Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
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Species in the family or subfamily Potamotrygonidae: [ 59 ] records


adamastor, Potamotrygon Fontenelle [J. P.] & Carvalho [M. R. de] 2017:22, Figs. 15-23, 42C [Zootaxa 4310 (no. 1); ref. 35537] Rio Urariquera, rio Branco basin, municipal district of Boa Vista, upper Amazon Basin, state of Roraima, Brazil, 3°22'51.9594''N, 60°35'44.1594''W. Holotype: MZUSP 104662. Paratype: MZUSP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Potamotrygon adamastor Fontenelle & Carvalho 2017. Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon adamastor Fontenelle & Carvalho 2017. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Rio Urariquera, Rio Branco system, upper Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

adans, Trygon Schomburgk [R. H.] in Müller & Trochel 1849 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Takutu and Rio Branco, South America. Unneeded replacement for Trygon garrapa Jardine in Schomburgk 1843:182, Pl. 21 [ref. 3948]. Not treated by Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Castex 1964:20 [ref. 20924], Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

aiereba, Trygon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] (ex Marcgravus) 1841:160 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Brazil. No types known. Appeared as doubtful species, "(Dubia) Trygon Aiereba." Unneeded replacement name for Raja ajereba Walbaum 1792; based on the same source, the 'Aiereba' of Marcgravus 1648:175, fig. [ref. 30371], Raja orbicularis Bloch & Schneider 1801 and other literature sources. It is suggested that prevailing usage favors retaining spelling and authoship as as aiereba Müller & Henle. •Validity doubted -- (Castex 1964:17 [ref. 20924] as Paratrygon aiereba with author and date as Walbaum 1792). •Valid as Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708] as Paratrygon aieraba, Rosa 1992:425 [ref. 30634], Lasso et al. 1997:43 [ref. 23139], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27061], Frederico et al. 2012:72 [ref. 31909], Barriga S. 2012:104 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:116, 188 [ref. 35004], Weigmann 2016:154 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Carvalho 2016:59 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:624 [ref. 34997], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle 1841). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Amazon River and Orinoco River basins, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

ajereba, Raja Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Marcgravus) 1792:535 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Brazil. No types known. Based on the 'Aiereba' of Marcgravus 1648:175, fig. [ref. 30371]. See also Trygon aiereba Müller & Henle 1841. Castex 1964:16 [ref. 20924] considered it the same. The spelling ajereba is correct, but prevailing usage favors contiuing the spelling and authorship as aiereba Müller & Henle. •Valid as Paratrygon aiereba (Walbaum 1792) -- (Castex 1964:16 [ref. 20924]). •Valid as Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708] as Paratrygon aieraba, Lasso et al. 1997:43 [ref. 23139], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27061], Frederico et al. 2012:72 [ref. 31909] as aiereba). Current status: Synonym of Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle 1841). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Amazon River and Oronico River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela [if treated with this spelling and authorship]. Habitat: freshwater.

alba, Potamotrygon Castex [M. N.] 1963:55 [Anales del Museo Provincial de Ciencias Naturales "Florentino Ameghino," Sante Fe, Zoología v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 20925] Ascunción, Paraguay River, Paraguay. Syntypes: (3) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Castex 1964:20 [ref. 20924], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27366], Carvalho & Ragno 2011:135 [ref. 31309], Loboda & Carvalho 2013:713 [ref. 33024] as nomen dubium related to motoro, Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

albimaculata, Potamotrygon Carvalho [M. R. de] 2016:6, Figs. 1-20 [Zootaxa 4167 (no. 1); ref. 34730] Left bank of rio Teles Pires near Pousada Santa Rosa, rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, 08°46'45"S, 57°27'55"W. Holotype: MZUSP 105016. Paratypes: MZUSP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Potamotrygon albimaculata Carvalho 2016 -- (Carvalho 2016:627 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon albimaculata Carvalho 2016. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Rio Tapajós basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

amandae, Potamotrygon Loboda [T. S.] & Carvalho [M. R. de] 2013:723, Figs. 38-52 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 33024] Paraguai River, subdistrict of Albuguerque, district of Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso de Sul, 19°41'S, 57°38'W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 110910. Paratypes: (12) MZUSP. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Potamotrygon amandae Loboda & Carvalho 2013 -- (Koerber 2014:1 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:154 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:628 [ref. 34997], Loboda 2016:2 [ref. 35085], Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon amandae Loboda & Carvalho 2013. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Paraná-Paraguay basin and Tietê River: Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

amazona, Potamotrygon Fontenelle [J. P.] & Carvalho [M. R. de] 2017:33, Figs. 24-32, 42E [Zootaxa 4310 (no. 1); ref. 35537] Rio Jutaí, municipal district of Boca do Titica, upper rio Amazonas Basin, state of Amazonas, Brazil, 2°55'24.8"S, 66°57'07.6"W. Holotype: MZUSP 117344. Paratypes: MZUSP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Potamotrygon amazona Fontenelle & Carvalho 2017. Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon amazona Fontenelle & Carvalho 2017. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Rio Jutaí drainage, upper Amazon basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

boesemani, Potamotrygon Rosa [R. S.], Carvalho [M. R. de] & Almeida Wanderley [C. de] 2008:2, Figs. 1-6, 8 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 29564] Matapi Creek, ca. 1 kilometer from Corantii River, Nickerie District, Suriname, 5°00'N, 57°16'W. Holotype: USNM 225574. Paratypes: USNM 225216 (1), 225575 (1), 388849 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Potamotrygon boesemani Rosa, Carvalho & Almeida Wanderley 2008 -- (Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Fontenelle et al. 2014:341 [ref. 33180], Weigmann 2016:154 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:562 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:629 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon boesemani Rosa, Carvalho & Almeida Wanderley 2008. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Corantijn River drainage, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

brachyurus, Trygon Günther [A.] 1880:8 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 6 (no. 31) (art. 2); ref. 14279] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1953.8.10.14 [ex BMNH 1879.2.12.4]. •Synonym of Elipesurus spinicauda Jardine & Schomburgk 1843 -- (Castex 1968:353 [ref. 26357]). •Valid as Potamotrygon brachyura (Günther 1880) -- (Castex 1964:24 [ref. 20924] as brachyurus, Britski et al. 1999:21 [ref. 24147], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:70 [ref. 28131], Oddone et al. 2008:69 [ref. 29661], Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Oddone et al. 2012:300 [ref. 31835], Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:154 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:562 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561], Carvalho 2016:630 [ref. 34997], Nión et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon brachyura (Günther 1880). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Paraná-Paraguay and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

brumi, Potamotrygon Devincenzi [G. J.] in Devincenzi & Teague 1942:99, Pl. 6 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Serie 2) v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 12268] Isla Queguay Grande, River Uruguay, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): MHNM (not found). Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:2 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Potamotrygon brumi Devincenzi 1942 -- (Castex 1964:29 [ref. 20924], Sverlij et al. 1998:7 [ref. 27632]). •Synonym of Potamotrygon brachyura (Günther 1880) -- (Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:154 [ref. 34211] with authorship as Devincenzi & Teague, Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon brachyura (Günther 1880). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

castexi, Potamotrygon Castello [H. P.] & Yagolkowski [D. R.] 1969:2, Pl.; Figs. 1-3, 7 [Acta Scientifica del Departamento de Zoología, Instituto Latinoamericano de Fisiología y Reproducción, Universidad del Salvador No. 6; ref. 7804] Río Paraná, Rosario, Argentina. Holotype: MACN 5777 (apparently lost). Paratypes: ILAFIR 100 (1), MFA 288 (1). •Valid as Potamotrygon castexi Castello & Yagolkowski 1969 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:70 [ref. 28131], Carvalho & Lovejoy 2011:46 [ref. 31182]). •Synonym of Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel 1963 -- (Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Koerber 2014:1 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:155 [ref. 34211], Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel 1963. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River and Paraná-Paraguay River basins: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Peru [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

circularis, Potamotrygon Garman [S.] 1913:419, Pls. 31 (1-2), 54 (1), 70 (1-2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Río Solimões, Tefé and Lago Coari [on Río Solimões], Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 291-S (1) Tefé, 295-S (1) Coari. Non-type: MCZ 296-S (1). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xliii-xliv [ref. 23119]. Castex 1964:28 [ref. 20924] said there was a holotype and a paratype at MCZ. •Valid as Potamotrygon circularis Garman 1913 -- (Castex 1964:27 [ref. 20924]). •Synonym of Potyamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (in part, authors, Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Potamotrygon constellata (Vaillant 1880) -- (in part, authors, Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061], Weigmann 2016:154 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Carvalho 2016:55 [ref. 34730]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon constellata (Vaillant 1880). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: South America. Habitat: freshwater.

constellata, Taeniura Vaillant [L. L.] 1880:251, 252 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 17854] Calderon, Upper Amazon, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-1010. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:87 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1986:20 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Potamotrygon constellata (Vaillant 1880) -- (Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2012:104 [ref. 35745], Weigmann 2016:154 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730] with question, Carvalho 2016:631 [ref. 34997], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon constellata (Vaillant 1880). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Amazon and Solimões River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

dumerilii, Trygon (Taenura) Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:101, Pl. 48 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio Araguaya, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2367 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:89 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1986:20-21 [ref. 9312]. Name listed as Taenura dumerilii on figure caption. •Valid as Potamotrygon dumerilii (Castelnau 1855) -- (Castex 1964:23 [ref. 20924], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Silva & Carvalho 2015:5 [ref. 33871]). •Status questionable -- (Carvalho et al. 2011:2 [ref. 31264]). •Synonym of Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau 1855) -- (Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061], Weigmann 2016:157 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:537 [ref. 34666]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau 1855). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

falkneri, Potamotrygon Castex [M. N.] & Maciel [I.] 1963:56 [Anales del Museo Provincial de Ciencias Naturales "Florentino Ameghino," Sante Fe, Zoología v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 8015] Río Paraná medio, Entre Ríos, Argentina. Holotype: MFA 235. Paratypes: MFA 279 (1). Type information from Castex 1964:32 [ref. 20924] who said female holotype and male allotype, but original description said both were females. •Valid as Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel 1963 -- (Castex 1964:31 [ref. 20924], Gómez & Chebez 1996:46 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:21 [ref. 24147], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:70 [ref. 28131], Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Silva & Carvalho 2011:151 [ref. 31310], Barriga S. 2012:104 [ref. 35745], Koerber 2014:1 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:117, 188 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:155 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:581 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:562 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:632 [ref. 34997], Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel 1963. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Paraná-Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

garmani, Potamotrygon Fontenelle [J. P.] & Carvalho [M. R. de] 2017:43, Figs. 33-41, 42F [Zootaxa 4310 (no. 1); ref. 35537] Rio Paranã, municipal district of Paranã, affluent of rio Tocantins, rio Tocantins basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil, 12°30'S, 48°12'W. Holotype: UNT 2174. Paratypes: UNT. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Potamotrygon garmani Fontenelle & Carvalho 2017. Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon garmani Fontenelle & Carvalho 2017. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Middle and upper Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

garrapa, Trygon Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1843:182, Pl. 21 [The natural history of fishes of Guiana.--Part II; ref. 3948] Rio Branco, South America. Holotype: ZMB 4624. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:181 [ref. 21041]. See Carvalho 2001:1168 [ref. 26256]. •Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Castex 1964:20 [ref. 20924], Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117] with question, Weigmann 2016:156 [ref. 34211], Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267] with question). •Status uncertain -- (Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

gomesi, Heliotrygon Carvalho [M. R. de] & Lovejoy [N. R.] 2011:19, Figs. 1-9, 19-23 [Zootaxa No. 2776; ref. 31182] Rio Jamari, 4°18'156"S, 70°04'19"W, Benjamin Constant, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 104988. Paratypes: AMNH 251884 (1), ANSP 178014 (1), 17815 (1), 17816 (1), 17817 (1); MZUSP 108203 (1). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Heliotrygon gomesi Carvalho & Lovejoy 2011 -- (Weigmann 2016:153 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:622 [ref. 34997], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Heliotrygon gomesi Carvalho & Lovejoy 2011. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River and probably lower resaches of most major tributaries: Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

henlei, Trygon (Taenura) Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:102, Pl. 48 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio Tocantins, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2353 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:89 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1986:21 [ref. 9312]. Name listed as Taenura henlei on figure caption. •Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Castex 1964:20 [ref. 20924]). •Valid as Potamotrygon henlei (Castelnau 1855) -- (Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061], Rosa et al. 2008:8 [ref. 29564], Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Fontenelle et al. 2014:341 [ref. 33180], Weigmann 2016:155 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:560 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:633 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon henlei (Castelnau 1855). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

histrix, Trygon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] in Valenciennes 1839:Pl. 15 [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Lectotype: MNHN A.2249. Paralectotypes: (5) MNHN A-2433 (1), ?A-2434 (2), A-8706 (lost); RMNH 4258 (1). Bertin 1939:88-89 [ref. 20739], Seret & McEachran 1986:21 [ref. 9312]. Later described in more detail by Müller & Henle 1841:167 [ref. 3069]. Also in Valenciennes 1847:11 [ref. 5010] as Trygon hystrix with wrong plate number. Pl. 15 was published in 1839. Lectotype selected by Castex 1969:8 [ref. 9548]. •Synonym of Potamotrygon magdalenae (Duméril 1865) -- (Galvis et al. 1997:25 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Potamotrygon hystrix (Müller & Henle 1839) (also seen as 1841) -- (Castex 1964:19 [ref. 20924], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Planquette et al. 1996:40 [ref. 22818], López et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:70 [ref. 28131], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35565], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35679]). •Valid as Potamotrygon histrix (Müller & Henle 1839) (also seen as 1834) -- (Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061], Deynat 2006:492 [ref. 28948], Rosa et al. 2008:6 [ref. 29564], Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Sarmiento et al. 2014:117, 188 [ref. 35004], Weigmann 2016:155 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:581 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730] dated 1836, Carvalho 2016:634 [ref. 34997] dated 1836, Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon histrix (Müller & Henle 1839). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Paraná-Paraguay basin, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

humboldtii, Pastinaca Roulin [F. D.] 1829:465 [Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles et de Géologie (Férussac), Paris v. 16 (no. 3) (art. 365); ref. 26350] Rio Meta, Ecuador. Syntypes (2). Treats as Roulin in Lesson 1829 by Kottelat 2013. Previously appeared as 'Pastenague de Humboldt' in Annales des Sciences Naturelles, v. 16:625. Also appeared as a German translation in Isis (Oken), 1834:1042 as Pastenaca Humboldtii. •Synonym of Potamotrygon hystrix (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Castex 1964:19 [ref. 20924] with reference to Garman 1878 [1877]). •Senior synonym of Potamotrygon hystrix (Müller & Henle 1841) in Garman 1877. •Status uncertain -- (Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27061] but with a Roulin in Duméril 1865 and Duméril 1865 records, and spelled histrix, Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). •Nomen dubium -- (Silva & Carvalho 2015:35 [ref. 33871], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:155 [ref. 34211] see remarks). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

humerosus, Potamotrygon Garman [S.] 1913:419 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Rio Parietuba at Monte Alegre, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 299-S. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xliv [ref. 23119]. Castex 1964:27 [ref. 20924] said there was a holotype and a paratype at MCZ. •Synonym of Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau 1855) -- (Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Potamotrygon humerosa Garman 1913 -- (Castex 1964:26 [ref. 20924] as humerosus, Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xix [ref. 23119], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Fontenelle et al. 2014:150 [ref. 33180], Silva & Carvalho 2015:45 [ref. 33871], Weigmann 2016:155 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:581 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:59 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:635 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon humerosa Garman 1913. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Amazon River and effluents: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hystrix, Trygon Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:167 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Lectotype: MNHN A-2449. Paralectotypes: (5) MNHN A-2433 (1), ?A-2434 (2), A-8706 (lost); RMNH 4258 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:88-89 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1986:21 [ref. 9312]. Species dates to an earlier published Plate as histrix. Lectotype selected by Castex 1969:8 [ref. 9548]. See Carvalho 2001:1168 [ref. 26256]. •Objective synonym of Potamotrygon histrix (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon histrix (Müller & Henle 1839). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

iwamae, Plesiotrygon Rosa [R. S.], Castello [H. P.] & Thorson [T. B.] 1987:450, Figs. 1-10 [Copeia 1987 (no. 2); ref. 5974] Rio Solimões, above Tefé, 3°22'S, 64°43'W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 10153. Paratypes: FMNH 94500 (1), MNRJ 573 (1), MZUSP 14789 (1), USNM 258298 (1), ZMH 10343 (1). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:410 [ref. 21161], Thiel et al. 2009:26 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello & Thorson 1987 -- (Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27061], Carvalho & Lovejoy 2011:19, 45 [ref. 31182], Carvalho et al. 2011:27 [ref. 31264], Carvalho & Ragno 2011:121 [ref. 31309], Lasso et al. 2011:174 [ref. 31491], Barriga S. 2012:104 [ref. 35745], Weigmann 2016:154 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:625 [ref. 34997], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello & Thorson 1987. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Upper and lower Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

jabuti, Potamotrygon Carvalho [M. R. de] 2016:28, Figs. 22-45 [Zootaxa 4167 (no. 1); ref. 34730] Rio Jamanxim near Novo Progresso, rio Tapajós basin, Pará state, Brazil, 07°09'30"S, 55°25'55"W. Holotype: MZUSP 105023. Paratypes: MZUSP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Potamotrygon jabuti Carvalho 2016 -- (Carvalho 2016:636 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon jabuti Carvalho 2016. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Rio Tapajós basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

labradori, Potamotrygon Castex [M. N.] in Castex, Maciel & Martínez Achenbach 1963:117, Fig. 1 [Neotropica (La Plata) v. 9 (no. 30); ref. 26348] Rio Colastiné (middle Rio Paraná), Santa Fe, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MFA 231. Information on type locality and type specimen taken from Castex 1964:31 [ref. 20924]. Appeared as a nomen nudum as labratori in an earlier 1963 Castex paper (see Carvalho, Lovejoy & Rosa in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Potamotrygon labradori Castex 1963 -- (Castex 1964:31 [ref. 20924] with other authors). •Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061], Loboda & Carvalho 2013:699, 712 [ref. 33024], Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:156 [ref. 34211], Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

laticeps, Potamotrygon Garman [S.] 1913:417, Pls. 31 (figs. 3-4), 55 (fig. 6) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Obidos, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 605-S. Non-types: MCZ 290-S (1), USNM 153588 [ex MCZ 301-S] (1). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xliv [ref. 23119]. We follow Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061] in treating a holotype. •Valid as Potamotrygon laticeps Garman 1913 -- (Castex 1964:28 [ref. 20924], Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xix [ref. 23119]). •Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:156 [ref. 34211], Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

leopoldi, Potamotrygon Castex [M. N.] & Castello [H. P.] 1970:2, Fig. 5; Pls. [Acta Scientifica del Departamento de Zoología, Instituto Latinoamericano de Fisiología y Reproducción, Universidad del Salvador No. 10; ref. 7722] Little creek on the right shore of Upper Rio Xingú, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 475. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:6 [ref. 20755]. •Valid as Potamotrygon leopoldi Castex & Castello 1970 -- (Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061], Rosa et al. 2008:8 [ref. 29564], Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Fontenelle et al. 2014:341 [ref. 33180], Weigmann 2016:155 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:561 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:637 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon leopoldi Castex & Castello 1970. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Xingú River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

limai, Potamotrygon Fontenelle [J. P.], da Silva [J. P. C. B.] & Carvalho [M. R. de] 2014:150, Figs. 1-17 [Zootaxa 3765 (no. 3); ref. 33180] Madeira River basin, Jamari River, Represa Samuel, municipal district of Itapoã do Oeste, upper Amazon Basin, state of Rondônia, Brazil, 9°4’33.96' S, 63°18’17.64"S. Holotype: MZUSP 103031. Paratypes: MZUSP 103031 (1), 104040 (1), 104041 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Potamotrygon limai Fontenelle, da Silva & Carvalho 2014 -- (Weigmann 2016:155 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:581 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:562 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:638 [ref. 34997], Fontenelle & Carvalho 2017:59 [ref. 35537]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon limai Fontenelle, da Silva & Carvalho 2014. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Madeira River system, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenae, Taeniura Duméril [A. H. A.] (ex Valenciennes) 1865:625 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 1; ref. 1150] Río Magdalena, Colombia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2368. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1986:21 [ref. 9312]. We treat authorship as Duméril (ex Valenciennes), not Valenciennes in Duméril. •Valid as Potamotrygon magdalenae (Duméril 1865) -- (Castex 1964:23 [ref. 20924], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Galvis et al. 1997:25 [ref. 23651], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061] with author as Valenciennes, Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264] with author as Valenciennes, Weigmann 2016:156 [ref. 34211] with authorship as Valenciennes, Carvalho et al. 2016:581 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:639 [ref. 34997], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon magdalenae (Duméril 1865). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Magdalena and Atrato River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

marinae, Potamotrygon Deynat [P. P.] 2006:485, Figs. 1-5 [Comptes Rendus Biologies v. 329; ref. 28948] Maroni River, 3°28'58"N, 53°42'W, French Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 1998-0119. Paratypes: MNHN 1998-1811 (1), 1998-2006 (1), 2003-0020 (1), 2006-0750 (1). •Valid as Potamotrygon marinae Deynat 2006 -- (Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Silva & Carvalho 2015:66 [ref. 33871], Weigmann 2016:156 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:582 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:640 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon marinae Deynat 2006. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

menchacai, Potamotrygon Martínez Achenbach [G.] 1967:1, Pls. 1-3 (pp. 6-8) [Comunicações del Museo Provincial de Ciencias Naturales "Florentino Ameghino," Zoología No. 1; ref. 26257] Río Colastiné, Paraná Média, Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Holotype: MFA 289. See Carvalho 2001:1168 [ref. 26256]. •Synonym of Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel 1963 -- (authors, Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:155 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel 1963. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

motoro, Taeniura Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] (ex Natterer) 1841:197 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Lectotype locality: Guaporé River, district of Vila Bela Santíssima Trindade, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 78655. Paralectotypes: NMW 77987 (1), 78613 (1); ZMB 4662 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:181 [ref. 21041]. Evidently Müller & Henle alone were responsible for the description, so authorship is regarded as Müller & Henle (ex Natterer). Lectotype selected by Loboda & Carvalho 2013:699 [ref. 33024]. •Valid as Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Castex 1964:20 [ref. 20924], Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Gómez & Chebez 1996:46 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:6 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:21 [ref. 24147], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:70 [ref. 28131], Rosa et al. 2008:8 [ref. 29564], Carvalho & Lovejoy 2011:46 [ref. 31182], Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Silva & Carvalho 2011:151 [ref. 31310], Ng et al. 2011:2385 [ref. 31474], Oddone et al. 2012:300 [ref. 31835], Naylor et al. 2012:79 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Barriga S. 2012:104 [ref. 35745], Kottelat 2013:29 [ref. 32989], Loboda & Carvalho 2013:695 [ref. 33024], Fontenelle et al. 2014:341 [ref. 33180], Koerber 2014:1 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:117, 188 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:156 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Carvalho et al. 2016:581 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:562 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:59 [ref. 34730], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561], Carvalho 2016:641 [ref. 34997], Nión et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35565] with author as Natterer, Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:71 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Widespread in South America; established in one reservoir in Singapore. Habitat: freshwater.

mulleri, Trygon (Taenura) Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:102, Pl. 48 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio Crixas and Rio Araguay, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2354 (1, poor condition) Rio Araguay, Brazil. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:89 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1986:21 [ref. 9312]. Name listed as Taenura mulleri on figure caption. Castex 1964:21 [ref. 20924] referred to MNHN 2354 as holotype (poor condition) but it may be a syntype. •Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Castex 1964:20 [ref. 20924], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:156 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:561 [ref. 34666], Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

nana, Plesiotrygon Carvalho [M. R. de] & Ragno [M. P.] 2011:105, Figs. 1-15 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 51 (no. 7); ref. 31309] Río Pachitea, tributary of Río Ucayali, up-river from town of Puerto Inca, Puerto Inca Province, Huánuco Department, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 20328. Paratypes: MUSM 40243 (1), 108777 (1). Plus one non-type specimen. •Valid as Plesiotrygon nana Carvalho & Ragno 2011 -- (Lasso et al. 2011:174 [ref. 31491], Weigmann 2016:154 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:626 [ref. 34997], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Plesiotrygon nana Carvalho & Ragno 2011. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Río Amazonas basin: Peru, Colombia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellata, Trygon hystrix var. Engelhardt [R.] 1912:647 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 39 (nos 21/22); ref. 17459] Southern shore of Mexiana, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:279 [ref. 28925] •Valid as Potamotrygon ocellata (Engelhardt 1912) -- (Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2011:2 [ref. 31264] with question, Fontenelle et al. 2014:150 [ref. 33180] with question, Weigmann 2016:157 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Carvalho 2016:562 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730] with question, Carvalho 2016:642 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon ocellata (Engelhardt 1912). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Amapá and Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

orbicularis, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Marcgravus) 1801:361 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] South America. No types known. Unneeded replacement name for Raja ajereba Walbaum 1792; based on the same source, the 'Aiereba' of Marcgravus 1648:175, fig. [ref. 30371]. •Synonym of Paratrygon ajereba (Müller & Henle 1841 [sic]) -- (Castex 1964:16 [ref. 20924]). Current status: Synonym of Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle 1841). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

orbignyi, Trygon (Taenura) Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:102, Pl. 49 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio Tocantins, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2333 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:89 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1986:22 [ref. 9312]. Originally as d'orbignyi but listed as Toenura orbignyi on figure caption. Use as dorbignyi or orbignyi still unresolved. Current usage may result in using orbignyi. First reviser not researched if earlier than Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Potamotrygon hystrix (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Castex 1964:19 [ref. 20924]). •Valid as Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau 1855) -- (Séret & McEachran 1986:22 [ref. 9312], Chang & Ortega 1995:2 [ref. 24302], Lasso et al. 1997:43 [ref. 23139], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061], Deynat 2006:492 [ref. 28948], Rosa et al. 2008:7 [ref. 29564], Carvalho & Lovejoy 2011:46 [ref. 31182], Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Silva & Carvalho 2011:151 [ref. 31310], Fontenelle et al. 2014:150 [ref. 33180], Sarmiento et al. 2014:117, 188 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Silva & Carvalho 2015:5 [ref. 33871], Weigmann 2016:157 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:581 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:562 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:59 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:643 [ref. 34997], Melo et al. 2016:374 [ref. 35317], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:71 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau 1855). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Widespread in South America. Habitat: freshwater.

pacificus, Dasyatis Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1941:262, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-3); Fig. 24 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 26 (pt 3, no. 26); ref. 16103] Port Parker, (Pacific) Costa Rica. Holotype (unique): AMNH 15661-63, 15710SD [ex NYZS 26120] (parts). Type catalog: Mead 1958:132 [ref. 20648]. •Questionably valid as Himantura pacifica (Beebe & Tee-Van 1941) -- (Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Hymantura pacifica (Beebe & Tee-Van 1941) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:34 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:26 [ref. 23101], McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:755 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:46 [ref. 22793], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:72 [ref. 24550], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Carvalho & Lovejoy 2011:46 [ref. 31182], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:136 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34581] not in Dasyatidae). •Valid as Styracura pacifica (Beebe & Tee-Van 1941) -- (Carvalho et al. 2016:214 [ref. 34827], Carvalho 2016:654 [ref. 34997], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Styracura pacifica (Beebe & Tee-Van 1941). Potamotrygonidae: Styracurinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Panama, also Galapagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

pantanensis, Potamotrygon Loboda [T. S.] & Carvalho [M. R. de] 2013:714, Figs. 23-36 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 33024] Sinhá Marinana, tributary of Cuiabá River, district of Barão de Melgaço, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 110890. Paratypes: NUP 4179 (1); MZUSP 110874, 110888-89, 11091-92, 110894 (1 each). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Potamotrygon pantanensis Loboda & Carvalho 2013 -- (Weigmann 2016:157 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:644 [ref. 34997], Loboda 2016:2 [ref. 35085], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon pantanensis Loboda & Carvalho 2013. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

pauckei, Potamotrygon Castex [M. N.] 1963:291, Figs. [Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias (Córdoba) v. 43 (no. 2-4); ref. 1482] Río Paraná, near city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Lectotype: MFA 232. Paralectotypes: (5) MFA 245. No holotype established in original description; two "paratypes" were described in Castex & Yagolkowski 1970 [ref. 9550]. Appeared as a nomen nudum as labratori in an earlier 1963 Castex paper (see Carvalho, Lovejoy & Rosa in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Potamotrygon pauckei Castex 1963 -- (López et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:70 [ref. 28131], Loboda & Carvalho 2013:699 [ref. 33024], Koerber 2014:1 [ref. 33621]). •Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:156 [ref. 34211], Koerber et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

reticulatus, Trygon Günther [A.] 1880:8 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 6 (no. 31) (art. 2); ref. 14279] Suriname. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1870.3.10.1. See Carvalho 2001:1168 [ref. 26256]. •Synonym of Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau 1855) -- (Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061], Silva & Carvalho 2015:6, 38 [ref. 33871], Weigmann 2016:157 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Potamotrygon reticulatus (Günther 1880) -- (Castex 1964:25 [ref. 20924]). Current status: Synonym of Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau 1855). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

rex, Potamotrygon Carvalho [M. R. de] 2016:538, Figs. 1-13, 15, 16A, B [Zootaxa 4150 (no. 5); ref. 34666] Rio Tocantins near the mouth of the right bank tributary of rio Manoel Alves, Tocantins state, Brazil, 11°18'55"S, 48°27'28"W. Holotype: MZUSP 120371. Paratypes: MZUSP, UNT. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Potamotrygon rex Carvalho 2016 -- (Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:645 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon rex Carvalho 2016. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Middle and upper rio Tocantins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

rosai, Heliotrygon Carvalho [M. R. de] & Lovejoy [N. R.] 2011:29, Figs. 11-16, 18, 24-25 [Zootaxa No. 2776; ref. 31182] Baía de Marajó, 0°55'34"S, 48°17'25"W, Colaras, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 104996. Paratypes: AMNH 251885 (1); MZUSP 108200 (1), 108201(1), 108202 (1). Plus additonal non-type material. •Valid as Heliotrygon rosai Carvalho & Lovejoy 2011 -- (Weigmann 2016:153 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:623 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Heliotrygon rosai Carvalho & Lovejoy 2011. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Upper and lower Amazon River basin, and probably lower reaches of major tributaries: Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

schmardae, Trygon Werner [F.] 1904:298 [Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere (Jena) v. 21 (no. 3); ref. 15220] Jamaica. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1904.4.30.12. •Questionably valid as Himantura schmardae (Werner 1904) -- (Compagno 1999:496 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Himantura schmardae (Werner 1904) -- (Cervigón 1992:200 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:46 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:182 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:190 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:72 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:147 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:568 [ref. 26985], Smith et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27621], Santos et al. 2004:2 [ref. 27848], Carvalho & Lovejoy 2011:46 [ref. 31182], Naylor et al. 2012:79 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:130 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:137 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34581] not in Dasyatidae). •Valid as Styracura schmardae (Werner 1904) -- (Carvalho et al. 2016:205 [ref. 34827], Carvalho 2016:655 [ref. 34997], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Styracura schmardae (Werner 1904). Potamotrygonidae: Styracurinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

schroederi, Potamotrygon Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1958:8, Figs. 1-2 [Boletin del Museo de Ciencias Naturales. Caracas, Venezuela. 2-3; ref. 896] Río Apure, at mouth of Río Apurito, Estado Apure, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MHNLS 2504 [ex AFY 51289] (parts only). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1998:41 [ref. 23639]. See Carvalho 2001:1168 [ref. 26256]. •Valid as Potamotrygon schroederi Fernández-Yépez 1958 -- (Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061] dated 1957, Carvalho et al. 2011:12 [ref. 31264], Fontenelle et al. 2014:150 [ref. 33180], Weigmann 2016:157 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:581 [ref. 34422], DoNascimiento 2016:527 [ref. 34727], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:646 [ref. 34997], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon schroederi Fernández-Yépez 1958. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Orinoco and Amazon basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

schuhmacheri, Potamotrygon Castex [M. N.] 1964:92, 94, Fig. [Neotropica (La Plata) v. 10 (no. 32); ref. 20916] Río Colastiné Sur, Santa Fe, Argentina. MFA 269. Spelled schühmacheri on p. 94 and in Castex 1964:32-33 [ref. 20924] and authorship given as "Castex, Martínez Achenbach" in Castex 1964:32 [ref. 20924], but Castex is the only author. •Status questionable -- (Carvalho et al. 2011:2 [ref. 31264]). •Valid as Potamotrygon schuhmacheri Castex 1964 -- (Castex 1964:32 [ref. 20924], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:7 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:70 [ref. 28131], Mirande & Koerber 2015:8 [ref. 35117], Weigmann 2016:157 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Carvalho et al. 2016:581 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:647 [ref. 34997], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon schuhmacheri Castex 1964. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Paraná-Paraguay River basin, South America. Habitat: freshwater.

scobina, Potamotrygon Garman [S.] 1913:418 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Rio Tocantins at Cametá, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 602-S. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xliv [ref. 23119]. •Valid as Potamotrygon scobina Garman 1913 -- (Castex 1964:27 [ref. 20924], Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xix [ref. 23119], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Barriga S. 2012:104 [ref. 35745], Fontenelle et al. 2014:150 [ref. 33180], Weigmann 2016:157 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:581 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:562 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:648 [ref. 34997], Fontenelle & Carvalho 2017:5 [ref. 35537], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon scobina Garman 1913. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Widely distributed in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

signatus, Potamotrygon Garman [S.] 1913:420 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Rio Puty, tributary of Rio Parnahyba; Parnahyba at San Gonçallo, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 560-S (1), 600-S (1); USNM 153589 [ex MCZ 560-S] (1). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xliv [ref. 23119]. See Carvalho 2001:1168 [ref. 26256]. Castex 1964:26 [ref. 20924] said four syntypes at MCZ. •Valid as Potamotrygon signata Garman 1913 -- (Castex 1964:26 [ref. 20924] as signatus, Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xix [ref. 23119], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27061], Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Fontenelle et al. 2014:341 [ref. 33180], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Weigmann 2016:157 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:582 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496], Carvalho 2016:649 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon signata Garman 1913. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sloani, Raia Stephan [C. F.] 1779:20 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] Lectotype selected by Kottelat 2010:66 [ref. 30995] as the figure of "aiereba brasiliensibus" of Marcgrave (1648:175). Kottelat also designated the specimen shown in the same figure to be the lectotype for ajereba. Then ajereba is declared a nomen protectum under Article 23.9.1 and sloani as a nomen oblitum. See Kottelat for details. •Synonym of Paratrygon ajereba (Walbaum 1792) of a later date -- (Kottelat 2010:64 [ref. 30995]). Current status: Synonym of Paratrygon ajereba (Walbaum 1792). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: marine.

spinicauda, Elipesurus Jardine [W.] & Schomburgk [R. H.] in Schomburgk 1843:184, Pl. 23 [The natural history of fishes of Guiana.--Part II; ref. 3948] Fort San Joaquim, Branco River, Guiana. No types known. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:180-181 [ref. 21041]. •Valid as Elipesurus spinicauda Jardine & Schomburgk 1843 -- (Castex 1964:33 [ref. 20924] with author as Schomburgk). •Status uncertain -- (Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27061] with author as Jardine). Current status: Uncertain as Elipesurus spinicauda Jardine & Schomburgk 1843. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

strogylopterus, Trygon Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1843:183, Pl. 22 [The natural history of fishes of Guiana.--Part II; ref. 3948] Rio Branco, South America. No types known. Spelled strongylopterus in Garman 1877 [ref. 1528] and other early works. •Valid as Potamotrygon strogylopterus (Jardine 1843) -- (Castex 1964:22 [ref. 20924] as strongylopterus with author as Schomburgk). •Synonym of Paratrygon ajereba (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Rosa 1992:427 [ref. 30634], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Paratrygon ajereba (Walbaum 1792). Current status: Synonym of Paratrygon ajereba (Walbaum 1792). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

tatianae, Potamotrygon Silva [J. P. C. B. da] & Carvalho [M. R. de] 2011:140, Figs. 1-12 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 51 (no. 8); ref. 31310] Río Madre de Díos, municipal district of Boca Manu, upper Amazon basin, state of Madre de Dios, Peru, 12°40'S, 71°04'06"W. Holotype: MZUSP 107673. Paratypes: MZUSP 107667 (1), 107668 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Potamotrygon tatianae Silva & Carvalho 2011 -- (Fontenelle et al. 2014:150 [ref. 33180], Weigmann 2016:157 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:562 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:650 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon tatianae Silva & Carvalho 2011. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Río Madre de Díos, upper Río Madeira basin, upper Amazon basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

thayeri, Disceus Garman [S.] 1913:426, Pls. 34, 54 (2), 57 (2), 70 (3-4) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Obidos, Manaos [Manaus], and Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 297-S (1) Manaus, 563-S (1) Rio Pará, 606-S (1) Obidos. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xliii [ref. 23119]. •Synonym of Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Rosa 1992:425 [ref. 30634], Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xxvi [ref. 23119], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27061]). •Mention -- (Castex 1964:33 [ref. 20924]). •Synonym of Paratrygon ajereba (Walbaum 1792). Current status: Synonym of Paratrygon ajereba (Walbaum 1792). Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Habitat: freshwater.

tigrina, Potamotrygon Carvalho [M. R. de], Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] & Lovejoy [N. R.] 2011:3, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa No. 2827; ref. 31264] Río Nanay, large beach (left bank) at village of Pampa Chica, 4.54 km west of Iquitos, Departamento Loreto, Peru, 3°45'09"S, 73°17'00"W. Holotype: MUSM 39978 [ex ANSP 182452]. Paratypes: ANSP 191998 (1). •Valid as Potamotrygon tigrina Carvalho, Sabaj Pérez & Lovejoy 2011 -- (Fontenelle et al. 2014:150 [ref. 33180], Weigmann 2016:157 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:582 [ref. 34422], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:651 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon tigrina Carvalho, Sabaj Pérez & Lovejoy 2011. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Río Nanay, upper Amazon basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

torrei, Dasybatus Garman [S.] 1913:386 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Tunas de Zaza, Cuba. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Styracura schmardae (Werner 1904) -- (Carvalho et al. 2016:205 [ref. 34827]). Current status: Synonym of Styracura schmardae (Werner 1904). Potamotrygonidae: Styracurinae. Habitat: marine.

wallacei, Potamotrygon Carvalho [M. R. de], Rosa [R. S.] & Araújo [M. L. G. de] 2016:567, Figs. 1-11, 13, 14 [Zootaxa 4107 (no. 4); ref. 34422] Rio Negro, municipality of Barcelos, Amazonas, Brazil, 0°57'30.24"S, 62°56'14.697"W. Holotype: MZUSP 117809. Paratypes: BMNH, MNRJ, MZUSP, UFPB. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Potamotrygon wallacei Carvalho, Rosa & Araújo 2016 -- (Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:652 [ref. 34997]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon wallacei Carvalho, Rosa & Araújo 2016. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Rio Negro basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

yepezi, Potamotrygon Castex [M. N.] & Castello [H. P.] 1970:16, Pl. [Acta Scientifica del Departamento de Zoología, Instituto Latinoamericano de Fisiología y Reproducción, Universidad del Salvador No. 8; ref. 7723] Río Palmar at bridge, 70 kilometers southwest of Maracaibo, southeastern Maracaibo Lake region, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121662. Paratypes: Univ. El Salvador [ex USNM 121668] (1), Univ. El Salvadore [ex USNM 121664] (1); USNM 121659-60 (2, 1), 121663-65 (1, 1, 1), 121667-68 (1, now 1). Plus additional material. •Valid as Potamotrygon yepezi Castex & Castello 1970 -- (Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Galvis et al. 1997:26 [ref. 23651], Compagno 1999:495 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. in Reis et al. 2003:26 [ref. 27061], Rosa et al. 2008:7 [ref. 29564], Carvalho & Lovejoy 2011:46 [ref. 31182], Carvalho et al. 2011:26 [ref. 31264], Weigmann 2016:158 [ref. 34211], Carvalho 2016:562 [ref. 34666], Carvalho 2016:6 [ref. 34730], Carvalho 2016:653 [ref. 34997], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Potamotrygon yepezi Castex & Castello 1970. Potamotrygonidae: Potamotrygoninae. Distribution: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.