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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Rajidae: [ 311 ] records


abredonensis, Hieroptera Fleming [J.] 1841:238, Pl. 4 [The Edinburgh new philosophical journal; exhibiting a view of the progressive discoveries and improvements in the sciences and the arts. v. 31 (no. 62); ref. 1340] Aberdeen Bay, Scotland. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Apparently based on an abnomal specimen of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Malacoraja clavata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ackleyi, Raja Garman [S.] 1881:234 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 8 (no. 11); ref. 14294] Yucatán Banks, Mexico. Holotype (unique): MCZ 748-S. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlvi [ref. 23119]. •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:559 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807]). •Valid as Raja ackleyi Garman 1881 -- (Stehmann 1971:11 [ref. 7474], Robins & Ray 1986:37 [ref. 23100], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:35 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:165 [ref. 23897], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:118 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:116 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Rostroraja ackleyi (Garman 1881) -- (Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941] with question, Last et al. 2016:351 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Rostroraja ackleyi (Garman 1881). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southern Florida (U.S.A.) to Cuba, including southeastern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

acrobelus, Dipturus Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Pogonoski [J. J.] 2008:10, Figs. 1-6 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29647] East of Patricks Head, Tasmania, 42°33'S, 148°42'E, depth 905-990 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 226-01. Paratypes: 24 at AMS, CSIRO, NMV. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Dipturus acrobelus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008 -- (Last & White 2008:109 [ref. 30618], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:241 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus acrobelus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Southern Australia: New South Wales to Western Australia, including Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

acus, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:662, 665 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Coast of France or England, northeastern Atlantic. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:30 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Raja oxyrinchus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:63 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

acutidens, Raia Owen [R.] 1853:106 [Descriptive catalogue of the osteological series; ref. 4988] South Australia. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

acutispina, Raja (Okamejei) Ishiyama [R.] 1958:358 [166], Pl. 2 N; Fig. 74 [Journal of the Shimonoseki College of Fisheries v. 7 (nos 2-3); ref. 2308] Sea of Japan, off Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (67 specimens, 6 egg capsules) MCZ 40288 (1), 40306 (1), 40323-24 (1, 1), 40330 (1). •Valid as Raja acutispina Ishiyama 1958 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:65, 307 [ref. 8057], Ishihara 1987:279 [ref. 6264], Compagno et al. 1999:1407 [ref. 24636], Last & Compagno 1999:1454 [ref. 24639], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Okamejei acutispina (Ishiyama 1958) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Jeong 1999:203 [ref. 25171], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:174 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:174 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:66, 483 [ref. 26218], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Yamashita et al. 2012:130 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:354 [ref. 33045], Hara et al. 2016:5 [ref. 36169], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:302 [ref. 35000], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei acutispina (Ishiyama 1958). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: southern China and Taiwan to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

africana, Breviraja Stehmann [M. F. W.] & Séret [B.] 1983:904, Figs. 1-10 [Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Série 4: Section A: Zoologie, Biologie et Écologie Animales v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 8276] Off Gabon, western Africa, Nizery station 35, 3°25'S, 9°33'E, southeastern Atlantic, depth 900-1030 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1983-0001. Paratypes: ZMH 24942 [ex ISH 129-1980] (1); MNHN 1983-0002 (1). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:13 [ref. 9312], Krefft 1987:72 [ref. 20751], Thiel et al. 2009:17 [ref. 30918].. •Valid as Breviraja africana Stehmann & Séret 1983 -- (McEachran & Stehmann 1984:733 [ref. 5224], Stehmann 1990:30 [ref. 19316]). •Valid as Neoraja africana (Stehmann & Séret 1983) -- (McEachran & Miyake 1987:416 [ref. 5973], Stehmann 1995:32 [ref. 22055], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:558 [ref. 26985], Stehmann et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29638], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1391 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:297 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Neoraja africana (Stehmann & Séret 1983). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Western Sahara (?); Gabon. Habitat: marine.

africana, Raja Capapé [C.] 1977:69, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin de la Société des sciences naturelles de Tunisie. v. 12; ref. 19485] Between Cap Blanc and Cap Vert off Mauritania, depth 200 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1977-0206. Paratypes: (4) whereabouts unknown. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Raja africana Bloch & Schneider 1801 (now in a different family). •Currently treated as valid as Raja africana Capapé 1977 -- (Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:183 [ref. 13675], Stehmann 1990:37 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:112 [ref. 22055], McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Psomadakis et al. 2012:15 [ref. 33457], Weigmann 2016:116 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1345 [ref. 34545], McEachran & Séret 2016:1386 [ref. 34551], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:317 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja africana Capapé 1977. Rajidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Mauritania and Tunisia. Habitat: marine.

alba, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:661, 663, Pl. 20 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] France, La Manche/English Channel, northeastern Atlantic. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:30 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Raja alba Lacepède 1803 -- (Stehmann 1973:66 [ref. 7168], Stehmann 1976:158 [ref. 7085], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:193 [ref. 13675], Hulley 1986:119 [ref. 5672], Stehmann 1990:47 [ref. 19316], Compagno et al. 1991:107 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:92 [ref. 25472], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:92 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:104 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Rostroraja alba (Lacepède 1803) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:24 [ref. 26753], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:81 [ref. 28072], Nair 2006:115 [ref. 29900], Fricke et al. 2007:19 [ref. 29533], Compagno & Ebert 2007:141 [ref. 30471], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:14 [ref. 36649], Weigmann 2016:123 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1403 [ref. 34551], Gordon et al. 2016:271 [ref. 34661], Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:352 [ref. 35000], Fricke et al. 2018:25 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Rostroraja alba (Lacepède 1803). Rajidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to South Africa; western Indian Ocean: South Africa, Madagascar and Seychelles north to India. Habitat: marine.

alba, Raja baracola Chiereghini [A. P.] in Nardo 1847:col. 111 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, appeared in synonymy of Dasybatis asterias of Bonaparte (= Raja asterias Delaroche 1809). Also unavailable in Ninni 1872:24 [ref. 17995] in which Chiereghini manuscript is quoted but name not treated as valid by Ninni. •In the synonymy of Raja asterias Delaroche 1809. Current status: Synonym of Raja asterias Delaroche 1809. Rajidae.

albalinea, Raia von Bonde [C.] & Swart [D. B.] 1923:6, Pl. 20 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 5); ref. 522] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle stations 336 and 519, depth 280-600 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1935.7.14.4 (1). •Synonym of Raja caudaspinosa von Bonde & Swart 1923 -- (Hulley 1986:120 [ref. 5672]). •Synonym of Rajella caudospinosa (von Bonde & Swart 1923). Current status: Synonym of Rajella caudaspinosa (von Bonde & Swart 1923). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

alia, Raja Garman [S.] 1899:25 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Northern Gulf of Mexico. No types known. Based on Goode & Bean 1896, Pl. VII, fig. 23. •Questionably valid as Rajella alia (Garman 1899) -- (Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652]). •Uncertain as Raja alia Garman 1899 -- (Weigmann 2016:117 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Synonym of Rostroraja ackleyi (Garman 1881) -- (Last et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34941] with question). Current status: Synonym of Rostroraja ackleyi (Garman 1881). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

americana, Raia DeKay [J. E.] 1842:368, Pl. 66 (fig. 215) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Staten Island, New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Amblyraja radiata (Donovan 1808) -- (Dyldin 2015:69 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Amblyraja radiata (Donovan 1808). Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

amphispinus, Dipturus Last [P. R.] & Alava [M.] 2013:215, Figs. 1-10 [Zootaxa 3752 (no. 1); ref. 33041] Dipolog City public market, Dipolog City, Zanboanga del Norte, Philippines. Holotype: PNM 15178. Paratypes: CSIRO H 7416 (01); SUML MMLM 014, 018 (1), 018 (1) SUMM MMLM 012 (1), SUMM BRU 147 (1), Plus one non-type specimen. •Valid as Dipturus amphispinus Last & Alava 2013 -- (Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:242 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus amphispinus Last & Alava 2013. Rajidae. Distribution: Philippines Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

annandalei, Raja Weber [M.] 1913:598 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Halmahera Sea, Siboga station 145, depth 827 meters. Lectotype: ZMA 113492. Paralectotypes: ZMA 112641 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:7 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Stehmann 1976:158 [ref. 7085]. •Valid as Raja annandalei Weber 1913 -- (Stehmann 1976:158 [ref. 7085], Last & Compagno 1999:1456 [ref. 24639]). •Valid as Rajella annandalei (Weber 1913) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Weigmann 2016:121 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:333 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rajella annandalei (Weber 1913). Rajidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

apricus, Dipturus Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Pogonoski [J. J.] 2008:19, Figs. 8-13 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29647] South of Saumarez Reef, Queensland, Australia, 22°35'S, 153°40E, depth 314-319 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 601-01. Paratypes: 23 at AMS, CSIRO, NMV, QM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Dipturus apricus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:243 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus apricus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Off Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

apteronota, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:671, 676, Pl. 14 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:31 [ref. 9312]. Also appeared in Sonnini 1802:76, 298 [ref. 30461] with author as Lacepède. •Unidentifiable -- (Séret & McEachran 1986:31 [ref. 9312]). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

arafurensis, Okamejei Last [P. R.] & Gledhill [D. C.] 2008:120, Figs. 1-6 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29651] Arafura Sea, off Northern Territory, Australia, 9°04'S, 133°04'E, depth 179-205 meters. Holotype: NTM S 13580-010. Paratypes: CSIRO H 6638-01 (1); NTM S 12567-008 (1), S 12641-027 (1), S 13417-012 (2), S 13579-010 (2), S 13580-011 (1). •Valid as Okamejei arafurensis Last & Gledhill 2008 -- (Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Larson et al. 2013:18 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:303 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei arafurensis Last & Gledhill 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Northwestern Australia: Northern Territory to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

arctowskii, Raja Dollo [L.] 1904:52, Pl. 9 (fig. 10) [Résultats du voyage du S. Y. Belgica; ref. 1135] Antarctic, 3 stations, depth 400-569 meters. Syntypes: IRSNB 25-27 [orig. 3005-3007] (1 ea., egg cases). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:5 [ref. 20755]. Named from egg cases only. •Mention -- (Miller 1993:477 [ref. 21297]). •Valid as Raja arctowskii Dollo 1904 -- (Weigmann 2016:117 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34941]). Current status: Valid as Raja arctowskii Dollo 1904. Rajidae. Distribution: Antarctic. Habitat: marine.

argentinensis, Dipturus Díaz de Astarloa [J. M.], Mabragaña [E.], Hanner [R.] & Figueroa [D. E.] 2008:37, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 1921; ref. 29969] Off central Patagonia, continental shelf, 45°38'S, 64°08'W, depth 98 meters. Holotype: INIDEP 793. Paratypes: INIDEP 794-800, 802-803 (total 7). •Valid as Zearaja argentinensis (Díaz de Astarloa, Mabragaña, Hanner & Figueroa 2008) -- (Weigmann 2016:123 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:360 [ref. 35000]). •Valid as Dipturus argentinensis Díaz de Astarloa, Mabragaña, Hanner & Figueroa 2008 -- (Mabragaña et al. 2011:7 and table S2 [ref. 31800], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Concha et al. 2019:507 [ref. 36686]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus argentinensis Díaz de Astarloa, Mabragaña, Hanner & Figueroa 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Argentina. Habitat: marine.

armatus, Dactylobatus Bean [B. A.] & Weed [A. C.] 1909:459, Pl. 38; Fig. [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 36 (no. 1682); ref. 220] Off Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A., Albatross. Syntypes: USNM 62914 (1) station 2624 (32°36'N, 77°29'15''W, 258 fathoms [472 meters]), 62915 (1) station 2666 or 2667 (about 31°N, 80°W, 270 fathoms [494 meters]). •Valid as Dactylobatus armatus Bean & Weed 1909 -- (Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:30 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:152 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:550 [ref. 26985], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:112 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:106 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:229 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Dactylobatus armatus Bean & Weed 1909. Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

arnak, Raja Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:ix [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Luhaiya, Yemen, Red Sea. No types known. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

aspera, Raia Risso [A.] 1810:5 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Surviving syntype: MNHN B-0843 (1 dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1945:375 [ref. 21554], Séret & McEachran 1987:13 [ref. 9312] with holotype. •Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:59 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Malacoraja clavata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

asperrima, Raja Nardo [G. D.] 1827:25, 35 (no. 11) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Venice, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 476 and 483 [ref. 19740]. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

asterias, Raja Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:322 [37], Pl. 20 (fig. 1) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] Barcelona, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1610. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:83 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:13 [ref. 9312]. On p. 37 and Pl. 1 of separate. •Valid as Raja asterias Delaroche 1809 -- (Stehmann 1973:58 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:184 [ref. 13675], Stehmann 1990:37 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:113 [ref. 22055], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:22 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:18 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:13 [ref. 36649], Weigmann 2016:117 [ref. 34211], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:318 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja asterias Delaroche 1809. Rajidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: adjacent coast of Portugal. Habitat: marine.

atra, Raja Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:134, [Pl. 46] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Sicilien [Sicily, Italy]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1588 (1), ZMB 4603 [not 4063] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:83 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:14 [ref. 9312], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:173 [ref. 21041]. Stehmann 1982:29 [ref. 21485] reidentified MNHN as a different species (a subjective decision) and said the ZMB specimen was therefore the holotype; that is contrary to the code; once a type of a species always a type of that species, so there are 2 syntypes; Stehmann did not select a lectotype, but that would have been appropriate. •Valid as Raja atra Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Stehmann 1973:67 [ref. 7168], Capapé & Desoutter 1979:72 [ref. 20630]). •Synonym of Raja radula Delaroche 1809 -- (Stehmann 1982:29 [ref. 21485], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:190 [ref. 13675] [largest type]). •Synonym of Raja undulata Lacepède 1802 -- (Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:196 [ref. 13675] [smallest type]). Current status: Synonym of Raja undulata Lacepède 1802. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

atriventralis, Raja Fowler [H. W.] 1934:241, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Japan (questionable). Holotype: USNM 75876. •Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Weigmann 2016:115 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Raia Macleay [W.] 1884:461 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 14398] Off Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: (4, apparently lost). •Valid as Raja australis Macleay 1884 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:56 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:346 [ref. 23873], Compagno et al. 1999:1407 [ref. 24636], Last & Compagno 1999:1454 [ref. 24639]). •Valid as Okamejei australis (Macleay 1884) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Dipturus australis (Macleay 1884) -- (Last & Yearsley 2002:1640 [ref. 26568], Hoese et al. 2006:181 [ref. 29001], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Last 2008:53 [ref. 29648], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Dentiraja australis (Macleay 1884) -- (Last et al. 2016:16, 20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:231 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dentiraja australis (Macleay 1884). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

badia, Raja Garman [S.] 1899:22, Pl. 6 (figs. 1-2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Gulf of Panama, 7°05'30"N, 79°40'W, Albatross station 3392, depth 1270 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 1008-S. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlvi [ref. 23119]. Two eggs (MCZ 3357 and 3359) questionably referred and are therefore not types. •Valid as Raja badia Garman 1899 -- (Zorzi & Anderson 1988:89 [ref. 11866], McAllister 1990:35 [ref. 14674], McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:776 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:35 [ref. 22793]). •Valid as Amblyraja badia (Garman 1899) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:171 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:171 [ref. 26001], Dyldin 2015:68 [ref. 34524], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:111 [ref. 34398], Ebert et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). •Synonym of Amblyraja hyperborea (Collett 1879) -- (Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941]). Current status: Synonym of Amblyraja hyperborea (Collett 1879). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

bahamensis, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1965:447, Pls. 1-2 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 132 (no. 5); ref. 9200] About 5 miles off northwestern part of Little Bahama Bank, 27°23'N, 78°26'W, depth 212-225 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198034. Paratypes: MCZ 41957-59 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Raja bahamensis Bigelow & Schroeder 1965 -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:560 [ref. 26985], Weigmann 2016:118 [ref. 34211]). •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Rostroraja bahamensis (Bigelow & Schroeder 1965) -- (Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941] with question, Last et al. 2016:353 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rostroraja bahamensis (Bigelow & Schroeder 1965). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bahamas and southern Florida (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

barnardi, Raja Norman [J. R.] 1935:(39) 43, Fig. 14 [Discovery Reports v. 12; ref. 13911] Off Cape Town, South Africa, 34°S, l7°58'E, southeastern Atlantic, depth 210-173 meters. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1935.5.2.65. •Synonym of Raja leopardus von Bonde & Swart 1923 -- (Hulley 1986:122 [ref. 5672], Stehmann 1990:46, 49 [ref. 19316]). •Valid as Raja barnardi Norman 1935 -- (Stehmann 1995:51 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Rajella barnardi (Norman 1935) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:135 [ref. 30471], Weigmann 2016:121 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1394 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:334 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rajella barnardi (Norman 1935). Rajidae. Distribution: Canary Islands, Mauritania to South Africa. Habitat: marine.

bathyphila, Raja Holt [E. W. L.] & Byrne [L. W.] 1908:51 [Fisheries, Ireland, Scientific Investigations No. 5 (for 1906); ref. 6487] Northwest of Hebrides, 51°l2'30"N, 12°l8'W to 51°17'30"N, 21°16'W, Irish Atlantic Slope, depth 893-673 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1912.3.1.108. •Valid as Raja bathyphila Holt & Byrne 1908 -- (Stehmann 1978:36 [ref. 8874], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:190 [ref. 13675], Scott & Scott 1988:41 [ref. 25518], Stehmann 1990:44 [ref. 19316], Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1995:54 [ref. 22531], Stehmann 1995:68 [ref. 22055], Arruda 1997:23 [ref. 24952]). •Valid as Rajella bathyphila (Holt & Byrne 1908) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764] as bathyphilia, Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Møller et al. 2010:17 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:115 [ref. 31212], Afonso et al. 2016:12, 260 [ref. 36199], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:335 [ref. 35000], McEachran & Séret 2016:1386 [ref. 34551], Séret 2016:1345 [ref. 34545], Weigmann 2016:121 [ref. 34211], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:47 [ref. 36370], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:153 [ref. 36791]). Current status: Valid as Rajella bathyphila (Holt & Byrne 1908). Rajidae. Distribution: Western and eastern North Atlantic to southern margins of the Arctic region; Azores. Habitat: marine.

batis, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:231 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European seas [original: "in Oceano Europæo"]; localities include England, northeastern Atlantic; Lesbos Island, Greece, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed. Originally based on multiple species and at least 22 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:73 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:102 [ref. 30349] as Raja varia, dorso medio glabro; Rondelet 1554:346 [ref. 30354] and Gesner 1558:932 [ref. 30350] as Raia vndulata siue cinerea, Jonston 1649:Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [ref. 30579] as Raia, Charleton 1668:130 [ref. 30580] as Raia undulata. Spelled batys in Risso 1810:3 [ref. 3755]. See Iglésias et al. 2010 [ref. 30586]. •Valid as Raja batis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:62 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:175 [ref. 13675], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Stehmann 1990:31 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:105 [ref. 22055], Santos et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:22 [ref. 24952]). •Valid as Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:21 [ref. 26753], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:18 [ref. 29533], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:13 [ref. 36649], Naylor et al. 2012:94 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Parin et al. 2014:35 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:69 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Bañón et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34397], McEachran & Séret 2016:1396 [ref. 34551], Gordon et al. 2016:260 [ref. 34661], Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941] used herein as D. cf. flossada, Last et al. 2016:244 [ref. 35000]). •See Iglésias et al. 2010:333 [ref. 30586] for possible splitting of the species. Current status: Valid as Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Distribution: Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Senegal. Habitat: marine.

bavosa, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1798:72 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Not available, name only. Rajidae.

bicolor, Raia Risso [A.] 1827:155 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:31 [ref. 9312]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Raja bicolor Shaw 1804. •Synonym of Raja alba Lacepède 1803 -- (Stehmann 1973:66 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:193 [ref. 13675]). •Synonym of Rostroraja alba (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Rostroraja alba (Lacepède 1803). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

bigelowi, Raja (Rajella) Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1978:26, Figs. 1-3 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 29 (nos 1/2); ref. 8874] Northwestern Atlantic, 37°05'N, 74°20.6'W, Columbus Iselin station 91, depth 1719 meters. Holotype: USNM 218284. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.7.24.4 [ex GMNHZ 1977-170-11] (1); ZMH 25252 [ex ISH 969-1973] (1), 25253 [ex 970-1973a-b] (2), 25251 [ex 148-1974] (1); MOM uncat. (1, not found); USNM 35584 (1), 35591 (1), 38210 (1), 148269 (1), 148276 (1), 218273 (2), 218285 (1). Type catalog: Krefft 1987:74 [ref. 20751], Thiel et al. 2009:23 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Raja bigelowi Stehmann 1978 -- (Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:191 [ref. 13675], McAllister 1990:37 [ref. 14674], Stehmann 1990:44 [ref. 19316], Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1995:55 [ref. 22531], Stehmann 1995:74 [ref. 22055], Santos et al. 1997:15 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:23 [ref. 24952]). •Valid as Rajella bigelowi (Stehmann 1978) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:169 [ref. 23897], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Moore et al. 2003:171 [ref. 27076], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Møller et al. 2010:17 [ref. 31169], Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211], Bañón et al. 2016:302 [ref. 34397], Séret 2016:1345 [ref. 34545], McEachran & Séret 2016:1386 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:336 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rajella bigelowi (Stehmann 1978). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern and western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

binoculata, Raja Girard [C. F.] 1855:196 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7 (no. 6); ref. 18001] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Dipturus binoculata (Girard 1855) -- (Musick et al. 2000:9 [ref. 24959]). •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja binoculata Girard 1855 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:51 [ref. 9277], Ishihara 1987:278 [ref. 6264], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], McAllister 1990:37 [ref. 14674], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1993:76 [ref. 21807], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:36 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Dolganov 1999:429 [ref. 24873], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:96 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:82 [ref. 35888]). •Valid as Beringraja binoculata (Girard 1855) -- (Ishihara et al. 2012 [ref. 31844], Dyldin 2015:69 [ref. 34524], Pietsch & Orr 2015:17 [ref. 34694], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:112 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:105 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:218 [ref. 35000], Ebert et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Beringraja binoculata (Girard 1855). Rajidae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

biocularis, Raya Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 27 (fig. 2) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Egypt. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:31 [ref. 9312]. Original as bi-ocularis; genus should have been Raja. •Questionably a synonym of Raja miraletus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Séret & McEachran 1986:31 [ref. 9312]). Current status: Uncertain as Raja miraletus Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bispecularis, Raia Bennett [E. T.] 1831:148 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 5778] Atlantic coast of North Africa. Holotype: BMNH [ex ZSL] (lost). •Status uncertain -- (Stehmann 1990:49 [ref. 19316]). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

blanda, Raia Holt [E. W. L.] 1894:181 [Journal of the Marine Biological Association (Ser. 2) v. 3; ref. 14554] North Sea. Also in Holt & Calderwood 1895:395-402, Pl. 44 (not researched). •Synonym of Raja brachyura Lafont 1873 -- (Stehmann 1973:59 [ref. 7168]). Current status: Synonym of Raja brachyura Lafont 1873. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

boesemani, Raja (Okamejei) Ishihara [H.] 1987:248, Fig. 6 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 6264] East China Sea, 32°15'N, 125°05'E. Holotype: MTUF-P 25916. Paratypes: (28) CAS (apparently 16 or 19, poorly documented, ex HK and NA stations, whereabouts unknown); HUMZ 15855 (1), 33375 (1), 37603 (1), 37613 (1), 37633 (1), 37678 (1); MTUF 24644 (1), 24648 (5, ? now 1), 25988 (1). •Valid as Raja boesemani Ishihara 1987 -- (Last & Compagno 1999:1456 [ref. 24639], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Okamejei boesemani (Ishihara 1987) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Jeong 1999:203 [ref. 25171], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:174 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:174 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:66, 483 [ref. 26218], Compagno et al. 2005:67 [ref. 29145], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Yamashita et al. 2012:131 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:351 [ref. 33045], Weigmann et al. 2015:28 [ref. 33795], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:304 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei boesemani (Ishihara 1987). Rajidae. Distribution: Northwestern and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

bonaespeiensis, Raja Fowler [H. W.] 1910:468 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 62; ref. 1379] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1333 (1); RMNH D2492 (1 stuffed), D2493 (1, stuffed), D2507 (1, stuffed). Originally as bonae-speiensis. Replacement name for Raja capensis Müller and Henle 1841, preoccupied by Raja capensis Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Raja (Raja) cf. clavata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Compagno et al. 1991:98 [ref. 21083]). •Mention -- (Compagno & Ebert 2007:141 [ref. 30471] as bonaespaensis). Current status: Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

borea, Raja Garman [S.] 1899:24 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off coasts of northern Europe to north of the Faröes and Iceland, depth 400-608 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1887.12.9.1-4 (4). Based on Raia hyperborea of Günther 1880:8, Pl. 4 [ref. 2011]. •Synonym of Raja hyperborea Collett 1879 -- (Stehmann 1973:62 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Amblyraja hyperborea (Collett 1879) -- (Dyldin 2015:68 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Amblyraja hyperborea (Collett 1879). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

brachyura, Raia Lafont [A.] 1873:503, Pl. 25 [Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux v. 28 (v. 8 in Ser. 3) (for 1871-1873); ref. 17484] Gironde estuary, France, Northeastern Atlantic. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:31 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Raja brachyura Lafont 1873 -- (Stehmann 1973:59 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:184 [ref. 13675], Stehmann 1990:38 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:112 [ref. 22055], Santos et al. 1997:14 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:22 [ref. 24952], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:173 [ref. 26753], George 2009:57 [ref. 30539], Weigmann 2016:118 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1398 [ref. 34551], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Gordon et al. 2016:263 [ref. 34661], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:319 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja brachyura Lafont 1873. Rajidae. Distribution: Western Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: southern Norway south to Morocco, including southern North Sea, Madeira. Habitat: marine.

bramante, Laeviraja Sassi [A.] 1846:132 [Descrizione di Genova del Genovesato; ref. 18659] Genoa, Italy, Gulf of Genoa, Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MSNG 42624 (mounted). Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:181 [ref. 10343]. Also appeared with description in Sassi 1846:387 [ref. 22007]. •Synonym of Raja alba Lacepède 1803 -- (Stehmann 1973:66 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Rostroraja alba (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Rostroraja alba (Lacepède 1803). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

brevicaudata, Raia Marini [T. L.] 1933:329 [4] [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 11 (no. 39); ref. 16500] Argentina. Holotype (unique): MACN ICT-569. Type catalog: Gabbanelli et al. 2018:455 [ref. 36350]. On p. 4 of separate. •Synonym of Raja chilensis Guichenot 1848 -- (Lloris & Rucabado 1991:44 [ref. 22530]). •Synonym of Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot 1848) -- (Vargas-Caro et al. 2015:325 [ref. 33982]). •Valid as Zearaja brevicaudata (Marini 1933) -- (Gabbanelli et al. 2018:464 [ref. 36350]). •Valid as Dipturus brevicaudatus (Marini 1933) -- (Concha et al. 2019:507 [ref. 36686]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus brevicaudatus (Marini 1933). Rajidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: southern Brazil south to Beagle Channel, Argentina and Chile, Habitat: marine.

bullisi, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1962:168, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 128 (no. 4); ref. 5793] About 30 miles southwest of Dry Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., 24°18'N, 83°18'W, Silver Bay station 1199, depth 200 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 196442. Paratypes: MCZ 40673 (1), plus 16 other specimens. •Valid as Raja bullisi Bigelow & Schroeder 1962 -- (Uyeno & Miyake in Uyeno et al. 1983:74 [ref. 14275], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Cervigón 1992:205 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:36 [ref. 22793], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:167 [ref. 24490]). •Valid as Dipturus bullisi (Bigelow & Schroeder 1961) -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:154 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:551 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:113 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:245 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus bullisi (Bigelow & Schroeder 1962). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

caerulea, Breviraja Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1976:99, Figs. 1-11 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 27 (no. 2); ref. 7394] Rockall basin, west of British Isles, 57°00'N, 15°50'W, Walther Herwig station 284/74, northeastern Atlantic, depth 987-1007 meters. Holotype: ISH 24950 [ex ISH 90-1974a]. Paratypes: ZMH 24944 [ex ISH 48-1974] (1), 24945 [ex 58-1974] (1), 24946 [ex 71-1974] (1), 24947 [ex 71-1974a-c] (3), 24948 [ex 77-1974] (1), 24949 [ex 83-1974] (1), 24951 [ex 90-1974b] (1), 24952 [ex 92-1974], 24943 [ex 153-1975] (1). Type catalog: Krefft 1978:5 [ref. 9884], Thiel et al. 2009:18-19 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Breviraja caerulea Stehmann 1976 -- (McEachran & Compagno 1982:404 [ref. 2952], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:168 [ref. 13675]). •Valid as Neoraja caerulea (Stehmann 1976) -- (McEachran & Stehmann 1984:733 [ref. 5224], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Stehmann et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29638], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:298 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Neoraja caerulea (Stehmann 1976). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cairae, Okamejei Last [P. R.], Fahmi [no initials] & Ishihara [H.] 2010:90, Figs. 1-5, 7a, 8a-b [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 032; ref. 30852] Flamboyan Market, Pontiak (West Kalimantan), Borneo, Indonesia, 0°02'S, 109°20'E. Holotype: MZB 17176. Paratypes (13): at CSIRO, HUMZ, MZB. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Okamejei cairae Last, Fahmi & Ishihara 2010 -- (Last & Lim 2010:101 [ref. 30853], Last el al. 2010:162 [ref. 32461], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:305 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei cairae Last, Fahmi & Ishihara 2010. Rajidae. Distribution: South China Sea off Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

campbelli, Raja Wallace [J. H.] 1967:24, Fig. 12 [Investigational Report. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban No. 17; ref. 7929] 24 miles east of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 175 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 992 [ex ORI B804]. Paratypes: ?SAIAB [formerly RUSI] [ex ORI B859] (1). Additional material: ORI uncat. (5). •Synonym of Raja pullopuntata Smith 1964 -- (Hulley 1986:123 [ref. 5672]). •Valid as Raja campbelli Wallace 1967 -- (Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:vii [ref. 21953]). •Valid as Dipturus campbelli (Wallace 1967) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:81 [ref. 28072], Compagno & Ebert 2007:137 [ref. 30471], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:246 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus campbelli (Wallace 1967). Rajidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal and southern Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

canutus, Dipturus Last [P. R.] 2008:54, Figs. 1-6 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29648] East of Maria Island, Tasmania, Australia, 42°40'S, 148°25'E, depth 448-460 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 153-01. Paratypes: 21 specimens at CSIRO, NMV, SAMA. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Dipturus canutus Last 2008 -- (Last & White 2008:109 [ref. 30618], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:247 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus canutus Last 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Southern Australia: New South Wales to Western Australia, including Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Raja Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:151 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: (4) MNHN 0000-1333 (1); RMNH D2492 (1, dry), D2493 (1, dry), D2507 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:84 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:14 [ref. 9312]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Raja capensis Gmelin 1789, replaced by Raja bonaespeiensis Fowler 1910. •Valid as Raja capensis Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1981:32 [ref. 20635]). •Synonym of Raja cf. clavata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Compagno et al. 1991:98 [ref. 21083]). •Mention -- (Compagno & Ebert 2007:141 [ref. 30471]). •Synonym of Malacoraja clavata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). •Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:59 [ref. 7168], Hulley 1986:120 [ref. 5672]). Current status: Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caribbaea, Raja garmani McEachran [J. D.] 1977:434 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 7268] Off Quintana Roo, 21°13'N, 86°27'W, Mexico, depth 457 meters. Holotype: UF 231707 [ex UMML 31707]. Paratypes: MCZ 42424 (1); USNM 222386 (1). •Synonym of Raja garmani Whitley 1939, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:147 [ref. 27754], Weigmann 2016:112 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Leucoraja caribbaea (McEachran 1977) -- (Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:116 [ref. 34398]). •Synonym of Leucoraja yucatanensis (Bigelow & Schroeder 1950) -- (personal communication Ross Robertson email 6/26/2016). •Synonym of Leucoraja garmani (Whitley 1939), but a valid subspecies caribbaea (McEachran 1977) -- (Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941]). Current status: Synonym of Leucoraja garmani (Whitley 1939). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

carolinensis, Neoraja McEachran [J. D.] & Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1984:725, Figs. 1-6 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 97 (no. 4); ref. 5224] Off Cape Fear, North Carolina, U.S.A., western Atlantic, 33°38'N, 76°04'W, FRV Anton Dohrn station 6410/79, U.S.A., depth 796-800 meters. Holotype: ZMH 25169 [ex ISH 3650-1979]. Paratypes: ZMH 25167 [exISH 3559-1979] (1), 25168 [ex 3640-1979] (2); USNM 265013-14 (1, 1). Type catalog: Krefft 1987:73 [ref. 20751], Thiel et al. 2009:20 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Neoraja carolinensis McEachran & Stehmann 1984 -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Stehmann et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29638], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:299 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Neoraja carolinensis McEachran & Stehmann 1984. Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina to Florida (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

caudaspinosa, Raia von Bonde [C.] & Swart [D. B.] 1923:8, Pl. 21 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 5); ref. 522] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 336, depth 280 fathoms. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Raja caudaspinosa von Bonde & Swart 1923 -- (Hulley 1986:120 [ref. 5672], Compagno et al. 1991:103 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:92 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:109 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Rajella caudaspinosa (von Bonde & Swart 1923) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:135 [ref. 30471], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Weigmann et al. 2014:384 [ref. 33443], Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:337 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rajella caudaspinosa (von Bonde & Swart 1923). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean: Namibia to South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal. Habitat: marine.

cerva, Raja Whitley [G. P.] 1939:249, Pl. 20 (fig. 1) [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4695] 25 miles northeast of Babel Island, Bass Strait, north of Tasmania, Australia, depth 70-100 fathoms. Holotype: AMS E.4970. Paratypes: AMS E.4898-99 (1, 1), E.4973 (1, egg case), E.5491 (1). •Valid as Raja cerva Whitley 1939 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:56 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:165 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:347 [ref. 23873], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Okamejei cerva (Whitley 1939) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Dipturus cerva (Whitley 1939) -- (Last & Yearsley 2002:1640 [ref. 26568], Hoese et al. 2006:182 [ref. 29001], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Last 2008:53 [ref. 29648], Last & Gledhill 2008:119 [ref. 29561], Last & White 2008:115 [ref. 30618], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Dentiraja cerva (Whitley 1939) -- (Last et al. 2016:16, 20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:232 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dentiraja cerva (Whitley 1939). Rajidae. Distribution: Southern Australia. Habitat: marine.

cervigoni, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1964:1, Fig. [Breviora No. 209; ref. 1255] 10 miles northeast of Carúpano, northern Venezuela, depth 20-30 fathoms. Holotype: MOBR-EDIMAY-P-3402 [ex MNNLS 873]. Paratypes: (3) MCZ 40391 (1), 42989 (1). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1999:108 [ref. 33859]. •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja cervigoni Bigelow & Schroeder 1964 -- (Cervigón 1992:206 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:169 [ref. 24490], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:560 [ref. 26985], Weigmann 2016:118 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Rostroraja cervigoni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1964) -- (Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941] with question, Last et al. 2016:354 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Rostroraja cervigoni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1964). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela to Suriname (including southern Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

chagrinea, Raja Shaw [G.] 1804:281 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] European Seas. Based on Pennant, 1776:87. •Synonym of Raja fullonica Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:64 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

challengeri, Rajella Last [P. R.] & Stehmann [M. F. W.] 2008:136, Figs. 1-6 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29652] West of Trial Harbour, Tasmania, 41°48'S, 144°22'E, depth 1288-1328 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 549-01. Paratypes: 18 specimens at CSIRO. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Rajella challengeri Last & Stehmann 2008 -- (Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:338 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rajella challengeri Last & Stehmann 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Southern Australia: New South Wales to South Australia (and Western Australia), including Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

chantenay, Raia Lesueur [C. A.] 1824:106, Pl. 5 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 17520] North America. No types known. •Synonym of Raja eglanteria Bosc 1800. •Synonym of Rostroraja eglanteria (Bosc 1800) -- with question. Current status: Synonym of Rostroraja eglanteria (Bosc 1800). Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chardon, Raia Yarrell [W.] 1836:425 [A history of British fishes; ref. 4812] Not available, name mentioned in passing (Cornwall, England). Rajidae.

chilensis, Raia Guichenot [A.] 1848:367 [Fauna Chilena.... in Gay.; ref. 1939] Valparaíso Bay, central Chile, southeastern Pacific Ocean, 32°53'22.94"S, 71°31'32.16"W, depth approximately 40 meters [Chile]. Neotype: MNHNCL ICT 7549. Neotype designated by Concha et al. 2019:507 [ref. 36686]. •Valid as Raja chilensis Guichenot 1848 -- (Pequeño & Lamilla 1985:249 [ref. 9593], Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:44 [ref. 22530]). •Valid as Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot 1848) -- (Last & Gledhill 2007:50 [ref. 29177], Last et al. 2008:9 [ref. 29647], Vargas-Caro et al. 2015:325 [ref. 33982], Weigmann 2016:124 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:361 [ref. 35000], Nión et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35565], Gabbanelli et al. 2018:458 [ref. 36350]). •Valid as Dipturus chilensis (Guichenot 1848) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:46 [ref. 25942], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], Soto & Mincarone 2001:6 [ref. 26630], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2008:35 [ref. 29969], Mabragaña et al. 2011:7 and table S2 [ref. 31800], Concha et al. 2019:507 [ref. 36686]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus chilensis (Guichenot 1848). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: central Chile to the Strait of Magellan. Habitat: marine.

chinensis, Raia Basilewsky [S.] 1855:251 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] "Oriental Sea", northern China. No types at ZIN. •Valid as Raja chinensis Basilewsky 1855 -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:47 [ref. 26385], Weigmann 2016:118 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Dipturus chinensis (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:248 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus chinensis (Basilewsky 1855). Rajidae. Distribution: China to Japan including Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

ciodera, Raja Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:15 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:47 [ref. 3595]. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

circularis, Raja Couch [J.] 1838:53 [A Cornish fauna, being a compendium of the natural history of the county; ref. 18049] Cornwall, England, northeastern Atlantic. No types known. Based on Sandy ray of Couch, Mag. N. Hist. Charlesworth, v. 2, 1838:71. •Valid as Raja circularis Couch 1838 -- (Stehmann 1973:64 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:178 [ref. 13675], Stehmann 1990:34 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:108 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Leucoraja circularis (Couch 1838) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:22 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:18 [ref. 29533], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:13 [ref. 36649], Weigmann 2016:112 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1397 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:280 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja circularis (Couch 1838). Rajidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

claramaculata, Breviraja McEachran [J. D.] & Matheson [R. E., Jr.] 1985:1047, Fig. 8 [Copeia 1985 (no. 4); ref. 8137] Off Florida, U.S.A., 29°58'N, 80°07'W, depth 348 meters. Holotype: UF 22284. Paratypes: TCWC 2728.2 (4), UF 22285 (2), USNM 148278 (1). Other material: MCZ 36369 (1), 39785 (1), 39887 (3), 39890 (6), 40136 (4), 40239 (1), 42473 (1), 49007 (1), 49010 (1); UF 29868 (1). •Valid as Breviraja claramaculata McEachran & Matheson 1985 -- (McEachran & Matheson 1985:1042 [ref. 8137], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:546 [ref. 26985], Weigmann 2016:105 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:224 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Breviraja claramaculata McEachran & Matheson 1985. Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina to Florida (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

clarkii, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1958:221, Figs. 8-9 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 119 (no. 2); ref. 12049] Northern Gulf of Mexico, southeast of Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 28°32'N, 86°10'20'W, depth 260 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 156712. Paratypes: MCZ 39618 (2). •Valid as Raja clarkii Bigelow & Schroeder 1958 -- (Uyeno & Miyake in Uyeno et al. 1983:75 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:206 [ref. 23827] as clarki). •Valid as Dactylobatus clarkii (Bigelow & Schroeder 1958) -- (Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:31 [ref. 22793] as clarki, McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312] as clarki, McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:153 [ref. 23897] as clarki, Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:551 [ref. 26985], Soto et al. 2004:145 [ref. 29431], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:113 [ref. 34398] as clarki, Weigmann 2016:106 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:230 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Dactylobatus clarkii (Bigelow & Schroeder 1958). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Brazil (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

clavata, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:232 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea and northeastern Atlantic [original: "in Oceano Europæo"]; localities include Germany, North Sea; Marseille, France; Italy; Greece, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: NRM 9072 (1). Lectotype or neotype fixation needed. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:17 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Originally based on multiple species and at least 29 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:71 [ref. 30578], Artedi 1738:103 [ref. 30529] and Artedi 1738:99 [ref. 30349] as Raja aculeata, dentibus tuberculosis; Rondeletius 1554:353, 354 [ref. 30354] as Raia clauata and Raia clauata altera, Willughby 1686:74[ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:26 [ref. 30231] as Raia clavata. •See also Compagno et al. 1991:98 [ref. 21083]. •Valid as Malacoraja clavata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). •Valid as Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:59 [ref. 7168], Capapé & Desoutter 1981:23 [ref. 20635], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:184 [ref. 13675], Hulley 1986:120 [ref. 5672], Stehmann 1990:38 [ref. 19316], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:92 [ref. 25472], Santos et al. 1997:15 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:22 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:30 [ref. 24106], Capapé et al. 1999:52 [ref. 25276], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Fricke 1999:17 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:23 [ref. 26753], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:18 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:20 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:163 [ref. 31251], George 2009:57 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:14 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:37 [ref. 33547], Ball et al. 2016:567 [ref. 36106], Gordon et al. 2016:267 [ref. 34661], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:320 [ref. 35000], McEachran & Séret 2016:1399 [ref. 34551], Weigmann 2016:118 [ref. 34211], Fricke et al. 2018:24 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Distribution: Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean: Iceland and central Norway to South Africa, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes). Habitat: brackish, marine.

clavata, Raja Stephan [C. F.] 1779:21 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 2010:65 [ref. 30995]). Current status: Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae.

clavata, Raja major Olafsen [E.] & Povelsen [B.] 1774:203 [Reise Island 1774-75 v. 1 (pts 1-2); ref. 18494] Iceland. Not translated. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758; perhaps not independent of clavata. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

colesi, Breviraja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1948:559, Figs. 2 (upper left), 6 [Journal of Marine Research v. 7; ref. 301] Off north and central coasts of Cuba, Atlantis station 3483, depth 200-285 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 36374. Paratypes: (7). Type catalog: Gutiérrez de los Reyes et al. 2015:46 [ref. 36079]. •Valid as Breviraja colesi Bigelow & Schroeder 1948 -- (McEachran & Compagno 1982:413 [ref. 2952], McEachran & Matheson 1985:1038 [ref. 8137], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:31 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:148 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:546 [ref. 26985], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:112 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:105 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:225 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Breviraja colesi Bigelow & Schroeder 1948. Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico, Florida (U.S.A.), Cuba and Bahamas. Habitat: marine.

communis, Raia (Dasybatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:112 [= 120] [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Rajidae.

compagnoi, Raja (Leucoraja) Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1995:43, Fig. 10 [Archive of Fishery and Marine Research v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 22055] Off South Africa, 30°44'S, 15°18'E, depth 550 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN 48406. •Valid as Leucoraja compagnoi (Stehmann 1995) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:133 [ref. 30471], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], Weigmann 2016:112 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:281 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja compagnoi (Stehmann 1995). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic to western Indian Ocean: South Africa and KwaZulu-Natal. Habitat: marine.

confundens, Raja Hulley [P. A.] 1970:203, Pl. 11 (figs. a-b); Fig. 17 (a-c) [Annals of the South African Museum v. 55 (pt 4); ref. 7750] Off Cape Columbine, South Africa, depth 620 meters. Holotype: SAM 24411. Paratypes: SAM 24479 (1). •Valid as Raja confundens Hulley 1970 -- (Hulley 1986:121 [ref. 5672], Stehmann 1990:45 [ref. 19316], Compagno et al. 1991:104 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:93 [ref. 25472]). •Synonym of Raja barnardi Norman 1935 -- (Stehmann 1995:51 [ref. 22055], Compagno & Ebert 2007:134 [ref. 30471]). •Synonym of Rajella barnardi (Norman 1935) -- (Weigmann 2016:121 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1394 [ref. 34551]). Current status: Synonym of Rajella barnardi (Norman 1935). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

confusus, Dipturus Last [P. R.] 2008:61, Figs. 7-12 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29648] East of Lakes Entrance, Victoria, Australia, 37°52'S, 148°11'E, depth 27-28 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 4255-01. Paratypes: 17 specimens at AMS and CSIRO. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Dipturus confusus Last 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Dentiraja confusa (Last 2008) -- (Last et al. 2016:16, 20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:233 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dentiraja confusa (Last 2008). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: New South Wales to Victoria, including Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

cooperi, Raja Girard [C. F.] (ex Cooper) 1858:372 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] Washed ashore on sand flats near entrance of Shoalwater Bay, Washington, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): not saved. Based on a sketch and notes by Cooper. •Synonym of Raja binoculata Girard 1855 -- (Mecklenburg et al. 2002:96 [ref. 25968]). •Synonym of Beringraja binoculata (Girard 1855) -- (Dyldin 2015:69 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Beringraja binoculata (Girard 1855). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

cordata, Raja Philippi [R. A.] in Delfin 1900:131 [Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (Santiago) v. 4; ref. 17395] Not available as above; no distinguishing features provided; from Santiago, Chile. Rajidae.

cortezensis, Raja McEachran [J. D.] & Miyake [T.] 1988:877, Figs. 1-6 [Copeia 1988 (no. 4); ref. 16259] Off Punta Conceptión, Gulf of California, Mexico, 26°57.0'N, 111°49.8'W. Holotype: LACM 8842-16. Paratypes: LACM 8842-20 (5), SIO 65-250 (1), UCLA W53-82 (2). •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja cortezensis McEachran & Miyake 1988 -- (McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:776 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:37 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Genz et al. 2007:2 [ref. 29332], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:117 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:118 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Beringraja cortezensis (McEachran & Miyake 1988) -- (Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:219 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Beringraja cortezensis (McEachran & Miyake 1988). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California endemic (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

crosnieri, Raja (Dipturus) Séret [B.] 1989:116, Figs. 1-9 [Cybium v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 12827] Southwestern coast of Madagascar, 22°05'S, 22°30'E, depth 300-850 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1988-1089. Paratypes: BMNH 1988.7.25.1 (1); MNHN 1988-1090 to 1108 (19); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 28021 (1); USNM 297040 (1). •Valid as Dipturus crosnieri (Séret 1989) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:249 [ref. 35000], Fricke et al. 2018:24 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus crosnieri (Séret 1989). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean off Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

cuculus, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:668, 672 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Coast of Cherbourg, near mouth of Seine River, France. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:31 [ref. 9312]. Also appeared in Sonnini 1802:71, 144 [ref. 30461]. •Unidentifiable -- (Séret & McEachran 1986:31 [ref. 9312]). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Raja Shaw [G.] 1804:319 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] No locality. Based on Raja Cuvier, Lacepède [apparently a vernacular name]. Rajidae.

cuvieria, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:367 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Seine River estuary, Fiquainville, Valmont, Département de la Seine Maritime, France. No types known. Based on "La raie Cuvier" of Lacepède 1798:33, 141, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [ref. 2708]. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

cynosbatus, Raja Philippi [R. A.] 1896:385 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile 93-95; ref. 3465] Chile. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

dageti, Raja Capapé [C.] 1977:1033, Fig. 6 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 3: Zoologie) No. 339 (482); ref. 7237] West Africa, 5°57'N, 1°34'E, depth 370-400 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1969-0229. Paratypes: (1, whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:14 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Raja dageti Capepé 1977 -- (Stehmann 1990:48 [ref. 19316]). •Synonym of Raja barnardi Norman 1935 -- (Stehmann 1995:51 [ref. 22055]). •Synonym of Rajella barnardi (Norman 1935) -- (Weigmann 2016:121 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Rajella barnardi (Norman 1935). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

dentata, Raja Klunzinger [C. B.] 1872:46 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 38 (pt. 1); ref. 2623] Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. Holotype: SMNS 1658. Syntypes: SMNS 1658 (1, lost), not 1816 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:16 [ref. 20296] as syntypes, Fricke 1995:18 [ref. 28100] with type correction, Fricke 2005:56 [ref. 29864]. A lectotype was selected [by Last] in Paxton et al. 1989:56 [SMNS 1816], but that specimen is not a type according to Fricke 1995:18 [ref. 28100] so the lectotype designation is invalid. •Synonym of Raja lemprieri Richardson 1845 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:56 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:167 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:353 [ref. 23873]). •Synonym of Okamejei lemprieri (Richardson 1845). •Synonym of Dipturus lemprieri (Richardson 1845) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:182 [ref. 29001]). •Synonym of Dentiraja lemprieri (Richardson 1845) -- (Last & Gledhill 2008:109 [ref. 29650]). Current status: Synonym of Dentiraja lemprieri (Richardson 1845). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

desmarestia, Raia Lesueur [C. A.] 1824:100, Pl. 4 (figs. 1-2) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 17520] Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: (2) MNHN A-8697 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:83 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:14 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Raja eglanteria Bosc 1800. •Synonym of Rostroraja eglanteria (Bosc 1800) -- with question. Current status: Synonym of Rostroraja eglanteria (Bosc 1800). Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diaphanes, Raja Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:478 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Raja ocellatra Mitchill 1815 -- (Scott & Scott 1988:47 [ref. 25518]). •Synonym of Leucoraja ocellata (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Leucoraja ocellata (Mitchill 1815). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

diehli, Dipturus Soto [J. M. R.] & Mincarone [M. M.] 2001:3, Figs. 1-3 [Mare Magnum v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 26630] Off Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, 29°39'31"S, 47°50'32"W, depth 480 meters. Holotype (unique): MOVI 08494. •Valid as Dipturus diehli Soto & Mincarone 2001 -- (Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:28 [ref. 27192], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2008:35 [ref. 29969], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982]). •Synonym of Dipturus mennii Gomes & Paragó 2001 -- (Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus mennii Gomes & Paragó 2001. Rajidae. Distribution: Western South Atlantic (if valid). Habitat: marine.

dissimilis, Raja Hulley [P. A.] 1970:199, Pl. 10 (figs. a-b); Fig. 15 (a-c) [Annals of the South African Museum v. 55 (pt 4); ref. 7750] West of Cape Town, South Africa, 33°47'S, 17°14'E, southeastern Atlantic, depth 1000 meters. Holotype: ZMH 25258 [ex ISH 46-1967a]. Paratypes: ZMH 25259 [ex ISH 46-1967b-c] (2). Type catalog: Krefft 1978:6 [ref. 9884], Thiel et al. 2009:23 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Raja dissimilis Hulley 1970 -- (Hulley 1986:121 [ref. 5672], Stehmann 1990:45 [ref. 19316], Compagno et al. 1991:104 [ref. 21083], Stehmann 1995:79 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Rajella dissimilis (Hulley 1970) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:135 [ref. 30471], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Weigmann et al. 2014:384 [ref. 33443], Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1402 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:339 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rajella dissimilis (Hulley 1970). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

doellojuradoi, Raja Pozzi [A. J.] 1935:491 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 11; ref. 15672] Off Atlantic coast of Argentina, 39°12'00"S, 56°00'06"W, depth 50-70 fathoms. Lectotype: MACN 3306 [ex MACN 1166]. Paralectotypes: MACN 1166 (1). Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:100 [ref. 23697]. Originally as doello-juradoi. •Valid as Raja doellojuradoi Pozzi 1935 -- (Pequeño 1997:79 [ref. 23536]). •Valid as Amblyraja doellojuradoi (Pozzi 1935) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:78 [ref. 24909], Mabragaña et al. 2011:9 and table S2 [ref. 31800], Delpiani et al. 2012:57 [ref. 31788], Weigmann 2016:102 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:210 [ref. 35000], Nión et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Amblyraja doellojuradoi (Pozzi 1935). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific and southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

doutrei, Raja Cadenat [J.] 1960:294, Figs. 1-11, 13, 15 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 11900] Senegal, depth 450-500 meters. Lectotype: MNHN 1959-0041 [ex IFAN]. Paralectotypes: (30) IFAN 1954-679, 59-804, and R744-751 (8, jaws only), uncat. (6, jaws); MNHN 1959-0042 [ex IFAN] (1, jaws only), 1959-0043 [ex IFAN] (1, jaws only); 13 other syntypes lost. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:14-15 [ref. 9312]. Lectotype selected by Séret & McEachran 1987:14 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Raja doutrei Cadenat 1960 -- (Hulley 1986:122 [ref. 5672], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827], Stehmann 1990:32 [ref. 19316], Compagno et al. 1991:95 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:93 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:36 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Dipturus doutrei (Cadenat 1960) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:137 [ref. 30471], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1389 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:250 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus doutrei (Cadenat 1960). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean: Senegal to southeastern South Africa. Habitat: marine.

ecuadoriensis, Raja Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1941:255, Fig. 14 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 26 (pt 3, no. 26); ref. 16103] San Helena Bay, Ecuador. Based on Raja steindachneri of Tortonese 1939:3-5, Pl. 1 [ref. 4414]. •Valid as Dipturus ecuadoriensis (Beebe & Tee-Van 1941) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:251 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus ecuadoriensis (Beebe & Tee-Van 1941). Rajidae. Distribution: Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

eglanteria, Raja Bosc [L. A. G.] in Lacepède 1800:104, 109, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Charleston Bay, South Carolina, U.S.A. Based on 'Raja dentibus obtusis, corpore rhombeo ...' in manuscript by Bosc. Also appeared in Sonnini 1802:73, 282 [ref. 30461]. Authorship could be interpreted as Lacepède. •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja eglanteria Bosc 1800 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:38 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:26 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:37 [ref. 22793], Murdy et al. 1997:39 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:166 [ref. 23897], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:74 [ref. 26158], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:542 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:118 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:118 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Rostroraja eglanteria (Bosc 1800) -- (Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941] with question, Last et al. 2016:355 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Rostroraja eglanteria (Bosc 1800). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts to southern Florida (U.S.A.), and northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

eisenhardti, Rajella Long [D. J.] & McCosker [J. E.] 1999:45, Figs. 45 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 112 (no. 1); ref. 23764] Off Cabo Rosa, 1°04.74'S, 91°11.08'W, Isla Isabella, Galápagos Islands, depth 757 meters. Holotype: CAS 86817. Paratypes: CAS 86561 (1). •Valid as Rajella eisenhardti Long & McCosker 1999 -- (Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:340 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rajella eisenhardti Long & McCosker 1999. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

endeavouri, Dipturus Last [P. R.] 2008:70, Figs. 14-19 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29648] Southeast of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia, 27°46'S, 153°51'E, depth 205 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 6630-01. Paratypes: (10) AMS I 39891-017 (1); CSIRO H 2687-01 (1), 2687-02 (1), 2692-10 (1), 6630-02 (1), 6630-03 (1), 6630-03 (1), 6630-04 (1), 6630-05 (1); QM I 19257 (1), 19970 (1). •Valid as Dipturus endeavouri Last 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Dentiraja endeavouri (Last 2008) -- (Last et al. 2016:16, 20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:234 [ref. 35000], Rigby et al. 2017:335 [ref. 35469]). Current status: Valid as Dentiraja endeavouri (Last 2008). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Australia: Queensland to New South Wales. Habitat: marine.

equatorialis, Raja Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:150 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific coast of Colombia, 8°06'30"N, 78°51'W, Albatross station 2797, depth 33 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 41132. •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja equatorialis Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:30 [ref. 23101], McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:777 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:37 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:356 [ref. 23520], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:84 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:63 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Genz et al. 2007:2 [ref. 29332], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:120 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:119 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Rostroraja equatorialis (Jordan & Bollman 1890) -- (Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941] with question, Last et al. 2016:356 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Rostroraja equatorialis (Jordan & Bollman 1890). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

erinaceus, Raja Mitchill [S. L.] 1825:290 [American Journal of Science and Arts v. 9; ref. 17778] Barnegat and southeast of Sandy Hook, New Jersey, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Raja erinacea Mitchill 1825 -- (McEachran & Martin 1977:121 [ref. 21983], Robins & Ray 1986:38 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:41 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:37 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:41 [ref. 23144]). •Valid as Leucoraja erinacea (Mitchill 1825) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:67 [ref. 26158], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Weigmann 2016:112 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:282 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja erinacea (Mitchill 1825). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Newfoundland to North Carolina (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

falloargus, Dipturus Last [P. R.] 2008:77, Figs. 21-16 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29648] North of Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, 21°29'S, 114°04'E, depth 242 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 5192-01. Paratypes: 16 specimens at AMS, CSIRO, NTM and WAM. •Valid as Dipturus falloargus Last 2008 -- (Larson et al. 2013:18 [ref. 32988], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Dentiraja falloargus (Last 2008) -- (Last et al. 2016:16, 20 [ref. 34941] as falloarga, Last et al. 2016:235 [ref. 35000] as falloarga). Current status: Valid as Dentiraja falloargus (Last 2008). Rajidae. Distribution: Northwestern Australia: Western Australia to Northern Territory. Habitat: marine.

falsavela, Raja Bonaparte [C. L.] 1839:fasc. 26, punt. 136, Pl. 148 (fig. 1) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 4895] Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: ANSP 406 (missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:149 [ref. 13621]. Puntata written as 135 on first page, corrected to 136 in index. •Synonym of Raja circularis Couch 1838 -- (Stehmann 1973:64 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Leucoraja circularis (Couch 1838). Current status: Synonym of Leucoraja circularis (Couch 1838). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Raja Banks [J.] in Müller & Henle 1841:124 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Not available; manuscript name mentioned under Trygonorhina fasciata. Rajidae.

favosus, Raja Chiereghini [A. P.] in Nardo 1847:col. 111 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Venice, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Original not seen. Appeared as Raja bavosus, name only and not available, in Nardo 1847:col. 111 [ref. 17994]. Rajidae.

fenestra, Raja Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:15 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:47 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Raja undulata Lacepède 1802 -- (Stehmann 1973:68 [ref. 7168]). Current status: Synonym of Raja undulata Lacepède 1802. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

flavirostris, Raja Philippi [R. A.] 1892:3, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile. Primera seccion, Zoología No. 3; ref. 22759] Bahia de Quinteros, Chile. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 4 of German edition (Philippi 1893 [ref. 14560]). •Valid as Dipturus flavirostris (Philippi 1892) -- (Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27192]). •Synonym of Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot 1848) -- (Vargas-Caro et al. 2015:325 [ref. 33982]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus chilensis (Guichenot 1848). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

flindersi, Dentiraja Last [P. R.] & Gledhill [D. C.] 2008:110, Figs. 106 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29650] Betweeen Cape St. Albans and Penneshaw (off Kangaroo Island), South Australia, 35°44'S, 138°04'E, depth 31 meters. Holotype: SAMA F 11849. Paratypes: CSIRO H 6642-01 (1); SAMA F 11844 -48 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1), F 11850-53 (1, 1, 1, 1). •Valid as Dipturus flindersi (Last & Gledhill 2008) -- (Last & White 2008:109 [ref. 30618]). •Valid as Dentiraja flindersi Last & Gledhill 2008 -- (Weigmann 2016:106 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:16, 20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:236 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dentiraja flindersi Last & Gledhill 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Southern Australia. Habitat: marine.

floridana, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1962:173, Figs. 2-3 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 128 (no. 4); ref. 5793] Off Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A., 29°43'N, 80°10'W, depth 195 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 196441. Paratypes: MCZ 40723-25 (1, 1, 1), plus 27 other specimens. •Valid as Raja floridana Bigelow & Schroeder 1962 -- (Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827]). •Synonym of Raja teevani Bigelow & Schroeder 1951 -- (Jacob & McEachran 1994:444 [ref. 22422]). •Synonym of Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

flossada, Raia Risso [A.] 1827:145 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:31 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Raja batis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:62 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Iglésias et al. 2010:327 [ref. 30586] as temporary species cf. flossada, Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524] with question, Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211] as cf. flossada, Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941] as cf. flossada). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

frerichsi, Raja Krefft [G.] 1968:22, Figs. 10-14 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 7902] Off mouth of Río de la Plata, Argentina, 35°43'S, 52°43'W, depth 1000 meters. Holotype: ZMH 25248 [ex ISH 1532-1966]. Paratypes: ZMH 25246 [ex ISH 1124-1966a-r] (17), 25247 [ex 1525-1966a-m] (15, 2 to MCZ), 25249 [ex 1547-1966] (1). Type catalog: Krefft 1978:6 [ref. 9884], Thiel et al. 2009:23-24 [ref. 30918] •Valid as Raja frerichsi Krefft 1968 -- (Pequeño 1997:79 [ref. 23536]). •Valid as Amblyraja frerichsi (Krefft 1968) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:79 [ref. 24909], Weigmann 2016:102 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:211 [ref. 35000], Nión et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Amblyraja frerichsi (Krefft 1968). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific and southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fuliginea, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1954:10, Figs. 3-4 [Breviora No. 24; ref. 5551] Northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 27°32'N, 93°02'W, Oregon station 534, depth 400-450 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 163367. •Valid as Raja fuliginea Bigelow & Schroeder 1954 -- (Cervigón 1992:206 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:41 [ref. 22793]). •Valid as Rajella fuliginea (Bigelow & Schroeder 1954) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:169 [ref. 23897], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:561 [ref. 26985], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:120 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:341 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Rajella fuliginea (Bigelow & Schroeder 1954). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

fullonica, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:231 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European seas [original: "in M. Europeo"]; localities include England, Northeastern Atlantic; southern France, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed. Originally based on multiple species and at least 14 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:72 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:101 [ref. 30349] as Raja toto dorso aculeato; Rondelet 1554:356 [ref. 30354] as Raia fullonica, Gesner 1558:938 [ref. 30350] as Raia fvllonica, Jonston 1649:Pl. 11 (fig. 4) [ref. 30579] as Raia fullonica, Charleton 1668:130 [ref. 30580] as Raia fullonica, Willughby 1686:78 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:26 [ref. 30231] as Raia aspera nostras, an fullonica. Spelled fullonia by Bloch & Schneider 1801:367 [ref. 471]. Name spelled Raya fallonica by Berthelot 1840:115 [ref. 30346]. •Valid as Raja fullonica Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:64 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:179 [ref. 13675], Stehmann 1990:35 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:108 [ref. 22055], Santos et al. 1997:14 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:22 [ref. 24952]). •Valid as Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:22 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:18 [ref. 29533], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], George 2009:57 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:13 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:36 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:112 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:283 [ref. 35000], Saad & Alkusairy 2019:304 [ref. 36710], ). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Distribution: White Sea, western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic, Arctic Ocean: Murmansk (Russia) south to northern Morocco. Habitat: marine.

fullonica, Raja Stephan [C. F.] 1779:23 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Synonym of Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2010:65 [ref. 30995], Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

fusca, Raja Garman [S.] 1885:42 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 482); ref. 14445] Japan. Syntypes: USNM 26542 (young from egg case). •Valid as Raja fusca Garman 1885 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Raja kenojei Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Ishihara 1987:262 [ref. 6264]). •Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Youn 2002:483 [ref. 26218], Dyldin 2015:72 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

fyllae, Raja Lütken [C. F.] 1887:1, Pl. 1 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1887; ref. 17570] Davis Strait, Greenland, depth 80 fathoms. Holotype: ZMUC P 08488. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:9 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Raja fyllae Lütken 1887 -- (Stehmann 1973:65 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:192 [ref. 13675], Scott & Scott 1988:43 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:37 [ref. 14674], Stehmann 1990:46 [ref. 19316], Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1995:56 [ref. 22531], Moore et al. 2003:171 [ref. 27076]). •Valid as Rajella fyllae (Lütken 1887) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], George 2009:57 [ref. 30539], Møller et al. 2010:17 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:115 [ref. 31212], Parin et al. 2014:37 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:72 [ref. 34524], Afonso et al. 2016:13, 261 [ref. 36199], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:342 [ref. 35000], Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:49 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Rajella fyllae (Lütken 1887). Rajidae. Distribution: North Atlantic and Arctic Seas. Habitat: marine.

gaimardi, Raia Gaimard [J. P.] (ex Valenciennes) 1851:Pls. 2-3 [Voyage de la commission scientifique du Nord; ref. 1523] Coast of Iceland, North Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1794 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:84 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:15 [ref. 9312]. Original not seen; date may be incorrect. •Synonym of Raja batis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:62 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

gallardoi, Raia Marini [T. L.] 1933:331 [6] [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 11 (no. 39); ref. 16500] Argentina. Holotype (unique): MACN. On p. 6 of separate. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

gallica, Raja Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:533 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] British Isles. No types known. •Synonym of Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

garmani, Raja Whitley [G. P.] 1939:248 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4695] Off South Carolina, 32°24'N, 78°44'W, depth 142 fathoms. Lectotype: MCZ 915-S. Paralectotypes: MCZ 585-S (1), MCZ 51759 (1); USNM 43727 (1, or now 0). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlvii [ref. 23119]. New name for Raja ackleyi var. ornata Garman 1881. Lectotype established by McEachran for garmani which established the lectotype for ornata as well, see R. ornata. •Valid as Raja garmani Whitley 1939 -- (McEachran 1977:425 [ref. 7268], Robins & Ray 1986:39 [ref. 23100], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Boschung 1992:26 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:38 [ref. 22793], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754]). •Valid as Leucoraja garmani (Whitley 1939) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:162 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:540 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:116 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:112 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:284 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja garmani (Whitley 1939). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts to Florida (U.S.A.); Venezuela (Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

garricki, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1958:213, Figs. 5-7 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 119 (no. 2); ref. 12049] Northern Gulf of Mexico, 28°32'N, 86°20'W, Oregon station 1277, depth 260 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 156711. Paratypes: MCZ 39616 (1). •Valid as Raja garricki Bigelow & Schroeder 1958 -- (Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:38 [ref. 22793]). •Valid as Dipturus garricki (Bigelow & Schroeder 1958) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:155 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:552 [ref. 26985], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:113 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:252 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus garricki (Bigelow & Schroeder 1958). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

georgiana, Raja Norman [J. R.] 1938:4, Fig. 1 [Discovery Reports v. 18; ref. 17162] East Cumberland Bay, South Georgia Island, Discovery station 39, South Atlantic, depth 179-235 meters. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1837.7.12.1. •Valid as Raja georgiana Norman 1938 -- (Stehmann & Bürkel 1990:95 [ref. 21679], Miller 1993:480 [ref. 21297], Pequeño 1997:79 [ref. 23536], Olaso et al. 1997:83 [ref. 25009]). •Valid as Amblyraja georgiana (Norman 1938) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:102 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:212 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Amblyraja georgiana (Norman 1938). Rajidae. Distribution: Southern Ocean and South Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

gigas, Raja (Tengujei) Ishiyama [R.] 1958:386 [194], Figs. 84 W, 86 [Journal of the Shimonoseki College of Fisheries v. 7 (nos 2-3); ref. 2308] Off Aichi Prefecture, Kumano-nada,Japan. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (20 specimens, 2 egg capsules) CAS 23173 (1), MCZ 40292 (1). •Valid as Raja gigas Ishiyama 1958 -- (Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1982:55, 314 [ref. 8256], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:67, 308 [ref. 8057], Ishihara 1987:278 [ref. 6264], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Compagno et al. 1999:1407 [ref. 24636], Last & Compagno 1999:1454 [ref. 24639], Nakabo 2000:172 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995]). •Valid as Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama 1958) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2002:172 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:397 [ref. 28370], Compagno et al. 2005:66 [ref. 29145], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:183 [ref. 29612], Séret & Last 2008:107 [ref. 29649], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Hsu et al. 2013:253 [ref. 33043], Ebert et al. 2013:352 [ref. 33045], Motomura et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34709], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:253 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama 1958). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

grahami, Dipturus Last [P. R.] 2008:84, Figs. 27-32 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29648] East of Terrigal, New South Wales, Australia, 33°30'S, 152°04'E, depth 446-515 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 950-01. Paratypes: 17 specimens as AMS, CSIRO and QM. Plus non-type specimens. Originally appeared as grahami, but named for two ichthyologists, Alastair Graham and Ken Graham; therefore mandatory change to grahamorum according to ICZN Art. 31.1. •Valid as Dipturus grahamorum Last 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041] as grahami, Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211] as grahami, Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941] as grahami, Last et al. 2016:254 [ref. 35000] as grahami). Current status: Valid as Dipturus grahamorum Last 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Australia: Queensland to New South Wales. Habitat: marine.

granulata, Raia Gill [T. N.] in Goode & Bean 1879:28 [Bulletin of the Essex Institute v. 11; ref. 5605] Le Have Bank, off Nova Scotia, Canada. Holotype: USNM 21578 (not found in 1980). •Synonym of Raja laevis Mitchill 1818 -- (Scott & Scott 1988:47 [ref. 25518]). •Synonym of Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818) -- (current authors). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

granulosa, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:368 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] English Seas. Based on Pennant, British Zoology ed. 1, 1776, p. 87. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

gudgeri, Zearaja Whitley [G. P.] 1940:188, Fig. 217 [The fishes of Australia. Part I; ref. 4700] Great Australian Bight, Australia. Holotype: AMS E.4284. Paratypes: AMS IB.768 (1), IB.769 (?1). •Valid as Raja gudgeri (Whitley 1940) -- (Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Paxton et al. 1989:56 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:166 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:349 [ref. 23873], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Dipturus gudgeri (Whitley 1940) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Last & Yearsley 2002:1640 [ref. 26568], Hoese et al. 2006:182 [ref. 29001], Séret & Last 2008:107 [ref. 29649], Last & White 2008:116 [ref. 30618], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:255 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus gudgeri (Whitley 1940). Rajidae. Distribution: Australia: New South Wales to southern Australia and to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

healdi, Dipturus Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Pogonoski [J. J.] 2008:27, Figs. 14-19 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29647] Southwest of Rowley Shoals, Western Australia, 18°02'S, 118°14'E, depth 388-332 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 4071-15. Paratypes: 22 at CSIRO, WAM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Dipturus healdi Last, White & Pogonoski 2008 -- (Naylor et al. 2012:93 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Dentiraja healdi (Last, White & Pogonoski 2008) -- (Last et al. 2016:16, 20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:237 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dentiraja healdi (Last, White & Pogonoski 2008). Rajidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

heemstrai, Raja (Okamejei) McEachran [J. D.] & Fechhelm [J. D.] 1982:441, Figs. 1-5 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 95 (no. 3); ref. 8444] Off Kenya, Western Indian Ocean, 2°59'S, 40°25'E, depth 260 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 13812. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 15920 (3); USNM 231866 (1); ZMA 113399 (1). •Valid as Raja heemstrai McEachran & Fechhelm 1982 -- (Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:vii [ref. 21953], Fricke & Al-Hassan 1995:8 [ref. 22649]). •Valid as Okamejei heemstrai (McEachran & Fechhelm 1982) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Compagno & Ebert 2007:139 [ref. 30471], Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Weigmann et al. 2015:28 [ref. 33795], Weigmann 2016:115 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:306 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei heemstrai (McEachran & Fechhelm 1982). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Kenya to Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

herwigi, Raja Krefft [G.] 1965:209, Figs. 1-2 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 15 (no. 3); ref. 9221] Southeast of Boavista Island, Cape Verde Islands, 15°59'N, 22°41'W, depth 57-60 [or 50-70] meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 25257 [ex ISH 240-1964]. Type catalog: Thiel et al. 2009:24 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Raja herwigi Krefft 1965 -- (Stehmann 1990:39 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:107 [ref. 22055], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Weigmann 2016:119 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1399 [ref. 34551], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:321 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja herwigi Krefft 1965. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

hirtella, Raja Philippi [R. A.] in Delfin 1900:131 [Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (Santiago) v. 4; ref. 17395] Not available as above; no distinguishing features provided; from Santiago, Chile. Rajidae.

hispanica, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:369 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Based on "Raja, Hispanorum Machuelo" of Osbeck 1770:99 [ref. 18497]. •Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

hollandi, Raja Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1909:163, Pl. 64 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 2493] Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Holotype (unique): FMNH 52101 [ex CM 224]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:51 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:20 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Raja hollandi Jordan & Richardson 1909 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Ishihara 1987:256 [ref. 6264], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:73 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:7 [ref. 26476], Compagno et al. 1999:1407 [ref. 24636], Last & Compagno 1999:1454 [ref. 24639], Dolganov 1999:429 [ref. 24873], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Okamejei hollandi (Jordan & Richardson 1909) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:174 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:174 [ref. 26001], Compagno et al. 2005:67 [ref. 29145], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Last & Lim 2010:101 [ref. 30853], Last el al. 2010:174 [ref. 32461], Ho & Shao 2011:20 [ref. 31432], Ebert et al. 2013:355 [ref. 33045], Weigmann et al. 2015:28 [ref. 33795], Weigmann 2016:115 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:307 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei hollandi (Jordan & Richardson 1909). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: southern Japan, east to China Sea, Taiwan, South China Sea and Borneo. Habitat: marine.

hyperborea, Raja Collett [R.] 1879:7 [Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-selskabet i Christiania (for 1878) No. 14; ref. 885] Northwest of Spitzbergen, depth 839 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMUO J.3134. Type catalog: Pethon 1969:3 [ref. 19268]. Holotype figured in Collett 1880: Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [ref. 887]. •Valid as Raja hyperborea Collett 1879 -- (Stehmann 1973:61 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:174 [ref. 13675], Scott & Scott 1988:44 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:37 [ref. 14674], Last & Stevens 1994:350 [ref. 23873], Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1995:58 [ref. 22531], Dolganov 1999:429 [ref. 24873], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:15 [ref. 25650], Fedorov et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27579]). •Valid as Amblyraja hyperborea (Collett 1879) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Last & Yearsley 2002:1640 [ref. 26568], Hoese et al. 2006:181 [ref. 29001], Møller et al. 2010:16 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:117 [ref. 31212], Delpiani et al. 2012:57 [ref. 31788], Dolgov 2013:915 [ref. 33112], Mecklenburg et al. 2014:145 [ref. 33463], Parin et al. 2014:29 [ref. 33547], Last & Stewart 2015:177 [ref. 34224], Dyldin 2015:68 [ref. 34524], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:111 [ref. 34398], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:163 [ref. 34033], Afonso et al. 2016:12, 80 [ref. 36199], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:213 [ref. 35000], Mecklenburg et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34440] see remarks on p. 22, Weigmann 2016:102 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Dyldin & Orlov 2018:166 [ref. 35920], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:39 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Amblyraja hyperborea (Collett 1879). Rajidae. Distribution: Cosmopolitan, circumpolar, North Atlantic, western Arctic Ocean, and South Pacific (New Zealand and Tasmania). Habitat: marine.

hyposticta, Propterygia Otto [A. W.] 1821:6 [Conspectus animalium quorundam maritimorum; ref. 4987] Newhaven, Edinburgh. Also described as new in Otto 1821:112 [ref. 3321], earliest not researched, and again in Otto 1824:94 [ref. 26341]. Based on an abnormal specimen of Raja batis Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Raja batis Linnaeus 1758 -- (authors). •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

iberica, Neoraja Stehmann [M. F. W.], Séret [B.], Costa [E. M.] & Baro [J.] 2008:53, Figs. 1-14 [Cybium v. 32 (no. 1); ref. 29638] Iberian Peninsula, eastern North Atlantic, 36°50.7' to 26°54.2'N, 7°44.8' to 7°39.1'W, 558-531 meters depth. Holotype: MB 4869. Paratypes: (49) at MB, MNCN, MNHN, TCWC, and ZMH. Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Thiel et al. 2009:20-21 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Neoraja iberica Stehmann, Séret, Costa & Baro 2008 -- (Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:300 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Neoraja iberica Stehmann, Séret, Costa & Baro 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern North Atlantic: off Portugal and Spain. Habitat: marine.

inermis, Raia inornata var. Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1881:74 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 194); ref. 10602] Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: NMW 78119 (1), USNM 26926 (1). New name for Santa Barbara specimens of R. binoculata Jordan & Gilbert 1880:134 [ref. 10593]. Appeared first as name only in list in Jordan & Gilbert 1881:457 [ref. 12598]. •Synonym of Raja inornata Jordan & Gilbert 1881. •Synonym of Beringraja inornata (Jordan & Gilbert 1881). Current status: Synonym of Beringraja inornata (Jordan & Gilbert 1881). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

ingolfiana, Raja Lütken [C. F.] 1898:3, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Danish Ingolf expedition; ref. 14687] Off Holstenborg, Greenland, 66°35'N, 56°38'W. Holotype: ZMUC P 08499. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:9 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Raja lintea Fries 1838 -- (Stehmann 1973:67 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Rajella lintea (Fries 1838) -- (Stehmann 2012:46 [ref. 31995], Dyldin 2015:73 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Rajella lintea (Fries 1838). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

innominata, Raja Garrick [J. A. F.] & Paul [L. J.] 1974:357, Figs. 6-7 [Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 7421] Cape Campbell, New Zealand. Holotype: NMNZ P.1441. Paratypes: NMNZ P.1040 (1), P.1817 (1), P.3094 (2), P.4680 (1), P.5483-87 (1, 4, 1, 2, 2), P.5534 (1), 5546 (1). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:6 [ref. 18942]. •Valid as Raja innominata Garrick & Paul 1974 -- (Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Paulin et al. 1989:28 [ref. 24556], Ishihara in Amaoka et al. 1990:86 [ref. 16024]). •Valid as Dipturus innominatus (Garrick & Paul 1974) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Last & Yearsley 2002:1640 [ref. 26568] as innominata, Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Last & Stewart 2015:178 [ref. 34224], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:256 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus innominatus (Garrick & Paul 1974). Rajidae. Distribution: New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

inornata, Raia Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1881:73 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 194); ref. 10602] Pacific coast, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN A-3218 [ex USNM] (1), USNM 26974 (5), ZMB 11699 [ex USNM 26974] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:85 [ref. 20739], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:173-174 [ref. 21041]. Based on R. binoculata of Jordan & Gilbert 1880:134 [ref. 10593]. Appeared first as name only in list in Jordan & Gilbert 1881:457 [ref. 12598]. •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja inornata Jordan & Gilbert 1881 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:52 [ref. 9277], McEachran & Miyake 1988:877 [ref. 16259], McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:777 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:38 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Geniz et al. 2007:1 [ref. 29322], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:17 [ref. 34694], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:117 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:119 [ref. 34211], Kells et al. 2016:82 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35618]). •Valid as Beringraja inornata (Jordan & Gilbert 1881) -- (Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:220 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Beringraja inornata (Jordan & Gilbert 1881). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Strait of Juan de Fuca (Canada) south to Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

intermedia, Raia Parnell [R.] 1837:167, Pl. 2 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh v. 1; ref. 18522] Firth of Forth, Scotland, North Sea. Syntypes: (all dry) BMNH 1848.1.12.512 (1), 1848.1.12.568 (1), 1848.1.12.570 (1). Original genus spelled Raia on Pl. 2 but not spelled out in text. •Synonym of Raja batis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:62 [ref. 7168]). •Valid as Dipturus cf. intermedia (Parnell 1837) -- (Gordon et al. 2016:261 [ref. 34661]). •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Iglésias et al. 2010:329 [ref. 30586] as temporary species cf. intermedia, Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524] with question, Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211] as cf. intermedia). •Valid as Dipturus intermedius (Parnell 1837) -- (Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:257 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus intermedius (Parnell 1837). Rajidae. Distribution: Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Habitat: marine.

intermedia, Raja falsavela var. Döderlein [P.] 1884:202 [Manuale Ittiologico del Mediterraneo ossia sinossi metodica delle varie specie di pesci riscontrate sin qui nel Mediterraneo ossia senossi metodica delle di Sicilia. 5 parts.; ref. 17416] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Apparently a synonym of Raja circularis Couch 1838. •Synonym of Leucoraja circularis (Couch 1838). Current status: Synonym of Leucoraja circularis (Couch 1838). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

japonica, Raja Nyström [E.] 1887:52 [Bihang till Kongl. Svenska vetenskaps-akademiens handlingar. Stockholm v. 13 (pt 4) No. 4; ref. 14475] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMUU 278. Type catalog: Wallin 1996:62 [ref. 32133]. •Synonym of Raja kenojei Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Ishihara 1987:262 [ref. 6264]). •Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Dyldin 2015:72 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:115 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

jensenae, Okamejei Last [P. R.] & Lim [A. P. K.] 2010:102, Figs. 1-6 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 032; ref. 30853] Dipolog Public Market, Dipoog City, Philippines, ca. 87°28'N, 123°20'E. Holotype: PNM 15096 [ex. SUML F 1135]. Paratypes: CSIRO H 7111-01 (1), IPPS 2010-03 (1), SUML F 1136 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Okamejei jensenae Last & Lim 2010-- (Last et al. 2010:176 [ref. 32461], Weigmann et al. 2015:28 [ref. 33795] as cf. jensenae, Weigmann 2016:115 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Orbiraja jensenae (Last & Lim 2010) -- (Last et al. 2016:55 [ref. 34868], Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:314 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Orbiraja jensenae (Last & Lim 2010). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Borneo and Sulu Sea, Philippines. Habitat: marine.

jenseni, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1950:385, Pl. 1 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 103 (no. 7); ref. 302] Off southern New England, U.S.A., 39°35'N, 71°21'W, depth 1043 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 35592. Paratypes: USNM 23483 (1, very poor condition), 33457 (1). •Valid as Raja jenseni Bigelow & Schroeder 1950 -- (Scott & Scott 1988:40 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:46 [ref. 14674]). •Valid as Amblyraja jenseni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1950) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Moore et al. 2003:170 [ref. 27076], Møller et al. 2010:16 [ref. 31169], Afonso et al. 2016:12, 81 [ref. 36199], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:214 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Amblyraja jenseni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1950). Rajidae. Distribution: North Atlantic: Greenland, western North Atlantic and Mid-Atlantic ridge. Habitat: marine.

johannisdavisi, Raja Alcock [A. W.] 1899:21 [A descriptive catalogue of the Indian deep-sea fishes in the Indian Museum; ref. 5114] Laccadive Sea, off Travancore coast, 11°14'30"N, 74°57'15"E, Investigator station 246, depth 410-520 meters. Holotype (unique): ZSI F477/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:96 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:32 [ref. 22148]. Originally as johannis-davisi. Figured in Alcock 1900: Pl. 27 (figs. 2, 2a) [ref. 20536]. •Valid as Raja johannisdavisi Alcock 1899 -- (Stehmann 1976:154 [ref. 7085], Séret 1986:258 [ref. 6753], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827]). •Valid as Dipturus johannisdavisi (Alcock 1899) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377] Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:258 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus johannisdavisi (Alcock 1899). Rajidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

jojenia, Raja Cocco [A.] 1834:85 [1], Pl. [Atti della Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in Catania v. 11; ref. 18011] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. On p. 1 of separate. Spelled jojenia in text, joenia on plate, with common name Razza Gioenia in text; first reviser not researched. •Synonym of Raja asterias Delaroche 1809 -- (Stehmann 1973:59 [ref. 7168]). Current status: Synonym of Raja asterias Delaroche 1809. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Raja Garman [S.] 1885:43 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 482); ref. 14445] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 16704. •Synonym of Raja inornata Jordan & Gilbert 1881. •Synonym of Beringraja inornata (Jordan & Gilbert 1881). Current status: Synonym of Beringraja inornata (Jordan & Gilbert 1881). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

karagea, Raja Tanaka [S.] 1927:784 [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 40; ref. 14923] Off Toba, Mie Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 13853. Paratypes: ZUMT 14570 (1). New name for Raja tobae Tanaka 1927, preoccupied by Raja tobae Tanaka 1916. •Valid as Raja karagea Tanaka 1927. Current status: Valid as Raja karagea Tanaka 1927. Rajidae. Distribution: Japan. Habitat: marine.

katsukii, Raja Tanaka [S.] 1927:662, Pl. 154 (figs. 426-428) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 35; ref. 14918] Off Province Echizen, western coast of Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 13755. •Synonym of Raja kenojei Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Ishihara 1987:262 [ref. 6264]). •Valid as Raja katsukii Tanaka 1927 -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:49 [ref. 26385]). •Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Dyldin 2015:72 [ref. 34524], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:167 [ref. 35920]). Current status: Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

kenojei, Raja Bürger [H.] in Müller & Henle 1841:149, [Pl. 48] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Nagasaki market, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D2499 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: (3)RMNH D2500-2501 (2, stuffed), 4243 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:224 [ref. 12876]; see also Boeseman 1979 [ref. 20685]; type designation by Ishiyama 1967:7-11 [ref. 7967] is not valid. Name based on RMNH museum name in collection of Heinrich Bürger. •Apparently a senior synonym of Raja porosa Günther 1874 -- (Boeseman 1979:277 [ref. 20685]). •Valid as Raja kenojei Bürger 1841 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:63, 306 [ref. 8057], Ishihara 1987:260 [ref. 6264], Chen et al. 1997:7 [ref. 26476], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Compagno et al. 1999:1407 [ref. 24636], Last & Compagno 1999:1454 [ref. 24639], Dolganov 1999:429 [ref. 24873], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995]). •Valid as Okamejei kenojei (Bürger 1841) (often seen as Müller & Henle 1841) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Jeong 1999:203 [ref. 25171], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:173 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:173 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:66, 483 [ref. 26218], Compagno et al. 2005:68 [ref. 29145], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Yamashita et al. 2012:131 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:355 [ref. 33045], Parin et al. 2014:36 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524], Weigmann et al. 2015:28 [ref. 33795], Hara et al. 2016:5 [ref. 36169], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:308 [ref. 35000], Weigmann 2016:115 [ref. 34211], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:167 [ref. 35920]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei kenojei (Bürger 1841). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan and eastern China to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

koreana, Raja Jeong [C.-H.] & Nakabo [T.] 1997:414, Figs. 1-4 [Ichthyological Research v. 44 (no. 4); ref. 23364] Chongsan-myeion, Wando-gun, Chollanam-do, southwestern sea of Korea, about 34°02'N, 126°08'E, depth about 30-70 meters. Holotype (unique): FSIU 247. •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja koreana Jeong & Nakabo 1997 -- (Jeong 1999:204 [ref. 25171], Nakabo 2000:171 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:171 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:66, 484 [ref. 26218], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612]). •Valid as Hongeo koreana (Jeong & Nakabo 1997) -- (Jeong & Nakabo 2009:142 [ref. 30179], Hara et al. 2014:21 [ref. 36168], Weigmann 2016:112 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:279 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Hongeo koreana (Jeong & Nakabo 1997). Rajidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: off southern Korea and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

kreffti, Raja (Malacoraja) Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1978:79, Figs. 1-9 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 28 (no. 2/3); ref. 6982] Northwest slope Bill-Bailey's-Bank, northeastern Atlantic, 61°08'N, 11°26'W, Walther Herwig station 894/74, depth 1200 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 25256 [ex ISH 748-1974]. Type catalog: Krefft 1978:6 [ref. 9884], Thiel et al. 2009:24 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Raja kreffti Stehmann 1978 -- (Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:181 [ref. 13675]). •Valid as Malacoraja kreffti (Stehmann 1978) -- (Stehmann 1993:172 [ref. 21486], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2005:256 [ref. 28271], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:293 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Malacoraja kreffti (Stehmann 1978). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

kukujevi, Raja (Rajella) Dolganov [V. N.] 1985:305, Fig. [Zoologicheskii Zhurnal v. 64 (no. 2); ref. 8164] Northeastern Atlantic, 49°50'N, 29°33'W, depth 750-800 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN 46195. •Valid as Rajella kukujevi (Dolganov 1985) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:343 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rajella kukujevi (Dolganov 1985). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

kwangtungensis, Raja Chu [Y.-T.] 1960:148, Figs. 137-139 [Cartilaginous fishes of China; ref. 21272] Jia-Bo, China. Holotype: SFI 57-0676. Paratypes: SFI 57-0674 (1), 57-0675 (1). •Valid as Raja kwangtungensis Chu 1960 -- (Ishihara 1987:242 [ref. 6264], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:172 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:172 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Dipturus kwangtungensis (Chu 1960) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Jeong 1999:202 [ref. 25171], Youn 2002:66, 482 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:397 [ref. 28370], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:183 [ref. 29612], Last & Lim 2010:107 [ref. 30853], Last el al. 2010:170 [ref. 32461], Yamashita et al. 2012:129 [ref. 32408], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Hsu et al. 2013:253 [ref. 33043], Ebert et al. 2013:352 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:235 [ref. 33330], Hara et al. 2016:5 [ref. 36169] as cf. kwanftungensis, Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:259 [ref. 35000], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus kwangtungensis (Chu 1960). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Borneo, China, possibly off southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Raja Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:327 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 5, art. 1); ref. 30214] New York City by East River, New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Raja laevis Mitchill 1818 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1982:449 [ref. 8444], Smith 1986:391 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:39 [ref. 23100], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], McAllister 1990:37 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:38 [ref. 23144]). •Valid as Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Musick et al. 2000:9 [ref. 24959], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:65 [ref. 26158], Moore et al. 2003:171 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:260 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lamillai, Dipturus Concha [F. J.], Caira [J. N.], Ebert [D. A.] & Pompert [J. H. W.] 2019:513, Figs. 7-11, 12C-D [Zootaxa 4590 (no. 5); ref. 36686] Off the Falkland Islands, southwestern Atlantic Ocean, Station 2019, 49.61°S, 61.19°W, depth 162 meters. Holotype: MNHNCL ICT 7531. Paratypes: CAS 242403 (1), MNHNCL ICT 7532 (1). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Dipturus lamillai Concha, Caira, Ebert & Pompert 2019. Current status: Valid as Dipturus lamillai Concha, Caira, Ebert & Pompert 2019. Rajidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic adjacent to the Falkland Islands Habitat: marine.

lanceorostrata, Raja Wallace [J. H.] 1967:15, Fig. 8 [Investigational Report. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban No. 17; ref. 7929] Off Limpopo River mouth, South Africa, depth 235-240 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 986 [ex ORI B869]. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 987 [ex ORI B868] (1). Additional material: ORI uncat. (1). •Valid as Raja lanceorostrata Wallace 1967 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1982:449 [ref. 8444], Hulley 1986:122 [ref. 5672], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827]). •Valid as Dipturus lanceorostratus (Wallace 1967) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:139 [ref. 30471], Shao et al. 2008:237 [ref. 29952], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:261 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus lanceorostratus (Wallace 1967). Rajidae. Distribution: Mozambique and ?Taiwan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

latastei, Raja Delfin [F. T.] 1902:264, Pl. 11 [Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (Santiago) v. 6; ref. 17397] Chile. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Raja chilensis Guichenot 1848 -- (Lloris & Rucabado 1991:44 [ref. 22530]). •Valid as Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot 1848) -- (Vargas-Caro et al. 2015:325 [ref. 33982]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus chilensis (Guichenot 1848). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

leiobatos, Raja Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:10 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] European seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.201 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:206 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. Based on literature sources and specimen(s). •Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1958:206 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Malacoraja clavata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lemprieri, Raia Richardson [J.] 1845:34, Pl. 23 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): Whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Raja lemprieri Richardson 1845 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:56 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:167 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:352 [ref. 23873], Kuiter 1997:18 [ref. 25488]). •Valid as Okamejei lemprieri (Richardson 1845) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Dipturus lemprieri (Richardson 1845) -- (Last & Yearsley 2002:1640 [ref. 26568], Hoese et al. 2006:182 [ref. 29001], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Last & White 2008:117 [ref. 30618]). •Valid as Dentiraja lemprieri (Richardson 1845) -- (Last & Gledhill 2008:109 [ref. 29650], Last & Gledhill 2008:119 [ref. 29561], Weigmann 2016:106 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:16, 20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:238 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dentiraja lemprieri (Richardson 1845). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: Victoria, Tasmania and eastern South Australia. Habitat: marine.

lentiginosa, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1951:383, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 41 (no. 12); ref. 12883] Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico, 22°32'N, 88°47'W, depth 29 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 153552. Paratypes or additional material: (7) MCZ 37188 (1); USNM 153553-55 (1, 2, 1). •Valid as Raja lentiginosa Bigelow & Schroeder 1951 -- (McEachran 1977:430 [ref. 7268], Robins & Ray 1986:39 [ref. 23100]). •Synonym of Raja garmani Whitley 1939 -- (Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:38 [ref. 22793], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:147 [ref. 27754]). •Valid as Leucoraja lentiginosa (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:163 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:541 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:116 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:113 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:285 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja lentiginosa (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

leopardus, Raia von Bonde [C.] & Swart [D. B.] 1923:7, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 5); ref. 522] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle stations 336 and 444, depth 40-280 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1935.7.14.2-3 (2). Specific name is an undeclinable noun. •Valid as Raja leopardus von Bonde & Swart 1923 -- (Hulley 1986:122 [ref. 5672], Stehmann 1990:46 [ref. 19316], Compagno et al. 1991:105 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:93 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:87 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Rajella leopardus (von Bonde & Swart 1923) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:135 [ref. 30471], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Weigmann et al. 2014:383 [ref. 33443] as leoparda, Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211] as leoparda, McEachran & Séret 2016:1402 [ref. 34551] as leoparda, Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941] as leoparda, Last et al. 2016:345 [ref. 35000] as leoparda). Current status: Valid as Rajella leopardus (von Bonde & Swart 1923). Rajidae. Distribution: Mauritania to South Africa. Habitat: marine.

leptocauda, Raja (Dipturus) Krefft [G.] & Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1975:79, Figs. 1-2 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 7435] Off southern Brazil, 24°21'S, 43°54'W, depth 500 meters. Holotype: ZMH 25254 [ex ISH 1913-1968]. Type catalog: Krefft 1978:6 [ref. 9884]. •Valid as Raja leptocauda Krefft & Stehmann 1975 -- (Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827]). •Valid as Dipturus leptocauda (Krefft & Stehmann 1975) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:80 [ref. 24909], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], Soto & Mincarone 2001:6 [ref. 26630], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27192], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2008:35 [ref. 29969], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211] as leptocaudus, Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941] as leptocaudus, Last et al. 2016:262 [ref. 35000] as leptocaudus, Nión et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus leptocauda (Krefft & Stehmann 1975). Rajidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

leptoura, Okamejei Last [P. R.] & Gledhill [D. C.] 2008:125, Figs. 7-12 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29651] North of Cape Lambert, Western Australia, 18°57'S, 117°14'E, depth 248-253 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 4031-06. Paratypes: 19 specimens at CSIRO and WAM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Okamejei leptoura Last & Gledhill 2008 -- (Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Weigmann 2016:116 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:309 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei leptoura Last & Gledhill 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

leucobatos, Raja Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:10 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian seas. No types known. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

leucosticta, Raja (Leucoraja) Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1971:3, Figs. 3-9, 12 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 7474] West Africa, 4°58'S, 11°20'30"E, eastern Atlantic, depth 200-300 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 522 [ex IRSNB 8545]. Paratypes: IRSNB 523 [ex IRSNB 8495] (1), IRSNB 524 [ex IRSNB 8535] (1); ZMH 25255 [ ex ISH 273-1963] (1). Type catalog: Krefft 1978:6 [ref. 9884], Walschaerts 1987:5 [ref. 20755], Thiel et al. 2009:25 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Raja leucosticta Stehmann 1971 -- (Stehmann 1990:35 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:109 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Leucoraja leucosticta (Stehmann 1971) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], Weigmann 2016:113 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1390 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:286 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja leucosticta (Stehmann 1971). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Gabon. Habitat: marine.

lintea, Raja Fries [B. F.] 1838:154 [29], Fig. 10 of tooth [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm 1838; ref. 18097] Northern Europe, Bohuslän [Sweden]; North Sea [eastern North Atlantic]. Holotype (?): NRM 206a (stuffed, probably lost). On p. 29 of separate. Based on literature and specimens. •Valid as Raja lintea Fries 1838 -- (Stehmann 1973:67 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:194 [ref. 13675], Scott & Scott 1988:47 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:37 [ref. 14674], Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1995:60 [ref. 22531], Dolgov & Igashov 2001:270 [ref. 25408]). •Valid as Dipturus linteus (Fries 1838) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Møller et al. 2010:17 [ref. 31169], Iglésias et al. 2010:327 [ref. 30586], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:115 [ref. 31212], Parin et al. 2014:35 [ref. 33547]). •Valid as Rajella lintea (Fries 1838) -- (Stehmann 2012:46 [ref. 31995] dated 1839, Dyldin 2015:73 [ref. 34524], Afonso et al. 2016:13, 262 [ref. 36199], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:345 [ref. 35000], Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211] with date as 1839, Mecklenburg et al. 2018:51 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Rajella lintea (Fries 1838). Rajidae. Distribution: North Atlantic and Arctic Seas. Habitat: marine.

lipacantha, Raja fyllae Jensen [A. S.] 1905:233 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1905; ref. 18333] Skagerak, North Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 18292 (1); ZMUC P 08717-18 (1, 1), P 08723-36 (14). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:9 [ref. 9588], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:173 [ref. 21041]. •Synonym of Raja fyllae Lütken 1887 -- (Stehmann 1973:65 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Rajella fyllae (Lütken 1887) -- (Dyldin 2015:73 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Rajella fyllae (Lütken 1887). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

macrocauda, Raja Ishiyama [R.] 1955:43, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of the Shimonoseki College of Fisheries v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 12276] Miya fish market, Japan. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (23) CAS 23169 (1), 23172 (1). •Valid as Raja macrocauda Ishiyama 1955 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:65, 307 [ref. 8057], Ishihara 1987:278 [ref. 6264], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995]). •Valid as Dipturus macrocauda (Ishiyama 1955) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Jeong 1999:202 [ref. 25171], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:173 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:173 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:66, 482 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:398 [ref. 28370], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041] as macrocaudus, Hsu et al. 2013:253 [ref. 33043], Ebert et al. 2013:353 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:235 [ref. 33330], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211] as macrocaudus, Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941] as macrocaudus, Last et al. 2016:263 [ref. 35000] as macrocaudus). Current status: Valid as Dipturus macrocauda (Ishiyama 1955). Rajidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan, Taiwan and China. Habitat: marine.

macrocephala, Raja Banks [J.] in Müller & Henle 1841:177 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Not available; Banks' manuscript name mentioned under Myliobatis nieuhofii. Rajidae.

macrophthalma, Raja Ishiyama [R.] 1950:31, Fig. 1 (MA) [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 18327] Off Hamada Prefecture, Japan, depth 80-90 meters. Ishiyama non-types (1958 publ.): MCZ 40287 (1), 40289 (1), 40291 (1). Described first from an egg case as above, from adults as Raja (Okamejei) macrophthalma in Ishiyama 1958:358 [ref. 2308]. Technically, the types appear to be the 2 eggcases described in 1950. •Valid as Raja macrophthalma Ishiyama 1950 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Okamura & Machida 1986:21 [ref. 22278]). •Synonym of Raja meerdervoortii Bleeker 1860 -- (Ishihara 1987:271 [ref. 6264]). •Synonym of Okamejei meerdervoorti (Bleeker 1860) -- (Dyldin 2015:72 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Okamejei meerdervoortii (Bleeker 1860). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

macrorynchus, Raja Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:15 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Appeared first in Rafinesque 1810:47 [ref. 3595] with citation to Rafinesque 1810 [ref. 3594] [3594 technically published later]. •Valid as Raja macrorynchus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Stehmann 1990:33 [ref. 19316]). •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Lipej & Dulčić 2010:13 [ref. 36649] as macrorhynchus). Current status: Uncertain as Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic (if valid). Habitat: marine.

maculata, Raia Montagu [G.] 1818:426 [Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society, Edinburgh v. 2 (Pt. 2, art. 27); ref. 17785] Southern coast of Devonshire, Devon, England, English Channel, northeastern Atlantic. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Raja maculata Shaw 1804, replaced by Raja montagui Fowler 1910. •Objective synonym of Raja montagui Fowler 1910 -- (Stehmann 1973:61 [ref. 7168]). •Status uncertain -- (Stehmann 1990:49 [ref. 19316] but treated correctly on p. 41 as objective synonym of Raja montagui Fowler 1910). Current status: Synonym of Raja montagui Fowler 1910. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Cephaleutherus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48, 61 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Based on an abnormal specimen of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Malacoraja clavata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maderensis, Raia Lowe [R. T.] 1838:195 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Off Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Raja maderensis Lowe 1838 -- (Stehmann 1973:60 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:186 [ref. 13675], Stehmann 1990:39 [ref. 19316], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:138 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:112 [ref. 22055], Santos et al. 1997:15 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:23 [ref. 24952], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Ball et al. 2016:573 [ref. 36106] reporting lack of genetic distinctiveness from R. clavata, McEachran & Séret 2016:1400 [ref. 34551], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:322 [ref. 35000], Weigmann 2016:119 [ref. 34211] see remarks). Current status: Valid as Raja maderensis Lowe 1838. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

magellanica, Raja Steindachner [F.] 1903:212 [Zoologische Jahrbücher. Jena, Supplementband v. 6 (for 1905); ref. 15047] Punta Arenas, Chile. Syntypes: (2) NMW 2070 (1). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Raja magellanica Philippi 1902. •Wrongly treated as valid -- (Stehmann 1986:263 [ref. 6151], Menni & Stehmann 2000:85 [ref. 24909]). •Also see entries under Raja magellanica Philippi which may be this species. Current status: Synonym of Raja. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

maggiore, Raja falsavela var. Döderlein [P.] 1884:202 [Manuale Ittiologico del Mediterraneo ossia sinossi metodica delle varie specie di pesci riscontrate sin qui nel Mediterraneo ossia senossi metodica delle di Sicilia. 5 parts.; ref. 17416] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Apparently a synonym of Raja circularis Couch 1838. •Synonym of Leucoraja circularis (Couch 1838). Current status: Synonym of Leucoraja circularis (Couch 1838). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

marginata, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:662, 663, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Dieppe, France; Liverpool and Brighton, England. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:31 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Raja alba Lacepède 1803 -- (Stehmann 1973:66 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:193 [ref. 13675], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:24 [ref. 26753]). •Synonym of Rostroraja alba (Lacepède 1803) -- (Lipej & Dulčić 2010:14 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Rostroraja alba (Lacepède 1803). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

marklei, Breviraja McEachran [J. D.] & Miyake [T.] 1987:410, Figs. 1-4 [Copeia 1987 (no. 2); ref. 5973] Off Nova Scotia, Canada, 44°45.1'N, 56°07.1'W, depth 988 meters. Holotype: NMC 86-0036. Paratypes: MCZ 63198 (2), ROM 50330 (1), USNM 277973 (1). May be a junior synonym of Rajella fyllae (see Moore et al. 2003:171 [ref. 27076]). •Valid as Breviraja marklei McEachran & Miyake 1987 -- (McAllister 1990:35 [ref. 14674], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Moore et al. 2003:171 [ref. 27076]). •Synonym of Rajella fyllae (Lütken 1887) -- (Dyldin 2015:73 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941]). Current status: Synonym of Rajella fyllae (Lütken 1887). Rajidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

maroccana, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:367 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Morocco, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7843 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:174 [ref. 21041], Paepke 1999:122 [ref. 24282]. •Status uncertain -- (Stehmann 1973:69 [ref. 7168], Stehmann 1990:50 [ref. 19316]). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

maugeana, Zearaja Last [P. R.] & Gledhill [D. C.] 2007:52, Figs. 4-13 [Zootaxa No. 1494; ref. 29177] Macquarie Harbour, 42°21'S, 145°32'E, Australia. Holotype: CSIRO H 3975-01. Paratypes: AMS I 40748-001 (1); CSIRO H 1987-01 (1), H 3747-01 (1), H 3976-01 (1), H 3976-02 (1), H 4486-01 (1), H 4487-01 (1), H 5544-01 (1). •Valid as Zearaja maugeana Last & Gledhill 2007 -- (Last et al. 2008:9 [ref. 29647], Weigmann 2016:124 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:362 [ref. 35000]). •Valid as Dipturus maugeanus (Last & Gledhill 2007) -- (Concha et al. 2019:507 [ref. 36686]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus maugeanus (Last & Gledhill 2007). Rajidae. Distribution: Southwestern Tasmania, Australia. Habitat: brackish.

meerdervoortii, Raja Bleeker [P.] 1860:66 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 1); ref. 374] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7432. For information on types see Boeseman 1979:275 [ref. 20685]. •Valid as Raja meerdervoortii Bleeker 1860 -- (Boeseman 1979:275 [ref. 20685], Ishihara 1987:271 [ref. 6264], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995]). •Valid as Okamejei meerdervoortii (Bleeker 1860) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Jeong 1999:203 [ref. 25171], Nakabo 2000:173 [ref. 25086]). •Valid as Okamejei meerdervoortii (Bleeker 1860) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Jeong 1999:203 [ref. 25171], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:173 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:173 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:66, 484 [ref. 26218], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Yamashita et al. 2012:131 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:356 [ref. 33045], Parin et al. 2014:36 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:72 [ref. 34524], Hara et al. 2016:5 [ref. 36169], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:310 [ref. 35000], Weigmann 2016:116 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei meerdervoortii (Bleeker 1860). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern China to southern Korea and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

melanospilus, Dipturus Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Pogonoski [J. J.] 2008:34, Figs. 20-25 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29647] South of Saumarez Reef, Saumarez Plateau, Queensland, Australia, 22°49'S, 154°10'E, depth 445-450 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 715-05. Paratypes: 21 specimens at AMS, CSIRO, QM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Dipturus melanospilus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:264 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus melanospilus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Australia: Queensland to New South Wales. Habitat: marine.

melitensis, Raia Clark [R. S.] 1926:43, Pl. 21 (fig. b) [Fisheries, Scotland, Scientific Investigations 1926 No. 1; ref. 15582] Malta, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1926.12.20.2 (1). •Valid as Raja melitensis Clark 1926 -- (Stehmann 1973:67 [ref. 7168], Capapé 1980:114 [ref. 9546], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:180 [ref. 13675]). •Valid as Leucoraja melitensis (Clark 1926) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], Weigmann 2016:113 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:287 [ref. 35000], Ben Amor et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36367]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja melitensis (Clark 1926). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

mengae, Okamejei Jeong [C.-H.], Nakabo [T.] & Wu [H.-L.] 2007:58, Figs. 1-2 [Korean Journal of Ichthyology v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 29187] Shantou, Gwangdong, China. Holotype (unique): SFC S04105. •Valid as Okamejei mengae Jeong, Nakabo & Wu 2007 -- (Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Weigmann 2016:116 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:311 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei mengae Jeong, Nakabo & Wu 2007. Rajidae. Distribution: South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

mennii, Dipturus Gomes [U. L.] & Paragó [C.] 2001:2, Figs. 1-3 [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro No. 448; ref. 25669] Santa Catarina, 26°44'15"S, 47°09'57", western Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 51600. Paratypes: UERJ 1893 (1). •Valid as Dipturus mennii Gomes & Paragó 2001 -- (Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27192] as menni, Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2008:35 [ref. 29969], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:265 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus mennii Gomes & Paragó 2001. Rajidae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

meta, Raja agassizi var. Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:163 [20] [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] 1903 (nos 4-7); ref. 3709] East-southeast of Ilha Rasa, off coast of Brazil. Syntypes: MNRJ 597-604 (12). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:406 [ref. 12732]. On p. 20 of separate. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

microocellata, Raia Montagu [G.] 1818:430 [Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society, Edinburgh v. 2 (Pt. 2, art. 27); ref. 17785] South coast of Devonshire, Devon, England, United Kingdom, English Channel, northeastern Atlantic. No types known. •Valid as Raja microocellata Montagu 1818 -- (Stehmann 1973:60 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:186 [ref. 13675], Stehmann 1990:40 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:112 [ref. 22055], Santos et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:23 [ref. 24952], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], George 2009:57 [ref. 30539], Weigmann 2016:119 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1400 [ref. 34551], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Gordon et al. 2016:268 [ref. 34661], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:323 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja microocellata Montagu 1818. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic including southern North Sea. Habitat: marine.

minor, Raja asterias var. Döderlein [P.] 1884:184 [Manuale Ittiologico del Mediterraneo ossia sinossi metodica delle varie specie di pesci riscontrate sin qui nel Mediterraneo ossia senossi metodica delle di Sicilia. 5 parts.; ref. 17416] Palermo, Sicily; Mediterranean Sea; Adriatic Sea; Atlantic. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

minore, Raja falsavela var. Döderlein [P.] 1884:202 [Manuale Ittiologico del Mediterraneo ossia sinossi metodica delle varie specie di pesci riscontrate sin qui nel Mediterraneo ossia senossi metodica delle di Sicilia. 5 parts.; ref. 17416] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

miraletus, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:231 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea [original: "in mari Mediterraneo"]; localities include Provence and Marseille, France; Venice, Italy. No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed. Originally based on multiple species and at least 20 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:72 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:101 [ref. 30349] as Raja dorso ventreque glabris; Rondelet 1554:349 [ref. 30354] as Raja oculata & laeui, Gesner 1558:933 [ref. 30350] as Raia ocvlata et laevi, Salviani 1558:150 [ref. 30229] as Raia stellaris, Jonston 1649:Pl. 9 (fig. 4) [ref. 30579] as Raia oculata et leuis, Charleton 1668:130 [ref. 30580] as Raia oculata, Ray 1713:27 [ref. 30231] as Raia oculata levis. Misspelled miralaletus by Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:12 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:186 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Raja miraletus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:58 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:187 [ref. 13675], Hulley 1986:123 [ref. 5672], Stehmann 1990:40 [ref. 19316], Compagno et al. 1991:102 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:94 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:106 [ref. 22055], Capapé et al. 1999:52 [ref. 25276], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:23 [ref. 26753], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:81 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2007:19 [ref. 29533], Compagno & Ebert 2007:139 [ref. 30471], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:14 [ref. 36649], Naylor et al. 2012:96 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Weigmann 2016:119 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1392 [ref. 34551], Last & Séret 2016:488 [ref. 34640], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:324 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja miraletus Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Morocco, including Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

molaridens, Raia Owen [R.] 1853:107 [Descriptive catalogue of the osteological series; ref. 4988] South Australia. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

mollis, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1950:388, Pl. 2 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 103 (no. 7); ref. 302] South of southern Nova Scotia, 4l°53'00"N, 65°35'00"W, Albatross station 2072, depth 858 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 33385. •Synonym of Raja mollis Bigelow & Schroeder 1950 -- (Scott & Scott 1988:48 [ref. 25518]). •Synonym of Raja spinacidermis Barnard 1923 -- (Stehmann 1973:65 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:182 [ref. 13675], Compagno et al. 1991:97 [ref. 21083]). •Synonym of Malacoraja spinacidermis (Barnard 1923) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Malacoraja spinacidermis (Barnard 1923). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

montagui, Raja Fowler [H. W.] 1910:468 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 62; ref. 1379] South coast of Devonshire, Devon, England, United Kingdom, English Channel, northeastern Atlantic. No types known. Replacement name for Raja maculata Montagu 1818, preoccupied by Raja maculata Shaw 1804. •Valid as Raja montagui Fowler 1910 -- (Stehmann 1973:60 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:188 [ref. 13675], Stehmann 1990:41 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:113 [ref. 22055], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:23 [ref. 26753], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:19 [ref. 29533], George 2009:57 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:14 [ref. 36649], Weigmann 2016:119 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1401 [ref. 34551], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Gordon et al. 2016:269 [ref. 34661], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:325 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja montagui Fowler 1910. Rajidae. Distribution: Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Shetland Islands south to Morocco. Habitat: marine.

montereyensis, Raja Gilbert [C. H.] 1915:307, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 48 (no. 2075); ref. 1632] Monterey Bay off Santa Cruz, California, U.S.A., Albatross station 4531, depth 26-28 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 75806. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

morula, Raja Nardo [G. D.] 1827:25, 34 (no. 9) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 476 and 482 [ref. 19740]. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

mosaica, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:675, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] France; England. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:31 [ref. 9312]. See account of Raja picta Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Raja undulata Lacepède 1802 -- (Stehmann 1973:68 [ref. 7168]). Current status: Synonym of Raja undulata Lacepède 1802. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

motoro, Raja Natterer [J.] in Diesing 1836:25 [Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 18471] Not available, no distinguishing characters mentioned; also appeared as a manuscript name in the account of Taeniura motoro Müller & Henle 1841:197 [ref. 3069]. Rajidae.

mouldi, Breviraja McEachran [J. D.] & Matheson [R. E., Jr.] 1995:240 [Copeia 1995 (no. 1); ref. 22015] Off Honduras, 16°43'N, 82°44'W, Oregon station 1943, depth 503 meters. Holotype: MCZ 40200. Paratypes: MCZ 61441 (8). Other material: MCZ 40181 (1), 40216 (5 of 9), 40232 (5 of 13), 41760 (3), 41968 (1), 42467 (5); UF 29853 (5). Replacement name for Breviraja schroederi McEachran & Matheson 1985, preoccupied by Breviraja schroederi Krefft 1968. •Valid as Breviraja mouldi McEachran & Matheson 1995 -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:547 [ref. 26985], Weigmann 2016:105 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Breviraja mouldi McEachran & Matheson 1995. Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Honduras to Panama. Habitat: marine.

mucosa, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1798:72 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Not available, name only. Rajidae.

mucosa, Raja Steller [G. W.] in Pallas 1814:61 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Kamchatka, Russia. Based exclusively on quoted Steller manuscript. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

mucosissima, Raja Nardo [G. D.] 1827:25, 34 (no. 7) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 476 and 482 [ref. 19740]. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

mucronata, Raia Couch [J.] in Yarrell 1836:414 [A history of British fishes; ref. 4812] Original not seen; apparently name in synonymy. Rajidae.

musmarinus, Raja Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xviii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Not available, no description; from Malta. Rajidae.

naevus, Raja Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:138, 194 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Abbeville, France; Toulon, France, western Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic coasts of Europe; Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1306 (1) Abbeville, 0000-1332 (1) Toulon, ?RMNH 4237 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:83 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:15 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Raja naevus Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Stehmann 1973:65 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:181 [ref. 13675], Stehmann 1990:36 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:39 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Leucoraja naevus (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:22 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:18 [ref. 29533], Fricke et al. 2007:18 [ref. 29533], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], George 2009:57 [ref. 30539], Weigmann 2016:113 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1398 [ref. 34551], Gordon et al. 2016:262 [ref. 34661], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:288 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja naevus (Müller & Henle 1841). Rajidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: North Sea south to Senegal. Habitat: marine.

nasuta, Raja Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] (ex Banks) 1841:150 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Australian sea and near Totaranni, New Zealand. No types known. •Valid as Raja nasuta Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Garrick & Paul 1974:353 [ref. 7421], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Paxton et al. 1989:56 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:28 [ref. 24556], Ishihara in Amaoka et al. 1990:87 [ref. 16024]). •Valid as Dipturus nasutus (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Last & Yearsley 2002:1640 [ref. 26568] as nasuta with author as Banks). •Valid as Zearaja nasuta (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Last & Gledhill 2007:50 [ref. 29177], Last et al. 2008:9 [ref. 29647], Last & Stewart 2015:179 [ref. 34224], Weigmann 2016:124 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:363 [ref. 35000], Concha et al. 2019:506 [ref. 36686]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus nasutus (Müller & Henle 1841). Rajidae. Distribution: New Zealand and nearby plateaus and the Chatham Rise. Habitat: marine.

nidarosiensis, Raja Storm [V.] (ex Collett) 1881:80 [Det Kongelige Norske videnskabers selskabs skrifter. Trondheim. v. 4 (1880); ref. 19334] Munkholmen, Trondheim Fjord, Norway, eastern North Atlantic. Syntypes: ZMUO J6339 (1, stuffed male in poor condition), ZMUO (2, lost). Type catalog: Pethon 1969:3 [ref. 19268]. Also appeared as new in Collett 1882:1, Pl. (figs. 1-5) [ref. 18020] [date from Pethon] as Raja nidrosiensis. •Valid as Raja nidarosiensis Storm 1881 -- (Stehmann 1973:63 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:176 [ref. 13675], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Stehmann 1990:32 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:105 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Dipturus nidarosiensis (Storm 1881) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Iglésias et al. 2010:329 [ref. 30586], Cannas et al. 2010:341 [ref. 30787], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211] see remarks, McEachran & Séret 2016:1396 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:266 [ref. 35000], Carbonara et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36762], Geraci et al. 2019:204 [ref. 36776]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus nidarosiensis (Storm 1881). Rajidae. Distribution: Western and central Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Iceland south to South Africa. Habitat: marine.

nigerrima, Breviraja de Buen [F.] 1960:28, Fig. 10 [Revista de Biologia Marina, Valparaiso v. 10 (nos 1-3); ref. 11965] About 20 miles off Algarrobo, Chile, 33°20'29"S, 71°59'00"W, depth 800 meters. Holotype: EBMC 10207. Paratypes: EBMC 10208 (1). A neotype (USNM 267046) was designated by McEachran & Miyake 1984:785 [ref. 17441] without information on the loss of the original types; if they are lost then the neotype locality is off Chile, 34°53.5'S, 72°44'W, 780-925 fms. •Valid as Malacoraja nigerrima (de Buen 1960) -- (McEachran & Miyake 1984:785 [ref. 17441], Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:89 [ref. 24555]). •Valid as Breviraja nigerrima de Buen 1960 -- (Pequeño & Lamilla 1985:243 [ref. 9593]). •Valid as Rajella nigerrima (de Buen 1960) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Weigmann 2016:122 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:346 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rajella nigerrima (de Buen 1960). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Ecuador to Chile. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:670, 674, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Seine River mouth, France. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:31 [ref. 9312]. Also appeared in Sonnini 1802:74, 295 [ref. 30461] with author as Lacepède. •Unidentifiable -- (Séret & McEachran 1987:31 [ref. 9312]). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

nigriventralis, Breviraja McEachran [J. D.] & Matheson [R. E., Jr.] 1985:1042, Fig. 6 [Copeia 1985 (no. 4); ref. 8137] Off French Guiana, 7°14'N, 52°55'W, Oregon station 4293, depth 732 meters. Holotype: MCZ 42944. Paratypes: MCZ 61440 (6). Other material: MCZ 40376 (3 of 6), 42955 (4), 42958 (1), 49017 (1); UF (2), UF (1); USNM (2), USNM (1). •Valid as Breviraja nigriventralis McEachran & Matheson 1985 -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:547 [ref. 26985], Weigmann 2016:106 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:227 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Breviraja nigriventralis McEachran & Matheson 1985. Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama to French Guiana (including southern Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

obscura, Malacoraja Carvalho [M. R. de], Gomes [U. L.] & Gadig [O. B. F.] 2005:241, Figs. 1-13 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28271] Espírito Santo State, Brazil, 19°39'57"S, 38°38'26"W, depth 808 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 28289. Paratypes: MNRJ 28290 (1), 28291 (1), 28292 (1, dissected), 28293 (1) •Valid as Malacoraja obscura Carvalho, Gomes & Gadig 2005 -- (Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:294 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Malacoraja obscura Carvalho, Gomes & Gadig 2005. Rajidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic, off southeastern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

obscura, Raia Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:12 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Genus should have been Raja. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Raia obscura Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Graells 1887:186 [ref. 30438]. •In the synonymy of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae.

obscura, Raia Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Graells 1887:186 [Revista de los Progresos de las Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 30438] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Genus should have been Raja. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:12 [ref. 17319], possibly an unpublished work. •In the synonymy of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae.

ocellata, Raja Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:477 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Raja ocellata Mitchill 1815 -- (McEachran & Martin 1977:121 [ref. 21983], Robins & Ray 1986:38 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:49 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:37 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:40 [ref. 23144]). •Valid as Leucoraja ocellata (Mitchill 1815) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:70 [ref. 26158], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Weigmann 2016:113 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:289 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja ocellata (Mitchill 1815). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Newfoundland to North Carolina (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

ocellifera, Raia Regan [C. T.] 1906:2, Pl. 2 [Annals of the Natal Government Museum v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 3628] Algoa Bay; northeast of Bird Island, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 40 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1905.6.8.14 (1), NMP (1); Probable syntype: BMNH 1895.12.27.14 (1) Algoa Bay. •Synonym of Raja miraletus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Hulley 1986:123 [ref. 5672], McEachran & Séret 2016:1392 [ref. 34551]). •Valid as Raja ocellifera Regan 1906 -- (Last & Séret 2016:485 [ref. 34640], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:326 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja ocellifera Regan 1906. Rajidae. Distribution: Off southern Africa, from South Africa and Namibia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

oculata, Raia Stephan [C. F.] 1779:22 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Synonym of Raja miraletus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 2010:65 [ref. 30995]). Current status: Synonym of Raja miraletus Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae.

oculus, Dipturus Last [P. R.] 2008:90, Figs. 33-38 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29648] West of Bunbury, Western Australia, 33°22'S, 114°31'E, depth 203-204 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 2619-01. Paratypes: 12 specimens at CSIRO and NMV. Plus one non-type specimen. •Valid as Dipturus oculus Last 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Dentiraja oculus (Last 2008) -- (Last et al. 2016:16, 20 [ref. 34941] as oculata, Last et al. 2016:239 [ref. 35000] as oculata). Current status: Valid as Dentiraja oculus (Last 2008). Rajidae. Distribution: Off western Australia. Habitat: marine.

odaulax, Raja Rafinesque [C. S.] 1817:453 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 1; ref. 18585] Not available, no distinguishing features (Sw. shores, Long Island, New York, U.S.A.). Rajidae.

ogilbyi, Raja (Spiniraja) Whitley [G. P.] 1939:251, Fig. 15 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4695] Manly Beach, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1346. •Synonym of Raja whitleyi Iredale 1938 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:57 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:168 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:356 [ref. 23873]). •Synonym of Dipturus whitleyi (Iredale 1938) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:183 [ref. 29001]). •Synonym of Spiniraja whitleyi (Iredale 1938). Current status: Synonym of Spiniraja whitleyi (Iredale 1938). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

olseni, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1951:386, Fig. 2 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 41 (no. 12); ref. 12883] Gulf of Mexico, 27°25'N, 96°13'W, Oregon station 157, depth 76 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 153556. Paratypes: MCZ 37176 (1). •Valid as Raja olseni Bigelow & Schroeder 1951 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1982:447 [ref. 8444], Robins & Ray 1986:39 [ref. 23100], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Boschung 1992:26 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:39 [ref. 22793]). •Valid as Dipturus olseni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:156 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:552 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:113 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:267 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus olseni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico and ?Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

omirnovi, Raia Soldatov [V. K.] & Pavlenko [M. N.] 1915:162, Pl. 5 [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 20 (fo 1915); ref. 15069] Okhotsk Sea. Still researching. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

oregoni, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1958:201, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 119 (no. 2); ref. 12049] Northern Gulf of Mexico, 29°10'N, 88°13'W, Oregon station 1247, depth 205 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 156710. Paratypes: MCZ 39617 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Raja oregoni Bigelow & Schroeder 1958 -- (Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:39 [ref. 22793]). •Valid as Dipturus oregoni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1958) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:157 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:553 [ref. 26985], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:115 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:268 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus oregoni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1958). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: eastern Florida (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

ornata, Okamejei Weigmann [S.], Stehmann [M. F. W.] & Thiel [R.] 2015:19, Figs. 1-15, S1-S10 [Deep-Sea Research II v. 115; ref. 33795] Off Socotra Islands, 12°16'06"N, 53°08'02"E to 12°14'07"N, 53°06'02"E, depth 375-380 meters. Holotype: ZMH 25885. Paratypes: CSIRO, MNHN, ZMH. •Valid as Okamejei ornata Weigmann, Stehmann & Thiel 2015 -- (Weigmann 2016:116 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:312 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei ornata Weigmann, Stehmann & Thiel 2015. Rajidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean, off Socotra Islands (Somalia). Habitat: marine.

ornata, Raja Garman [S.] 1881:235 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 8 (no. 11); ref. 14294] Not an original species description as assumed by authors, but a subspecies description; see Raja ornata ackleyi Garman. Rajidae.

ornata, Raja ackleyi var. Garman [S.] 1881:235 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 8 (no. 11); ref. 14294] Off South Carolina, 32°24'N, 78°44'W, depth 142 fathoms. Lectotype: MCZ 915-S. Paralectotypes: MCZ 585-S (1), MCZ 51759 (1); USNM 43727 (1, or now 0). Appeared after Raja ackleyi sp. nov. as Raja ornata var. nov. R. ackleyi which authors have misinterpreted as describing a new species ornata, but Garman states (p. 236), "...that these young skates represent a variety of R. Ackleyi." Objectively invalid; Raja ackleyi ornata is preoccupied by Raia ornata Agassiz 1843 in fossil fishes, replaced by Raja garmani Whitley 1939. Lectotype established by McEachran for garmani, which also establishes a lectotype for ornata. •Synonym of Raja garmani Whitley 1939 -- (Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:38 [ref. 22793]). •Synonym of Leucoraja garmani (Whitley 1939). Current status: Synonym of Leucoraja garmani (Whitley 1939). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

oxyptera, Raja Philippi [R. A.] 1892:4, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile. Primera seccion, Zoología No. 3; ref. 22759] Chile. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 5 of German edition (Philippi 1893 [ref. 14560]). •Synonym of Raja chilensis Guichenot 1848 -- (Lloris & Rucabado 1991:44 [ref. 22530]). •Synonym of Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot 1848) -- (Vargas-Caro et al. 2015:325 [ref. 33982]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus chilensis (Guichenot 1848). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

oxyrinchus, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:231 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea [original: "in M. Mediterraneo & O. Europæo"]; localities include Marseille, France; Liguria and Rome, Italy; Syria; Lesbos Island, Greece. No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed. Originally based on multiple species and at least 25 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:72 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:101 [ref. 30349] as Raja varia, tuberculi decem aculeatis in medio dorsi; Rondelet 1554:348 [ref. 30354] as alia Raja, Gesner 1558:938 [ref. 30350] as Raia oxyrhynchos maior, Salviani 1558:149, Pl. 51 [ref. 30229] as Raia, Jonston 1649:Pl. 9 (fig. 8) [ref. 30579] as Raia oxyrhynchos maior, Ray 1713:26 [ref. 30231] as Raia oxyrhynchos major. Spelled oxyrinchos in Brünnich 1768:2 [ref. 17290], and oxirincus in Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:12 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:186 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Raja oxyrinchus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:63 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:177 [ref. 13675], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Stehmann 1990:33 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:105 [ref. 22055], Santos et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:22 [ref. 24952], Uiblein et al. 1999:60 [ref. 24045]). •Valid as Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589] as oxyrhynchus, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:21 [ref. 26753], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Iglésias et al. 2010:329 [ref. 30586], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:13 [ref. 36649], Naylor et al. 2012:95 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1397 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:269 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Norway and North Sea south to Senegal, including Madeira (rare) and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

oxyrynchus, Raia Stephan [C. F.] 1779:22 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2010:64 [ref. 30995]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

parva, Raja Last [P. R.] & Séret [B.] 2016:478, Figs. 1-7 [Zootaxa 4147 (no. 4); ref. 34640] Off Monrovia, Liberia, Eastern Atlantic, depth 27 meters. Holotype: USNM 193744. Paratype: USNM. •Valid as Raja parva Last & Séret 2016 -- (Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:327 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja parva Last & Séret 2016. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Central Atlantic, Senegal south to Namibia. Habitat: marine.

pastinaca, Raia Stephan [C. F.] 1779:18 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Synonym of Raja pastinaca Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 2010:64 [ref. 30995]). •Synonym of Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

paucispinosa, Rajella Weigmann [S.], Stehmann [M. F. W.] & Thiel [R.] 2014:362, Figs. 2-22 [Zootaxa 3847 (no. 3); ref. 33443] 25°28'03"S, 35°28'07"E - 25°32'05"S, 35°32'05"E, off South Mozambique, depth 1230-1260 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 26000. •Valid as Rajella paucispinosa Weigmann, Stehmann & Thiel 2014 -- (Weigmann 2016:123 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:347 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rajella paucispinosa Weigmann, Stehmann & Thiel 2014. Rajidae. Distribution: Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

philipi, Raia Lloyd [R. E.] 1906:309 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 18 (no. 106); ref. 15662] Gulf of Aden, 13°36'N, 47°32'E, depth 130 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI 1383/1 (lost). Holotype figured in Lloyd 1908 [ref. 20538], pls. 40-41. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Valid as Raja philipi Lloyd 1906 -- (Stehmann 1976:168 [ref. 7085]). •Status uncertain -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1982:449 [ref. 8444]). •Probably a synonym of Raja powelli Alcock 1898 -- (Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827]). •Questionably valid as Okamejei philipi (Lloyd 1906) -- (Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Okamejei philipi (Lloyd 1906) -- (Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Weigmann et al. 2015:28 [ref. 33795], Weigmann 2016:116 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Orbiraja philipi (Lloyd 1906) -- (Last et al. 2016:53 [ref. 34868] needs reassessment, Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:315 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Orbiraja philipi (Lloyd 1906). Rajidae. Distribution: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

picta, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:670, 675, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Shores of France; England. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:32 [ref. 9312]. Named Raja mosaica on p. 675; first reviser not researched. Also appeared as Raja picta in Sonnini 1802:75 [ref. 30461] with author as Lacepède, and as Raja mosaica on p. 297. •Synonym of Raja undulata Lacepède 1802 -- (Stehmann 1973:68 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:196 [ref. 13675], Stehmann 1990:48 [ref. 19316], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:24 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:14 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Raja undulata Lacepède 1802. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

picta, Raja agassizi var. Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:162 [19] [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] 1903 (nos 4-7); ref. 3709] East-southeast of Ilha Rasa, off coast of Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 608A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 608B (1). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:406 [ref. 12732], Miranda Ribeiro 1959:7 [ref. 22036]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Raja picta Lacepède 1802, replaced by Raja agassizi ribeiroi Fowler 1910. On p. 19 of separate. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1959:7 [ref. 22036]. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

pigara, Raja Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:15 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:47 [ref. 3595]. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

pita, Raja (Okamejei) Fricke [R.] & Al-Hassan [L. A. J.] 1995:3, Figs. 1-2 [Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie A (Biologie). No. 529; ref. 22649] Persian Gulf at Fao, Iraq, 29°54'N, 48°25'E, depth 0-15 meters. Holotype (unique): SMNS 14381. Type catalog: Fricke 2005:56 [ref. 29864]. •Valid as Okamejei pita (Fricke & Al-Hassan 1995) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Ali et al. 2018:303 [ref. 36183]). •Valid as Raja pita Fricke & Al-Hassan 1995 -- (Weigmann et al. 2015:29 [ref. 33795], Weigmann 2016:120 [ref. 34211] see remarks as Leucoraja or Rajella, Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:328 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja pita Fricke & Al-Hassan 1995. Rajidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: marine.

polyommata, Raja Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:86 [On some new fishes from the Queensland coast; ref. 3289] 38 miles northeast of North Reef, off Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, depth 75 fathoms. Lectotype: AMS I.10904. Paralectotypes: (4). Lectotype selected by Whitley 1939:255 [ref. 4695]. •Valid as Raja polyommata Ogilby 1910 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1982:7 [ref. 8443], Paxton et al. 1989:57 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:353 [ref. 23873], Compagno et al. 1999:1407 [ref. 24636], Last & Compagno 1999:1454 [ref. 24639]). •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Dipturus polyommata (Ogilby 1910) -- (Last & Yearsley 2002:1640 [ref. 26568], Hoese et al. 2006:182 [ref. 29001], Last 2008:53 [ref. 29648], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Dentiraja polyommata (Ogilby 1910) -- (Last et al. 2016:16, 20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:240 [ref. 35000], Rigby et al. 2017:331 [ref. 35469]). Current status: Valid as Dentiraja polyommata (Ogilby 1910). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

polystigma, Raia Regan [C. T.] 1923:529 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 11 (no. 64) (art. 56); ref. 15425] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: (4) BMNH 1888.11.29.111 [ex MSNM] (1); Nice, 1893.2.28.43 (1); Zara, 1893.9.21.11-12 (2). •Valid as Raja polystigma Regan 1923 -- (Stehmann 1973:67 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:189 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:24 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:19 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:14 [ref. 36649], Weigmann 2016:120 [ref. 34211], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:329 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja polystigma Regan 1923. Rajidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: possibly Portugal and Morocco. Habitat: marine.

pontica, Raja Pallas [P. S.] 1814:58 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] [Littore Tauriae] Ukraine, Black Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:59 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Malacoraja clavata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

porosa, Raja Günther [A.] 1874:154 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 13 (no. 74) (art. 23); ref. 14189] China. Syntypes: BMNH 1874.1.16.60-61 (2). •Valid as Raja porosa Günther 1874 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Cheng & Zhou 1997:48 [ref. 26385], Wang et al. 2001:40 [ref. 26566]). •Synonym of Raja kenojei Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Boeseman 1979:277 [ref. 20685], Ishihara 1987:261 [ref. 6264]). •Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Youn 2002:483 [ref. 26218], Dyldin 2015:72 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:115 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

powelli, Raja Alcock [A. W.] 1898:145 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 2 (no. 8) (art. 22); ref. 92] Gulf of Martaban, Myanmar, 14°26'N, 96°23'E, Investigator station 226, depth 67 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F235/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:96 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:33 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1899: Pl. 26 (fig. 4) [ref. 20535]. •Valid as Raja powelli Alcock 1898 -- (Stehmann 1976:158 [ref. 7085], McEachran & Fechhelm 1982:447 [ref. 8444], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Fricke & Al-Hassan 1995:8 [ref. 22649]). •Valid as Okamejei powelli (Alcock 1898) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Weigmann et al. 2015:29 [ref. 33795], Weigmann 2016:116 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Orbiraja powelli (Alcock 1898) -- (Last et al. 2016:53 [ref. 34868], Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:316 [ref. 35000], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178] as cf. powelli). Current status: Valid as Orbiraja powelli (Alcock 1898). Rajidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

pristispina, Leucoraja Last [P. R.], Stehmann [M. F. W.] & Séret [B.] 2008:145, Figs. 1-6 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29653] Southwest of Imperieuse Reef (Rowley Shoals), Western Australia, 18°07'S, 118°09'E, depth 400-404 meters. Holotype: CSIRO CA 3905. Paratypes: 27 specimens at CSIROand WAM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Leucoraja pristispina Last, Stehmann & Séret 2008 -- (Weigmann 2016:113 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:290 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja pristispina Last, Stehmann & Séret 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Western Australia and East Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

pulchra, Raja Liu [F. H.] 1932:162, Figs. 10-10a [The Science reports of National Tsing Hua University. Series B: Biological and psychological sciences. v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 13895] Tsingtao, China. Holotype: THUB 1449. Paratypes: THUB 1443 (1), 1448 (1), 1450 (1). Possibly preoccupied by Raja pulchra Schafhäutl 1863:249 [Süd-Bayerns Lethaea Geognostica], fossil from the Eocene; currently fossil Dasyatis pulchra (Schafhäutl 1863). •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja pulchra Liu 1932 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Ishihara 1987:278 [ref. 6264], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Cheng & Zhou 1997:46 [ref. 26385], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Dolganov 1999:429 [ref. 24873], Jeong 1999:205 [ref. 25171], Nakabo 2000:172 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:172 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:66, 484 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:398 [ref. 28370], Parin et al. 2014:37 [ref. 33547]). •Valid as Beringraja pulchra (Liu 1932) -- (Ishihara et al.2012:23 [ref. 31844], Dyldin 2015:69 [ref. 34524], Tohkairin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 35331], Weigmann 2016:105 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:221 [ref. 35000], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:166 [ref. 35920]). Current status: Valid as Beringraja pulchra (Liu 1932). Rajidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pullopunctata, Raia Smith [J. L. B.] 1964:285, Pl. 25 (fig. A) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 126; ref. 3444] Algoa Bay, 31°7'E, 29°59'S, off coast of South Africa, western Indian Ocean, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 37. Paratypes: (1) not researched. •Valid as Raja pullopunctata Smith 1964 -- (Hulley 1986:123 [ref. 5672], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827], Compagno et al. 1991:95 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:94 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:106 [ref. 22055], Walmsley-Hart et al. 1999:165 [ref. 24222]). •Valid as Dipturus pullopunctatus (Smith 1964) (often as pullopunctata) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:81 [ref. 28072], Compagno & Ebert 2007:139 [ref. 30471], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:270 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus pullopunctatus (Smith 1964). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic to southwestern Indian Ocean: Namibia and South Africa. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Raia Risso [A.] 1810:12 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:32 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Raja asterias Delaroche 1809 -- (Stehmann 1973:58 [ref. 7168], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:22 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:13 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Raja asterias Delaroche 1809. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

purpuriventralis, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1962:184, Figs. 5-6 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 128 (no. 4); ref. 5793] Northern Gulf of Mexico, 27°48'N, 88°45'W, Oregon station 2577, depth 850-1100 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 196440. Originally as purpuri-ventralis. •Valid as Raja purpuriventralis Bigelow & Schroeder 1962 -- (Uyeno & Miyake in Uyeno et al. 1983:76 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:206 [ref. 23827]). •Valid as Malacoraja purpuriventralis (Bigelow & Schroeder 1962) -- (Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:41 [ref. 22793]). •Valid as Dipturus purpuriventralis (Bigelow & Schroeder 1962) -- (Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Rajella purpuriventralis (Bigelow & Schroeder 1962) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:170 [ref. 23897], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27192] as purpuroventralis, McEachran & Carvalho 2003:561 [ref. 26985], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:121 [ref. 34398], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:348 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Rajella purpuriventralis (Bigelow & Schroeder 1962). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pustulata, Raja Rafinesque [C. S.] 1817:453 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 1; ref. 18585] Not available, no distinguishing features; from sw. shores of Long Island, New York, U.S.A. Rajidae.

quadrimaculata, Raia Risso [A.] 1827:150 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:32 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Raja miraletus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:58 [ref. 7168]). Current status: Synonym of Raja miraletus Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quatuoroculos, Raja Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 109 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Raja miraletus Linnaeus 1758; also in Ninni 1872:27 [ref. 17995] where Chiereghini manuscript is quoted but name not treated as valid. Rajidae.

queenslandicus, Dipturus Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Pogonoski [J. J.] 2008:42, Figs. 26-31 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29647] South of Saumarez Reef, Saumarez Plateau, Queensland, Australia, 22°49'S, 154°10'E, depth 445-450 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 715-07. Paratypes: 11specimens at CSIRO and QM. Plus one non-type specimen. •Valid as Dipturus queenslandicus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:271 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus queenslandicus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

radiata, Raja Donovan [E.] 1808:2 unnum. pp., Pl. 114 [The natural history of British fishes, including scientific and general descriptions of the most interesting species, and an extensive selection of accurately finished coloured plates.; ref. 17408] North coast of Britain, northeastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Raja radiata Donovan 1808 -- (Stehmann 1973:61 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:174 [ref. 13675], Hulley 1986:124 [ref. 5672], Robins & Ray 1986:38 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:51 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:37 [ref. 14674], Stehmann 1990:30 [ref. 19316], Compagno et al. 1991:93 [ref. 21083], Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1995:57 [ref. 22531], Stehmann 1995:106 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Amblyraja radiata (Donovan 1808) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Musick et al. 2000:9 [ref. 24959], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:62 [ref. 26158], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:544 [ref. 26985], Moore et al. 2003:170 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Møller et al. 2010:16 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:115 [ref. 31212], Delpiani et al. 2012:57 [ref. 31788], Page et al. 55 [ref. 32708], Dolgov 2013:915 [ref. 33112], Parin et al. 2014:29 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:68 [ref. 34524], Afonso et al. 2016:12, 82 [ref. 36199], Gordon et al. 2016:258 [ref. 34661], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:215 [ref. 35000], Séret 2016:1345 [ref. 34545], Weigmann 2016:103 [ref. 34211] see remarks. Mecklenbueg et al. 2018:41 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Amblyraja radiata (Donovan 1808). Rajidae. Distribution: North Atlantic, south to South Carolina (U.S.A.) and English Channel (including Baltic Sea, North Sea, Barents Sea, White Sea). Not southeastern Atlantic: South Africa [ref. 35000]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

radula, Raja Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:321 [35] [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Baleares Islands, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7512. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:83 [ref. 20739], Capapé & Desoutter 1979 [ref. 20630]. On p. 35 of separate. •Valid as Raja radula Delaroche 1809 -- (Stehmann 1973:67 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:190 [ref. 13675], Capapé & Desoutter 1979:72 [ref. 20630], Stehmann 1982:29 [ref. 21485], Stehmann 1990:42 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:107 [ref. 22055], Golani 1996:22 [ref. 22271], Capapé et al. 1999:53 [ref. 25276], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:24 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:19 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:14 [ref. 36649], Ball et al. 2016:567 [ref. 36106], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Weigmann 2016:120 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Raja radula Delaroche 1809. Rajidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: adjacent coast of Portugal. Habitat: marine.

ravidula, Raja Hulley [P. A.] 1970:196, Pl. 9 (figs. a-b); Fig. 14 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 55 (pt 4); ref. 7750] West of Cape Town, South Africa, 33°49'S, 17°13'E, southeastern Atlantic, depth 1000 meters. Holotype: ZMH 25261 [ex ISH 50-1967]. Paratypes: ZMH 25260 [ex ISH 47-1967a-b] (2). Type catalog: Krefft 1978:6 [ref. 9884], Thiel et al. 2009:25 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Raja ravidula Hulley 1970 -- (Hulley 1986:124 [ref. 5672], Compagno et al. 1991:107 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:94 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:93 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Rajella ravidula (Hulley 1970) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:137 [ref. 30471], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Weigmann et al. 2014:384 [ref. 33443], Weigmann 2016:123 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1403 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:349 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Rajella ravidula (Hulley 1970). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic and South Africa. Habitat: marine.

reversa, Raia Lloyd [R. E.] 1906:310 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 18 (no. 106); ref. 15662] Arabian Sea off Baluchistan coast, 24°04'04"N, 65°43'15"E, Investigator station 367, depth 820 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1381/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:96 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:32 [ref. 22148]. Holotype figured in Lloyd 1908: Pl. 39 and 1908: Pl. 41 (fig. 2) [ref. 20538]. •Valid as Raja reversa Lloyd 1906 -- (Stehmann 1976:151 [ref. 7085]). •Valid as Amblyraja reversa (Lloyd 1906) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Psomadakis et al. 2015:100 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:103 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:216 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Amblyraja reversa (Lloyd 1906). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

rhina, Raia Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:251 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 141); ref. 10579] Monterey Bay and San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (3). Non-types: MNHN A-3364 [ex USNM] (1) Puget Sound. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:85 [ref. 20739]. •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja rhina Jordan & Gilbert 1880 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:52 [ref. 9277], Ishihara 1987:278 [ref. 6264], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], McAllister 1990:38 [ref. 14674], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:39 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Dolganov 1999:429 [ref. 24873], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:97 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Genz et al. 2007:2 [ref. 29332], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Dyldin 2015:72 [ref. 34524], Pietsch & Orr 2015:17 [ref. 34694], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:118 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:120 [ref. 34211], Kells et al. 2016:82 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35618]). •Valid as Beringraja rhina (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:222 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Beringraja rhina (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

rhizacanthus, Raia Regan [C. T.] 1906:3, Pl. 3 [Annals of the Natal Government Museum v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 3628] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.8.13. •Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:60 [ref. 7168], Hulley 1986:120 [ref. 5672]). •Synonym of Malacoraja clavata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rhombea, Raia Osbeck [P.] 1770:99 [Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldina-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum v. 4; ref. 18497] Spain. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Raja. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

rhomboidalis, Raja Tilesius [W. G. von] 1802:77, Pl. [Ueber die sogenannten Seemäuse, oder hornartigen Fischeyer, nebst anatomisch-physiologischen Bemerkungen über die Fortpflanzungsweise der Rochen und Hayfische, ...; ref. 17918] Seas of Portugal. No types known. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

ribeiroi, Raja agassizi Fowler [H. W.] 1910:468 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 62; ref. 1379] East-southeast of Ilha Rasa, off coast of Brazil. Syntypes: MNRJ 608 (2). Replacement name for Raja agassizi picta Ribeiro 1904, preoccupied by Raja picta Lacepède l802. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

robertsi, Raja Hulley [P. A.] 1970:190, Pl. 8 (figs. a-b); Figs 12a-b [Annals of the South African Museum v. 55 (pt 4); ref. 7750] West of Cape Town, South Africa, 33°51'S, 17°14'E, South Atlantic, depth 1350 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 25250 [ex ISH 54-1967]. Type catalog: Krefft 1978:7 [ref. 9884], Thiel et al. 2009:16 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Raja robertsi Hulley 1970 -- (Hulley 1986:125 [ref. 5672], Compagno et al. 1991:93 [ref. 21083], Stehmann 1995:106 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Amblyraja robertsi (Hulley 1970) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:133 [ref. 30471]). •Synonym of Amblyraja hyperborea (Collett 1879) -- (Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941]). Current status: Synonym of Amblyraja hyperborea (Collett 1879). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: South Africa [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

rondeleti, Raja Bougis [P.] 1959:108, Figs. 1-4 [Vie et Milieu v. 10 (fasc. 1); ref. 11978] Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 1898-1249 (1) Sète; uncat. (1) Banyuls; uncat. (1) Sète; uncat. (1, dry) Livourne; MZUF 6132 [ex MZUF 1075] (1). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:15 [ref. 9312], Vanni 1993:105 [ref. 21837]. •Valid as Raja rondeleti Bougis 1959 -- (Stehmann 1973:68 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:195 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:120 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Synonym of Raja fullonica (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Psomadakis et al. 2012:15 [ref. 33457]). •Synonym of Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). •Probably synonymous with Raja clavata (Stehmann & Bürkel 1984) or Leucoraja fullonica (Serena 2005) -- (Last et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34941]). Current status: Synonym of Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

rostellata, Raia Risso [A.] 1810:8, Pls. l-2 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:32 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Raja alba Lacepède 1803 -- (Stehmann 1973:66 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Rostroraja alba (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Rostroraja alba (Lacepède 1803). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

rostrata, Raja Banks [J.] in Müller & Henle 1841:123 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Not available; manuscript name mentioned under Rhinobatus banksii. Rajidae.

rostrata, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:669, 672 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Rouen, France. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:32 [ref. 9312]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Raja rostrata Shaw 1794. Also appeared in Sonnini 1802:144 [ref. 30461]. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

rostrata, Raya Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:57 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Raja. Also appeared as Raya rostrata in Castelnau 1873:17 [ref. 759], earliest not researched. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Raja rostrata Shaw 1794, replaced by Raja scabra Ogilby 1888 (itself preoccupied). •Synonym of Raja whitleyi Iredale 1938 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:57 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:168 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:356 [ref. 23873]). •Synonym of Dipturus whitleyi (Iredale 1938) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:183 [ref. 29001]). •Synonym of Spiniraja whitleyi (Iredale 1938). Current status: Synonym of Spiniraja whitleyi (Iredale 1938). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

rotundata, Raia Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:379, 390 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. •Treated as a synonym of Raia microps Günther [= Raja microps Günther 1880] -- (Devincenzi 1925:319, 322 [ref. 20322]). •Synonym of Sympterygia microps (Günther 1880). Current status: Synonym of Sympterygia microps (Günther 1880). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

rouxi, Raja Capapé [C.] 1977:1024, Figs. 1-5 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 3: Zoologie) No. 339 (482); ref. 7237] West Africa. Syntypes: MNHN 1969-0203 (2), 1969-0214 (2), 1969-0227 (1). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:16 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Raja rouxi Capapé 1977 -- (Stehmann 1990:42 [ref. 19316], Séret 2016:1345 [ref. 34545]). •Synonym of Raja straeleni Poll 1951 -- (Weigmann 2016:121 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Raja straeleni Poll 1951. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic (if valid). Habitat: marine.

rubra, Raia Swainson [W.] 1838:173, Fig. 18 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] No locality. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

rubus, Raia Bloch [M. E.] 1784:67, Pl. 84 [M. Marcus Elieser Bloch's ..., ausübenden Arztes zu Berlin, Oeconomische Naturgeschichte der Fische Deutschlands v. 3; ref. 19645] Coast of America, western North Atlantic. Syntypes: ZMB 4591 (2), 33075 (1). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:122 [ref. 24282]. On p. 62 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 3 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:59 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Malacoraja clavata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:71 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Raja clavata Linnaeus 1758. Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sadowskii, Raja (Rajella) Krefft [G.] & Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1974:34, Figs. 1-3 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 25 (Supplement 1); ref. 7513] Off Brazil, 29°57'S, 47°35'W, depth 1200 meters. Holotype: ZMH 25262 [ex ISH 1807-1968]. Paratypes: ZMH 25263 [ex ISH 1936-1968] (1), 25264 [ex 1973-1968a-e] (5), 25265 [ex 2004-1968] (1). Type catalog: Thiel et al. 2009:25-26 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Raja sadowskii Krefft & Stehmann 1974 -- (Pequeño 1997:79 [ref. 23536]). •Valid as Rajella sadowskii (Krefft & Stehmann 1974) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Long & McCosker 1999:49 [ref. 23764], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:81 [ref. 24909], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27192], Last & Stehmann 2008:135 [ref. 29652], Weigmann 2016:123 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:350 [ref. 35000], Nión et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Rajella sadowskii (Krefft & Stehmann 1974). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific and southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

salviani, Raja Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:143, 195 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic. Syntypes or possible syntypes: MNHN 0000-1570 (1) Nice, 0000-1791 (1) Nice, 0000-3479 (1, stuffed) Nice; RMNH 4240 (1) or D2511 (1, dry), D2509 (1); ZMB 4599 (1) Sicily. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:84 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:15 [ref. 9312], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:174 [ref. 21041]. Based on Laeviraja of Salviani 1558:149, Pl. 52 [ref. 30372] and other sources. •Synonym of Raja oxyrinchus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:63 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

scabra, Raia Ogilby [J. D.] 1888:17 [Catalogue of the fishes in the collection of the Australian Museum. Part I; ref. 14485] Manly Beach, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1346. New name for Raia rostrata Castelnau 1873. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by by Raja scabra Linnaeus l764, replaced by and objective synonym of Raja whitleyi Iredale 1938. •Synonym of Raja whitleyi Iredale 1938 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:168 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:256 [ref. 23873]). •Synonym of Dipturus whitleyi (Iredale 1938) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:183 [ref. 29001]). •Synonym of Spiniraja whitleyi (Iredale 1938). Current status: Synonym of Spiniraja whitleyi (Iredale 1938). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

scabra, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1764:52 [Museum S. R. M. Adolphi Friderici Regis Suecorum Tomus secundi prodromus; ref. 2788] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes [or holotype]: NRM 9071 (1). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

scabrata, Raia Garman [S.] 1913:340, Pls. 21, 44 (figs. 1-3) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 254-S (1), 365-S (2), 1139-S (1), 1289-S (1). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlvi [ref. 23119]. •Synonym of Raja radiata Donovan 1808 -- (Scott & Scott 1988:51 [ref. 25518]). •Synonym of Amblyraja radiata (Donovan 1808) -- (Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xxxii [ref. 23119], Dyldin 2015:69 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Amblyraja radiata (Donovan 1808). Rajidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

schmidti, Raja (Okamejei) Ishiyama [R.] 1958:374 [182], Pl. 3 S; Fig. 81 [Journal of the Shimonoseki College of Fisheries v. 7 (nos 2-3); ref. 2308] Off Ehime Prefecture, Bungo Strait, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 111499. Paratypes: (39 specimens, 4 egg capsules) CAS 23156-57 (1, 1); FAKU 10682 (1), 10685 (1), 111488-89 (1, 1); MCZ 40285 (1), 40316 (1), 40329 (1), 40335 (1). •Valid as Raja schmidti Ishiyama 1958 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Ishihara 1987:279 [ref. 6264]). •Valid as Okamejei schmidti (Ishiyama 1958) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:174 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:174 [ref. 26001], Shimizu 2006:17 [ref. 36075], Jeong et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29187], Last et al. 2010:89 [ref. 30852], Weigmann 2016:116 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:313 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Okamejei schmidti (Ishiyama 1958). Rajidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

schroederi, Breviraja McEachran [J. D.] & Matheson [R. E., Jr.] 1985:1045, Fig. 7 [Copeia 1985 (no. 4); ref. 8137] Off Honduras, 16°43'N, 82°44'W, Oregon station 1943, depth 503 meters. Holotype: MCZ 40200. Paratypes: MCZ 61441 (8). Other material: MCZ 40181 (1), 40216 (5 of 9), 40232 (5 of 13), 41760 (3), 41968 (1), 42467 (5); UF 29853 (5). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Breviraja schroederi Krefft 1968, replaced by Breviraja mouldi McEachran & Matheson 1995. •Synonym of Breviraja mouldi McEachran & Matheson 1995. Current status: Synonym of Breviraja mouldi McEachran & Matheson 1995. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

schultzii, Raja Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:138, 198, [Pl. 47 (left)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Mediterranean Sea. Lectotype: ZMB 4596. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-1604 (2), 00000-1605 (1), 0000-1606 (1), 0000-1608 (3), 0000-1612 (2), 0000-1801 (1), 1986-0522 (2); ZMB 4593-95 (1, 1, 1), 4635 (1). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:16-17 [ref. 9312], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:174 [ref. 21041]. Lectotype was designated by Eschmeyer 1998:1524 [ref. 23416] to agree with use of "holotype" in current literature. •Synonym of Raja asterias Delaroche 1809 -- (Stehmann 1973:59 [ref. 7168]). Current status: Synonym of Raja asterias Delaroche 1809. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

senta, Raja Garman [S.] 1885:43 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 482); ref. 14445] Provincetown, Massachusetts, U.S.A.; Le Have Bank. Syntypes: USNM 21004 (1) Le Have Bank, 24309 (1) Provincetown. •Valid as Raja senta Garman 1885 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:40 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:53 [ref. 25518]). •Valid as Malacoraja senta (Garman 1885) -- (McAllister 1990:35 [ref. 14674], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:72 [ref. 26158], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:558 [ref. 26985], Moore et al. 2003:171 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Carvalho et al. 2005:256 [ref. 28271], Kulka et al. 2006:7 [ref. 36737], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:295 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Malacoraja senta (Garman 1885). Rajidae. Distribution: Northwestern Atlantic: Labrador (Canada) south to New Jersey (U.S.A.). Habitat: brackish, marine.

siamensis, Raja Engelhardt [R.] 1913:66, 103 [Abhandlungen der Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung. Suppl. 4 (Abh. 3); ref. 17460] Thailand. Not available, name only in list, no distinguishing features provided. Rajidae.

sinensis, Raja Shaw [G.] 1804:317 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] China. Based on a Chinese drawing described by Lacepède. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

speculum, Raia Blainville [H. de] 1825:29, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Faune Française; ou histoire naturelle Livr. 13 & 14; ref. 4991] Paris, France; Dieppe, northern France. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:32 [ref. 9312]. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

spinacidermis, Raia Barnard [K. H.] 1923:440 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 13 (pt 8, no. 14); ref. 191] South Africa (exact locality unknown). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1935.7.19.7. •Valid as Raja spinacidermis Barnard 1923 -- (Stehmann 1973:65 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:182 [ref. 13675], Hulley 1986:125 [ref. 5672], McAllister 1990:38 [ref. 14674], Stehmann 1990:36 [ref. 19316], Compagno et al. 1991:97 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:95 [ref. 25472], Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1995:59 [ref. 22531]). •Valid as Malacoraja spinacidermis (Barnard 1923) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Stehmann 1995:28 [ref. 22055], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Moore et al. 2003:171 [ref. 27076], Carvalho et al. 2005:256 [ref. 28271], Compagno & Ebert 2007:137 [ref. 30471], Møller et al. 2010:17 [ref. 31169], Afonso et al. 2016:12, 217 [ref. 36199], Séret 2016:1345 [ref. 34545], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:296 [ref. 35000], McEachran & Séret 2016:1386 [ref. 34551], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Malacoraja spinacidermis (Barnard 1923). Rajidae. Distribution: North Atlantic; southeastern Atlantic: Namibia to Cape Point, South Africa. Habitat: marine.

spinosa, Breviraja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1950:400, Pl. 6 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 103 (no. 7); ref. 302] 30°58'N, 79°34'W, Atlantis station 3781, depth 250-290 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 36373. Paratypes or additional material: USNM (2). •Valid as Breviraja spinosa Bigelow & Schroeder 1950 -- (McEachran & Compagno 1982:413 [ref. 2952], Uyeno & Miyake in Uyeno et al. 1983:73 [ref. 14275], McEachran & Matheson 1985:1035 [ref. 8137], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:31 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:149 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:548 [ref. 26985], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:112 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:106 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:228 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Breviraja spinosa Bigelow & Schroeder 1950. Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina to Florida (U.S.A.), and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

spinosa, Raia Yarrell [W.] 1841:576 [A History of British fishes. Second edition. v. 2; ref. 17751] British waters. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

springeri, Raja Wallace [J. H.] 1967:18, Figs. 9-10 [Investigational Report. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban No. 17; ref. 7929] 48 kilometers east-southeast of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, western Indian Ocean, depth 549 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 989 [ex ORI B909]. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 990 [ex ORI B185] (1). Additional material: ORI uncat. (7). •Valid as Raja springeri Wallace 1967 -- (Hulley 1986:125 [ref. 5672], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827], Compagno et al. 1991:96 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:95 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:105 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Dipturus springeri (Wallace 1967) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Compagno et al. 2005:66 [ref. 29145], Compagno & Ebert 2007:139 [ref. 30471], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:272 [ref. 35000], Fricke et al. 2018:24 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus springeri (Wallace 1967). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and western Indian Ocean: Namibia, South Africa and Madagascar to Oman and western India. Habitat: marine.

stabuliforis, Raia Garman [S.] 1913:341, Pls. 22 (fig. 2), 44 (4-6) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] New England, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 1138-S (1), 1294-S (1). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlvi [ref. 23119]. •Synonym of Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818) -- (Scott & Scott 1988:47 [ref. 25518] as stabuliformis). •Synonym of Raja chilensis Guichenot 1848 -- (Lloris & Rucabado 1991:44 [ref. 22530]). •In genus Dipturus and not Zearaja and possibly synonym of D. laevis (Mitchill) -- (Last & Gledhill 2007:50 [ref. 29177]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

stehmanni, Breviraja Hulley [P. A.] 1972:254, Figs. 1-5 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 60 (no. 9); ref. 7616] Cape basin, Atlantic. Holotype: SAM 26636. Paratypes: SAM 26637 (1). •Valid as Breviraja stehmanni Hulley 1972 -- (McEachran & Compagno 1982:413 [ref. 2952]). •Valid as Neoraja stehmanni (Hulley 1972) -- (McEachran & Stehmann 1984:73 [ref. 5224], Hulley 1986:118 [ref. 5672], Compagno et al. 1991:93 [ref. 21083], Stehmann 1995:104 [ref. 22055], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:137 [ref. 30471], Stehmann et al. 2008:68 [ref. 29638], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:301 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Neoraja stehmanni (Hulley 1972). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean off South Africa. Habitat: marine.

stellata, Raia Garman [S.] 1913:321 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Genoa, Italy, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MCZ. Not intended as new, but validates a pre-Linnaean name. •Synonym of Raja asterias Delaroche 1809 -- (Stehmann 1973:59 [ref. 7168]). Current status: Synonym of Raja asterias Delaroche 1809. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

stellulata, Raia Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:133 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 129); ref. 10593] Monterey, California, U.S.A. Paratypes: ANSP 414 (1), MNHN A-3295 (1), USNM 26975 (orig. 8, now 2), ZMB 11687 [ex USNM 26975] (1), ZMUB 877 [ex USNM 26975] (1), ZMUC [ex USNM] (?). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:84 [ref. 20739], Frøiland 1979:144 [ref. 21547], Séret & McEachran 1987:17 [ref. 9312], Böhlke 1984:149 [ref. 13621], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:174 [ref. 21041]. •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja stellulata Jordan & Gilbert 1880 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:53 [ref. 9277], McAllister 1990:38 [ref. 14674], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:39 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:72 [ref. 34694], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:118 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:121 [ref. 34211], Kells et al. 2016:82 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35618]). •Valid as Beringraja stellulata (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:223 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Beringraja stellulata (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Oregon (U.S.A.) south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

stenorhynchus, Raja Wallace [J. H.] 1967:23, Fig. 11 [Investigational Report. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban No. 17; ref. 7929] East of False Bay, 22°25'S, 35°54'E, South Africa, western Indian Ocean, Anton Bruun station 398B, depth 405 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ORI B186. •Valid as Raja stenorhynchus Wallace 1967 -- (Hulley 1986:126 [ref. 5672], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827]). •Valid as Dipturus stenorhynchus (Wallace 1967) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:139 [ref. 30471],Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:273 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus stenorhynchus (Wallace 1967). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

straeleni, Raja Poll [M.] 1951:118, Fig. 54, Pls. 8 (fig. 3), 13 [Résultats Scientifiques. Expédition Océanographique Belge dans les Eaux Côtières Africaines de l'Atlantique Sud (1948-1949). Bruxelles. v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 12797] West coast of Africa, 13°05'S, 12°46'E, depth 100-110 meters. Syntypes: IRSNB 99 (1), 100-107 (1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1, 2, 9); MRAC 80327-32 (6). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:5-6 [ref. 20755] with IRSNB 99, the specimen illustrated in Fig. 54, as holotype, Derijst 1991:64 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Raja straeleni Poll 1951 -- (Hulley 1986:126 [ref. 5672], Stehmann 1990:42 [ref. 19316], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:95 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:49 [ref. 22055], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:80 [ref. 28072], Compagno & Ebert 2007:141 [ref. 30471], Ball et al. 2016:567 [ref. 36106], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:331 [ref. 35000], McEachran & Séret 2016:1393 [ref. 34551], Weigmann 2016:121 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Raja straeleni Poll 1951. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic to southwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

taaf, Raja Meisner [E. E.] 1987:1840, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologicheskii Zhurnal v. 66 (no. 12); ref. 9114] Lena Bank, 53°01'S, 44°25'E, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 390-375 meters. Holotype: ZIK 91514 (bottle 2920). Paratypes: ZIK 91515-16 (2). Author name seen as Meissner. •Valid as Raja taaf Meisner 1987 -- (Stehmann & Bürkel 1990:96 [ref. 21679]). •Valid as Amblyraja taaf (Meisner 1987) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Duhamel et al. 2005:82 [ref. 32059], Compagno & Ebert 2007:133 [ref. 30471], Weigmann 2016:105 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:217 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Amblyraja taaf (Meisner 1987). Rajidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Crozet and Kerguelen islands, possibly off South Africa. Habitat: marine.

tautirana, Raja Curtiss [A.] 1938:136 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

teevani, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1951:388, Fig. 3 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 41 (no. 12); ref. 12883] Off Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 29°11'N, 86°52'30"W, Oregon station 279, depth 305 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 153557. Paratypes: MCZ 37189 (1). •Valid as Raja teevani Bigelow & Schroeder 1951 -- (Uyeno & Miyake in Uyeno et al. 1983:77 [ref. 14275], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Cervigón 1992:206 [ref. 23827], Jacob & McEachran 1994:444 [ref. 22422], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:40 [ref. 22793]). •Valid as Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:158 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:553 [ref. 26985], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2008:35 [ref. 29969], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:115 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:274 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico south to Colombia and Bahia (Brazil) (including Caribbran Sea). Habitat: marine.

tengu, Raja Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1903:654, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 26 (no. 1324); ref. 2460] Matsushima Bay, Sndai, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 12912 (specimen bissected) [not 7138]. Paratypes: USNM. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:10 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Raja tengu Jordan & Fowler 1903 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Ishihara 1987:278 [ref. 6264], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Compagno et al. 1999:1407 [ref. 24636], Last & Compagno 1999:1454 [ref. 24639], Dolganov 1999:429 [ref. 24873], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995], Compagno et al. 2005:66 [ref. 29145]). •Valid as Dipturus tengu (Jordan & Fowler 1903) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Jeong 1999:202 [ref. 25171], Nakabo 2000:173 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:173 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:66, 482 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:398 [ref. 28370], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Yamashita et al. 2012:130 [ref. 32408], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Hsu et al. 2013:253 [ref. 33043], Ebert et al. 2013:353 [ref. 33045], Parin et al. 2014:36 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524], Motomura et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34709], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:275 [ref. 35000], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:166 [ref. 35920]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus tengu (Jordan & Fowler 1903). Rajidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Philippines to Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

texana, Raia Chandler [A. C.] 1921:657 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 59 (no. 2393); ref. 15308] Gulf of Mexico off Galveston jetties, Texas, U.S.A., depth between 5 and 10 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 84162. •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja texana Chandler 1921 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:37 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:26 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:40 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:168 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:63 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:147 [ref. 27754], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:543 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:120 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:121 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Rostroraja texana (Chandler 1921) -- (Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941] with question, Last et al. 2016:357 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Rostroraja texana (Chandler 1921). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico endemic. Habitat: marine.

tobae, Raja Tanaka [S.] 1916:313 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 28 (no. 334); ref. 17352] Off Toba, Mie Prefecture, Japan. Syntypes: ZUMT 7443 (1, lost), 7446 (1, lost). Species originally published in Japanese in above reference, later illustrated and described in more detail in English and Japanese in Tanaka 1917:453, Pls. 124 (fig. 353), 125 (fig. 354), 126 (fig. 355), 127 (356) [ref. 14909]. Not Tanaka 1927:673, Pl. 156 (figs. 434-436) [ref. 14918]. •Synonym of Raja kenojei Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Ishihara 1987:262 [ref. 6264]). •Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Dyldin 2015:72 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle 1841). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

tobae, Raja Tanaka [S.] 1927:673, Figs. 434-436 [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 35; ref. 14918] Kesen, Province Rikuzen, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 13853. Paratypes: ZUMT 14570 (1). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Raja tobae Tanaka 1916, replaced by Raja karagea Tanaka 1927. •Objective synonym of Raja karagea Tanaka 1927. Current status: Synonym of Raja karagea Tanaka 1927. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

trachyderma, Raja (Dipturus) Krefft [G.] & Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1975:86, Figs. 7-8 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 7435] Off southern Argentina, southwestern Atlantic, 49°00'S, 60°52'W, depth 200-195 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 25402 [ex ISH 130-1971]. Type catalog: Krefft 1978:7 [ref. 9884], Thiel et al. 2009:26 [ref. 30918]. Specific name is an undeclinable noun. •Valid as Raja trachyderma Krefft & Stehmann 1975 -- (Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:47 [ref. 22530], López et al. 1996:13 [ref. 23681]). •Valid as Dipturus trachyderma (Krefft & Stehmann 1975) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:80 [ref. 24909], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], Soto & Mincarone 2001:6 [ref. 26630], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808] as trachydermus, Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Mabragaña et al. 2011:7 [ref. 31800], Vargas-Caro et al. 2015:328 [ref. 33982], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211] as trachydermus, Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941] as trachydermus, Last et al. 2016:276 [ref. 35000] as trachydermus, Nión et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus trachyderma (Krefft & Stehmann 1975). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific and southwestern Atlantic: Uruguay to Chile, possibly southern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

tuberculata, Raia Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Pennant) 1788:3 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] British Isles. No types known. Based on Pennant 1769:84 [ref. 18527]. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

undulata, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:670, 675, Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] La France et l'Angleterre [France and England, English Channel, Northeastern Atlantic]. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:32 [ref. 9312]. Also appeared in Sonnini 1802:75, 297 [ref. 30461] with author as Lacepède. •Valid as Raja undulata Lacepède 1802 -- (Stehmann 1973:68 [ref. 7168], Capapé & Desoutter 1979:72 [ref. 20630], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:196 [ref. 13675], Stehmann 1990:48 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:112 [ref. 22055], Compagno 1999:492 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:24 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:19 [ref. 29533], George 2009:57 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:14 [ref. 36649], Weigmann 2016:121 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1401 [ref. 34551], Last & Séret 2016:477 [ref. 34640], Gordon et al. 2016:269 [ref. 34661], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:332 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Raja undulata Lacepède 1802. Rajidae. Distribution: Southwestern North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Senegal. Habitat: marine.

velezi, Raja Chirichigno F. [N.] 1973:20, Figs. 4-5 [Informes, Especiales, Instituto del Mar del Perú. Callao No. 42; ref. 7559] 19 miles from Colán, Peru, 5°01'S, 81°23'W, depth 133 fathoms. Holotype: IMARPE 1213. Paratypes: IMARPE 1214-16 (1, 1, 1). •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Raja velezi Chirichigno F. 1973 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:30 [ref. 23101], Acero P. & Franke 1995:11 [ref. 22546], McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:777 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:40 [ref. 22793], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:111 [ref. 24023], McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:84 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:56 [ref. 27807], Genz et al. 2007:2 [ref. 29332], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:120 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:121 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Rostroraja velezi (Chirichigno F. 1973) -- (Last et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34941] with question, Last et al. 2016:358 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Rostroraja velezi (Chirichigno F. 1973). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of Mexico south to Peru, including Galapagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

vera, Raja baracola Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 111 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy. Rajidae.

virgata, Raja Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:223, Pl. 26 fig. 2 [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Egypt. Original not examined. Uncertain, needs research. Current status: Uncertain as Raja radula Delaroche 1809. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

virginica, Raja garmani McEachran [J. D.] 1977:434 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 7268] Off North Carolina, U.S.A., 36°46'N, 74°41'W, U.S.A., depth 104-117 meters. Holotype: MCZ 34762. Paratypes: MCZ 36315 (1), VIMS 1370 (1). •Valid as Leucoraja garmani virginica (McEachran 1977) -- (McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:69 [ref. 26158], Moore et al. 2003:171 [ref. 27076], Weigmann 2016:112 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Leucoraja virginica (McEachran 1977) -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:162 [ref. 23897], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708]). •Synonym of Leucoraja garmani (Whitley 1939), but a valid subspecies virginica (McEachran 1977) -- (Last et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34941]). Current status: Synonym of Leucoraja garmani (Whitley 1939). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

vomer, Raja Fries [B. F.] 1838:161 [36] [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm 1838; ref. 18097] Sweden, Skagerrak, North Sea. Holotype (?): NRM 209e (stuffed). On p. 36 of separate. •Synonym of Raja oxyrinchus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:63 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Batis Couch [J.] 1862:87, Pl. 18 [The history of the fishes of the British islands v. 1; ref. 989] British Isles. No types known. Apparently an unneeded substitute for Raja batis. •Apparently a synonym of Raja batis of earlier authors. •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Raia Stephan [C. F.] 1779:23 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2010:65 [ref. 30995], Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Raja Olafsen [E.] & Povelsen [B.] 1775:203 [Reise Island 1774-75 v. 1 (pts 1-2); ref. 18494] Iceland. Still researching. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

wallacei, Raja Hulley [P. A.] 1970:210, Pl. 12 (fig. b); Fig. 19 (a-b) [Annals of the South African Museum v. 55 (pt 4); ref. 7750] Off Cape Town, 34°10'S, 17°45'E, South Africa, southeastern Atlantic, depth 292 meters. Holotype: ORI B.155. Paratypes: ORI B.126 (1). •Valid as Raja wallacei Hulley 1970 -- (Hulley 1986:127 [ref. 5672], Compagno et al. 1991:96 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:96 [ref. 25472], Walmsley-Hart et al. 1999:165 [ref. 24222]). •Valid as Leucoraja wallacei (Hulley 1970) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:133 [ref. 30471], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], Weigmann 2016:113 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:291 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja wallacei (Hulley 1970). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and western Indian Ocean: southern Africa (Namibia to Mozambique). Habitat: brackish, marine.

wengi, Dipturus Séret [B.] & Last [P. R.] 2008:99, Figs. 1-6 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29649] East of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 33°43'S, 151°54'E, depth 486-509 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 891-01. Paratypes: (15 specimens) at AMS and CSIRO. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Dipturus wengi Séret & Last 2008 -- (Last & White 2008:109 [ref. 30618], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:277 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus wengi Séret & Last 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Australia: Queensland, New South Wales, and Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

whitleyi, Raja Iredale [T.] 1938:169 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 2); ref. 18325] Manly Beach, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1346. Replacement name for Raia scabra Ogilby 1888, preoccupied by Raja scabra Linnaeus 1764. •Valid as Raja whitleyi Iredale 1938 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:57 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:18 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:168 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:355 [ref. 23873], Kuiter 1997:18 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847]). •Valid in an unnamed new genus -- (Compagno 1999:493 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Dipturus whitleyi (Iredale 1938) -- (Last & Yearsley 2002:1640 [ref. 26568], Hoese et al. 2006:183 [ref. 29001], Last & White 2008:118 [ref. 30618]). •Valid as Spiniraja whitleyi (Iredale 1938) -- (Weigmann 2016:123 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:359 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Spiniraja whitleyi (Iredale 1938). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern Western Australia east to southern New South Wales (Australia), including Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

wuhanlingi, Dipturus Jeong [C.-H.] & Nakabo [T.] 2008:184, Figs. 1-7 [Ichthyological Research v. 55 (no. 2); ref. 29612] Open waters of the South China Sea. Holotype: SFC D 01113. Paratypes: SFC S 07672 (1). •Valid as Dipturus wuhanlingi Jeong & Nakabo 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Ebert et al. 2013:354 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:278 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus wuhanlingi Jeong & Nakabo 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: South China Sea, East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

yucatanensis, Breviraja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1950:402, Pl. 7 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 103 (no. 7); ref. 302] Off northeastern Yucatán, Mexico, 20°19'10"N, 87°03'30"W, Albatross station 2359, depth 231 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 148273. •Valid as Raja yucatanensis (Bigelow & Schroeder 1950) -- (McEachran & Compagno 1982:415 [ref. 2952], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:41 [ref. 22793], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:147 [ref. 27754]). •Valid as Leucoraja yucatanensis (Bigelow & Schroeder 1950) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:286 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:557 [ref. 26985], Last et al. 2008:145 [ref. 29653], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:117 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:114 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:292 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Leucoraja yucatanensis (Bigelow & Schroeder 1950). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Yucatan (Mexico) south to Nicaragua. Habitat: marine.