allen et al. 2006:1306 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:552 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:157 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus duboulayi (Günther 1867). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: Aru Islands (Indonesia), southern Papua New Guinea and Western Australia to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

dux, Chaetodon Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1255 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] India. •Synonym of Pygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert 1772) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Dor 1984:172 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Pygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert 1772). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

eibli, Centropyge Klausewitz [W.] 1963:177, Figs. 1-2 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 44 (no. 3); ref. 4935] Castle Bay, Tillanchong, Nicobar Islands, depth 20 meters. Holotype: SMF 5960. Paratypes: SMF 5961-62 (2). •Valid as Centropyge eibli Klausewitz 1963 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Kuiter 1993:229 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:232 [ref. 25488], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:34 [ref. 26232], Pyle 2001:3274 [ref. 26118], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1304 [ref. 29090], Satapoomin 2009:193 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:546 [ref. 31980], Shen et al. 2016:1 [ref. 34943], DiBattista et al. 2016:647 [ref. 35346]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge eibli Klausewitz 1963. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Maldives east to Java and Bali (Indonesia), south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:53, Pl. 195 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] East Indies. No types known. On p. 39 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Objectively invalid, preoccupied by Chaetodon fasciatus Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Pygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert 1772) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm., 10/17/03). Current status: Synonym of Pygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert 1772). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

ferrugatus, Centropyge Randall [J. E.] & Burgess [W. E.] in Burgess & Axelrod 1972:21, Figs. 30-31 [Pacific marine fishes. Book 1; ref. 7605] Reef one half mile off harbor of Ishigaki City, Ishigaki, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: BPBM 6831. Paratypes: BPBM 35802 [ex BPBM 6831] (1). •Valid as Centropyge ferrugatus Randall & Burgess 1972 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:189 [ref. 6441], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Centropyge ferrugata Randall & Burgess 1972 -- (Myers 1999:170 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:905 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:905 [ref. 26193], Motomura et al. 2010:139 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:546 [ref. 31980], Koeda et al. 2016:59 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge ferrugata Randall & Burgess 1972. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines north to Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Habitat: marine.

filamentosus, Pomacanthops Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:383, Pl. 4 (fig. A) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 89) (art. 46); ref. 4098] Tekomaji Island, Mozambique, ca. 10°40'S, 40°40'E, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 432. Paratypes: not researched. •Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:171 [ref. 29757], Smith & Heemstra 1986:626 [ref. 5714], Randall 1995:255 [ref. 22896], Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

fisheri, Holacanthus Snyder [J. O.] 1904:532, Pl. 11 (fig. 21) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Off Diamond Head, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 27-29 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 50881. Paratypes: BMNH 1932.12.31.29 [ex USNM 55319] (1); CAS-SU 7617 (1, discarded), 7738 (2), 7753 (1, discarded); USNM 55318-20 (3, 5, 1), ?76359 (3), 126100 [ex USFC 1429] (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:81 [ref. 12291]. •Mention -- (Fricke 1999:347 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Schindler & Schneidewind 2004:31 [ref. 28032], Randall 2005:333 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:404 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:294 [ref. 30952], Ho & Shao 2011: 48 [ref. 31432], Allen & Erdmann 2012:546 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:105 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2019:195 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Maldives east to Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia) and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

flammeus, Centropyge Woods [L. P.] & Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:604, Fig. 88 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Reef along northern side of atoll, Johnston Island, central Pacific. Holotype: USNM 140521. Paratypes: USNM 140522 (5). •Synonym of Centropyge loricula (Günther 1874) -- (Randall 2005:335 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:405 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:295 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Centropyge loriculus (Günther 1874) -- (Randall et al. 1990:239 [ref. 15987]). Current status: Synonym of Centropyge loriculus (Günther 1874). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

flavescens, Chaetodon Bennett [E. T.] 1831:61 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 19795] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.12.26.439 [ex Zool. Soc.]. Holotype purchased in 1855 from Zoological Society London. •Synonym of Pygoplites diacanthus, but a valid subspecies flavescens (Bennett 1831) -- (Coleman et al. 2016:243 [ref. 34402]). •Valid as Pygoplites flavescens (Bennett 1831) -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:112 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:94 [ref. 37020]). •Synonym of Chaetodon kleinii Bloch 1790 -- (Burgess 1978:699 [ref. 700], Allen 1980:158 [ref. 22764], Fricke 1999:330 [ref. 24106], R. Fricke, pers. comm, 11/18). Current status: Synonym of Chaetodon kleinii Bloch 1790. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

flavicauda, Centropyge Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1933:597, Fig. 29 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1933 (pt 3, no. 30); ref. 671] Macclesfield Bank, South China Sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1894.4.24.4. •Valid as Centropyge flavicauda Fraser-Brunner 1933 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:189 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:238 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:230 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:154 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:232 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:238 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:170 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:347 [ref. 24106], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:16 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3275 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:904 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:630 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Mundy 2005:404 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1304 [ref. 29090], Hobbs et al. 2007:108 [ref. 29249]). •Synonym of Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904) -- (Schindler & Schneidewind 2004:32 [ref. 28032], Randall 2005:333 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:294 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:546 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Synonym of Centropyge fisheri (Snyder 1904). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

flavipectoralis, Centropyge Randall [J. E.] & Klausewitz [W.] 1977:236, Figs. 1-2 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 57 (nos 4/6) (for 1976); ref. 8560] Lively Rocks, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, depth 20 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18772. Paratypes: BMNH 1977.1.10.2-3 (2); BPBM 18087 (1), 20468 (1); SMF 3746 (1), 11394 (1), 11881 (1), 12200 (1); USNM 216615 (1). •Valid as Centropyge flavipectoralis Randall & Klausewitz 1977 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:547 [ref. 31980], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448], Psomadakis et al. 2020:514 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge flavipectoralis Randall & Klausewitz 1977. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Maldives and Sri Lanka east to Myanmar and Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. Habitat: marine.

flavissimus, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:197 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Uléa, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. No types preserved. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:142 [ref. 20718]. Based on a drawing by Mertens (Franz Karl Mertens, 1764-1831, German botanist). Evidently flavissima is correct as an adjective when in Centropyge. •Valid as Centropyge flavissimus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:238 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:230 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:238 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:170 [ref. 23965], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:307 [ref. 25191], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:37 [ref. 26232], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830]). •Valid as Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831) -- (Randall 1999:18 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Randall & Earle 2000:16 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2000:903 [ref. 25182], Pyle 2001:3275 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:903 [ref. 26193], Myers & Donaldson 2003:630 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:334 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:404 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1304 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:547 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988], Shen et al. 2016:1 [ref. 34943], DiBattista et al. 2016:647 [ref. 35346]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas and Cocos-Keeling islands east to Wake Atoll, Line Islands (Kiribati) and Marquesas Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa; introduced in Hawaiian Islands. Western Pacific to Hawaii [ref. 34943]. Habitat: marine.

formosus, Holacanthus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:19, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-0601 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:142 [ref. 20718]. •Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

forsteni, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1877:139 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 17 (art. 2); ref. 17112] Not available, museum name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Holacanthus diacanthus Bleeker 1857. Pomacanthidae.

forsteri, Holacanthus Günther [A.] 1860:48 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Not available, name on specimen mentioned under Holacanthus diacanthus Bleeker 1857. Pomacanthidae.

fucosus, Holacanthus Yasuda [F.] & Tominaga [Y.] 1970:141, Figs. 1, 2, 13 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 4); ref. 430] Sanbon-ne, Miyake-jima, Japan, about 34°05'N, 139°30'E, depth about 15 meters. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 52422. •Synonym of Genicanthus semifasciatus (Kamohara 1934) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764] as fuscosus). Current status: Synonym of Genicanthus semifasciatus (Kamohara 1934). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

geometricus, Holacanthus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:528, 535, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:142-143 [ref. 20718]. Based on figure in Renard, fol. 1, pl. 5 (fig. 34). •Synonym of Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

griffisi, Holacanthus (Apolemichthys) Carlson [B. A.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1981:8, Figs. 1-2 [Freshwater and Marine Aquarium v. 4 (no. 5); ref. 8622] Canton Island, northern Phoenix Islands, South Pacific, depth 65 feet. Holotype: BPBM 22615. Paratypes: BPBM 26446 (1), CAS 42002 (5 not 4). •Valid as Apolemichthys griffisi (Carlson & Taylor 1981) -- (Myers 1999:169 [ref. 23965], Pyle 2001:3272 [ref. 26118], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:330 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:125 [ref. 28745], Allen & Erdmann 2012:543 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2019:194 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Apolemichthys griffisi (Carlson & Taylor 1981). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Sulawesi (Indonesia), Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands east to Kiribati (Gilbert Islands), Phoenix Islands and Line Islands. Habitat: marine.

guezei, Holacanthus Randall [J. E.] & Maugé [A. L.] 1978:298, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 3) No. 514 (for May-June 1978); ref. 8889] West coast off Baie de la Possession, Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 70 meters. Holotype: BPBM 20030. Paratypes: MNHN 1976-0370 to 0373 (1, 1, 1, 1); USNM 216845 (1). •Valid as Apolemichthys guezei (Randall & Maugé 1978) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Fricke 1999:345 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:74 [ref. 30213], Tea et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37258]). Current status: Valid as Apolemichthys guezei (Randall & Maugé 1978). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Réunion (western Mascarenes endemic). Habitat: marine.

haddaja, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:175 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. H. heddaje is a misspelling. •Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

heraldi, Centropyge Woods [L. P.] & Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:602, Pl. 59 (fig. a) [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] 100 yards offshore in lagoon, Ariji Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, depth 20-40 feet. Holotype: USNM 140093. Paratypes: FMNH 62623 (1); USNM 140092 (1), 140094-96 (13, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:21 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Centropyge heraldi Woods & Schultz 1953 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:239 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1998:87 [ref. 23587], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:127 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:230 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:239 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:170 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:18 [ref. 25829], Randall & Carlson 2000:1 [ref. 25137], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:903 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:307 [ref. 25191], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:37 [ref. 26232], Pyle 2001:3275 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:903 [ref. 26193], Myers & Donaldson 2003:630 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624] with author as Woods, Randall 2005:334 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1304 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:139 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:547 [ref. 31980], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448], Shen et al. 2016:1 [ref. 34943], Koeda et al. 2016:59 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge heraldi Woods & Schultz 1953. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Sri Lanka, Bali and western Pacific: Brunei, Philippines, Taiwan to southern Japan, south to Great Barrier Reef (Australia) and to Melanesia, Micronesia and French Polynesia. Habitat: marine.

hotumatua, Centropyge Randall [J. E.] & Caldwell [D. K.] 1973:6, Figs. 3-4 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 237; ref. 7582] Offshore from Ahu Akapu on western side of Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 70 feet. Holotype: BPBM 6665. Paratypes: BMNH 1972.10.5.1 (2); BPBM 10439 (1), 12275 (3), 12793 (1), 13012 (1), 13312 (5), 13314-15 (2, 3), 13326 (2); CAS 13390 (1); LACM 32817-1 (2); MNHN 1970-0116 (1); USNM 205521 (1). •Valid as Centropyge hotumatua Randall & Caldwell 1973 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Randall 1999:18 [ref. 25829], Pyle 2001:3276 [ref. 26118], Randall 2005:335 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge hotumatua Randall & Caldwell 1973. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Oceania. Habitat: marine.

iburu, Holacanthus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:447 [169] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 169 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. Pomacanthidae.

ignatius, Holacanthus Playfair [R. L.] 1868:852, Pl. 41 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3) (art. 6) (for 14 Nov. 1867); ref. 14049] Seychelles. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.8.16.74. •Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). •Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1995:255 [ref. 22896]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

imperator, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:51, Pl. 194 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Japan sea. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8570 (right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:118 [ref. 24282]. On p. 38 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Pomacanthodes imperator (Bloch 1787) -- (Klausewitz 1972:368 [ref. 30491]). •Valid as Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Dor 1984:170 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:187 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:626 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:44 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:244 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:163 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:48 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:255 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:412 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:129 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:226 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:244 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:172 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:349 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:740 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:19 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:90 [ref. 37268], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:899 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:309 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:107 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3285 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:899 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:281 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:341 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:407 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1308 [ref. 29090], Randall 2007:297 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:75 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:194 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:141 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:558 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:263 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:106 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:60 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:170 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:335 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:242 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:94 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:198 [ref. 36673], Othman & Stern in Stern et al. 2019:446 [ref. 36863], Zajonz et al. 2019:84 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:514 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Tonga and Austral Islands; eastern Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

imperialis, Chaetodon Shaw [G.] 1803:324, Pl. 46 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Japan. No types known. Based on Chaetodon imperator Bloch 1787. •Synonym of Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

interruptus, Angelichthys Tanaka [S.] 1918:224 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 30 (no. 356); ref. 17357] Tanabe, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 8343. •Valid as Centropyge interruptus (Tanaka 1918) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:189 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Centropyge interrupta (Tanaka 1918) -- (Nakabo 2000:905 [ref. 25182], Sasaki et al. 2001:1 [ref. 25228], Nakabo 2002:905 [ref. 26193], Mundy 2005:404 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:294 [ref. 30952], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge interrupta (Tanaka 1918). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western and Central North Pacific: southern Japan, Ogasawara Islands, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

iodocus, Holacanthus Jordan [D. S.] & Rutter [C. L.] in Gilbert 1897:445 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 47747. •Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

isabelita, Angelichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Rutter [C. L.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1685 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 363. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:80 [ref. 12291]. Appeared as name only in Jordan & Evermann 1896:420 [ref. 2442]. The holotype of Angelichthys isabelita Jordan & Rutter 1898 was made the neotype of Holacanthus ciliaris bermudensis Goode, 1876, thus making the former a junior objective synonym of the latter, and the name Angelichthys isabelita was placed on the Official List of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology (ICZN, Opinion 2003). •Valid as Holacanthus isabelita (Jordan & Rutter 1898) -- (Feddern 1968:351 [ref. 21623]). •Synonym of Holacanthus bermudensis Goode 1876 -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:277 [ref. 25013], Burgess 2003:1679 [ref. 27101], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:475 [ref. 28815]). Current status: Synonym of Holacanthus bermudensis Goode 1876. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Holacanthus lamarcki Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1931:99, Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the Pacific Committee of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. v. 1; ref. 3937] Itoman, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Syntypes: ZIN 23345-46 (1, 3). •Synonym of Genicanthus lamarck (Lacepède 1802) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Genicanthus lamarck (Lacepède 1802). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

joculator, Centropyge Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] & Randall [J. E.] 1974:106, Figs. 1-4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 126; ref. 26] Turks Reef, Cocos-Keeling Islands, 12°06'30"S, 96°49'35"E, depth 30-46 meters. Holotype: ANSP 128449. Paratypes: AMS I.17919-001 (1); ANSP 128450-53 (3), 128510 (2); BPBM 17576 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:41 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Centropyge joculator Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1974 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Allen & Smith-Vaniz 1994:3 [ref. 22386], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Allen & Erdmann 2012:548 [ref. 31980], Gaither et al. 2014:44 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge joculator Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1974. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Christmas and Cocos-Keeling islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

kingi, Apolemichthys Heemstra [P. C.] 1984:6, Figs. 1-4 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 35; ref. 5298] No. 1 Reef off Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 30 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 19800. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 19801 (1), USNM 265102 (1). •Valid as Apolemichthys kingi Heemstra 1984 -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:624 [ref. 5714], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:279 [ref. 28072], Wickel et al. 2019:383 [ref. 36446]). Current status: Valid as Apolemichthys kingi Heemstra 1984. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: eastern South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

lamarck, Holacanthus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:526, 530 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0047. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:143 [ref. 20718]. •Valid as Genicanthus lamarck (Lacepède 1802) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:242 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:128 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:234 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:242 [ref. 25919], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:906 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3283 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:906 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:123 [ref. 27510], Allen et al. 2006:1307 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:140 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:556 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2017:170 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Genicanthus lamarck (Lacepède 1802). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South China Sea to Vanuatu, northern Barrier Reef (Australia) to Ryukyu Islands, Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

lamarckii, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:198, Pl. 184 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] An incorrect subsequent spelling of Holacanthus lamarck Lacepède 1802 appearing on Pl. 184; name was spelled correctly as lamarck in the text on p. 198 and elsewhere. •An incorrect subsequent spelling of Holacanthus lamarck Lacepède 1802 appearing on Pl. 184; name was spelled correctly as lamarck in the text on p. 198 and elsewhere. Pomacanthidae.

lasti, Holacanthus von Bonde [C.] 1934:449, Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Natal Museum. v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 16466] Shearwater Patches, north of Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indfian Ocean, depth 17 fathoms. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

leachii, Chaetodon Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:124 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Madeira. •Possible synonym of Pomacanthus paru (Bloch 1787) -- (Maugé 1990:841 [ref. 17126]). •Synonym of Pomacanthus paru (Bloch 1787) -- (Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus paru (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

lepidolepis, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1853:468 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

leucopleura, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1853:79 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16911] Lawajong, Solor Island, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) RMNH 5809 (106-mm specimen of 7). •Synonym of Centropyge tibicen (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Centropyge tibicen (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

limbaughi, Holacanthus Baldwin [W. J.] 1963:3, Figs. 1-2 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 74; ref. 4010] Northwestern shore of Clipperton Island, eastern Pacific, 10°18'N, 109°13'W. Holotype: USNM 178998. Paratypes: LACM 3307-09 (1, 1, 1); SIO 15-1822 (3) (ex UCLA W58-287), 59-3 (2) (ex UCLA W56-236), 59-9 (1) (ex UCLA W58-289). •Valid as Holacanthus limbaughi Baldwin 1963 -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Allen & Robertson 1994:182, 303 [ref. 22193], Béarez & Séret 2009:149 [ref. 36646]). Current status: Valid as Holacanthus limbaughi Baldwin 1963. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Clipperton Island endemic. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Holacanthus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:133 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 426 (2). •Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:171 [ref. 29757], Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

littoricola, Chaetodon Poey [F.] 1868:351 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 16165 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:205-206 [ref. 22926] with largest specimen in MCZ 16165 as holotype. •Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

longitudinaliterstriata, Holacanthus douboulayi var. Klunzinger [C. B.] 1880:362 [38] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (1. Abth.) (nos 3-4); ref. 2624] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2472. Type catalog: Fricke 1992:16 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:54 [ref. 29864]. On p. 38 of separate. Originally as Variet. longitudinaliter striata. •Synonym of Chaetodontoplus duboulayi (Günther 1867) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:363 [ref. 23967], Allen et al. 2006:1306 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Chaetodontoplus duboulayi (Günther 1867). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

loriculus, Holacanthus Günther [A.] 1874:53, Pl. 40 (fig. C) [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 2); ref. 14190] Society Islands [French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Holotype (unique): lost. The name loriculus is a noun in apposition. Based on a single specimen of 2.5 inches taken out of the stomach of a serranid. Description based on painting reproduced in Pl. 40 (fig. C); specimen discarded. •Valid as Centropyge loricula (Günther 1874) -- (Myers 1999:170 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:18 [ref. 25829], Randall & Earle 2000:16 [ref. 25806], Pyle 2001:3276 [ref. 26118] dated 1860, Myers & Donaldson 2003:626 [ref. 27495] dated 1860, Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576] dated 1873, Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Allen et al. 2006:1304 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:548 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988]). •Valid as Centropyge loriculus (Günther 1874) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Randall et al. 1990:239 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:154 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:239 [ref. 25919], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:307 [ref. 25191], Randall 2005:335 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:405 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:294 [ref. 30952], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448], Fricke et al. 2019:196 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge loriculus (Günther 1874). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Philippines and Papua New Guinea east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and to Marquesas Islands and Pitcairn Group, south to New Caledonia, Tonga and Gambier Islands. Habitat: marine.

lunatus, Holocanthus Blosser [C. B.] 1909:299, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1) (art. 5); ref. 14363] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Holotype (unique): FMNH 52831 [ex CM 1235]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:93 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:46 [ref. 12367]. Original genus correctly as Holacanthus. •Questionably a synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

luteolus, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] (ex Parkinson) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:198 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:143 [ref. 20718]. Based on a Parkinson drawing. •Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], as flavissimus). Current status: Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

lutescens, Chetodon Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Browne) 1788:82 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Jamaica. No types known. Genus should have been Chaetodon. Based on the Chaetodon luteo-variegatus & fasciatus of Browne 1756:454, No. 4 [ref. 669]. •Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

luteus, Chetodon Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Plumier) 1788:88, Pl. 92 (fig. 381) [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Antilles. No types known. Original genus should have been Chaetodon. Based on 'La dorade' in a manuscript of Plumier, described by Bloch (1787) as Chaetodon aureus; since Bonnaterre refers to Bloch, luteus is an unneeded new name for Bloch's aureus (P. Parenti, pers. comm. 10/17/2003). •Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm. 10/17/2003). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

macclesfieldiensis, Genicanthus Chan [W. L.] 1966:330, Figs. 4-5 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 8 (no. 90) (for 1965); ref. 9022] Macclesfield Bank, South China Sea, 16°03'N, 114°40'E, depth 45-46 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1965.3.23.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1965.3.23.2-5 (4), USNM 276529 [ex 258727-F1] (1). •Synonym of Genicanthus melanospilos (Bleeker 1857) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Genicanthus melanospilos (Bleeker 1857). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

maculosus, Chaetodon Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xiii, 62 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P52402 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:68 [ref. 9588]. Originally Chaetodon maculosus, arusa on p. 62, Chaetodon maculosus on p. xiii. Available by indication (ICZN Art. 12.2.2) from p. xiii, with diagnosis from p. 62 (Fricke 2008:45 [ref. 30182]). Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 33 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:187 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:171 [ref. 29757], Smith & Heemstra 1986:626 [ref. 5714], Randall 1988:2 [ref. 12862], Masuda & Senou 1994:5 [ref. 24337], Goren & Dor 1994:48 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:255 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:195 [ref. 23922], Senou 2001:2 [ref. 25720], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:283 [ref. 28072], Fricke 2008:45 [ref. 30182], Bariche 2010:31 [ref. 30715], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:427 [ref. 33460], Jawad et al. 2014:124 [ref. 34075], Psomadakis et al. 2015:292 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:336 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:118 [ref. 36262], Eagderi et al. 2019:94 [ref. 37020], Othman & Stern in Stern et al. 2019:446 [ref. 36863], Zajonz et al. 2019:84 [ref. 36871], Bariche & Fricke 2020:135 [ref. 37515]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea; western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Socotra and Persian Gulf east to Pakistan; eastern Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

marianas, Holacanthus Seale [A.] 1901:104 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Agaña, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 192 [not 193]. •Synonym of Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

melanosoma, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1853:78 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16911] Lawajong, Solor Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Chaetodontoplus melanosoma (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:187 [ref. 6441], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:130 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:519 [ref. 25919], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:901 [ref. 25182], Pyle 2001:3281 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:901 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830], Allen & Steene 2004:28 [ref. 27615], Allen & Erdmann 2012:553 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus melanosoma (Bleeker 1853). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: central Indonesia to Philippines, Habitat: marine.

melanospilos, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1857:56 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5812. •Valid as Genicanthus melanospilos (Bleeker 1857) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:242 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:234 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:242 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:172 [ref. 23965], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:905 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:308 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Pyle 2001:3283 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:905 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:339 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1307 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:140 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:556 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:106 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:198 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Genicanthus melanospilos (Bleeker 1857). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: South China Sea and Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Vanuatu; north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

meleagris, Holacanthus alternans var. Alcock [A. W.] 1896:303 [3] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 65 (pt 2, No. 3); ref. 91] Palk Straits, 9°51'50"N, 79°53'22"E, Investigator station 174, depth 7 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F14070. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:145 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:39 [ref. 22148]. On p. 3 of separate. •Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

meredithi, Chaetodontoplus Kuiter [R. H.] 1990:114, Figs. 1-5 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 16 (no. 4) [for 1989]; ref. 17688] Pilot Station, Sydney Harbor, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: NMV A8097. Paratypes: AMS I.15625-021 (1), I.15635-019 (1), I.15647-74 (1), I.16582-054 (1). •Valid as Chaetodontoplus meredithi Kuiter 1990 -- (Randall et al. 1990:241 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:163 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:122 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:228 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:228 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:241 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:740 [ref. 25471], Pyle 2001:3281 [ref. 26118], Allen et al. 2006:1306 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus meredithi Kuiter 1990. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

mesoleucus, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:117, Pl. 216 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Japan (possibly in error). Syntypes: ZMB 8149 (1, dry, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:118 [ref. 24282]. Not Chaetodon mesoleucos Forsskål. On p. 88 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus (Bloch 1787) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:187 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:411 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:172 [ref. 23965], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:900 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:107 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3281 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:900 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830] dated 1857, Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:122 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Mundy 2005:406 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1306 [ref. 29090], Randall & Rocha 2009:511 [ref. 30410], Allen & Erdmann 2012:553 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean: East Indian Region, Indonesia, Western Australia to Malaysia to Philippines and to Japan. Habitat: marine.

mesomelas, Chaetodon Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1263 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Japan. New name for, or incorrect subsequent spelling of Chaetodon mesoleucas Bloch. •Treated as synonym of Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus (Bloch 1787) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

mokhella, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:177 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:143 [ref. 20718]. •Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:171 [ref. 29757], Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

monophthalmus, Holacanthus Kner [R.] 1867:714 [6], Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 56; ref. 2645] Raiatea, Society Islands. Illustration in Plate 4 (fig. 1) refers to this species, with an alternate name Holacanthus uniocellatus. •Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764] as flavissimus). Current status: Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

multicolor, Centropyge Randall [J. E.] & Wass [R. C.] 1974:138, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 21 (no. 3); ref. 7536] Off ocean reef, Rigili [Leroy] Islet, Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 10058. Paratypes: BMNH 1947.7.3.1 (1); BPBM 9664 (1), 17243 (1); CAS 30690 (1); USNM 212152 (1). •Valid as Centropyge multicolor Randall & Wass 1974 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Myers 1999:171 [ref. 23965], Pyle 2001:3276 [ref. 26118], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:336 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:405 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:295 [ref. 30952], Gaither et al. 2014:44 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge multicolor Randall & Wass 1974. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western and Central Pacific: Micronesia, Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian Islands, Fiji, Cook Islands, Society Islands (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

multifasciatus, Holacanthus Smith [H. M.] & Radcliffe [L.] 1911:324, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 40 (no. 1822); ref. 10246] Port Galera, Mindoro, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 67355. Additional material or syntypes: (many localities) USNM 180366-73 [or 180336-42] (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1). First author is H. M. Smith. •Valid as Centropyge multifasciatus (Smith & Radcliffe 1911) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:189 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:239 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:232 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:239 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:171 [ref. 23965], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:307 [ref. 25191]). •Valid as Paracentropyge multifasciatus (Smith & Radcliffe 1911) -- (Burgess 1991:69 [ref. 19211], Nakabo 2000:902 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:902 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830] as multifasciata, Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495] as multifasciata, Allen et al. 2006:1308 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:548 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988]). •Valid as Centropyge multifasciata (Smith & Radcliffe 1911) -- (Pyle 2001:3277 [ref. 26118], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:336 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2014:105 [ref. 33932], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448], Fricke et al. 2019:196 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge multifasciata (Smith & Radcliffe 1911). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas and Cocos-Keeling islands and Indonesia east to Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

multispinis, Holacanthus Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:37, Pl. 6 (fig. 4) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1865.2.27.49 (1), 1867.3.9.106 (1, skin). •Valid as Centropyge multispinis (Playfair 1867) -- (Klausewitz 1972:365 [ref. 30491], Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Dor 1984:170 [ref. 29757], Smith & Heemstra 1986:624 [ref. 5714], Winterbottom et al. 1989:44 [ref. 13251], Krupp & Debelius 1990:55 [ref. 16018], Goren & Dor 1994:48 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:254 [ref. 22896], Kishimoto et al. 1996 [ref. 22263], Fricke 1999:348 [ref. 24106], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830] as multispinus and authors as Playfair & Günther, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:281 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:75 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:193 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:549 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:263 [ref. 32706], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448], Fricke et al. 2018:241 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:84 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge multispinis (Playfair 1867). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa),Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Thailand and western Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

nahackyi, Centropyge Kosaki [R. K.] 1989:881, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1989 (no. 4); ref. 13510] Northwestern side of Johnston Atoll, outer reef slope, northern central Pacific, depth 45 meters. Holotype: BPBM 32702. Paratypes: BMNH 1988.10.10.1 (1); BPBM 32699 (1); CAS 62808 (1); USNM 296179 (1). •Valid as Centropyge nahackyi Kosaki 1989 -- (Mundy 2005:406 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:295 [ref. 30952], Gaither et al. 2014:44 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge nahackyi Kosaki 1989. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll, waif to the Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

narcosis, Centropyge Pyle [R. L.] & Randall [J. E.] 1993:116, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 19 (no. 4) [for 1992]; ref. 20968] Matauera, Rarotonga, Cook Islands, depth 110 meters. Holotype: BPBM 35039. Paratypes: BPBM 35040 (1), CAS 77412 (1), MNHN 1992-0941 (1), USNM 323406 (1). •Valid as Centropyge narcosis Pyle & Randall 1993 -- (Pyle 2001:3277 [ref. 26118], Randall 2005:336 [ref. 28239], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge narcosis Pyle & Randall 1993. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

navarchus, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:171 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Nagasaki, Japan [erroneous, is Indonesia]. Lectotype: Figure only. Possible syntypes: ?MNHN A-0295 (1), ?RMNH 544 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:143-144 [ref. 20718], who suggests that a figured specimen of Valentyn should be designated lectotype to conserve current usage of the name. Based on "Vlaming (No. 22)", "Renard Tom. I. fol. 16, no. 92, no. 93, t. 2, pl. 4, fig. 17", and 'Pantiop Japon' of Valentyn 1726:364, 367, figs. 58, 64 [ref. 30358] from Japan [Nagasaki] [erroneous, is Indonesia]. •Valid as Pomacanthus navarchus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:244 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:228 [ref. 25488], Myers 1999:172 [ref. 23965], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3285 [ref. 26118], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:123 [ref. 27510], Allen et al. 2006:1308 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:558 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:106 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:198 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus navarchus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: South China Sea and Vietnam east to Caroline islands, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to Philippines, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

nicobariensis, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:219 (574), Pl. 50 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Nicobar Islands [as Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1320. As nicobarcensis on pp. 219 and plate caption; corrected in Corrigenda (p. 574). •Synonym of Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

niger, Chaetodontoplus Chan [W. L.] 1966:326, Figs. 2-3 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 8 (no. 90) (for 1965); ref. 9022] Macclesfield Bank, South China Sea, 16°4.8'N, 114°40.8'E, depth 38-44 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1965.3.23.6. •Questionably a synonym of Chaetodontoplus melanosoma (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764]). •Valid as Chaetodontoplus niger Chan 1966 -- (Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:900 [ref. 25182], Pyle 2001:3271 [ref. 26118] dated 1965, Nakabo 2002:900 [ref. 26193], Allen & Erdmann 2012:553 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus niger Chan 1966. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: South China Sea and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

nigriocellus, Centropyge Woods [L. P.] & Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:607, Fig. 89 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Johnston Island, Northern Central Pacific, reef along northern side of atoll. Holotype (unique): USNM 141312. The name nigriocellus is a noun in apposition [database changed late 2011]. •Valid as Centropyge nigriocella Woods & Schultz 1953 -- (Myers 1999:171 [ref. 23965], Pyle 2001:3277 [ref. 26118], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:337 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:406 [ref. 28379], Allen & Erdmann 2012:549 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988]). •Valid as Centropyge nigriocellus Woods & Schultz 1953 -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge nigriocellus Woods & Schultz 1953. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Mariana Islands, Admiralty Islands, Johnston Atoll, Samoa, Line Islands, Society Islands (French Polynesia), Marquesas Islands, Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

nigrocaeruleus, Chaetodon Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1802:534 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Appeared as "Chaetodon nigro-caeruleus, lineis obliquatis ..." in the account of Holacanthus imperator. Regarded as non-binominal and not available. See ICZN Opinion 89. Pomacanthidae.

nigrolunatus, Acanthochaetodon Tanaka [S.] 1918:223 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 30 (no. 356); ref. 17357] Tokyo fish market, probably from Izu, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 8344 (lost). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

nox, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1853:338 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5117] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5821 (80-mm TL specimen of 3). Bleeker specimens: NMV 46457 (1). •Valid as Centropyge nox (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:189 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:240 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:240 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:171 [ref. 23965], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:904 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:308 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:107 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3278 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:904 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:337 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1305 [ref. 29090], Shen et al. 2012:417 [ref. 31830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:549 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:105 [ref. 33932], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448], Fricke et al. 2019:196 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge nox (Bleeker 1853). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, south to Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia). Habitat: marine.

oahuensis, Holacanthus bicolor var. Borodin [N. A.] 1930:56 [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 2); ref. 16069] Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): VMM 637 (now at AMNH). Described as a new color variety. •Synonym of Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus (Bloch 1787) -- (Mundy 2005:406 [ref. 28379], Randall & Rocha 2009:518 [ref. 30410]). Current status: Synonym of Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

ocularis, Holacanthus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:147 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 3441] South Seas. Syntypes: ZMB 6572 (1). •Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764] as flavissimus). Current status: Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

parrae, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:235 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Isabelita' of Parra 1787:10, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

paru, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:57, Pl. 197 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Brazil and Jamaica. No types known. Name appeared first in Forsskål 1775:xviii [ref. 1351] as name only. On p. 42 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Pomacanthus paru (Bloch 1787) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:390 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:196 [ref. 23100], Maugé 1990:841 [ref. 17126], Cervigón 1992:383 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:345 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221] as parus, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:278 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:148 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:163 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:112 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Burgess 2003:1683 [ref. 27101], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:481 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Page et al. 2013:155 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:179 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:60 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Bailly in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2679 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Carneiro et al. 2019:278 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus paru (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and St. Paul's Rocks and Ascension Islands (central Atlantic). Habitat: marine.

paru, Chaetodon Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xviii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Name only, not available (from Malta). •Unplaceable, probably not a pomacanthid (R. Pyle, pers. comm. 11/17/2003). Pomacanthidae.

passer, Holacanthus Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 6 [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-3559. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:144 [ref. 20718]. Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:327 [ref. 4504]. •Valid as Holacanthus passer Valenciennes 1846 -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Allen & Robertson 1994:182 [ref. 22193], Krupp & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1390 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:260 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:445 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:343 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:149 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:155 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871] as Holocanthus, Fourriére et al. 2016:447 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:610 [ref. 34923], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248], Clua & Planes 2019:286 [ref. 37091]). Current status: Valid as Holacanthus passer Valenciennes 1846. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific, including Clipperton Atoll and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

personatus, Genicanthus Randall [J. E.] 1975:418, Pl. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 6490] Off Magic Island, Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 80 feet. Holotype: BPBM 15509. Paratypes: BPBM 15493 (1), USNM 211814 (1), ZUMT 53027 (1). •Valid as Genicanthus personatus Randall 1975 -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Mundy 2005:407 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:296 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Genicanthus personatus Randall 1975. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

personifer, Holacanthus (Chaetodontoplus) McCulloch [A. R.] 1914:221, Pl. 31 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 17621] Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.28592-001. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:28 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:30 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Chaetodontoplus personifer (McCulloch 1914) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Kuiter 1993:228 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:1306 [ref. 29090], Larson et al. 2013:157 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus personifer (McCulloch 1914). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

poecilus, Holacanthus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:454 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 7935] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean (purchased). Holotype: ZMB 6785. •Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

poliourus, Chaetodontoplus Randall [J. E.] & Rocha [L. A.] 2009:513, Figs. 2, 4-7 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 57 (no. 2); ref. 30410] Kimbe Bay, first reef off Walindi Pnantation, New Britain, Papua New Guinea, depth 6-10 meters. Holotype: BPBM 39031. Paratypes: many at AMS, BPBM, CAS, FMNH, MNHN, MZB, NSMP, ROM, USNM, WAM. •Valid as Chaetodontoplus poliourus Randall & Rocha 2009 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:554 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:106 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:197 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus poliourus Randall & Rocha 2009. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Indonesia east to Palau, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands. Habitat: marine.

potteri, Holacanthus Jordan [D. S.] & Metz [C. W.] 1912:525, Pl. 71 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 42 (no. 1915); ref. 10639] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 73911. •Valid as Centropyge potteri (Jordan & Metz 1912) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Mundy 2005:406 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:296 [ref. 30952], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge potteri (Jordan & Metz 1912). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

pseudannularis, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1858:170 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 16957] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Pomacanthus annularis (Bloch 1787) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus annularis (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

quinquecinctus, Chaetodon Cuvier [G.] 1829:192 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality [West Indies]. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:148 [ref. 20718]. Available from footnote as, "Ch. 5-cinctus, N., Guaperva, Margr., 178." Originally as Ch. 5-cinctus; correction to quinquecinctus mandatory. Appeared as Pomacanthus quinquecinctus in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:210 [ref. 4881]. Bauchot 1963:148 [ref. 20718] listed 2 syntypes (MNHN A-0172 (1) St. Dominique, A-3837 (1) Martinique) in reference to C. & V. 1831. •Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764] as cinquecinctus dated 1831). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

rathbuni, Pomacanthus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Chaetodontidae p. 7, Pl. opposite p. 6 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 3137. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:396 [ref. 12732]. On p. 207 when continuously paginated. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

reginae, Holacanthus Liénard [F.] in Sauvage 1891:268, Pl. 34 (fig. 2) [Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar; ref. 14503] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-1037. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:144 [ref. 20718]. Based on 'Holacanthe de la Reine' of Liénard 1839:37 [ref. 17536] and Liénard 1840:297 [ref. 30337]; description quoted from Liénard. •Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Fricke 1999:350 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

resimus, Chaetodon Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:71 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.61 (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:224 [ref. 13434]. •Synonym of Heteropyge sexstriatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Wheeler 1958:224 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Pomacanthus sexstriatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus sexstriatus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

resplendens, Centropyge Lubbock [R.] & Sankey [R. D.] 1975:227, Fig. 1; Pl. 1 [Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology v. 28 (no. 5); ref. 7265] Ascension Island, depth 20 meters. Paratypes: BMNH 1974.12.20.1-2 (1, 1), 1979.1.5.74-75 (2), 1979.1.5.76-85 (10), 1979.1.5.86-110 (25), 1979.1.5.111-114 (4); USNM 214107 (1). •Valid as Centropyge resplendens Lubbock & Sankey 1975 -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Gaither et al. 2014:44 [ref. 35448], Bailly in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2677 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge resplendens Lubbock & Sankey 1975. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

rhomboides, Holacanthus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:161 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.=, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 9905. Second specimen not regarded as a type. •Synonym of Pomacanthus striatus (Rüppell 1836) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Smith & Heemstra 1986:626 [ref. 5714]). •Valid as Pomacanthus rhomboides (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Randall 1988:3 [ref. 12862], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:282 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2018:242 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus rhomboides (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: South Africa and Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

rodriquesi, Holacanthus von Bonde [C.] 1934:448, Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Natal Museum. v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 16466] Zanzibar fish market, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

ronin, Holacanthus Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1902:546, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1296); ref. 10572] Misaki, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 7191. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7160 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:81 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1844). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

semicinctus, Holacanthus Waite [E. R.] 1900:204, Pl. 36 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 4558] Lord Howe Island. Holotype (unique): ? AMS I.4345. •Valid as Genicanthus semicinctus (Waite 1900) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Paulin et al. 1989:194 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:163 [ref. 25479], Pyle 1997:91 [ref. 23468], Allen et al. 2006:1307 [ref. 29090], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:114 [ref. 36167], Trnski 2015:1307 [ref. 34198]). Current status: Valid as Genicanthus semicinctus (Waite 1900). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

semicircularis, Holacanthus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:457 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4898] Not available; an incorrect subsequent spelling of Holacanthus semicirculatus Cuvier 1831. Appeared as "Holacanthus semi-circularis C. & V." in original. Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764] implies that this is a separate description. Pomacanthidae.

semicirculatus, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:191, Pl. 183 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Timor, Bourou, Waigeo, Indonesia, and Port Praslin, New Ireland Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Syntypes: MNHN A-0083 (1) [Bauchot's holotype] Bourou, A-0150 (1) Timor, A-0606 (1) New Ireland. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:145 [ref. 20718] wrongly with a holotype and paratypes. See Holacanthus semicircularis De Vis 1884, an incorrect subsequent spelling. •Valid as Pomacanthodes semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Khan 1998:231 [ref. 24980]). •Valid as Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Dor 1984:171 [ref. 29757] on Red Sea specimens -- but see Randall 1988:2 [ref. 12862], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:187 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:626 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:245 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:229 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:163 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:48 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:256 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:129 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:226 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:245 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:173 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:349 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:740 [ref. 25471], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:899 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:90 [ref. 37268], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:310 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:177 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:107 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3285 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:899 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:283 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:342 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:407 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1308 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:75 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:195 [ref. 30463], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:75 [ref. 35264], Motomura et al. 2010:141 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:559 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:263 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:107 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:60 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:243 [ref. 35805], Jawad et al. 2018:118 [ref. 36262], Arndt & Fricke 2019:25 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:198 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:157 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:84 [ref. 36871], Mohanty et al. 2020:1438 [ref. 37820]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, Ogasawara Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

semifasciatus, Holacanthus Kamohara [T.] 1934:459, Fig. 2 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 46 (no. 552); ref. 19716] Kashiwajima, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Kamohara "neotype": BSKU 8495 from Okinoshima, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Type catalog: Kamohara 1961:4 [ref. 19282]. Neotype designated by Kamohara 1961:4 [ref. 19282], but neotype designation was not made in a revisory work and is invalid. •Valid as Genicanthus semifasciatus (Kamohara 1934) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:907 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:907 [ref. 26193], Motomura et al. 2010:140 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:557 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Genicanthus semifasciatus (Kamohara 1934). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

septentrionalis, Holacanthus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1844:82, Pl. 44 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 5-6; ref. 4372] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 1204. Paralectotypes: RMNH D553-554 (2, stuffed), ZMB 8119 [ex RMNH] (1, stuffed). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:84 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764] with author as Schlegel, Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:187 [ref. 6441], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:900 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:175 [ref. 25480], Shimizu 2001:32 [ref. 25799], Pyle 2001:3282 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:900 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:354, 625 [ref. 26218] as Chaetodonplus, Sonoyama et al. 2020:79 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1844). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Thailand, Vietnam and southern China north to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

sexstriatus, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:194 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH D562 (dry). Paralectotypes: MNHN A-3858 (1, dry). Non-type: RMNH 2397 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:145 [ref. 20718]. Lectotype established in Bauchot 1963:145 [ref. 20718]. •Valid as Arusetta sexstriata (Cuvier 1831) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:147 [ref. 19754]). •Valid as Euxiphipops sexstriatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:363 [ref. 23967]). •Valid as Pomacanthus sexstriatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:187 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:245 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:413 [ref. 27969] with Kuhl & van Hasselt as authors, Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:128 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:226 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:245 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:173 [ref. 23965], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:898 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:310 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:107 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3286 [ref. 26118] as sextriatus, Nakabo 2002:898 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:343 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1309 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:559 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:157 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:107 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:60 [ref. 35333], Matsuo & Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:212 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:198 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus sexstriatus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Sumatra (Indonesia) and South China Sea east to Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

shepardi, Centropyge Randall [J. E.] & Yasuda [F.] 1979:56, Figs. 1-3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 8793] Northwestern side of Cocos Island, Guam, Mariana Islands, depth 22-30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 8450. Paratypes: AMS I.20530-001 (1); ANSP 139658 (1); BMNH 1978.11.6.1 (1); BPBM 6371 (1), 8464 (1), 8529 (2), 9388 (2), 22397 (5); CAS 41742 (1); MTUF 23923-4 (2); NSMT-P 29836 [ex TMBS 780323-2] (1); UGM 5386 (3); USNM 21883 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:42 [ref. 13621], Moyer & Matsuura 1991:82 [ref. 19927]. •Valid as Centropyge shepardi Randall & Yasuda 1979 -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:189 [ref. 6441], Myers 1999:171 [ref. 23965], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:903 [ref. 25182], Pyle 2001:3278 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:903 [ref. 26193], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge shepardi Randall & Yasuda 1979. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

somervillii, Holacanthus Regan [C. T.] 1908:228, Pl. 24 (fig. 6) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Coetivy Island, Seychelles Is, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.3.23.97. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

sphynx, Holacanthus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:457 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4898] Queensland coast, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.106. •Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764] as flavissimus, Allen et al. 2006:1304 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

spinus, Genicanthus Randall [J. E.] 1975:415, Figs. 16-17 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 6490] Reef off Bounty Bay, Pitcairn Island, depth 33.5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 16450. Paratypes: BMNH 1974.4.24.1 (1); BPBM 12775 (1), 16452 (2), 16754 (1); CAS 30456 (1); USNM 211815 (1); ZUMT 52987 (1). •Valid as Genicanthus spinus Randall 1975 -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Randall 1999:18 [ref. 25829], Pyle 2001:3284 [ref. 26118], Randall 2005:340 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Valid as Genicanthus spinus Randall 1975. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Pitcairn Island. Habitat: marine.

squamulosus, Chaetodon Shaw [G.] in Shaw & Nodder 1796:no page number, Pl. 275 [The Naturalist's Miscellany; ref. 4013] Coasts of America and West Indies. No types known. •Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus 1758). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Holacanthus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1836:32, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 1436. Paralectotypes: SMF (2). •Valid as Pomacanthus striatus (Rüppell 1836) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Dor 1984:171 [ref. 29757], Smith & Heemstra 1986:626 [ref. 5714], Goren & Dor 1994:48 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1988:2 [ref. 12862], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:283 [ref. 28072], Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål 1775). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

strigatus, Holacanthus Gill [T. N.] 1862:243 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1665] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 3668. •Synonym of Holacanthus passer Valenciennes 1846 -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Holacanthus passer Valenciennes 1846. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

takeuchii, Genicanthus Pyle [R. L.] 1997:88, Figs. 1-4 (not 1-5) [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 24 (no. 3/4); ref. 23468] Ani-jima, Mansakunohama, Ogasawara Islands, depth 45 meters. Holotype: NSMT 45943. Paratypes: BPBM 35247 (1), USNM 342592 (1). •Valid as Genicanthus takeuchii Pyle 1997 -- (Nakabo 2000:906 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:906 [ref. 26193]). Current status: Valid as Genicanthus takeuchii Pyle 1997. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

tenigab, Holacanthus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:447 [169] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 169 of reprint. •Unidentifiable, probably a Centropyge -- (R. Pyle, pers. comm. Nov. 2003). Pomacanthidae.

tibicen, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:173 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] No locality. Lectotype: MNHN A-0490 [ex RMNH]. Paralectotypes: RMNH D545 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:146 [ref. 20718]. Lectotype selected by Bauchot 1963:146 [ref. 20718]. •Valid as Centropyge tibicen (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:240 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:229 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:163 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:230 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:240 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:171 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:740 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:904 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:308 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:175 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:107 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3278 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:904 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:122 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:337 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1305 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:140 [ref. 31256], Shen et al. 2012:417 [ref. 31830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:550 [ref. 31980], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge tibicen (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) and Malaysia east to Vanuatu, north to Japan, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

townsendi, Angelichthys Nichols [J. T.] & Mowbray [L. L.] 1914:581 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 33 (art. 37); ref. 14162] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): AMNH 4751. •A hybrid between Holacanthus isabelita and Holacanthus ciliaris -- (Feddern 1968 [ref. 21623]). •Synonym of Holacanthus bermudensis Goode 1876 -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Holacanthus bermudensis Goode 1876. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

tricolor, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1795:103, Pl. 425 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Brazil. Lectotype: ZMB 1302. Paralectotypes: ZMB 8571 (1, dry, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:118 [ref. 24282]. Not Pl. 426 as stated in text. On p. 97 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:118 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch 1795) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:393 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:195 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:150 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:382 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:342 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:278 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:163 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1645 [ref. 25634], Collette et al. 2003:112 [ref. 26784], Burgess 2003:1681 [ref. 27101], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:478 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:155 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:60 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:22 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch 1795). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

trilineatus, Genicanthus lamarck var. Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1933:576, Fig. 18B [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1933 (pt 3, no. 30); ref. 671] Misool [Misol] Island, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

trimaculatus, Holacanthus Cuvier [G.] (ex Lacepède) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:196, Pl. 182 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4443 (1) [Bauchot's holotype]; RMNH D550 (1, stuffed), D551 (1, stuffed), D552 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:146-147 [ref. 20718] as holotype and paratypes. •Valid as Holacanthus trimaculatus Cuvier 1831 -- (Chen et al. 1997:128 [ref. 26476] with author as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Apolemichthys trimaculatus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Klausewitz 1972:363 [ref. 30491], Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:624 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:100 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:44 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:237 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:156 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:230 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:237 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:169 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:345 [ref. 24106], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:902 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:306 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3272 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:902 [ref. 26193], Allen & 888888Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:630 [ref. 27495] with author as Lacepède, Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3322 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:279 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:330 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1303 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:74 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:192 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:139 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:543 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:262 [ref. 32706], Motomura et al. 2015:24 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:59 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:241 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:194 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Apolemichthys trimaculatus (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mozambique Channel, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

tutuilae, Centropyge Jordan [D. S.] & Jordan [E. K.] 1922:62, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 2487] Pago Pago, Tutuila, American Samoa. Holotype: FMNH 55206 [ex CM 3902]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8750 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:92 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:80 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:21 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Centropyge bispinosa (Günther 1860) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764] as bispinosus). Current status: Synonym of Centropyge bispinosa (Günther 1860). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

uniocellatus, Holacanthus Borodin [N. A.] 1932:86, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 3); ref. 16361] Pango Pango, Samoan Islands, South Pacific. Holotype (unique): VMM 1111 (now at AMNH). •Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764] as flavissimus). Current status: Synonym of Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier 1831). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

uniocellatus, Holacanthus Kner [R.] 1867:no page number, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 56; ref. 2645] Illustration only, may be illustration of Holacanthus monophthalmus Kner with a manuscript name. Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

vanderloosi, Chaetodontoplus Allen [G. R.] & Steene [R. C.] 2004:24, Figs. 1-4 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 27615] Wharf at Samarai Island, 10°36.50'S, 150°39.64'E, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, depth 6 meters. Holotype: WAM P.32263-001. Paratypes: BPBM 13657 (1), USNM 373887 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:30 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Chaetodontoplus vanderloosi Allen & Steene 2004 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:554 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chaetodontoplus vanderloosi Allen & Steene 2004. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

venustus, Holacanthus Yasuda [F.] & Tominaga [Y.] 1969:143, Figs. 1, 3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 7855] Oshima Island, Sagami Bay, Japan, 34°41'N, 139°27'E, about 10 meters. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 52392 [not 52329]. •Valid as Holacanthus venustus Yasuda & Tominaga 1969 -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Sumireyakko venustus (Yasuda & Tominaga 1969) -- (Burgess 1991:70 [ref. 19211]). •Valid as Paracentropyge venusta (Yasuda & Tominaga 1969) -- (Nakabo 2000:902 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:902 [ref. 26193]). •Valid as Centropyge venusta (Yasuda & Tominaga 1969) -- (Myers 1999:171 [ref. 23965], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Pyle 2001:3279 [ref. 26118], Motomura et al. 2010:140 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:550 [ref. 31980], Gaither et al. 2014:43 [ref. 35448]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge venusta (Yasuda & Tominaga 1969). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

vermiculatus, Genicanthus Shen [S.-C.] & Lim [P.-C.] 1975:86, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology Academia Sinica (Taipei) v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 7471] Lü-tao (Green Island), Taiwan, South China Sea, depth 20 meters. Holotype (unique): NTUM 02695. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Genicanthus watanabei (Yasuda & Tominaga 1970) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Genicanthus watanabei (Yasuda & Tominaga 1970). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

vorticosus, Chaetodon Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:74 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.66 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:224 [ref. 13434] as holotype. •Synonym of Pomacanthus annularis (Bloch 1787) -- (Wheeler 1958:224 [ref. 13434], Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764]). Current status: Synonym of Pomacanthus annularis (Bloch 1787). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

vrolikii, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1853:339 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5117] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5820 (81-mm TL specimen of 5). Bleeker specimens: AMS B.8185 (1), NMV 46456 (1), RMNH 5820 (4 of 5). •Valid as Centropyge vrolikii (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764] as vroliki, Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441] as vroliki, Randall et al. 1990:240 [ref. 15987] as vroliki, Kuiter 1993:229 [ref. 23929] as vroliki, Francis 1993:163 [ref. 25479] as vroliki, Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977] as vroliki, Chen et al. 1997:127 [ref. 26476] as vrolicki, Kuiter 1997:232 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:240 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:171 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:740 [ref. 25471] as vroliki, Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122] as vroliki, Nakabo 2000:904 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:107 [ref. 25868] as vroliki, Hutchins 2001:265 [ref. 25841] as vroliki, Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:37 [ref. 26232], Pyle 2001:3279 [ref. 26118] as vroliki, Nakabo 2002:904 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2002:42 [ref. 26830] as vrolicki, Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:122 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Allen et al. 2006:1305 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:140 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:550 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:105 [ref. 33932], Shen et al. 2016:1 [ref. 34943], Koeda et al. 2016:60 [ref. 35333], DiBattista et al. 2016:647 [ref. 35346], Koeda et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35354], Fernandez-Silva et al. 2018:1 [ref. 35772], Fricke et al. 2019:197 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge vrolikii (Bleeker 1853). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) and Indonesia east to Micronesia, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Vanuatu, north to Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

watanabei, Holacanthus Yasuda [F.] & Tominaga [Y.] 1970:144, Figs. 3-7, 11, 12 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 4); ref. 430] Onna Beach, Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, about 26°30'N, 127°50'E. Holotype: ZUMT 52421. Paratypes: ZUMT 52420 (1). •Valid as Genicanthus watanabei (Yasuda & Tominaga 1970) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:188 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:243 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:234 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:243 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:172 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:19 [ref. 25829], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:906 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:309 [ref. 25191], Pyle 2001:3284 [ref. 26118], Nakabo 2002:906 [ref. 26193], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:19 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:340 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1307 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:140 [ref. 31256], Ho & Shao 2011: 48 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Valid as Genicanthus watanabei (Yasuda & Tominaga 1970). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

woodheadi, Centropyge Kuiter [R. H.] 1998:86, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 23587] Maloa Island, Lau Group, Fiji, 18°35'S, 179°50'E, depth 9 meters. Holotype (unique): AMS I.18578-009. •Synonym of Centropyge heraldi Woods & Schultz 1953 -- (Randall & Carlson 2000:1 [ref. 25137], Randall 2005:334 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1304 [ref. 29090]). •Valid as Centropyge woodheadi Kuiter 1998 -- (Shen et al. 2016:1 [ref. 34943]). Current status: Valid as Centropyge woodheadi Kuiter 1998. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Southern Pacific Ocean: Great Barrier Reef to Gambier Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

xanthometopon, Holacanthus Bleeker [P.] 1853:258 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] Telok betong, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Euxiphipops xanthometopon (Bleeker 1853) -- (Klausewitz 1972:366 [ref. 30491]). •Valid as Pomacanthus xanthometopon (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:187 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:246 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:413 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:158 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:228 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:246 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:173 [ref. 23965], Pyle in Randall & Lim 2000:624 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:898 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:107 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:266 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Pyle 2001:3286 [ref. 26118] as xanthometapon, Nakabo 2002:898 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:43 [ref. 26830], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Allen et al. 2006:1309 [ref. 29090], Shao et al. 2008:255 [ref. 29952], Satapoomin 2009:195 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:560 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:107 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:60 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2019:198 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus xanthometopon (Bleeker 1853). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia) and Western Australia to Japan. Habitat: marine.

xanthopunctatus, Apolemichthys Burgess [W. E.] 1973:56, Fig. [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 21 (no. 12); ref. 7558] Tabuaeran [= Fanning Island], Line Islands, central Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 7644. Paratypes: BPBM 7599 (1), 7623 (2); CAS 38764 (1). •Valid as Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus Burgess 1973 -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Myers 1999:169 [ref. 23965], Pyle 2001:3272 [ref. 26118], Randall 2005:331 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:403 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:125 [ref. 28745]). Current status: Valid as Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus Burgess 1973. Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

xanthotis, Holacanthus (Apolemichthys) Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1950:43, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 120 (pt 1); ref. 12951] Al-Mukalla, Yemen, Red Sea. Holotype: BMNH 1959.4.22.1. •Valid as Apolemichthys xanthotis (Fraser-Brunner 1950) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Dor 1984:169 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:48 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:253 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S112 [ref. 27377], Golani & Fricke 2018:111 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:94 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:84 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Apolemichthys xanthotis (Fraser-Brunner 1950). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

xanthurus, Holacanthus Bennett [E. T.] 1833:183 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1832 (pt 2); ref. 16789] Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.12.26.443. •Valid as Apolemichthys xanthurus (Bennett 1833) -- (Allen 1980:249 [ref. 22764], Fricke 1999:346 [ref. 24106], Senou 2001:2 [ref. 25720], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:40 [ref. 27712], Fricke et al. 2009:74 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:193 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:544 [ref. 31980], Roy et al. 2019:824 [ref. 37024], Psomadakis et al. 2020:513 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Apolemichthys xanthurus (Bennett 1833). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Mascarenes; India, Maldives and Sri Lanka east to Andaman Islands, Myanmar and western Thailand. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Holacanthus Sauvage [H.-E.] (ex Liénard) 1891:263, Pl. 32 (fig. 2) [Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar; ref. 14503] [Ile Maurice] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN A-0044 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:147 [ref. 20718]. Based on 'Holacanthe zebrée' of Liénard 1832:105 [ref. 30333]; description quoted from Liénard. Also based on one specimen. •Synonym of Genicanthus caudovittatus (Günther 1860) -- (Allen 1980:250 [ref. 22764], Fricke 1999:348 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Genicanthus caudovittatus (Günther 1860). Pomacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

zonipectus, Pomacanthodes Gill [T. N.] 1862:244 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1665] San Salvador, El Salvador. Holotype (unique): USNM 5922. Type catalog: Smith 2018:76 [ref. 36061]. •Valid as Pomacanthus zonipectus (Gill 1862) -- (Allen 1980:251 [ref. 22764], Lea et al. 1989 [ref. 21789], Allen & Robertson 1994:183 [ref. 22193], Krupp & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1391 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:260 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:446 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:340 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:124 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:147 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:155 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:447 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:610 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:254 [ref. 35888], González-Murcia et al. 2019:305 [ref. 36544], Walker et al. 2020:4 [ref. 37499]). Current status: Valid as Pomacanthus zonipectus (Gill 1862). Pomacanthidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.