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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Pristigasteridae: [ 96 ] records


abnormis, Ilisha Richardson [J.] (ex Gray) 1846:306 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Chinese sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1964.11.6.4 (dry). Type information: Whitehead 1970:209 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Whitehead 1985:265 [ref. 5141], Youn & Kim 1998:50 [ref. 25737], Munroe et al. 1999:1758 [ref. 24728], Zhang 2001:113 [ref. 26586] dated 1845, Gates et al. 2006:319 [ref. 29008], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aculeatus, Gnathobolus Schinz [H. R.] 1822:300 [Das Thierreich v. 2; ref. 3926] French Guiana. Based on Lacepède. Unneeded replacement name for and objective synonym of Odontognathus mucronatus Lacepède 1800 (see Daget 1968:1058 [ref. 26392]). •Objective synonym of Odontognathus mucronatus Lacepède 1800 -- (Daget 1968:1058 [ref. 26392]). •Synonym of Odontognathus mucronatus Lacepède 1800 -- (Whitehead 1985:298 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Odontognathus mucronatus Lacepède 1800. Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

affinis, Clupea Gray [J. E.] 1830:no page number, Pl. 96 (fig. 2) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] Penang, Malaysia. No types known. Published about 15 July 1830. Printed on plate [but not investigated by us] is: Published 1829 by Parbury Allen & Co., Leadenhall Str. London. •Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Whitehead 1985:265 [ref. 5141], Youn & Kim 1998:50 [ref. 25737], Munroe et al. 1999:1758 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

africana, Clupea Bloch [M. E.] 1795:45, Pl. 407 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Red Sea? (probably erroneous, original from Accra, Ghana, eastern Atlantic Ocean). Lectotype: ZMB 3874 (ca 154 mm). Paralectotypes: ZMB 3874 (1 of 2). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:64 [ref. 24282]. On p. 36 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype established by Whitehead 1969:268 by use of holotype; also treated as such by Paepke 1999:64 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Ilisha africana (Bloch 1795) -- (Poll et al. 1984:44 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:263 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:226 [ref. 14039], Teugels in Lévêque et al. 1990:112 [ref. 21589], Munroe 2016:1719 [ref. 34560]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha africana (Bloch 1795). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

altamazonica, Pellona Cope [E. D.] 1872:256 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 921] Río Ambyiacu, Peru. No types at ANSP. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Pellona castelnaeana Valenciennes 1847 -- (Whitehead 1985:279 [ref. 5141], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:43 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pellona altamazonica Cope 1872 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708]). Current status: Valid as Pellona altamazonica Cope 1872. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonicum, Pseudochirocentrodon Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1920:8 [Peixes (excl. Characinidae) No. 58 (Annexo 5); ref. 3727] Amazon River, Manaos [Manaus], Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 1789A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 1789 (3). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:397-398 [ref. 12732]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:398 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Valid as Pseudochirocentrodon amazonicus Miranda Ribeiro 1920 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708]). •Valid as Ilisha amazonica (Miranda Ribeiro 1920) -- (Whitehead 1985:265 [ref. 5141], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:43 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192] dated 1923, Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha amazonica (Miranda Ribeiro 1920). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

amblyuropterus, Pellona Bleeker [P.] 1852:21 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7120. Bleeker specimens: NMV A2050 (1). Simultaneous subjectve synonymy of Pellona pristigasteroides; Whitehead et al. 1966:94 gave precedence to pristigasteroides. •Synonym of Ilisha pristigastroides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Whitehead 1985:275 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1765 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha pristigastroides (Bleeker 1852). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

americanus, Pristigaster Guérin-Méneville [F. E.] 1829-38:33, Pl. 57 (fig. 3) [Iconographie du Règne animal de G. Cuvier IV, Poissons; ref. 18162] Atlantic coasts of South America. No types known. Original genus misspelled Pritigaster, correctly spelled Pristigaster on Pl. 57 (fig. 3). •Synonym of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829 -- (Whitehead 1985:301 [ref. 5141], Menezes & de Pinna 2000:243 [ref. 24411], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829. Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

apapae, Ilisha Hildebrand [S. F.] 1948:3, Fig. 2 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 110 (no. 9); ref. 2162] Amazon River, between Pará and Manáos, Brazil. Holotype (unique): USNM 52550. •Synonym of Ilisha amazonica (Miranda Ribeiro 1920) -- (Whitehead 1985:264 [ref. 5141], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:43 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha amazonica (Miranda Ribeiro 1920). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

argentata, Ilisha Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:190, Pl. 9 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Fox Bay, Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 81749. Paratypes: FMNH 25564-78 (1 ea.); USNM 79499 (2), 79521 (3), 79526 (1), 79527 (1), 79531-32 (3, 1), 79535-36 (1, 1), 79544-45 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:49 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1917) -- (Whitehead 1985:283 [ref. 5141], Munroe 2003:803 [ref. 26996]). Current status: Synonym of Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1917). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteus, Pristigaster Günther [A.] 1867:603 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Panama. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pristigaster argenteus Schinz 1822, replaced by Pristigaster dovii Günther 1868. •Objective synonym of Opisthopterus dovii (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead 1985:290 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthopterus dovii (Günther 1868). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteus, Pristigaster Schinz [H. R.] (ex Cuvier) 1822:300 [Das Thierreich v. 2; ref. 3926] Cayenne, French Guiana. Forgotten name [nomen oblitum]. Name not listed in Daget 1968 [ref. 26392]. Original type locality given as American Seas. Based on Cuvier, Regne Animal, T 16. F. 3 [?]. •In the synonymy of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829 -- (Whitehead 1985:301 [ref. 5141], Menezes & de Pinna 2000:243 [ref. 24411], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829. Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bleekeri, Ilisha Bertin [L.] 1941:24 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 66; ref. 16810] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1867.11.28.19. Based on Ilisha novacula of Bleeker 1866 (not of Valenciennes). •Questionably a synonym of Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838) -- (Kottelat 2013:50 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bleekeriana, Pellona Poey [F.] 1867:242 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14078] Matanzas, Cuba. Syntypes: (2) MCZ 17845 (7), ?USNM 120426 [ex MCZ 17845] (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:171 [ref. 22926], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]. •Valid as Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey 1867) -- (Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:90 [ref. 14275], Whitehead 1985:286 [ref. 5141], Cervigón 1991:94 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:388 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:582 [ref. 16204], Planquette et al. 1996:82 [ref. 22818], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Munroe 2003:799 [ref. 26996], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195], Spier et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey 1867). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brachysoma, Pellona Bleeker [P.] 1852:22 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.16. •Synonym of Ilisha indica (Swainson 1939) -- (Kottelat 2013:50 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Whitehead 1985:272 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1764 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caribbaea, Ilisha Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:191, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Porto Bello, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 81769. Paratypes: USNM 81743 (1). •Synonym of Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey 1867) -- (Whitehead 1985:286 [ref. 5141], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey 1867). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

castelnaeana, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Mouth of Amazon River, Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3705. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-3706 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:293 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:21 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:108 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Pellona castelnaeana Valenciennes 1847 -- (Whitehead 1985:279 [ref. 5141], Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Le Guennec 1992:150 [ref. 22388], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:43 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Munroe 2003:798 [ref. 26996], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:96, 187 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pellona castelnaeana Valenciennes 1847. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cayanus, Pristigaster Cuvier [G.] 1829:321, Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [in Vol. 4] [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Cayenne, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3699. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:293-294 [ref. 293]. Following current usage [although technicaly inaccurate], this species is dated to Cuvier 1829:321 [ref. 995] in conjunction with Pl. 10 (fig. 3) as above, although cayanus was name only on p. 321 as "Pr. cayanus, N., Esp. nouv." and not a combined genus and species description. It also does not date to the plate in volume 4 (contra Myers 1956:63 [ref. 21392] and Whitehead 1985:301 [ref. 5141]) because the name does not appear there. Synonymy complicated, see Menezes & de Pinna 2000:243 [ref. 24411]. •Valid as Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829 -- (Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:23 [ref. 9739], Whitehead 1985:301 [ref. 5141], Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Menezes & de Pinna 2000:243 [ref. 24411], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Munroe 2003:798 [ref. 26996], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

chinensis, Pristigaster Basilewsky [S.] 1855:243 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Gulf of Tschili, China, and eastern Seas. No types knoiwn. •Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Whitehead 1985:265 [ref. 5141], Youn & Kim 1998:50 [ref. 25737], Zhang 2001:113 [ref. 26586], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cladileokae, Chirocentrodon Tommasi [L. R.] 1964:30 [Neotropica (La Plata) v. 10 (no. 31); ref. 21776] Mocla Island, San Pablo, Santos, Brazil. Holotype: Sec. Necton Inst. Oceanogr. USP. Paratypes: Sec. Necton Inst. Oceanogr. USP 90 (14). Original not seen. •Synonym of Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey 1867) -- (Whitehead 1985:286 [ref. 5141], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey 1867). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

compressa, Ilisha Randall [J. E.] 1994:895, Fig. 1 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 42 (no. 4); ref. 21649] Kuwait Bay, Kuwait, Persian Gulf, depth 8-10 meters. Holotype: BPBM 33196. Paratypes: BMNH 1974.7.22.4 (1); BPBM 36412 (1); USNM 329752 (1). •Valid as Ilisha compressa Randall 1994 -- (Randall 1995:69 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:115 [ref. 23922], Ali et al. 2018:310 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:30 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha compressa Randall 1994. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: marine.

compressus, Odontognathus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:194, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Fox Bay, Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 79533. Paratypes: FMNH 25540-63 (24); ?USNM 79524 (1), 81739-40 (24, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:61 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Odontognathus compressus Meek & HIldebrand 1923 -- (Whitehead 1985:297 [ref. 5141], Cervigón 1991:93 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:389 [ref. 23827], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Munroe 2003:801 [ref. 26996]). Current status: Valid as Odontognathus compressus Meek & Hildebrand 1923. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cubanus, Neoopisthopterus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1948:7, Figs. 3-4 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 110 (no. 9); ref. 2162] Vicinity of Havana, Cuba. Holotype: USNM 143569. Paratypes: USNM 143570 (5). Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]. •Valid as Neoopisthopterus cubanus Hildebrand 1948 -- (Whitehead 1985:288 [ref. 5141], Munroe 2003:800 [ref. 26996], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Valid as Neoopisthopterus cubanus Hildebrand 1948. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

dayi, Pellona Wongratana [T.] 1983:395, Fig. 12 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Porto Novo, southern India. Holotype: BMNH 1969.11.6.17. Paratypes: BMNH 1889.2.1.2002-2006 (5), 1969.11.6.15-16 (2). •Valid as Pellona dayi Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:280 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Valid as Pellona dayi Wongratana 1983. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

deauratus, Ilisha Nakashima [S.] 1941:77, Fig. [Boletín del Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado" v. 5 (no. 16); ref. 13189] Amazon River basin, eastern Peru. Syntypes: ?MHNJP [= MUSM]. •Synonym of Pellona castelnaeana Valenciennes 1847 -- (Whitehead 1985:279 [ref. 5141] as desuratus, de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:43 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pellona castelnaeana Valenciennes 1847. Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ditchela, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:314 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:44 [ref. 9739]. Based on Russell 1803:72, Pl. 188. •Valid as Pellona ditchela Valenciennes 1847 -- (Poll et al. 1984:48 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:281 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Wongratana 1986:202 [ref. 6284], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:156 [ref. 12442], Ataur Rahman 1989:254 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:124 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:20 [ref. 23448], Randall 1995:70 [ref. 22896], Reinthal & Stiassny 1997:354 [ref. 22780], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Munroe et al. 1999:1769 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:18 [ref. 25847], Zhang 2001:109 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Seegers et al. 2003:30 [ref. 28087], Ataur Rahman 2003:278 [ref. 31338], Gates et al. 2006:319 [ref. 29008], Larson et al. 2013:33 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:24 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:162 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:51 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pellona ditchela Valenciennes 1847. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines and New Guinea, south to northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ditchoa, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:313 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Vizagapatham, India. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:44 [ref. 9739]. Based on Russell, p. 74, Pl. 192. Synonym of Ilisha indica (Swainson 1839) -- (Kottelat 2013:50 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Munroe et al. 1999:1764 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dolloi, Pristigaster Boulenger [G. A.] 1902:271, Pl. 30 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1902, v. 1 (pt 1) (art. 4); ref. 4865] Banana, Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 15. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:7 [ref. 20755]. •Synonym of Ilisha africana (Bloch 1795) -- (Poll et al. 1984:45 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:263 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:226 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha africana (Bloch 1795). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dovii, Pristigaster Günther [A.] 1868:461 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Panama (Pacific). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.1.14.19. Replacement name for Pristigaster argenteus Günther 1866, preoccupied by Pristigaster argenteus Schinz (ex Cuvier) 1822. •Valid as Opisthopterus dovii (Günther 1868) -- (Whitehead 1985:290 [ref. 5141], Allen & Robertson 1994:61 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:48 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1415 [ref. 22830] as dovi, Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:141 [ref. 24555] as dovi, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:120 [ref. 24550] as dovi, Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:290 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Opisthopterus dovii (Günther 1868). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California and southeastern Gulf of California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dussumieri, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Coromandel, southwestern India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3708. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-3707 (1), 0000-3709 (1), 0000-3936 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:292 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:21-22 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:113 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838) -- (Whitehead 1985:270 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1763 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:50 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

effulgens, Pristigaster (Opisthopterus) Regan [C. T.] 1903:621 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 12 (no. 72) (art. 64); ref. 13401] Río Vaqueria, northwestern Ecuador. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1902.4.29.49. •Valid as Opisthopterus effulgens (Regan 1903) -- (Whitehead 1985:291 [ref. 5141], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1417 [ref. 22830], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Opisthopterus effulgens (Regan 1903). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Colombia to Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

elongata, Alosa Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:691 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (?): BMNH 1852.9.13.107 (dry skin). On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. •Valid as Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Uyeno & Sato in Masuda et al. 1984:20 [ref. 6441], Whitehead 1985:265 [ref. 5141], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:38 [ref. 23876], Kottelat et al. 1993:18 [ref. 23448], Randall 1995:69 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:117 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:14 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:74 [ref. 26385], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:8 [ref. 24670], Youn & Kim 1998:50 [ref. 25737], Munroe et al. 1999:1758 [ref. 24728], Nakabo 2000:244 [ref. 25086], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Wang et al. 2001:53 [ref. 26566], Zhang 2001:113 [ref. 26586], Nakabo 2002:244 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:151, 498 [ref. 26218], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Gates et al. 2006:319 [ref. 29008], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33547], Hata in Kimura et al. 2018:47 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:88 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: east coast of India east to Indonesia; north to nothern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

elongata, Pristogaster Swainson [W.] 1838:278 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Original genus should have been Pristigaster. Based on Tardoore of Russell, Pl. 192, fig. 2 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 193 [ref. 13862]. •Synonym of Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:294 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1767 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

equatorialis, Opisthopterus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:93, Fig. 18 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Puerto Pizarro, Peru, 3°29'S, 80°26'W. Holotype: USNM 127807. Paratypes: USNM 127808 (4), Gov't of Peru (1). •Valid as Opisthopterus equatorialis Hildebrand 1946 -- (Whitehead 1985:292 [ref. 5141], Bussing & López S. 1994:48 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1417 [ref. 22830] as equitorialis, Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:141 [ref. 24555], González-Murcia et al. 2019:290 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Opisthopterus equatorialis Hildebrand 1946. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

filigera, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:322 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Mumbai, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3710. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2879 [ex MNHN 0000-3710] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:293 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:22 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:117 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Ilisha filigera (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:266 [ref. 5141], Kottelat et al. 1993:18 [ref. 23448], Randall 1995:69 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:119 [ref. 27969], Munroe et al. 1999:1759 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha filigera (Valenciennes 1847). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

flavipinnis, Pristigaster Valenciennes [A.] 1837:Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Argentina. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:45-46 [ref. 9739]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:8 [ref. 5010] as Pellone orbignyanum. In Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:302 [ref. 1012] as Pellona orbignyana. Pl. 10 dates to 1837. •Valid as Ilisha flavipinnis (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:46 [ref. 23791], Munroe 2003:798 [ref. 26996], Menni 2004:71 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Pellona flavipinnis (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:282 [ref. 5141], Cervigón 1991:91 [ref. 24472], Le Guennec 1992:150 [ref. 22388], Cervigón 1992:390 [ref. 23827], Planquette et al. 1996:80 [ref. 22818], Sverlij et al. 1998:8 [ref. 27632] dated 1849, Britski et al. 1999:22 [ref. 24147], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639] dated 1847, de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27366], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:96, 187 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Mirande & Koerber 2015:10 [ref. 35117], Vera-Alcaraz & Vuletich 2016:3 [ref. 35084], Nión et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pellona flavipinnis (Valenciennes 1837). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Widespread in South America: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

fuerthii, Pellona Steindachner [F.] 1875:388 [14] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 70 (1. Abth.); ref. 4219] Panama Bay. Lectotype: NMW 1110. Paralectotypes: NMW 1106 (2), 1110 (1 of 2), 1111 (1), 1114 (2). Type information and lectotype designation: Whitehead 1970:22 [ref. 11605]. On p. 14 of separate. Originally published as Pellona Fürthii; emended to fuerthii as it is based on a German name. •Valid as Ilisha furthii (Steindachner 1875) -- (Whitehead 1985:267 [ref. 5141], Allen & Robertson 1994:61 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:46 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1412 [ref. 22830] as furthi, McMahan et al. 2013:443 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Ilisha fuerthii (Steindachner 1875) -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:182 [ref. 24555] as fürthii, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:119 [ref. 24550] as fuerthi, Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745] as fuerthi, González-Murcia et al. 2019:290 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha fuerthii (Steindachner 1875). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southwestern Mexico to northern Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gabonica, Pellona Duméril [A. H. A.] 1861:259, Pl. 23 (figs. 3-3a) [Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10 [for 1858]; ref. 1149] Gabon. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3203. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:293 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:22 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Ilisha africana (Bloch 1795) -- (Poll et al. 1984:44 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:263 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:226 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha africana (Bloch 1795). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grayana, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:315 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Penang, Malasia. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:44-45 [ref. 9739]. Unnessary replacement name for Clupea affinis Gray 1830. •Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Whitehead 1985:265 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hamiltoni, Apterygia Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:333 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Not available, name mentioned in passing. •In the synonymy of Raconda russeliana Gray 1831 -- (Whitehead 1985:303 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Raconda russeliana Gray 1831. Pristigasteridae.

harroweri, Ilisha Fowler [H. W.] 1917:128, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 69; ref. 15092] Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): ANSP 46959. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1917) -- (Whitehead 1985:283 [ref. 5141], Cervigón 1991:91 [ref. 24472], Le Guennec 1992:150 [ref. 22388], Cervigón 1992:390 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:582 [ref. 16204], Planquette et al. 1996:80 [ref. 22818], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221] as haroweri, Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192] dated 1919, Munroe 2003:803 [ref. 26996], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1917). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hoevenii, Pellona Bleeker [P.] 1852:21 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 7118 (1). Bleeker specimens: AMS I.91 (1), BMNH 1867.11.28.15 (1), NMV A940 (2). Putative neotype proposed by Whitehead et al. 1966:91 [ref. 6860]. •Synonym of Pellona ditchela Valenciennes 1847 -- (Poll et al. 1984:48 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:281 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1769 [ref. 24728], Ataur Rahman 2003:278 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pellona ditchela Valenciennes 1847. Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

indicus, Clupea (Platygaster) Swainson [W.] 1839:294 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on Russ. pl. 193 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 193 [ref. 13862]. Objective synonym of verticalus Swainson. •Synonym of Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Whitehead 1985:272 [ref. 5141], Randall 1995:69 [ref. 22896], Munroe et al. 1999:1764 [ref. 24728]). •Valid as Ilisha indica (Swainson 1839) -- (Kuang & Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:20 [ref. 26639], Cheng & Zhou 1997:73 [ref. 26385]). •Synonym of Opistopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1839) -- (Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

indicus, Clupea (Pristigaster) Swainson [W.] 1839:294 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on Russ. pl. 193 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 193 [ref. 13862]. Original genus wrongly as Pristogaster. •Synonym of Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:294 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1767 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

iquitensis, Ilisha Nakashima [S.] 1941:66, Fig. [Boletín del Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado" v. 5 (no. 16); ref. 13189] Iquitos, Amazon system, northeastern Peru. Types: ?MHNJP [= MUSM]. •Synonym of Ilisha amazonica (Miranda Ribeiro 1920) -- (Whitehead 1985:264 [ref. 5141], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:43 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha amazonica (Miranda Ribeiro 1920). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

iserti, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:307 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Acara, Ghana. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:45 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Ilisha africana (Bloch 1795) -- (Poll et al. 1984:44 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:263 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:226 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha africana (Bloch 1795). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kampeni, Pellona Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1913:87 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 2; ref. 16092] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Balikpapan, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: (several) ZMA 112594-95 (3, 1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:11 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Ilisha kampeni (Weber & de Beaufort 1913) -- (Whitehead 1985:268 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:119 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:18 [ref. 23448], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:119 [ref. 27969], Munroe et al. 1999:1760 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2013:50 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:28 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha kampeni (Weber & de Beaufort 1913). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: India to Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

leschenaulti, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:311 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3435. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:291-292 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:22 [ref. 9739]. But based party on bibliogrphic sources; Kottelat (2013) established. the lectotype. •Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Whitehead 1985:265 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lichtensteini, Pristigaster Jarocki [F. P.] 1822:332, Fig. 3 [Zoologiia czyli zwiérzetopismo ogolne podlug náynowszego systematu ulozone v. 4; ref. 4984] Cayenne, French Guiana. No types known. •Forgotten name [nomen oblitum] in the synonymy of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829 -- (Whitehead 1985:301 [ref. 5141], Menezes & de Pinna 2000:243 [ref. 24411], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829. Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lunula, Ilisha Kailola [P. J.] 1986:52, Fig. 1 [The Beagle (Occasional Papers of the Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences) v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 8084] Arafura Sea, Northern Territory, Australia, 11°43'S, 136°18'E. Holotype: CSIRO B 4111. Paratypes: AMS I.15557-023 (1), ?I.21962-004 (1), I.26861-002 (1), IB.1268 (7); BMNH 1982.7.20.184-195 (12), 1982.7.20.196-216 (20); CSIRO B 2104-05 (11, 6); KFRS F.6000 (1); NTM S.10051-007 (1), S.10095.007 (1), S.10203-002 (4), S.10404.003 (4), S.11676-001 (2). •Valid as Ilisha lunula Kailola 1986 -- (Munroe et al. 1999:1761 [ref. 24728], Gates et al. 2006:319 [ref. 29008], Larson et al. 2013:33 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha lunula Kailola 1986. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

macrogaster, Ilisha Bleeker [P.] 1866:300 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 14051] Sambas, western Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.20. •Valid as Ilisha macrogaster Bleeker 1866 -- (Whitehead 1985:269 [ref. 5141], Kottelat et al. 1993:19 [ref. 23448], Munroe et al. 1999:1762 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2013:50 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha macrogaster Bleeker 1866. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrognathus, Opisthopterus Bleeker [P.] 1866:299 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 14051] Type locality: Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. (Original localities include: Jakara, Benkulen, Padang, Priaman, Sumatra; Singapore; Sinkawang, Sampit, Borneo.) Lectotype: RMNH 7125. Paralectotypes: (19) BMNH 1867.11.28.7 (1), ?NMV 45838 (1), RMNH 7125 (1), 24960 [ex RMNH 7125] (13). Lectotype selected by Whitehead et al. 1966. •Synonym of Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:294 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1767 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrolepis, Pellona Whitehead [P. J. P.] (ex Steindachner) 1970:27 [Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 11605] Steindachner manuscript name and a description provided, but Whitehead did not treat as a valid species so name is not available. Pristigasteridae.

macrops, Pristigaster Günther [A.] 1867:603 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Panama. BMNH 1864.1.26.345. •Valid as Opisthopterus macrops (Günther 1867) -- (Whitehead 1985:293 [ref. 5141], Bussing & López S. 1994:48 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1417 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Valid as Opisthopterus macrops (Günther 1867). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

macropthalma, Platygaster Swainson [W.] 1838:278 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] Vizagapatam, India. Neotype: BMNH 1972.5.12.25. Based on "Iangarloo" of Russell 1803:Pl. 191 [ref. 13862]. Neotype designated by Seshagiri Rao 1977:73 [ref. 21670]. Declaried as nomenoblitum by Whitehead 1867:11, 115. •Synonym of Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838) -- (Seshagiri Rao 1977:73 [ref. 21670]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

martii, Pristigaster Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:55, Pl. 24a [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Amazon River mouth, Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829 -- (Whitehead 1985:301 [ref. 5141], Menezes & de Pinna 2000:243 [ref. 24411], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829. Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

mayrinki, Neosteus Pinto [S. Y.] 1972:2, Figs. 1-2 [Boletim do Museu de História Natural U.F.M.G. (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais), Belo Horizonte, Zoologia No. 14; ref. 7636] Cajueiro Lagoon, Luzilandia, Piaui State, Brazil. Holotype: MHNI 130. Paratypes: DNOCS 09 P (1), MHNI 131 (1). •Synonym of Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1817) -- (Whitehead 1985:283 [ref. 5141]). •Valid as Pellona mayrinki (Pinto 1972) -- (Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Pellona mayrinki (Pinto 1972). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: brackish.

megalopterus, Clupea (Platygaster) Swainson [W.] 1839:294 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Coromandel Coast, India (original locality: Vizagapatham, India). Neotype: MNHN 3708. Based on drawing in Russell 1803:Pl. 191, Jangarloo [ref. 13682]. Neotype designated by Kottelat (2013). •Valid as Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838) -- (Seshagiri Rao 1977:73 [ref. 21670], Kyushin et al. 1982:29 [ref. 19754], Whitehead 1985:270 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:119 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:19 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:63 [ref. 22772], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:120 [ref. 27969], Munroe et al. 1999:1763 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Zhang 2001:112 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:21 [ref. 27712], Ataur Rahman 2003:277 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:50 [ref. 32989], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:13 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:161 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:311 [ref. 36183], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:47 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:89 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:31 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman east to western Indonesia, north to southern China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

melanota, Ilisha Derscheid [J. M.] 1924:278 [Revue de Zoologie Africaine v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 15443] Congo River mouth, West Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1924.7.18.1-3 (3), MNHN 1923-0069 and 0070 (1, 1), MRAC 14774-83 [ex 3395-3404] (10). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:293 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:15 [ref. 9739]. Also appeared as new in Derscheid 1924:[28] [ref. 31472]. •Synonym of Ilisha africana (Bloch 1795) -- (Poll et al. 1984:45 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:263 [ref. 5141], Whitehead 1990:226 [ref. 14039]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha africana (Bloch 1795). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melastoma, Clupea Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:427 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Near Coromandel, Tamil Nadu, India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3842. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:65 [ref. 24282] with locality as Indian Ocean. Declared a nomen oblitum by Whitelead 1967:11. •Synonym of Ilisha indica (Swainson 1839) -- (Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Whitehead 1985:272 [ref. 5141], Paxton et al. 1989:155 [ref. 12442], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:121 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:19 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:213 [ref. 24016], Randall 1995:69 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:120 [ref. 27969] with author as Schneider, Carpenter et al. 1997:116 [ref. 23922], Munroe et al. 1999:1764 [ref. 24728], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:236 [ref. 24754], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Zhang 2001:110 [ref. 26586] with author as Schneider, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710] with author as Schneider, Mishra & Krishnan 2003:21 [ref. 27712] with author as Schneider, Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Kimura 2009:24 [ref. 30426], Yoshida et al. 2013:29 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:161 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:311 [ref. 36183], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:48 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: Pakistan east to western Indonesia and South China Sea, north to Taiwan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

micropus, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:320 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Coromandel coast, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3711. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-3712 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:292 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:23 [ref. 9739]. Lectotype selected by Whitehead 1967:116 [ref. 6464]. •Synonym of Ilisha indica (Swainson 1839) -- (Kottelat 2013:50 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Whitehead 1985:272 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

motius, Clupanodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:251, 383 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Brahmaputra River, India. No types known. Hamilton's figure reproduced in Gray 1834, v. 2, Pl. 91 (figs. 3-4). •Questionably the same as Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838) -- (Whitehead 1985:270 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:120 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:50 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Clupanodon motius Hamilton 1822 -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:253 [ref. 24860]). •Synonym of Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1839) -- (Munroe et al. 1999:1764 [ref. 24728], Ataur Rahman 2003:277 [ref. 31338]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mucronatus, Odontognathus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:220, 221, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Cayenne, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3621 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:294-295 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:21 [ref. 9739]. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:38 (vol. 6) [ref. 30473]. •Valid as Odontognathus mucronatus Lacepède 1800 -- (Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:94 [ref. 14275] as micronatus, Whitehead 1985:298 [ref. 5141], Cervigón 1991:92 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:389 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:582 [ref. 16204], Planquette et al. 1996:82 [ref. 22818], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Munroe 2003:802 [ref. 26996], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Odontognathus mucronatus Lacepède 1800. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

narragansetae, Ilisha Fowler [H. W.] 1911:208, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 63; ref. 1382] Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A. (questionable). Holotype (unique): ANSP 15314. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:63 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1917) -- (Whitehead 1985:283 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1917). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

natalensis, Pellona Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:202 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] South Head Tugela River, South Africa, depth 24 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAM 9934. •Synonym of Pellona ditchela Valenciennes 1847 -- (Poll et al. 1984:48 [ref. 6172], Whitehead 1985:281 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1769 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pellona ditchela Valenciennes 1847. Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

novacula, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:319 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Rangoon, Myanmar. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3704. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:292 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:23 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Ilisha novacula (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:273 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:122 [ref. 20764], Zhang 2001:115 [ref. 26586]. Kottelat 2013:50 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha novacula (Valenciennes 1847). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

obfuscata, Ilisha Wongratana [T.] 1983:397, Fig. 14 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Mumbai, India. Holotype: MNHN B-2879. Paratypes: MNHN 0000-3712 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:15 [ref. 9739]. •Valid as Ilisha obfuscata Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:274 [ref. 5141], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha obfuscata Wongratana 1983. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

orbignyana, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:302 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Buenos Aires, Argentina. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:45 [ref. 9739]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Pellona flavipinnis (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Whitehead 1985:282 [ref. 5141], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:10 [ref. 35117], Vera-Alcaraz & Vuletich 2016:3 [ref. 35084], Koerber et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pellona flavipinnis (Valenciennes 1837). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

panamensis, Pellona Steindachner [F.] 1875:389 [15] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 70 (1. Abth.); ref. 4219] Fish market in Panama. Lectotype: NMW 1887. Paralectotypes: NMW 1890-91 (1, 2). Type information and lectotype designation: Whitehead 1970:24 [ref. 11605]. On p. 15 of separate. •Synonym of Ilisha fuerthii (Steindachner 1875) -- (Whitehead 1985:267 [ref. 5141], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:119 [ref. 24550] as fuerthi). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha fuerthii (Steindachner 1875). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

panamensis, Pristigaster (Odontognathus) Steindachner [F.] 1876:72 [24] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): NMW 4626. Type information: Whitehead 1970:24 [ref. 11605]. On p. 24 of separate. •Valid as Odontognathus panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Whitehead 1985:300 [ref. 5141], Allen & Robertson 1994:61 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:48 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1414 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:120 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:444 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Odontognathus panamensis (Steindachner 1876). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

parva, Clupea (Platygaster) Swainson [W.] 1839:294 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Brahaputra, India. Based on Gray, Ind. Zool. ii. pl. f.3 -- which is Gray 1834 [ref. 1878]. •Questionably a synonym of Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838) -- (Whitehead 1985:270 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Uncertain as Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

phaeton, Pristigaster Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:338 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3700. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:294 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:24-25 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829 -- (Menezes & de Pinna 2000:243 [ref. 24411], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829. Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pristigastroides, Pellona Bleeker [P.] 1852:20 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.12. Original as pristigastroïdes. •Valid as Ilisha pristigastroides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Whitehead 1985:275 [ref. 5141], Kottelat et al. 1993:19 [ref. 23448], Munroe et al. 1999:1765 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha pristigastroides (Bleeker 1852). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ramcarata, Apterygia Gray [J. E.] 1835:no page number, Pl. 92 (fig. 1) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] Sangor Rocks, India. BMNH uncat. Published about 20 Feb. 1835. •Synonym of Raconda russeliana Gray 1831 -- (Whitehead 1985:303 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Raconda russeliana Gray 1831. Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

russeliana, Raconda Gray [J. E.] 1831:9 [Zoological Miscellany 1831; ref. 1879] Sangar Roads, India. Syntypes: BMNH 1979.7.5.18 (1), 1979.7.5.19-20 (2). Species name spelled russelliana by Maxwell 1921:87 [ref. 30344]. •Valid as Raconda russeliana Gray 1831 -- (Whitehead 1985:303 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:125 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:20 [ref. 23448], Munroe et al. 1999:1770 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Raconda russeliana Gray 1831. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

russellii, Pellona Bleeker [P.] 1852:23 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (8); ref. 16826] Jakarta, Semarang, Surabaja, Pasuruan; Kammal, Tandjong, Madurae Island, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.13. Syntypes: (3) RMNH 7493 (1 or more of 4). Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:72 [ref. 16832], earliest not established but 1852:23 is cited in ref. 16832. •Synonym of Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838) -- (Whitehead 1985:270 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1838). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

schlegelii, Pellona Bleeker [P.] 1853:18 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 7); ref. 340] Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.72 (1). Available as Pellona Schlegelii Blkr. = Clupea melastoma T. Schl." referring to Temminck & Schlegel 1846:237, Pl. 108 (fig. 1). Also appeared in Bleeker 1854:418 [ref. 13964]. •Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Whitehead 1985:265 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sinensis, Pristigaster (Pristigaster) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1881:107 [7] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 5; ref. 14289] Swatow, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2948. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:293 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:25 [ref. 9739]. On p. 7 of separate. •Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Whitehead 1985:265 [ref. 5141], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:38 [ref. 23876], Zhang 2001:113 [ref. 26586], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sirishai, Ilisha Seshagiri Rao [B. V.] 1975:464, Figs. 1-2 [Hydrobiologia v. 47 (no. 3-4); ref. 7467] Vizagapatam, India. Holotype: BMNH 1975.9.24.48. Paratypes: BMNH (13), Mus. Dept. Zool. D.N.R. College, Bhimavaram (2). Named after Miss A. V. S. Sirisha, daughter of the author's cousin, therefore mandatory correction to sirishae. •Valid as Ilisha sirishae Seshagiri Rao 1975 (often as sirishai) -- (Whitehead 1985:276 [ref. 5141], Randall 1995:69 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:116 [ref. 23922], Munroe et al. 1999:1766 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:161 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:311 [ref. 36183] as sirishai, Eagderi et al. 2019:31 [ref. 37020] as sirishai). Current status: Valid as Ilisha sirishae Seshagiri Rao 1975. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman east to western Indonesia and Gulf of Thailand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sladeni, Pellona Day [F.] 1870:623 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 3) (art. 3) (for 9 Dec. 1869); ref. 14093] Irrawaddy River at Mandalay, Myanmar. Lectotype: ZSI 2672. Paratypes or Day specimens: BMNH 1870.6.14.36 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762]. Lectotype designated by Talwar & Whitehead 1971:75. Figured by Seshagiri Rao 1976:505 (fig. 3). •Synonym of Ilisha novacula (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:273 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:122 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:51[ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha novacula (Valenciennes 1847). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

staudingeri, Pellona Whitehead [P. J. P.] (ex Steindachner) 1970:26 [Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 11605] Steindachner manuscript name and description provided, but Whitehead did not treat as a valid species so name is not available. Pristigasteridae.

striatula, Ilisha Wongratana [T.] 1983:396, Fig. 13 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8265] Pakistan, 25°11'N, 66°20'E. Holotype: BMNH 1968.8.26.2. Paratypes: BMNH 1898.6.29.184 (1), 1969.11.6.5-6 (2), 1975.3.20.696-699 (4), 1975.3.20.700-709 (10). Other specimens: BMNH (36). •Valid as Ilisha striatula Wongratana 1983 -- (Whitehead 1985:277 [ref. 5141], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:237 [ref. 24754], Munroe et al. 1999:1757 [ref. 24728], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Gates et al. 2006:319 [ref. 29008], Psomadakis et al. 2015:162 [ref. 34104], Eagderi et al. 2019:31 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Ilisha striatula Wongratana 1983. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to India. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taeniatus, Chirocentrodon Günther [A.] 1868:463 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Jamaica, West Indies. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1848.1.8.1569-1572 (4). •Synonym of Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey 1867) -- (Whitehead 1985:286 [ref. 5141], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey 1867). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tardoore, Pristigaster Cuvier [G.] 1829:321 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Puducherry, India Neotype: MNHN 0000-1688. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:294 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:25 [ref. 9739]. Available from footnote as, "Pr. tardoore, N., Russel, 193." Neotype designated by Whitehead 1967:122 [ref. 6464]. •Valid as Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead & Bauchot 1985:25 [ref. 9739], Whitehead 1985:294 [ref. 5141], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:123 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:19 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:213 [ref. 24016], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:121 [ref. 27969], Rainboth 1996:63 [ref. 22772], Randall 1995:69 [ref. 22896], Munroe et al. 1999:1767 [ref. 24728], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:237 [ref. 24754], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Zhang 2001:117 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:7 [ref. 27710], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:162 [ref. 34104], Suresh et al. 2018:90 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:27 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to western Indonesia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tartoor, Pristigaster Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:328 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-1688. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-3698 (2), 0000-3701 (8), 0000-3702 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:294 [ref. 293]. Perhaps can be regarded as a description independent of Pristigaster tardoore Cuvier 1829. MNHN 1688 was designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:1653 [ref. 23416] which made P. tartoor an objective synonym of P. tardoore (Cuvier 1829). •Synonym of Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:294 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1767 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tartur, Opisthopterus Zugmayer [E.] 1913:9 [Abhandlungen der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse, München v. 26 (no. 6); ref. 14994] Not available, as Opisthopterus tartur Day. •In the synonymy of Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829) -- (Whitehead 1985:294 [ref. 5141] as tartus, Munroe et al. 1999:1767 [ref. 24728]). Current status: Synonym of Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829). Pristigasteridae.

ternetzi, Neosteus Norman [J. R.] 1923:593 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 12 (no. 71) (art. 61); ref. 15418] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1923.7.30.31-35 (5). •Synonym of Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1917) -- (Whitehead 1985:283 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1917). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

triangularis, Pristigaster Stark [J.] 1828:408 [Elements of natural history v. 1 (Vertebrata); ref. 4193] Cayenne, French Guiana. Original not seen. •Forgotten name; in the synonymy of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829 -- (Whitehead 1985:301 [ref. 5141], Menezes & de Pinna 2000:243 [ref. 24411], de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829. Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

tropicus, Odontognathus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:94, Fig. 19 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Gulf of Guayaquil, off Puerto Pizarro, Peru. Holotype: USNM 127809. Additional material: USNM 127810 (1), 128345-51 (1, 18, 11, 1, 3, 7, 1). Besides the type, specimens from two localities are referred to the species with doubt and are therefore not considered types. Neoopisthopterus is the correct spelling. •Valid as Neoopisthopterus tropicus (Hildebrand 1946) -- (Whitehead 1985:288 [ref. 5141], Allen & Robertson 1994:61 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:48 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:1413 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:140 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:121 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:66 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:444 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:66 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Neoopisthopterus tropicus (Hildebrand 1946). Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, western Mexico to northern Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

valenciennesi, Opisthopterus Bleeker [P.] 1872:124 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 428] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Singapore. Lectotype: BMNH 1865.9.24.1. Paraectotypes: RMNH 7124 (5). Based on Opisthopterus tartoor of Bleeker 1872:124 [ref. 428], not of Valenciennes. Lectotupe designated by Whitehead et al. 1966:106. •Valid as Opisthopterus valenciennesi Bleeker 1872 -- (Whitehead 1985:296 [ref. 5141], Kottelat et al. 1993:19 [ref. 23448], Munroe et al. 1999:1768 [ref. 24728], Munroe & Nizinski in Randall & Lim 2000:588 [ref. 25122], Zhang 2001:118 [ref. 26586] as valenciennes, Kottelat 2013:51 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Opisthopterus valenciennesi Bleeker 1872. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vanderbilti, Pristigaster Borodin [N. A.] 1928:6, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Oceanographic Museum v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 526] Limon Bay, Panama (Atlantic). Holotype (unique): VMM 12 (now at AMNH). •Synonym of Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1917) -- (Whitehead 1985:283 [ref. 5141]). Current status: Synonym of Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1917). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

verticalis, Platygaster Swainson [W.] 1838:278 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on "Ditchoee" of Russell 1803, Pl. 192 (fig. 1) [ref. 13862]. Declared a nomen oblitum by Whitehead 1967:11. •In the synonym of Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Whitehead 1985:272 [ref. 5141], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vimbella, Pellona Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:317 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 20; ref. 1012] Macao, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5148. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:292 [ref. 293], Whitehead & Bauchot 1986:23 [ref. 9739]. •Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Whitehead 1985:265 [ref. 5141], Zhang 2001:113 [ref. 26586], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

whiteheadi, Ilisha Seshagiri Rao [B. V.] 1974:861, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 1974 (no. 4); ref. 7538] Kakinada, Bay of Bengal. Holotype: BMNH 1975.9.24.36. •Synonym of Ilisha kampeni (Weber & de Beaufort 1913) -- (Whitehead 1985:268 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1760 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:50 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha kampeni (Weber & de Beaufort 1913). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

whiteheadi, Pristigaster Menezes [N. A.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2000:239, Figs. 1, 2B [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 113 (no. 1); ref. 24411] Ferreria Gomes, Rio Araguari, Amapá, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 52963. Paratypes: AMNH 227329 (1); BMNH 1897.12.1.197-199 (3); FMNH 101946 (1), 107783 (1); INPA 8555 (21); MZUSP 5493 (1), 6220 (1), 6600 (1), 7625 (1), 11391 (8), 11392-93 (2), 11394-403 (10), 11404 (1), 18512 (1), 18516 (1), 18694 (3), 27597 (1), 30341 (2), 49597 (3), 52948-56 (5, 21, 2, 1, 2, 1, 7, 1, 8), 52957-60 (1, 1, 1, 1), 52962 (1); USNM 351306 (1). •Valid as Pristigaster whiteheadi Menezes & de Pinna 2000 -- (de Pinna & Di Dario in Reis et al. 2003:44 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:40 [ref. 27192], Barriga S. 2014:104 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Pristigaster whiteheadi Menezes & de Pinna 2000. Pristigasteridae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

xanthopterus, Pellona Bleeker [P.] 1851:439 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16897] Sambas, western Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.14. •Synonym of Ilisha filigera (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:266 [ref. 5141], Munroe et al. 1999:1759 [ref. 24728], Kottelat 2013:49 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ilisha filigera (Valenciennes 1847). Pristigasteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.