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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Scaridae: [ 436 ] records


abacurus, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:324, Pl. 33 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Pago Pago, Tutuila Island, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51754. Paratypes: (15) ANSP 31692 (1); CAS-SU 8667 (3), 12966 (1, missing in 1995); USNM 51822 (1), 51830-31 (1, 1), 163938 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:87 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:150 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scarus pyrrhurus (Jordan & Seale 1906) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:216 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:449 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

abbotti, Sparisoma Fowler [H. W.] 1915:258, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 15099] Kingston, St. Vincent Island, West Indies. Holotype: ANSP 39868. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:150 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

abildgaardi, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] 1791:22, Pl. 259 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 5; ref. 4867] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8584 (right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:127 [ref. 24282]. On p. 19 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 8 [ref. 21381]. Spelled abildgardi in Bloch & Schneider 1801 p. 286 and Shaw & Nodder 1812 [ref. 4013]. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

acutus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1860:216 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Published July 1860. •Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:300 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

aerosa, Scaridea Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1907:215, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (no. 623) (for 1906); ref. 10656] Market in Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 57786. Paratypes: CAS-SU 13417 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Calotomus zonarchus (Jenkins 1903) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:21 [ref. 5234], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:451 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:360 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus zonarchus (Jenkins 1903). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

aeruginosus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:257 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Red Sea. Holotype: MNHN 0000-2487 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:291 [ref. 20736], Bauchot & Guibé 1961:259 [ref. 20737]. •Synonym of Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Ormond 1978:245 [ref. 21371], Randall & Bruce 1983:16 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:214 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

africanus, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:19, Fig. 26; Pl. 3 (fig. 26) [Memorias do Museu Dr. Alvaro de Castro No. 3; ref. 4101] Shimoni, Kenya. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 68. Paratypes: (several) not researched. •Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:28 [ref. 5412], Randall 1986:713 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:219 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:460 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2018:300 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

ahula, Scarus Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:61, Fig. 19 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 14757] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: CAS-SU 6142. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23320 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:361 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

albimarginatus, Cryptotomus Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1961:19, Fig. 6 [Publications de l'Institut de Recherche Scientifique de Madagascar.; ref. 19993] Pointe-des-Galets fish market, Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:450 [ref. 24106] as the specimen shown in Fig. 6 in the original description but apparently there was only a unique holotype. •Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:8 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:193 [ref. 8099], Fricke 1999:450 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

albipunctatus, Callyodon Seale [A.] 1910:526 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Sitanki Island, Jolo Archipelago, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 4876 (apparently destroyed). •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

alternans, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:200 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2468-69 (1, 1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:291 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

altipinnis, Pseudoscarus Steindachner [F.] 1879:18 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 41; ref. 4228] Gilbert Islands [Kingsmill Islands] and Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: (several) NMW 77760 (2). Species not included in earlier abstract [ref. 20480]. Originally described as "Scarus (Pseudoscarus) janthochir Blkr. var. (an Pseudoscarus altipinnis n. sp.?)". •Valid as Scarus altipinnis (Steindachner 1879) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:198 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:345 [ref. 15987], Senou & Morita 1993:4 [ref. 24328], Francis 1993:165 [ref. 25479], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Allen 1997:202 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:345 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:210 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:23 [ref. 25829], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Nakabo 2000:1024 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:377 [ref. 25191], Bellwood 2001:3481 [ref. 26278], Nakabo 2002:1024 [ref. 26193], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:452 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1430 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:737 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Scarus altipinnis (Steindachner 1879). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Great Barrier Reef to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, east to Pitcairn Island. Habitat: marine.

amplus, Scarus Ranzani [C.] 1841:63 [Nuovi annali delle scienze naturali e rendiconto dei lavori dell'Accademia della Scienze dell'Instituto di Bologna con appendice agraria. Bologna Anno III, Tomo V; ref. 24074] Brazilian seas. Holotype (unique): MZUB 980. Also appeared in more detail in Ranzani 1842:324, Pl. 25 [ref. 18607]. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). •Valid as Sparisoma amplum (Ranzani 1841) -- (Moura et al. 2001:513 [ref. 25371], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma amplum (Ranzani 1841). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Brazil, oceanic islands off Brazil and St. Paul's Rocks (Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago). Habitat: marine.

apridentatus, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:14, Pl. 44 (fig. F) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 1; ref. 4104] Malindi, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): type destroyed, based on illustration. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

arabicus, Pseudoscarus Steindachner [F.] 1902:318 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 39 (no. 24) (art. 76); ref. 14894] Makalla, south-central coast of Arabia. Holotype (unique): NMW 72746. Described in more detail in Steindachner 1903:152 [ref. 15046]. •Valid as Scarus arabicus (Steindachner 1902) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:9 [ref. 5412], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Randall 1995:295 [ref. 22896], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:299 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Scarus arabicus (Steindachner 1902). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

aracanga, Scarus Günther [A.] 1862:209 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Jamaica. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1933.2.20.1. •Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

arcuatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:276 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Thailand. No types known. •Synonym of Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:217 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

atomarius, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:423 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Sparisoma atomarium (Poey 1861) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:210 [ref. 23100], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:43 [ref. 24488], Villamizar 1996:40 [ref. 23496], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:301 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Moura et al. 2001:519 [ref. 25371], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634] as aff. atomarium, Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1726 [ref. 27105], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:539 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:64 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma atomarium (Poey 1861). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

atrilunula, Scarus Randall [J. E.] & Bruce [R. W.] 1983:(4) 9, Pl. 4 (figs. A-B) [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 47; ref. 5412] Shimoni, Kenya. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 7749. Paratypes: BMNH 1980.2.15.181 (1, only jaws and pharyngeal mill), BPBM 26456 (1), SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 7748 (2), USNM 226362 (1). •Valid as Scarus atrilunula Randall & Bruce 1983 -- (Randall 1986:711 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:58 [ref. 13251]). •Valid as Chlorurus atrilunula (Randall & Bruce 1983) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:358 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2018:296 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus atrilunula (Randall & Bruce 1983). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East and South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

atropectoralis, Scarus Schultz [L. P.] 1958:79, Pl. 15 (fig. A) [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 214; ref. 3970] Buka Island, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype: USNM 147217. Paratypes: USNM 157321 (1). •Valid as Scarus atropectoralis Schultz 1958 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:219 [ref. 6441], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Liao et al. 2004:531 [ref. 28045]). •Synonym of Scarus xanthopleura Bleeker 1853 -- (Randall 1997:49 [ref. 22932], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:462 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1434 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus xanthopleura Bleeker 1853. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

augustinus, Pseudoscarus Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:409 [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): Apparently lost. Also appeared in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:27 [ref. 14246]. •Synonym of Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:16 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:214 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

aureoruber, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:56, 163 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:86 [ref. 20898]. Spelled aureo-ruber on p. 163. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

auritus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:218 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Java, Indonesia. •Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:24 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:194 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:297 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

aurofrenatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:191 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Santa Domingo. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1770 (2), ?0000-1769 (4) Haiti. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:291 [ref. 20736]. •Valid as Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:210 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:395 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:45 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221] as aorofrenatum, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:301 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1735 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:157 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:540 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:64 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic [not including Brazil]. Habitat: marine.

auropunctatus, Callyodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:290 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Santo Domingo. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-2192. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-2193 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:290 [ref. 20736] as holotype and paratype. Originally as auro-punctatus. Lectotype as larger specimen established by Guichenot 1860:60 [ref. 13946]. •Synonym of Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

australianus, Scarus pyrrostethus Paradice [W. E. J.] in Paradice & Whitley 1927:103, Pl. 14 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 9 (pt 1); ref. 15810] Cape Wessel, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.1669. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Larson et al. 2013:167 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

axillaris, Scarus (Scarus) Steindachner [F.] 1878:384 [6], Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 77 (1. Abth.); ref. 18774] "Probably coast of North Australia" [Brazil]. Syntypes: (several) NMW 77759 (1). On p. 6 of separate. Type locality is Brazil, see Moura et al. 2001:505 [ref. 25371]. •Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). •Valid as Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner 1878) -- (Moura et al. 2001:515 [ref. 25371], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155] as Sparissoma a., Wirtz et al. 2007:15 [ref. 30263], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Rocha et al. 2012:62 [ref. 31733], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner 1878). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Brazil, offshore islands off Brazil and St. Paul's Rocks (Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago). Habitat: marine.

azureus, Scarus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:742, Pl. 72 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Panama City market, Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81778. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

balia, Scaridea Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:469, Fig. 27 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50852. •Synonym of Calotomus zonarchus (Jenkins 1903) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:21 [ref. 5234], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:451 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:360 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus zonarchus (Jenkins 1903). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

balinensis, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1849:8 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [7]; ref. 321] Boleling, northern Bali, Indonesia. Holotype: BMNH 1861.2.28.48. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

barffi, Scarus Curtiss [A.] 1938:109 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

bataviensis, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1857:342 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 16868] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6165 (1 of 8). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1864.5.15.44 (1). •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:453 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2018:299 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

bennetti, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:270 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Hawaiian Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Scarus dubius Bennett 1828 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:453 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus dubius Bennett 1828. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

beryllinus, Cryptotomus Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:101 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 414); ref. 14397] Havana, Cuba; Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: (many) BMNH 1884.7.7.91 (1) from Jordan; CAS-SU 346 (3); USNM 35097 (2), 35162 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Scarus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:82, Pl. 21 (fig. 3) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 2700 (dry). Rüppell specimens: SMF 17526 (1, skeleton). Replaced in Indo-West Pacific by C. ocellatus. •Valid as Bolbometopon bicolor (Rüppell 1829) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:218 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:6 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:211 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:195 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:122 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:57 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:344 [ref. 15987], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:489 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:198 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:139 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:316 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:344 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:208 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:451 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1015 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:376 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3474 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1015 [ref. 26193], Kishimoto et al. 2002:4 [ref. 26569], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:159 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Liao et al. 2004:529 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:447 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1427 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:175 [ref. 31256] not this species, Parenti & Randall 2011:37 [ref. 31299], Koeda et al. 2016:80 [ref. 35333], DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[6] 244 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:131 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Replaced in Indo-West Pacific by Cetoscarus ocellatus. Habitat: marine.

bipallidus, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:936 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 96) (art. 107); ref. 12527] Natal to Malindi, Zanzibar, Pemba, Mafia, Aldabra to Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (several localities) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 67 (1). Also described as new in Smith 1956:5, Pl. 41 (fig. D) as Xanothon bipallidus. Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943] treated both species as independent, but that is not true. Dates are very close in time, and further research may be needed. A holotype is established for the description as Xanothon bipallidus but was not located in 1956; no type was established in ref. 12527; the holotype in ref. 4104 would make the best lectotype if the description above was first. Kottelat (2013) indicates that ref. 4104 appeared earlier. •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 2005:451 [ref. 28239], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:296 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Callyodon de Beaufort [L. F.] in Weber & de Beaufort 1940:318 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 8; ref. 16098] Padang, Sumatra; Ternate; Philippines; New Ireland, Ponape, Solomon Islands, Shortland Islands. Syntypes: not researched. Based on Scarus quoyi of Bleeker 1853:607 (not Scarus quoyi Valenciennes) and on specimens. •Valid as Scarus bleekeri (de Beaufort 1940) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:199 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:346 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1997:318 [ref. 25488]). •Valid as Chlorurus bleekeri (de Beaufort 1940) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Allen 1997:202 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:346 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:208 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:376 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3475 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:159 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:448 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1427 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:730 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2017:186 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus bleekeri (de Beaufort 1940). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: East Indian Region to Micronesia and Fiji, Australia and New Caledonia to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Callyodontichthys Steindachner [F.] 1863:1111, Pl. 24 (figs. 2-2b) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 13; ref. 4206] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ?NMW 57127. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:219 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Japan. Lectotype: ZMB 8580 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ?ZMB 8586 (1, right skin). Replacement name for Scarus viridis Bloch 1790, preoccupied by Scarus viridis Bonaterre 1788. •Objective synonym of Scarus japanensis Bloch 1789 -- (Randall & Nelson 1979:206 [ref. 19975]). •Synonym of Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943]). •Incorrectly valid as Scarus blochii Valenciennes 1840 -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1994:294 [ref. 24014]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

bollmani, Scarus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1887:470 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 586); ref. 2441] Snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. (stomach content). Holotype: USNM 37993. Paratypes: USNM (1). •Synonym of Scarus taeniopterus Lesson 1829 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus taeniopterus Lesson 1829. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

borborus, Scarus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:197 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50649. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7465 (1), USNM 125661 [ex USBF 1221, USFC 2735] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. Spelled barborus in main entry, spelled borborus in index (p. 545). Also appeared in Jordan & Evermann 1905:349, Fig. 150 [ref. 2451]. First reviser selection by Jordan & Evermann 1905:349, footnote, where it is indicated that barborus was a misprint for borborus. •Synonym of Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Lobel & Lobel 2004:74 [ref. 27576], Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

bottae, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:262 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2456 (1, 1, 1, all dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:292 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:218 [ref. 29757], Bruce & Randall 1985:24 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:194 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

bowersi, Callyodon Snyder [J. O.] 1909:602 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 36 (no. 1688); ref. 4151] Naha, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: USNM 62950. Paratypes: CAS-SU 21136 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:87 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Scarus bowersi (Snyder 1909) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:219 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Chlorurus bowersi (Snyder 1909) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Myers 1999:208 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1017 [ref. 25182], Bellwood 2001:3475 [ref. 26278], Nakabo 2002:1017 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:160 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Liao et al. 2004:530 [ref. 28045], Motomura et al. 2010:176 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:731 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:140 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:80 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus bowersi (Snyder 1909). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Philippines north to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

brachialis, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:345 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 14555 (1). Poey specimens: MCZ 31447 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:212 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 14555 as holotype. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:301 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

brachivarius, Scarus Poey [F.] 2000:653, Pl. 371 (fig. 4) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Scaridae.

brachysoma, Callyodon Bleeker [P.] 1861:244 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 12; ref. 381] Ambon Island and Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Possible types: BMNH 1861.2.28.46 (1), NMV A866 (1). •Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:8 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:193 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:446 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:359 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

brachyvarius, Scarus Longley [W. H.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1941:212 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 34 (publ. 535); ref. 18452] Not available, manuscript name of Poey (from Havana, Cuba). •In the synonymy of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae.

brevifilis, Pseudoscarus Günther [A.] 1909:327 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 16); ref. 14377] Tahiti; Apamana [Abemana], Gilbert Islands. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1873.4.3.106 (1). Illustration published in Günther 1910, Pl. 161 [ref. 14460]. •Synonym of Scarus altipinnis (Steindachner 1879) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:198 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:345 [ref. 15987], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:452 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus altipinnis (Steindachner 1879). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

brighami, Scarus Bryan [W. A.] & Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1903:131 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 15652] Marcus Island, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): BPBM 2438 (head and fins). •Synonym of Chlorurus frontalis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:449 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus frontalis (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Scarus Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:59, Fig. 16 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 14757] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: CAS-SU 6139. Syntypes: CAS-SU 23326 (? now 6); USNM 51067 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:453 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

caerulescens, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:230 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Red Sea. •Synonym of Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Ormond 1978:245 [ref. 21371] as coerulescens, Randall & Bruce 1983:16 [ref. 5412] as coerulescens, Dor 1984:214 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943] as coerulescens, Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleus, Sparus Shaw [G.] 1803:432 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Unneeded new name for Sparus holocyaneos Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

californiensis, Pseudoscarus Pellegrin [J.] 1901:163 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 14764] La Paz Bay, Baja California, Mexico, Gulf of California. Syntypes: MNHN 1900-0124 (1), 1901-0247 (1, dry), 1901-0248 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:299 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

callyodon, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:354 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. •Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti 2003:498 [ref. 27322]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

calus, Scarus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:542, Pl. 21 (lower fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27735. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:150 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:28 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

canariensis, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] 1838:[68], Pl. 17 (fig. 2) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-8221 to 8223 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:292 [ref. 20736]. Dates to Pl. 17 in Oct. 1838, p. 68 published in 1843. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Randall 1990:884 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Rocha et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31733]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

caninus, Scarus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:63 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

cantori, Pseudoscarus Bleeker [P.] 1861:240 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 12; ref. 381] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Sumatra; Singapore; Sulawesi; Batjan; Ambon; Timor. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1862.2.28.3 (1); ?NMV 45945 (1), RMNH 6677 (4) and 6677a (1). Also in Bleeker 1862:43, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [ref. 4858]. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

capistratoides, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1847:162 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 314] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ?RMNH 6676. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.2.28.7 (1). Also in Bleeker 1849:50 [ref. 317]. •Synonym of Scarus japanensis Bloch 1789 -- (Randall & Nelson 1979:210 [ref. 19975], Randall et al. 1990:353 [ref. 15987]). •Valid as Scarus capistratoides Bleeker 1849 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:11 [ref. 5412]). •Valid as Chlorurus capistratoides (Bleeker 1847) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Anderson et al. 1998:26 [ref. 23611], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Bellwood 2001:3476 [ref. 26278] dated 1849, Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:160 [ref. 27510], Satapoomin 2009:234 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:731 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus capistratoides (Bleeker 1847). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mauritius, Seychelles east to Andaman Sea and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

capistratus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:239 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Java, Indonesia. •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

capitaneus, Scarus Cuvier [G.] 1829:265 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2473 (1, dry), 0000-2475 (1, dry), 0000-2476 (1, dry), B-2039 (1, dry), B-2040 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:292 [ref. 20736] in part, with MNHN 2476 as holotype. Available from footnote as, "S. capitaneus, N., qui est à-la-fois de Sc. ennéacanthe, Lacép., IV, p. 6, et son Sc. denticulé..." Also in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1839:228 [ref. 4882]. •Synonym of Scarus enneacanthus Lacepède 1802 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:14 [ref. 5412]). •Synonym of Chlorurus enneacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke 1999:452 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus enneacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

carifanus, Xanothon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:6, Pl. 42 (fig. D) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 1; ref. 4104] Shimoni, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 71. Paratypes: not researched. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Randall & Ormond 1978:242 [ref. 21371], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

carolinus, Callyodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:291 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0560. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:290 [ref. 20736]. Bruce & Randall 1985:11 [ref. 5234] act as first revisers selecting carolinus over 2 other species described by Valenciennes at the same time. •Synonym of Calotomus viridescens (Rüppell 1835) -- (Heemstra 2004:3338 [ref. 27945] with genus as Calatomus, Allen & Erdmann 2012:729 [ref. 31980]). •Valid as Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:8 [ref. 5234], Randall 1986:707 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:192 [ref. 8099], Winterbottom et al. 1989:57 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:343 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:209 [ref. 22193], Bellwood 1994:63 [ref. 19116], Bellwood in Fischer et al. 1995:1421 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:293 [ref. 22896], Randall et al. 1997:343 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:208 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:450 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:745 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:23 [ref. 25829], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1014 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:375 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:191 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:18 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:114 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3473 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1014 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S116 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495] dated 1839, Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:158 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:446 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:450 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1426 [ref. 29090], Randall 2007:359 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:233 [ref. 30463], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:175 [ref. 31256], Page et al. 2013:159 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:267 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:140 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988], Fourriére et al. 2016:448 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:610 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:80 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:295 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia, and Tonga; Revillagigedo Archipelago (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

catesby, Scarus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:4, 16 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Carolina, U.S.A. Spelled catesbaei by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1839:183 [ref. 4882]. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

catesby, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:42, 136 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Carolinas, U.S.A. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:87 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013] as catesbyi). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

caudofasciatus, Pseudoscarus Günther [A.] 1862:238 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1840.12.12.24 (dry). •Valid as Scarus caudofasciatus (Günther 1862) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:12 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:213 [ref. 29757], Randall 1986:712 [ref. 5706], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:57 [ref. 25356], Fricke 1999:455 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:461 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2009:91 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:737 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:297 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scarus caudofasciatus (Günther 1862). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, Amirantes, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Maldives, Andaman Sea (Andaman Islands, Myanmar and Thailand). Habitat: marine.

celebicus, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1854:253 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 345] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:91 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

chadri, Scarus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:2, 12 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Arabia. •Questionably a synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

chameleon, Scarus Choat [J. H.] & Randall [J. E.] 1986:199, Pls. 3 (figs. C-D), 9 (figs. D-H) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 38 (no. 4); ref. 8099] Eastern Sumilon Island, off southeast Cebu, Philippines, depth 20 meters. Holotype: BPBM 22177. Paratypes: AMS I.21997-001 (1), I.15470-001 (1), I.20572-014 (1); BPBM (9 lots, 11); BMNH 1984.4.17.41 (1); CAS 54884 (1); MNHN 1984-0418 (1); NSMT-P 23034 (1); NTM S11158-001 (1); QM I.14902 (1), I.16006 (1); USNM 266381 (2); WAM P.28275-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:34 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:37 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Scarus chameleon Choat & Randall 1986 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:122 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:346 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:310 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:165 [ref. 25479], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Allen 1997:198 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:346 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:210 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1021 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:378 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3481 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1021 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Liao et al. 2004:531 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:453 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1430 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:176 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:738 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Scarus chameleon Choat & Randall 1986. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: Indonesia and Philippines to Palau and Fiji, south to Australia and New Caledonia, north to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

chinensis, Pseudoscarus Steindachner [F.] 1867:585 [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 55 (pts 4-5); ref. 4213] Ningbo [Ningpo], Zhejiang Province, China. Holotype (unique): NMW 78633. •Valid as Scarus chinensis (Steindachner 1867) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Valid as Scarus chinensis (Steindachner 1867). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

chloris, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:289 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Vieja (No. 3)' of Parra 1787:59, Pl. 28 (fig. 4) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

chlorodon, Scarus Jenyns [L.] 1842:105, Pl. 21 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1918.1.31.12 (skin in spirit). •Synonym of Scarus prasiognathos Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:26 [ref. 5412], Randall et al. 1990:345 [ref. 15987], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:452 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus prasiognathos Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

chlorolepis, Calliodon Richardson [J.] 1845:137, Pl. 64 (figs. 4-7) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Hong Kong, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1847.5.10.14 (1). Type information: Whitehead 1970:216 [ref. 11606]. Based on Reeves drawing and a specimen. •Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:24 [ref. 5234] with a holotype, Choat & Randall 1986:194 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

chloromelas, Pseudoscarus Günther [A.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:109, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.3.9.327 (skin). •Synonym of Scarus cyanescens Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:13 [ref. 5412]). •Synonym of Chlorurus cyanescens (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall & Anderson 1997:162 [ref. 23281], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus cyanescens (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

choati, Sparisoma Rocha [L. A.], Brito [A.] & Robertson [D. R.] 2012:62, Figs. 1-2A, B [Zootaxa No. 3152; ref. 31733] Northeastern coast of São Tomé Island, dock near airport, 0°22'27"N, 6°43'03"E, Gulf of Guinea, depth 1 meter. Holotype: CAS 224080. Paratypes: CAS 214635 (1), 230969 (1); UF 179646 (4). •Valid as Sparisoma choati Rocha, Brito & Robertson 2012 -- (Wirtz et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32972], Westneat in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2739 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2018:24 [ref. 35964]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma choati Rocha, Brito & Robertson 2012. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic Ocean: Cape Verde Islands and Senegal, south to offshore islands in the Gulf of Guinea and northern Angola. Habitat: marine.

chrysopomus, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1847:163 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 314] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Possible types: AMS B.8190 [from Day] (1); BMNH 1861.2.28.5 (1), 1862.2.28.58 (1); MNHN 0000-1739 (1), 0000-1740 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:293 [ref. 20736]. Also in Bleeker 1847:53 [ref. 317]. •Synonym of Scarus quoyi Valenciennes 1840 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus quoyi Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

chrysopterus, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:286, Pl. 57 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tropical western Atlantic. Holotype (unique): ? ZMB 7049. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:127-128 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:400 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:210 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:395 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:301 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1736 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:157 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:541 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:65 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

circumnotatus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:423 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 14512. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:212 [ref. 22926]. •Possible synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Uncertain as Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

coccineus, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:289 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. Based on the 'Vieja (No. 2)' of Parra 1787:58, Pl. 28 (fig. 2) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

coelestinus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:180 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] St. Thomas Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2459 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:293 [ref. 20736]. •Valid as Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:208 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:156 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:392 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:30 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:299 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Moura et al. 2001:518 [ref. 25371], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1729 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:533 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:160 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:64 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

coerulea, Coryphaena Bloch [M. E.] 1786:148, Pl. 176 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 2; ref. 465] Bahamas and Antilles. No types known. On p. 120 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 5 [ref. 21381]. This species dates to Edwards 1771 and not to Bloch 1786 unless the ICZN is petitioned or continued usage maintained. Catesby 1771 is a rejected work, and unavailable (Opinions 89 and 259) but the appendix by Edwards is available. Coryphaena coerulea Bloch 1786 is a primary homonym of Coryphaena coerulea Edwards 1771. Spelled caerulea by Bonnaterre 1788:59 [ref. 4940] and Lacepède 1801:175, 200 [ref. 2710]. •Valid as Scarus coeruleus (Bloch 1786) -- (Cervigón 1992:392 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:31 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:299 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1730 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:534 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:160 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:64 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Scaridae: Scarinae.

coerulea, Coryphaena Edwards [M.] in Catesby 1771:cat. 1 [The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands; ref. 774] Bahamas. No types known. Catesby 1771 is a rejected work, and unavailable (Opinions 89 and 259) but the appendix by Edwards is available. On Novacula caerulea Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina 1743, 18 pl. 18. Bahamas. This species should date to authorship as above and not to Bloch 1786. •Valid as Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771) (sometimes dated to (Bloch 1786)) -- (Cervigón 1992:392 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:31 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:299 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1730 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:534 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:160 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:64 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

coeruleopunctatus, Scarus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1835:24, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 1504. Paralectotypes: SMF 2743 (1, dry). Originally coeruleo-punctatus. Lectotype mentioned by Bruce & Randall 1985:25, 27 [ref. 5234] but with a contradiction in numbers. •Valid as Scarus caeruleopunctatus (Rüppell 1835) -- (Dor 1984:218 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:24 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:194 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:297 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

coerulescens, Scarus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:77 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). •Validly published by Valenciennes (ex Ehrenberg) 1840 as caerulescens. Scaridae: Scarinae.

coeruleus, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:288 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Treatment in Bloch & Schneider is based on the same source as Edwards coerulea. Bloch & Schneider treat Scarus coerulea seven pages before, so the above is subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Scarus by Coryphaena coerulea Bloch 1786 [author is actually Edwards 1771; see Coryphaena coerulea]. •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

collana, Scarus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1835:25, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 1202. Rüppell specimens: BMNH 1845.10.29.66 (stuffed); SMF 2725 (1). Text published in 1835, Pl. 8 in 1836. Lectotype selected by Dor 1984:213 [ref. 29757] but description evidently based only on one specimen. •Valid as Scarus collana Rüppell 1835 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:13 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:213 [ref. 29757], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[6] 244 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scarus collana Rüppell 1835. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

collaris, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:265 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Massawah [Massaua], Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. Perhaps not intended as a new name; same as collana Rüppell. •Synonym of Scarus collana Rüppell 1835 -- (Dor 1984:213 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus collana Rüppell 1835. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

collettei, Nicholsina ustus Schultz [L. P.] 1968:2, Pl. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 124 (no. 3642); ref. 7915] Off Guinea, western Africa, 9°53'N, 15°56'W. Holotype: USNM 201582. Paratypes: USNM 201443-50 (1, 2, 2, 4, 11 or 12, 2, 1, 6). •Synonym of Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Randall 1990:883 [ref. 19149], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:399 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). •Valid as Nicholsina collettei Schultz 1968 -- (Robertson et al. 2006:805 [ref. 31512], Wirtz et al. 2007:15, 37 [ref. 30263], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Rocha et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31733], Westneat in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2736 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Nicholsina collettei Schultz 1968. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Annobón Island (Gulf of Guinea). Habitat: marine.

compressus, Callyodon Osburn [R. C.] & Nichols [J. T.] 1916:171, Fig. 13 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 35 (art. 16); ref. 15062] Concepción Bay, off Ricason Point, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 87549 [ex AMNH 5205]. •Valid as Scarus compressus (Osburn & Nichols 1916) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:210 [ref. 22193], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Bellwood in Fischer et al. 1995:1423 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:505 [ref. 24023], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Thomson et al. 2000:189 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], González-Cuéllar et al. 2013:224 [ref. 32961], Fourriére et al. 2016:448 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:610 [ref. 34923], González-Murcia et al. 2019:301 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Scarus compressus (Osburn & Nichols 1916). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

crassiceps, Cryptotomus Bean [T. H.] 1906:32 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 19; ref. 15640] Cooper's Island, Bermuda. Lectotype: FMNH 4964. Paralectotypes: USNM 163555 [ex FMNH 4964] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:29 [ref. 12367]. Lectotype selected by Grey 1947:138 [ref. 12302]. •Synonym of Cryptotomus roseus Cope 1871 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:298 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807]). Current status: Synonym of Cryptotomus roseus Cope 1871. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

cretensis, Callyodon Meuschen [F. C.] 1778:55 [Museum Gronovianum; ref. 17682] Original not seen. Not available, published in a rejected work (Opinion 260). Scaridae.

cretensis, Callyodon Bloch [M. E.] 1789:246 [Abhandlungen der Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften v. 4 (for 1788); ref. 467] •See Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

cretensis, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:282 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Crete, Greece, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Quignard & Pras in Whitehead et al. 1986:943 [ref. 13676], Randall 1990:884 [ref. 19149], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116] as cretensis, Otero & Galeote 1996:405 [ref. 22783], Santos et al. 1997:97 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:97 [ref. 24952], Vacchi et al. 1999:325 [ref. 24369], Afonso et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25466] with question, Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Guidetti & Boero 2001:717 [ref. 25600], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:116 [ref. 26753], Goren & Aronov 2002:239 [ref. 26560], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Fricke et al. 2007:95 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:56 [ref. 36649], Rocha et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31733], Wirtz et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32972], Westneat in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2738 [ref. 34618], Artüz & Fricke 2019:558 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Senegal, including offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

croicensis, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:27, Pl. 221 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. No types known. On p. 15 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. First named Callyodon iseri by Bloch 1789. •Valid as Scarus croicensis Bloch 1790 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:208 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:156 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:393 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1994:33 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Westneat 2003:1732 [ref. 27105]). •Junior synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789) -- (see Randall & Nelson 1979:211 [ref. 19975] as iserti, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:299 [ref. 25013] as iserti, Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], P. Parenti, pers. comm. Feb. 2011). Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cruciensis, Scarus Forster [J. R.] 1795:16 [Zoologia Indica, sistens descriptiones animalium selectorum; ref. 18091] India. Name only. Based on Scarus croicensis Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae.

cruentatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:277 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Uléa, Caroline Islands, western Pacific, ca. 7°22'N, 143°54'E. No types preserved. Based on a drawing, probably by Mertens (Franz Karl Mertens, 1764-1831, German botanist). •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

cuzamilae, Scarus Bean [T. H.] 1891:196, Pl. 29 (fig. 4) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 8 (art. 4) (for 1888); ref. 14497] Cozumel, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 37128. •Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

cyanescens, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:254 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0586. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:293 [ref. 20736]. •Valid as Scarus cyanescens Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:13 [ref. 5412], Randall 1986:712 [ref. 5706], Randall & Earle 1993:292 [ref. 14908]). •Valid as Chlorurus cyanescens (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Randall & Anderson 1997:162 [ref. 23281], Fricke 1999:451 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:359 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2018:296 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus cyanescens (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East and South Africa east to Madagascar and Mascarenes (Mauritius and Rodrigues). Habitat: marine.

cyanognathos, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1847:164 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 314] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6672 (larger of 2). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.2.28.4 (1). Also in Bleeker 1847:63 [ref. 317]. •Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943] as cyanognathus, Randall 2005:462 [ref. 28239] as cyanognathus). Current status: Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

cyanogrammus, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:330, Fig. 63 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51756. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

cyanolene, Sparisoma Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:98 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 414); ref. 14397] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 35173 (1 of 4 if identifiable). Paralectotypes: (many) BMNH 1884.7.7.87-88 [from Jordan] (2), MNHN 1887-0475 and 0476 (2); USNM 35173 (3 of 4). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:300 [ref. 20736]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 244, p. 3283 for Sparisoma hoplomystax in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

cyanotaenia, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1854:197 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 342] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1864.5.15.28. •Name applies to an intial phase of Chlorurus, probably a synonym of Chlorurus bleekeri (de Beaufort 1940) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:448 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus bleekeri (de Beaufort 1940). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

cyanurus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:261 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Syntypes: (4) MNHN 0000-1724 (2), 0000-1725 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:293 [ref. 20736]. Four types according to Guichenot 1860:53 [ref. 13946]. •Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:8 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:213 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

cyclurus, Calotomus Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:465, Fig. 24 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands [in error for Japan]. Holotype (unique): USNM 50849. •Synonym of Calotomus japonicus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:13 [ref. 5234], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:451 [ref. 28379], Parenti & Randall 2011:40 [ref. 31299]) Current status: Synonym of Calotomus japonicus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

cypho, Scarus Seale [A.] 1901:95 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Agaña, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): BPBM 160. •Synonym of Scarus schlegeli (Bleeker 1861) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:220 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Myers & Donaldson 2003:638 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:461 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus schlegeli (Bleeker 1861). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

denticulatus, Scarus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:3, 13, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Indo-Pacific. •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

denticulatus, Xenoscarus Evermann [B. W.] & Radcliffe [L.] 1917:129, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 95; ref. 1284] Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru. Holotype: USNM 77619. Paratypes: (1). •Valid as Nicholsina denticulata (Evermann & Radcliffe 1917) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:210 [ref. 22193], Bellwood 1994:63 [ref. 19116], Bellwood in Fischer et al. 1995:1422 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:504 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:329 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:399 [ref. 24550], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:125 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:189 [ref. 25640], Lea et al. 2001:167 [ref. 25757], Richards & Engle 2001:177 [ref. 25759], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], Robertson et al. 2006:797 [ref. 31512], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Parenti & Randall 2011:37 [ref. 31299], Page et al. 2013:160 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:449 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:610 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:266 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:301 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Nicholsina denticulata (Evermann & Radcliffe 1917). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

dentiens, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:422 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. •Synonym of Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

diadema, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:198 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 00000-1747 (1), 0000-1749 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:293 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

differt, Calliodon lineatus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:313 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. No types known. Scaridae. Habitat: marine.

dimidiatus, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1859:17 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 6 (art. 2); ref. 14003] Doreh Bay [Doreh], off Manokwari, West Papua, Indonesia, New Guinea, ca. 0°53'25''S 134°05'29''E. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1864.5.15.24 (1). •Valid as Scarus dimidiatus Bleeker 1859 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:219 [ref. 6441], Choat & Randall 1986:203 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:122 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:347 [ref. 15987], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:489 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:198 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:318 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:347 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:210 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1023 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3482 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1023 [ref. 26193], Kishimoto et al. 2002:4 [ref. 26569], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:161 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Liao et al. 2004:531 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:453 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1430 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:176 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:738 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:381 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:141 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:80 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:187 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Scarus dimidiatus Bleeker 1859. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: East Indian Region to Micronesia and Samoa, south to Australia, north to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

distinctus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:423 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 14513 (1), 14540 (1), 14544 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:211 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Scarus Bennett [E. T.] 1828:37 [Zoological Journal, London v. 4 (no. 13, art. 3); ref. 16783] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.9.13.105 [ex Zool. Soc.]. •Valid as Scarus dubius Bennett 1828 -- (Randall et al. 1990:355 [ref. 15987], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Fricke 1999:456 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:461 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:363 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Scarus dubius Bennett 1828. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian Ridge and Hawaiian Islands; records from other areas based on misidentifications. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Scarus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:351, Fig. 72 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Afuera Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128113. Paratypes: USNM 128114 (2), 128115 (orig. 5, now 4); Gov't of Peru [ex USNM 128115] (1). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Scarus dubius Bennett 1828. •In the synonymy of Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

dussumieri, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:252 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Seychelles. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1720 (2), ?RMNH 6664 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:293 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:20 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:215 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Fricke 1999:457 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

elerae, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1907:31, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 606) (for 1906); ref. 2498] Cavite, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 9246. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:87 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:33 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

elongatum, Sparisoma Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:757, Pl. 74 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Market at Panama City, Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81504. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

emarginatus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1868:340 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Possible synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Uncertain as Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

emblematicus, Scarus Jordan [D. S.] & Rutter [C. L.] 1897:122 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 49; ref. 10644] Kingston, Jamaica. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 4954. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus taeniopterus Lesson 1829 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus taeniopterus Lesson 1829. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

enneacanthus, Scarus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:2, 6 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] [Grand Océan équinoxial] is Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2476 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:293 [ref. 20736]. •Valid as Scarus enneacanthus Lacepède 1802 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:14 [ref. 5412], Winterbottom et al. 1989:58 [ref. 13251], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:490 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Chlorurus enneacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall 1986:712 [ref. 5706], Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Anderson et al. 1998:26 [ref. 23611], Fricke 1999:451 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Fricke et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:732 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus enneacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Mozambique, Seychelles and Mascarenes east to Maldives and Chagos Archipelago, to Andaman Islands, Indonesia and Cocos-Keeling Islands. Habitat: marine.

eques, Pseudoscarus collana var. Steindachner [F.] 1903:151 [29] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 71; ref. 15046] Makalla, southeastern Arabian coast. Holotype (unique): NMW (not yet found). Not included in abstract [ref. 14894]. On p. 29 of separate. •Synonym of Scarus fuscopurpureus (Klunzinger 1871) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:18 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus fuscopurpureus (Klunzinger 1871). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

erythacus, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:318, Fig. 58 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype (unique): USNM 51750. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

erythrinoides, Scarus Guichenot [A.] 1865:10 [Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg v. 11 (= Ser. 2, v. 1); ref. 13946] Santo Domingo. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1772 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:294 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

erythrodon, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:255 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0575. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:294 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:217 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 1999:453 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:296 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:131 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

erythrogenys, Scarus Bleeker [P.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1862:32 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 1; ref. 4858] Not available, Kuhl and van Haselt museum name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Pseudoscarus nuchipunctatus -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae.

evermanni, Scarus Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Evermann 1887:469 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 586); ref. 2441] Off Tampa Bay, Florida, U.S.A. (stomach content). Holotype (unique): USNM 37990. •See Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

falcipinnis, Pseudoscarus Playfair [R. L.] 1868:865, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3) (art. 6) (for 14 Nov. 1867); ref. 14049] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.8.16.69. •Valid as Scarus falcipinnis (Playfair 1868) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:15 [ref. 5412], Winterbottom et al. 1989:58 [ref. 13251], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Randall 1995:296 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:456 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Fricke et al. 2009:91 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scarus falcipinnis (Playfair 1868). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

farrandi, Scaridea Jordan [E. K.] 1925:28, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 66 (no. 2570); ref. 2544] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 87416. •Synonym of Calotomus zonarchus (Jenkins 1903) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:21 [ref. 5234], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:451 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus zonarchus (Jenkins 1903). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:222 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8586 (right skin). •Valid as Scarus fasciatus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Chen et al. 1997:139 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:217 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Liao et al. 2004:533 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:459 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

fehlmanni, Scarus Schultz [L. P.] 1969:24, Fig. 2 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 17; ref. 7843] Strait of Jubal, Egypt, 27°16'40"N, 33°46'50"E, Red Sea. Holotype: USNM 202419. Paratypes: USNM 202415-18 (1, 2, 1, 1). •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:215 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

ferrugineus, Scarus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:29, x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Dahab, northwestern coast of Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai, Egypt, Red Sea, depth 12 meters. Neotype: BPBM 18158. Neotype designated by Randall & Ormond 1978:245 [ref. 21371]. •Valid as Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Ormond 1978:245 [ref. 21371], Randall & Bruce 1983:16 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:214 [ref. 29757], Randall et al. 1994:234 [ref. 21645], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356], Carpenter et al. 1997:201 [ref. 23922], Randall 1995:296 [ref. 22896], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman to Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

festivus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:282 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] No locality stated [probably Caroline Islands, western Pacific]. No types preserved. Based on a drawing by Mertens [Franz Karl Mertens, 1764-1831, German botanist]. •Valid as Scarus festivus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:16 [ref. 5412], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:218 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:712 [ref. 5706], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:490 [ref. 27969], Myers 1999:210 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:456 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1021 [ref. 25182], Bellwood 2001:3482 [ref. 26278], Nakabo 2002:1021 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Liao et al. 2004:531 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:454 [ref. 28239], Motomura et al. 2010:176 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:739 [ref. 31980], Koeda et al. 2016:81 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:14 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scarus festivus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Chagos Archipelago east to Marshall Islands and Gambier Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

festivus, Scarus Longley [W. H.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1941:208 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 34 (publ. 535); ref. 18452] Not available, Poey manuscript name mentioned in passing under Sparisoma distinctum (Poey 1861). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae.

filholi, Pseudoscarus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1880:225 [15] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 3888] Fiji Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-1762 to A-1763 (6). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:300 [ref. 20736]. On p. 15 of separate. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:215 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

flavescens, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:290 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Vieja (No. 4)' of Parra 1787:59, Pl. 28 (fig. 4) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

flavipectoralis, Scarus Schultz [L. P.] 1958:52, Pl. 9 (fig. D) [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 214; ref. 3970] Pagapas Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 112217. •Valid as Scarus flavipectoralis Schultz 1958 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:204 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:347 [ref. 15987], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Allen 1997:202 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:318 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:347 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:210 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:378 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3483 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:162 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:454 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1430 [ref. 29090], Westneat et al. 2007:67 [ref. 29298], Allen & Erdmann 2012:739 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:141 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Scarus flavipectoralis Schultz 1958. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Indian Region to Micronesia, New Caledonia and Australia. Habitat: marine.

flavipinnis, Pseudoscarus De Vis [C. W.] 1885:886 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 4); ref. 1091] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.83. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Allen et al. 2006:1431 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

flavoguttata, Pseudoscarus troschellii var. Steindachner [F.] 1887:63 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 96 (1. Abth.); ref. 4235] Kingsmill Islands [= Gilbert Islands]. Holotype (unique): NMW 72975. •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2011:40 [ref. 31299]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

flavolineatus, Pseudoscarus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:346, Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Cape Grenville, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16373-001 [ex MAMU F881] (3). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:208 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:217 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Allen et al. 2006:1433 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

flavomaculatus, Pseudoscarus Bliss [R.] 1883:57 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MCZ 6129. Paratypes: USNM 153567 [ex MCZ 6129] (1). Original genus misspelled Psendoscarus. •Synonym of Scarus scaber Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Fricke 1999:461 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus scaber Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

flavomarginatus, Pseudoscarus Kner [R.] 1865:262, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Reise der öesterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 18427] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: NMW 72867 (2). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Scarus by Scarus flavomarginatus Valenciennes 1840. •Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:24 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:213 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

flavomarginatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:202 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1746. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:294 [ref. 20736]. Originally as flavo-marginatus. •Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

formosus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:283 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0585 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:294 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Scarus dubius Bennett 1828 -- (Randall et al. 1990:355 [ref. 15987], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:461 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus dubius Bennett 1828. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

forresti, Scarus Curtiss [A.] 1938:108 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

forskael, Scarus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:5, 17 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Arabian Sea. Scaridae. Habitat: marine.

forskalii, Pseudoscarus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:566 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea; Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: BMNH 1871.7.15.4 (4), SMNS 12139 [ex SMNS 914b] (2), ZIN 2621 (1), ZMB 7868 (1) Kosseir. Type catalog: Fricke 1992:17 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:56 [ref. 29864] •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:216 [ref. 29757], Randall et al. 1990:352 [ref. 15987], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Golani & Fricke 2018:133 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

forsteni, Pseudoscarus Bleeker [P.] 1861:238 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 12; ref. 381] Sulawesi, Indonesia; Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No types known. •Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:33 [ref. 5412]). •Valid as Scarus forsteni (Bleeker 1861) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:204 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:348 [ref. 15987], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Allen 1997:202 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:140 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:318 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:348 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:210 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:23 [ref. 25829], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1022 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:378 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3483 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1022 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:75 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Liao et al. 2004:531 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:455 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1431 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:176 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:740 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:268 [ref. 32706], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:81 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Scarus forsteni (Bleeker 1861). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: East Indian Region to Micronesia and Pitcairn Island, also Australia (Great Barrier Reef and Northwest shelf), north to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

forsteri, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:275 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Tahiti, Society Islands. Neotype: USNM 202607. Neotype designated by Schultz 1969:17 [ref. 7843]. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Ormond 1978:242 [ref. 21371], Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:216 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:215 [ref. 8099], Randall 1995:300 [ref. 22896], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Liao et al. 2004:533 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:459 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:453 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

fowleri, Xanothon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:5, Pl. 42 (fig. G) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 1; ref. 4104] East Africa. Possible holotype: BMNH 1860.11.9.98 (1). See Goren & Dor 1994:57 [ref. 25356]. New name for Xanothon frenatus Lacepède. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:218 [ref. 17376]). •Synonym of Scarus russelli Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:29 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus russelii Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

francisci, Scarus Curtiss [A.] 1938:113 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

frenatus, Scarus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:3, 13, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Grand Océan équinoxial [Indo-West Pacific]. No types known. Based on description and illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Scarus frenatus Lacepède 1802 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:17 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:214 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:220 [ref. 6441], Choat & Randall 1986:204 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:122 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:58 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:348 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:165 [ref. 25479], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:297 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:198 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:316 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:348 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:210 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:457 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:23 [ref. 25829], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1022 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:379 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3484 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1022 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:162 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Liao et al. 2004:532 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:455 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1431 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:91 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:235 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:177 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:740 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:268 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:141 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273], Hoschke et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Scarus frenatus Lacepède 1802. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Line Islands and Ducie (Pitcairn Group), north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

frondosus, Scarus Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:98, Pl. 54 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Bahia, Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-581. Paralectotypes or non-types: MNHN 0000-1764 (1), 0000-1765 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:294 [ref. 20736], Kottelat 1984:150 [ref. 21784]. Type information: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. Also appeared in Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1839:204 [ref. 4882]. Lectotype selected by Moura et al. 2001:510 [ref. 25371] [as MHNN 581]. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). •Valid as Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz 1831) -- (Moura et al. 2001:510 [ref. 25371], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155] as Sparissoma f., Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Wirtz et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32972], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz 1831). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Atlantic: Brazil and oceanic islands off Brazil and St. Paul's Rocks; eastern Atlantic (Cape Verde Islands). Habitat: marine.

frontalis, Pseudoscarus Macleay [W.] 1883:590 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 4); ref. 17586] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16374-001 [ex MAMU F901]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:208 [ref. 19518]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Scarus by Scarus frontalis Valenciennes 1840. •Synonym of Scarus gibbus Rüppell 1828 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:22 [ref. 5412]). •Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:219 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

frontalis, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:280 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Oualan [Kosrae], Caroline Islands, western Pacific. No types preserved. Based on a painting by Mertens (Karl Heinrich Mertens, 1796-2830, German explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Scarus frontalis Valenciennes 1840 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:219 [ref. 6441], Choat & Randall 1986:206 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:349 [ref. 15987]). •Valid as Chlorurus frontalis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Allen 1997:202 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:349 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:209 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:23 [ref. 25829], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Nakabo 2000:1016 [ref. 25182], Bellwood 2001:3476 [ref. 26278], Nakabo 2002:1016 [ref. 26193], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495] dated 1839, Lobel & Lobel 2004:74 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:449 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1428 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:176 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:732 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus frontalis (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: eastern Australia to Micronesia, Line Islands and Pitcairn Group. Habitat: marine.

fumifrons, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:326, Pl. 34 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Pago Pago, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51745. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8662 (2), USNM 61170 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:87 [ref. 12291]. Fowler and Bean (1928:428) record an inland record from the Philippines; needs conformation according to Kottelat 2013. •Synonym of Scarus dimidiatus Bleeker 1859 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:203 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Kottelat 2013:382 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus dimidiatus Bleeker 1859. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

fuscocaudalis, Scarus Randall [J. E.] & Myers [R. F.] 2000:223, Pl. 1 A-E [Micronesica v. 32 (no. 2); ref. 25047] Mariana Islands, Guam, western Pacific, 1/4 mile north of Tanguison Power Plant, 13°33'N, 144°48'E, near cables, depth 20 meters. Holotype: BPBM 31331. Paratypes: BPBM 22257 (1), CAS 205597 (1), USNM 353675 (1). •Valid as Scarus fuscocaudalis Randall & Myers 2000 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Kishimoto et al. 2002:2 [ref. 26569], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2005:127 [ref. 28745], Motomura et al. 2010:177 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:741 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Scarus fuscocaudalis Randall & Myers 2000. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: Indonesia, Timor Sea, Philippines to Guam, north to Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

fuscocuneus, Callyodon Fowler [H. W.] 1935:158, Fig. 128 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 13881] Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 62771. Paratypes: ANSP 62772 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:150 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

fuscopurpureus, Pseudoscarus forskalii var. Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:567 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Lectotype: BMNH 1871.7.15.13. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1871.7.15.13 (1), SMF 1244 (1), NMW no number (1), ZIN 2566 (1), ZMB 7869 (1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:214 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Scarus fuscopurpureus (Klunzinger 1871) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:18 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:214 [ref. 29757], Randall et al. 1994:234 [ref. 21645], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:297 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:201 [ref. 23922], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scarus fuscopurpureus (Klunzinger 1871). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Somalia, Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Pseudoscarus De Vis [C. W.] 1885:887 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 4); ref. 1091] Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.157. •Synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:210 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Allen et al. 2006:1431 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

galena, Scarus Jordan [E. K.] 1925:32 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 66 (no. 2570); ref. 2544] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 87418. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8781 (1), 8784 (1), 23374 (2); USNM 151558 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:453 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

garretti, Pseudoscarus Günther [A.] 1909:306, Pl. 153 (fig. C) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 16); ref. 14377] Kingsmill Islands [= Gilbert Islands]. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

genazonatus, Scarus Randall [J. E.] & Bruce [R. W.] 1983:(5) 19, Pl. 6 (figs. E-F) [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 47; ref. 5412] Marsa el Muqebila, east coast of Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 25 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18136. Paratypes: BMNH 1980.6.13.1 (1); BPBM 19894 (1), 20842 (1), 21505 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 462 (1); USNM 223879 (1). •Valid as Scarus genazonatus Randall & Bruce 1983 -- (Dor 1984:215 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Chlorurus genazonatus (Randall & Bruce 1983) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:131 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus genazonatus (Randall & Bruce 1983). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

genistriatus, Callyodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-0576. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:291 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:8 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:193 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:450 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

ghardaqensis, Scarus Bebars [M. I.] 1978:78, Fig. 2 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie No. 3; ref. 8960] Hurghada, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1975-0892. Spelled ghardaquensis in main heading, ghardaqensis in title (and index to volume) and twice on p. 80, Ghardaq ensis in legend to Fig. 2 and on p. 80; the spelling ghardaqensis was selected by Eschmeyer 1998:640 [ref. 23416]. •Synonym of Scarus collana Rüppell 1835 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:13 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:213 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus collana Rüppell 1835. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

ghobban, Scarus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:28, x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. Spelled ghoban by Walbaum 1792:687 [ref. 4572]. •Valid as Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:20 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:215 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:219 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:712 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:122 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:58 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:349 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:311 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:165 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:211 [ref. 22193], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356], Bellwood in Fischer et al. 1995:1424 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:298 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:491 [ref. 27969], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:506 [ref. 24023], Allen 1997:198 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:201 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:140 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:349 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:210 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:457 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:745 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:23 [ref. 25829], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1024 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:379 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:220 [ref. 25480], Thomson et al. 2000:189 [ref. 25640], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:103 [ref. 26368], Bellwood 2001:3484 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1024 [ref. 26193], Goren & Aronov 2002:239 [ref. 26560], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:162 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:75 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Liao et al. 2004:532 [ref. 28045], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:361 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:456 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1431 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:91 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:236 [ref. 30463], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:177 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:741 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:268 [ref. 32706], González-Cuéllar et al. 2013:224 [ref. 32961], Larson et al. 2013:167 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:178 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:142 [ref. 33932], Filiz & Sevingel 2014:281 [ref. 34101], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:117 [ref. 36167], Francis & Duffy 2015:483 [ref. 36161], Psomadakis et al. 2015:299 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2015:27 [ref. 34709], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:448 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:610 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:14 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:187 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:336 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:238 [ref. 36460], Hoschke et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Panama (eastern Pacific), north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island, northern New Zealand, Kermadec Islands and Rapa; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

gibbosus, Calliodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:313 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Bloch 1786) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

gibbosus, Scarus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:208 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Not available, name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Scarus muricatus -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]); from Java. Scaridae: Scarinae.

gibbosus, Scarus Bleeker [P.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1862:27 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 1; ref. 4858] Not available, Kuhl and van Hasselt manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Pseudoscarus muricatus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae.

gibbus, Scarus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:81, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Al Muwaylih, Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 2686 (dry). Paralectotypes: SMF 2710 (1, dry), 6272 (1, skeleton); ?ZMB 2708 (dry). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:215 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Scarus gibbus Rüppell 1829 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:22 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:215 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:218 [ref. 6441], Choat & Randall 1986:209 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:124 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:58 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:351 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356], Chen et al. 1997:140 [ref. 26476] dated 1828, Iwatsuki et al. 2000:103 [ref. 26368]). •Valid as Chlorurus gibbus (Rüppell 1829) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Randall 1995:295 [ref. 22896], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:450 [ref. 28239], DiBattista et al. 2015:20 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[6] 244 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:131 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus gibbus (Rüppell 1829). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Scarus Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:59, Fig. 17 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 14757] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: CAS-SU 6140. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23292 [ex CAS-SU 6140] (4); USNM 52682 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:215 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:453 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

globiceps, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:242 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1732. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:294 [ref. 20736]. •Valid as Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:23 [ref. 5412], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:220 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:713 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:210 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:124 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:350 [ref. 15987], Francis & Randall 1993:123 [ref. 20996], Francis 1993:165 [ref. 25479], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:491 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:200 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:365 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:350 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:211 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:458 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1022 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:380 [ref. 25191], Bellwood 2001:3485 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1022 [ref. 26193], Kishimoto et al. 2002:4 [ref. 26569], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:163 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:75 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Liao et al. 2004:532 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:455 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:456 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1431 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:91 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:742 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:167 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:142 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:299 [ref. 35805], Fukui in Kimura et al. 2018:238 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll, Line Islands and Gambier Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara islands, south to Shark Bay (Western Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

gnathodus, Pseudoscarus Poey [F.] 1867:240 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14078] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 14578 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:212 [ref. 22926]. Genus originally misspelled Psendoscarus. •Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:300 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

godeffroyi, Pseudoscarus Günther [A.] 1909:326, Pl. 159 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 16); ref. 14377] Society Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:213 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

goldiei, Pseudoscarus Macleay [W.] 1883:590 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 4); ref. 17586] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Syntypes: AMS I.16375-001 [ex MAMU F1165] (2). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:208 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Pseudoscarus Steindachner [F.] 1869:138 [19] [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 16) (for 17 June 1869); ref. 20469] China. Syntypes: (several) ?NMW 72900 (1). Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1869:138 [p. 19 of separate] [ref. 4216]. •Valid as Scarus gracilis (Steindachner 1869) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Valid as Scarus gracilis (Steindachner 1869). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: China. Habitat: marine.

griseorubra, Sparisoma Cervigón [F.] 1982:5, Figs. 1-2 [Los peces marinos de Venezuela; ref. 23220] Coast of Sur de la isla de Cubagua, Venezuela. Holotype: UDONECI 1123. Paratypes: UDONECI 1124 (3). Whether grisorubra is a noun was not researched. •Valid as Sparisoma griseorubrum Cervigón 1982 -- (Cervigón 1994:49 [ref. 24488], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943] as griseorubra, Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512] as griseorumra, Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844] as griserorubra). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma griseorubrum Cervigón 1982. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

guacamaia, Scarus Cuvier [G.] (ex Parra) 1829:265 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Havana, Cuba. Cuvier & Valenciennes specimens: MNHN B-2038 (1) St. Thomas, Antilles. Type information: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:294 [ref. 20736] but for Valenciennes 1839 [MNHN B.2038 from St. Tomas]. Available from footnote as, "le Grand scare à machoirees bleues, Sc, guacamaia, Nob. Parra, XXVI" [Parra, 1787:54, Pl. 26 [ref. 6840] 'Guacamaya']. Also in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1839:178 [ref. 4882]. •Valid as Scarus guacamaia Cuvier 1829 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:209 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:393 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:36 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:299 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Moura et al. 2001:518 [ref. 25371], Westneat 2003:1731 [ref. 27105], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:535 [ref. 28815], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:64 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147, 151 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Scarus guacamaia Cuvier 1829. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Sonnerat) 1801:294 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Indian Seas. On description by Sonnerat 1774, v. 3:227, Pl. 2. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:20 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:215 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

gymnognathos, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1853:498 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique) (?): BMNH 1864.5.15.25. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 2494], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

hadji, Callyodon Seale [A.] 1910:525 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Puerto Princesa, Palawan Island, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 5367 (apparently destroyed). Paratypes: BSMP 5494 (1) apparently destroyed. •Synonym of Scarus quoyi Valenciennes 1840 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus quoyi Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

harid, Scarus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:30, x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (Red Sea). Holotype (unique): ZMUC P5952 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:70 [ref. 9588]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 3 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:7 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:212 [ref. 29757], Randall 1986:709 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:57 [ref. 13251], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356], Fricke 1999:454 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943], Bellwood 2001:3472 [ref. 26278], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:451 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2009:91 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:736 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:297 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:131 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mascarenes, Maldives and Chagos Archipelago east to Andaman Sea and Java (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

haridoides, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1855:344 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 349] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Duizend Islands. Appeared as "Scarus haridoïdes Blkr (Scarus harid Blkr. nec. Forsk.)" in list of fishes from Duizendeilanden. Bleeker identified specimens as Scarus harid Forsskål in 1845:513 [ref. 312], 1847:48 [ref. 317] and subsequent works; the name haridoides is regarded as available. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

harith, Scarus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:77 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae.

heliotropinus, Scarus Bryan [W. A.] 1906:23 [277], Fig. 3 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 15141] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 3363. •Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:28 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:219 [ref. 8099] as heliotropus, Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:454 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

hertit, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:215 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea; Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. •Questionably a synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Dor 1984:216 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:215 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Golani & Fricke 2018:133 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

hildebrandi, Scarus Kanazawa [R. H.] 1952:203 [Copeia 1952 (no. 3); ref. 18370] Replacement name for Scarus dubius Hildebrand 1946, preoccupied by Scarus dubius Bennett 1828; Objectively invalid. •Synonym of Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

hoefleri, Pseudoscarus Steindachner [F.] 1881:159 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 16) (for 23 June 1881); ref. 20482] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: NMW 77847 (1), 77853 (1). Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:46 [p. 30 of separate], Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [ref. 13333]. •Valid as Scarus hoefleri (Steindachner 1881) -- (Randall 1990:884 [ref. 19149], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Afonso et al. 1999:78 [ref. 25466], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Wirtz et al. 2007:38 [ref. 30263], Rocha et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31733], Wirtz et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33516] needs checking, Westneat in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2737 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Scarus hoefleri (Steindachner 1881). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Congo, Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

holocyaneos, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:45, 141 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:88 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Bloch 1786) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

hoplomystax, Scarus Cope [E. D.] 1871:462 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Syntypes: ANSP 9305 (1), 9306-07 (2), 9283-85 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:150 [ref. 13621] as holotype (9305) and paratypes. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

hornbosteli, Callyodon Fowler [H. W.] 1925:16 [Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum No. 22; ref. 15538] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): BPBM 3410. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:453 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

hubbsi, Xenoscarus Harry [R. R.] 1950:147, Figs. 2-3 [American Midland Naturalist v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 12955] Inlet of Bocochibampo Bay near Guaymas, Sonora, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype: CAS 20386. Paratypes: CAS 20387 (1). •Synonym of Nicholsina denticulata (Evermann & Radcliffe 1917) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Nicholsina denticulata (Evermann & Radcliffe 1917). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

humeralis, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:422 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

hypselopterus, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1853:496 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique) (?): BMNH 1864.5.15.27. •Valid as Scarus hypselopterus Bleeker 1853 -- (Myers 1999:211 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1024 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3485 [ref. 26278], Nakabo 2002:1024 [ref. 26193], Kishimoto et al. 2002:4 [ref. 26569], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Westneat et al. 2007:67 [ref. 29298], Motomura et al. 2010:177 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:742 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Scarus hypselopterus Bleeker 1853. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines, Palau and north to Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

hypselosoma, Callyodon Bleeker [P.] 1855:425 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5) RMNH 6655 (up to 5 of 62). •Synonym of Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:15 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:194 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

improvisus, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:12, Pl. 41 (fig. E) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 1; ref. 4104] Mahé, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 86. Paratypes: not researched. •Synonym of Scarus falcipinnis (Playfair 1868) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:15 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus falcipinnis (Playfair 1868). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

insulaesanctaecrucis, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:285 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Originally as Insulae St. Crucis, correction to insulaesanctacrucis is manditory; regarded as a species and not species insulae and subspecies sanctaecrucis. •Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

irradians, Calotomus Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:58, Fig. 15 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 14757] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: CAS-SU 12142 (missing). Syntypes: CAS-SU 13416 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:8 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:193 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:451 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

iseri, Callyodon Bloch [M. E.] 1789:245 [Abhandlungen der Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften v. 4 (for 1788); ref. 467] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Syntypes: ZMB 2693 (2, poor condition) coast of America, 33026 (1, left skin) no locality. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:126 [ref. 24282]. Regarded by Randall & Nelson 1979:211 [ref. 19975] as an inadvertent error for iserti; Bloch spelled the name as iseri three times in Latinized form, so one could argue that there was no inadvertent error. Later named Scarus croicensis by Bloch 1790. Objective senior synonym of Scarus croicensis (Randall & Nelson 1979:211 [ref. 19975], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]), but some current authors use the name croicensis as the valid one for this species. •Valid as Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789) -- (Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116] as iserti, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:299 [ref. 25013] as iserti, Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754] as iserti, Moura et al. 2001:509 [ref. 25371] as iserti, Westneat 2003:1732 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27621] as iserti, Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:536 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:64 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

iserti, Callyodon Bloch [M. E.] 1789:245 [Abhandlungen der Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften v. 4 (for 1788); ref. 467] Name does not agree with original spelling; regarded by some as the intended spelling. •See Callyodon iseri Bloch 1789. Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

ismailius, Pseudoscarus Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:410 [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. Originally as ismaïlius. Also appeared in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:27 [ref. 14246]. •Synonym of Scarus collana Rüppell 1835 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:13 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:213 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus collana Rüppell 1835. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

janthochir, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1853:139 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 16899] Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) ?ZMB 2705 (dry). •Valid as Scarus janthochir Bleeker 1853 -- (Chen et al. 1997:141 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Scarus prasiognathos Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:26 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus prasiognathos Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

japanensis, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] 1789:244, Pl. 1 [Abhandlungen der Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften v. 4 (for 1788); ref. 467] Japan [possibly Indonesia]. Lectotype: ZMB 8580 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ?ZMB 8586 (1, right skin) Molucca, Islands. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:126 [ref. 24282]. Labelled Callyodon japonensis on plate in 1890. Lectotype selected by Randall & Nelson 1979:207 [ref. 19975]. •Valid as Scarus japanensis Bloch 1789 -- (Randall & Nelson 1979:206 [ref. 19975], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:219 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:353 [ref. 15987]). •Valid as Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Randall et al. 1997:353 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:452 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1018 [ref. 25182] with author as Bloch & Schneider, Bellwood 2001:3477 [ref. 26278], Nakabo 2002:1018 [ref. 26193] with author as Bloch & Schneider, Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Liao et al. 2004:530 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:449 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:127 [ref. 28745], Allen et al. 2006:1428 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:176 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:732 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:140 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and western Mascarenes east to Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Callyodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:294, Pl. 406 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Japan. Lectotype: MNHN A-8229. Possible types: ZMB 10686 (1) Langsdorff coll. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1961:259 [ref. 20737]. Lectotype selected by Bauchot & Guibé 1961:259 [ref. 20737]. •Valid as Calotomus japonicus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:218 [ref. 6441], Bruce & Randall 1985:13 [ref. 5234], Bellwood 1994:64 [ref. 19116], Lee & Kim 1996:42 [ref. 25726], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Nakabo 2000:1014 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1014 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:374, 638 [ref. 26218], Liao et al. 2004:528 [ref. 28045], Mundy 2005:451 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:360 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:175 [ref. 31256], Motomura et al. 2015:27 [ref. 34709]). Current status: Valid as Calotomus japonicus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

javanicus, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1854:198 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 342] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1864.5.15.21 (1). •Valid as Scarus javanicus Bleeker 1854 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:220 [ref. 6441], Senou & Shimada 1991:4 [ref. 24600], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:492 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:141 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Scarus hypselopterus Bleeker 1853 -- (Senou & Shimada 1991:4 [ref. 24600], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus hypselopterus Bleeker 1853. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

jenkinsi, Scarus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:195 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50647. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:215 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:453 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

jonesi, Pseudoscarus Streets [T. H.] 1877:80 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum v.1 (no. 7); ref. 4290] Palmyra Island, Line Islands, central Pacific. Syntypes: USNM 18221 (4) •Synonym of Scarus frontalis Valenciennes 1840 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:206 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus frontalis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:449 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2011:40 [ref. 31299]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus frontalis (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Pseudoscarus Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:63, Fig. 21 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 14757] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 12143. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:28 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:219 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:354 [ref. 15987], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:460 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:454 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:365 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

kakatoe, Scarus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:3, 13 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Asiatic seas; Crete, Greece, Mediterranean Sea; Syria, and northern border of Egypt. •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

kelloggii, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:327, Fig. 62 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51746. •Synonym of Scarus spinus (Kner 1868) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:222 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus spinus (Kner 1868). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

knerii, Pseudoscarus Steindachner [F.] 1887:231 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 24 (no. 19) (for 21 July 1887); ref. 18911] Auckland, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1887:64 [p. 9 of separate] Pl. 4 (figs. 1-1a) [ref. 4235]. •Synonym of Scarus oviceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus oviceps Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

koputea, Scarus Randall [J. E.] & Choat [J. H.] 1980:409, Figs. 29-31 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 70 (no. 4); ref. 5543] Northeast of Matahumu Point, Fatu Hiva, Marquesas Islands, southern Pacific, depth 12.5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 11756. Paratypes: AMNH 39105 (1); BPBM 10338 (1), 11068 (4), 11673 (2), 11694 (1), 12480 (2), 12821 (2); CAS 44580 (1); MNHN 1966-0024 (1); USNM 175272-73 (1, 1). •Valid as Scarus koputea Randall & Choat 1980 -- (Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Randall & Earle 2000:18 [ref. 25806], Bellwood 2001:3486 [ref. 26278], Randall 2005:457 [ref. 28239], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Scarus koputea Randall & Choat 1980. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

kraussi, Scarus Jordan [E. K.] 1925:30, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 66 (no. 2570); ref. 2544] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 87417. •Synonym of Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:361 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

labiosus, Pseudoscarus Macleay [W.] 1883:591 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 4); ref. 17586] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16376-001 [ex MAMU F983]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:208 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:215 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lacerta, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:217 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0578 (1), 0000-1742 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:294-295 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:20 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lacrimosus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:422 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 14538. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:210-211 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

latax, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:329, Pl. 49 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51755. Paratypes: CAS=SU 12965 (1), USNM 51834 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:87 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Chlorurus frontalis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:449 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus frontalis (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lateralis, Scarus Poey [F.] 1860:219 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 14520-21 (1, 1), 14524 (3), 14546 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:211 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 14520 as holotype. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

latifasciatus, Callyodon Seale [A.] & Bean [B. A.] 1907:237, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1568); ref. 4002] Zamboanga, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 57845. Paratypes: USNM 61152 (1). •Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:33 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

latus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:245 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Red Sea. Holotype (?): ZMB 2687. •Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:213 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lauia, Scarus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:196 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Hilo, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50648. Paratypes: FMNH 3964 (1), CAS [ex IU 9811] (1, not found), CAS-SU 12938 [ex CAS-SU 7464] (1), USNM 52813 [ex USFC 2716] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Scarus dubius Bennett 1828 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:453 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:363 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus dubius Bennett 1828. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

laxtoni, Callyodon Whitley [G. P.] 1948:94 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 4710] Ocean Island, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.1888. •Questionably a synonym of Scarus forsteni (Bleeker 1861) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:204 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Scarus forsteni (Bleeker 1861) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus forsteni (Bleeker 1861). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lazulinus, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:333, Fig. 65 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51758. Paratypes: BMNH 1923.2.26.227-229 (3); CAS-SU 8666 (6); USNM 51826 (1), 51832 (1), 51837 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:87 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus oviceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:214 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus oviceps Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lepidus, Scarus Jenyns [L.] 1842:108 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype: BMNH 1917.7.14.47. •Synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:23 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:210 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:455 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:456 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

leucostigma, Scarus Jordan [D. S.], Evermann [B. W.] & Tanaka [S.] 1927:676, Pl. 24 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 20); ref. 2454] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS 370 [not 376]. The holotype is about 450 mm TL, disagreeing with the length given in the original description, but this larger specimen agrees is all details with the figure. •Synonym of Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:361 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

leucotaeniata, Scaridea Fowler [H. W.] 1944:180, Fig. 35 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1451] Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71391. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:150 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

limbatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:271 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Macao. Holotype: MNHN 0000-2472 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1961:259 [ref. 20737]. Based on a drawing and on a specimen from Macao. •Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:24 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:213 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Calliodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:312, Pl. 62 (fig. 2) [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. Plate regarded as mislabeled Callyodon striatus. •Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Callyodon Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:84 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] No locality. No types known. Scaridae. Habitat: marine.

lineolabiatus, Callyodon Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1928:457, Pl. 47 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 7; ref. 1475] Butauanan Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 89976 (not found in 1980). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:150 [ref. 13621] with ANSP 101792 as holotype, not USNM 89976. •Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:24 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:213 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lineolatus, Pseudoscarus Poey [F.] 1867:239 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14078] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 31448 (1), 14565 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:212 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Scarus taeniopterus Lesson 1829 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus taeniopterus Lesson 1829. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lividus, Scarus Bleeker [P.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1862:40 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 1; ref. 4858] Not available, Kuhl and van Haselt museum name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Pseudoscarus aeruginosus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae.

longicauda, Pteronason Swainson [W.] 1839:226 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Scarus mastax Rüppell, Pl. 21 (fig. 2) -- which is Rüppell 1829:Pl. 21 (fig. 2) [ref. 3843]. •Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

longiceps, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:241 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Waigeo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2479 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:295 [ref. 20736]. •Valid as Scarus longiceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:220 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:492 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:196 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:122 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:344 [ref. 15987], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Allen 1997:198 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:344 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:209 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1016 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:376 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:220 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3480 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1016 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495] dated 1839, Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:161 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:74 [ref. 27576] dated 1839, Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Liao et al. 2004:530 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:451 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1429 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:736 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:141 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Cocos-Keeling Islands and East Indian Region to Micronesia, Line Islands, Tuamotu Archipelago, Northern Australia and New Caledonia, north to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

longipinnis, Scarus Randall [J. E.] & Choat [J. H.] 1980:414, Figs. 32-33 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 70 (no. 4); ref. 5543] West side off Christian's Point, Pitcairn Island, South Pacific, depth 18 meters. Holotype: BPBM 16680. Paratypes: AMNH 39106 (1); AMS I.21379-001 to -003 (1, 1, 1); BMNH 1979.12.11.1 (1); BPBM 13043 (1), 14381 (1), 16648 (1), 16656 (1), 16763 (1), 16773 (1), 17195 (1); CAS 44581 (1); USNM 220884 (1). •Valid as Scarus longipinnis Randall & Choat 1980 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:211 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:350 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:165 [ref. 25479], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Allen 1997:202 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:350 [ref. 25919], Randall 1999:24 [ref. 25829], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:380 [ref. 25191], Randall & Myers 2000:227 [ref. 25047], Bellwood 2001:3486 [ref. 26278], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:457 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1432 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Valid as Scarus longipinnis Randall & Choat 1980. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Southern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

lorito, Sparisoma Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:95 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 414); ref. 14397] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): ?USNM 35082. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

loro, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:288 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] South America. •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Bloch 1786) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lunula, Callyodon Snyder [J. O.] 1908:99 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 35 (no. 1635); ref. 4150] Naha market, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 62236. Type figured in Snyder 1912:509, pl. 66 (fig. 2) [ref. 14871]. •Synonym of Scarus festivus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:16 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:454 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus festivus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:268 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Scarus lunulatus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Dor 1984:217 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:57 [ref. 25356]). •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lupus, Scarus Fowler [H. W.] 1900:491, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 51 (for 1899); ref. 13303] Caroline Island [wrongly given as Caroline Islands], Southern Line Islands, Kiribati. Holotype: ANSP 23292 (dry). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:150 [ref. 13621]. Type locality corrected in Fowler 1901:324 [ref. 21248]. •Synonym of Chlorurus frontalis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:449 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus frontalis (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

lydiae, Scarus Curtiss [A.] 1938:108 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

macleayi, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:331 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Replacement name for Pseudoscarus frontalis Macleay 1883, secondarily preoccupied in Scarus by Scarus frontalis Valenciennes 1840. •Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:219 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

macrocheilos, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1854:60 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 16923] Sindangole, Halmahera, Indonesia. Holotype (unique) (?): BMNH 1864.5.15.31. •Synonym of Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:196 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

maculiceps, Pseudoscarus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:443 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 18495] Mauritius [Île aux Fouquets, 8 kilometers east of Mahébourg], Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ? not ZMB 8734 (dry) [? ZMB 9346, lost]. Type locality see Möbius 1880 [ref. 30489]. •Synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Fricke 1999:458 [ref. 24106] with holotype as ZMB 9346). •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

maculipinna, Scarus Westneat [M. W.], Satapoomin [U.] & Randall [J. E.] 2007:60, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 1628; ref. 29298] Northeastern coast of Similan Island, 8°39'25"N, 97°39'30"E, Similan Islands, Thailand, Indian Ocean, depth 12-15 meters. Holotype: PMBC 20408. Paratypes: AMS I.43250 (2); BPBM 37666 (2 not 1); FMNH 117284 (4), 117285 (2); PMBC 20409 (2); USNM 37624 (1). •Valid as Scarus maculipinna Westneat, Satapoomin & Randall 2007 -- (Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Allen & Erdmann 2012:743 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Scarus maculipinna Westneat, Satapoomin & Randall 2007. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands, Myanmar, western Thailand and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

maculosus, Scarus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:5, 21, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2478. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:295 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:20 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Fricke 1999:457 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

madagascariensis, Pseudoscarus Steindachner [F.] 1887:230 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 24 (no. 19) (for 21 July 1887); ref. 18911] Madagascar. Syntypes: (3) NMW 22792 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:299 [ref. 35805]. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1887:61 [p. 6 of separate] Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [ref. 4235]. •Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:24 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:216 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:213 [ref. 8099], Randall 1995:299 [ref. 22896], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:299 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

magrathii, Scarus Bennett [J. W.] 1841:Unnum. p., Pl. 28 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon Third Edition; ref. 21457] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. Same as Scarus pepo Bennett 1830: Pl. 28 of First Edition; objective synonym of Scarus pepo Bennett 1830. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43 [ref. 21456] as magrathi, Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

makaravar, Scarus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:475 [197] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 197 of reprint. •Questionably a synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

malindiensis, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:13, Pl. 45 (fig. H) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 1; ref. 4104] Malindi, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 75. Paratypes: (1) not researched. •Synonym of Scarus viridifucatus (Smith 1956) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:34 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:300 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus viridifucatus (Smith 1956). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

maoricus, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:328, Pl. 48 (fig. 3) [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Pago Pago, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51747. Paratypes: CAS-SU 12963 (1), USNM 51833 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:87 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:24 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:213 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

margarita, Callyodon Fowler [H. W.] 1917:133, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 69; ref. 15092] Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): ANSP 46960. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

margaritus, Pseudoscarus Cartier [O.] 1874:105 [Verhandlungen der Physikalisch-medizinischen Gesellschaft zu Würzburg, N. S. v. 5; ref. 17974] Cebu, Philippines. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:296 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

marshalli, Scarus Schultz [L. P.] 1958:88, Fig. 24 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 214; ref. 3970] Mersa Sheikh Sa'ad, Red Sea. Holotype: BMNH 1955.11.4.5. Paratypes: BMNH 1955.11.4.6 (1), USNM 163817 [ex BMNH 1955.11.4.6] (1). •Synonym of Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Ormond 1978:245 [ref. 21371], Randall & Bruce 1983:16 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

maschalespilos, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1862:127 [5] [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 14; ref. 389] Suriname. Syntypes: (2). On p. 5 of separate. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

mastax, Scarus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:80, Pl. 21 (fig. 2) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Ras Mohammed, Jubal Island, and Gimsche, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes and/or Rüppell specimens: NMW 92437 (1, dry); SMF 2684 (1, dry), 2696 (1, dry), 4424 (1, dry). •Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:8 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:212 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

melanotis, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1862:126 [4] [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 14; ref. 389] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 4 of separate. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

mentalis, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:233 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: ZMB 2683. See Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Dor 1984:217 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

mertensii, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:281 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Uléa, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. No types preserved. Based on a drawing by Mertens (Franz Karl Mertens, 1764-1831, German botanist). •Unidentifiable -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

microcheilos, Pseudoscarus Bleeker [P.] 1861:231 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 12; ref. 381] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Possible type: BMNH 1864.5.15.45 (1). Unjustifiably emended to microcheilus by Günther 1862:236 [ref. 1969]. •Synonym of Scarus gibbus Rüppell 1828 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:22 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:209 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus strongylocephalus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:297 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus strongylocephalus (Bleeker 1855). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

micrognathos, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1847:164 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 314] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Also in Bleeker 1847:56 [ref. 317]. •Synonym of Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

microps, Callyodon Osburn [R. C.] & Nichols [J. T.] 1916:170, Fig. 12 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 35 (art. 16); ref. 15062] Santa Catalina Island, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 87548 [ex AMNH 5212]. •Synonym of Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

microrhinos, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1854:200 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 342] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.2.28.54 (1). •Valid as Scarus microrhinos Bleeker 1854 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:304 [ref. 19756], Francis 1993:166 [ref. 25479], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:380 [ref. 25191]). •Synonym of Scarus gibbus Rüppell 1829 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:22 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:216 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:209 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:351 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:310 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:200 [ref. 23977] as microhinos). •Valid as Chlorurus microrhinos (Bleeker 1854) -- (Randall 1995:295 [ref. 22896], Randall et al. 1997:351 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:209 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:23 [ref. 25829], Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1019 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:218 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:18 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3477 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1019 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:74 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Liao et al. 2004:530 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:450 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1428 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:176 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:733 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:165 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:140 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:80 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus microrhinos (Bleeker 1854). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Indian Region to Micronesia and Pitcairn Group, south to Australia and Lord Howe Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Habitat: marine.

miniatus, Scarus Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:62, Fig. 20 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 14757] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 12144 (missing in 1995). Paratypes: CAS-SU 9051 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

miniofrenatus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:379, 393 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Poey specimens: MCZ 14545 (1), 14547 (1), 14550 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:211 [ref. 22926]. New name for Scarus aurofrenatus Valenciennes. •Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

moensi, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1860:54 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 7); ref. 379] Badjoa, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6669. •Synonym of Scarus hypselopterus Bleeker 1853 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus hypselopterus Bleeker 1853. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

moluccensis, Callyodon Bleeker [P.] 1861:243 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 12; ref. 381] Sulawesi, Ternate, Batjan, Timor, Ambon, Ceram and Banda, Indonesia. Possible syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1864.5.15.33 (1), NMV 46082 (1), RMNH 6656 (4). •Synonym of Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:15 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:194 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

moresbyensis, Pseudoscarus Macleay [W.] 1883:591 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 4); ref. 17586] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Syntypes: AMS I.16377-001 [ex MAMU F883] (2). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:208 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Scarus quoyi Valenciennes 1840 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus quoyi Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

muricatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:208 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH (whereabouts unknown). Based on an RMNH specimen collected by Kuhl & van Hasselt, which was examined and drawn in Leiden by Valenciennes. •Valid as Bolbometopon muricatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:6 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:211 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:218 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:709 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:197 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:122 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:343 [ref. 15987], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:488 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:198 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:314 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:343 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:26 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:207 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:449 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1015 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:375 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:114 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3473 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1015 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495] dated 1839, Lobel & Lobel 2004:74 [ref. 27576] dated 1839, Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Liao et al. 2004:529 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:445 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:126 [ref. 28745], Allen et al. 2006:1426 [ref. 29090], Ogihara et al. 2010:44 [ref. 31554], Allen & Erdmann 2012:728 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:140 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:80 [ref. 35333], Golani & Fricke 2018:131 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Bolbometopon muricatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mascarenes (Mauritius and Rodrigues) and Maldives east to Wake Atoll, southern Japan, Marshall Islands, Line Islands and Gambier Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

mus, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:13, Pl. 41 (fig. B) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 1; ref. 4104] Shimoni, Kenya, western Indian Ocean Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 78. •Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:33 [ref. 5412], Randall 1986:714 [ref. 5706], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

mutabilis, Callyodon Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:86 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.87 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:228 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Valid as Callyodon mutabilis Gronow 1854 -- (Wheeler 1958:228 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Scarus quoyi Valenciennes 1840 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus quoyi Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

mutabilis, Scarus Lowe [R. T.] 1838:187 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Off Madeira. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

naevius, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:253 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Mahé, Seychelles. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0556. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:295 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:194 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Pseudoscarus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1909:259 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 3, no. 5); ref. 1650] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 10223. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Randall 1986:712 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

niger, Scarus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:28, x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P5951 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:70 [ref. 9588]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 3 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Scarus niger Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:24 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:216 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:220 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:713 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:213 [ref. 8099], Winterbottom et al. 1989:58 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:351 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:166 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:123 [ref. 20996], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:57 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:299 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:202 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:351 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:211 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:459 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1026 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:381 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:103 [ref. 26368], Bellwood 2001:3487 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1026 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:163 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Liao et al. 2004:532 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:458 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1432 [ref. 29090], Satapoomin 2009:236 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:177 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:743 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:268 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:142 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:81 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:188 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:299 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:133 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scarus niger Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Amirantes, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marshall Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

nigrescens, Scarus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:743, Pl. 72 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Porto Bello, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81764. •Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Scarus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:77 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Not available, name only -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae.

nigricans, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:213 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMB 2679. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Dor 1984:217 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

nigripinnis, Pseudoscarus Günther [A.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:105, Pl. 15 (fig. 2) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1867.3.9.328 (right half skin). Paratypes: BMNH 1865.2.27.80 (1), 1866.1.19.16 (1), 1867.3.9.355 (1 left half skin). Described from BMNH 1876.3.9.328, which makes this the holotype, paratype (in spirit) figured. •Synonym of Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:6 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:195 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

niphobles, Sparisoma Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1889:551 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 752); ref. 2432] Green Turtle Cay, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): USNM 41734. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

noyesi, Scarus Heller [E.] & Snodgrass [R. E.] 1903:206, Pl. 9 [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 5; ref. 2089] Tagus Cove, Isabela Island [Albemarle Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: CAS-SU 12332. Paratypes: CAS-SU 12273-78 (orig. 6, now 3), USNM 50084 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

nuchalis, Scarus Poey [F.] 1860:220 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: ZMB 5955 (1). •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Bloch 1786) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

nuchipunctatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:224 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Indian seas. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2470. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1961:259 [ref. 20737]. •Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:24 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:213 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

nudirostris, Pseudoscarus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:346, Pl. 17 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Cape Grenville, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.16378-001 [ex MAMU F880]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:208 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Allen et al. 2006:1431 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

obishime, Scarus Randall [J. E.] & Earle [J. L.] 1993:288, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 39 (no. 4); ref. 14908] Off West Beach, Tatsumi-wan, eastern coast of Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, depth 15 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 35477. Paratypes: BPBM 35075 (1), 35099 [not 35093] (1); NSMT-P 35478 (1); USNM 323664 (1). •Valid as Scarus obishime Randall & Earle 1993 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Nakabo 2000:1020 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1020 [ref. 26193]). Current status: Valid as Scarus obishime Randall & Earle 1993. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

obscurus, Pseudoscarus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:41 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). •Incertae sedis in Scarinae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1434 [ref. 29090]). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

obscurus, Scarus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:77 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] No types known. Not available, name only -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae.

obtusus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1860:217 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Bloch 1786) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:278 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Caroline Islands, western Pacific. No types preserved. Based on a drawing by Ketlitz (Friedrich Heinrich Freiherr von Kittlitz, 1799-1874, German ornithologist and naturalist). •Synonym of Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:6 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:195 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943]). •Valid as Cetoscarus ocellatus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 2005:447 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:344 [ref. 28867], Fricke et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30213], Parenti & Randall 2011:37 [ref. 31299], Allen & Erdmann 2012:730 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:140 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:186 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:296 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Cetoscarus ocellatus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Caroline Islands and Gambier Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia, and Tonga, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

octodon, Scaridea Fowler [H. W.] 1928:368, Fig. 59 [Memoirs of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. No. 10; ref. 5596] Hawaiian Islands [in error, Western Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 436. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. Schultz 1958:113 [ref. 3970] discusses locality. •Questionably a synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Mundy 2005:454 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

oedema, Callyodon Snyder [J. O.] 1909:603 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 36 (no. 1688); ref. 4151] Naha, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 62951. Kottelat (2013) lists an inland record from the Philippines. •Valid as Scarus oedema (Snyder 1909) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:220 [ref. 6441], Randall & Earle 1993:292 [ref. 14908], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:493 [ref. 27969], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Chlorurus oedema (Snyder 1909) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Randall & Anderson 1997:162 [ref. 23281], Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1016 [ref. 25182], Bellwood 2001:3478 [ref. 26278], Nakabo 2002:1016 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Liao et al. 2004:530 [ref. 28045], Allen et al. 2006:1428 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:733 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus oedema (Snyder 1909). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia to Philippines, Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

ogos, Callyodon Seale [A.] 1910:527 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Puerto Princesa, Palawan Island, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 5414 (apparently destroyed). Paratypes: BSMP 5411 (1, apparently destroyed). •Synonym of Scarus hypselopterus Bleeker 1853 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus hypselopterus Bleeker 1853. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

oktodon, Pseudocarus Bleeker [P.] 1861:235 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 12; ref. 381] Butung [Buton], Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 2154. Original genus should have been Pseudoscarus. •Questionably a synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:299 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Uncertain as Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

ophthalmistius, Scarus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1933:21 [Copeia 1933 (no. 1); ref. 2106] Jolo, Sulu Archipelago, Philippines. Holotype: CAS-SU 25507 (largest of 2). Paratypes: CAS-SU 25507 (1, smallest). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:6 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:195 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

oviceps, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:244 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0561. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:295 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Scarus scaber Valenciennes 1840 -- (Dor 1984:217 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Scarus oviceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:219 [ref. 6441], Choat & Randall 1986:214 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:124 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:352 [ref. 15987], Bellwood 1994:67 [ref. 19116], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:493 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:200 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:141 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:352 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:211 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1023 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:381 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3487 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1023 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:163 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:75 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Liao et al. 2004:532 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:458 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1432 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:744 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:142 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Scarus oviceps Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: East Indian Region to Micronesia, Line Islands and Tuamotu Archipeligo, south to northern Australia and Lord Howe Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Habitat: marine.

ovifrons, Scarus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:173, Pl. 88 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Tokyo Bay, southwestern coast of Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1256 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH uncat. (1, skeleton), D1255 (1, dry), D2229 (1, dry); ZMB 2698 (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:142 [ref. 12876], see also p. 229. •Valid as Scarus ovifrons Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:221 [ref. 6441], Randall & Earle 1993:292 [ref. 14908], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116] with question, Lee & Kim 1996:43 [ref. 25726], Chen et al. 1997:142 [ref. 26476], Randall & Anderson 1997:162 [ref. 23281], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Nakabo 2000:1020 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:221 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:1020 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:374, 639 [ref. 26218], Liao et al. 2004:532 [ref. 28045], Motomura et al. 2010:177 [ref. 31256]). Current status: Valid as Scarus ovifrons Temminck & Schlegel 1846. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

oxybrachius, Scarus Poey [F.] 1868:342 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

pachycephalum, Sparisoma Longley [W. H.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1941:215, Pl. 28 (fig. 2) [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 34 (publ. 535); ref. 18452] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Type: USNM 117097 (1). Proposed as a new name for Sparisoma flavescens (non Bl. & Schn.) of Jordan & Swain, 1884. •Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

pahoro, Scarus Curtiss [A.] 1938:107 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

paluca, Scarus Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:60, Fig. 18 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 14757] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6141. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88-89 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:28 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:219 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:454 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:365 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

papuensis, Pseudoscarus Macleay [W.] 1883:590 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 4); ref. 17586] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Questionably a synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

parvidens, Xanothon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:7, Pl. 45 (fig. E) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 1; ref. 4104] Bazaruto Island, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 72. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI], not researched. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Randall 1986:713 [ref. 5706], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:299 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

pectoralis, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:269 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, No types known. •Synonym of Scarus scaber Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:217 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Golani & Fricke 2018:133 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus scaber Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

pentazona, Pseudoscarus Bleeker [P.] 1861:241 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 12; ref. 381] Sulawesi, Indonesia. Possible type: BMNH 1864.5.15.22 (1). •Synonym of Scarus schlegeli (Bleeker 1861) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:220 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:461 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus schlegeli (Bleeker 1861). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

pepo, Scarus Bennett [J. W.] 1830:unnum. p., Pl. 28 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. As Scarus magrathi in 1841 edition. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:20 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43 [ref. 21456], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

perrico, Scarus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:357 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 28328. •Valid as Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:211 [ref. 22193], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Bellwood in Fischer et al. 1995:1425 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:507 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:329 [ref. 24555], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Thomson et al. 2000:187 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957] dated 1881, Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], González-Cuéllar et al. 2013:224 [ref. 32961], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:448 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:610 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

persicus, Scarus Randall [J. E.] & Bruce [R. W.] 1983:(5) 25, Pl. 6 (figs. G-H) [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 47; ref. 5412] Bahrain fish market, Persian Gulf. Holotype: BPBM 26399. Paratypes: BPBM 21262 (1), SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 491 (1), USNM 224474 (1). •Valid as Scarus persicus Randall & Bruce 1983 -- (Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Randall 1995:299 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:202 [ref. 23922], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Scarus persicus Randall & Bruce 1983. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf to southern Oman. Habitat: marine.

perspicillatus, Scarus Steindachner [F.] 1879:32 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Species originally described as above, later described as Scarus (Scarus) perspicilliatus in more detail, but as Scarus perspicillatus on text-figure page, in Steindachner 1879:16, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [ref. 4228]. •Valid as Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:361 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner 1879). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

philippinus, Callyodon Fowler [H. W.] 1918:66, Fig. 26 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 70; ref. 1396] Philippines. Holotype (unique): ANSP 47548. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

pindae, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:11, Pl. 45 (fig. I) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 1; ref. 4104] Pinda, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 73. •Synonym of Scarus falcipinnis (Playfair 1868) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:15 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus falcipinnis (Playfair 1868). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

pinguirostratus, Scarus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:541, Pl. 21 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27734. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:8 [ref. 5412]). •Synonym of Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

platodoni, Pseudoscarus Seale [A.] 1901:96 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Agaña, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes or holotype: ANSP 98889 [ex BPBM 162] (1), BPBM 162 (1), ?USNM 154692 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621] with ANSP 98889 as holotype. •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

pleianus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:393 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] St. Thomas Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. New name for Scarus guacamaia Valenciennes 1839:132 (178) [ref. 4882], but species guacamaia dates to Cuvier 1829. •Synonym of Scarus guacamaia Cuvier 1829 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus guacamaia Cuvier 1829. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

plumbeus, Pseudoscarus Bean [T. H.] 1912:125 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 25; ref. 232] North shore, Bermuda. Syntypes: Mus. of Bermuda Nat. Hist. Soc. (2). •Synonym of Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:299 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

prasiognathos, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:272 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] New Ireland Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0569. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:295-296 [ref. 20736] plus correction of counts. •Valid as Scarus prasiognathos Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:26 [ref. 5412], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:219 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:124 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:345 [ref. 15987], Senou & Morita 1993:6 [ref. 24328], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Randall 1995:296 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:494 [ref. 27969] as prasiognathus, Allen 1997:200 [ref. 23977] as prasiognathus, Myers 1999:211 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1025 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:222 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3488 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1025 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:164 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Liao et al. 2004:533 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:452 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1432 [ref. 29090], Satapoomin 2009:236 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:178 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:744 [ref. 31980], Hoschke et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Scarus prasiognathos Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives east to Palau, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

pronus, Scarus Fowler [H. W.] 1900:490, Pl. 18 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 51 (for 1899); ref. 13303] Caroline Island [wrongly given as Caroline Islands], Southern Line Islands, Kiribati. Holotype: ANSP 23291 (dry). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. Type locality corrected in Fowler 1901:324 [ref. 21248]. •Synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:23 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:210 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

psittacus, Scarus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:29, x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Neotype: USNM 201805. Neotype designated by Schultz 1969:7 [ref. 7843]; Randall & Ormond 1978:241 [ref. 21371] disagreed with Schultz' identification, and they designated a BPBM specimen (19789) as neotype. Subsequent neotype designations have no validity, such that the case would need to be submitted to the ICZN to set aside Schultz' designation if it were important nomenclaturally. •Valid as Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 [with BPBM neotype] -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:216 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:220 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:713 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:215 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:124 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:58 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:352 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:166 [ref. 25479], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:57 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:300 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:200 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:202 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:352 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:211 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:459 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1017 [ref. 25182], Randall & Earle 2000:18 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3488 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1017 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:75 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Liao et al. 2004:533 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:459 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:453 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1432 [ref. 29090], Randall 2007:364 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:91 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:178 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:745 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:142 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:81 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:299 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:133 [ref. 36273], Hoschke et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Capricorn Group (Queensland, Australia), Lord Howe Island and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

psittacuscaroli, Scarus Curtiss [A.] 1938:110 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

pulchellus, Scarus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1835:25, Pl. 8 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 2695. •Synonym of Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:6 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:212 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:195 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:344 [ref. 15987], Myers 1999:208 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943], Liao et al. 2004:529 [ref. 28045], Allen et al. 2006:1427 [ref. 29090], Golani & Fricke 2018:131 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

punctulatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:195 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2466 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:296 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:299 [ref. 25013] as iserti, Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus iseri (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

purpureus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:277 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Uléa, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. No types preserved. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Scarus purpureus Forsskål 1775. Based on a drawing by Mertens (Franz Karl Mertens, 1764-1831, German botanist). •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

pyrrhurus, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:314, Fig. 55 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Pago Pago, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51748. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8665 (3); USNM 51823 (1), 51836 (1), 164634 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:87 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Scarus pyrrhurus (Jordan & Seale 1906) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:216 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:353 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:202 [ref. 23977], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868]). •Valid as Chlorurus pyrrhurus (Jordan & Seale 1906) -- (Myers 1999:209 [ref. 23965]). •Synonym of Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Liao et al. 2004:530 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:449 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1428 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

pyrrostethus, Scarus Richardson [J.] 1846:262 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2004.11.5.4 (stuffed). Type information: Whitehead 1970:216 [ref. 11606]. Based on a specimen and a Reeves drawing. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:215 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:456 [ref. 28239] but may be valid, Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

quadrispinosus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:197 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2467. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:296-297 [ref. 20736] including redescription. •Unidentifiable species; see discussion in Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

quoyi, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:273 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Carteret Harbour, Lambom Island, near Cape Saint-George, southern New Ireland, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0579 (1, primary specimen), A-9292 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:297 [ref. 20736] as holotype and paratype. Based on a description and painting in manuscript by Quoy & Gaimard, and underlying specimen(s). •Valid as Scarus quoyi Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Nelson 1979:210 [ref. 19975], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:220 [ref. 6441], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:494 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:202 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:520 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:211 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1022 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3489 [ref. 26278], Nakabo 2002:1022 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:164 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Liao et al. 2004:533 [ref. 28045], Allen et al. 2006:1433 [ref. 29090], Satapoomin 2009:237 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:178 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:745 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:142 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:188 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Scarus quoyi Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India to Palau, Vanuatu and New Caledonia, north to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

radians, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:206 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Brazil. Syntypes: ?MNHN 0000-1759 (1) Brazil, 0000-1762 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:297 [ref. 20736]. •Questionably valid as Scarus radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Afonso et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25466]). •Valid as Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:210 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:396 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:51 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Moura et al. 2001:519 [ref. 25371], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1737 [ref. 27105], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:157 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:542 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:65 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961], Costa et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35684], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Scarus Schultz [L. P.] 1958:97, Pls. 19 c, 27 a; Fig. 20 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 214; ref. 3970] Ocean reef beyond surf, Onotoa Atoll, Gilbert Islands, depth 15 feet. Holotype: USNM 163388. Paratypes: (28) CAS 209098 (10), 209100 (1), USNM 114691 (2), 114695 (4), 163389 (3), 16390-95 (6). •Synonym of Scarus frenatus Lacepède 1802 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:17 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:206 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:455 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus frenatus Lacepède 1802. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

rarotongae, Scarichthys Seale [A.] 1906:59, Fig. 8 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Rarotonga Island, Cook Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 1903. •Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:8 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:193 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

reticulata, Scarus (Hemistoma) Swainson [W.] 1839:226, Fig. 77 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Bennett, Ceylon, Pl. 28 -- which is Bennett 1830: Pl. 28 [ref. 16785]. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

retractus, Calliodon Poey [F.] 1868:345 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 14461. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:210 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

rhakoura, Chlorurus Randall [J. E.] & Anderson [R. C.] 1997:157, Figs. 1-5 [not 1-4] [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 23281] Trincomalee, off Lively Rocks, Sri Lanka, depth 20 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18792. Paratypes: AMS I-37146-001 (3); BMNH 1996.10.29.1 (1); BPBM 27184 (1), 37312 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 53857 (1); USNM 343041 (1). •Valid as Chlorurus rhakoura Randall & Anderson 1997 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Satapoomin 2009:234 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:734 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus rhakoura Randall & Anderson 1997. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Sri Lanka, Andaman Sea, Western Australia and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

rhoduropterus, Pseudoscarus Bleeker [P.] 1861:233 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 12; ref. 381] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.5.15.29. •Questionably a synonym of Chlorurus troschelii (Bleeker 1853) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus troschelii (Bleeker 1853). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

rhomaleum, Sparisoma Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:754, Pl. 74 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Colón market, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 81777. Paratypes: FMNH 8433 (1), USNM 80877 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:80 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

richardsoni, Pseudoscarus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:42 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). •Incertae sedis in Scarinae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1434 [ref. 29090]). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

rivulatoides, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1847:163 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 314] Java, Indonesia. Also in Bleeker 1847:55 [ref. 317]. •Synonym of Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

rivulatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:223 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1738. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:297 [ref. 20736]. •Valid as Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:220 [ref. 6441], Choat & Randall 1986:217 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:124 [ref. 25477], Francis 1993:166 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:123 [ref. 20996], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:494 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:200 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:316 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:353 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:212 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1023 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:381 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3489 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1023 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:164 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Liao et al. 2004:533 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:459 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1433 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:178 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:746 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:167 [ref. 32988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:117 [ref. 36167], Motomura et al. 2017:188 [ref. 35490], Hoschke et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Caroline Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Moreton Bay (Queensland, Australia) and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

rocha, Sparisoma Pinheiro [H. T.], Gasparini [J. L.] & Sazima [I.] 2010:60, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 2493; ref. 30844] Ponta da Calheta, Ilha da Trindade, 20°31'S, 29°19'W. Holotype: CIUFES 0848. Paratypes: CIUFES 1529 (1); ZUEC 6349 (1), 6350 (1). •Valid as Sparisoma rocha Pinheiro, Gasparini & Sazima 2010 -- (Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma rocha Pinheiro, Gasparini & Sazima 2010. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Trindade Island, southwestern Atlantic off southeastern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

roseiceps, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:279 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Uléa, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. No types preserved. Based on a drawing, probably by Mertens (Franz Karl Mertens, 1764-1831, German botanist). •Synonym of Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:6 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:195 [ref. 8099] as rosiceps, Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

roseiventer, Scarus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:116, Pl. 16 (lower fig.) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Courtown Key, Caribbean Sea. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70242. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

roseus, Cryptotomus Cope [E. D.] 1871:462, Figs. 1, 1a [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 9674. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Cryptotomus roseus Cope 1871 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:208 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:391 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:62 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:23 [ref. 24488], Andreata & Séret 1996:587 [ref. 16204], Villamizar 1996:40 [ref. 23496], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:298 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Moura et al. 2001:519 [ref. 25371], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Westneat 2003:1727 [ref. 27105], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27621], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:531 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:159 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:62 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33516] needs checking, Pinheiro et al. 2015:24 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Cryptotomus roseus Cope 1871. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Callyodon Seale [A.] 1910:524 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Zamboanga, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 2928 (apparently lost). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Scarus by Scarus rostratus Poey 1860. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Pseudoscarus Günther [A.] 1909:315, Pl. 154 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 16); ref. 14377] Society Islands. Holotype (unique): not yet found. •Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:28 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:219 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1860:221 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. •Synonym of Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Scarus Shaw [G.] 1803:401 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Unneeded new name for Scarus fleurieu Lacepède 1802. Family may be incorrect. •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Scarus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:5, 18 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Antilles; East Indies. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Scarus Bleeker [P.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1862:37 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 1; ref. 4858] Not available, Kuhl and van Haselt museum name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Pseudoscarus rubroviolaceus -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae.

ruberrimus, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:316, Fig. 56 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Pago Pago, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51749. •Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:28 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:219 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

rubiginoides, Scarus Guichenot [A.] 1865:8 [Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg v. 11 (= Ser. 2, v. 1); ref. 13946] Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1774 (3), A-8223 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:297 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

rubiginosus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:171 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Canary Islands; Madeira; Tenerife. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1774 (3) Canaries. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

rubripinnis, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:199 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] San Domingo, West Indies. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Sparisoma choati Rocha, Brito & Robertson 2012 -- (Westneat in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2739 [ref. 34618] from eastern Atlantic). •Valid as Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:211 [ref. 23100], Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:396 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:54 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:78 [ref. 25466], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634] as aff. rubripinne, Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909] as aff. rubripinne, Westneat 2003:1738 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:157 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:543 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Wirtz et al. 2007:15 [ref. 30263] but eastern Atlantic specimens are a new species, subsequently choati, Rocha et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31733], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:180 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:65 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

rubrofasciatus, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:10, Pl. 43 (fig. 1) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 1; ref. 4104] Shimoni, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 76. Paratypes: evidently none saved. Also described as new in Smith 1956:934, Pl. 24B [ref. 12527]. •Synonym of Scarus caudofasciatus (Günther 1862) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:12 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus caudofasciatus (Günther 1862). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

rubronotatus, Scarus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:77 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Not available, name only -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). •In the synonymy of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:194 [ref. 8099], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

rubronotatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:212 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMB 2678. Originally as rubro-notatus. •Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:218 [ref. 29757], Bruce & Randall 1985:24 [ref. 5234], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

rubroviolaceus, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1847:162 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 314] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Also in Bleeker 1847:52 [ref. 317]. •Valid as Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:28 [ref. 5412], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:221 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:713 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:219 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:124 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:58 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:354 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:311 [ref. 23929], Randall 1994:268 [ref. 21644], Allen & Robertson 1994:212 [ref. 22193], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Bellwood in Fischer et al. 1995:1426 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:300 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:495 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:200 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:508 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:354 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:212 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:460 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1021 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:382 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:188 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:18 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3490 [ref. 26278] dated 1849, Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1021 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:638 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:75 [ref. 27576] dated 1849, Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Liao et al. 2004:533 [ref. 28045], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:362 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:460 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:454 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1433 [ref. 29090], Randall 2007:365 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:150 [ref. 36646], Satapoomin 2009:237 [ref. 30463], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:178 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:746 [ref. 31980], González-Cuéllar et al. 2013:224 [ref. 32961], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:268 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:167 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:142 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988] dated 1849, Fourriére et al. 2016:448 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:610 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:81 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:188 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:299 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:133 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes (Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Clipperton Island and Panama, north to southern Japan and Hawaiian Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), Middleton Reef, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

ruppelii, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:259 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Red Sea. Possible types: SMF 2685 (1, dry). Probably named after Rüppell, so specific name could be ruppellii. •Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:8 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:213 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

rurk, Scarus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:77 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae.

russelii, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:234 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Vizagapatam, India. No types preserved. Based on the first Sahnee moya of Russell, 1803:14, Pl. 119 [ref. 13862]. Spelled russelii in text and index, but clearly for Russell (misspelled Russel by Valenciennes) and spelled russellii by authors; the original spelling is russelii. •Valid as Scarus russelii Valenciennes 1840 [sometimes as russelii]-- (Randall & Bruce 1983:29 [ref. 5412], Randall 1986:713 [ref. 5706], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Randall 1995:297 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:460 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Bellwood 2001:3472 [ref. 26278], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Satapoomin 2009:238 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:747 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:300 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scarus russelii Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Andaman Sea and western Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

sandwicensis, Callyodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:295 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0568. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:290 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:8 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:193 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:343 [ref. 15987], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:446 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:450 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:359 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

scaber, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:239 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0588. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-1733 (1), B-2042 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:297-298 [ref. 20736]. Lectotype selected by Schultz 1958:92 [ref. 3970]. •Valid as Scarus scaber Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:217 [ref. 29757], Randall 1986:714 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:58 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:352 [ref. 15987], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:57 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:301 [ref. 22896], Myers 1999:210 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:461 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:103 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Bellwood 2001:3472 [ref. 26278], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:362 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:458 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1426 [ref. 29090] as not in Australia, Fricke et al. 2009:92 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:238 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:747 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:268 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:300 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:133 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scarus scaber Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes to Maldives and Chagos Archipelago east to Andaman Sea and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

scabriusculus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:271 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2493 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:298 [ref. 20736], Bauchot & Daget 1996:244 [ref. 22899]. •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:20 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:215 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

scarpellonis, Scarus Curtiss [A.] 1938:112 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

schlegeli, Pseudoscarus Bleeker [P.] 1861:242 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 12; ref. 381] Sulawesi, Indonesia. •Valid as Scarus schlegeli (Bleeker 1861) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:220 [ref. 6441], Choat & Randall 1986:220 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:124 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:354 [ref. 15987], Francis & Randall 1993:123 [ref. 20996], Francis 1993:166 [ref. 25479], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:496 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:200 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:318 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:354 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:212 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1017 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:382 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3490 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1017 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:638 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Liao et al. 2004:533 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:461 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1433 [ref. 29090], Motomura et al. 2010:179 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:748 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:142 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:82 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:14 [ref. 35354], Hoschke et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Scarus schlegeli (Bleeker 1861). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Eastern ndian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia to Micronesia and Tuamoto Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Capricorn Group (Queensland, Australia) and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

schlegelii, Pseudoscarus Steindachner [F.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1887:277 [21] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 53 (1. abth.); ref. 4249] Not available, Steindachner name mentioned in the synonymy of Pseudoscarus ovifrons -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae.

schultzi, Hipposcarus Smith [J. L. B.] 1959:277, Fig. 8 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 16; ref. 12028] Murcielagos Bay, Philippines. Holotype: RUSI [formerly SAIAB] 88 [ex USNM 157089]. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 611 (1), USNM 112218 (1). Non-types (not definitely included): BMNH 1874.11.18.4 (1), 1881.10.20.89 (1). Not considered types: other specimens examined by Schultz from the Pacific. Based on Schultz 1958:50, Pl. 9B and other literature sources. •Synonym of Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:196 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

scriptus, Callyodon Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:85 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.37 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:228 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Callyodon bicolor (Rüppell 1829) -- (Wheeler 1958:228 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:6 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:195 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell 1829). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

sexvittatus, Scarus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1835:26 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 2698 (dry). •Synonym of Scarus frenatus Lacepède 1802 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:17 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:214 [ref. 29757], Choat & Randall 1986:205 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:348 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:297 [ref. 22896], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:455 [ref. 28239], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus frenatus Lacepède 1802. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

shimoniensis, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1953:622, Pl. 15-16 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 6 (no. 68) (art. 58); ref. 12718] Shimoni, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI]. Paratypes: (1) not researched. Conditionally proposed in the synonymy of Scarus muricatus Valenciennes 1840, but technically available (before 1961); holotype as "regional type". •Synonym of Bolbometopon muricatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:6 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Ogihara et al. 2010:44 [ref. 31554]). Current status: Synonym of Bolbometopon muricatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

siculus, Scarus Cocco [A.] 1846:748 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano Settima Riunione, Napoli, 1845; ref. 19962] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared on p. 708 in same volume as name only. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

simplex, Pseudoscarus Poey [F.] 1865:185 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 13954] Punta de Maya, Matanzas, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

singaporensis, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1852:69 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 16832] Singapore. Holotype (unique): ?RMNH 6673 (1 of 2). Bleeker specimens: ?BMNH 1861.2.28.56 (1). •Synonym of Scarus prasiognathos Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:26 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus prasiognathos Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

snyderi, Calotomus Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:467, Fig. 25 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50850. •Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:8 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:193 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:451 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

sophiae, Scarus Curtiss [A.] 1938:112 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

sordidus, Scarus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:30, x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Hurghada, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, 27°17'23"N, 33°48'52"E, depth 0-20 feet. Neotype: USNM 202297. Neotype designated by Schultz 1969:20. Kottelat (2013) cites an inland record from the Philippines. •Valid as Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Dor 1984:217 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:219 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:714 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:124 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:58 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:355 [ref. 15987], Randall & Earle 1993:292 [ref. 14908], Francis 1993:166 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:57 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:496 [ref. 27969], Kuiter 1997:316 [ref. 25488], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:383 [ref. 25191]). •Valid as Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Randall 1995:294 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:200 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:200 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:355 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:26 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:209 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:453 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:23 [ref. 25829], Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1018 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:219 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:18 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3478 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1018 [ref. 26193], Kishimoto et al. 2002:4 [ref. 26569], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:160 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:74 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:125 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Liao et al. 2004:530 [ref. 28045], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:358 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:451 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1429 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:235 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:176 [ref. 31256], Parenti & Randall 2011:37 [ref. 31299], Allen & Erdmann 2012:734 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:267 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:141 [ref. 33932], Miesen et al. 2016:91 [ref. 34492], Fricke et al. 2018:296 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:131 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island and Rapa. But central and western Pacific populations are referable to spilurus [ref. 31299]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

speigleri, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:14 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 1; ref. 4104] Indo-Pacific. Based on Callyodon dussumieri of Bleeker, Atl. Ichth. 1862, v. 1, p. 46, Pl. 8 (fig. I). •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:21 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Fricke 1999:458 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

spilonotus, Pseudoscarus Kner [R.] 1868:31 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 58 (nos 1-2); ref. 6074] Kandavu Island, Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): NMW 78875. Non-types: ZMH H461 [ex MGH 5431] (1) Mauritius?. Type catalog: Ladiges 1958:171 [ref. 19182], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:409 [ref. 21161]. Appeared in more detail in Kner 1868:351 [p. 60 of separate], Pl. 9 (fig. 26) [ref. 2646]. •Synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:23 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:210 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:456 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

spilurus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:279 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Misspelled pilurus on p. xvii. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943]). •Valid as Chlorurus spilurus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 2007:362 [ref. 30952], Parenti & Randall 2011:37 [ref. 31299], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33988], Hoschke et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus spilurus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Central and western Pacific; southeastern Indian Ocean (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

spinidens, Scarus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:289 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Waigeo [Waigiou], Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0571. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:291, 299 [ref. 20736]. •Valid as Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:218 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:218 [ref. 6441], Bruce & Randall 1985:15 [ref. 5234], Randall 1986:708 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:194 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:122 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:57 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:343 [ref. 15987], Bellwood 1994:64 [ref. 19116], Allen 1997:198 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:503 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:343 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:208 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1015 [ref. 25182], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:281 [ref. 27511], Bellwood 2001:3474 [ref. 26278], Nakabo 2002:1015 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S116 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:159 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Liao et al. 2004:529 [ref. 28045], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:358 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:446 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1427 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:729 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:296 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Micronesia, Fiji and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

spinidens, Scarus Guichenot [A.] 1865:15 [Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg v. 11 (= Ser. 2, v. 1); ref. 13946] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1763. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:299 [ref. 20736]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Scarus spinidens Quoy & Gaimard 1824. •Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner 1878) -- (Moura et al. 2001:515 [ref. 25371], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner 1878). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

spinus, Pseudoscarus Kner [R.] 1868:31 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 58 (nos 1-2); ref. 6074] Kandavu Island, Fiji Islands. Possible type: BMNH 1869.11.12.53 (1). Appeared in more detail in Kner 1868:354 [62 of separate], Pl. 9 (fig. 27) [ref. 2646]. •Valid as Scarus spinus (Kner 1868) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:219 [ref. 6441], Choat & Randall 1986:222 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:355 [ref. 15987], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:497 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:202 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:318 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:355 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:212 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1021 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:383 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3491 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1021 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:165 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Liao et al. 2004:533 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:461 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1434 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:748 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:143 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Scarus spinus (Kner 1868). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: East Indian region to Micronesia, Fiji and Samoa, south to Australia and New Caledonia, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Habitat: marine.

squalidus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1860:218 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 14519 (1), 14522 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:211-212 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:301 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Rocha et al. 2012:62 [ref. 31733]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Callyodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:no page number, Pl. 62 (fig. 2) [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Corresponds with Calliodon lineatus in text (p. 312) and in the index (p. XLIV); plate caption regarded as in error; not available. Scaridae.

striatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:209 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] "Les Indies". New name for the unidentifiable species Scarus cretensis Bloch 1790 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

strigatus, Scarus Günther [A.] 1862:212 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] No locality given [St. Helena Island, eastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1953.8.10.23. •Valid as Sparisoma strigatum (Günther 1862) -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:656 [ref. 9166], Randall 1990:887 [ref. 19149], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Westneat in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2735 [ref. 34618], Brown et al. 2019:175 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma strigatum (Günther 1862). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

strigipinnis, Pseudoscarus De Vis [C. W.] 1885:886 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 4); ref. 1091] Cardwell, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.963. •Questionably a synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:210 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943], Allen et al. 2006:1431 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus globiceps Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

strongylocephalus, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1855:439 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 16941] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1864.5.15.42 (1). •Synonym of Scarus gibbus Rüppell 1828 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:22 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:209 [ref. 8099]). •Valid as Chlorurus strongylocephalus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall et al. 1990:351 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:295 [ref. 22896], Anderson et al. 1998:26 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:209 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:454 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Bellwood 2001:3479 [ref. 26278], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830] as strongycephalus, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:450 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2009:90 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:235 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:735 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:267 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:297 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus strongylocephalus (Bleeker 1855). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Andaman Sea and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

sumbawensis, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1848:638 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 2 (no. 9); ref. 315] Bima, Sumbawa Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Possible type: BMNH 1862.2.28.59 (1). •Questionably a synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

superbus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1860:218 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. •Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

taeniopterus, Scarus Lesson [R. P.] (ex Desmarest) in Bory de Saint-Vincent 1829:244 (v. 15, RUA-S.) [Dictionnaire Classique d'Histoire Naturelle; ref. 3853] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1750. Figured in v. 17, 1831:Pl. 112. •Valid as Scarus taeniopterus Lesson 1829 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:209 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:156 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:394 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:39 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:300 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Moura et al. 2001:509 [ref. 25371], Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1733 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27621], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:537 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:64 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Scarus taeniopterus Lesson 1829. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

taeniurus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:257 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0554. •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:215 [ref. 8099], Fricke 1999:459 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:453 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:364 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

teatae, Scarus Curtiss [A.] 1938:111 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

teresae, Scarus Curtiss [A.] 1938:110 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

toshi, Scarus Whitley [G. P.] 1933:61 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 4677] Southport, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM I.1634-65 (3). •Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:207 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Allen et al. 2006:1431 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus ghobban Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

tricolor, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1847:164 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 314] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype: ?BMNH 1862.2.28.9. Also in Bleeker 1847:59 [ref. 317]. •Valid as Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:33 [ref. 5412], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:220 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:714 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:59 [ref. 13251], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:497 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:202 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:142 [ref. 26476] dated 1849, Myers 1999:212 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:462 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Bellwood 2001:3491 [ref. 26278] dated 1849, Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830] dated 1849, Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:165 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:24 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:462 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1434 [ref. 29090], Satapoomin 2009:239 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:749 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:268 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:143 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:300 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes), Maldives and Chagos Archipelago east to Palau, Line Islands, Marquesas Islands and Gambier Islands, south to New Caledonia and Tonga, north to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

trilobatus, Scarus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:5, 21 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Bloch 1786) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Current status: Synonym of Scarus coeruleus (Edwards 1771). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

trispinosus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:182 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2041 (dry, poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:300 [ref. 20736]. •See Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]. •Valid as Scarus trispinosus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Moura et al. 2001:517 [ref. 25371], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299]). Current status: Valid as Scarus trispinosus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

troschelii, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1853:498 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1864.5.15.19 (1). •Valid as Chlorurus troschelii (Bleeker 1853) -- (Bellwood 1994:66 [ref. 19116], Myers 1999:208 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Bellwood 2001:3479 [ref. 26278], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:735 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Chlorurus troschelii (Bleeker 1853). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Islands, Myanmar, western Thailand and western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

truncatus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1868:339 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

tuiupiranga, Sparisoma Gasparini [J. L.], Joyeux [J.-C.] & Floeter [S. R.] 2003:2, Figs. 1-5 [Zootaxa No. 384; ref. 27436] Rasa de For a Island, 20°41'S, 40°22'W, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Holotype: UFES 1821. Paratypes: MBML 936 (1), 937 (1); MNRJ 25869 (1); UFES 1822 (1); UFPB 5657 (1); ZUEC 6217 (1). Plus non-type specimens at MZUSP and UFES. •Valid as Sparisoma tuiupiranga Gasparini, Joyeux & Floeter 2003 -- (Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma tuiupiranga Gasparini, Joyeux & Floeter 2003. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil and coastal islands off southeastern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

turchesius, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:181 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2460 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:298 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Scarus guacamaia Cuvier 1829 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:57 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus guacamaia Cuvier 1829. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

ultramarinus, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] in Seale 1906:63, Fig. 16 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Mangareva Island, Gambier Islands, French Polynesia. Holotype (unique): USNM 51757. Paratypes or Jordan & Seale specimens: BPBM 813 [not 844], CAS-SU 8663 (3), USNM 51757 (1), 51835 (1), 51838 (1), 114645 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:87 [ref. 12291]. Also appeared as new in Jordan & Seale (15 Dec.) 1906:332 [ref. 2497], earliest being researched. •Synonym of Scarus gibbus Rüppell 1829 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:22 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:209 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus microrhinos (Bleeker 1854) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus microrhinos (Bleeker 1854). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

upolensis, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:319, Fig. 59 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51751. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8668 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:87 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus frenatus Lacepède 1802 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:17 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:206 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus frenatus Lacepède 1802. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

urbanus, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1959:272, Pl. 42 (fig. J); Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 16; ref. 12028] Shimoni, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 79. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (not researched). •Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:33 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

ustus, Callyodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:286, Pl. 405 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2194 to 2195 (2, 1), A-8230 (1, dry), A-9290 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:290-291 [ref. 20736]. Eastern Atlantic references are Nicholsina collettei, a separate species. •Synonym of Nicholsina collettei (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Westneat in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2736 [ref. 34618] from eastern Atlantic). •Valid as Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:208 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:391 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:63 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:26 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:399 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:298 [ref. 25013] as valid species and subspecies, Gushchin & Girardin 2000:103 [ref. 24893], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Moura et al. 2001:519 [ref. 25371], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Westneat 2003:1728 [ref. 27105], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:532 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:797 [ref. 31512], Wirtz et al. 2007:15 [ref. 30263], Parenti & Randall 2011:37 [ref. 31299], Page et al. 2013:160 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:63 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

vaigiensis, Scarus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:288 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Waigeo [Pulau Waigeo, Papua Barat, Indonesia, western Pacific]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0567. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:298 [ref. 20736]. •Valid as Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:218 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:218 [ref. 6441], Bruce & Randall 1985:24 [ref. 5234], Randall 1986:708 [ref. 5706], Choat & Randall 1986:194 [ref. 8099], Allen & Swainston 1988:122 [ref. 25477], Pequeño 1989:64 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:210 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:57 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:345 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:309 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:165 [ref. 25479], Bellwood 1994:64 [ref. 19116], Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:294 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:198 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:139 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:345 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:209 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:455 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:745 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:23 [ref. 25829], Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943], Bellwood in Randall & Lim 2000:630 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1014 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:115 [ref. 25868], Bellwood 2001:3480 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1014 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:51 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S116 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:637 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:161 [ref. 27510], Ohta & Tachihara 2004:63 [ref. 27608], Randall et al. 2004:23 [ref. 27624], Liao et al. 2004:529 [ref. 28045], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:360 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:452 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1429 [ref. 29090], Fricke et al. 2009:91 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:736 [ref. 31980]. Larson et al. 2013:167 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:141 [ref. 33932], Stewart 2015:1405 [ref. 34196], Fricke et al. 2018:297 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:132 [ref. 36273], Hoschke et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Pitcairn, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Sydney (New South Wales, Australia), Lord Howe Island, northern New Zealand and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:256 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0555. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-2483 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:298 [ref. 20736] as syntypes. Lectotype established by Guichenot 1860:50 [ref. 13946]. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 1999:453 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Kottelat 2013:380 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

venosus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:212 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1744 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:299 [ref. 20736]. •Valid as Scarus venosus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Chen et al. 1997:142 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:27 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:215 [ref. 8099], Randall et al. 1990:354 [ref. 15987], Fricke 1999:459 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943], Liao et al. 2004:533 [ref. 28045], Randall 2005:459 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus psittacus Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

vermiculatus, Callyodon Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1928:472, Pl. 49 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 7; ref. 1475] Tidore Island, south of Ternate Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: USNM 89978. Paratypes: BMNH 1955.11.4.4 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 147253 (1), 147401-02 (1, 1), 157061 (1), 157268 (1), 160141 (1). •Synonym of Scarus frenatus Lacepède 1802 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:17 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:206 [ref. 8099], Randall 1995:297 [ref. 22896], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943], Randall 2005:455 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2018:298 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus frenatus Lacepède 1802. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

verweyi, Callyodon de Beaufort [L. F.] in Weber & de Beaufort 1940:298 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 8; ref. 16098] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMA 112286. •Synonym of Scarus festivus Valenciennes 1840 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:16 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:56 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus festivus Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

vetula, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:289 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Vieja (No. 1)' of Parra 1787:58, Pl. 28 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Valid as Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:209 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:394 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:41 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:300 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1734 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:538 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:180 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:64 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider 1801. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

vexillus, Hipposcarus harid Smith [J. L. B.] 1959:277, Fig. 9 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 16; ref. 12028] Shimoni, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 80. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (not investigated). •Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:54 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

virens, Callyodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:xviij [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Scaridae. Habitat: marine.

virens, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:203 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Martinique Island, West Indies; Puerto Rico. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1768 (2) Martinique, A-8228 (1) Puerto Rico. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:299 [ref. 20736]. •Questionably a synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Uncertain as Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

virginalis, Scarus Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:88 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 414); ref. 14397] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: CAS-SU 1411 (1), USNM 35080 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:89 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus taeniopterus Lesson 1829 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus taeniopterus Lesson 1829. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

viridescens, Pseudoscarus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:42 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Unidentifiable species -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:63 [ref. 24943]). •Incertae sedis in Scarinae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1434 [ref. 29090]). Scaridae. Habitat: marine.

viridescens, Scarus (Calliodon) Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1835:23, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 2760 (dry). Spelled virens by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1839:xviii [ref. 4882]. •Synonym of Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:218 [ref. 29757], Bellwood 1994:64 [ref. 19116], Bruce & Randall 1985:19 [ref. 5234]). •Valid as Calotomus viridescens (Rüppell 1835) -- (Goren & Dor 1994:56 [ref. 25356], Myers 1999:208 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:450 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Heemstra et al. 2004:3326 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:357 [ref. 28072], Golani & Fricke 2018:131 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Calotomus viridescens (Rüppell 1835). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

viridibusius, Callyodon Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1928:459, Pl. 48 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 7; ref. 1475] Uki, Bouro Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: USNM 89977. Paratypes: USNM 111981 (1), 157068 (1), 157326 (1), 160360 (now 0). •Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:33 [ref. 5412], Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

viridifucatus, Callyodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:12, Pl. 42 (figs. B, I) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 1; ref. 4104] Shimoni, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 74. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (not researched). •Valid as Scarus viridifucatus (Smith 1956) -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:34 [ref. 5412], Randall 1994:268 [ref. 21644], Bellwood 1994:68 [ref. 19116], Fricke 1999:462 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:103 [ref. 26368], Bellwood 2001:3472 [ref. 26278], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830] as virdifucatus, Satapoomin 2009:239 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:749 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:300 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:133 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scarus viridifucatus (Smith 1956). Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa and Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Madagascar east to Andaman Sea and Bali (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

viridis, Pseudoscarus niger var. Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:570 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 10698 (1). •Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775 -- (Dor 1984:216 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus niger Forsskål 1775. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

viridis, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:29, Pl. 222 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Japan. Lectotype: ZMB 8586 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ?ZMB 8586 (1, right skin). On p. 20 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Scarus viridis Bonnaterre 1788, replaced by Scarus blochii Valenciennes 1840. Lectotype selected by Randall & Nelson 1979:207 [ref. 19975]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:120 [ref. 24282]. •Objective synonym of Scarus japanensis Bloch 1789 -- (see Randall & Nelson 1979:207 [ref. 19975]). •Synonym of Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:52 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch 1789). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

viridis, Scarus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:231 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing under Scarus gibbus Rüppell 1829 -- (Dor 1984:216 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae.

viridis, Scarus Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Catesby) 1788:96, Pl. 50 (fig. 193) [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Bahamas, Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic), and Cuba. No types known. Based on 'Psittacus piscis viridis, bahamensis' of Catesby 1771:29, Pl. 29 (vol. 2) [ref. 774]. •Valid as Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (see Randall & Nelson 1979:207 [ref. 19975], Robins & Ray 1986:211 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:397 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:56 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634] as aff. viride, Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909] as aff. viride, Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1739 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:157 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:544 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:180 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:65 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

viridis, Scarus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:77 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Scaridae: Scarinae.

visayanus, Scarus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1933:22 [Copeia 1933 (no. 1); ref. 2106] Taytay, Palawan Island, Philippines. Holotype: CAS-SU 25510. Paratypes: BMNH 1933.3.11.524 [from Herre] (1); CAS-SU 25511-12 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:89 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:59 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker 1847. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

vitriolinus, Pseudoscarus Bryan [W. A.] 1906:27 [281], Fig. 4 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 15141] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 3364. •Synonym of Scarus sordidus Forsskål 1775 -- (Randall & Bruce 1983:31 [ref. 5412], Choat & Randall 1986:221 [ref. 8099]). •Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:53 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:452 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

wageensis, Pseudoscarus Bleeker [P.] 1862:49 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 1; ref. 4858] Apparently an incorrect subsequent spelling of Scarus vaigiensis and written wageënsis. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

waigiensis, Callyodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:296 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Waigeo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0571. Unneeded replacement name for Scarus spinidens Quoy & Gaimard 1824. •Objective synonym of Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:15 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:194 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

waitei, Callyodon Seale [A.] 1906:60, Fig. 15 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 1408. •Synonym of Scarus altipinnis (Steindachner 1879) -- (Choat & Randall 1986:198 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus altipinnis (Steindachner 1879). Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

wurk, Scarus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:246 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Egypt, Red Sea. Not available, name mentioned in passing under Scarus mastax -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). •In the synonymy of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:212 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål 1775). Scaridae: Scarinae.

xantherythrus, Labrus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:40 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:23 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

xanthopleura, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1853:499 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (?): BMNH 1864.5.15.43. •Valid as Scarus xanthopleura Bleeker 1853 -- (Randall 1997:49 [ref. 22932], Randall et al. 1997:521 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:212 [ref. 23965], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Nakabo 2000:1026 [ref. 25182], Bellwood 2001:3492 [ref. 26278], Hutchins 2001:40 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1026 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:52 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:638 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:462 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1434 [ref. 29090], Allen & Erdmann 2012:750 [ref. 31980], Koeda et al. 2016:82 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Scarus xanthopleura Bleeker 1853. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Cocos-Keeling Island, East Indian region, east to Marshall Islands, Australia to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

xenodon, Calotomus Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:70 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Syntypes: (2) USNM 46935 (1). •Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Bruce & Randall 1985:8 [ref. 5234], Choat & Randall 1986:193 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Allen et al. 2006:1426 [ref. 29090]). Current status: Synonym of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

xystrodon, Sparisoma Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:99 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 414); ref. 14397] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1884.7.7.89-90 (2) from Jordan, CAS 79644 [ex IU 2354] (1), MNHN 1887-0477 (1), CAS-SU 4183 (16), USNM 35174 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:89 [ref. 12291], Bauchot & Guibé 1960:300 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

zelindae, Scarus Moura [R. L. de], Figueiredo [J. L. de] & Sazima [I.] 2001:506, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 25371] Alcatrazes Archipelago, 24°06'S, 45°42'W, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 46651. Paratypes: MCP 27356 (1); MZUSP 46650 (1), 46652 (1), 46658 (1), 46786 (1), 47910 (1), 53159 (1); USNM 357500-01 (1, 1); ZUEC 4631 (1), 4652 (1,dissected), 46410 [? 4641](1) •Valid as Scarus zelindae Moura, Figueiredo & Sazima 2001 -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Pinheiro et al. 2015:25 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Scarus zelindae Moura, Figueiredo & Sazima 2001. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

zonarcha, Scaridea Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:468, Fig. 26 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50851. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7696 (1), 7850 (1), 23296 (1); USFC 2755 (1, whereabouts unknown). •Valid as Calotomus zonarchus (Jenkins 1903) -- (Bellwood 1994:64 [ref. 19116], Bruce & Randall 1985:21 [ref. 5234], Parenti & Randall 2000:51 [ref. 24943], Mundy 2005:451 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:360 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Calotomus zonarchus (Jenkins 1903). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

zonatus, Pseudoscarus Macleay [W.] 1883:591 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 4); ref. 17586] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16379-001 [ex MAMU F890]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:208 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Scarus oviceps Valenciennes 1840 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:214 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:58 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus oviceps Valenciennes 1840. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

zonularis, Callyodon Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:321, Fig. 60 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Pago Pago, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51752. Paratypes: ANSP 31655 (1); CAS-SU 8664 (5); USNM 51821 (1), 51825 (1), 51827-28 (1, 1), 126618 (1), 163939 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:88 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scarus dimidiatus Bleeker 1859 -- (Choat & Randall 1986:203 [ref. 8099], Parenti & Randall 2000:55 [ref. 24943], Kottelat 2013:381 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Scarus dimidiatus Bleeker 1859. Scaridae: Scarinae. Habitat: marine.

zufar, Scarus Randall [J. E.] & Hoover [J. P.] 1995:684, Pl. 1 [Copeia 1995 (no. 3); ref. 21668] Raysut, Dhofar, Oman, Arabian Sea, 16°56'N, 54°00'E, depth 8 meters. Holotype: BPBM 36056. Paratypes: BPBM 35935 (1), USNM 329441 (1). •Valid as Scarus zufar Randall & Hoover 1995 -- (Randall 1995:301 [ref. 22896], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:300 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Scarus zufar Randall & Hoover 1995. Scaridae: Scarinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Oman to Palistan. Habitat: marine.