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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Rhinobatidae: [ 63 ] records


albomaculatus, Rhinobatus Norman [J. R.] 1930:226, Figured [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 6 (no. 32) (art. 28); ref. 16115] Accra, Ghana. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1930.3.24.2. •Valid as Rhinobatos albomaculatus Norman 1930 -- (Compagno & Randall 1987:339 [ref. 9128], Stehmann 1990:24 [ref. 19316] as albomaculatatus, Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:86 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], Séret 2016:1362 [ref. 34545], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:95 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:125 [ref. 37302], Reiner 2019:40 [ref. 38139] as Rhinobatus albomaculatus). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos albomaculatus Norman 1930. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: brackish, marine.

annandalei, Rhinobatus Norman [J. R.] 1926:960, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1926 (pt 4); ref. 3215] East channel, mouth of Hughli [Hooghly] River, Bay of Bengal, India, depth 40 fathoms [about 70 meters]. Lectotype: BMNH 1909.7.12.1 [ex ZSI]. Paralectotype: BMNH 1909.7.12.2 [ex ZSI] (1). Lectotype selected by Last et al. 2019:259 [ref. 36614]. •Valid as Rhinobatos annandalei Norman 1926 -- (Compagno & Randall 1987:340 [ref. 9128], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:37 [ref. 20764], Morón et al. 1999:149 [ref. 24253], Vossoughi & Vosoughi 1999:302 [ref. 25467], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Last 2004:208 [ref. 27765], Last et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29418], Psomadakis et al. 2015:99 [ref. 34104] as cf. annandalei, Weigmann 2016:86 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:96 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Eagderi et al. 2019:16 [ref. 37020], Fernando et al. 2019:220 [ref. 36642], Last et al. 2019:259 [ref. 36614], Psomadakis et al. 2020:195 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos annandalei Norman 1926. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Oman east to India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Persian Gulf record needs verification. Habitat: brackish, marine.

annulatus, Rhinobatus (Syrrhina) Smith [A.] in Müller & Henle 1841:116 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1843.2.29.22 (1, stuffed), MNHN A-8586 (1). •Valid as Rhinobatos annulatus Smith 1841 -- (Compagno 1986:129 [ref. 5648], Compagno et al. 1991:88 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:90 [ref. 25472], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:78 [ref. 28072], Ali et al. 2018:303 [ref. 36183] as Rhinobatus a.). •Valid as Acroteriobatus annulatus (Smith 1841) -- (Weigmann 2016:83 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:465 [ref. 34473], Last et al. 2016:283 [ref. 34741], Séret et al. 2016:79 [ref. 34993], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:124 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Acroteriobatus annulatus (Smith 1841). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Angola south to South Africa, then north to KwaZulu-Natal. Habitat: brackish, marine.

austini, Rhinobatos Ebert [D. A.] & Gon [O.] 2017:205, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa 4276 (no. 2); ref. 35352] Near Port Shepstone, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, 30°50'S, 30°29'E. Holotype: SAIAB 75223. Paratypes: SAIAB, iSAM MB. •Valid as Rhinobatos austini Ebert & Gon 2017 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:23 [ref. 35805], Last et al. 2019:284 [ref. 36614]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos austini Ebert & Gon 2017. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: South and East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Rhinobatus (Syrrhina) Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:115, [Pl. 37 (right)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: (orig. 14, stuffed) MNHN 0000-1256 (1), 0000-3460 (1, dry), 0000-3471 (1), 0000-3473 (1, dry), 0000-3474 (1, dry), A-7853 (1), A-7854 (3); ZMB 4547 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:79 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:10 [ref. 9312], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:175 [ref. 21041], Paepke 1999:123 [ref. 24282]. Species also spelled blochi by current authors. •Valid as Rhinobatos blochii Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Compagno 1986:130 [ref. 5648], Stehmann 1990:24 [ref. 19316], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:91 [ref. 25472], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Acroteriobatus blochii (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Weigmann 2016:84 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:465 [ref. 34473], Séret 2016:1360 [ref. 34545], Last et al. 2016:283 [ref. 34741], Séret et al. 2016:80 [ref. 34993], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:123 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Acroteriobatus blochii (Müller & Henle 1841). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to western South Africa. Habitat: marine.

borneensis, Rhinobatos Last [P. R.], Séret [B.] & Naylor [G. J. P.] 2016:453, Figs. 2-9 [Zootaxa 4117 (no. 4); ref. 34473] Kota Kinabalu fish market, Sabah, Malaysia (05°58'57.66"N, 116°04'19.83"E). Holotype: SMEC 373. Paratypes: CSIRO, IPMB-I, SMEC. Plus additional non-type specimens. •Valid as Rhinobatos borneensis Last, Séret & Naylor 2016 -- (White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Motomura et al. 2017:24 [ref. 35490], Last et al. 2019:284 [ref. 36614]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos borneensis Last, Séret & Naylor 2016. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Malaysia and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

buthi, Pseudobatos Rutledge [K. M.] 2019:454, Figs. 1, 2A, 3, 4A, 5A [Copeia v. 107 (no. 3); ref. 36938] Gulf of California, San Felipe, Mexico, depth 2 meters. Holotype: SIO 15-405 [ex UCLA W50-189]. Paratypes: LACM, SIO. •Valid as Pseudobatos buthi Rutledge 2019. Current status: Valid as Pseudobatos buthi Rutledge 2019. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Shallow coastal regions of the Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

ciodera, Raja Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:15 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:47 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:115 [ref. 37117] in Rajidae). Current status: Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758). Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

colonna, Squatinoraja Nardo [G. D.] 1824:61 [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) v. 7; ref. 3144] Still researching; not in reference 3144 or 3146; Fowler 1969 [ref. 6832] lists as in above reference, p. 61. •Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758). Rhinobatidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

columnae, Raia (Rhinobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758). Rhinobatidae.

columnae, Rhinobatus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1836:fasc. 14, 17, Pl. 152 [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 4892] Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 476-477 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:149 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:53 [ref. 7167], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:21 [ref. 26753]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758). Rhinobatidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

coromandelicus, Raia (Rhinobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Rhinobatidae.

duhameli, Rhinobatis Blainville [H. de] 1825:48, Pl. 11 (figs. 1-2) [Faune Française; ou histoire naturelle Livr. 13 & 14; ref. 4991] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:30 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:53 [ref. 7167]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758). Rhinobatidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

electricus, Rhinobatus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:356 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazil. No types known. Based on "Puraque" of Markgraf von Liebstadt 1648:151 [ref. 30347]. Apparently described independent of Raja percellens Walbaum 1792, but based on the same source. •Synonym of Rhinobatos percellens (Walbaum 1792). Current status: Synonym of Rhinobatos percellens (Walbaum 1792). Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

formosensis, Rhinobatus Norman [J. R.] 1926:958, Fig. 11 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1926 (pt 4); ref. 3215] Taiwan. Syntypes: BMNH 1862.12.6.69-70 (2). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:20 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Rhinobatos formosensis Norman 1926 -- (Compagno & Randall 1987:340 [ref. 9128], Compagno & Last 1999:1427 [ref. 24637], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Last 2004:208 [ref. 27765], Compagno et al. 2005:62 [ref. 29145], Last et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29418], Ho & Shao 2011:20 [ref. 31432], Weigmann 2016:86 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Synonym of Rhinobatos schlegelii Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Last et al. 2016:459 [ref. 34473], Séret et al. 2016:108 [ref. 34993]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinobatos schlegelii Müller & Henle 1841. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Malaysia (Borneo), Philippines and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

glaucostictos, Rhinobatus Olfers [J. F. M. von] 1831:22 [Die Gattung Torpedo; ref. 18462] No locality. •Synonym of Pseudobatos percellens (Walbaum 1792). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobatos percellens (Walbaum 1792). Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

glaucostigma, Rhinobatus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:210 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (no. 14, no. 370) (for 5 Oct. 1883); ref. 10622] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28205-06 (1, 1), 29547 (1, not found in 1980), 29602 (1, not found in 1980). Specific name is a invariable noun. •Valid as Rhinobatus glaucostigma Jordan & Gilbert 1883 -- (Acero P. & Franke 1995:13 [ref. 22546], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589] as glaucostigmus). •Valid as Rhinobatos glaucostigma Jordan & Gilbert 1883 -- (McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:780 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:19 [ref. 22793], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:59 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:10 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:54 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34871], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:105 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:86 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Pseudobatos glaucostigma (Jordan & Gilbert 1883) -- (Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473] as glaucostigmus, Séret et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34993] as glaucostigmus, Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194] as glaucostigmus, Rutledge 2019:463 [ref. 36938] as glaucostigmus, Calle-Morán et al. 2020:244 [ref. 37881] as glaucostigmus). Current status: Valid as Pseudobatos glaucostigma (Jordan & Gilbert 1883). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to Ecuador, including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

granulatus, Raia (Rhinobatos) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Rhinobatidae.

holcorhynchus, Rhinobatus Norman [J. R.] 1922:318 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 9 (no. 52); ref. 15357] Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 45 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1922.1.13.18. •Valid as Rhinobatos holcorhynchus Norman 1922 -- (Compagno & Randall 1987:340 [ref. 9128], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Last 2004:208 [ref. 27765], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:78 [ref. 28072], Last et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29418], Weigmann 2016:86 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:98 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352] as holocorhynchus and holcorhynchus on p. 215, Fricke et al. 2018:23 [ref. 35805], Last et al. 2019:284 [ref. 36614]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos holcorhynchus Norman 1922. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South and East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

horkelii, Rhinobatus (Rhinobatus) Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:122, [Pl. 41] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Brasilien [Brazil]. Syntypes: (2) ZMB 4557 (1), 7850 (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:175 [ref. 21041]. •Valid as Rhinobatos horkelii Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Cervigón 1992:208 [ref. 23827] as horkeli, Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:174 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:76 [ref. 24909] in an incertae sedis family, López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:28 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:530 [ref. 26985], Weigmann 2016:86 [ref. 34211], Nión et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35565]). •Valid as Pseudobatos horkelii (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], Séret et al. 2016:88 [ref. 34993], Spier et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36103], Barreto et al. 2020:24 [ref. 37286]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobatos horkelii (Müller & Henle 1841). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Pernambuco, Sergipe and Bahia (Brazil) south to northern Argentina. Habitat: marine.

hynnicephalus, Rhinobatus Richardson [J.] 1846:195 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] China Seas; Canton, China. No types known. Based on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:207, Pl. 11a [ref. 11606]). •Valid as Rhinobatos hynnicephalus Richardson 1846 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:12 [ref. 6441], Compagno & Randall 1987:340 [ref. 9128], Zheng & Qiu 1993:81 [ref. 21982], Compagno 1999:486 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:160 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:290 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:160 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:65, 481 [ref. 26218], Last 2004:208 [ref. 27765], Last et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29418], Yamashita et al. 2012:128 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:349 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:234 [ref. 33330], Last et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33525], Weigmann 2016:87 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:459 [ref. 34473], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:99 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Sonoyama et al. 2020:11 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos hynnicephalus Richardson 1846. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

irvinei, Rhinobatus Norman [J. R.] 1931:352, Fig. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 7 (no. 40); ref. 3220] Ningo, 40 miles east of Accra, Ghana, western Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1930.8.26.3. •Valid as Rhinobatos irvinei Norman 1931 -- (Compagno & Randall 1987:339 [ref. 9128], Stehmann 1990:26 [ref. 19316], Compagno 1999:486 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:87 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], Séret 2016:1363 [ref. 34545], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:100 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:126 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos irvinei Norman 1931. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

jaram, Rhinobates Montrouzier [X.] 1857:498 [220] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 220 of reprint. Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

jimbaranensis, Rhinobatos Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Fahmi [no initials] 2006:262, Figs. 1-3 [Cybium v. 30 (no.3); ref. 29418] Jimbaran Bay, southern Bali, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 12905. Paratypes: CSIRO (4 specimens). •Valid as Rhinobatos jimbaranensis Last, White & Fahmi 2006 -- (Last et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33525], Weigmann 2016:87 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:459 [ref. 34473], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:101 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Last et al. 2019:282 [ref. 36614]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos jimbaranensis Last, White & Fahmi 2006. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Bali, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Rhinobates Swainson [W.] 1839:322 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Russell, pl. 10 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 10 [ref. 13862]; apparently of Bloch & Schneider 1801 but not stated. Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

laevissimus, Raia (Rhinobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Rhinobatidae.

lentiginosus, Rhinobatus Garman [S.] 1880:168 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 6 (no. 11); ref. 17881] Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MCZ 97-S. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlii [ref. 23119]. •Valid as Rhinobatos lentiginosus Garman 1880 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:35 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:26 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:17 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:140 [ref. 23897], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:174 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:59 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:77 [ref. 24909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:530 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:54 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:107 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:87 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Pseudobatos lentiginosus (Garman 1880) -- (Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], Séret et al. 2016:89 [ref. 34993], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Jones et al. 2020:285 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobatos lentiginosus (Garman 1880). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Nicaragua, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

leucorhynchus, Rhinobates Günther [A.] 1867:604 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Pacific coast of Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.1.14.1. Described in more detail in Günther 1868:490 [ref. 1994]. •Valid as Rhinobates leucorhynchus Günther 1867 -- (Acero P. & Franke 1995:13 [ref. 22546]). •Valid as Rhinobatos leucorhynchus Günther 1867 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:30 [ref. 23101] as leucorhyncus, McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:780 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:19 [ref. 22793], Arellano-Martínez et al. 1997:936 [ref. 24501], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:60 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:10 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34871], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:107 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:87 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Pseudobatos leucorhynchus (Günther 1867) -- (Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], Séret et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34993], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Rutledge 2019:463 [ref. 36938], Calle-Morán et al. 2020:244 [ref. 37881]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobatos leucorhynchus (Günther 1867). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico) south to Ecuador, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galápagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

leucospilus, Rhinobatus Norman [J. R.] 1926:966, Fig. 18 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1926 (pt 4); ref. 3215] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1905.6.8.12 (1), 1920.7.23.1 (1). •Valid as Rhinobatos leucospilus Norman 1926 -- (Compagno 1986:131 [ref. 5648], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:78 [ref. 28072]). •Valid as Acroteriobatus leucospilus (Norman 1926) -- (Weigmann 2016:84 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:465 [ref. 34473], Last et al. 2016:283 [ref. 34741], Séret et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34993], Fricke et al. 2018:23 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Acroteriobatus leucospilus (Norman 1926). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa to Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

lionotus, Rhinobatus Norman [J. R.] 1926:961, Fig. 14 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1926 (pt 4); ref. 3215] East Channel, mouth of Hooghly River, Bay of Bengal, India, depth 40 fathoms [about 70 meters]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1909.7.12.3 [ex ZSI]. •Valid as Rhinobatos lionotus Norman 1926 -- (Compagno & Randall 1987:340 [ref. 9128], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:20 [ref. 20764], Compagno 1999:486 [ref. 25589], Last 2004:208 [ref. 27765], Last et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29418], Weigmann 2016:87 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:102 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Last et al. 2019:265 [ref. 36614], Psomadakis et al. 2020:195 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos lionotus Norman 1926. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: West Bengal (India) east to Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

luebberti, Rhinobatus Ehrenbaum [E.] 1914:303 [Der Fischerbote v. 6 (no. 5); ref. 17457] Cameroon. Original not seen. Family placement uncertain. Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

manai, Rhinobatos White [W. T.], Last [P. R.] & Naylor [G. J. P.] 2016:589, Figs. 1-6 [Zootaxa 4175 (no. 6); ref. 34839] Northwest of Kavieng, New Ireland, Bismarck Archipelago, 02°30'S, 150°44'E, depth 191-290 meters. Holotype (unique): NTUM 11500. •Valid as Rhinobatos manai White, Last & Naylor 2016 -- (Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], White et al. 2017:206 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:48 [ref. 35922], Last et al. 2019:284 [ref. 36614], Fricke et al. 2019:43 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos manai White, Last & Naylor 2016. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) endemic. Habitat: marine.

mediterraneus, Rhinobatus Gistel [J.] 1848:103 [Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs; ref. 1822] Mediterranean Sea; Adriatic Sea; Red Sea. No types known. Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Rhinobatus Fowler [H. W.] 1925:195, Fig. 1 [Annals of the Natal Museum v. 5 (pt 2); ref. 15535] Off Natal Bluff, South Africa, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype: ANSP 53041. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:149 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Rhinobatos holcorhynchus Norman 1922 -- (Ebert & Gon 2017:213 [ref. 35352]) Current status: Synonym of Rhinobatos holcorhynchus Norman 1922. Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

nudidorsalis, Rhinobatos Last [P. R.], Compagno [L. J. V.] & Nakaya [K.] 2004:154, Figs. 2-6 [Ichthyological Research v. 51 (no. 2); ref. 28010] Mascarene Ridge, central Indian Ocean, 10°46'S, 61°05'E, depth 125 meters. Holotype (unique): HUMZ 81478. •Valid as Rhinobatos nudidorsalis Last, Compagno & Nakaya 2004 -- (Last et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29418], Weigmann 2016:87 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:103 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Last et al. 2019:285 [ref. 36614]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos nudidorsalis Last, Compagno & Nakaya 2004. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Mascarene Ridge, Mascarenes, central Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

oblonga, Raja Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Artedi) 1792:524 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Perhaps not a new name proposal. Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Rhinobatus Norman [J. R.] 1926:967, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1926 (pt 4); ref. 3215] Bird Island, Algoa Bay, South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1906.11.19.26. •Valid as Rhinobatos ocellatus Norman 1926 -- (Compagno 1986:131 [ref. 5648], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:78 [ref. 28072]). •Valid as Acroteriobatus ocellatus (Norman 1926) -- (Weigmann 2016:84 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:465 [ref. 34473], Last et al. 2016:283 [ref. 34741], Séret et al. 2016:82 [ref. 34993], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:124 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Acroteriobatus ocellatus (Norman 1926). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa to Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

omanensis, Acroteriobatus Last [P. R.], Henderson [A. C.] & Naylor [G. J. P.] 2016:277, Figs. 1-7 [Zootaxa 4144 (no. 2); ref. 34741] Off Muscat, Gulf of Oman (collected at Muttrah fish market, Muscat), Oman, depth shallower than 100 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 7551-01. Paratypes: CSIRO. Plus additional material. •Valid as Acroteriobatus omanensis Last, Henderson & Naylor 2016 -- (Séret et al. 2016:83 [ref. 34993], Eagderi et al. 2019:16 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Acroteriobatus omanensis Last, Henderson & Naylor 2016. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Habitat: marine.

panduratus, Leiobatus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:16 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] [Sicilia] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:49 [ref. 3595] as Leiobatus pauduratus. •Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:53 [ref. 7167], Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758). Rhinobatidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

penggali, Rhinobatos Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Fahmi [no initials] 2006:267, Figs. 3B, 4-5. [Cybium v. 30 (no.3); ref. 29418] Kedonganan fish market, 8°45'S, 115°10'E, Bali, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 12904. Paratypes: CSIRO H 5632-02 (1), H 5632-03 (1), H 5873-01 (1), 5873-02 (1). •Valid as Rhinobatos penggali Last, White & Fahmi 2006 -- (Last et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33525] but spelled pengalli on p. 42, Weigmann 2016:87 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:104 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos penggali Last, White & Fahmi 2006. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Central Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

percellens, Raja Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:525 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Brazil. No types known. Based on "Puraque" of Markgraf von Liebstadt 1648:151 [ref. 30347]. •Valid as Rhinobatos percellens (Walbaum 1792) -- (Uyeno & Miyake in Uyeno et al. 1983:69 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:208 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:172 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:77 [ref. 24909], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Gomes & 5adig in Menezes et al. 2003:28 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:530 [ref. 26985], Page et al. 2013:54 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:107 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:87 [ref. 34211], Nión et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35565]). •Valid as Pseudobatos percellens (Walbaum 1792) -- (Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], Séret et al. 2016:91 [ref. 34993], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Spier et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36103], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobatos percellens (Walbaum 1792). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

philippi, Rhinobatus (Rhinobatus) Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:119, [Pl. 39] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Unknown locality. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4553. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:176 [ref. 21041]. Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

philippii, Tarsistes Jordan [D. S.] 1919:344 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 70 (for 1918); ref. 2413] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): not researched. Type given by Jordan as "Rhynchobatis Philippi, 1858" but this is in error; species spelled philippii when Latinized by Jordan. •Valid as Tarsistes philippii Jordan 1919 -- (Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], Weigmann 2016:88 [ref. 34211] questionable species). Current status: Uncertain as Tarsistes philippii Jordan 1919. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Chile. Habitat: marine.

planiceps, Rhinobatus Garman [S.] 1880:168 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 6 (no. 11); ref. 17881] Paita and Callao, Peru; Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: (21) MCZ 377-S (6, now 5), 378-S (11), 537-S (1), 538-S (1), 633-S (1, skeleton). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlii [ref. 23119]. •Valid as Rhinobatos planiceps Garman 1880 -- (Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], Acero P. & Franke 1995:13 [ref. 22546], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:108 [ref. 24023] [but see McCosker 1998:809 [ref. 24025]], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:92 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:87 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Pseudobatos planiceps (Garman 1880) -- (Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], Séret et al. 2016:92 [ref. 34993], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Rutledge 2019:463 [ref. 36938], Calle-Morán et al. 2020:244 [ref. 37881]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobatos planiceps (Garman 1880). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Mexico south to northern Chile, including Galápagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

polyopthalmus, Rhinobatus (Rhinobatus) Bleeker [P.] 1855:129 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 26 (art. 4); ref. 357] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Also in Bleeker 1854:423 [ref. 13964] as polyophthalmus; earliest not researched. Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

prahli, Rhinobatus Acero P. [A.] & Franke [R.] 1995:11, Fig. 1 [Biblioteca José Jeronimo Triana / Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional de Bogota. No. 11; ref. 22546] Isla de Gorgona, Colombia, depth 70 meters. Holotype (unique): ICN-MHN. Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:6 [ref. 36127]. Original genus should have been Rhinobatos. •Valid as Rhinobatos prahli Acero P. & Franke 1995 -- (Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:108 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:88 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Pseudobatos prahli (Acero P. & Franke 1995) -- (Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], Séret et al. 2016:93 [ref. 34993], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Rutledge 2019:463 [ref. 36938], Calle-Morán et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37881]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobatos prahli (Acero P. & Franke 1995). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Mexico south to northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

producta, Rhinobatis Ayres [W. O.] 1854:142 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 3 and 4 (thru no. 6); ref. 157] Monterey, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 1009 (1). Original genus should have been Rhinobatos. •Valid as Rhinobatos productus Ayres 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:46 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:31 [ref. 22193], McEachran in Fischer et al. 1995:781 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:18 [ref. 22793], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:58 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Thomson et al. 2000:284 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:10 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:108 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:88 [ref. 34211], Kells et al. 2016:78 [ref. 35888]). •Valid as Pseudobatos productus (Ayres 1854) -- (Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], Séret et al. 2016:94 [ref. 34993], Ebert et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Burton & Lea 2019:31 [ref. 37205], Rutledge 2019:463 [ref. 36938]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobatos productus (Ayres 1854). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: San Francisco (California) south to southern Mexico, including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctifer, Rhinobatos Compagno [L. J. V.] & Randall [J. E.] 1987:336, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 44 (no. 14); ref. 9128] Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): BPBM 20843. Type catalog: Golani 2006:21 [ref. 28840] with a paratype as HUJ 11733. •Valid as Rhinobatos punctifer Compagno & Randall 1987 -- (Baranes & Golani 1993:302 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:4 [ref. 25356], Randall & Compagno 1995:292 [ref. 22577], Randall 1995:43 [ref. 22896], Compagno 1999:486 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:45 [ref. 27735], Last 2004:208 [ref. 27765], Last et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29418], Last et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33525], Psomadakis et al. 2015:99 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:88 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:105 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Golani & Fricke 2018:15 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:16 [ref. 37020], Last et al. 2019:270 [ref. 36614]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos punctifer Compagno & Randall 1987. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

ranongensis, Rhinobatos Last [P. R.], Séret [B.] & Naylor [G. J. P.] 2019:275, Figs. 8-10A, 11A, 12A, 13, 14 [Zootaxa 4576 (no. 2); ref. 36614] Andaman Sea west of Maliwun, Myanmar, 10°20.97'N, 97°46.14'E, depth 69 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 7861-02. Paratypes: ANSP, CSIRO. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Rhinobatos ranongensis Last, Séret & Naylor 2019 -- (Psomadakis et al. 2020:196 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos ranongensis Last, Séret & Naylor 2019. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Bay of Bengal (India) east to Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

rasus, Rhinobatus Garman [S.] 1908:253 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 51 (no. 9); ref. 1543] Accra, Ghana, Gulf of Guinea. Holotype (unique): MCZ 235-S. Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlii [ref. 23119]. •Synonym of Rhinobatos cemiculus Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817 -- (Stehmann 1990:25 [ref. 19316]). •Synonym of Glaucostegus cemiculus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Séret 2016:1361 [ref. 34545]). Current status: Synonym of Glaucostegus cemiculus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Rhinobatidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rhinobatos, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:232 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea [original: "Genuæ, Venetiis"]; localities include Genoa and Venice, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece. Syntypes: NRM 9048 (1). Originally based at least 21 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:70 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:99 [ref. 30349] as Raja oblonga, unico tantum aclueorum ordine in medio dorso; Rondelet 1554:370 [ref. 30354] as Rhinobato, Salviani 1558:153 [ref. 30229] as Rhinobato sive Sqvatraja, Charleton 1668:131 [ref. 30580] as Squatino-Raia, Willughby 1686:79 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:28 [ref. 30231] as Rhinobatus seu Squatinoraia. Spelled rhinobates and rhinobatus by early authors. •Valid as Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:53 [ref. 7167], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:157 [ref. 13675], Compagno & Randall 1987:339 [ref. 9128], Stehmann 1990:26 [ref. 19316], Capapé et al. 1999:50 [ref. 25276], Compagno 1999:486 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:21 [ref. 26753], Last 2004:208 [ref. 27765], Golani 2005:13 [ref. 37112], Last et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29418], Fricke et al. 2007:17 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:12 [ref. 36649], Weigmann 2016:88 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:470 [ref. 34473], Séret 2016:1364 [ref. 34545], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:106 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:125 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:41 [ref. 37250], Last et al. 2019:285 [ref. 36614], Bariche & Fricke 2020:28 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:48 [ref. 37519], Serena et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37963]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

russellianus, Raia (Rhinobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Rhinobatidae.

sainsburyi, Rhinobatos Last [P. R.] 2004:205, Figs. 3-4; Pl. 1b [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27765] Northeast of Cape Lambert, Western Australia, 19°29'S, 117°35'E, depth 70 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 4041-04. Paratypes: CSIRO CA 1129 (1), CA 1253 (1), CA 3901 (1), H 743-01 (1), H 757-01 (1), H 1048-01 (1), H 1050-03 (1), H 1058-02 (1), H 1090-01 (1), H 1091-01 (1), H 1091-03 (1), H 1091-04 (1). •Valid as Rhinobatos sainsburyi Last 2004 -- (Paxton et al. 2006:178 [ref. 28994], Last et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29418], Larson et al. 2013:17 [ref. 32988], Last et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33525], Weigmann 2016:88 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:459 [ref. 34473], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:107 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Last et al. 2019:282 [ref. 36614]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos sainsburyi Last 2004. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

salalah, Rhinobatos Randall [J. E.] & Compagno [L. J. V.] 1995:293, Fig. [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 43 (no. 2); ref. 22577] Salalah fish market, Oman, Arabian Sea. Holotype (unique): BPBM 36358. Journal published in November; also appeared in Randall 1995:43 [ref. 22896], so earliest publication needs documentation. •Valid as Rhinobatos salalah Randall & Compagno 1995 -- (Randall 1995:43 [ref. 22896], Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:46 [ref. 27735]). •Valid as Acroteriobatus salalah (Randall & Compago 1995) -- (Psomadakis et al. 2015:98 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:84 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:465 [ref. 34473], Last et al. 2016:283 [ref. 34741], Séret et al. 2016:84 [ref. 34993]). Current status: Valid as Acroteriobatus salalah (Randall & Compagno 1995). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Oman to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

schlegelii, Rhinobatus (Rhinobatus) Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:123, [Pl. 42] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D2680 (dry). Paralectotypes: (8, including 2 dry, 6 alcohol) RMNH D2681 and D2684-2687 (5, dry), D2689 (1, dry), 4225 (4). Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:222 [ref. 12876]. Lectotype designation not researched, not designated here. •Valid as Rhinobatos schlegelii Müller & Henle 1841 -- (Dor 1984:15 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:12 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:63, 306 [ref. 8057], Compagno & Randall 1987:340 [ref. 9128], Paxton et al. 1989:54 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:4 [ref. 25356], Chen et al. 1997:6 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:43 [ref. 26385], Senou & Masuda 1998:5 [ref. 24388], Compagno & Last 1999:1429 [ref. 24637], Vossoughi & Vosoughi 1999:305 [ref. 25467] as Rhinobatus, Compagno 1999:486 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:160 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:290 [ref. 25995], Wang et al. 2001:37 [ref. 26566] as Rhinobatus, Nakabo 2002:160 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:65, 481 [ref. 26218] as schlegeli, Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:46 [ref. 27735], Last 2004:208 [ref. 27765], Shinohara et al. 2005:397 [ref. 28370], Compagno et al. 2005:62 [ref. 29145] as cf. schlegelii, Last et al. 2006:267 [ref. 29418], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:57 [ref. 35264], Yamashita et al. 2012:128 [ref. 32408], Naylor et al. 2012:91 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Ebert et al. 2013:350 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:234 [ref. 33330], Last et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33525], Weigmann 2016:88 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:459 [ref. 34473], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:108 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], White et al. 2017:208 [ref. 35860] as cf. schlegelii, White & Ko'ou 2018:49 [ref. 35922] as cf. schegelii, Last et al. 2019:284 [ref. 36614], Sonoyama et al. 2020:11 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos schlegelii Müller & Henle 1841. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

squatinoraia, Raia Stephan [C. F.] 1779:21 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Valid as Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2010:65 [ref. 30995]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Linnaeus 1758). Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

stellio, Rhinobatus Jordan [D. S.] & Rutter [C. L.] 1897:91 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 49; ref. 10644] Kingston, Jamaica. Syntypes: CAS-SU 11828-29 (1, 1), 11851 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:10 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Pseudobatos percellens (Walbaum 1792). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobatos percellens (Walbaum 1792). Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

tuberculatus, Rhinobatus (Rhinobatus) Bleeker [P.] 1853:82 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 8); ref. 341] Vizagapatam, India. Based on "Suttiwarah Russ. No. 11" which is Russell 1803:7, Pl. 11 [ref. 13862]. Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

undulatus, Rhinobatus Olfers [J. F. M. von] 1831:22 [Die Gattung Torpedo; ref. 18462] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Pseudobatos percellens (Walbaum 1792). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobatos percellens (Walbaum 1792). Rhinobatidae. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Rhinobatos Nair [R. V.] & Lal Mohan [R. S.] 1973:77, Fig. 4 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 54 (nos 1/3); ref. 7577] Gulf of Mannar, off Mandapam, Tamil Nadu, India. Holotype (unique): FMRI F.176. •Valid as Rhinobatos variegatus Nair & Lal Mohan 1973 -- (Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Acroteriobatus variegatus (Nair & Lal Mohan 1973) -- (Weigmann 2016:84 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:465 [ref. 34473], Last et al. 2016:283 [ref. 34741], Séret et al. 2016:85 [ref. 34993], Fernando et al. 2019:219 [ref. 36642]). Current status: Valid as Acroteriobatus variegatus (Nair & Lal Mohan 1973). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: India and Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Raia (Rhinobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Rhinobatidae.

whitei, Rhinobatos Last [P. R.], Corrigan [S.] & Naylor [G.] 2014:33, Figs. 1-8 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 23 (no. 4) (for 2012); ref. 32525] Dipolog City Public Market, Philippines. Holotype: PNM 15189. Paratypes: CSIRO, PNM, SUML. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Rhinobatos whitei Last, Corrigan & Naylor 2014 -- (Weigmann 2016:88 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:459 [ref. 34473], White et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34839], Séret et al. 2016:109 [ref. 34993], Ebert & Gon 2017:205 [ref. 35352], Motomura et al. 2017:24 [ref. 35490], Last et al. 2019:284 [ref. 36614]). Current status: Valid as Rhinobatos whitei Last, Corrigan & Naylor 2014. Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

zanzibarensis, Rhinobatus Norman [J. R.] 1926:966, Fig. 19 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1926 (pt 4); ref. 3215] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1868.5.30.4. Paratypes: BMNH 1867.3.9.429 (1, dry). •Valid as Rhinobatos zanzibarensis Norman 1926 -- (Compagno 1999:485 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Acroteriobatus zanzibarensis (Norman 1926) -- (Weigmann 2016:84 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:465 [ref. 34473], Last et al. 2016:283 [ref. 34741], Séret et al. 2016:86 [ref. 34993]). Current status: Valid as Acroteriobatus zanzibarensis (Norman 1926). Rhinobatidae. Distribution: Zanzibar. Habitat: marine.