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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Sciaenidae: [ 590 ] records


acanthodes, Pseudosciaena Bleeker [P.] 1879:29, Pl. 1 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 18; ref. 460] Japan? Holotype (unique): ZMH (lost). Type locality probably incorrect. •Uncertain in Pennahia Fowler 1926 -- (Parenti 2020:57 [ref. 37439]). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

acclivis, Larimus Jordan [D. S.] & Bristol [S. B.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1422 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] San Juan Lagoon, Sonora, Pacific coast of Mexico. Syntypes: CAS-SU 45 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291]. Listed as appearing in the Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., but not published there; dates to publication as above. •Valid as Larimus acclivis Jordan & Bristol 1898 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:161 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:130 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1467 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:267 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:325 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:379 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Larimus acclivis Jordan & Bristol 1898. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

acoupa, Cheilodipterus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:540, 546 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Cayenne, French Guyana. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5502. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:115 [ref. 12478], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:6 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:400 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:249 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:122 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1606 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama south to Brazil, inclucing southern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

acuminatus, Grammistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:184 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. No types known. •Valid as Equetus acuminatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:186 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:144 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:402 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:267 [ref. 24474], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Schwartz 2001:128 [ref. 25391], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Chao 2003:1635 [ref. 27097], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:57 [ref. 33341]). •Valid as Pareques acuminatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:28 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:363 [ref. 14275], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Holt & Riley 1999:825 [ref. 24428], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:386 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:270 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:110 [ref. 26784], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:438 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Parenti 2020:41 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pareques acuminatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

acuta, Pseudosciaena Tang [D.-S.] 1937:62, Fig. 5 [The Amoy Marine Biological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 17889] Hainan Island, Gulf of Tonkin, Kwangtung Province, China. Holotype (unique): ZMUA 13210. •Synonym of Chrysochir aureus (Richardson 1846) -- (Trewavas 1977:345 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:54 [ref. 25194]). •Valid as Nibea acuta (Tang 1937) -- (Chen et al. 1997:72 [ref. 26476], Parenti 2020:32 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nibea acuta (Tang 1937). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: South China Sea coast of China. Habitat: marine.

acutirostris, Corvina (Homoprion) Steindachner [F.] 1875:56 [28], Pl. 4 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] Panama (Atlantic). Syntypes: NMW 72848 (1), 78573 (2). On p. 28 of separate. •Synonym of Bairdiella armata Gill 1863 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1447 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bairdiella armata Gill 1863. Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

adspersus, Pachyurus (Lepipterus) Steindachner [F.] 1879:123 [5] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Rio Santo Antonio, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 31450. Paralectotypes: NMW 15179 (2). On p. 5 of separate. Lectotype selected by Casatti 2001:150 [ref. 25918]. •Valid as Pachypops adspersus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983]). •Valid as Pachyurus adspersus Steindachner 1879 -- (Casatti 2002:4 [ref. 25936], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachyurus adspersus Steindachner 1879. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Atlantic versant rivers (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

adusta, Atrobucca Sasaki [K.] & Kailola [P. J.] 1988:270, Figs. 2C, 6, 7 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 35 (no. 3); ref. 12553] Mouth of Markham River, near Lae, Papua New Guinea. Holotype: QM I.19180. Paratypes: KFRS F03381 (1, discarded). •Valid as Atrobucca adusta Sasaki & Kailola 1988 -- (Sasaki 2001:3130 [ref. 26108], Parenti 2020:6 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atrobucca adusta Sasaki & Kailola 1988. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Papua New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

adusta, Corvina Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:126, Pl. 70 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. Possible syntypes: MHNN 312 (1). As Sciaena adusta on plate. •Valid as Ophioscion adustus (Agassiz 1831) -- (Chao 1978:40 [ref. 6983], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Dennis et al. 2004:77 [ref. 31601], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Parenti 2020:34 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Ophioscion adustus (Agassiz 1831). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil south to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

aeneocorpus, Otolithoides Fowler [H. W.] 1935:150, Fig. 119 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 13881] Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 62510. Paratypes: ANSP 62511-24 (14), BPBM 10591 [ex ANSP 62525] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Boesemania microlepis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Trewavas 1977:310 [ref. 4459], Kottelat 2001:150 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:10 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Boesemania microlepis (Bleeker 1858). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

aequidens, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:66 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: MNHN A-5586 (1, dry), A-8154 (1, dry, not found). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:14 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Atractoscion aequidens (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:283 [ref. 4459], Heemstra 1986:617 [ref. 5660], Chao & Trewavas 1990:815 [ref. 18934], Kuiter 1993:199 [ref. 23929], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:164 [ref. 25472], Sasaki 1996:84 [ref. 22156], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:121 [ref. 25206] as aequedens, Sasaki 2001:3129 [ref. 26108], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:270 [ref. 28072], Bray et al. 2006:1258 [ref. 29091], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2640 [ref. 34618], Song et al. 2017:225 [ref. 35529], Ali et al. 2018:331 [ref. 36183], Parenti 2020:6 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atractoscion aequidens (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: South Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Australia; restricted to South Africa and Mozambique [ref. 35529]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

affinis, Isopisthus Steindachner [F.] 1879:34 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Porto Alegre, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 15190 (2). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:43, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [ref. 4228]. •Synonym of Isopisthus parvipinnis (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:37 [ref. 6983], Chao 2003:1619 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:18 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Isopisthus parvipinnis (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

agassizi, Menticirrhus Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Eigenmann 1889:429 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 3); ref. 2439] Caldera, Chile. Holotype (unique): MCZ 99493 [ex MCZ 8603A]. •Valid as Menticirrhus agassizi Jordan 1889 -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Menticirrhus panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1476 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus panamensis (Steindachner 1876). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

agassizii, Corvina (Homoprion) Steindachner [F.] 1875:468 [26] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (1. Abth.); ref. 4222] Caldera; Callao; Paita, Peru. Syntypes: (several) NMW 14611-12 (2, 1), 15334 (2), 15456 (1), ?78574 (1), ?85306 (2). On p. 26 of separate. •Synonym of Stellifer minor (Tschudi 1846) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1507 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:52 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Stellifer minor (Tschudi 1846). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

aguilus, Trachurus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:42, Pl. 11 (fig. 3) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:20 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801) -- (Parenti 2019:119 [ref. 37117], Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

alba, Sciaena Larrañaga [D. A.] in Devincenzi 1925:304 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Serie 2) v. 1 (pt. 6); ref. 20322] Originally as S. timpanistria vel alba [from Uruguay]. Quoted from Larrañaga manuscript, but Devincenzi (p. 322, 304) treated as a synonym of Micropogon opercularis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825); therefore name was not treated as valid and is unavailable (Art. 11.5 of the Code). Sciaenidae.

albida, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:93 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Puducherry, India; Mahé (Malabar), India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7523 (1) Mahé, 0000-7524 (1) Puducherry, A-8825 (1, poor condition) Mahé, 0000-9805 (1, skin) Puducherry. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:7 [ref. 6382]. Remarks on types: Trewavas 1971:453 [ref. 6577]. •Valid as Dendrophysa albida (Cuvier 1830) -- (Sasaki 1996:89 [ref. 22156]). •Valid as Daysciaena albida (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1971 [ref. 6577], Trewavas 1977:370 [ref. 4459], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:853 [ref. 20764], Talwar 1995:79 [ref. 25194], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Shrestha 2008:216 [ref. 29923], Psomadakis et al. 2015:273 [ref. 34104], Suresh et al. 2018:249 [ref. 36495], Parenti 2020:17 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:488 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Daysciaena albida (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: India and Sri Lanka. Habitat: brackish, marine.

albiflora, Corvina Richardson [J.] 1846:226 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Inland Sea of Japan. Original locality: Canton, China. Neotype: BMNH 1905.6.6.152. Originally as Corvina? albiflora. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:213, Pl.22c [ref. 11606]). Neotype designated by Trewavas 1977:383 [ref. 4459]. •Valid as Nibea albiflora (Richardson 1846) -- (Trewavas 1977:383 [ref. 4459], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:73 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:291 [ref. 26385], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:868 [ref. 25182], Wang et al. 2001:236 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:868 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:347, 621 [ref. 26218], Lo et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35288], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:185 [ref. 36460], Parenti 2020:32 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nibea albiflora (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: South China Sea, East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea. Habitat: marine.

alburnus, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1766:482 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Syntypes: Linn. Soc. London 111 (left half-skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:61 [ref. 20705]. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:202 [ref. 1841]. Based on manuscript description and 1 specimen sent by A. Garden [South Carolina], and on the 'Alburnus americanus' of Catesby 1743:12, Pl. 12, fig. 2 (v. 2) [ref. 774] ['Charlestown', South Carolina]. •Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chao 1978:30 [ref. 6983], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:372 [ref. 24550], •Tentatively considered a synonym of Protonibea Trewavas 1971 -- (Lo et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35288]).). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

albus, Otolithus Günther [A.] 1864:149 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Chiapam, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.240. •Valid as Cynoscion albus (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:159 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1453 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:318 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:365 [ref. 24550], Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:11 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Angulo et al. 2013:1003 [ref. 33194], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion albus (Günther 1864). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Mexico south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

alcocki, Atrobucca Talwar [P. K.] 1980:23, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Zoological Survey of India v. 3 (nos 1-2); ref. 8654] Arabian Sea off Mumbai, India, depth about 60 meters. Holotype (unique): ZSI F7591/2. See Das 2003:375 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Atrobucca alcocki Talwar 1980 -- (Sasaki & Kailola 1988:274 [ref. 12553], Talwar 1995:52 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:87 [ref. 22156], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:273 [ref. 34104], Parenti 2020:7 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atrobucca alcocki Talwar 1980. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman to Pakistan and west coast of India. Habitat: marine.

altipinnis, Ancylodon Steindachner [F.] 1866:19 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 3; ref. 21713] West coast of South America. Holotype (unique): NMW 73479. Species first described in the abstract above, later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1866 [ref. 14059], p. 209 [p. 2 of separate], Pl. 1 (fig. 3); also appeared in English in Steindachner 1866:311 [ref. 21712]. •Synonym of Isopisthus remifer Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1466 [ref. 22830]). •Valid as Isopisthus altipinnis (Steindachner 1866) -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Parenti 2020:19 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Isopisthus altipinnis (Steindachner 1866). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Chile. Habitat: brackish, marine.

altipinnis, Micropogon Günther [A.] 1864:149 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Chiapam, Guatemala; San José, Guatemala. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1864.1.26.325 (1) San José. •Valid as Micropogonias altipinnis (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:163 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:126 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1478 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:308 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:367 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], McMahan et al. 2013:451 [ref. 32422], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:403 [ref. 34894], Sánchez-Pinedo et al. 2017:136 [ref. 35709], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Micropogonias altipinnis (Günther 1864). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aluta, Sciaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:232 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 221); ref. 18348] La Union, Gulf of Fonseca, El Salvador, eastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): USNM 28129. •Synonym of Stellifer chrysoleuca (Günther 1867) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1501 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:51 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Stellifer chrysoleuca (Günther 1867). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

amazonicus, Johnius Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:12, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Amazon River. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7504 (1), B-2772 [ex MNHN 0000-7504] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:11 [ref. 6382] with 7504 as holotype. •Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) -- (Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Casatti 2005:42 [ref. 28401], Mirande & Koerber 2015:55 [ref. 35117], Parenti 2020:44 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

amblycephalus, Umbrina Bleeker [P.] 1855:412 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 8289 (2). •Wrongly considered a synonym of Johnius dussumieri (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Talwar 1995:94 [ref. 25194]). •Valid as Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:426 [ref. 4459], Heemstra 1986:618 [ref. 5660] as amblycephala, Allen & Swainston 1988:92 [ref. 25477], Sasaki 1994:65 [ref. 22159], Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156], Allen 1997:144 [ref. 23977], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:867 [ref. 25182], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:258 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Sasaki 2001:3139 [ref. 26108], Nakabo 2002:867 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Bray et al. 2006:1259 [ref. 29091], Motomura 2009:171 [ref. 30446], Iwatsuki et al. 2012:154 [ef. 31962], Larson et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:155 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:274 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:159 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:223 [ref. 35805], Suresh et al. 2018:252 [ref. 36495], Chao et al. 2019:266 [ref. 36884], Eagderi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:19 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:489 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker 1855). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to China, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

amblyceps, Pseudosciaena Bleeker [P.] 1863:142 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 396] Amoy, China. Lectotype: RMNH 735. Paralectotypes: RMNH 24929 [ex RMNH 735] (5). Lectotype selected by Trewavas 1977:393 [ref. 4459]. •Synonym of Larimichthys crocea (Richardson 1846) -- (Trewavas 1977:392 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:24 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Larimichthys crocea (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

americanus, Cyprinus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:321 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America [Carolinas, U.S.A.]. No types known. Based on a figure and short account of Catesby 1743:12; not same as Cyprinus americanus Linnaeus 1766; see Wheeler 1985:29 [ref. 20705]. •Valid as Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chao 1978:30 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:366 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:187 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:145 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:406 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:280 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:198 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:372 [ref. 24550], Marín 2000:75 [ref. 26252], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Chao 2003:1626 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:431 [ref. 28815], Matamoros et al. 2009:19 [ref. 31241], Matamoros et al. 2009:19 [ref. 31241], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], •Tentatively considered a synonym of Protonibea Trewavas 1971 -- (Lo et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35288]).). Current status: Valid as Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: New York (U.S.A.) south to Argentina, including Gulf of Mexico; rare in tropical waters. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

americanus, Eques Bloch [M. E.] 1793:91, Pl. 347 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Western Atlantic. Holotype (unique): ZMB 905. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:128 [ref. 24282]. On p. 76 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Equetus lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chao 1978:27 [ref. 6983], Holt & Riley 1999:825 [ref. 24428], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807]). •Synonym of Eques lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2020:18 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Eques lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

amoyensis, Pseudosciaena Bleeker [P.] 1863:144 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 396] Amoy, China. Holotype (unique): RMNH 740. •Mention -- (Sasaki 1996:86 [ref. 22156]). •Questionably a synonym of Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Psomadakis et al. 2015:272 [ref. 34104] under A. amoyensis (Bleeker 1863)). •Valid as Argyrosomus amoyensis (Bleeker 1863) -- (Trewavas 1977:334 [ref. 4459], Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702], Talwar 1995:41 [ref. 25194], Carpenter et al. 1997:188 [ref. 23922], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3126 [ref. 26108], Ali et al. 2018:331 [ref. 36183], Parenti 2020:4 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Argyrosomus amoyensis (Bleeker 1863). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to China. Habitat: marine.

analis, Otolithus Jenyns [L.] 1842:164 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Callao, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.44. •Valid as Cynoscion analis (Jenyns 1842) -- (Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:11 [ref. 26250], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion analis (Jenyns 1842). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Ecuador south to Chile. Habitat: brackish, marine.

analis, Umbrina Günther [A.] 1868:426 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 6 (pt 7, no. 14); ref. 1994] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.9.23.18. •Valid as Umbrina analis Günther 1868 -- (Walker & Radford 1992:581 [ref. 20257], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1512 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:270 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:317 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:54 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina analis Günther 1868. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to northern Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

ancylodon, Lonchurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:102, Pl. 25 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname. Syntypes: ZMB 868 (4). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:129 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:37 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:405 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:278 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:586 [ref. 16204], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:130 [ref. 24547], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:110 [ref. 25942], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Chao 2003:1625 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:48 [ref. 30861], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:27 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela south to Argentina. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aneus, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] 1793:135, Pl. 357 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Malabar, India. Syntypes: ZMB 8726 (1, dry, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:128 [ref. 24282]. Type information: Sasaki 1994:498 [ref. 22088]. Genus name on plate Iohnius. On p. 111 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. RMNH 8798 regarded as holotype by Trewavas 1977:429 [ref. 4459]. The specific epithet is an indeclinable noun. •Valid as Johnius aneus Bloch 1793 -- (Trewavas 1977:437 [ref. 4459], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315]). •Valid as Johnieops aneus (Bloch 1793) -- (Talwar 1995:122 [ref. 25194]). •Valid as Argyrosomus aneus (Bloch 1793) -- (Chen et al. 1997:74 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Pennahia aneus (Bloch 1793) [often seen as anea] -- (Sasaki 1994:498 [ref. 22088], Randall 1995:232 [ref. 22896], Sasaki 1996:11 [ref. 22111], Sasaki 1996:85 [ref. 22156], Carpenter et al. 1997:190 [ref. 23922], Yamada & Yamada 1999:97 [ref. 23757], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3168 [ref. 26108], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Motomura 2009:172 [ref. 30446], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2015:64 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:279 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:160 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:333 [ref. 36183], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:187 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:102 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439] as anea, Psomadakis et al. 2020:495 [ref. 37272] as anea). Current status: Valid as Pennahia aneus (Bloch 1793). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to northern Vietnam and southern China. Habitat: marine.

angolensis, Sciaena Norman [J. R.] 1935:14, Fig. 4 [Discovery Reports v. 12; ref. 13911] Off St. Paul de Loanda, Angola. Syntypes: BMNH 1935.5.11.117-120 (4). •Valid as Miracorvina angolensis (Norman 1935) -- (Chao & Trewavas 1990:816 [ref. 18934], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2641 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2020:31 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Miracorvina angolensis (Norman 1935). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Guinea south to southern Angola. Habitat: marine.

angustata, Sciaena Solander [D. C.] & Parkinson [S.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:421 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Name mentioned in passing under Smaris angustatus Valenciennes 1830 (from Madeira); not available. Sciaenidae.

angustilineata, Umbrina Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1911:38 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 14790] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 10559. •Synonym of Umbrina robinsoni Gilchrist & Thompson 1908 and possible synonym of Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843 -- (Trewavas 1977:281 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843 -- (Heemstra 1986:619 [ref. 5660], Chao & Trewavas 1990:825 [ref. 18934], Parenti 2020:56 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

antarctica, Sciaena Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:100, Pl. 1 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Melbourne market, Bass Strait, Australia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:25 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Argyrosomus antarcticus (Castelnau 1872) -- (Kuiter 1997:188 [ref. 25488]). •Synonym of Argyrosomus hololepidotus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Trewavas 1977:327 [ref. 4459], Daget & Trewavas 1986:333 [ref. 6211], Chao & Trewavas 1990:813 [ref. 18934], Gomon et al. 1994:603 [ref. 22532], Talwar 1995:44 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:10 [ref. 22038], Sasaki 2001:3127 [ref. 26108], Bray et al. 2006:1257 [ref. 29091], Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

antonbruun, Atrobucca Sasaki [K.] 1995:269, Figs. 1, 3-5 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 42 (no. 3/4); ref. 22176] Off Myanmar, 15°04'N, 95°51'E, depth 41-46 meters. Holotype: USNM 324670. Paratypes: USNM 324158 (2), 324576 (6), 325470 (2). •Valid as Atrobucca antonbruun Sasaki 1995 -- (Sasaki 1996:87 [ref. 22156], Psomadakis et al. 2020:487 [ref. 37272], Parenti 2020:7 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atrobucca antonbruun Sasaki 1995. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: east coast of India to Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

aquila, Cheilodipterus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:684, 685, Pl. 21 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] La Rochelle, France, Bay of Biscay, northeastern Atlantic. Neotype: MNHN 0000-7511 (same as for *Perca regia* Asso). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:6 [ref. 6382]. Neotype designated by Trewavas 1966:4 [ref. 21252]. Neotype same as for Perca regia Asso 1801. •Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801) -- (Trewavas 1973:397 [ref. 7201], Trewavas 1977:324 [ref. 4459], Chao in Whitehead et al. 1986:867 [ref. 13676], Chao & Trewavas 1990:814 [ref. 18934], Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:8 [ref. 22038], Golani 2005:46 [ref. 37112], Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439], Bariche & Fricke 2020:80 [ref. 37515]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

arabicus, Otolithes Lin [Y.-J.], Qurban [M. A.], Shen [K. N.] & Chao [N. L.] 2019:14, Figs. 6-7 [Zoological Studies v. 58; ref. 36846] Jubail Fish Market, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, 26.9598°N, 49.5687°E. Holotype: KFUPM-LKR 048. Paratypes: KFUPM, NMMBP. •Valid as Otolithes arabicus Lin, Qurban, Shen & Chao 2019 -- (Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Otolithes arabicus Lin, Qurban, Shen & Chao 2019. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Habitat: marine.

archidium, Odontoscion Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:317 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Panama Bay, (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: USNM 29266 (1), 29480 (1, lost), 29518 (1). •Valid as Elattarchus archidium (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:160 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:132 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1464 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:318 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:380 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:17 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Elattarchus archidium (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific_ Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

arcuata, Sciaena Basilewsky [S.] 1855:220 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Mari meridiano, Pelim, China. •Incertae sedis in Sciaenidae -- (Parenti 2020:57 [ref. 37439]). Sciaenidae.

arcuatus, Lonchurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:103 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname. No types known. •Incertae sedis in Sciaenidae -- (Parenti 2020:57 [ref. 37439]). Sciaenidae.

arenarius, Cynoscion Ginsburg [I.] 1930:83, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 45 [for 1929]; ref. 16297] Off entrance to harbor, Galveston, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 89395. •Valid as Cynoscion arenarius Ginsburg 1930 -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Robins & Ray 1986:189 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:143 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:361 [ref. 24550], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250] dated 1929, Chao 2003:1607 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:607 [ref. 27995], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:419 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion arenarius Ginsburg 1930. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

arenata, Umbrina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:190 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7472 (1, dry), 0000-7500 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:18 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chao 1978:30 [ref. 6983], •Tentatively considered a synonym of Protonibea Trewavas 1971 -- (Lo et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35288]).). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argentata, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:114 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Apparently an unjustified emendation of Sparus argenteus Houttuyn 1782. •In the synonymy of Pennahia argentata (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pennahia argentata (Houttuyn 1782). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

argentatus, Sparus Houttuyn [M.] 1782:319 [Verhandelingen der Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, Haarlem v. 20 (pt 2); ref. 2220] Nagasaki, Japan. Neotype: RMNH 26848 [ex RMNH 5973]. Spelled argenteus in Lacepède 1802:28 [ref. 4929], but correctly on p. 86. Also spelled S. argenteus Houttuyn by error in Cuvier 1830:114 [ref. 999] and not a new species by Cuvier. See Boeseman 1995:6 [ref. 21811]. Neotype designated by Trewavas 1977:319 [ref. 4459]. •Valid as Argyrosomus argentatus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:74 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:290 [ref. 26385], Shimizu 2001:31 [ref. 25799], Wang et al. 2001:235 [ref. 26566], Choi et al. 2003:347, 619 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Pennahia argentata (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Trewavas 1977:318 [ref. 4459], Kyushin et al. 1982:133 [ref. 19754], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:375 [ref. 27969], Yamada & Yamada 1999:97 [ref. 23757], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:869 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:869 [ref. 26193], Shinohara et al. 2005:435 [ref. 28370], Ali et al. 2018:333 [ref. 36183], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:187 [ref. 36460], Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pennahia argentata (Houttuyn 1782). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: South China Sea, East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea. Habitat: marine.

argentea, Corvina Macleay [W.] 1883:204 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 14342] Lower Burdekin River, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: AMS I.14578. Paralectotypes: AMS I.14579-81 (1, 1, 1), A.18241 (1), A.18243 (1), A.18245 (1). •Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:379 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:84 [ref. 25194], Bray et al. 2006:1262 [ref. 29091], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argentea, Perca Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:384 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Also appeared as P. argentea vel 10-vittata in Devincenzi 1925:305, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) [Otolithus striatus Cuvier 1829]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Perca argentea Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). •In the synonymy of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae.

argentea, Sciaena Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:95 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Name mentioned in passing, not available. Sciaenidae.

argenteus, Amblyscion Gill [T. N.] 1863:165 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] Western coast of Central America. Holotype (unique): USNM lost. Type catalog: Smith 2018:80 [ref. 36061]. •Valid as Larimus argenteus (Gill 1863) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:161 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:130 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1468 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:267 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:324 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Larimus argenteus (Gill 1863). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteus, Johnius Poey [F.] 2000:235, Pl. 161 (fig. 2) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Sciaenidae.

argenteus, Micropogon Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:218 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Suriname. Holotype (unique): RMNH 685. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:23 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823) -- (Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:62 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Malabar, India; Malacca, Malaysia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7510 (1) Malabar, 0000-7513 (1) Malabar. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:14 [ref. 6382]. Based on specimens and literature. •Synonym of Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Trewavas 1977:349 [ref. 4459], Daget & Trewavas 1986:335 [ref. 6211], Talwar 1995:58 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:88 [ref. 22156], Carpenter et al. 1997:190 [ref. 23922], Sasaki 2001:3164 [ref. 26108], Fricke et al. 2018:224 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argyroleucos, Bodianus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:417, Pl. 6 (fig. 9) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Originally as argyro-leucos, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:432 [ref. 22186], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

armata, Bairdiella Gill [T. N.] 1863:164 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] Western coast of Central America. Holotype (unique): USNM 35134. Type catalog: Smith 2018:76 [ref. 36061]. •Synonym of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 2003:1602 [ref. 27097] dated 1853 and perhaps in error). •Valid as Bairdiella armata Gill 1863 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:158 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:132 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1447 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:384 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:450 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Marceniuk et al. 2019:16 [ref. 36684], Parenti 2020:8 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Bairdiella armata Gill 1863. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Colombia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

asper, Sciaenoides Blyth [E.] 1860:140 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 477] Mouth of the Gangetic Rivers. No types known. •Doubtful species, placement uncertain -- (Trewavas 1977:449 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Macrospinosa cuja (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar 1995:18 [ref. 25194], Parenti 2020:28 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Macrospinosa cuja (Hamilton 1822). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

atelodus, Otolithus Günther [A.] 1867:60 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 20 (no. 115); ref. 1988] Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.6.19.9. •Synonym of Atractoscion aequidens (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:283 [ref. 4459], Chao & Trewavas 1990:815 [ref. 18934], Sasaki 1996:84 [ref. 22156], Bray et al. 2006:1258 [ref. 29091]). •Valid as Atractoscion atelodus (Günther 1867) -- (Song et al. 2017:223 [ref. 35529], Parenti 2020:6 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atractoscion atelodus (Günther 1867). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

atlanticus, Menticirrhus McFarland [W. N.] 1963:98 [Publications of the Institute of Marine Science, University of Texas v. 9; ref. 24520] Name only, not available. •In the synonymy of Menticirrhus saxatilis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:31 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus saxatilis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

atricauda, Ancylodon Günther [A.] 1880:12 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Río de la Plata mouth, Challenger station 321, depth 13 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.258. •Synonym of Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:37 [ref. 6983]). •Valid as Macrodon atricauda (Günther 1880) -- (Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:52 [ref. 30861], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565] dated 1888, Parenti 2020:27 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Macrodon atricauda (Günther 1880). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil south to Argentina. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aurata, Sciaena Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:266 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Not available, manuscript name mentioned under Labrus auratus (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Sciaenidae.

auratus, Johnius Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:12, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Río Ucayali, Amazon basin, Peru. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7622. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:12 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Plagioscion auratus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Chao 1978:43 [ref. 6983], Ortega & Vari 1986:20 [ref. 9708], Keith et al. 2000:136 [ref. 24547], Soares & Casatti 2000:512 [ref. 24955], Aguilera & Rodrigues de Aguilera 2001:66 [ref. 25927], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Casatti 2005:50 [ref. 28401], Parenti 2020:43 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Plagioscion auratus (Castelnau 1855). Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon, Orinoco and rivers of the Guianas (Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

auratus, Pogonathus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:120, 121 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:25 [ref. 6382]. Based on Commerson manuscript. •Incertae sedis in Sciaenidae -- (Parenti 2020:57 [ref. 37439]). Sciaenidae.

aurea, Sciaena Tanaka [S.] 1916:27 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 28 (no. 327); ref. 15074] Nagasaki fish market, Japan. Syntypes: ZUMT 6818-19 (2, lost). •Synonym of Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877) -- (Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

aureus, Otolithus Richardson [J.] 1846:224 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Lectotype: BMNH 1975.11.17.1 (half skin). Paralectotypes: USNM (1, apparently lost). Type information: Whitehead 1970:213 [ref. 11606]. Lectotype selected by Trewavas 1977:345 [ref. 4459]. Combined with a feminine genus the adjective should be aurea. •Valid as Chrysochir aurea (Richardson 1846) (often seen as aureus) -- (Trewavas 1977:345 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:54 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:365 [ref. 27969], Sasaki 1996:88 [ref. 22156], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3137 [ref. 26108], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989], Arshad in Kimura et al. 2018:181 [ref. 36460], Parenti 2020:11 [ref. 37439] as aureus, Psomadakis et al. 2020:488 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Chrysochir aurea (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: east coast of India and Myanmar east to Indonesia, north to northern Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

australis, Corvina Günther [A.] 1880:33 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Mary River near Tiaro, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1879.5.14.290 (1) •Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:414 [ref. 4459] incorrectly with a holotype). •Synonym of Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:426 [ref. 4459], Bray et al. 2006:1259 [ref. 29091]). •Synonym of Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:426 [ref. 4459], Bray et al. 2006:1260 [ref. 29091]). •Valid as Johnius australis (Günther 1880) -- (Sasaki 2001:3140 [ref. 26108], Larson et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32988], Parenti 2020:19 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius australis (Günther 1880). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Northern and northeastern Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

australis, Odontoscion Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:280, Fig. 59 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Tierra Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128023. Paratypes: USNM 128024 (3, now 2), Gov't of Peru [ex USNM 128024] (1, not researched). •Synonym of Elattarchus archidium (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1464 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:380 [ref. 24550], Parenti 2020:17 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Elattarchus archidium (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

axillaris, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:113 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Malabar, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7682 (2) Malabar, 0000-7484 (4, poor condition) Puducherry, 0000-5314 (1) Malabar. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:7 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Kathala axillaris (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:293 [ref. 4459], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:228 [ref. 24016], Talwar 1995:21 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:84 [ref. 22156], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:249 [ref. 24754], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:277 [ref. 34104], Eagderi et al. 2019:102 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:24 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Kathala axillaris (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to India and Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

axillaris, Corvina De Vis [C. W.] 1884:538 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Corvina axillaris Cuvier 1830. •Synonym of Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bairdii, Ancylodon Steindachner [F.] 1879:33 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Santos, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 51130 (1). Species first appeared as above as Ancylodon (?) Bairdii, later as Otolithus (?) Bairdi when illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:40, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [ref. 4228]. •Synonym of Cynoscion microlepidotus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion microlepidotus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

balteatus, Eques Cuvier [G.] 1829:175 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] America. No types known. Cuvier specimens: MNHN 0000-7449 (1) Martinique. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:11 [ref. 6382] with MNHN 7449 as holotype. Available from footnote as, "Eques balteatus, N., ou Eq. americanus, Bl. 347, i, ou Chaetodon lanceolatus, Lin.; Edw., 210." Also see Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:165 [ref. 999]. •Synonym of Equetus lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chao 1978:28 [ref. 6983]). •Synonym of Eques lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2020:18 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Eques lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

barbata, Sciena Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:380, 384 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. The original genus is correctly Sciaena. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:304, 322; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Pogonias chromis (Linnaeus). •Synonym of Pogonias courbina (Lacepède 1803) -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36834], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pogonias courbina (Lacepède 1803). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barbatus, Lonchurus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:144, Pl. 360 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB 927. On p. 120 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Objective synonym of Lonchurus lanceolatus (Bloch 1788) -- (Chao 1978:37 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:26 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Lonchurus lanceolatus (Bloch 1788). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barretoi, Micropogon MacDonagh [E. J.] 1934:70 [Revista del Museo de La Plata v. 34; ref. 16437] Río La Plata, Bay of Samborombón, Punta Piedras, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MLP 12.VII.33.15. •Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823) -- (Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

batabanus, Johnius Poey [F.] 1860:184 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Batabano, south coast of Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10926-27 (1, 1), 21957 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:204 [ref. 22926]. •Valid as Bairdiella batabana (Poey 1860) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983], Robins & Ray 1986:185 [ref. 23100], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:385 [ref. 24550], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807]). •Valid as Corvula batabana (Poey 1860) -- (Chao 2003:1603 [ref. 27097], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:417 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:12 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Corvula batabana (Poey 1860). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Southern Florida (U.S.A.) south to Virgin Islands, including northern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

bathytatos, Sciaena Chao [L. N.] & Miller [R. V.] 1975:267, Fig. 9 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 25 (no. 2); ref. 7412] Caribbean Sea off Colombia, 9°36'N, 76°22'W, Oregon station 5722, depth 280 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 211514. Paratypes: AMNH 33470 (1); ANSP 126874 (2); BMNH 1974.4.1.3 (1); CAS 29740 (1); FMNH 77047 (1); MCZ 49119 (1); UF 19889 (1), 231589 [ex UMML 31589] (1); USNM 211578-81 (1, 3, 1, 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Sciaena bathytatos Chao & Miller 1975 -- (Chao 1978:28 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:411 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:296 [ref. 24474]). •Valid as Protosciaena bathytatos (Chao & Miller 1975) -- (Chao 2003:1637 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:46 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Protosciaena bathytatos (Chao & Miller 1975). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southern Caribbean Sea (Panama east to Venezuela and Trinidad). Habitat: marine.

bauchotae, Paranebris Chao [L. N.], Béarez [P.] & Robertson [D. R.] 2001:82, Figs. 1-3, 4a [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 49 (Suppl. 1); ref. 26030] Golfo de Miguel, Panama, 8°18'N, 78°28'W, depth 12 meters. Holotype: USNM 360918. Paratypes: MCZ 157272 (1), MNHN 1988-261 (1). •Valid as Paranebris bauchotae Chao, Béarez & Robertson 2001 -- (Parenti 2020:40 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Paranebris bauchotae Chao, Béarez & Robertson 2001. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Panama. Habitat: marine.

beccus, Argyrosomus Sasaki [K.] 1994:35, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 41 (no. 1); ref. 21446] Harbor Channel Islands, (sand bars off the Channel, now disappeared), 1.6 kilometers west of Harbor Inlet, Durban, South Africa. Holotype: USNM 325504. Paratypes: USNM 325505 (2). •Valid as Argyrosomus beccus Sasaki 1994 -- (Sasaki 1996:85 [ref. 22156], Parenti 2020:4 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Argyrosomus beccus Sasaki 1994. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

bedoti, Sciaena (Bairdiella) Regan [C. T.] 1905:391, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 13; ref. 15384] Cuba. Syntypes: BMNH 1905.3.18.2 [ex MHNG] (1), MHNG 678.01 (1). Type catalog: Mahnert 1976:475 [ref. 21535], Weber 1998:13 [ref. 23532]. •Synonym of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:384 [ref. 24550], Marceniuk et al. 2019:12 [ref. 36684], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

belengerii, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:120 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Malabar, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7613 (2, poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:7 [ref. 6382]. Spelled belengerii by Cuvier; as belangerii by Valenciennes 1834:357 [ref. 17867], collector was Bélanger [but misspelled Bélenger by Cuvier], emended as belangerii by Bauchot & Desoutter 1987. •Synonym of Johnius grypotus (Richardson 1846) -- (Choi et al. 2003:620 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830) [sometimes as belengeri or belengerii or belangeri] -- (Trewavas 1977:413 [ref. 4459], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:161 [ref. 6441], Zheng 1989:319 [ref. 21202], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:856 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:245 [ref. 23210], Randall 1995:230 [ref. 22896], Talwar 1995:103 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:367 [ref. 27969], Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156], Carpenter et al. 1997:189 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:71 [ref. 26476] as belengerii, Cheng & Zhou 1997:293 [ref. 26385] as belengeri, Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:249 [ref. 24754], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3141 [ref. 26108], Wang et al. 2001:238 [ref. 26566] as belengerii and authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Bray et al. 2006:1260 [ref. 29091], Coad 2010:266 [ref. 36620], Iwatsuki et al. 2012:154 [ef. 31962] as belangeri, Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:274 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:331 [ref. 36183], Arshad in Kimura et al. 2018:183 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:253 [ref. 36495], Chao et al. 2019:268 [ref. 36884], Eagderi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:489 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Indonesia, north to East China Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bengalensis, Atrobucca Sasaki [K.] 1995:272, Figs. 2-5 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 42 (no. 3/4); ref. 22176] St. John's fish market, Trincomalea, Sri Lanka. Holotype: USNM 32463. Paratypes: USNM 325473 (2). •Valid as Atrobucca bengalensis Sasaki 1995 -- (Sasaki 1996:87 [ref. 22156], Parenti 2020:7 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atrobucca bengalensis Sasaki 1995. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

biauritus, Otolithus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1039 [57] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Chusan. Orig. localities: Sea of Penang, Malayan Peninsula, Singapore, Lancavy, Tenesserim provinces. Lectotype: BMNH 1860.3.19.171 (skin). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.172-3 (2, skins) Chusan. On p. 57 of separate. Lectotype selected by Trewavas 1977:297 [ref. 4459]. •Valid as Otolithoides biauritus (Cantor 1849) -- (Lal Mohan 1972:415 [ref. 35185], Trewavas 1977:297 [ref. 4459], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:861 [ref. 20764], Talwar 1995:25 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:373 [ref. 27969], Sasaki 1996:85 [ref. 22156], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3165 [ref. 26108], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Psomadakis et al. 2015:278 [ref. 34104], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:494 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Otolithoides biauritus (Cantor 1849). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan and India east to Sumatra (Indonesia), Borneo and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

biloba, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:112 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Locality unknown. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7683. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:8 [ref. 6382], Bauchot & Daget 1996:242 [ref. 22899]. •Valid as Pachyurus biloba (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983]). •Synonym of Pachypops fourcroi (Lacepède 1802) -- (Casatti 2002:4 [ref. 25936], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:599 [ref. 27061], Parenti 2020:37 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pachypops fourcroi (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

birtwistlei, Johnius Fowler [H. W.] 1931:446, Fig. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 83; ref. 16276] Clyde Terrace market, Singapore. Holotype: ANSP 53467 (not separated, in jar with paratypes). Paratypes: ANSP 53468-69 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Chrysochir aureus (Richardson 1846) -- (Trewavas 1977:345 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:54 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:88 [ref. 22156], Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:11 [ref. 37439]). •Synonym of Chrysochir aurea (Richardson 1846). Current status: Synonym of Chrysochir aurea (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

bispinosus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:65 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Rangoon, Myanmar. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7619. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:15 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Pterotolithus maculatus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:355 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:64 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:89 [ref. 22156], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:48 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pterotolithus maculatus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bleekeri, Pseudotolithus Steindachner [F.] 1866:773, Pl. 14 (fig. 4) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 16; ref. 18789] Hong Kong, China. Holotype (unique): NMW (not found). •Doubtful species, placement uncertain -- (Trewavas 1977:449 [ref. 4459]). •Incertae sedis in Sciaenidae -- (Parenti 2020:57 [ref. 37439]). Sciaenidae.

bleekeri, Sciaena Day [F.] 1876:185, Pl. 45 (fig. 4) [The fishes of India Part 2; ref. 1081] Mumbai and Gwadur, India. Syntypes: ZSI F968 (1), 988 (1, figured). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:144 [ref. 20743], Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Pseudosciaena by Pseudotolithus bleekeri Steindachner 1866. Replaced by Pseudosciaena indica Tang 1937. •Synonym of Argyrosomus amoyensis (Bleeker 1863) -- (Trewavas 1977:334 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:41 [ref. 25194], Parenti 2020:4 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus amoyensis (Bleeker 1863). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

bonariensis, Pachyurus (Lepipterus) Steindachner [F.] 1879:126 [8] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Río de la Plata, Argentina. Lectotype: NMW 15181. Paralectotypes: [should be only 3, originally 4 syntypes] NMW 15193 (1), 78598 (2), 84794 (1). On p. 8 of separate. Lectotype selected by Casatti 2001:154 [ref. 25918]. •Valid as Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner 1879 -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983], Gómez & Chebez 1996:65 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:76 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:142 [ref. 24147], Soares & Casatti 2000:500 [ref. 24955], Casatti 2001:153 [ref. 25918], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27366], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Casciotta et al. 2003:161 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:87 [ref. 28131] with question, Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:133, 189 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:55 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565] with author as (Steindachner 1879), Koerber et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35267], Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner 1879. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Uruguay and Paraguay River basins and lower parts of Paraná River (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay). Habitat: freshwater.

boops, Coracinus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:259 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Ponti Euxini, Tauriae, Black Sea [off Feodosia, Crinea]. No types known. •Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Trewavas 1973:399 [ref. 7201], Chao & Trewavas 1990:824 [ref. 18934], Parin 2003:S13 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:373 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

borneensis, Otolithus Bleeker [P.] 1851:268 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 325] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5980. Type information: Trewavas 1977:432 [ref. 4459]. Original spelling was as borneënsis. •Questionably the same as Johnius vogleri (Bleeker 1853) -- (Trewavas 1977:441 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:112 [ref. 25194]). •Valid as Johnius australis (Günther 1880) -- (Sasaki 2001:3140 [ref. 26108], Larson et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156], Sasaki 1999:275 [ref. 24049], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:258 [ref. 27511] dated 1850, Sasaki 2001:3154 [ref. 26108], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:109 [ref. 27510], Bray et al. 2006:1260 [ref. 29091], Motomura 2009:171 [ref. 30446], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:275 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:159 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:331 [ref. 36183], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:183 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:255 [ref. 36495], Chao et al. 2019:267 [ref. 36884], Eagderi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:490 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to northern Vietnam and southern China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brachygnathus, Pseudotolithus Bleeker [P.] 1863:62, Pl. 24 (fig. 2) [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Ashantee, Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 671. Holotype figured by Boeseman 1963:Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [ref. 21734]. •Synonym of Pseudotolithus senegalla (Cuvier 1830) -- (Sasaki 1993:361 [ref. 22458]). •Valid as Pseudotolithus brachygnathus Bleeker 1863 -- (Chao & Trewavas 1990:819 [ref. 18934], Afonso et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25466], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pseudotolithus brachygnathus Bleeker 1863. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Genyanemus Steindachner [F.] 1875:476 [34] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (1. Abth.); ref. 4222] Para and Santos, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1879.5.14.289 (1) R. Plata; MCZ 8626 (1) Rio, MCZ 8627 (1) Santos, NMW 60468 (2). On p. 34 of separate. •Valid as Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner 1875) -- (Chao 1978:38 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:376 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:409 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:293 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:587 [ref. 16204], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Chao 2003:1634 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:437 [ref. 28815], Travera et al.2011:321 [ref. 31319], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:39 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner 1875). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil south to Argentina. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brasiliensis, Ophioscion Schultz [L. P.] 1945:(126) 128, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 96 (no. 3192); ref. 10151] Sand bar at Barro Santos, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 87742. Paratypes: USNM 122611 (1). •Valid as Stellifer brasiliensis (Schultz 1945) -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:413 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:587 [ref. 16204], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:51 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer brasiliensis (Schultz 1945). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

breviceps, Larimus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:146, Pl. 111 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil; Dominican Republic. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7578 (1) Dominican Republic, 0000-7636 (1) Brazil; ?SMF 431 [ex MNHN in 1830] (1) Martinique. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:12 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Larimus breviceps Cuvier 1830 -- (Chao 1978:31 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:367 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:404 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:275 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:586 [ref. 16204], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2003:1620 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:428 [ref. 28815], Angulo et al. 2013:1003 [ref. 33194], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Larimus breviceps Cuvier 1830. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Antilles south to Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brevidorsalis, Sciaena Günther [A.] 1860:295 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] East Indies. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.388. •Incertae sedis in Sciaenidae -- (Parenti 2020:58 [ref. 37439]). Sciaenidae.

brevirostris, Othonias Wang [K.-F.] 1935:452, Fig. 34 [Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China. (Zoological Series) v. 10 (no. 9); ref. 17828] Chefoo, Shantung Province, China. Holotype (unique): SSCN 10333. •Synonym of Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877) -- (Trewavas 1977:396 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

brevis, Atrobucca Sasaki [K.] & Kailola [P. J.] 1988:268, Figs. 2B, 4, 5 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 35 (no. 3); ref. 12553] Off northern Australia, 13°25'S, 126°19'E, depth 60-63 meters. Holotype: AMS I. 26447-001. Paratypes: AMS I.26448-001 (1); CSIRO H 748-01 (1); HUMZ 107483-84 (1, 1); KFRS F04034 (1). •Valid as Atrobucca brevis Sasaki & Kailola 1988 -- (Allen 1997:144 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Sasaki 2001:3131 [ref. 26108], Bray et al. 2006:1258 [ref. 29091], Larson et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32988], Parenti 2020:7 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atrobucca brevis Sasaki & Kailola 1988. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: northern Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

broussonnetii, Umbrina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:187 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Jamaica. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7471. Type catalog: Bauchot 1969:134 [ref. 20807], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:18 [ref. 6382]. Gilbert & Kelso 1971:36 [ref. 7678] needlessly emended the species spelling to broussoneti. •Valid as Umbrina broussonnetii Cuvier 1830 -- (Gilbert 1966:242 [ref. 21329], Chao 1978:29 [ref. 6983] as broussonetii, Cervigón 1992:413 [ref. 23827], Matamoros et al. 2009:19 [ref. 31241], Parenti 2020:54 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina broussonnetii Cuvier 1830. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; Costa Rica south to Colombia; Greater Antilles. Habitat: marine.

brunneolus, Pseudotolithus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1909:191, Pl. 71 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 2493] Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Holotype: FMNH 52174 [ex CM 327]. Paratypes: FMNH 59521 (1), CAS-SU 21185 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:92 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:71 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432]. On Official Index (Opinion 1272) for purposes of priority but not homonymy. Type designated in Pl. 71. •Synonym of Atrobucca nibe (Jordan & Thompson 1911) -- (Heemstra 1986:617 [ref. 5660], Sasaki & Kailola 1988:273 [ref. 12553], Talwar 1995:46 [ref. 25194], Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432], Parenti 2020:7 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Atrobucca nibe (Jordan & Thompson 1911). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Otolithus Day [F.] 1873:524 [The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology v. 11; ref. 17368] Mumbai, India. Lectotype: ZSI F906. Paralectotypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.8193-94 (1, 1, both paralectotypes), MNHN 0000-1004 (1), RMNH 670 (1), ZSI F1024-26 (3). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:144 [ref. 20743], Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:295 [ref. 25110]. Lectotype selected by Talwar 1976 (not researched, not designated here). •Synonym of Parma biauritus (Cantor 1849). •Synonym of Otolithoides biauritus (Cantor 1849) -- (Lal Mohan 1972:415 [ref. 35185 ], Trewavas 1977:297 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:25 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 2001:3165 [ref. 26108], Parenti 2020:36 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Otolithoides biauritus (Cantor 1849). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

bussingi, Umbrina López S. [M. I.] 1980:203, Fig. 1 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 28 (no. 1); ref. 8696] Costa Rica, eastern Pacific, 9°02'N, 84°13'W, depth 183-290 meters. Holotype (unique): LACM 38715-1. •Valid as Umbrina bussingi López S. 1980 -- (Walker & Radford 1992:575 [ref. 20257], Bussing & López S. 1994:130 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1513 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:270 [ref. 24545], Béarez 2001:64 [ref. 26028], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708] as López, Robertson et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35676], Parenti 2020:54 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina bussingi López S. 1980. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of southern Baja California (Mexico) south to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

calhamazon, Pachyurus Casatti [L.] 2001:167, Fig. 8C [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 25918] Rio Branco, Estado de Roraima, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP 66684. •Valid as Pachyurus calhamazon Casatti 2001 -- (Casatti & Chao 2002:5 [ref. 26002], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachyurus calhamazon Casatti 2001. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Branco River (Roraima, Brazil) endemic. Habitat: freshwater.

californiensis, Otolithus Steindachner [F.] 1875:59 [31] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] San Diego, California; Magdalena Bay, Baja California. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 10898 (1), NMW 31128-29 (2). On p. 31 of separate. •Synonym of Atractoscion nobilis (Ayres 1860) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1446 [ref. 22830], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:657 [ref. 25968], Parenti 2020:6 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Atractoscion nobilis (Ayres 1860). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

callaensis, Sciaena Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:287, Fig. 61 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Callao Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 36934. Paratypes: USNM 120709 [ex USNM 36934] (1). •Valid as Sciaena callaensis Hildebrand 1946 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:323 [ref. 24555], Parenti 2020:49 [ref. 37439]) Current status: Valid as Sciaena callaensis Hildebrand 1946. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

camaronensis, Corvina Ehrenbaum [E.] 1915:42, Fig. [Über Küstenfische von Westafrika, besonders von Kamerun.; ref. 15784] West Africa. Syntypes: ZMH H4245 (1) Cameroon. Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:160 [ref. 22013]. •Synonym of Pseudotolithus moorii (Günther 1865) -- (Chao & Trewavas 1990:818 [ref. 18934], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotolithus moorii (Günther 1865). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

camposi, Pachypops Fowler [H. W.] 1954:252, Fig. 843 [Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo v. 9; ref. 1465] Rupununi River, Guyana. Holotype (unique): ANSP 39773. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. Named for Mrs. A. A. Campos, therefore corrected to camposae. •Valid as Pachypops camposae Fowler 1954 -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983] as camposi). •Synonym of Pachypops trifilis (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Casatti 2002:10 [ref. 25936], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Parenti 2020:37 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pachypops trifilis (Müller & Troschel 1849). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

canariensis, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:93 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7609 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:8 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Sciaena umbra Linnaeus 1758 -- (Trewavas 1973:396 [ref. 7201], Chao & Trewavas 1990:823 [ref. 18934], Parenti 2020:49 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Sciaena umbra Linnaeus 1758. Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

canariensis, Umbrina Valenciennes [A.] 1843:24 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-5669 (1, dry), 7608 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:18 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843 -- (Trewavas 1973:401 [ref. 7201], Trewavas 1977:279 [ref. 4459], Chao in Whitehead et al. 1986:872 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1986:619 [ref. 5660], Chao & Trewavas 1990:823 [ref. 18934], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:165 [ref. 25472], Talwar 1995:12 [ref. 25194], Randall 1995:233 [ref. 22896], Sasaki 1996:83 [ref. 22156], Fricke 1999:304 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:273 [ref. 28072], Bañon et al. 2010:18 [ref. 31029], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972] doubtful record, Psomadakis et al. 2015:280 [ref. 34104], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2651 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2018:224 [ref. 35805], Carneiro et al. 2019:276 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2020:54 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southern Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to South Africa, including Madeira and Canary Islands; western Indian Ocean: South Africa, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

canina, Corvina De Vis [C. W.] 1884:538 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.951 (dry, delicate condition). •Synonym of Johnius vogleri (Bleeker 1853) -- (Trewavas 1977:441 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Johnieops vogleri (Bleeker 1853) -- (Talwar 1995:113 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Sasaki 1999:275 [ref. 24049], Bray et al. 2006:1260 [ref. 29091], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

canosai, Umbrina Berg [C.] 1895:56 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires v. 4; ref. 261] Atlantic near Montevideo, Uruguay, and Mar del Plata. Syntypes: MACN 5081 (1), MHNM. Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:100 [ref. 23697]. •Valid as Umbrina canosai Berg 1895 -- (Gilbert 1966:250 [ref. 21329], Chao 1978:29 [ref. 6983], Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:220 [ref. 14235], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:116 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina canosai Berg 1895. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Montevideo (Uruguay) to Mar del Plata (Argentina). Habitat: brackish, marine.

cantori, Johnius Bleeker [P.] 1874:51 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 14 (art. 4); ref. 12517] Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.223 (half skin, stuffed). Based on Johnius maculatus of Cantor 1849 (not Bloch & Schneider). •Doubtful species, placement uncertain -- (Trewavas 1977:449 [ref. 4459]). •Valid as Johnius cantori Bleeker 1874 -- (Sasaki 1992:196 [ref. 15769], Sasaki 2001:3125 [ref. 26108], Iwatsuki et al. 2012:154 [ef. 31962], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius cantori Bleeker 1874. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Penang (Malaysia). Habitat: marine.

capensis, Stelliferus Stark [J.] 1828:459 [Elements of natural history v. 1 (Vertebrata); ref. 4193] Cape of Good Hope [erroneous]. No types known. Unneeded replacement name for Bodianus stellifer Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Stellifer stellifer (Bloch 1790) -- (Parenti 2020:53 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Stellifer stellifer (Bloch 1790). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

capensis, Umbrina Pappe [C. W. L.] 1853:16 [Synopsis of the edible fishes at the Cape of Good Hope; ref. 18517] False Bay, South Africa. No types known. •Possible synonym of Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843 -- (Trewavas 1973:401 [ref. 7201], Trewavas 1977:281 [ref. 4459], Chao & Trewavas 1990:825 [ref. 18934]). •Possible synonym of Umbrina robinsoni Gilchrist & Thompson 1908 -- (Parenti 2020:56 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Uncertain as Umbrina robinsoni Gilchrist & Thompson 1908. Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolinensis, Cestreus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:49 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Off Carolina, U.S.A., western North Atlantic. Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.42 [Gronovius coll.] (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:221 [ref. 13434]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Cynoscion by Otolithus carolinensis Valenciennes 1833. •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Wheeler 1958:221 [ref. 13434], Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolinensis, Otolithus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:475 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7507 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:15 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carouna, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:125 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Malabar, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7529 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:8 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:414 [ref. 4459] with MNHN 7529 as holotype but more than one specimen originally). •Valid as Johnius carouna (Cuvier 1830) -- (Sasaki & Kailola 1991:122 [ref. 19082], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:857 [ref. 20764], Talwar 1995:106 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:91 [ref. 22156], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3142 [ref. 26108], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Iwatsuki et al. 2012:154 [ef. 31962], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:155 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:275 [ref. 34104], Lo et al. 2017:15 [ref. 35288], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:184 [ref. 36460], Chao et al. 2019:268 [ref. 36884], Parenti 2020:21 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:490 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Johnius carouna (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India and Myanmar east to Borneo, north to northern Vietnam and southern China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

carutta, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] 1793:133, Pl. 356 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Hooghly Estuary near Diamond Harbor, India. Neotype: ZSI F6273/2. Genus name on plate is Iohnius. On p. 109 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Spelled karut by Lacepède 1801:518 [ref. 2710], also as carutta. Neotype designated by Talwar & Sinha 1972:99 [ref. 20558]. •Valid as Johnius carutta Bloch 1793 -- (Trewavas 1977:407 [ref. 4459], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:857 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:228 [ref. 24016], Randall 1995:230 [ref. 22896], Talwar 1995:96 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:368 [ref. 27969], Sasaki 1996:91 [ref. 22156], Carpenter et al. 1997:189 [ref. 23922], Sasaki 2001:3143 [ref. 26108], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Iwatsuki et al. 2012:154 [ef. 31962], Psomadakis et al. 2015:275 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:331 [ref. 36183], Suresh et al. 2018:257 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:21 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:490 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Johnius carutta Bloch 1793. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf and Oman east to Indonesia, north to southern China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

casattii, Plagioscion Aguilera [O.] & Rodrigues de Aguilera [D.] 2001:63, Fig. 1a-c [Memoria de la Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales v. 60 (no. 153) (for Jan.-June 2000); ref. 25927] Orinoco River, Venezuela (from Ciudad Bolívar fish market). Holotype: MBUCV-V-29490. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-29491 (11), MHNLS 14601 (2). Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:456 [ref. 35588]. Named after a woman, so the species name should have been casattiae. •Valid as Plagioscion casattiae Aguilera & Rodrigues de Aguilera 2001 -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061] as casattii). •Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) -- (Casatti 2005:42 [ref. 28401], DoNascimiento 2016:541 [ref. 34727], Parenti 2020:44 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cataleus, Johnius Cuvier [G.] 1829:173 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] India. Lectotype: MNHN A-5539 (1, dry half skin). Cuvier specimens: MNHN A-5539 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:12 [ref. 6382] with a holotype. Based on Russel 1803: fig. 116, and Bola chaptis Buchanan. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989] as the specimen based on Lacepède 18902:240. •Synonym of Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:364 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:69 [ref. 25194], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439] as diacantha). Current status: Synonym of Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cayanensis, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:196, 240 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Cayenne, French Guiana. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5502 (1, holotype of Bauchot), A-4562 (2), A-5617 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:34 [ref. 21549], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:6, 13, 16 [ref. 6382], but differing from Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983]. Name emended to cayennensis by Vaillant and Bocourt 1883:156 [ref. 4498], as Otolithus cayennensis. Appeared as Otolithus cayensis in Steindachner 1879:40 [ref. 4228]. •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983] as cayennensis, Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250] as cayenensis, Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cayennensis, Otolithus Vaillant [L. L.] & Bocourt [F.] 1883:156 [Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale Part 4; ref. 4498] La Union, El Salvador. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Sciaenidae.

celebica, Corvina Bleeker [P.] 1854:244 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 345] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5982 (1 of 20). •Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:379 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:84 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34492], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cestreus, Sciaena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:52 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea, ? American seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.74 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:221-222 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:221 [ref. 13434], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cevegei, Pachypops Cervigón [F.] 1982:237, Figs. 17-18 [Los recursos pesqueros del Rio Orinoco y su explotacion; ref. 20509] Caño Mánamo, near Tucupita, Venezuela. Holotype: FCLR 641. Paratypes: FCLR 642 (1), 643 (1). •A species of the genus Micropogonias -- (Casatti 2002:4 [ref. 25936]). •Valid as Micropogonias cevegei (Cervigón 1982) -- (Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Micropogonias cevegei (Cervigón 1982). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: lower reaches of Orinoco River (Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chalcis, Coracinus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:256 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Alupka, Ukraine [Black Sea]. No types known. •Synonym of Sciaena umbra Linnaeus 1758 -- (Trewavas 1973:396 [ref. 7201], Chao & Trewavas 1990:822 [ref. 18934], Parin 2003:S13 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:373 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2020:49 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Sciaena umbra Linnaeus 1758. Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chaoi, Stellifer Aguilera [O.], Solano [O. D.] & Valdez [J.] 1983:7, Fig. 1 [Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Punta de Betín v. 13; ref. 8257] Punta Campana, Golfo de Venezuela, depth 8-10 fathoms. Holotype: MBUCV-V-13815. Paratypes: ANSP 153376 (6); CIP 608 (3); ICNMNH 843 (4); INVEMAR P-719 (6), P-722 (3), P-729 (2), P-765 (3); MBUCV-V-14030 (35), MM 5069 PEC 1448 (3); UF 234426 [ex UMML 34426] (6); UNEFM 13815 (35). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:18 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Stellifer chaoi Aguilera, Solano & Valdez 1983 -- (Cervigón 1992:413 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:300 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Chao 2003:1650 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:51 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer chaoi Aguilera, Solano & Valdez 1983. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chaptis, Bola Hamilton [F.] 1822:77, 368, Pl. 10 (fig. 25) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Chinsura (Hooghly estuary), India. Neotype: ZSI F6229/2. Neotype designated by Talwar & Datta 1972:171 [ref. 20292]. Hamilton's original illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 48 [ref. 37532]. •Valid as Bahaba chaptis (Hamilton 1822) -- (Trewavas 1977:287 [ref. 4459], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:852 [ref. 20764], Talwar 1995:15 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:84 [ref. 22156], Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2020:488 [ref. 37272], Parenti 2020:8 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Bahaba chaptis (Hamilton 1822). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Bay of Bengal (India) to Myanmar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chinensis, Collichthys Steindachner [F.] 1866:475 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 16; ref. 5030] Appeared as "Collichthys lucida Richards. an nov. spec.? (C. chinensis)" from Hong Kong, China. Regarded as a name in synonymy and not available. Subsequent validation not researched. •In the synonymy of Larimichthys crocea (Richardson 1846) -- (Trewavas 1977:392 [ref. 4459]). •In the synonymy of Collichthys lucidus (Richardson 1844) -- (Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:388 [ref. 23876], Parenti 2020:11 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Collichthys lucidus (Richardson 1844). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysoleuca, Corvina Günther [A.] 1867:600 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: BMNH 1865.7.20.24 (1), 1866.1.14.7 (1). Described in more detail in Günther 1868:427, Pl. 67 (fig. 1) [ref. 1994]. •Valid as Stellifer chrysoleuca (Günther 1867) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:167 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:124, 134 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1501 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:314 [ref. 24555], Chao 2001:79 [ref. 26029], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:51 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer chrysoleuca (Günther 1867). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

chrysourus, Dipterodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:166, 174 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:22 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983], Lee et al. 1980:757 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:432 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:185 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:143 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:206 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:381 [ref. 24550], Chao 2003:1599 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:606 [ref. 27995] with original genus as Caranx, McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:415 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:354 [ref. 35886], Marceniuk et al. 2019:16 [ref. 36684], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Cape Cod (Massachusetts, U.S.A.) south to Yucatan (Mexico), including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chuanchua, Sciaena Basilewsky [S.] 1855:221 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Gulf of Pechili, China. No types at ZIN. Originally as chuan-chua, correction mandatory. •Questionable synonym of Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877) -- (Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Uncertain as Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

chui, Nibea Trewavas [E.] 1971:456 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 6577] Hong Kong. Syntypes: BMNH 1939.1.17.7-8 [or 17-18] (2). Additional material: BMNH 1861.11.1.64 (1) Japan. Based on literature and specimens. •Valid as Nibea chui Trewavas 1971 -- (Trewavas 1977:377 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:82 [ref. 25194], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Lo et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35288], Parenti 2020:32 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nibea chui Trewavas 1971. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: South China Sea coast of China to Japan. Habitat: marine.

cirrosa, Sciaena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:289 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic. No types known. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:222 [ref. 13434]. •Valid as Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Trewavas 1973:399 [ref. 7201], Dor 1984:161 [ref. 29757], Chao in Whitehead et al. 1986:873 [ref. 13676], Chao & Trewavas 1990:824 [ref. 18934], Goren & Dor 1994:44 [ref. 25356], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:751 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:122 [ref. 23588], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:101 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S13 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:46 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:90 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:109 [ref. 30517], Wirtz et al. 2007:13, 35 [ref. 30263], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:171 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:50 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:373 [ref. 33547], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2652 [ref. 34618], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:276 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:81 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Gulf of Guinea, including Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

clavigera, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:101 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6336 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:8 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Daget & Trewavas 1986:335 [ref. 6211], Chao & Trewavas 1990:817 [ref. 18934], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich 1825). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cochinchinensis, Sciaenoides Tirant [G.] in Chevey 1929:169 [Note, Service Océanographique des Pêches de l'Indochine v. 6; ref. 22777] Type catalog: Chevey 1937:248 [ref. 31779]. Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Otolithoides perarmatus (Chabanaud 1926) -- (Trewavas 1977:304 [ref. 4459]). •In the synonymy of Panna perarmatus (Chabanaud 1926) -- (Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Panna perarmatus (Chabanaud 1926). Sciaenidae.

coibor, Bola Hamilton [F.] 1822:78, 368 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River estuaries, India. No types known. Not the same as Bola coitor Hamilton in same work. •Valid as Nibea coibor (Hamilton 1822) -- (Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:229 [ref. 26639], Lo et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35288], Parenti 2020:32 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nibea coibor (Hamilton 1822). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Ganges River estuary (India) and Sri Lanka east to Philippines, north to southern China, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

coitor, Bola Hamilton [F.] 1822:75, 368, Pl. 27 (fig. 24) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River as far as Kanpur and Jumna River at Angra and at Visakhapatum, India. No types known. Hamilton's original illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 47 [ref. 37532]. •Valid as Sciaena coitor (Hamilton 1822) -- (Shrestha 1978:41 [ref. 15970]). •Valid as Johnius coitor (Hamilton 1822) -- (Trewavas 1977:418 [ref. 4459], Allen & Swainston 1988:92 [ref. 25477], Ataur Rahman 1989:331 [ref. 24860], Sasaki & Kailola 1991:122 [ref. 19082], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:858 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Talwar 1995:99 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:91 [ref. 22156], Allen 1997:144 [ref. 23977], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3144 [ref. 26108], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:358 [ref. 31338], Bray et al. 2006:1260 [ref. 29091], Shrestha 2008:217 [ref. 29923], Iwatsuki et al. 2012:154 [ef. 31962], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:21 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:491 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Johnius coitor (Hamilton 1822). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Bay of Bengal (India) to eastern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cokeri, Menticirrhus Evermann [B. W.] & Radcliffe [L.] 1917:107, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 95; ref. 1284] Ancon, Peru. Holotype: USNM 77533. Paratypes: (1). •Synonym of Menticirrhus ophicephalus (Jenyns 1840) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1474 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus ophicephalus (Jenyns 1840). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

colonensis, Stellifer Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1925:623, Pl. 66 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 226); ref. 13609] Mindi Reef, Mindi, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype: USNM 81729. Paratypes: (41) FMNH 18576-77 (2), 18578-83 (6), 18584-92 (8), 18593-94 (4); USNM 81217 (2), 81220 (2), 81236 (3), 81326-27 (6, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:81 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Stellifer colonensis Meek & Hildebrand 1925 -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:413 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:301 [ref. 24474], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:183 [ref. 22947], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Chao 2003:1640 [ref. 27097], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:444 [ref. 28815], Parenti 2020:51 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer colonensis Meek & Hildebrand 1925. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

comes, Corvina De Vis [C. W.] 1884:538 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4899] Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.949 (dry mount). •Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:414 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:104 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Johnius australis (Günther 1880) -- (Bray et al. 2006:1260 [ref. 29091], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius australis (Günther 1880). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

comes, Roccus Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:25 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:433 [ref. 22186], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

concinnus, Amblodon Agassiz [L.] 1854:307 [13] [American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 2) v. 17; ref. 69] Tennessee River at Huntsville, Alabama, U.S.A. Lectotype: MCZ 21970. Paralectotypes: ?MCZ 588 (2). On p. 13 of separate. Lectotype selected by Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983]. •Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819 -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:3 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

coracinus, Sparus Asso y del Rio [I. J. de] 1801:36 [Anales de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid. v. 4 (no. 10); ref. 6523] Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Trewavas 1973:399 [ref. 7201], Chao & Trewavas 1990:824 [ref. 18934], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

corbina, Sciaena Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:6 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly appeared in an unpublished work. Genus originally as Sciena. See also Sciaena corbina Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Graells 1887 [ref. 30438] with discussion on authorship. •In the synonymy of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

corbina, Sciaena Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Graells 1887:180 [Revista de los Progresos de las Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 30438] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Genus originally as Sciena. Based on Sciaena corbina Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817 [ref. 17319], possibly an unpublished work. •In the synonymy of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

corboasprensis, Sciaena Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 123 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Original as Corbo-asprensis. Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Corvina nigra. Sciaenidae.

coroides, Umbrina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:187, Pl. 117 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5343. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:19 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Umbrina coroides Cuvier 1830 -- (Gilbert 1966:235 [ref. 21329], Chao 1978:30 [ref. 6983], Robins & Ray 1986:187 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:413 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:313 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:195 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:370 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2003:1648 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:446 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:57 [ref. 33341], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina coroides Cuvier 1830. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bahamas south to Brazil, including northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

coronus, Argyrosomus Griffiths [M. H.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1995:28, Figs. 35-36 [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 65; ref. 22038] 4 kilometers south of Hoarusib River, northern Namibia, surf zone. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 48468. Paratypes: IRSNB 9723-25 (2, 1, 1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 48458-67 (1 ea.), 48469-72 (1 ea.), 48473 (1, skeleton). •Valid as Argyrosomus coronus Griffiths & Heemstra 1995 -- (van der Bank & Kirchner 1997:441 [ref. 24968], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:268 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2020:4 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Argyrosomus coronus Griffiths & Heemstra 1995. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: Angola and Namibia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

corvina, Lepipterus Reinhardt [J. T.] 1851:30 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1849 (nos 3-5); ref. 3692] Rio das Velhas, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMUC 5. Paralectotypes: (1) ZMUC 3 (1) or 4 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:65 [ref. 9588]. Lectotype selected by Casatti 2001:140 [ref. 25918]. •Synonym of Pachyurus francisci (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:43 [ref. 6983], Casatti 2001:139 [ref. 25918], Britski 2001:21 [ref. 26046], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pachyurus francisci (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

corvina, Sciena Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:15 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Genus should have been Sciaena. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Sciena corvina Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Graells 1887:189 [ref. 30438]. •In family Sciaenidae. Sciaenidae.

corvina, Sciena Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Graells 1887:189 [Revista de los Progresos de las Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 30438] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Genus should have been Sciaena. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:15 [ref. 17319]. •In family Sciaenidae. Sciaenidae.

costaricensis, Ophioscion Caldwell [D. K.] 1958:117, Fig. 1 [Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences v. 21 (no. 2); ref. 12053] Tortuguero, Caribbean Costa Rica, 10°34'N, 83°32'W (found on beach). Holotype: UF 5831. Paratypes: UF 5830 (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:112 [ref. 21035]. •Synonym of Stellifer microps (Steindachner 1864) -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:52 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Stellifer microps (Steindachner 1864). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

costatus, Bodianus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:417 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:434 [ref. 22186], Parenti 2020:31 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

courbina, Pogonathus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:120, 121 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Argentina, Provincia de Buenos Aires, San Clemente del Tuyú, Rio de la Plata, 36˚21’S56˚43’W [Rio de la Plata]. Neotype: UNMDP 4874. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:25 [ref. 6382]. Original description based on Commerson manuscript. Neotype designated by Azpelicueta et al. 2019:14 [ref. 36834]. •Synonym of Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:34 [ref. 6983]). •Valid as Pogonias courbina (Lacepède 1803) -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36834], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pogonias courbina (Lacepède 1803). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: southern Brazil south to northern Argentina. Habitat: brackish, marine.

crawfordi, Corvina Regan [C. T.] 1903:627 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 12 (no. 72) (art. 64); ref. 13401] Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1903.10.16.7. •Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823) -- (Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

crocea, Sciaena Richardson [J.] 1846:224 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1968.3.11.9. Type information: Whitehead 1970:214 [ref. 11606]. Trewavas 1977:392 [ref. 4459] treats BMNH 1968.3.11.9 as the neotype (probable holotype). •Valid as Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson 1846) -- (Trewavas 1977:392 [ref. 4459], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:75 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:285 [ref. 26385], Choi et al. 2003:347, 621 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Larimichthys crocea (Richardson 1846) -- (Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:870 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:870 [ref. 26193], Seah et al. 2015:280 [ref. 33796], Arshad in Kimura et al. 2018:185 [ref. 36460] as croceus, Parenti 2020:24 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Larimichthys crocea (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: South China Sea, East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

croker, Sciaena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:309, 314 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Carolinas, U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:25 [ref. 6382]. Based on Perca undulata of Linnaeus and Gmelin. •Synonym of Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:31 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cromis, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1766:479 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]; Brazil; Jamaica. No types known. Based on multiple sources, including the Cromis subargenteus oblongus of Browne 1756:449 [ref. 30188] [Jamaica], Coracinus brasiliensis guatucupa of Ray 1713:96 [ref. 30231] [Brazil], 'Guatucupa' of Marcgravus 1648:177 [ref. 30352] [Brazil], and 'Drum' in manuscript description by A. Garden [South Carolina]. Based on multiple sources, including the Cromis subargenteus oblongus of Browne 1756:449 [ref. 30188] [Jamaica], Coracinus brasiliensis guatucupa of Ray 1713:96 [ref. 30231] [Brazil], 'Gvatvcvpa' of Markgraf von Liebstadt 1648:177 [ref. 30347] [Brazil], and 'Drum' in manuscript description by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:34 [ref. 6983], Robins & Ray 1986:188 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:392 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:151 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:147 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:410 [ref. 23827], Murdy et al. 1997:192 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:365 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:409 [ref. 25838], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:114 [ref. 25942], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:444 [ref. 26158], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808] as chromis, Chao 2003:1636 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:442 [ref. 28815], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada) south to Florida (U.S.A.), including northern and western Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

crouvina, Johnius Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:11, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio Crixas, and affluent of Rio Araguay, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7503 (1). MNHN 7503 regarded as holotype in Paris records and in Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983], but original description lists several specimens, so there are potential syntypes. •Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) -- (Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983] as courvina, Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Casatti 2005:42 [ref. 28401], Mirande & Koerber 2015:55 [ref. 35117], Parenti 2020:44 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cuja, Bola Hamilton [F.] 1822:81, 369, Pl. 12 (fig. 27) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River estuaries, India. No types known. Hamilton's original illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 50 [ref. 37532]. •Valid as Johnius cujus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:330 [ref. 24860]). •Valid as Macrospinosa cuja (Hamilton 1822) -- (Trewavas 1977:290 [ref. 4459], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:860 [ref. 20764], Talwar 1995:18 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:84 [ref. 22156], Biju et al. 1999:166 [ref. 25264], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:356 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:28 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Macrospinosa cuja (Hamilton 1822). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: estuaries of eastern India. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cupreus, Labrus Shaw [G.] 1803:527 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian Seas. Unneeded new name for Johnius aneus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Pennahia aneus (Bloch 1793) -- (Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439] as anea). Current status: Synonym of Pennahia aneus (Bloch 1793). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Otolithes Trewavas [E.] 1974:Unnumbered [v. 3; ref. 21555] Malabar, India. Syntypes: BMNH 1898.11.18.29 (1) "paratype"; MNHN 0000-7617 (1) "holotype" and MNHN 1987-0159 [ex MNHN 0000-7617] (1) "paratype". Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:14 [ref. 6382]. This was proposed as a new name for Otolithus ruber (not Bloch & Schneider 1801) Cuvier 1830, with 2 literature sources provided; Trewavas' name was not technically a replacement name. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Trewavas 1977:351, Pl. 2 [ref. 4459]; type specimens considered syntypes with no holotype established in the 1974 description, but a holotype and two paratypes are listed in Trewavas 1977. •Valid as Otolithes cuvieri Trewavas 1974 -- (Trewavas 1977:349 [ref. 4459], Randall 1995:231 [ref. 22896], Talwar 1995:61 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:88 [ref. 22156], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:278 [ref. 34104], Lo et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35288], Eagderi et al. 2019:102 [ref. 37020], Lin et al. 2019:16 [ref. 36846], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:493 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Otolithes cuvieri Trewavas 1974. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and Oman east to Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

cyanopterus, Cheilodipterus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:540, 546, Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Cayenne, French Guiana. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:115 [ref. 12478], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:21 [ref. 6382]. Based on a Plumier drawing. •Questionably a synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Trewavas 1973:399 [ref. 7201], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Uncertain as Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

decimvitta, Perca Larrañaga [D. A.] in Devincenzi 1925:305 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Serie 2) v. 1 (pt. 6); ref. 20322] Corresponds to Perca 21-radiata in Larrañaga 1923:384 [ref. 22561]. Appeared as P. argentea vel 10-vittata, quoted from Larrañaga manuscript; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) [Otolithus striatus Cuvier 1829]. Not treated as valid when proposed, therefore not available (from Uruguay). Sciaenidae.

deliciosa, Corvina Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:8 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Market at Lima, Peru. Syntypes: (several) ZMB 894 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:50 [ref. 25858]. •Valid as Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi 1846) -- (Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:323 [ref. 24555], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:404 [ref. 34894]). •Valid as Callaus deliciosa (Tschudi 1846) -- (Parenti 2020:10 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Callaus deliciosa (Tschudi 1846). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Peru and Chile. Habitat: marine.

dentex, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:139, Pl. 109 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Dominican Republic. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0144. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:8 [ref. 6382] as holotype. Based on one specimen and literature records. •Valid as Odontoscion dentex (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983], Robins & Ray 1986:185 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:408 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:289 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Chao 2003:1632 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:436 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:57 [ref. 33341], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:34 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Odontoscion dentex (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.), Cuba, Dominican Republic; Brazil. Habitat: marine.

depressus, Lonchurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:102 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname. Syntypes: ZMB 926 (2). •Synonym of Lonchurus lanceolatus (Bloch 1788) -- (Chao 1978:37 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:27 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Lonchurus lanceolatus (Bloch 1788). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diacanthus, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:195, 240 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5539 (1, dry half skin). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:35 [ref. 21549], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:12, 13 [ref. 6382]. Apparently diacanthus is a noun and does not decline; even in a feminine genus the spelling remains diacanthus. •Valid as Nibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:73 [ref. 26476] as diacantha, Choi et al. 2003:347, 621 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:364 [ref. 4459], Allen & Swainston 1988:92 [ref. 25477], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:864 [ref. 20764], Randall 1995:232 [ref. 22896], Talwar 1995:69 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:376 [ref. 27969], Sasaki 1996:89 [ref. 22156], Allen 1997:144 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:191 [ref. 23922], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:868 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Sasaki 2001:3171 [ref. 26108] as diacantha, Nakabo 2002:868 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377] as diacantha, Bray et al. 2006:1263 [ref. 29091], Motomura 2009:172 [ref. 30446], Larson et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:280 [ref. 34104], Lo et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35288] as a species complex, Ali et al. 2018:333 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:103 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439] as diacantha, Psomadakis et al. 2020:496 [ref. 37272] as diacantha). Current status: Valid as Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to South China Sea, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

dianema, Lonchurus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:413, 414 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Suriname. New name for Lonchurus barbatus Bloch 1788. •Synonym of Lonchurus lanceolatus (Bloch 1788) -- (Parenti 2020:27 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Lonchurus lanceolatus (Bloch 1788). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

discolor, Sciaena Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:319 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Suriname or Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

distincta, Sciaena Tanaka [S.] 1916:26 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 28 (no. 327); ref. 15074] Nagasaki fish market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 6811. •Questionably a synonym of Larimichthys crocea (Richardson 1846) -- (Trewavas 1977:392 [ref. 4459]). •Valid as Johnius distincta (Tanaka 1916) -- (Sasaki & Amaoka 1989 [ref. 12749]). •Valid as Johnius distinctus (Tanaka 1916) -- (Sasaki 1999:276 [ref. 24049], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:867 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:867 [ref. 26193], Lo et al. 2017:15 [ref. 35288], Chao et al. 2019:266 [ref. 36884], Parenti 2020:21 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius distinctus (Tanaka 1916). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Southern China and Taiwan to Japan. Habitat: marine.

dolorosus, Otolithus Seale [A.] 1910:280, Pl. 3 [The Philippine Journal of Science, Section D v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 14808] Sandakan, Sabah state, Borneo Island, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BSMP 2485. •Synonym of Pterotolithus lateoides (Bleeker 1849) -- (Trewavas 1977:357 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:66 [ref. 25194], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:48 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pterotolithus lateoides (Bleeker 1849). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dorianus, Sphenanthias Borodin [N. A.] 1932:80, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 3); ref. 16361] Southern entrance to Dorian Strait, Equator, Indonesia, depth 14 fathoms. Holotype: VMM 1184. Paratypes: MCZ 33057 [ex VMM 1184] (1). •Doubtful species, placement uncertain -- (Trewavas 1977:451 [ref. 4459]). •Incertae sedis in Sciaenidae -- (Parenti 2020:58 [ref. 37439]). Sciaenidae.

dorsalis, Corvina Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:434 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Quillimane [= Quelimane], Mozambique, 18°S. Syntypes: ZMB 896 (2). Type information: Trewavas 1977:434 [ref. 4459]. Also described as new in Peters 1855:242 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:437 [ref. 4459], Heemstra 1986:618 [ref. 5660], Sasaki 1996:92 [ref. 22156] but possibly a valid species). •Synonym of Johnieops dussumieri (Cuvier 1830) -- (Talwar 1995:117 [ref. 25194]). •Valid as Johnius dorsalis (Peters 1855) -- (Sasaki 1997:312 [ref. 23224], Sasaki 1999:276 [ref. 24049], Fricke et al. 2018:223 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2020:21 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius dorsalis (Peters 1855). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa and East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dorsalis, Umbrina Gill [T. N.] 1862:257 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Baja California, Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 3696. Paralectotypes: USNM 316654 [ex USNM 3696] (7). Lectotype selected by Walker & Radford 1992:580 [ref. 20257]. •Valid as Umbrina dorsalis Gill 1862 -- (Walker & Radford 1992:580 [ref. 20257], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1514 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:268 [ref. 24545], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina dorsalis Gill 1862. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

drummondii, Otolithus Richardson [J.] 1836:70, footnote [Fauna Boreali-Americana Part 3; ref. 3731] New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dubia, Sciaena Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:16 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] No locality. Holotype (unique): USNM 83309. •Synonym of Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Chao 1978:29 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:12 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar 1919). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

dumerilii, Polycirrhus Bocourt [F.] 1869:23 [Bulletin des Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 5; ref. 486] Union, El Salvador. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-1001. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:17 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Paralonchurus dumerilii (Bocourt 1869) -- (Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:166 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:126 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1490 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:309 [ref. 24555], Matamoros et al. 2009:19 [ref. 31241], McMahan et al. 2013:451 [ref. 32422], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:404 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:40 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Paralonchurus dumerilii (Bocourt 1869). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador south to northern Chile. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dussumieri, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:119 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Malabar, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7614 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:8 [ref. 6382]. Trewavas 1977:430 [ref. 4459] regards MNHN 7614 as the holotype. •Valid as Johnieops dussumieri (Cuvier 1830) -- (Talwar 1995:117 [ref. 25194]). •Valid as Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:437 [ref. 4459], Kyushin et al. 1982:135 [ref. 19754], Daget & Trewavas 1986:334 [ref. 6211], Heemstra 1986:618 [ref. 5660], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:228 [ref. 24016], Sasaki 1996:91 [ref. 22156], Sasaki 1999:274 [ref. 24049], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:276 [ref. 34104], Lo et al. 2017:15 [ref. 35288], Ali et al. 2018:332 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:21 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:491 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to Taiwan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dussumieri, Umbrina Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:481 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Coromandel, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9623. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:19 [ref. 6382]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Johnius by Corvina dussumieri Cuvier 1830. •Wrongly as valid as Johnius dussumieri (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Talwar 1995:94 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:368 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:71 [ref. 26476], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:38 [ref. 27712], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:426 [ref. 4459], Heemstra 1986:618 [ref. 5660], Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156], Sasaki 2001:3139 [ref. 26108], Fricke et al. 2018:223 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2020:19 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker 1855). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dux, Sciaena Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:236, Fig. 54 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Gambia River, western Africa. No types known. •Possible synonym of Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Trewavas 1973:398 [ref. 7201], Daget & Trewavas 1986:336 [ref. 6211], Chao & Trewavas 1990:820 [ref. 18934]). •Possible synonym of Pseudotolithus typus Bleeker 1863 -- (Trewavas 1973:398 [ref. 7201], Chao & Trewavas 1990:821 [ref. 18934]). •Synonym of Pseudotolithus typus Bleeker 1863 -- (Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934], Parenti 2020:48 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotolithus typus Bleeker 1863. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ectenes, Micropogon Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:355 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28295 (1), 28336 (1), 28361 (1), 29538 (1, missing in 1980). •Synonym of Micropogonias altipinnis (Günther 1864) -- (Sánchez-Pinedo et al. 2017:136 [ref. 35709]). •Valid as Micropogonias ectenes (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:163 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1479 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:369 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Micropogonias ectenes (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) endemic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

edentula, Perca Bosc [L. A. G.] in Lacepède 1802:439 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Not available, name in a footnote in the account of Leiostomus xanthurus; from Carolinas, U.S.A. Sciaenidae.

edwardi, Sciaena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:53 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] (West) Indian Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Equetus lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chao 1978:28 [ref. 6983]). •Synonym of Eques lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2020:18 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Eques lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

effulgens, Larimus Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1421 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] (Pacific) Panama. Lectotype: ?USNM. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1903.5.15.123-126 [from Jordan] (4), CAS-SU 5520 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291] with SU 5520 as holotype. Author is C. H. Gilbert. Also appeared as Gilbert in Gilbert & Starks 1904:123, Pl. 16 (fig. 33) [ref. 1639], with lectotype established by use of "type specimen" in caption to Fig. 33. •Valid as Larimus effulgens Gilbert 1898 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:162 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:130 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1469 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:267 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:325 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:379 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Larimus effulgens Gilbert 1898. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Paralonchurus Boeseman [M.] 1948:363 [3], Figs. 1a-b [Proceedings of the Section of Sciences, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen v. 51 (no. 3) (for 28 Feb. 1948); ref. 13042] Bokelbere Creek, Coronie sea coast, Suriname. Holotype (unique): RMNH 390. •Valid as Lonchurus elegans (Boeseman 1948) -- (Chao 2003:1620 [ref. 27097]). •Valid as Paralonchurus elegans Boeseman 1948 -- (Chao 1978:38 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:375 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:409 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:294 [ref. 24474], Casatti & Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2020:40 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Paralonchurus elegans Boeseman 1948. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Suriname. Habitat: brackish, marine.

elongata, Sciaena Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:236, Fig. 43 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Porta Praya, St. Jago Island, Madeira. Holotype (unique): not preserved. •Valid as Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Daget & Trewavas 1986:335 [ref. 6211], Chao & Trewavas 1990:817 [ref. 18934], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:702 [ref. 21590], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:435 [ref. 30078], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2643 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich 1825). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

elongata, Umbrina Günther [A.] 1864:148 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Chiapam, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.243. •Valid as Menticirrhus elongatus (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:162 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:126 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1472 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:307 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:373 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Menticirrhus elongatus (Günther 1864). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to southern Peru. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Johnius Lal Mohan [R. S.] 1976:19, Fig. 1 [Matsya No. 1; ref. 7436] Veraval, India, Arabian Sea. Holotype: FMRI 187. Paratypes: FMRI 188 (7). •Valid as Johnius elongatus Lal Mohan 1976 -- (Trewavas 1977:409 [ref. 4459], Sasaki 1996:92 [ref. 22156], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:249 [ref. 24754], Talwar 1995:101 [ref. 25194], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Iwatsuki et al. 2012:154 [ef. 31962], Psomadakis et al. 2015:276 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:332 [ref. 36183], Parenti 2020:21 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius elongatus Lal Mohan 1976. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea, west coast of India and Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

ensifera, Sciaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:313 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Panama (Pacific); Punta Arenas, Costa Rica. Syntypes: USNM 29316 (1), 29442 (1), 29464 (1), 29506 (1), 29526 (1). •Valid as Bairdiella ensifera (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:158 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:132 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1448 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:265 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:324 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:385 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:404 [ref. 34894] as Bardiella, González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Marceniuk et al. 2019:16 [ref. 36684], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Bairdiella ensifera (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Mexico south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ephelis, Stellifer Chirichigno F. [N.] 1974:252, 350, Fig. 470 [Informes, Especiales, Instituto del Mar del Perú. Callao No. 44; ref. 22760] Golfo de Fonesco and Caleta Cruz, Peru. Chirichigno took the name from a manuscript by Wintersteen, but apparently Chirchigno was responsible for the description and figure, so she is regarded as author; types would be specimens seen by her. Species was redescribed (with figure) by Chao 2001:75 [ref. 26029]. •Valid as Stellifer ephelis Chirichigno F. 1974 -- (Bussing & López 1994:124 [ref. 23101], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:313 [ref. 24555], Chao 2001:75 [ref. 26029], Parenti 2020:51 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer ephelis Chirichigno F. 1974. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Honduras south to northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

epipercus, Rhinoscion Bleeker [P.] 1863:64, Pl. 14 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Ashantee, Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 687. •Valid as Pseudotolithus epipercus (Bleeker 1863) -- (Chao & Trewavas 1990:818 [ref. 18934], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:437 [ref. 30078], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2645 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pseudotolithus epipercus (Bleeker 1863). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Guinea-Bissau south to southern Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ericymba, Sciaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:311 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Bay of Panama, (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: USNM 29338 (1, lost), 29433 (1, lost), 29466 (1), 29477 (1, lost), 29479 (1, lost), 29494 (1). •Valid as Stellifer ericymba (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:168 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:124 [ref. 23101] as erycimba, Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1502 [ref. 22830], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520] as erycimba, Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:313 [ref. 24555], Chao 2001:79 [ref. 26029], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:51 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer ericymba (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central Mexico south to northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

eurymesops, Corvula Heller [E.] & Snodgrass [R. E.] 1903:195 [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 5; ref. 2089] Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: CAS-SU 6361. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8553 [not 3553] (3) [= 12305-07 as originally given]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:77-78 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Odontoscion eurymesops (Heller & Snodgrass 1903) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:163 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1482 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:419 [ref. 24023], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Parenti 2020:34 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Odontoscion eurymesops (Heller & Snodgrass 1903). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

exiguus, Bodianus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:419 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:432 [ref. 22186], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fasciatum, Cheilotrema Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:13, Pl. 1 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Between Callao and Huacho, Peru. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1022 or ZMB 1023. Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:51 [ref. 25858]. •Valid as Sciaena fasciata (Tschudi 1846) -- (Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:423 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:320 [ref. 24555]). •Valid as Cheilotrema fasciatum Tschudi 1846 -- (Parenti 2020:10 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cheilotrema fasciatum Tschudi 1846. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Peru. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Genyanemus Steindachner [F.] 1875:473 [31] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (1. Abth.); ref. 4222] Panama Bay. Syntypes: (several) NMW 137 (2), 77762 (1). On p. 31 of separate. •Synonym of Paralonchurus dumerilii (Bocourt 1869) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1490 [ref. 22830] with original genus as Genyonemus, Parenti 2020:40 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Paralonchurus dumerilii (Bocourt 1869). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Johnius Chu [Y.-T.], Lo [Y.-L.] & Wu [H.-L.] 1963:23 [English p. 88], Figs. 11, 44, 70 [Publications Shanghai Fisheries Institute; ref. 833] Kwanghai, Kwangtung Province, China. Holotype: SFC 56-20. Paratypes: SFC 56-19 (1), 56-74 (1). •Valid as Johnius fasciatus Chu, Lo & Wu 1963 -- (Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:378 [ref. 23876]). •Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:414 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:104 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 2001:3141 [ref. 26108], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Larimus Holbrook [J. E.] 1855 [Ichthyology of South Carolina; ref. 2184] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Larimus fasciatus Holbrook 1855 -- (Chao 1978:31 [ref. 6983], Robins & Ray 1986:186 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:145 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:205 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:379 [ref. 24550], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2003:1621 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:429 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Parenti 2020:26 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Larimus fasciatus Holbrook 1855. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts south to northern Florida (U.S.A.); Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Micropogon de Buen [F.] 1961:20 [Montemar No. 1; ref. 698] Arica, Chile. Holotype (unique): EMBC 10374. Based on literature sources and specimens. •Valid as Micropogonias fasciatus (de Buen 1961) -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Micropogon fasciatus de Buen 1961 -- (Pequeño & Sáez 2000:32 [ref. 24590]). •Synonym of Paralonchurus peruanus (Steindachner 1875) -- (Parenti 2020:40 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Paralonchurus peruanus (Steindachner 1875). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish.

fasciatus, Pogonias Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Bosc d'Antic) 1801:137, 138 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Locality not stated [Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7461. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:17 [ref. 6382]. Description based on the holotype which was donated via the Netherlands to MNHN, and on the 'Chætodon percatus; spinis dorsalibus novem, analibus duo; corpore elongato, fasciato; mento barbato' in a manuscript by Bosc (Louis-Augustin Bosc d'Antic, 1759-1828, French diplomat and naturalist); see Sonnini 1803:156 [ref. 30473]. Figured on Pl. 16 (fig. 2) of Lacepède 1800 [ref. 2709], but with vernacular name. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:155, 156 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:34 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fauvelii, Corvina Sauvage [H.-E.] 1881:105 [5] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 5; ref. 14289] Swatow, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2920. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:8 [ref. 6382]. On p. 5 of separate. •Synonym of Nibea albiflora (Richardson 1846) -- (Trewavas 1977:383 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:32 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Nibea albiflora (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

fauvelii, Otolithus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1881:922 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1880 [v. 45]; ref. 3455] Ningpo, China. Syntypes or holotype: ZMB 11155 (1). •Synonym of Argyrosomus miiuy (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:331 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Miichthys miiuy (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Parenti 2020:31 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Miichthys miiuy (Basilewsky 1855). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

flavolabiata, Nibea Lin [S.-Y.] 1935:14, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Chekiang Provincial Fisheries Experiment Station, Tinghai, Chekiang, China v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 17539] Chusan, China, East China Sea. Holotype (unique): Chekiang Fisheries Exp. Station, mounted specimen. •Synonym of Bahaba taipingensis (Herre 1932) -- (Trewavas 1977:285 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:8 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bahaba taipingensis (Herre 1932). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

flexilinea, Sciaena Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:320 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Suriname. •Questionable synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) -- (Parenti 2020:44 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Uncertain as Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fluminis, Sonorolux Trewavas [E.] 1977:390, Fig. 32 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 33 (pt 4); ref. 4459] Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype: BMNH 1895.2.28.47. Paratypes: BMNH 1905.11.16.9 (1). •Valid as Sonorolux fluminis Trewavas 1977 -- (Kottelat & Lim 1995:245 [ref. 23210], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3174 [ref. 26108], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:50 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Sonorolux fluminis Trewavas 1977. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Borneo. Habitat: brackish.

focaliger, Menticirrhus Ginsburg [I.] 1952:97, Fig. 8 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 1805] St. Joseph Bay, near its entrance, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 144161. Paratypes: USNM 144162-63 (19, 5); FMNH 50102 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:56 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Menticirrhus saxatilis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:31 [ref. 6983], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:373 [ref. 24550], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus saxatilis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fourcroi, Perca Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:398, 424 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality [probably Suriname]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7539. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:116 [ref. 12478], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:17 [ref. 6382]. Spelled furcroae in Cuvier 1830:111 [ref. 999] and furcraea in Steindachner 1863:163 [ref. 4208]. •Valid as Pachypops fourcroi (Lacepède 1802) -- (Keith et al. 2000:134 [ref. 24547], Casatti 2002:4 [ref. 25936], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808] as furcraeus, Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:599 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:103 [ref. 35633], Parenti 2020:37 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachypops fourcroi (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins and rivers of the Guianas: Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

fragilis, Collichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1905:522, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 29 (no. 1433); ref. 10646] Shanghai, China. Holotype (unique): USNM 52080. •Synonym of Collichthys lucidus (Richardson 1844) -- (Trewavas 1977:400 [ref. 4459], Choi et al. 2003:619 [ref. 26218], Parenti 2020:11 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Collichthys lucidus (Richardson 1844). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

francisci, Lepipterus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:152, Pl. 113 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Rio São Francisco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5600 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:13 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Pachyurus francisci (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983], Soares & Casatti 2000:500 [ref. 24955], Casatti 2001:139 [ref. 25918], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachyurus francisci (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: São Francisco River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

francisci, Plagioscion Steindachner [F.] 1917:669, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 126 (Abt. 1) (no. 8); ref. 15258] Barra, at confluence of Rio Grande and Rio São Francisco, Brazil. Syntypes: (3) NMW 57217 (1). Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061] have NMW 57217 as holotype. •Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:55 [ref. 35117], Parenti 2020:44 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fuerthii, Corvina (Homoprion) Steindachner [F.] 1875:54 [26], Pl. 3 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] Panama Bay, (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW 78575 (2). On p. 26 of separate. Originally spelled fürthii; correct spelling is fuerthii. •Valid as Stellifer fuerthii (Steindachner 1875) (sometimes dated to 1876) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:168 [ref. 22193] as fuerthi, Bussing & López S. 1994:124 [ref. 23101] as furthii, Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1503 [ref. 22830] as fürthii, Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:310 [ref. 24555] as fürtherii, Chao 2001:79 [ref. 26029] as furthii, González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:51 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer fuerthii (Steindachner 1875). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Honduras south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

fulgens, Corvina Vaillant [L. L.] & Bocourt [F.] 1883:164, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale Part 4; ref. 4498] La Union, El Salvador [eastern Pacific]. Syntypes: MNHN A-0975 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:9 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983]). •Synonym of Bairdiella armata Gill 1863 -- (Marceniuk et al. 2019:14 [ref. 36684], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bairdiella armata Gill 1863. Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

furnieri, Umbrina Desmarest [A. G.] 1823:182 [22], Pl. 2 (Fig. 3) of separate [Mémoires de la Société linnéenne de Paris v. 2; ref. 1120] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4968 (1), 0000-7577 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:19 [ref. 6382]. On p. 22 of separate, Fig. 2, unnumbered Pl. after p. 24. •Valid as Micropogon furnieri (Desmarest 1823) -- (Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:222 [ref. 14235]). •Valid as Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823) -- (Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:369 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:407 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:284 [ref. 24474], Jardim & Santos 1994 [ref. 22161], Andreata & Séret 1996:587 [ref. 16204], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:112 [ref. 25942], Marín 2000:74 [ref. 26252], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Costa & Araújo 2002:217 [ref. 26369], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Chao 2003:1629 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Dennis et al. 2004:77 [ref. 31601], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:434 [ref. 28815], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Angulo et al. 2013:1003 [ref. 33194], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:57 [ref. 33341], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Melo et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34701], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Costa Rica and Antilles south to Argentina; eastern Pacific: off Chile. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fusca, Megalonibea Chu [Y.-T.], Lo [Y.-L.] & Wu [H.-L.] 1963:35 [English p. 90], Figs. 19, 48, 74 [Publications Shanghai Fisheries Institute; ref. 833] Shanghai fish market, China. Holotype (unique): SFC [? now at Amoy]. One specimen but localities as coast of Kiangsu and Chekiang provinces. •Valid as Megalonibea fusca Chu, Lo & Wu 1963 -- (Trewavas 1977:360 [ref. 4459], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:868 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:868 [ref. 26193]). •Tentatively referred to Protonibea Trewavas 1971 -- (Lo et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35288], •Tentatively considered a synonym of Protonibea Trewavas 1971 -- (Lo et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35288]).). Current status: Valid as Megalonibea fusca Chu, Lo & Wu 1963. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: East China Sea (China and Japan). Habitat: marine.

fusca, Sciaena Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:409 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:34 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fusca, Umbrina Dardignac [J.] in Furnestin, Dardogmac, Vincent, Coupé & Boutière 1958:441, Fig. 46 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 1517] Agadir and Casablanca, Morocco, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: (4) ISTPM (apparently lost). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:26 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843 -- (Trewavas 1973:401 [ref. 7201], Trewavas 1977:281 [ref. 4459], Chao in Whitehead et al. 1986:873 [ref. 13676], Chao & Trewavas 1990:825 [ref. 18934], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2653 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2020:56 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fuscolineata, Umbrina von Bonde [C.] 1923:15, Pl. 4 [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 180, depth 28 fathoms. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:426 [ref. 4459], Heemstra 1986:618 [ref. 5660], Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156]). •Valid as Umbrina fuscolineata von Bonde 1923 -- (Sasaki 1997:311 [ref. 23224]). •Wrongly considered a synonym of Johnius dussumieri (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Talwar 1995:94 [ref. 25194]). •Valid as Johnius fuscolineatus (von Bonde 1923) -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:273 [ref. 28072], Iwatsuki et al. 2012:154 [ef. 31962], Fricke et al. 2018:224 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2020:22 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius fuscolineatus (von Bonde 1923). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and Mozambique east to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

fuscovittatus, Eques Kendall [W. C.] & Radcliffe [L.] 1912:125, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 35 (no. 3); ref. 14961] Acapulco, Pacific coast of Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 65494. •Valid as Pareques fuscovittatus (Kendall & Radcliffe 1912) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:167 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1495 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Parenti 2020:41 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pareques fuscovittatus (Kendall & Radcliffe 1912). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California south to northern Jalisco (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

fusiformis, Cynoscion Borodin [N. A.] 1934:115, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 4); ref. 529] Florida Keys, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): VMM 1267 (now at AMNH). Chao 2002:8 stated: "A photo of the holotype resembles the Stizostedion species (Percidae)." •Not a sciaenid -- (Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250] as fusiformes dated 1933). •Incertae sedis -- (Parenti 2020:58 [ref. 37439]). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

gabrielensis, Pachyurus Casatti [L.] 2001:163, Fig. 8B [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 25918] Cachoeira São Gabriel, rio Negro, Estado do Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 34093. Paratypes: MZUSP 49721 (8, 1 d&c). •Valid as Pachyurus gabrielensis Casatti 2001 -- (Casatti & Chao 2002:5 [ref. 26002], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:103 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35773], Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachyurus gabrielensis Casatti 2001. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and Orinoco River basins (Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

galapagorum, Umbrina Steindachner [F.] 1878:396 [20] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 78 (1. Abth.); ref. 4226] James Island, Galápagos Islands. Lectotype: MCZ 8601. Paralectotypes: NMW 78601 (2), 78632 (1), 84792-93 (1, 1), 84796-97 (2, 2), 85690 (1), 86244 (2); USNM 120437 [ex MCZ 8601] (1), 153626 [ex MCZ 8597] (1). On p. 20 of separate. Lectotype selected by Walker & Radford 1992:581 [ref. 20257]. •Valid as Umbrina galapagorum Steindachner 1878 -- (Walker & Radford 1992:581 [ref. 20257], Allen & Robertson 1994:169 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1515 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:422 [ref. 24023], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Parenti 2020:56 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina galapagorum Steindachner 1878. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

gangeticus, Johnius Talwar [P. K.] in Talwar & Jhingran 1991:859, Fig. 261 [Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries v. 1-2; ref. 20764] Ganga River at Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Holotype: ZSI FF 2605. Paratypes: ZSI FF 2606 (26). Appeared as above as "in press" in Fauna of India, Pisces, but dates to above reference in 1991. Also appeared as a new in Talwar 1995:110, Fig. 34 [ref. 25194] (Fauna of India). •Valid as Johnius gangeticus Talwar 1991 -- (Talwar 1995:110 [ref. 25194], Parenti 2020:22 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius gangeticus Talwar 1991. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South Asia: Ganges River (India). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

geniae, Atrobucca Ben-Tuvia [A.] & Trewavas [E.] 1987:17, Figs. 1-2 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 34 (for 1986/87); ref. 9119] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 750 meters. Holotype: HUJ 11398. Paratypes: BMNH 1985.3.19.1 (1), HUJ 10604 (1). Type catalog: Golani 2006:28 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Atrobucca geniae Ben-Tuvia & Trewavas 1987 -- (Sasaki & Kailola 1988:275 [ref. 12553], Baranes & Golani 1993:309 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:44 [ref. 25356], Sasaki 1996:87 [ref. 22156], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[23] 261 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:102 [ref. 36273], Parenti 2020:7 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atrobucca geniae Ben-Tuvia & Trewavas 1987. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

gigas, Mugil Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:16 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Mitchill 1815:412, Pl. 5 (fig. 10) [ref. 13292] as Sciaena gigas. •Synonym of Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:34 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gilberti, Sciaena Abbott [J. F.] 1899:355 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 51; ref. 1] Callao, Peru. Holotype: CAS-SU 11978 [not 11918 as published]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6199 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Cilus gilberti (Abbott 1899) -- (Oyarzún et al. 1985 [ref. 21630], Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:423 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:323 [ref. 24555], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Parenti 2020:11 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cilus gilberti (Abbott 1899). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Peru south to Chile, including Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Sciaena Starks [E. C.] 1906:794, Pl. 66 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1468); ref. 10101] Callao, Peru. Holotype: USNM 53464. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9589 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78-79 [ref. 12291]. •Permanently invalid, preoccupied by Sciaena gilberti Abbott 1899, replaced by and objective synonym of Sciaena starksi Evermann & Radcliffe 1917. •Synonym of Robaloscion wieneri (Sauvage 1883) -- (Béarez & Schwarzhans 2013:274 [ref. 33019], Parenti 2020:48 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Robaloscion wieneri (Sauvage 1883). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

gillii, Corvina Steindachner [F.] 1867:335 [29] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 56 (1. Abth.); ref. 14188] Rio de la Plata, Argentina. Holotype (unique): NMW. On p. 29 of separate. •Questionably a synonym of Ophioscion adustus (Agassiz 1831) -- (Chao 1978:40 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:34 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Uncertain as Ophioscion adustus (Agassiz 1831). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

glaucus, Sciaena Day [F.] 1876:192, Pl. 46, fig. 2 [The fishes of India Part 2; ref. 1081] India. Syntypes or Day specimens: AMS B.8236 (1, syntype), B.8237 (1, syntype); ZMB 9160 (1); ZSI 984-985 (2), 3025 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:297 [ref. 25110]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Doubtful species, placement uncertain -- (Trewavas 1977:450 [ref. 4459]). •Valid as Johnius glaucus (Day 1876) -- (Sasaki & Kailola 1991:122 [ref. 19082], Talwar 1995:108 [ref. 25194], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:249 [ref. 24754]). •Synonym of Johnius carouna (Cuvier 1830) -- (Parenti 2020:21 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius carouna (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

goeldi, Bairdiella Marceniuk [A. P.], Molina [E. G.], Caires [R. A.], Rotundo [M. M.], Wosiacki [W. B.] & Oliveira [C.] 2019:6, Fig. 4a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 1): e180024; ref. 36684] Furo da Ostra, Bragança, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MPEG 33641. Paratypes: AZUSC, LBP, MPEG. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Bairdiella goeldi Marceniuk, Molina, Caires, Rotundo, Wosiacki & Oliveira 2019 -- (Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Bairdiella goeldi Marceniuk, Molina, Caires, Rotundo, Wosiacki & Oliveira 2019. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Pará south to Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: brackish, marine.

goldmanni, Corvina Bleeker [P.] 1855:371 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 16937] Soengi Puan, [Soengi-Rass] Batjan, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5977. Type information: Trewavas 1977:433 [ref. 4459] as goldmani. Name unjustifiably emended to goldmani by Bleeker 1859:35 [ref. 371] even though the correct name of the collector was Carel Frederik Goldman (1800-1862). •Valid as Johnius goldmani (Bleeker 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:440 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Sasaki 1999:275 [ref. 24049], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

goma, Sciaena Tanaka [S.] 1915:615 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 27; ref. 15023] Nagasaki fish market, Japan. Syntypes: ZUMT 6392 (1). Species originally published in Japanese in above reference, later illustrated and described in more detail in English and Japanese in Tanaka 1915:392, Pl. 107 (fig. 327) [ref. 14937]. •Synonym of Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:364 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:69 [ref. 25194], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439] as diacantha). Current status: Synonym of Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gomezi, Ophioscion Cervigón [F.] 2011:96, Fig. 1 [Los peces marinos de Venezuela v. 6; ref. 35839] La Restinga, isla de Margarita, Venezuela. Holotype: MMM 250. Paratypes: MMM 251 (16). •Valid as Ophioscion gomezi Cervigón 2011 -- (Parenti 2020:34 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Ophioscion gomezi Cervigón 2011. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southern Caribbean Sea (Venezuela). Habitat: marine.

goodei, Paralonchurus Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1480 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] Panama (Pacific). Lectotype: CAS-SU 5517. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1903.5.15.100 (1), CAS-SU 6814 (4), USNM 50350 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291]. Author is C. H. Gilbert. Appeared first without distinguishing features in Jordan & Evermann 1896:401 [ref. 2442]. Also appeared as Polyclemus goodei in Gilbert in Gilbert & Starks 1904:135, Pl. 20 (figs. 40-40a) [ref. 1639]; with lectotype if needed established by use of "type specimen" in caption to Fig. 40. •Valid as Paralonchurus goodei Gilbert 1898 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:166 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:126 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1491 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:309 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:386 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:404 [ref. 34894], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:40 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Paralonchurus goodei Gilbert 1898. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gracilicirrhus, Umbrina Metzelaar [J.] 1919:72, Fig. 24 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Coast of Venezuela. Holotype (unique): ZMA 113103. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:91 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Chao 1978:29 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:365 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:399 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:246 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:586 [ref. 16204], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Chao 2003:1605 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Costa et al. 2015:1061 [ref. 37495], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:12 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar 1919). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Nicaragua south to southern Brazil, including southern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Umbrina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:189 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN 0044 (dry). Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-9622 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:19 [ref. 6382]. Lectotype selected by Chao 1978:30 [ref. 6983]. •Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chao 1978:30 [ref. 6983], •Tentatively considered a synonym of Protonibea Trewavas 1971 -- (Lo et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35288]).). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

grisea, Sciaena Lesueur [C. A.] 1822:254 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2; ref. 17516] Ohio River, U.S.A. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:25 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819 -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:599 [ref. 27061], Parenti 2020:3 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

griseus, Stellifer Cervigón [F.] 1966:1, Figs. 1-2 [Novedades Cientificas, Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Serie Zoológica No. 34; ref. 9021] Morro de Puerto Santo, Estado Sucre, Venezuela, depth 6 meters. Holotype: MOBR-EDIMAR-P-1875. Paratypes: MOBR-EDIMAR -P- 347 (3), 349 (7), 1876 (4); USNM 200782 (2). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1999:111 [ref. 33859]. •Valid as Stellifer griseus Cervigón 1966 -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:412 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:302 [ref. 24474], Chao 2003:1641 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:51 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer griseus Cervigón 1966. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Colombia, Venezuela and trinidad and Tobago (southern Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

grunniens, Aplodinotus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1819:419 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 88; ref. 3590] Ohio River, U.S.A. No types known. First appeared as name only in Rafinesque 1818:354 [ref. 3586]. •Valid as Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819 -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Lee et al. 1980:756 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:351 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:468 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:151 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:207 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:326 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:65 [ref. 22290], Boschung 1992:143 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:602 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:891 [ref. 21581], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Baxter & Stone 1995:258 [ref. 23374], Stauffer et al. 1995:343 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:244 [ref. 23394], Chereshnev 1996:606 [ref. 24659], Mettee et al. 1996:737 [ref. 25836], Scott & Crossman 1998:812 [ref. 24570], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:388 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:403 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:46 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:523 [ref. 25978], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:599 [ref. 27061], Bailey et al. 2004:207 [ref. 27882], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:402 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:603 [ref. 27995], Miller 2006:351 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2009:2 [ref. 30400], Page & Burr 2011:603 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:3 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819. Sciaenidae. Distribution: North America, Central America: Canada, U.S.A., eastern Mexico, and Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

grunniens, Corvina Jardine [W.] & Schomburgk [R. H.] in Schomburgk 1843:136, Pl. 2 [The natural history of fishes of Guiana.--Part II; ref. 3948] Commaca Island, Essequibo River, Guyana. No types known. •Valid as Pachyurus grunniens (Jardine & Schomburgk 1843) -- (Chao 1978:43 [ref. 6983]). •Valid as Petilipinnis grunniens (Jardine & Schomburgk 1843) -- (Casatti 2002:171 [ref. 26626] with author as Schomburgk but as Jardine on p. 179, Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061] with author as Jardine, Parenti 2020:43 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Petilipinnis grunniens (Jardine & Schomburgk 1843). Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon, Cuyuni and Essequibo river basins (Brazil, Guyana and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

grunniens, Mugil Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:15 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Mitchill 1815:405 [ref. 13292] as Labrus grunniens. •Synonym of Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:34 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grypota, Corvina Richardson [J.] 1846:225 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Type information: Whitehead 1970:213 [ref. 11606]. Based on a Reeves drawing and Haslar Museum specimen. •Questionably a synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:414, 448 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Johnius belangeri (Cuvier 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989] with question). •Valid as Johnius grypotus (Richardson 1846) -- (Sasaki 1990 [ref. 19079], Sasaki & Kailola 1991:122 [ref. 19082], Talwar 1995:104 [ref. 25194], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:867 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:867 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:347, 620 [ref. 26218], Zhao et al. 2017:143 [ref. 35617], Chao et al. 2019:268 [ref. 36884], Parenti 2020:22 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius grypotus (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

guatucupa, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:75, Pl. 104 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil and Montevideo, Uruguay. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7517 (2) Montevideo, MNHN "holotype" (1, lost) Brazil. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:15 [ref. 6382] with a holotype and paratypes. Appeared first in Cuvier 1829:173 [ref. 995] as a vernacular name. Unneeded new name for Otolithus striatus Cuvier 1829, but in prevailing usage. •Synonym of Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983]). •Valid as Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830 [not 1829]) -- (Figueiredo 1992:117 [ref. 21464], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:108 [ref. 25942], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808] as Cynoscyon, Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Suriname south to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

guineensis, Otolithus Osório [B.] 1909:102, Pl. (fig. 1) [Memorias do Museu Bocage, Lisboa fasc. 1; ref. 18937] Postugo, Bolama, Guinea-Bissau. Holotype (unique): MD (destroyed in 1978 fire). Originally as guinéensis. •Synonym of Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Daget & Trewavas 1986:335 [ref. 6211], Chao & Trewavas 1990:817 [ref. 18934], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich 1825). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gulosus, Larimus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:298, Fig. 64 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Tierra Island, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 77694. •Probably a synonym of Larimus pacificus Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1470 [ref. 22830]). •Valid as Larimus gulosus Hildebrand 1946 -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:328 [ref. 24555], Parenti 2020:26 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Larimus gulosus Hildebrand 1946. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Peru and Chile. Habitat: marine.

hardwickii, Sciaenoides Blyth [E.] 1860:139 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 477] Mouth of Gangetic rivers. ?ZSI 884. •Synonym of Pama pama (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar 1995:28 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Sciaenoides pama (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Otolithoides pama (Hamilton 1822) -- (Trewavas 1977:302 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:37 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Otolithoides pama (Hamilton 1822). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

harroweri, Isopisthus Fowler [H. W.] 1916:402, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 68; ref. 15056] Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): ANSP 45236. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Isopisthus parvipinnis (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:37 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:18 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Isopisthus parvipinnis (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

heinii, Sciaena Steindachner [F.] 1902:317 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 39 (no. 24) (art. 76); ref. 14894] Quishn [Gischin], Yemen. Holotype (unique): NMW. Illustrated and described in detail in Steindachner 1903:141, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [ref. 15046]. Type status: Steindachner 1902, ref. 14894 does not mention a number of specimens, but the description only refers to a single specimen. Steindachner 1903, ref. 15046 explicitly lists a single specimen, 41.5 cm TL. •Doubtful species, placement uncertain -- (Trewavas 1977:450 [ref. 4459], also with a holotype). •Valid as Argyrosomus heinii (Steindachner 1902) -- (Randall 1995:229 [ref. 22896], Sasaki 1996:86 [ref. 22156], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:272 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:331 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:100 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:4 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Argyrosomus heinii (Steindachner 1902). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: southern Arabian coast to Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

heterolepis, Johnius Bleeker [P.] 1873:456 [1], Pl. 21 (upper figure) [Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles v. 8; ref. 17099] Suriname [probably in error]. Syntypes: RMNH 6042 (2). On p. 1 of separate. •Mention -- (Chao 1978:43 [ref. 6983]). •Valid as Johnius heterolepis Bleeker 1873 -- (Sasaki 1992:193 [ref. 15769] plus remarks on type locality, Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3145 [ref. 26108], Yoshida et al. 2013:156 [ref. 34464], Parenti 2020:22 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius heterolepis Bleeker 1873. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

heterolepis, Panna Trewavas [E.] 1977:308, Fig. 6 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 33 (pt 4); ref. 4459] Calcutta, India. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1889.2.1.3137. •Valid as Panna heterolepis Trewavas 1977 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:863 [ref. 20764], Sasaki 1995:31 [ref. 22678], Talwar 1995:34 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:85 [ref. 22156], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2020:494 [ref. 37272], Parenti 2020:39 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Panna heterolepis Trewavas 1977. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

hololepidota, Sciaena Smith [A.] 1842:no pagination, Pl. 15 [Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa v. 4; ref. 4035] Apparently not an original description but an identification of Labrus hololepidotus Lacepède 1801; specimen from Table Bay, South Africa. Sciaenidae.

hololepidotus, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:448, 518, Pl. 21 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Grand Océan équatorial [is Fort Dauphin at Tôlanaro, Toliara Province, southeastern Madagascar]. Neotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 41433. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:97 [ref. 19171], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:22 [ref. 6382]. Based on a drawing and description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist), from Madagascar (according to Cuvier). Neotype designated by Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:17 [ref. 22038]. •Valid as Argyrosomus hololepidotus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Heemstra 1986:616 [ref. 5660], Daget & Trewavas 1986:333 [ref. 6211], Chao & Trewavas 1990:813 [ref. 18934], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:704 [ref. 21590], Kuiter 1993:199 [ref. 23929], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:164 [ref. 25472], Gomon et al. 1994:602 [ref. 22532], Poll & Gosse 1995:117 [ref. 24781], Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:17 [ref. 22038], Randall 1995:229 [ref. 22896], Talwar 1995:43 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:86 [ref. 22156], Fricke 1999:304 [ref. 24106], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2638 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2018:223 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2020:4 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Argyrosomus hololepidotus (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes); records from other areas based on misidentifications. But range in ref. 34618 are Mauritania to South Africa, and in Indian Ocean to Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hooghliensis, Dendrophysa Sinha [N. K.] & Babu Rao [M.] 1969:77, Figs. 1-4 [Copeia 1969 (no. 1); ref. 7847] Hooghly River Estuary, West Bengal, India. Holotype: ZSI F5843/2. Paratypes: BMNH 1967.7.31.12-15 (4); USNM 203256 (2); ZSI F5844/2 (2). See Das 2003:375 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Dendrophysa albida (Cuvier 1830) -- (Sasaki 1996:89 [ref. 22156]). •Synonym of Daysciaena albida (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1971:454 [ref. 6577], Trewavas 1977:327 [ref. 4459], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:853 [ref. 20764] as hoogliensis, Talwar 1995:79 [ref. 25194] as hoogliensis, Parenti 2020:17 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Daysciaena albida (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

humeralis, Johnius Cuvier [G.] 1829:173 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] New York, U.S.A. Available from footnote as, "J. humeralis, Nob., ou Labrus obliquus, Mitchill, qui paraît aussi le Perca undulata, Lin." Regarded as an unneeded replacement name for Labrus obliquus. •Synonym of Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède 1802 -- (Chao 1978:29 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:26 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède 1802. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

humeralis, Leiostomus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:141, Pl. 110 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Philadelphia and New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7501 (1), 0000-7593 (1), 0000-7597 (1), 0000-9733 (1, dry); Philadelphia specimen lost; SMF 1437 [ex MNHN in 1830] (1) New York. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:12-13 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède 1802 -- (Smith 1986:433 [ref. 22186], Parenti 2020:26 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède 1802. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hypostoma, Corvina Bleeker [P.] 1854:499 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5965] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) 5976 (3 of 5). •Valid as Johnius hypostoma (Bleeker 1854) -- (Sasaki & Kailola 1991:122 [ref. 19082], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:260 [ref. 27511], Sasaki 2001:3146 [ref. 26108], Parenti 2020:22 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius hypostoma (Bleeker 1854). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

icistia, Sciaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:356 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28182 (1), 28228 (1), 28275 (1, lost), 28368 (1), 29566 (1), 29613 (1, lost), 29615 (1), 29775 (1), 29790 (1). •Valid as Bairdiella icistia (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:158 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1449 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:265 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:383 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:404 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Minckley & Marsh 2009:305 [ref. 31114], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Marceniuk et al. 2019:1 [ref. 36684], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Bairdiella icistia (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Guatemala; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: brackish, marine.

iharae, Sciaena Jordan [D. S.] & Metz [C. W.] 1913:37, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 2490] Pusan, South Korea. Holotype (unique): FMNH 55629 [ex CM 4371]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:92 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Pennahia argentata (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Trewavas 1977:319 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pennahia argentata (Houttuyn 1782). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

illecebrosus, Stellifer Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1442 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] San Jose Rock, Bay of Panama (Pacific). Lectotype: ? CAS-SU 5515. Paralectotypes: (2) CAS-SU 6907 (1). Author is C. H. Gilbert. Also appeared as Gilbert in Gilbert & Starks 1904:128, Pl. 18 (fig. 36) [ref. 1639]; with lectotype established by use of "type specimen" in caption to Fig. 36. •Valid as Stellifer illecebrosus Gilbert 1898 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:168 [ref. 22193] dated to 1904, Bussing & López S. 1994:124 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1504 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:313 [ref. 24555], Chao 2001:79 [ref. 26029] dated to 1895, Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:52 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer illecebrosus Gilbert 1898. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

imberbis, Sciaena Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:411 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:34 [ref. 6983] as ocellata, Parenti 2020:50 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

imberbis, Umbrina Günther [A.] 1873:101 [5] [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 6423] Iquique, Chile. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 5 of separate. •Valid as Umbrina imberbis Günther 1873 -- (Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125]). •Questionable synonym of Callaus deliciosa (Tschudi 1846) -- (Parenti 2020:10 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Callaus deliciosa (Tschudi 1846). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

imbricata, Nibea Matsubara [K.] 1937:38, Fig. 8 [Journal of the Imperial Fisheries Institute v. 32 (no. 2); ref. 17614] China Sea. Holotype (unique): FAKU 3512 (apparently lost). •Synonym of Argyrosomus miiuy (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:331 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Miichthys miiuy (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Parenti 2020:31 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Miichthys miiuy (Basilewsky 1855). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

imiceps, Sciaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:309 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Bay of Panama. Syntypes: USNM 29432 (1), 29481 (1, missing in 1980), 29489 (1). •Valid as Ophioscion imiceps (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:164 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:134 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1484 [ref. 22830], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:404 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Ophioscion imiceps (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Mexico south to northern Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

improvisa, Asperina Ostroumoff [A. A.] 1896:30 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 19 (no. 493); ref. 3320] Temryuk, mouth of Kuban River, Sea of Azov, Russia. No types known. •Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Trewavas 1973:400 [ref. 7201], Chao & Trewavas 1990:825 [ref. 18934], Parin 2003:S13 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:373 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

incerta, Sciaena Vinciguerra [D.] 1926:578 [47] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 3). v. 10 (no. 50); ref. 15609] Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Syntypes: (2) MSNG 23308 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1959:4 [ref. 31669], Tortonese 1963:336 [ref. 10350]. On p. 47 of separate. •Synonym of Chrysochir aureus (Richardson 1846) -- (Trewavas 1977:345 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:54 [ref. 25194], Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:11 [ref. 37439]). •Synonym of Chrysochir aurea (Richardson 1846). Current status: Synonym of Chrysochir aurea (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

indica, Pseudosciaena Tang [D.-S.] 1937:64 [The Amoy Marine Biological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 17889] Mumbai and Gwadur, India. Syntypes: ZSI F968 and 988 (2). Replacement name for Sciaena bleekeri Day 1876, secondarily preoccupied by Pseudotolithus bleekeri Steindachner 1866. •Synonym of Argyrosomus amoyensis (Bleeker 1863) -- (Trewavas 1977:334 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:4 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus amoyensis (Bleeker 1863). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

indica, Sciaena Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1874:374, 377 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 14 (art. 4); ref. 12517] Kuhl & van Hasselt name mentioned in synonymy of Sciaena russelli, not available; from Java, RMNH 682 (2 specimens). Sciaenidae.

inodorus, Argyrosomus Griffiths [M. H.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1995:21, Figs. 21-22 [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 65; ref. 22038] False Bay, South Africa, depth 10 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 44705. Paratypes: AMS I.34965-001 (2), I.34965-002 (2); BMNH 1994.11.30.2-3 (1, 1); MNHN 1994-0568 to 0569 (1, 1); NSMT-P 46548 (1) 56549 (parts); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 11924 (1), 15257 (1), 38464 (1), 38466-67 (1, 1), 38469 (1), 38471-72 (1, 1), 38475-76 (1, 1), 38478-81 (1 ea.), 41128 (1), 41133 (1), 41138 (1), 41141 (1), 41143 (1), 41146-47 (1, 1), 41149 (1), 41153 (1), 41155-56 (1, 1), 41160-61 (1, 1), 41164 (1); SAM 33473-74 (1, 1); USNM 331636 (2). More paratypes at SAIAB [formerly RUSI]. •Valid as Argyrosomus inodorus Griffiths & Heemstra 1995 -- (Sasaki 1996:86 [ref. 22156], van der Bank & Kirchner 1997:441 [ref. 24968], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:267 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2020:4 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Argyrosomus inodorus Griffiths & Heemstra 1995. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Namibia to Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), then north to Transkei. Habitat: brackish, marine.

iquitensis, Plagioscion auratus Nakashima [S.] 1941:67, Fig. [Boletín del Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado" v. 5 (no. 16); ref. 13189] Iquitos, Amazon system, northeastern Peru. Types: ?MHNJP [= MUSM]. Apparently as a subspecies of Johnius auratus Castelnau 1855. Name is in competition in same article with Plagioscion squamosissimus iquitensis Nakashima 1941:68 [ref. 13189]; first reviser not researched. •Synonym of Plagioscion auratus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Parenti 2020:43 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Plagioscion auratus (Castelnau 1855). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

iquitensis, Plagioscion squamosissimus Nakashima [S.] 1941:68, Unnumbered fig. [Boletín del Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado" v. 5 (no. 16); ref. 13189] Iquitos, Amazon system, northeastern Peru. Types: ?MHNJP [= MUSM] (not found). Apparently as a subspecies of Sciaena squamosissima Heckel 1840. Name is in competition in same article with Plagioscion auratus iquitensis Nakashima 1941:67 [ref. 13189]; first reviser not researched. •Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Casatti 2005:42 [ref. 28401], Mirande & Koerber 2015:55 [ref. 35117], Parenti 2020:44 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

iwamotoi, Pareques Miller [G. C.] & Woods [L. P.] 1988:89, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 6633] South of Pensacola, Oregon station 698, 30°03'36"N, 86°55'36"W, Florida, U.S.A., depth 101 meters. Holotype: USNM 174972. Paratypes: FMNH 45531-35 (1, 2, 1, 1, 1), 64166-67 (4, 1), 65407 (1); UF 207133 [ex UMML 7133] (1). Additional material: CAS (6 lots, 12); FMNH (4 lots, 9); UF [ex UMML] (25 lots, 93). •Valid as Equetus iwamotoi (Miller & Woods 1988) -- (Boschung 1992:144 [ref. 23239], Schwartz 2001:129 [ref. 25391], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265]). •Valid as Pareques iwamotoi Miller & Woods 1988 -- (Chao 2003:1649 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:440 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:41 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pareques iwamotoi Miller & Woods 1988. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

jacobi, Corvina (Johnius) Steindachner [F.] 1879:121 [3] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (several) NMW. On p. 3 of separate. •Synonym of Cheilotrema saturnum (Girard 1858) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1450 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:10 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cheilotrema saturnum (Girard 1858). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

jaculidens, Ancylodon Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:81 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Cayenne, French Guiana. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7451 (1), 0000-7454 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:6 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:37 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:27 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

jamaicensis, Otolithus Vaillant [L. L.] & Bocourt [F.] 1883:156, Pl. 6 (figs. 1a-d) [Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale Part 4; ref. 4498] Jamaica. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0557. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:15 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant & Bocourt 1883) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:370 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:400 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:253 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:124 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1608 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:420 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565] with authoras Vaillant & Boucurt, Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant & Bocourt 1883). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Antilles south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

januaria, Umbrina Steindachner [F.] 1876:170 [122] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) not yet found at NMW. On p. 122 of separate. •Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chao 1978:30 [ref. 6983], •Tentatively considered a synonym of Protonibea Trewavas 1971 -- (Lo et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35288]).). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

japonica, Sciaena Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:58, Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Meitsu, Nango-Cho, Miyazaki Prefecture, southeastern coast of Kyushu, Japan, 50 meters [original locality. near Nagasaki, Japan]. Neotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 44704. Based on a figure and description of Burger (Boeseman 1947:62 [ref. 12876]). Neotype designated by Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:11 [ref. 22038]. •Valid as Nibea japonica (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:74 [ref. 26476] dated 1844). •Valid as Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Trewavas 1977:329 [ref. 4459], Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:10 [ref. 22038], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:869 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Sasaki 2001:3127 [ref. 26108], Nakabo 2002:869 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:269 [ref. 28072], Bray et al. 2006:1257 [ref. 29091], Gomon 2008:589 [ref. 30616], Psomadakis et al. 2015:273 [ref. 34104], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:181 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:100 [ref. 37020] as japonicas, Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626], Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern Korea and southern Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia) and Tasmania (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

jubata, Corvina Bleeker [P.] 1855:160 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 16837] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1880.4.21.150 (1). •Valid as Aspericorvina jubata (Bleeker 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:368 [ref. 4459], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3128 [ref. 26108], Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:153 [ref. 34464], Parenti 2020:6 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Aspericorvina jubata (Bleeker 1855). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand, Sumatra and Borneo. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

junki, Pachyurus Soares [L.] & Casatti [L.] 2000:500, Fig. 1 [Acta Amazonica v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 24955] Rio Solimões, Coari, Estado do Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 619. Paratypes: CAS 32058 (1), INPA 4049 (5), MCP 15121 (2), MZUSP 37572 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Pachyurus junki Soares & Cassatti 2000 -- (Casatti 2001:160 [ref. 25918], Casatti & Chao 2002:5 [ref. 26002], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:103 [ref. 35633], Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachyurus junki Soares & Casatti 2000. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin (Brazil and Colombia). Habitat: freshwater.

karut, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:517 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Spelled carutta on p. 447, karut on p. 517. An incorrect subsequent spelling of Johnius carutta Bloch 1793. •In the synonymy of Johnius carutta Bloch 1793. Current status: Synonym of Johnius carutta Bloch 1793. Sciaenidae.

karuta, Labrus Shaw [G.] 1803:526, Pl. 74 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Incorrrect subsequent spelling or new name for Johnius carutta Bloch 1793. •In the synonymy of Johnius carutta Bloch 1793. Current status: Synonym of Johnius carutta Bloch 1793. Sciaenidae.

kuhlii, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:121 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Labouane River, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:21 [ref. 6382]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Talwar 1995:103 [ref. 25194], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kuhlii, Umbrina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:179 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 682. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:26 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Dendrophysa russelli (Cuvier 1829) -- (Talwar 1995:73 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Dendrophysa russellii (Cuvier 1829) -- (Parenti 2020:17 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Dendrophysa russellii (Cuvier 1829). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

kyushini, Atrobucca Sasaki [K.] & Kailola [P. J.] 1988:263, Figs. 1, 2A, 3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 35 (no. 3); ref. 12553] Off Kuching, Borneo, Malaysia. Holotype: HUMZ 107200. Paratypes: BMNH 1987.6.4.1 (1), 1987.6.4.2 (1); HUMZ 33633 (1), 46810 (1), 46945 (1), 50132 (1), 107201-02 (1, 1), 107205-06 (1, 1); NSMT-P 50538 -39 (1, 1). •Valid as Atrobucca kyushini Sasaki & Kailola 1988 -- (Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3132 [ref. 26108], Parenti 2020:7 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atrobucca kyushini Sasaki & Kailola 1988. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: off Borneo (Malaysia). Habitat: marine.

laevis, Johnius (Johnius) Sasaki [K.] & Kailola [P. J.] 1991:119, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 38 (no. 2); ref. 19082] Off Port Essington, 11°07'S, 131°44'E, Northern Territory, Australia, depth 45 meters. Holotype: NTM S.11452-012. Paratypes: AMS I.20402-023 (1), I.21632-002 (1); CSIRO A 3131 (1), CA 2797 (1); NTM S.11452-002 (28). •Valid as Johnius laevis Sasaki & Kailola 1991 -- (Sasaki 2001:3147 [ref. 26108], Bray et al. 2006:1261 [ref. 29091], Larson et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32988], Parenti 2020:22 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius laevis Sasaki & Kailola 1991. Sciaenidae. Distribution: astern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Northern Australia and New uinea. Habitat: marine.

lafonti, Umbrina Moreau [É.] 1874:118, Pl. 14 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 2; ref. 17791] Gulf of Gascony, France. Syntypes: MNHN 1898-0568 (1), 7307 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:19-20 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843 -- (Trewavas 1973:401 [ref. 7201], Trewavas 1977:279 [ref. 4459], Chao & Trewavas 1990:824 [ref. 18934], Sasaki 1996:84 [ref. 22156], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843. Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

lanceolata, Perca Bloch [M. E.] 1788:383 [Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrivter, Nye Samling af det v. 3; ref. 17255] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB 927. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:129 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Lonchurus lanceolatus (Bloch 1788) -- (Chao 1978:37 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:405 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:277 [ref. 24474], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2003:1624 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Parenti 2020:26 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Lonchurus lanceolatus (Bloch 1788). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Suriname south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lanceolatus, Chaetodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:277 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India [apparently Bahamas]. No types known. •Valid as Equetus lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chao 1978:27 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:362 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:186 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:144 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:403 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:269 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:586 [ref. 16204], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:270 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Schwartz 2001:129 [ref. 25391], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:110 [ref. 26784], Chao 2003:1617 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:424 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:57 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34324]). •Synonym of Eques lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2020:18 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Eques lanceolatus (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) and Bermuda south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

lanceolatus, Homoprion Holbrook [J. E.] 1855:168, Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [Ichthyology of South Carolina; ref. 2184] Very deep water, South Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. Also appeared in second edition, 1860:167, Pl. 24 (fig. 1). •Valid as Stellifer lanceolatus (Holbrook 1855) -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Robins & Ray 1986:185 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:147 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:205 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:377 [ref. 24550], Chao 2003:1642 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:445 [ref. 28815], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886], Parenti 2020:52 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer lanceolatus (Holbrook 1855). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Virginia south to northern Florida (U.S.A.); northern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lanfeari, Eques Barton [O.] 1947:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 1350; ref. 13079] Off Talara, Piura Province, Peru, depth 250 feet. Holotype: AMNH 17081. •Valid as Pareques lanfeari (Barton 1947) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1496 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:319 [ref. 24555], Parenti 2020:41 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pareques lanfeari (Barton 1947). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: marine.

lateoides, Otolithus Bleeker [P.] 1849:16 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 5); ref. 16906] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5990 (3). Appeared first without distinguishing features in Bleeker 1845:523 [ref. 312]. Also in Bleeker 1850:98 [ref. 16888]. •Valid as Pterotolithus lateoides (Bleeker 1849) -- (Trewavas 1977:357 [ref. 4459] with a holotype in RMNH 5990, Talwar 1995:66 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:378 [ref. 27969], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3172 [ref. 26108], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:48 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pterotolithus lateoides (Bleeker 1849). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Malaysia and Borneo. Habitat: brackish, marine.

latifrons, Johnius (Johnius) Sasaki [K.] 1992:195, Figs. 2C, 4 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 39 (no. 3); ref. 15769] Songkhla, Thailand. Holotype: NSMT-P 44942. Paratypes: AMS I.21033-006 (1), I.28995-008 (1); BPBM 18605 (1), 18620 (1); HUMZ 101707-08 (1, 1); NSMT-P 44940 (2). •Valid as Johnius latifrons Sasaki 1992 -- (Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3148 [ref. 26108], Parenti 2020:22 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius latifrons Sasaki 1992. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Thailand and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

leiarchus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:78 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil; French Guiana. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5503 (2) Brazil, A-2690 (1, dry) Brazil, A-5422 (1, dry) Brazil; ?NMW 31096 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:15 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:400 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:255 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:586 [ref. 16204], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1609 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Nicaragua and Panama south to Santos (Brazil), including southern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leptolepis, Sciaena Ogilby [J. D.] 1918:87, Pl. 25 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 6; ref. 3298] Croker Island, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1534. •Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:379 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:84 [ref. 25194], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967]). •Tentatively valid as Austronibea leptolepis (Ogilby 1918) -- (Lo et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35288]). •Valid as Nibea leptolepis (Ogilby 1918) -- (Sasaki 2001:3159 [ref. 26108], Bray et al. 2006:1261 [ref. 29091], Larson et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32988], Parenti 2020:32 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nibea leptolepis (Ogilby 1918). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leuciscus, Otolithus Günther [A.] 1872:398 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 10 (no. 59) (art. 56); ref. 18194] Manila Bay, Philippines. Syntypes: BMNH 1872.10.18.128-129 (2). •Synonym of Pennahia macrophthalmus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Trewavas 1977:314 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:37 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Pennahia aneus (Bloch 1793) -- (Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439] as anea). Current status: Synonym of Pennahia aneus (Bloch 1793). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

levistomus, Sciaena Cuvier [G.] in Bowdich 1825:236 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] No locality. No types known. Name only, mentioned in comparison with Sciaena elongata Bowdich 1825. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lineatus, Amblodon Agassiz [L.] 1854:307 [13] [American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 2) v. 17; ref. 69] Osage River, Missouri, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 569 (2), 569a (5), 573 (1); ?NMW 85293 (1); SMNS 1198 (2). On p. 13 of separate. •Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819 -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:3 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

lineatus, Eques Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:169 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0043 (1), 7475 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:11 [ref. 6382]. Based on specimens from Brazil and literature sources. •Synonym of Pareques acuminatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:28 [ref. 6983], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:386 [ref. 24550], Parenti 2020:41 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pareques acuminatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Leiostomus Ayres [W. O.] 1855:[2] col. 3 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 4 (nos 7-22); ref. 13428] San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A. No types known. Syntypes: ?USNM 368 (2). Appeared first as above on 26 January; then in Ayres 1855:25 [ref. 159]. •Valid as Genyonemus lineatus (Ayres 1855) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:220 [ref. 9277], Peden & Hughes 1986:5 [ref. 9714], Matarese et al. 1989:492 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:151 [ref. 14674], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1465 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:56 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:250 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:77 [ref. 37205], Parenti 2020:18 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Genyonemus lineatus (Ayres 1855). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: British Columbia (Canada) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California (Mexico) Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Micropogon Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:215, Pls. 119, 138 (part) [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Havana, Cuba. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-4968. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7457 (2) New York, 0000-7577 (2) Havana, 0000-7459 (1) Montevideo; 1987-154 [ex MNHN 0000-6459] (1) Montevideo, 1987-0153 [ex MNHN 0000-7457] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:13-14 [ref. 6382]. Lectotype selected by Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983]. •Synonym of Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Smith 1986:434 [ref. 22186]). •Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823) -- (Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lini, Otolithes Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:603 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 14 (no. 4); ref. 2110] Canton market, China (caught below delta region, not far from Hong Kong). Holotype: CAS-SU 13984. Paratypes: FMNH 47086 [ex CM] (1), CAS-SU 16703 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:63 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Bahaba taipingensis (Herre 1932) -- (Trewavas 1977:285 [ref. 4459], Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:380 [ref. 23876], Parenti 2020:8 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bahaba taipingensis (Herre 1932). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

littoralis, Umbrina Holbrook [J. E.] 1847:10, Pl. 1 [Southern ichthyology: or, a description of the fishes inhabiting the waters of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. No. II; ref. 24518] South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 11576. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621]. Also appeared in Holbrook 1855:142, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [ref. 2184] and in the second edition, 1860:144, Pl. 20 (fig. 2). See Anderson & Stephens 2002:324 [ref. 26596]. •Valid as Menticirrhus littoralis (Holbrook 1847) -- (Chao 1978:31 [ref. 6983], Robins & Ray 1986:187 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:146 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:406 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:282 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:196 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:371 [ref. 24550], Marín 2000:75 [ref. 26252], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639] dated 1855, Chao 2003:1627 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:432 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Menticirrhus littoralis (Holbrook 1847). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Chesapeake Bay (U.S.A.) south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lobata, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:122, Pl. 107 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Malabar, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7587 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:9 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:414 [ref. 4459], Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lucida, Sciaena Richardson [J.] 1844:no p., Pl. 44 (figs. 3-4) [Ichthyology.--Part 1. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 3739] China Seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1848.3.18.107-108 (1 of 2). Type information: Whitehead 1970:214 [ref. 11606]. Available from plate. Text in Richardson 1845:87 [ref. 20574]. Based on specimens and illustrations by Reeves and Harwicke. See also Collichthys chinensis Steindachner 1866. •Valid as Collichthys lucidus (Richardson 1844) -- (Trewavas 1977:400 [ref. 4459], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:163 [ref. 6441], Zheng 1989:318 [ref. 21202], Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:387 [ref. 23876], Chen et al. 1997:76 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:284 [ref. 26385], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:870 [ref. 25182], Wang et al. 2001:230 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:870 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:347, 619 [ref. 26218], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:182 [ref. 36460], Parenti 2020:11 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Collichthys lucidus (Richardson 1844). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: South China Sea, East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea (China). Habitat: marine.

lundii, Pachyurus Reinhardt [J. T.] 1855:111 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1854; ref. 19675] Rio das Velhas, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMUC 2. Paralectotypes: ZMUC 1 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:66 [ref. 9588]. Lectotype selected by Casatti 2001:142 [ref. 25918]. •Valid as Pachyurus lundii Reinhardt 1855 -- (Chao 1978:43 [ref. 6983]). •Synonym of Pachyurus squamipennis Agassiz 1831 -- (Casatti 2001:139 [ref. 25918] as squamipinnis, Britski 2001:21 [ref. 26046] as squamipinnis, Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pachyurus squamipennis Agassiz 1831. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

luth, Perca Hasselquist [F.] 1762:402 [Reise nach Palästina; ref. 18250] Damiatae [Damietta] or Domyāt, Egypt, Mediterranean Sea. Not available, published in a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). Also vernacular name only, no scientific name. Based on Hasselquist 1757:357 [ref. 30181], also a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). •In the synonymy of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801) -- (Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

luth, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Hasselquist) 1792:334 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] In Mari rubro [erroneous] is Damiatae [Damietta] of Domyāt, Egypt, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. ▌Forgotten name, not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of precedence (see Parenti 2013). Based on Perca sp. (vernacular name Luth) of Hasselquist 1762:402 [ref. 18250], also in a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). •Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801) -- (Parenti 2013:79 [ref. 32381], Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maccullochi, Pseudomycterus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:94 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3287] Logan River, southern Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1535 [ex AFAQ]. •Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:414 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:104 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Johnius novaehollandiae (Steindachner 1866) -- (Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471]). •Synonym of Johnius australis (Günther 1880) -- (Bray et al. 2006:1260 [ref. 29091], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius australis (Günther 1880). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

macdonaghi, Plagioscion Daneri [C. A.] 1954:181, fig. [Comunicaciones del Museo de Ciencas Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" e Instituto Nacional de Investigación de las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas v. 2 (no. 12); ref. 12267] Río de la Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Holotype: MACN 4197. Paratypes: MACN 1994 (1), 4198 (6), 4230 (1). Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:102 [ref. 23697]. •Valid as Plagioscion macdonaghi Daneri 1954 -- (Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983], Gómez & Chebez 1996:65 [ref. 23791], López et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:87 [ref. 28131]). •Synonym of Plagioscion ternetzi Boulenger 1895 -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Casatti 2005:55 [ref. 28401], Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:55 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35267], Parenti 2020:44 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Plagioscion ternetzi Boulenger 1895. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

macdonaldi, Cynoscion Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:64 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Eastern shore of Gulf of California and near the mouth of Colorado River, northern Gulf of California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 43082 (1). •Valid as Totoaba macdonaldi (Gilbert 1890) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:169 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1511 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:358 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:410 [ref. 25838], Musick 2000:18 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:293 [ref. 25640], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Minckley & Marsh 2009:303 [ref. 31114], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:54 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Totoaba macdonaldi (Gilbert 1890). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrocephalus, Pseudosciaena Tang [D.-S.] 1937:70, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [The Amoy Marine Biological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 17889] Amoy, China. Holotype (unique): ZMUA 20831. •Valid as Argyrosomus macrocephalus (Tang 1937) -- (Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:75 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Pennahia macrocephalus (Tang 1937) -- (Trewavas 1977:316 [ref. 4459], Kyushin et al. 1982:133 [ref. 19754], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:375 [ref. 27969], Sasaki 1996:15 [ref. 22111], Yamada & Yamada 1999:97 [ref. 23757], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:869 [ref. 25182], Sasaki 2001:3169 [ref. 26108], Nakabo 2002:869 [ref. 26193], Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439] as macrocephala). Current status: Valid as Pennahia macrocephalus (Tang 1937). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indoensia east to northern Borneo, north to southern China and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

macrognathus, Pseudotolithus Bleeker [P.] 1863:61, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Ashantee, Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 753. •Synonym of Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Trewavas 1973:398 [ref. 7201], Daget & Trewavas 1986:336 [ref. 6211], Chao & Trewavas 1990:820 [ref. 18934], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Valenciennes 1833). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrolepis, Atractoscion Song [Y. S.], Kim [J.-K.] & Kim [S. Y.] in Song, Kim, Kang & Kim 2017:228, Fig. 2B [Zootaxa 4306 (no. 2); ref. 35529] Tombua Beach, Angola, 15.7795°S, 11.8703°E. Holotype: SAIAB 187117. Paratypes: SAIAB 205157. •Valid as Atractoscion macrolepis Song, Kim & Kim 2017 -- (Parenti 2020:6 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atractoscion macrolepis Song, Kim & Kim 2017. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: Angola and Namibia. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Otolithus Bleeker [P.] 1849:16 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 5); ref. 16906] Jakarta, Java; Bantam; Semarang, Java; Pasuruan, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: SMNS 10629 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:18 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:57 [ref. 29864]. Also in Bleeker 1850:99 [ref. 16888]. •Valid as Pennahia macrophthalmus (Bleeker 1849) -- (Trewavas 1977:314 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:37 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:376 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Argyrosomus macrophthalmus (Bleeker 1849) -- (Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:384 [ref. 23876]). •Synonym of Johnius aneus Bloch 1793 -- (Sasaki 1994:498 [ref. 22088]). •Synonym of Pennahia aneus (Bloch 1793) -- (Randall 1995:232 [ref. 22896] as anea, Carpenter et al. 1997:190 [ref. 23922] as anea, Sasaki 2001:3168 [ref. 26108] as anea, Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439] as anea). Current status: Synonym of Pennahia aneus (Bloch 1793). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Corvina Steindachner [F.] 1875:52 [24], Pl. 2 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: ?NMW 78572 (1). On p. 24 of separate. •Valid as Corvula macrops (Steindachner 1875) (sometimes dated to 1876) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:148 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:132 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1451 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:423 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:328 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:12 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Corvula macrops (Steindachner 1875). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to ecuador, including Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

macropterus, Umbrina Bleeker [P.] 1853:254 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) RMNH 5993 (now 3). •Valid as Johnius macropterus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Trewavas 1977:423 [ref. 4459], Sasaki 1994:65 [ref. 22159], Talwar 1995:91 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:93 [ref. 22156], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:261 [ref. 27511], Sasaki 2001:3149 [ref. 26108], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Iwatsuki et al. 2012:154 [ef. 31962], Lo et al. 2017:15 [ref. 35288], Suresh et al. 2018:259 [ref. 36495], Parenti 2020:22 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:491 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Johnius macropterus (Bleeker 1853). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India and Sri Lanka east to hailand, Malaysia and New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

macrorhynus, Johnieops Lal Mohan [R. S.] 1976:20, Fig. 2 [Matsya No. 1; ref. 7436] Mumbai, India. Holotype: FMRI 189. Paratypes: FMRI 190/1-19 (19). •Valid as Johnieops macrorhynus Lal Mohan 1976 -- (Talwar 1995:115 [ref. 25194]). •Valid as Johnius macrorhynus (Lal Mohan 1976) -- (Trewavas 1977:412 [ref. 4459], Sasaki 1996:93 [ref. 22156], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3150 [ref. 26108], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Iwatsuki et al. 2012:154 [ef. 31962], Arshad in Kimura et al. 2015:63 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:276 [ref. 34104], Lo et al. 2017:15 [ref. 35288], Parenti 2020:22 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:492 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Johnius macrorhynus (Lal Mohan 1976). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan and India east to South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:75 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Possible syntypes: ZMB 8732 (1, dry), 8798 (1, stuffed), 8805 (1, left skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:128 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Nibea maculata (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Trewavas 1977:376 [ref. 4459], Sasaki 1994:498 [ref. 22088], Talwar 1995:87 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:89 [ref. 22156], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:38 [ref. 27712] with author as Schneider, Psomadakis et al. 2015:277 [ref. 34104], Lo et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35288], Ali et al. 2018:332 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:102 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:492 [ref. 37272], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nibea maculata (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Labrus squeteague var. Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:396 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Labrus maculatus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250] as squetaegue, Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculatus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:64 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:23 [ref. 6382]. Based on a painting. •Valid as Otolithes maculatus Cuvier 1830 -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:329 [ref. 24860]). •Valid as Pterotolithus maculatus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:355 [ref. 4459], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:866 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Talwar 1995:64 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:378 [ref. 27969], Sasaki 1996:89 [ref. 22156], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3173 [ref. 26108], Ataur Rahman 2003:355 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2020:496 [ref. 37272], Parenti 2020:48 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pterotolithus maculatus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: northeastern India east to Borneo. Habitat: brackish, marine.

magdalenae, Otolithus Steindachner [F.] 1875:62 [34] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 10880 (4), 10897 (2); NMW 31152 (1), 32256 (1), 32268 (1); USNM 153617 [ex MCZ 10880] (1); ZMUC 26 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:65 [ref. 9588]. On p. 34 of separate. Probably meant to be in synonymy of Cynoscion parvipinnis Ayres 1861 in Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250]. •Valid as Otolithes magdalenae Steindachner 1875 -- (Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250] as Otolithus, typographical error, meant to be a synonym). •Synonym of Cynoscion parvipinnis Ayres 1861 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1457 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Otolithes parvipinnis Ayres 1861. Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

magdalenae, Sciaena Steindachner [F.] 1878:89 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 15 (no. 12) (for 9 May 1878); ref. 20476] Río Magdalena, Colombia. Syntypes: (several) NMW (apparently not found). Originally described as above, species later illustrated and described as "Sciaena Magdalenae n. sp. (an Sc. surinamensis Blkr. adult?)" in more detail in Steindachner 1879:22 [p. 6 of separate], Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 4227]. •Synonym of Plagioscion monacantha (Cope 1867) -- (Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983]). •Synonym of as Plagioscion surinamensis (Bleeker 1873) -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Plagioscion magdalenae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Casatti 2005:53 [ref. 28401], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:103 [ref. 35633], Parenti 2020:43 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Plagioscion magdalenae (Steindachner 1878). Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Colombia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

magoi, Stellifer Aguilera [O.] 1983:148, Fig. 1 [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 43 (no. 120); ref. 8187] Caño Guanoco, cerca de Guanoco en la Cuenca del Golfo de Paria, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-12376. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-13615 (4). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:18 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Stellifer magoi Aguilera 1983 -- (Cervigón 1992:413 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:303 [ref. 24474], Chao 2003:1650 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:52 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer magoi Aguilera 1983. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela (southern Caribbean Sea). Habitat: brackish, marine.

majan, Johnius (Johnius) Iwatsuki [Y.], Jawad [L. A.] & Al-Mamry [J. M.] 2012:152, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 59; ref. 31962] Madrakah, southern Oman, 18°58'09.17"N, 57°47'10.41"E. Holotype: MUFS 33607. Paratypes: BSKU 105320-21 (2); MUFS 33727 (1), 33728 (1); OMMSFC 1074-1076 (3). •Valid as Johnius majan Iwatsuki, Jawad & Al-Mamry 2012 -- (Lo et al. 2017:15 [ref. 35288], Ali et al. 2018:332 [ref. 36183], Parenti 2020:23 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius majan Iwatsuki, Jawad & Al-Mamry 2012. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: southern Oman and Gulf of Oman (Oman) endemic. Habitat: marine.

manchurica, Sciaena Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1911:255, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 39 (no. 1787); ref. 2539] Port Arthur, Manchuria, China. Holotype: USNM 67330. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9989 (7). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877) -- (Trewavas 1977:396 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

mancorensis, Stellifer Chirichigno F. [N.] 1962:17, Fig. 16 [Serie de Divulgación Cientifica, Servicio de Pesquería, Ministerio de Agricultura, Lima, No. 17; ref. 5841] Máncora, Peru. Holotype: MHNJP [= MUSM] P 1248. Paratypes: ?MHNJP [= MUSM] [P & C 446] (1). •Valid as Stellifer mancorensis Chirichigno F. 1962 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:124 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1505 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:310 [ref. 24555], Chao 2001:78 [ref. 26029], Parenti 2020:52 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer mancorensis Chirichigno F. 1962. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

mannarensis, Johnius Lal Mohan [R. S.] 1971:320, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India v. 11 (nos 1-2) [1969]; ref. 22157] Off Pamban, Gulf of Mannar, India, depth 15 fathoms. Holotype: FMRI 149. Paratypes: FMRI 150A-B (2). •Synonym of Johnius macropterus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Trewavas 1977:423 [ref. 4459]). •Valid as Johnius mannarensis Lal Mohan 1971 -- (Sasaki 1994 [ref. 22159], Sasaki 1996:93 [ref. 22156], Iwatsuki et al. 2012:154 [ef. 31962], Parenti 2020:23 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius mannarensis Lal Mohan 1971. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: southeast coast of India and Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

manni, Micropogon Moreno [C.] 1970:5, Fig. 1 [Noticiario mensual, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (Santiago de Chile) v. 15 (no. 170); ref. 7763] Vichoquén & Torca lagoons, near Llico, Curicó Province, Chile (34°45'S, 72°07'W). Holotype: MNHNC P.5622. Paratypes: MNHNC P.5623-27 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1), DBFFEUCS (3). Type catalog: Meléndez C. et al. 1993:148-149 [ref. 24124]. •Valid as Micropogonias manni (Moreno 1970) -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823) -- (Meléndez C. et al. 1993:148 [ref. 24124], Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maracaiboensis, Cynoscion Schultz [L. P.] 1949:160, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 99 (no. 3235); ref. 3967] Río Agua Caliente, 2-3 kilometers above Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121742. Paratypes: MCZ 37219 [ex USNM 121744] (1); UMMZ 157676 (1); USNM 121743 (1), 121744 (orig. 2, now 1), 121745 (1). •Valid as Cynoscion maracaiboensis Schultz 1949 -- (González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960]). •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1993:253 [ref. 24474], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1606 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

margaritifera, Sciaena Haly [A.] 1875:269 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 15 (no. 88) (art. 35); ref. 18241] Off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1862.11.9.13-14 (2). •Synonym of Argyrosomus hololepidotus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:327 [ref. 4459], Daget & Trewavas 1986:333 [ref. 6211], Chao & Trewavas 1990:813 [ref. 18934], Talwar 1995:44 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:10 [ref. 22038], Sasaki 1996:86 [ref. 22156], Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marina, Umbra Cetti [F.] 1777:118 [Anfibi e pesci di Sardegna; ref. 18872] Not available, name only, no diagnosis, from Sardegna [Sardinia, Italy]. •In the synonymy of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marleyi, Sciaena Norman [J. R.] 1922:319 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 9 (no. 52); ref. 15357] Off St. John's River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 40-50 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1922.1.13.37. •Synonym of Atrobucca nibe (Jordan & Thompson 1911) -- (Heemstra 1986:617 [ref. 5660], Sasaki & Kailola 1988:273 [ref. 12553]). •Valid as Sciaena marleyi Norman 1922 -- (Sasaki 1996:87 [ref. 22156]). •Valid as Atrobucca marleyi (Norman 1922) -- (Trewavas 1977:342 [ref. 4459], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Parenti 2020:7 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atrobucca marleyi (Norman 1922). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique south to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

martinicensis, Umbrina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:186 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7498 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:20 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Umbrina martinicensis Cuvier 1830 -- (González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960]). •Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chao 1978:30 [ref. 6983], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:372 [ref. 24550], •Tentatively considered a synonym of Protonibea Trewavas 1971 -- (Lo et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35288]).). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mbizi, Sciaena Poll [M.] 1950:8, Fig. 2 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 49); ref. 12969] Atlantic, 37 miles west-southwest of Landana, 5°25'S, 11°32'E, depth 290-350 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 214. Paratypes: BMNH 1952.8.27.1-2 (2); IRSNB 215-229 (1, 6, 5, 1, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 4, 3, 1, 3, 1, 1); MRAC 97691-709 (19). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:26 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:65 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Pentheroscion mbizi (Poll 1950) -- (Chao & Trewavas 1990:816 [ref. 18934], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2642 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2020:43 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pentheroscion mbizi (Poll 1950). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Guinea south to southern Angola. Habitat: marine.

megalops, Micropogon Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:64 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Gulf of California, Mexico, 30°47'00"N, 113°13'00"W, Albatross station 3021, depth 14 fathoms. Syntypes: (4) USNM 46503 (2). •Synonym of Micropogonias altipinnis (Günther 1864) -- (Sánchez-Pinedo et al. 2017:136 [ref. 35709]). •Valid as Micropogonias megalops (Gilbert 1890) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:163 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1480 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:368 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:408 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Minckley & Marsh 2009:302 [ref. 31114], Parenti 2020:31 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Micropogonias megalops (Gilbert 1890). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Honduras. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanobrachium, Johnius Fowler [H. W.] 1934:154, Fig. 122 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype (unique): ANSP 59956. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Aspericorvina jubata (Bleeker 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:369 [ref. 4459], Sasaki 2001:3128 [ref. 26108], Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:6 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Aspericorvina jubata (Bleeker 1855). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

melanocheir, Stellifer Eigenmann [C. H.] 1918:682 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 56 (no. 7); ref. 12304] Tumaco, Colombia. Holotype (unique): FMNH 58507 [ex CM 7520]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:92 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:81 [ref. 12367]. Also appeared as Eigenmann 1922:193, Pl. 28 (fig. 3) [ref. 1243]. •Valid as Stellifer melanocheir Eigenmann 1918 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1506 [ref. 22830], Chao 2001:79 [ref. 26029], Parenti 2020:52 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer melanocheir Eigenmann 1918. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

menoni, Wak Talwar [P. K.] & Joglekar [A.] 1970:33, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Inland Fishery Society of India v. 1; ref. 491] Diamond harbor, Hooghly Estuary, West Bengal, India. Holotype: ZSI F6136/2. Paratypes: ZSI F6137/2 (7). Type information: Trewavas 1977:435 [ref. 4459]. See Das 2003:376 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Johnius sina (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:439 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Johnieops sina (Cuvier 1830) -- (Daget & Trewavas 1986:334 [ref. 6211], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:854 [ref. 20764], Talwar 1995:120 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Johnius sina (Cuvier 1830) -- (Parenti 2020:23 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius sina (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mercatoris, Stellifer Delsman [N. C.] 1941:71, Fig. 10 [Mémoires du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique (Ser. 2) No. 21; ref. 13171] Mouth of Amazon River, 1°06'N, 47°53'W, Brazil, depth 20-30 fathoms. Syntypes: IRSNB 56 (7). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:26 [ref. 20755]. •Synonym of Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:37 [ref. 6983] as mecatoris, Parenti 2020:27 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

meygun, Sciaena Basilewsky [S.] 1855:222 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Beijing [Peking], China. No types at ZIN. Originally spelled Mey-gun, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Collichthys lucidus (Richardson 1844) -- (Parenti 2020:11 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Collichthys lucidus (Richardson 1844). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

miacanthus, Corvina Boulenger [G. A.] 1899:5 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 14 (no. 335); ref. 14697] Port of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1898.12.31.13 (1), MZUT 1574 (2). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:143 [ref. 21559]. •Synonym of Ophioscion strabo Gilbert 1897 -- (Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Ophioscion strabo Gilbert 1897. Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

microdon, Otolithus Bleeker [P.] 1849:10 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Jakarta; Semarang; Surabaya, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: (at least 4) ?BMNH 1880.4.21.134-135 (2), RMNH 5978 (some of 6), SMNS 10630 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:18 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:57 [ref. 29864]. Also appeared in Bleeker 1849:16 [ref. 16906] and Bleeker 1850:99 [ref. 16888]. •Valid as Panna microdon (Bleeker 1849) -- (Trewavas 1977:306 [ref. 4459], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:863 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Sasaki 1995:27 [ref. 22678], Talwar 1995:30 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:374 [ref. 27969], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3166 [ref. 26108], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:359 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:39 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Panna microdon (Bleeker 1849). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: eastern India east to western Indonesia, north to Vietnam. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microgenys, Nibea Sasaki [K.] 1992:5, Figs. 2-5 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 39 (no. 1); ref. 19227] Embley River, Weipa, northern Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.26784. Paratypes: AMS I.26864-002 (1); NTM S.10177-002 (3), S.11142-001 (1), S.12162-002 (1), S.12182-001 (2); QM I.22693 (3), I.23792 (1), I.26548 (3); WAM P.13689-001 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:29 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Austronibea microgenys (Sasaki 1992) -- (Lo et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35288]). •Valid as Nibea microgenys Sasaki 1992 -- (Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Sasaki 1997:57 [ref. 25133], Yamada & Yamada 1999:97 [ref. 23757], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2002:346 [ref. 25930], Sasaki 2001:3160 [ref. 26108], Bray et al. 2006:1262 [ref. 29091], Larson et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32988], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nibea microgenys Sasaki 1992. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: northern Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microlepidotus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:79 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB uncat. (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:24 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion microlepidotus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:401 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:258 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1610 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion microlepidotus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela south to Santos (Brazil). Habitat: brackish, marine.

microlepis, Atractoscion Song [Y. S.], Kim [J.-K.] & Kang [J.-H.] in Song, Kim, Kang & Kim 2017:231, Fig. 2C [Zootaxa 4306 (no. 2); ref. 35529] Gulf of Oman. Holotype: PKU 9315. Paratypes: PKU. •Valid as Atractoscion microlepis Song, Kim & Kang 2017 -- (Parenti 2020:6 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atractoscion microlepis Song, Kim & Kang 2017. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Johnius Bleeker [P.] 1858:11 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 6); ref. 16961] Palembang, Mussi River mouth, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6043 (125-mm TL spec. of 2, poor condition). •Valid as Boesemania microlepis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Trewavas 1977:309 [ref. 4459], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:188 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 2001:150 [ref. 25780], Sasaki 2001:3136 [ref. 26108], Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:154 [ref. 34464], Lo et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35288] with two species, Parenti 2020:10 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Boesemania microlepis (Bleeker 1858). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

microphthalma, Corvina Heckel [J. J.] in Steindachner 1864:205 [6] [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 49; ref. 13937] On p. 6 of separate. Not available, Heckel manuscript name mentioned in passing under Corvina microps. Sciaenidae.

microps, Corvina Steindachner [F.] 1864:205 [6], Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 49; ref. 13937] Guiana. Syntypes: (several) ?NMW Species not listed in earlier abstract (Steindachner 1864 [ref. 21710]). On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Stellifer microps (Steindachner 1864) -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:412 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:304 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2003:1643 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2020:52 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer microps (Steindachner 1864). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Costa Rica south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microps, Nebris Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:149, Pl. 112 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:23 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Nebris microps Cuvier 1830 -- (Chao 1978:31 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:368 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:408 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:286 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:587 [ref. 16204], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:132 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2003:1631 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Parenti 2020:32 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nebris microps Cuvier 1830. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microps, Otolithus Steindachner [F.] 1879:33 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Porto Alegre, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 31111. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:38, Pl. 8 [ref. 4228]. •Doubtful as a synonym of Cynoscion virescens (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 2002:10 [ref. 26250]). •Synonym of Cynoscion virescens (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion virescens (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microps, Plagioscion Steindachner [F.] 1917:228 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 54 (no. 18); ref. 15331] Onça Island, Amazon River, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) ?NMW 15180 (1). Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1917:657, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [ref. 15258]. •Valid species, but incertae sedis in Sciaenidae -- (Parenti 2020:57 [ref. 37439]). •Valid as Plagioscion microps Steindachner 1917 -- (Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983]). Current status: Valid as Plagioscion microps Steindachner 1917. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

miichthioides, Nibea Chu [Y.-T.], Lo [Y.-L.] & Wu [H.-L.] 1963:54 [English p. 92], Figs. 30, 56, 82 [Publications Shanghai Fisheries Institute; ref. 833] Cha-po, Kwangtung Province, China. Holotype: SFC 57-0337. Paratypes: SFC 60-9080 (1). •Valid as Nibea miichthioides Chu, Lo & Wu 1963 -- (Chen et al. 1997:73 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Argyrosomus amoyensis (Bleeker 1863) -- (Trewavas 1977:334 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:41 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 2001:3126 [ref. 26108], Parenti 2020:4 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus amoyensis (Bleeker 1863). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

miiuy, Sciaena Basilewsky [S.] 1855:221 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Seas off Beijing [Peking], China. No types at ZIN. Originally as Sciaena Mi-iuy, correction mandatory. •Valid as Argyrosomus miiuy (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:331 [ref. 4459]). •Valid as Miichthys miiuy (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441], Cheng & Zhou 1997:288 [ref. 26385], Yamada & Yamada 1999:93 [ref. 23757], Nakabo 2000:870 [ref. 25182], Wang et al. 2001:233 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:870 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:347, 620 [ref. 26218], Parenti 2020:31 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Miichthys miiuy (Basilewsky 1855). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: East China Sea to Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

miles, Corvina Cuvier [G.] 1829:173 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Cuvier specimens: MNHN A-5550 (1) Puducherry, 7607 [or 7606] (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:9 [ref. 6382], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:11 [ref. 6382] but with wrong types - there are no types. Available from footnote as, "(3) Aj. Corvina miles, N., ou Tella katchelee, Russel, 117." •Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:378 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:83 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

miles, Sciaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:94 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Puducherry and Vizapatam, India; Java, Indonesia. Sciaenidae.

milliae, Umbrina Miller [R. V.] 1971:303, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 1971 (no. 2); ref. 7695] Off Colombia, South America, 11°08'N, 74°23 48", Oregon station 4856, depth about 100 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 204932. Paratypes: UF 19287 [ex TABL 107368] (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:113 [ref. 21035]. •Valid as Umbrina milliae Miller 1971 -- (Chao 1978:30 [ref. 6983], Chao 2003:1653 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:56 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina milliae Miller 1971. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Colombia (Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

mindii, Stellifer Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1925:626, Pl. 66 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 226); ref. 13609] Mindi Reef, Mindi, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype: USNM 81730. Paratypes: FMNH 18573-75 (3). Additional material: USNM 81215 (1), 81219 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:81 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Stellifer stellifer (Bloch 1790) -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Chao 2003:1645 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:53 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Stellifer stellifer (Bloch 1790). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

minor, Corvina Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:9 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Market at Lima, Peru. Syntypes: (several) ZMB 895 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:50 [ref. 25858]. •Valid as Stellifer minor (Tschudi 1846) -- (Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1507 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:314 [ref. 24555], Chao 2001:79 [ref. 26029], Parenti 2020:52 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer minor (Tschudi 1846). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Peru and Chile. Habitat: marine.

mitsukurii, Pseudotolithus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1900:356, Pl. 13 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1213); ref. 2502] Tokyo Bay, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 49407. •Valid as Nibea mitsukurii (Jordan & Snyder 1900) -- (Trewavas 1977:385 [ref. 4459], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441], Okamura & Juso in Masuda et al. 1984: [ref. 6441], Kinoshita & Fujita 1988:25 [ref. 6693], Yamada & Yamada 1999:97 [ref. 23757], Nakabo 2000:868 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:868 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:347, 621 [ref. 26218], Lo et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35288], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nibea mitsukurii (Jordan & Snyder 1900). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: East China Sea to Japan. Habitat: marine.

mollis, Perca Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:380, 385 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Appeared as P. mollis vel 28-radiata in Devincenzi 1925:305, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Sagenichthys ancylodon or Lonchurus ancylodon Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Synonym of Macrodon atricauda (Günther 1880) -- (Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:52 [ref. 30861], Parenti 2020:27 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Macrodon atricauda (Günther 1880). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

monacantha, Corvina Cope [E. D.] 1867:402 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 13 (pt 3) (art. 13); ref. 18027] Near Paramaribo, Suriname. Holotype (unique): ANSP 11519. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Plagioscion monacantha (Cope 1867) -- (Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983]). •Synonym of Plagioscion auratus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Casatti 2005:50 [ref. 28401], Parenti 2020:43 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Plagioscion auratus (Castelnau 1855). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

montei, Plagioscion Soares [L.] & Casatti [L.] 2000:504, Fig. 5 [Acta Amazonica v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 24955] Rio Solimões, Lago Janauacá, AM, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 15959. Paratypes: INPA 604 (18); MZUSP 34086 (1), 34090 (3). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Plagioscion montei Soares & Casatti 2000 -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Casatti 2005:59 [ref. 28401], Parenti 2020:44 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Plagioscion montei Soares & Casatti 2000. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin (Brazil and Peru). Habitat: freshwater.

montti, Cilus Delfin [F. T.] 1900:56, Fig. 1 [Actes de la Société Scientifique du Chili v. 10; ref. 1099] Talcahuano, San Vicente, Concepción, Chile. No types known. •Synonym of Cilus gilberti (Abbott 1899) -- (Oyarzún et al. 1985 [ref. 21630], Parenti 2020:11 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cilus gilberti (Abbott 1899). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

moorii, Corvina Günther [A.] 1865:48 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 16 (no. 91) (art. 7); ref. 18184] Gambia River at Bathurst, Gambia. Holotype (unique): BMNH (whereabouts unknown). •Valid as Pseudotolithus moorii (Günther 1865) -- (Chao & Trewavas 1990:818 [ref. 18934], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2644 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pseudotolithus moorii (Günther 1865). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Gambia south to southern Angola. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mordax, Sagenichthys Gilbert [C. H.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:121, Pl. 16 (fig. 32) [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences v. 4; ref. 1639] Panama Bay, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: CAS-SU 6809. Paratypes: ?BMNH 1903.5.15.163-165 [from Jordan] (3), CAS-SU 6656 (4), USNM 50401 (1), ZMB 15967 [ex SU] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291]. Holotype established in caption to Pl. 16. •Valid as Macrodon mordax (Gilbert & Starks 1904) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:162 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1471 [ref. 22830], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:48 [ref. 30861], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], Parenti 2020:27 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Macrodon mordax (Gilbert & Starks 1904). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Panama and Colombia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

muelleri, Sciaena Steindachner [F.] 1879:29 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Cleveland Bay, near Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 19°16'S, 146°48'E. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2267. Type catalog: Fricke 1995:18 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:57 [ref. 29864] Species originally spelled as Mülleri, change mandatory; later described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:1 [ref. 4228]. •Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:379 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:84 [ref. 25194], Bray et al. 2006:1262 [ref. 29091], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

muelleri, Umbrina Klunzinger [C. B.] 1879:256 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 22); ref. 18913] Endeavour Strait, 10°50'S, 142°15'E, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: SMNS 2440 (2). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:17 [ref. 20296] dated 1880. Name appeared as Mülleri in original. Also appeared in Klunzinger 1880:372 [48 of separate] [ref. 2624]. •Wrongly considered a synonym of Johnius dussumieri (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Talwar 1995:94 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Trewavas 1977:426 [ref. 4459], Bray et al. 2006:1259 [ref. 29091], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:19 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker 1855). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

multifasciata, Sciaena Lesueur [C. A.] 1822:255 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2; ref. 17516] Eastern Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède 1802 -- (Chao 1978:29 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:26 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède 1802. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nallakatshelee, Corvina Richardson [J.] 1846:226 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Syntypes: (2) BMNH (1, halfskin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:213 [ref. 11606], also Trewavas 1977:417 [ref. 4459]. Originally as nalla-katshelee, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:414 [ref. 4459] with question, Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Uncertain as Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nannus, Cynoscion Castro-Aguirre [J. L.] & Arvizu-Martínez [J.] 1976:323, Fig. 1 [Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural v. 37; ref. 8620] 18 miles southwest of outlet of Río Baluarte, Sinaloa, Mexico, 21°32'N, 105°56'W, depth 150 meters. Holotype: ENCB-IPN 4109 [ex 6982]. Paratypes: ENCB-IPN 4108 [ex 6082] (9). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Guzmán 2011:173 [ref. 32186]. •Valid as Cynoscion nannus Castro-Aguirre & Arvizu-Martínez 1976 -- (Castro-Aguirre 1991:80 [ref. 19554], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1455 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:11 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Guzmán 2011:173 [ref. 32186], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Robertson et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35676], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion nannus Castro-Aguirre & Arvizu-Martínez 1976. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

naso, Stelliferus Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Eigenmann 1889:395 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 3); ref. 2439] Cachiura, Brazil. Syntypes: USNM 130630 (5). •Valid as Stellifer naso (Jordan 1889) -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:413 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:306 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2003:1651 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2020:52 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer naso (Jordan 1889). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nasus, Lonchurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:103 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname. •Incertae sedis in Sciaenidae -- (Parenti 2020:57 [ref. 37439]). Sciaenidae.

nasus, Sciaena (Corvina) Steindachner [F.] 1866:771, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 16; ref. 18789] Calcutta, India. Holotype (unique): NMW 76435. •Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:414 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:104 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius belangerii (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nasus, Umbrina Günther [A.] 1868:426, Figs. [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 6 (pt 7, no. 14); ref. 1994] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.9.23.17. •Valid as Menticirrhus nasus (Günther 1868) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:162 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:126 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1473 [ref. 22830], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:308 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:374 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:407 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:403 [ref. 34894], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Menticirrhus nasus (Günther 1868). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

nattereri, Pachyurus Steindachner [F.] 1863:171 [10], Pl. 3 [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 48 (1. Abth.); ref. 4208] Rio Branco or Rio Negro, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 15178:1. Paralectotypes: NMW 15178:2-3 (2). On p. 10 of separate. Spelled natteri on p. 171, as nattereri on p. 175 and on Pl. 3; nattereri regarded as intended. Lectotype selected by Casatti 2002:5 [ref. 25936]; although not fully in compliance with the 1999 code, it is here accepted. •Synonym of Pachyurus schomburgkii Günther 1860 -- (Chao 1978:43 [ref. 6983]). •Synonym of Pachypops fourcroi (Lacepède 1802) -- (Casatti 2002:4 [ref. 25936], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Parenti 2020:37 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pachypops fourcroi (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

nebulosa, Perca Rafinesque [C. S.] 1814:18 [Précis des découvertes et travaux somiologiques de Mr. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz; ref. 3582] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:114 [ref. 37117], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nebulosa, Sciaena Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:408, Pl. 3 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Sciaena nebulosa Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Menticirrhus saxatilis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:31 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:434 [ref. 22186], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus saxatilis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nebulosus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:79 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Locality unknown. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7527. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:15 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Lee et al. 1980:758 [ref. 22416], Robins & Ray 1986:189 [ref. 23100], Ramsey & Wakeman 1987:682 [ref. 22452], Boschung 1992:144 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:739 [ref. 25836], Bortone et al. 1997 [ref. 22817], Murdy et al. 1997:200 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:362 [ref. 24550], Gold et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24627], Fuller et al. 1999:404 [ref. 25838], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1611 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:607 [ref. 27995], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:421 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:356 [ref. 35886], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: New York south to Florida (U.S.A.), including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

neglecta, Sciaena Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1887:941 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18935] Broken Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.822. Paratypes: (2) ?AMS •Synonym of Argyrosomus hololepidotus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:327 [ref. 4459], Daget & Trewavas 1986:333 [ref. 6211], Chao & Trewavas 1990:813 [ref. 18934], Talwar 1995:44 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:10 [ref. 22038], Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

neglectus, Amblodon Girard [C. F.] 1858:167 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] Mouth of Rio Grande del Norte (Rio Bravo), Texas, U.S.A., and Province of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Syntypes: UMMZ 160256 (1); USNM 636 (1), 637 (orig. 24, now 12) See also Girard 1859:12, Pl. 5 (figs. 6-10) [ref. 13405]. •Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819 -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:388 [ref. 24550], Parenti 2020:3 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

neilli, Corvina Day [F.] 1865:55 [The fishes of Malabar; ref. 1074] Cochin, Malabar, India. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Daysciaena albida (Cuvier 1830) -- (Talwar 1995:79 [ref. 25194], Parenti 2020:17 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Daysciaena albida (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nibe, Sciaena Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1911:258, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 39 (no. 1787); ref. 2539] Wakanoura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, Inland Sea, western North Pacific. Holotype: USNM 67331. Paratypes: CAS-SU 25010 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291]. Name placed on the Official List in Opinion 1272. •Valid as Atrobucca nibe (Jordan & Thompson 1911) -- (Trewavas 1977:340 [ref. 4459], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441], Heemstra 1986:617 [ref. 5660], Sasaki & Kailola 1988:273 [ref. 12553], Talwar 1995:46 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:87 [ref. 22156], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:869 [ref. 25182], Sasaki 2001:3133 [ref. 26108], Nakabo 2002:869 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:347, 619 [ref. 26218], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:108 [ref. 27510], Bray et al. 2006:1258 [ref. 29091], Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432], Larson et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32988], Hussain & Jawad 2014:256 [ref. 33657], Motomura et al. 2017:158 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:331 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:7 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atrobucca nibe (Jordan & Thompson 1911). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Sciaena Bloch [M. E.] 1792:35, Pl. 297 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Mediterranean Sea and other localities. Syntypes: ZMB 8739 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:130 [ref. 24282] with ZMB 8739 as holotype. On p. 31 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 9 [ref. 21381]. Preoccupied by Sciaena nigra Forsskål 1775. Based on one specimen and several references, so ZMB 8739 probably should be selected as the lectotype if one is needed. •Synonym of Sciaena umbra Linnaeus 1758 -- (Trewavas 1973:396 [ref. 7201], Chao in Whitehead et al. 1986:871 [ref. 13676], Chao & Trewavas 1990:822 [ref. 18934], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:100 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S13 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:46 [ref. 37112], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:50 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:373 [ref. 33547], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2650 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2020:49 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Sciaena umbra Linnaeus 1758. Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigripinnis, Corvina Günther [A.] 1874:453 [5] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 14 (no. 84) (art. 55); ref. 5753] Cameroon coast. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.6.26.7. •Synonym of Pseudotolithus epipercus (Bleeker 1863) -- (Chao & Trewavas 1990:818 [ref. 18934], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotolithus epipercus (Bleeker 1863). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nigrita, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:103, Fig. 138 (part) [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7483 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:9 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich 1825) -- (Daget & Trewavas 1986:335 [ref. 6211], Chao & Trewavas 1990:817 [ref. 18934], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:702 [ref. 21590], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2643 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich 1825). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nigromaculata, Corvina Borodin [N. A.] 1930:53, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 2); ref. 16069] Sri Lanka [? Saigon, Vietnam]. Holotype (unique): VMM 497 [not 512] (now at AMNH). •Synonym of Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:364 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:69 [ref. 25194], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439] as diacantha). Current status: Synonym of Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

niveatus, Collichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1906:519, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1493); ref. 2531] Port Arthur, Manchuria, China. Holotype: USNM 55632. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9997 [not 9884 as published] (16), ?USNM 62374 (9). Additional material: ?BMNH 1923.2.26.689-696 (8). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:77 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Collichthys niveatus Jordan & Starks 1906 -- (Trewavas 1977:402 [ref. 4459], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:163 [ref. 6441], Cheng & Zhou 1997:283 [ref. 26385], Nakabo 2000:870 [ref. 25182], Wang et al. 2001:229 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:870 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:347, 619 [ref. 26218], Parenti 2020:11 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Collichthys niveatus Jordan & Starks 1906. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Yellow Sea and East China Sea (China). Habitat: marine.

nobilis, Johnius Ayres [W. O.] 1860:77, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2 (1858-1862); ref. 158] San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A.; Baja California, 27°N, Mexico. No types known. Any types at CAS would have been lost in 1906. •Valid as Atractoscion nobilis (Ayres 1860) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:219 [ref. 9277], McAllister 1990:151 [ref. 14674], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1446 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:264 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:358 [ref. 24550], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:657 [ref. 25968], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:55 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:248 [ref. 35888], Song et al. 2017:235 [ref. 35529], Burton & Lea 2019:77 [ref. 37205], Parenti 2020:6 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atractoscion nobilis (Ayres 1860). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California and northern Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

nortoni, Cynoscion Béarez [P.] 2001:60, Figs. 1-3 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 49 (Suppl. 1); ref. 26028] Puerto López, Manabí, Ecuador, 1°33'S, 80°49'W, depth 100-200 meters (fish market). Holotype: MNHN 1999-0961. Paratypes: CAS 208889 (1), MCZ 156126 (1), MNHN 1999-0962 (7?), USNM 357280 (1). •Valid as Cynoscion nortoni Béarez 2001 -- (Chao 2002:11 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion nortoni Béarez 2001. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: marine.

nothus, Otolithus Holbrook [J. E.] 1848:46, Pl. 8 [Southern ichthyology: or, a description of the fishes inhabiting the waters of South Carolina Georgia and Florida. No. III; ref. 24519] South Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. Also appeared in Holbrook 1855:134, Pl. 19 (fig. 1) [ref. 2184] and in the second edition, 1860:134, Pl. 19 (fig. 1). See Anderson & Stephens 2002:324 [ref. 26596]. •Valid as Cynoscion nothus (Holbrook 1848) -- (Boschung 1992:144 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:199 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:362 [ref. 24550], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250] dated 1855, Anderson & Stephens 2002:327 [ref. 26596], Chao 2003:1612 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:422 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion nothus (Holbrook 1848). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Maryland south to Florida (U.S.A.), and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

novaeguineae, Collichthys Nichols [J. T.] 1950:2 [American Museum Novitates No. 1445; ref. 12966] Merauke River, southern New Guinea. Holotype: AMNH 18729. Paratypes: AMNH 17568 (4). Type information: Trewavas 1977:441 [ref. 4459]. •Valid as Johnius novaeguineae (Nichols 1950) -- (Trewavas 1977:446 [ref. 4459], Sasaki 1999:277 [ref. 24049], Sasaki 2001:3155 [ref. 26108], Bray et al. 2006:1261 [ref. 29091], Larson et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32988], Lo et al. 2017:15 [ref. 35288], Parenti 2020:23 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius novaeguineae (Nichols 1950). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: northern Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

novaehollandiae, Sciaena Steindachner [F.] 1866:51 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 20460] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia [in error]. Holotype (unique): NMW 14618. Appeared first in the abstract as above, then in Steindachner 1866:445, Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [ref. 4210] as Sciaena (Corvina) novae Hollandiae; also on p. 22 of separate. Originally as Novae Hollandiae; correction mandatory. •Questionably a synonym of Johnius coitor (Hamilton 1822) -- (Trewavas 1977:418 [ref. 4459]). •Valid as Johnius novaehollandiae (Steindachner 1866) -- (Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471]). •Synonym of Johnius coitor (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar 1995:100 [ref. 25194], Bray et al. 2006:1260 [ref. 29091]). •Questionable synonym of Johnius australis (Günther 1880) -- (Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Uncertain as Johnius australis (Günther 1880). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nuria, Bola chaptis var. Hamilton [F.] 1822:78, 368 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 27; ref. 32989] Jassore, India. No types known. Simultaneous subjective synonym of Bahaba chaptis (Hamilton 1822). From Kottelat (2013). •Synonym of Bahaba chaptis (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:8 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bahaba chaptis (Hamilton 1822). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

obliquatus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] & Valenciennes [A.] in Sauvage 1879:209 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 13259] Martinique Island, West Indies. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7632. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1987-0151 [ex MNHN 0000-7632] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:16 [ref. 6382]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Cervigon 1968:182 [ref. 19857]. •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

obliquus, Mugil Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:16 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Mitchill 1815:405 [ref. 13292] as Labrus obliquus. •Synonym of Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède 1802 -- (Chao 1978:29 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:433 [ref. 22186], Parenti 2020:26 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède 1802. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

obscurus, Ophioscion Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:294, Fig. 63 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Tierra Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128029. Paratypes: USNM 128030 (1). •Valid as Ophioscion obscurus Hildebrand 1946 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:320 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Ophiocion scierus (Jordan & Gilbert 1884) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1485 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Ophioscion scierus (Jordan & Gilbert 1884). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

occidentalis, Nebris Vaillant [L. L.] 1897:124 [Bulletin du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 14638] Suriname [in error, probably from Panama]. Holotype (unique): ZMB (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:23 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Nebris occidentalis Vaillant 1897 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:163 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:132 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1481 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:328 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:378 [ref. 24550], Chao et al. 2001:84 [ref. 26030], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:32 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nebris occidentalis Vaillant 1897. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ocellata, Perca Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:483 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Syntypes: LS 106-107 (2, right half-skins). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:61-62 [ref. 20705]. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:202 [ref. 1841]. Based on 'Bass' in manuscript description, and 2 specimens sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:34 [ref. 6983] as ocellata, Lee et al. 1980:761 [ref. 22416], as ocellata, Robins & Ray 1986:188 [ref. 23100], Ramsey & Wakeman 1987:682 [ref. 22452], Boschung 1992:146 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:741 [ref. 25836], Murdy et al. 1997:202 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:376 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:409 [ref. 25838], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Chao 2003:1639 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:610 [ref. 27995], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:443 [ref. 28815], Fricke et al. 2009:67 [ref. 30213], Liao et al. 2010:1961 [ref. 37291], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:361 [ref. 35886], Parenti 2020:50 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts south to Florida (U.S.A.), including northern and western Gulf of Mexico; introduced in Réunion (Mascarenes) and Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

oedogenys, Austronibea Trewavas [E.] 1977:374, Pl. 4; Fig. 25 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 33 (pt 4); ref. 4459] Repulse Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.12691. Paratypes: BMNH 1977.4.5.1 [ex CSIRO A 4076] (1); CSIRO A 4076 (11), C 3415 (1), C 4532 (1); RMNH 27284 (1). •Valid as Austronibea oedogenys Trewavas 1977 -- (Sasaki 2001:3134 [ref. 26108], Bray et al. 2006:1259 [ref. 29091], Larson et al. 2013:148 [ref. 32988], Lo et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35288], Parenti 2020:8 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Austronibea oedogenys Trewavas 1977. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: northern Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ogiwara, Sciaena Nichols [J. T.] 1913:180, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 32 (art. 7); ref. 14964] Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi, Honshu, Japan. Holotype (unique): AMNH 3958. •Synonym of Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877) -- (Trewavas 1977:396 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

opercularis, Sciaena Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:347 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:25 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983]). •Valid as Micropogon opercularis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808]). •Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823) -- (Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:112 [ref. 25942], Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ophicephala, Umbrina Jenyns [L.] 1840:45 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Coquimbo, Chile. Syntypes: (2). •Valid as Menticirrhus ophicephalus (Jenyns 1840) -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1474 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:307 [ref. 24555], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Menticirrhus ophicephalus (Jenyns 1840). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Peru and Chile. Habitat: marine.

ophiceps, Sciaena Alcock [A. W.] 1889:300 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 84] Off Mahanaddi delta, depth 5-9 fathoms; off Godavari delta, depth 4-5 fathoms; Orissa coast. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.12.4.6-7 [ex ZSI] (2); ZSI F12099 to 12101 (3), 12103 (1), 12170-71 (1, 1), 12336 (1), 12381 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:144 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:39 [ref. 22148]. •Synonym of Chrysochir aureus (Richardson 1846) -- (Trewavas 1977:345 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:54 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:88 [ref. 22156], Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:11 [ref. 37439]). •Synonym of Chrysochir aurea (Richardson 1846). Current status: Synonym of Chrysochir aurea (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

ophioscion, Corvina Günther [A.] 1868:428 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 6 (pt 7, no. 14); ref. 1994] Panama. Syntypes: (2) ?BMNH 1866.1.19.18 (1). •Synonym of Ophioscion typicus Gill 1863 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1488 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Ophioscion typicus Gill 1863. Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Otolithus Seale [A.] 1910:281, Pl. 4 [The Philippine Journal of Science, Section D v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 14808] Sandakan, Sabah state, Borneo Island, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BSMP 2744. •Synonym of Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Talwar 1995:58 [ref. 25194], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ornatus, Micropogon Günther [A.] 1880:13, Pl. 7 (fig. A) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Rio de la Plata mouth, Challenger station 321, depth 13 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.289. •Synonym of Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner 1875) -- (Chao 1978:38 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:39 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner 1875). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

oscitans, Sciaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:312 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: USNM 29258 (1), 29299 (1), 29319 (1), 29326 (1). •Valid as Stellifer oscitans (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:168 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:124 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1508 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:310 [ref. 24555], Chao 2001:79 [ref. 26029] as ositans, González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:52 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer oscitans (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Honduras south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

oscula, Sciaena Lesueur [C. A.] 1822:252, unnumbered plate (apparently 13) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2; ref. 17516] Lake Erie or Lake Ontario, North America. Syntypes: MNHN A-5696 (1, dry, poor condition), A-7536 (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:17 [ref. 6382]; also see Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983]. •Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819 -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:352 [ref. 22186], Scott & Crossman 1998:816 [ref. 24570], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:599 [ref. 27061], Parenti 2020:3 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

osseus, Sciaena Day [F.] 1876:193, Pl. 46 (fig. 3) [The fishes of India Part 2; ref. 1081] Malabar coast of India. Lectotype: ZSI F1340 (figured). Paralectotypes: AMS B.8249 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:144 [ref. 20743], Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:301 [ref. 25110]. Lectotype selected by Talwar 1971:325 [ref. 24053]. •Valid as Wak osseus (Day 1876) -- (Talwar 1971:325 [ref. 24053]). •Synonym of Johnius aneus Bloch 1793 -- (Trewavas 1977:437 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Johnieops aneus (Bloch 1793) -- (Talwar 1995:122 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier 1830) -- (Sasaki 1999:274 [ref. 24049] as Sciaena ossea, Eagderi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:21 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

othonopterum, Cynoscion Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:274 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 227); ref. 10613] Punta San Felipe, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 29385. Cynoscion is masculine, so correct spelling is othonopterus. •Valid as Cynoscion othonopterus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:159 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1456 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:360 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:405 [ref. 25838], Musick 2000:18 [ref. 24959], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250] as orthonopterus dated 1881, Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion othonopterus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Panama. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ovata, Pennahia Sasaki [K.] 1996:11, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 22111] Myanmar, 21°00'N, 90°59'E, depth 23-25 meters. Holotype: USNM 324181. Paratypes: USNM 324492 (1), 324525 (3), 324585 (50), 325068 (1), 325283 (1), 325472 (3). •Valid as Pennahia ovata Sasaki 1996 -- (Yamada & Yamada 1999:97 [ref. 23757], Psomadakis et al. 2020:495 [ref. 37272], Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pennahia ovata Sasaki 1996. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar endemic. Habitat: marine.

pacificus, Johnius Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1941:229 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 2037] Mamberamo River mouth, northern New Guinea. Holotype (unique): not researched. •Doubtful species, placement uncertain -- (Trewavas 1977:451 [ref. 4459]). •Valid as Johnius pacificus Hardenberg 1941 -- (Sasaki 1999:277 [ref. 24049], Sasaki 2001:3156 [ref. 26108], Parenti 2020:23 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius pacificus Hardenberg 1941. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: northern Pacific coast of New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pacificus, Larimus Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:161 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Panama Bay, about 5 nautical miles northeast of Isal Otoque, 8°38'N, 79°31'30"W, Albatross station 2802, depth 16 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 41168. •Valid as Larimus pacificus Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:162 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:130 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1470 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:267 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:424 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:325 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Larimus pacificus Jordan & Bollman 1890. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Chile. Habitat: marine.

paitensis, Menticirrhus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:263, Fig. 57 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] South shore of Paita Bay, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 128004. •Valid as Menticirrhus paitensis Hildebrand 1946 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1475 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:308 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Menticirrhus paitensis Hildebrand 1946. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to southern Peru. Habitat: marine.

pallidus, Bodianus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:420 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:432 [ref. 22186], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pama, Bola Hamilton [F.] 1822:79, 368, Pl. 32 (fig. 26) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges tidal estuaries, Calcutta, India. No types known. Hamilton's original illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 49 [ref. 37532]. •Valid as Sciaenoides pama (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Pama pama (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:301 [ref. 24860], Talwar 1995:28 [ref. 25194], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710]). •Valid as Otolithoides pama (Hamilton 1822) -- (Trewavas 1977:302 [ref. 4459], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:862 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Sasaki 1996:85 [ref. 22156], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:354 [ref. 31338], Psomadakis et al. 2015:279 [ref. 34104], Parenti 2020:37 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:494 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Otolithoides pama (Hamilton 1822). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: India. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pamoides, Pseudosciaena Munro [I. S. R.] 1964:176, Fig. 18 [Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 3058] Mouth of Fly River, Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): CSIRO A 1838. •Status uncertain, in Larimichthys -- (Trewavas 1977:452 [ref. 4459]). •Valid as Larimichthys pamoides (Munro 1964) -- (Roberts 1978:59 [ref. 8886], Sasaki 2001:3158 [ref. 26108], Bray et al. 2006:1261 [ref. 29091], Larson et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32988], Seah et al. 2015:279 [ref. 33796], Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Larimichthys pamoides (Munro 1964). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: northern Western Australia; southern Papua New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

panamensis, Ophioscion Schultz [L. P.] 1945:(126) 134, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 96 (no. 3192); ref. 10151] Fox Bay, Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 122612. Paratypes: USNM 81204-07 (3, 4, 1, 1), 128260 (1). •Valid as Ophioscion panamensis Schultz 1945 -- (Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:183 [ref. 22947], Chao 2003:1599 [ref. 27097], but considered a synonymy of O. panamensis on p. 1633). •Synonym of Ophioscion punctatissimus Meek & Hildebrand 1925 -- (Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Ophioscion punctatissimus Meek & Hildebrand 1925. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama and Belize [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

panamensis, Umbrina Steindachner [F.] 1876:559 [9], Pl. 9 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 520 (1), 8623 (1), 8624 (2); NMW 82663 (1); USNM 153615 [ex MCZ 8624] (1). On p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Menticirrhus panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:163 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:126 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1476 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:307 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:374 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807] dating to 1875, Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708] dating to 1875, Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Menticirrhus panamensis (Steindachner 1876). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Chile. Habitat: marine.

papuensis, Corvina Hase [A.] 1914:531, Fig. 4 [Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft v. 51; ref. 14156] Tami, northeastern New Guinea. Syntypes: ZMB 19138 (3). •Synonym of Johnius vogleri (Bleeker 1853) -- (Trewavas 1977:441 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Johnieops vogleri (Bleeker 1853) -- (Talwar 1995:113 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Sasaki 1999:275 [ref. 24049], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

paranensis, Pachyurus Daneri [C. A.] 1956:6 [Comunicaciones Jornadas Icticas, Santa Fe, Dirección Principal de Biología Animal y Zootecnía 1956; ref. 23698] Río Paraná, frente Est. Hidrobiol. Rosario, Argentina. Holotype: MACN 4234. Paratypes: MACN 473 (3), 489 (4), 4050 (10), 4234 (9). Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:104 [ref. 23697]. •Valid as Pachyurus paranensis Daneri 1956 -- (Chao 1978:43 [ref. 6983]). •Synonym of Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner 1879 -- (Casatti 2001:154 [ref. 25918], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:161 [ref. 28130], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:55 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35267], Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner 1879. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

parva, Sciaena Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:183 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] South Head Tugela River, north by west 4.5 miles, South Africa, depth 24 fathoms. Syntypes: (3) ?BMNH 1927.12.6.25 [ex SAM] (1), SAM 9961 (3). Type information: Trewavas 1977:435 [ref. 4459]. •Synonym of Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:439 [ref. 4459], Heemstra 1986:618 [ref. 5660]). •Synonym of Johnieops sina (Cuvier 1830) -- (Daget & Trewavas 1986:334 [ref. 6211], Talwar 1995:120 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Johnius dorsalis (Peters 1855) -- (Sasaki 1997:312 [ref. 23224], Parenti 2020:21 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius dorsalis (Peters 1855). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

parvipinnis, Ancylodon Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:84, Pl. 105 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Cayenne, French Guiana. No types known. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7453 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:6 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Isopisthus parvipinnis (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:37 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:374 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:404 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:273 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:586 [ref. 16204], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639] as Isophisthus, Chao 2003:1619 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:18 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Isopisthus parvipinnis (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Costa Rica south to southern Brazil, including southern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

parvipinnis, Cynoscion Ayres [W. O.] 1861:156, Fig. 48 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2; ref. 18924] Coast of Baja California, 27°N, Mexico. Holotype (unique): No types known. •Valid as Cynoscion parvipinnis Ayres 1861 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:220 [ref. 9277], Swift et al. 1993:132 [ref. 22379], Allen & Robertson 1994:159 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1457 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Fuller et al. 1999:405 [ref. 25838], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:248 [ref. 35888], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion parvipinnis Ayres 1861. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California south to Mazatlán (Sinaloa), Mexico endemic. Habitat: marine.

patagonensis, Micropogon MacDonagh [E. J.] 1931:409 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 10; ref. 24521] Richo de San Blas, Argentina. Holotype: MLP. •Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823) -- (Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

patagonicus, Paralarimus Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:18 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Northern Patagonia, South America. Holotype (unique): USNM 83222. Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250] stated: "The specimen was collected during the Wilkes expedition and catalogued on 1 March 1919. I suspect the stated locality of the holotype was incorrectly registered." •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pauciradiatus, Plagioscion Steindachner [F.] 1917:228 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 54 (no. 18); ref. 15331] Salt and brackish water near Paramaribo, Suriname. Syntypes: (3) NMW. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1917:660, Text-fig, [ref. 15258]. •Valid as Plagioscion pauciradiatus Steindachner 1917 -- (Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983]). •Species inquirenda, probably not in Plagioscion -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Parenti 2020:57 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Plagioscion pauciradiatus Steindachner 1917. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Suriname. Habitat: brackish, marine.

paucirastrus, Pachyurus Aguilera [O.] 1983:121, Fig. 1 [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 43 (no. 119); ref. 8190] Rio Tocantins, Capuerana, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 11176. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-13869 (1), V-14130 (4). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:13 [ref. 24196]. Genus spelled as Pachiurus on top of p. 121. •Valid as Pachyurus paucirastrus Aguilera 1983 -- (Soares & Casatti 2000:500 [ref. 24955], Casatti 2001:157 [ref. 25918], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachyurus paucirastrus Aguilera 1983. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Tocantins River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

pawak, Argyrosomus Lin [S.-Y.] 1940:248, Fig. 3 [Journal of the Hong Kong Fisheries Research Station v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 17239] Hong Kong. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (3). •Valid as Argyrosomus pawak Lin 1940 -- (Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:385 [ref. 23876], Chen et al. 1997:75 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Pennahia pawak (Lin 1940) -- (Trewavas 1977:318 [ref. 4459], Kyushin et al. 1982:133 [ref. 19754], Yamada & Yamada 1999:97 [ref. 23757], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3170 [ref. 26108], Arshad in Kimura et al. 2018:188 [ref. 36460], Parenti 2020:43 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pennahia pawak (Lin 1940). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: southern Indonesia to Gulf of Thailand, north to Vietnam, southern China and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

peli, Larimus Bleeker [P.] 1863:63, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Ebriakwa, Guinea. Syntypes: RMNH 5970 (2). •Valid as Pteroscion peli (Bleeker 1863) -- (Chao & Trewavas 1990:821 [ref. 18934], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:164 [ref. 25472], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2649 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2020:48 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pteroscion peli (Bleeker 1863). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: brackish, marine.

perarmatus, Sciaenoides Chabanaud [P.] 1926:266 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 32 (no. 5); ref. 15580] Gulf of Thailand; Indo-China. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8998 (1), A-4214 (4), A-4215 (1), MNHN Lab. Pêches Coloniales [now Pêches Outre-mer] (1, not found). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:18 [ref. 6382]. Combined with a feminine genus the adjective should be perarmata. •Valid as Otolithoides perarmatus (Chabanaud 1926) -- (Trewavas 1977:304 [ref. 4459]). •Valid as Panna perarmata (Chabanaud 1926) -- (Sasaki 1995:35 [ref. 22678] as perarmatus, Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122] as perarmatus, Sasaki 2001:3167 [ref. 26108] as perarmatus, Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:39 [ref. 37439] as perarmatus). Current status: Valid as Panna perarmata (Chabanaud 1926). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand and western Borneo. Habitat: brackish, marine.

perissa, Sciaena Heller [E.] & Snodgrass [R. E.] 1903:197 [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 5; ref. 2089] Tagus Cove, Albermarle Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: CAS-SU 6360. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8552 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Pareques perissa (Heller & Snodgrass 1903) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:167 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1497 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:420 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:25 [ref. 22816], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Parenti 2020:41 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pareques perissa (Heller & Snodgrass 1903). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) endemic. Habitat: marine.

peruana, Sciaena Steindachner [F.] 1903:203 [Zoologische Jahrbücher. Jena, Supplementband v. 6 (for 1905); ref. 15047] Coquimbo, Chile. Syntypes: ZMB 16290-91 (1, 1). •Incertae sedis in Sciaenidae -- (Parenti 2020:58 [ref. 37439]). Sciaenidae.

peruana, Stellifer ericymba Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:305, Fig. 66 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Gulf of Guayaquil, off Puerto Pizarro, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128038. Paratypes: USNM 128039 (9), 128040 (14); Gov't of Peru (1). •Synonym of Stellifer ericymba (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1502 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:51 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Stellifer ericymba (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

peruanus, Genyanemus Steindachner [F.] 1875:471 [29] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (1. Abth.); ref. 4222] Paita and Callao, Peru. Syntypes: (several) NMW 15182 (4), 58138 (2), 78571 (2), 84795 (1); USNM 153619 [ex MCZ 8625] (2), 53620 [ex MCZ 8620] (2). On p. 29 of separate. •Valid as Paralonchurus peruanus (Steindachner 1875) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1492 [ref. 22830], Pequeño 1997:83 [ref. 23536], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:309 [ref. 24555], Parenti 2020:40 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Paralonchurus peruanus (Steindachner 1875). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Panama south to northern Chile. Habitat: marine.

peruanus, Otolithus Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:10 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Coast of Peru. Holotype: ZMB 864. Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:50 [ref. 25858]. •Synonym of Cynoscion analis (Jenyns 1842) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1454 [ref. 22830], Chao 2002:11 [ref. 26250]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion analis (Jenyns 1842). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

peruviana, Ctenosciaena Chirichigno F. [N.] 1969:1, Fig. [Informes Especiales, Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE). Callao. No. 48; ref. 9271] Coast of Peru, 5°41'S, 81°14'W, depth 187 meters. Holotype: IMARPE 1248. Paratypes: IMARPE 1193-98 (1, 2, 5, 2, 1, 1). •Valid as Ctenosciaena peruviana Chirichigno F. 1969 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1452 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:304 [ref. 24555], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:403 [ref. 34894], Parenti 2020:12 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Ctenosciaena peruviana Chirichigno F. 1969. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: marine.

petersii, Paralonchurus Bocourt [F.] 1869:22 [Bulletin des Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 5; ref. 486] Union, El Salvador. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0979. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:16 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Paralonchurus petersii Bocourt 1869 [sometimes as petersi] -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:166 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:126 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1493 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:308 [ref. 24555], Parenti 2020:40 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Paralonchurus petersii Bocourt 1869. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador south to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

petranus, Archoscion Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1913:Sciaenidae p. 42 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Campo Grande, Brazil. No types known. On p. 390 when continuously paginated. •Synonym of Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant & Bocourt 1883) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1608 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant & Bocourt 1883). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

phalaena, Umbrina Girard [C. F.] 1858:167 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] Indianola and Brazos Santiago, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 482 [ex USNM 620] (1); USNM 619 (1, not found in 1993), 620 (orig. 4, now 1), 128273 [ex USNM 620] (2), ?154721 [?ex USNM 620] (1). See also Girard 1859:13, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-5) [ref. 13405]. •Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chao 1978:30 [ref. 6983], •Tentatively considered a synonym of Protonibea Trewavas 1971 -- (Lo et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35288]).). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

philippinus, Johnius (Johnieops) Sasaki [K.] 1999:271, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 24049] Agdao fish market, Davao City, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Holotype: NSMT-P 55912. Paratypes: BSKU 86010-14 (10, 9, 10, 2, 1); NSMT-P 55913 (9). •Valid as Johnius philippinus Sasaki 1999 -- (Parenti 2020:23 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius philippinus Sasaki 1999. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Davao, Mindanao (Philippines) endemic. Habitat: marine.

phoxocephalum, Cynoscion Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:318 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: USNM 29296 (1), 29339 (1), 29389 (1, not found in 1980), 29724 (1). •Valid as Cynoscion phoxocephalus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:159 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1458 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:424 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:317 [ref. 24555], Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250] dated 1881, Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion phoxocephalus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

pigmaeus, Pachypops Casatti [L.] 2002:14, Fig. 7 [Zootaxa No. 26; ref. 25936] Jamarizinho, Rio Machado, Rondônia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 34108. Paratypes: MZUSP 34105 (7), 34113-14 (1, 1). •Valid as Pachypops pigmaeus Casatti 2002 -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2020:37 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachypops pigmaeus Casatti 2002. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin in Branco and Madeira River drainages (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

pingi, Nibea Wang [K.-F.] 1935:448, Fig. 32 [Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China. (Zoological Series) v. 10 (no. 9); ref. 17828] Chefoo, Shantung Province, China. Holotype (unique): Mus. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. China, Nanking 10320. •Synonym of Atrobucca nibe (Jordan & Thompson 1911) -- (Trewavas 1977:340 [ref. 4459], Sasaki & Kailola 1988:273 [ref. 12553], Parenti 2020:7 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Atrobucca nibe (Jordan & Thompson 1911). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

pizarroensis, Stellifer Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:304, Fig. 65 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Gulf of Guayaquil, off Puerto Pizarro, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128036. Paratypes: USNM 128037 (1). •Valid as Stellifer pizarroensis Hildebrand 1946 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1509 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:313 [ref. 24555], Chao 2001:79 [ref. 26029], Parenti 2020:53 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer pizarroensis Hildebrand 1946. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Peru. Habitat: marine.

plagiostoma, Corvina Bleeker [P.] 1849:10 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura Straits near Surabaya and Kammal, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5984 (2). Type information: Trewavas 1977:431 [ref. 4459]. Also appeared in Bleeker 1849:17 [ref. 16906] and 1850:100 [ref. 16888]. •Valid as Johnius plagiostoma (Bleeker 1849) -- (Sasaki 1996:93 [ref. 22156], Sasaki 1999:276 [ref. 24049], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3157 [ref. 26108], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2020:492 [ref. 37272], Parenti 2020:23 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius plagiostoma (Bleeker 1849). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Bangladesh and Myanmar east to Java, Borneo and Vietnam. Habitat: brackish, marine.

platycephala, Corvina Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:132 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Java, Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:22 [ref. 6382]. Based on a figure. •Questionably a synonym of Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:364, 448 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:69 [ref. 25194], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439] as diacantha). Current status: Uncertain as Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

politus, Seriphus Ayres [W. O.] 1860:80, Fig. 21 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2 (1858-1862); ref. 158] San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A. No types known. Syntypes: (2 or 3) whereabouts unknown. Evidently all originals have a correction of "Seriphus politus" glued in the beginning of the account over "Corvina polita" so the original genus is Seriphus. Any types at CAS would have been lost in 1906. •Valid as Seriphus politus Ayres 1860 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:221 [ref. 9277], Peden & Hughes 1986:5 [ref. 9714], McAllister 1990:151 [ref. 14674], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1500 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:56 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:250 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:77 [ref. 37205], Parenti 2020:50 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Seriphus politus Ayres 1860. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern British Columbia (Canada) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

polyactis, Pseudosciaena Bleeker [P.] 1877:2 [Processen-verbaal van de gewone vergaderingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen; Afdeeling Natuurkunde 1877-1878 (no. 5); ref. 17116] Shanghai, China. Holotype (unique): ZMH 2408. Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:418 [ref. 21161]. Described in more detail in Bleeker 1879:5, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [ref. 459]. •Valid as Collichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:365 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Pseudosciaena polyactis Bleeker 1877 -- (Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:163 [ref. 6441], Cheng & Zhou 1997:287 [ref. 26385], Wang et al. 2001:232 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877) -- (Trewavas 1977:396 [ref. 4459], Nakabo 2000:870 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:870 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:347, 620 [ref. 26218], Seah et al. 2015:280 [ref. 33796], Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: East China Sea to Japan. Habitat: marine.

polykladiskos, Corvina Bleeker [P.] 1852:420 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 16827] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5983. Holotype redescribed by Trewavas 1977:288 [ref. 4459]. •Valid as Bahaba polykladiskos (Bleeker 1852) -- (Trewavas 1977:287 [ref. 4459], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3135 [ref. 26108], Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:154 [ref. 34464], Parenti 2020:8 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Bahaba polykladiskos (Bleeker 1852). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Borneo. Habitat: brackish, marine.

praedatorius, Cestreus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Eigenmann 1889:363 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 3); ref. 2439] Panama. Syntypes: MCZ 10901-02 (3). •Valid as Cynoscion praedatorius (Jordan & Gilbert 1889) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1459 [ref. 22830], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250], Matamoros et al. 2009:19 [ref. 31241], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion praedatorius (Jordan & Gilbert 1889). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

procerus, Argyrosomus De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:532 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] France. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:21 [ref. 6382]. Based on Sciaena aquila of Cuvier 1816. •Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801) -- (Trewavas 1973:397 [ref. 7201], Trewavas 1977:325 [ref. 4459], Chao & Trewavas 1990:814 [ref. 18934], Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:8 [ref. 22038], Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pulcher, Eques Steindachner [F.] 1867:349 [43] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 56 (1. Abth.); ref. 14188] Barbados, West Indies. Syntypes: NMW 75797 (3). On p. 43 of separate. •Synonym of Pareques acuminatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:28 [ref. 6983] as pulches, Parenti 2020:41 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pareques acuminatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatissimus, Ophioscion Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1925:644, Pl. 68 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 226); ref. 13609] Cristobal, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype: USNM 81766. Paratypes: FMNH 21670-71 (1, 1); USNM 80765-66 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:62 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Ophioscion punctatissimus Meek & Hildebrand 1925 -- (Chao 1978:40 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:408 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:290 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Chao 2003:1633 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621], Dennis et al. 2004:77 [ref. 31601], Cervigón 2011:97 [ref. 35839], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Ophioscion punctatissimus Meek & Hildebrand 1925. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Puerto Rico; Panama south to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Eques Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:106, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Equetus punctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:28 [ref. 6983], Robins & Ray 1986:187 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:145 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:403 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:270 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Holt & Riley 1999:825 [ref. 24428], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:270 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Schwartz 2001:129 [ref. 25391], Collette et al. 2003:110 [ref. 26784], Chao 2003:1618 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:426 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:57 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961]). •Valid as Eques punctatus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Parenti 2020:18 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Eques punctatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Bahamas and Florida (U.S.A.) south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Perca Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:482 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] South Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: LS 108-109 (left half-skins). Type catalog: Goode & Bean 1885:201 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:60 [ref. 20705]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Perca punctata Linnaeus 1758. Based on 'Yellowtail' in manuscript description, and 2 specimens sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Synonym of Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:432 [ref. 22186], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rastrifer, Stelliferus Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Eigenmann 1889:393 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 3); ref. 2439] Santos, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 10815. Paratypes: MCZ 4582 (2), 10802 (3), 10807 (13), 10811 (1), 10813-14 (5, 1), 10816-17 (15, 1), 10822 (6), 36561 (4), 91347 (13), 91348 [ex MCZ 10815] (1); USNM 130631 (5), 153609 [ex MCZ 10817] (5). •Valid as Stellifer rastrifer (Jordan 1889) -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:377 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:412 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:307 [ref. 24474], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:142 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2003:1644 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:53 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer rastrifer (Jordan 1889). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rathbunae, Larimichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1905:204, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 28 (no. 1391); ref. 2530] Coast of Korea. Holotype (unique): USNM 45299. •Synonym of Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877) -- (Trewavas 1977:396 [ref. 4459], Choi et al. 2003:620 [ref. 26218], Parenti 2020:25 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Larimichthys polyactis (Bleeker 1877). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

rathbuni, Polycirrhus Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:162 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: CAS-SU 408 (1), USNM 41170 (2). •Valid as Paralonchurus rathbuni (Jordan & Bollman 1890) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:166 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:126 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1494 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:309 [ref. 24555], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:404 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:40 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Paralonchurus rathbuni (Jordan & Bollman 1890). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Panama south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

rectifrons, Corvina Heckel [J. J.] in Steindachner 1863:175 [14] [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 48 (1. Abth.); ref. 4208] Not available, Heckel manuscript name mentioned in synonymy. Sciaenidae.

reedi, Umbrina Günther [A.] 1880:25, Pl. 13 (fig. B) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Juan Fernández Islands. Syntypes: BMNH 1874.1.10.4 (1), 1879.5.14.283 (1). Spelled reedii on plate. •Valid as Umbrina reedi Günther 1880 -- (Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Walker & Radford 1992:579 [ref. 20257], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:32 [ref. 24590], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Dyer & Westneat 2010:606 [ref. 31446], Parenti 2020:56 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina reedi Günther 1880. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández Islands, Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

reevesii, Otolithus Richardson [J.] 1846:224 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH uncat. (dry). •Synonym of Nibea albiflora (Richardson 1846) -- (Parenti 2020:32 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Nibea albiflora (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

regalis, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:75 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8700 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:128 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:433 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:189 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:391 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:151 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:201 [ref. 23144], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:436 [ref. 26158], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Anderson & Stephens 2002:327 [ref. 26596], Chao 2003:1613 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:423 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:179 [ref. 32953], Béarez et al. 2016:245 [ref. 34817], Bañón et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35097], Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886], Martins & Carneiro 2018:164 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:275 [ref. 37250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada) south to Florida (U.S.A.), and Gulf of Mexico. Introduced in Portugal and Spain. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

regia, Perca Asso y del Rio [I. J. de] 1801:42, Pl. 35 (fig. 3) [Anales de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid. v. 4 (no. 10); ref. 6523] La Rochelle, Département de la Charente-Maritime, France, Bay of Biscay, Northeastern Atlantic. Neotype: MNHN 0000-7511. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:6 [ref. 6382]. Neotype designated by Trewavas 1966:4 [ref. 21252] -- see ICZN Opinion 988. •Valid as Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801) -- (Trewavas 1973:397 [ref. 7201], Trewavas 1977:324 [ref. 4459], Dor 1984:169 [ref. 29757], Chao in Whitehead et al. 1986:867 [ref. 13676], Chao & Trewavas 1990:814 [ref. 18934], Goren & Dor 1994:44 [ref. 25356], Sasaki 1996:86 [ref. 22156], Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:8 [ref. 22038], Arruda 1997:88 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:100 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S13 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:46 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:90 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:108 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:50 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:372 [ref. 33547], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2639 [ref. 34618], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:102 [ref. 36273], Martins & Carneiro 2018:163 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:275 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:80 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:39 [ref. 37519], Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Congo, including Madeira; Red Sea (Mediterranean Sea immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

remifer, Isopisthus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:320 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Panama. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1903.5.15.166 (1); USNM 29169 (3), 29312 (1), 29324 (1), 29336 (1), 29429 (1, not found in 1980). •Valid as Isopisthus remifer Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:161 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1466 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:314 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:387 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:451 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544]). •Synonym of Isopisthus altipinnis (Steindachner 1866) -- (Parenti 2020:19 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Isopisthus altipinnis (Steindachner 1866). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

resplendens, Johnius Hombron [J. B.] & Jacquinot [H.] in Jacquinot & Guichenot 1853:45, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Oceanie v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 18307] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:22 [ref. 6382]. Based on a drawing. •Questionably a synonym of Pennahia macrophthalmus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Trewavas 1977:314 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Pennahia macrophthalmus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Talwar 1995:37 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Pennahia aneus (Bloch 1793) -- (Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439] as anea). Current status: Synonym of Pennahia aneus (Bloch 1793). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Otolithus Günther [A.] 1864:149 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] San José and Chiapam, Guatelmala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.324. •Valid as Cynoscion reticulatus (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:160 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1460 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:363 [ref. 24550], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion reticulatus (Günther 1864). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Panama. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rex, Sciaena antarctica Whitley [G. P.] 1945:26 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 1); ref. 4707] Onslow, Western Australia. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:364 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:70 [ref. 25194], Bray et al. 2006:1263 [ref. 29091], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:46 [ref. 37439] as diacantha). Current status: Synonym of Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rhomboidalis, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] 1829:173 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Cayenne, French Guiana. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:24 [ref. 6382]. Available from footnote as, "Ot. rhomboidalis ou Lutjan de Cayenne, Lacép., IV, p. 245." •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

richardsonii, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:100 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Lake Huron, North America. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:22 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819 -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983] as richardsoni, Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:599 [ref. 27061], Parenti 2020:3 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque 1819. Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

robinsoni, Umbrina Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:182 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 9966. •Valid or a possible synonym of Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843 -- (Trewavas 1977:281 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843 -- (Heemstra 1986:619 [ref. 5660], Chao & Trewavas 1990:825 [ref. 18934]). •Valid as Umbrina robinsoni Gilchrist & Thompson 1908 -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:272 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2020:56 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina robinsoni Gilchrist & Thompson 1908. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

roncador, Umbrina Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:277 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 227); ref. 10613] Pequeña Bay, western coast of Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 29371. Additional material: USNM 26758, 26849, 26864 (unspecified quantity). Apparently described form one specimen; specimens mentioned on p. 278 as distributed by the USNM are regarded as additional material. •Valid as Umbrina roncador Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:222 [ref. 9277], Walker & Radford 1992:576 [ref. 20257], Allen & Robertson 1994:169 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1516 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:269 [ref. 24545], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:250 [ref. 35888], Parenti 2020:56 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina roncador Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

ronchus, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:107 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Lectotype: MHNH 7634. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0095 (1) Dominican Republic, 5345 (2) Suriname, 7637 (1), A-5543 (1) Martinique. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:9 [ref. 6382]. Lectotype selected by Marceniuk et al. 2019:1 [ref. 36684]. •Valid as Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:398 [ref. 23827] as rhonchus, Cervigón 1993:242 [ref. 24474], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:182 [ref. 22947], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:265 [ref. 24545], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:383 [ref. 24550], Marín 2000:75 [ref. 26252], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Chao 2003:1602 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:416 [ref. 28815], Matamoros et al. 2009:19 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1002 [ref. 33194], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324] as cf. ronchus, Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Marceniuk et al. 2019:12 [ref. 36684], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda south to Santa Catarina (Brazil), including Caribbean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ronchus, Umbrina Valenciennes [A.] 1843:24 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5764 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:20 [ref. 6382]. Neotype as BMNH 1964.12.30.1 was designated by Palmer 1966; holotype found after neotype was designated [technically the case should be submitted to the ICZN]. •Valid as Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843 -- (Trewavas 1973:400-401 [ref. 7201], Trewavas 1977:281 [ref. 4459], Chao in Whitehead et al. 1986:873 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1986:619 [ref. 5660], Chao & Trewavas 1990:825 [ref. 18934], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:165 [ref. 25472], Randall 1995:232 [ref. 22896], Sasaki 1996:84 [ref. 22156], Carpenter et al. 1997:191 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:272 [ref. 28072] with range change, Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2653 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:276 [ref. 37250], Eagderi et al. 2019:103 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2020:56 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: southern Portugal south to Angola, including Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands; western Indian Ocean: South Africa to Oman and Persian Gulf. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rostratus, Menticirrhus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:265, Fig. 58 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Paita Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128002. Paratypes: USNM 128003 (1). •Synonym of Menticirrhus elongatus (Günther 1864) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1472 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:307 [ref. 24555], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus elongatus (Günther 1864). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

rubella, Sciaena Jardine [W.] & Schomburgk [R. H.] in Schomburgk 1843:133 [The natural history of fishes of Guiana.--Part II; ref. 3948] Guiana rivers. •Species inquirenda in Plagioscion -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Parenti 2020:58 [ref. 37439]). •Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) -- (Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:44 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ruber, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:75, Pl. 17 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5528 (right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:129 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Trewavas 1977:349 [ref. 4459], Heemstra 1986:619 [ref. 5660], Daget & Trewavas 1986:335 [ref. 6211], Winterbottom et al. 1989:40 [ref. 13251], Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702], Randall 1995:231 [ref. 22896], Talwar 1995:58 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:373 [ref. 27969] with author as Schneider, Sasaki 1996:88 [ref. 22156], Chen et al. 1997:72 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:190 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:304 [ref. 24106], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:249 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Sasaki 2001:3164 [ref. 26108], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:38 [ref. 27712] with author as Schneider, Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:271 [ref. 28072], Bray et al. 2006:1262 [ref. 29091], Motomura 2009:172 [ref. 30446], Coad 2010:266 [ref. 36620], Larson et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:156 [ref. 34464], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2015:64 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:278 [ref. 34104], Lo et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35288], Motomura et al. 2017:160 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:333 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:224 [ref. 35805], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:186 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:102 [ref. 37020], Lin et al. 2019:16 [ref. 36846], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:493 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to northern Vietnam and southern China, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

rubescens, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:307 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname rivers. Based on Gronow Zoophyl. N. 212, later described as Sciaena cestreus Gronow in Gray 1854 [ref. 1911]. •Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

russelii, Umbrina Cuvier [G.] 1829:174 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Andaman Islands [Orig. locality: Vizagapatam, India]. Neotype: BMNH 1889.2.1.3087. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:26 [ref. 6382]. Available from footnote as, "Aj. Omb. [sic Umbrina] russelii, N. Russel, 118". Also see Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:178 [ref. 999] who used russelii. Neotype designated by Trewavas 1964:111. Named for Russell (mispelled as Russel), here not considered as an inadvertent error, therefore spelling russelii retained. •Valid as Dendrophysa russelli (Cuvier 1829) -- (Trewavas 1977:367 [ref. 4459], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:854 [ref. 20764], Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:382 [ref. 23876], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:227 [ref. 24016], Talwar 1995:72 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:366 [ref. 27969], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703] in Dendrophis, Motomura 2009:170 [ref. 30446], Yoshida et al. 2013:154 [ref. 34464], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2015:62 [ref. 34319], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:182 [ref. 36460]). •Valid as Dendrophysa russellii (Cuvier 1829) -- (Sasaki 1996:89 [ref. 22156], Kottelat 2013:357 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Dendrophysa russelii (Cuvier 1829) -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:274 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:159 [ref. 35490], Suresh et al. 2018:251 [ref. 36495], Psomadakis et al. 2020:489 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Dendrophysa russelii (Cuvier 1829). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan and India east to eastern Indonesia and Philippines, north to northern Vietnam and southern China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sampitensis, Corvina Bleeker [P.] 1852:421 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 16827] Sampit, South Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5982 (1 of 20). Bleeker specimens: MNHN 0000-5982 (2). •Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:379 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:84 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156] as samptiensis and syntypes at MNHN, Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sanctaeluciae, Corvula Jordan [D. S.] 1890:649 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 789); ref. 10482] St. Lucia, West Indies. Holotype (unique): USNM 41732. Originally as sanctae-luciae, correction mandatory. •Valid as Bairdiella sanctaeluciae (Jordan 1890) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:185 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:398 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:244 [ref. 24474], Musick 2000:18 [ref. 24959], Marín 2000:75 [ref. 26252], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265]). •Valid as Corvula sanctaeluciae Jordan 1890 -- (Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Chao 2003:1604 [ref. 27097] dated 1889, McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:418 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:57 [ref. 33341] dated 1889, Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886], Parenti 2020:12 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Corvula sanctaeluciae Jordan 1890. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Guianas, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

saturnus, Amblodon Girard [C. F.] 1858:98 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 638 (orig. 3, now 2). •Valid as Cheilotrema saturnum (Girard 1858) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:219 [ref. 9277], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1450 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:248 [ref. 35888], Parenti 2020:10 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cheilotrema saturnum (Girard 1858). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of Baka California and northern Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

sauvagei, Sciaena Rochebrune [A. T. de] 1880:161 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 3790] Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN A-8146 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:18 [ref. 6382]. Also appeared in Rochebrune 1883:88, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [ref. 18639]. •Synonym of Pseudotolithus brachygnathus Bleeker 1863 -- (Chao & Trewavas 1990:819 [ref. 18934], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotolithus brachygnathus Bleeker 1863. Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

saxatilis, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:75 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8792 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:129 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Menticirrhus saxatilis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:31 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:434 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:187 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:146 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:197 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:373 [ref. 24550], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:442 [ref. 26158], Chao 2003:1628 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:433 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Menticirrhus saxatilis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts south to southern Florida (U.S.A.), and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

schlegeli, Pseudosciaena Bleeker [P.] 1879:9 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 18; ref. 460] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 26848 [ex RMNH 5973]. Paralectotypes: RMNH 5973 (2). Lectotype designation not researched, not designated here; RMNH is also the neotype of Pennahia argentata (Houttuyn 1782). Based on Sciaena sina of Temminck & Schlegel (not Cuvier). •Synonym of Pennahia argentata (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Trewavas 1977:319 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pennahia argentata (Houttuyn 1782). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

schomburgkii, Pachyurus Günther [A.] 1860:282 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Rio Capin [= Capim], Pará State, and Caripe Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1849.11.8.22 (1) Rio Capin [= Capim]. Günther 1860 lists two localities in his original description, therefore there are 2 syntypes; the "holotype" listed by Casatti 2001:146 [ref. 25918] apparently formed most or all of the description, but it is still a syntype; under proper circumstances it should be designated the lectotype. •Valid as Pachyurus schomburgkii Günther 1860 [sometimes seen as schomburgki] -- (Chao 1978:43 [ref. 6983], Ortega & Vari 1986:20 [ref. 9708], Soares & Casatti 2000:511 [ref. 24955], Casatti 2001:145 [ref. 25918], Casatti & Chao 2002:5 [ref. 26002], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Sarmiento et al. 2014:133, 189 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:103 [ref. 35633], Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachyurus schomburgkii Günther 1860. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and Orinoco River basins (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

sciera, Sciaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1884:480 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 452); ref. 10624] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico; or Panama. Syntypes: USNM 29499 (?). Additional material: USNM 28385 (1), 29229 (1), 29269 (1), 29275 (1), 29337, 29638, 29490, 29499. •Valid as Ophioscion scierus (Jordan & Gilbert 1884) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:164 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:134 [ref. 23101] as sciera, Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1485 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:320 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:404 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Ophioscion scierus (Jordan & Gilbert 1884). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

semifasciata, Nibea Chu [Y.-T.], Lo [Y.-L.] & Wu [H.-L.] 1963:51 [English p. 91], Figs. 28, 54, 80 [Publications Shanghai Fisheries Institute; ref. 833] Cha-po, Kwangtung Province, China. Holotype (unique): SFC 57-0337. •Valid as Nibea semifasciata Chu, Lo & Wu 1963 -- (Trewavas 1977:381 [ref. 4459], Roberts 1978:59 [ref. 8886], Kyushin et al. 1982:134 [ref. 19754], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:868 [ref. 25182], Sasaki 2001:3161 [ref. 26108], Nakabo 2002:868 [ref. 26193], Allen et al. 2008:138 [ref. 30265], Lo et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35288], Motomura et al. 2017:159 [ref. 35490], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nibea semifasciata Chu, Lo & Wu 1963. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Philippines, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

semiluctuosa, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:97, Pl. 106 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Malabar, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7537. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1987-0155 [ex MNHN 0000-7537] (1), 0000-7592 (1) Goa, 7596 (2) Puducherry; ?SMF 510 [ex MNHN in 1830] (1) Puducherry; ?ZMB 876 [ex MNHN] (1) Puducherry. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:9-10 [ref. 6382]. Lectotype selected by Trewavas 1977:370 [ref. 4459]. •Valid as Paranibea semiluctuosa (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:370 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:76 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:374 [ref. 27969], Sasaki 1996:89 [ref. 22156], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:279 [ref. 34104], Psomadakis et al. 2020:495 [ref. 37272] as cf. semiluctuosa, Parenti 2020:41 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Paranibea semiluctuosa (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Pakistan east to western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

senegalensis, Johnius Cuvier [G.] 1829:173 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Not available, no distinguishing features -- a new species from Senegal. Also listed as name only by Cuvier 1831:128 [ref. 30376]. Sciaenidae.

senegalensis, Otolithus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:476 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7512 (1), 0000-7514 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:16 [ref. 6382] with MNHN 7512 as holotype. •Valid as Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Trewavas 1973:398 [ref. 7201], Chao in Whitehead et al. 1986:869 [ref. 13676], Daget & Trewavas 1986:336 [ref. 6211], Chao & Trewavas 1990:820 [ref. 18934], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:703 [ref. 21590], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:433 [ref. 30078], Wirtz et al. 2007:13, 35 [ref. 30263], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2646 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Valenciennes 1833). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands and São Tomé and Príncipe. Habitat: brackish, marine.

senegalensis, Sciaena Günther [A.] 1860:290 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7520. Unjustified emendation of Corvina senegalla Cuvier 1829. •Synonym of Pseudotolithus senegallus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudotolithus senegallus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

senegalla, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:132 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7520. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:10 [ref. 6382]. Apparently an anomaly, Trewavas (1962:172) retained it as species dubia to maintain nomenclatural stability. •Possible synonym of Pseudotolithus brachygnathus Bleeker 1863 -- (Chao & Trewavas 1990:819 [ref. 18934]). •Valid as Pseudotolithus senegallus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Sasaki 1993:361 [ref. 22458], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:433 [ref. 30078], Wirtz et al. 2007:13 [ref. 30263], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2647 [ref. 34618], Almeida & Alves 2019:271 [ref. 37509], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pseudotolithus senegallus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to southern Angola, including Cape Verde Islands and São Tomé and Príncipe. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

serratus, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:76 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8723 (dry, missing). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:129 [ref. 24282]. •Doubtful species, placement uncertain -- (Trewavas 1977:448 [ref. 4459]). •Questionable in the synonymy of Macrospinosa cuja (Hamilton 1822) -- (Parenti 2020:28 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Uncertain as Macrospinosa cuja (Hamilton 1822). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sialis, Corvula Jordan [D. S.] & Eigenmann [C. H.] 1889:379 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 3); ref. 2439] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 26575. •Synonym of Bairdiella batabana (Poey 1860) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983]). •Synonym of Corvula batabana (Poey 1860) -- (Parenti 2020:12 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Corvula batabana (Poey 1860). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

siamensis, Otolithoides Fowler [H. W.] 1934:153, Fig. 121 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype (unique): ANSP 60171. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Johnius by Sciaena siamensis Hora 1924. •Synonym of Johnius trachycephalus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Trewavas 1977:421 [ref. 4459], Sasaki 2001:3151 [ref. 26108], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:24 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius trachycephalus (Bleeker 1851). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

siamensis, Sciaena Hora [S. L.] 1924:487, Fig. 4 [Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 6 (pt 9); ref. 15450] Singgora, Talé Sap, Thailand. Holotype (unique): ZSI. See Das 2003:376 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Johnius vogleri (Bleeker 1853) -- (Trewavas 1977:441 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Johnieops vogleri (Bleeker 1853) -- (Talwar 1995:113 [ref. 25194]). •Synonym of Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Sasaki 1999:275 [ref. 24049], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

similis, Cynoscion Randall [J. E.] & Cervigón [F.] 1968:179, fig. 2 [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 27 (no. 78) (for 1967); ref. 19857] Porlamar fish market, Isla de Margarita, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 201382. Paratypes: UF [ex UMML 4299] (1), 212502 [ex UMML 12502] (1); UPR 2868 (1); MOBR-EDIMAR-P-1978 (4). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1999:111 [ref. 33859]. •Valid as Cynoscion similis Randall & Cervigón 1968 -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:371 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:401 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:261 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Chao 2002:10 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1614 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion similis Randall & Cervigón 1968. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Isla Margarita (Venezuela). Habitat: marine.

simulus, Ophioscion Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1449 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 5516. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291]. Author is C. H. Gilbert. Also appeared as Gilbert in Gilbert & Starks 1904:130, Pl. 19 (fig. 38) [ref. 1639]. •Valid as Ophioscion simulus Gilbert 1898 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:165 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:134 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1486 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Ophioscion simulus Gilbert 1898. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica and Panama. Habitat: marine.

simus, Menticirrhus Jordan [D. S.] & Eigenmann [C. H.] 1889:427 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 3); ref. 2439] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico; Panama (Pacific). Holotype: USNM 28292. •Synonym of Menticirrhus nasus (Günther 1868) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1473 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Menticirrhus nasus (Günther 1868). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

sina, Corvina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:122 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Puducherry and Malabar, India; Japan. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7521 (2), 7633 (1, dry), B-2648 [ex MNHN 0000-7521] (1, poor condition); ZMB 892 (1), 8737 (dry) Japan. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:10 [ref. 6382]. Type information: Trewavas 1977:431 [ref. 4459]. •Valid as Johnius sina (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:439 [ref. 4459], Daget & Trewavas 1986:334 [ref. 6211], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:228 [ref. 24016], Randall 1995:230 [ref. 22896], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710]). •Valid as Wak sina (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chen et al. 1997:72 [ref. 26476] with author and date as Tang 1937). •Synonym of Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier 1830) -- (Sasaki 1996:92 [ref. 22156], Carpenter et al. 1997:189 [ref. 23922], Sasaki 1999:274 [ref. 24049]). •See also Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702]. •Valid as Johnieops sina (Cuvier 1830) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:854 [ref. 20764], Talwar 1995:120 [ref. 25194], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:248 [ref. 24754], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:37 [ref. 27712]). •Valid as Johnius sina (Cuvier 1830) -- (Parenti 2020:23 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius sina (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) east to west coast of Malaysia. Habitat: marine.

sinaloae, Umbrina Scofield [N. B.] in Jordan 1896:220, Pl. 25 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 6; ref. 2395] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: CAS-SU 1632. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 1632 (37, incl. lectotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in Jordan 1896:244 [ref. 2395] if specimen is identifiable; also caption to Pl. 224, p. 3279 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Umbrina xanti Gill 1862 -- (Walker & Radford 1992:578 [ref. 20257], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1518 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:370 [ref. 24550] as sinaloe, Parenti 2020:57 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina xanti Gill 1862. Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

sinuata, Umbrina Day [F.] 1876:182, Pl. 46 (fig. 1) [The fishes of India Part 2; ref. 1081] Karachi, Pakistan. Syntypes (2) and/or Day specimen: ZSI 939 (1, fragile). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762]. •Valid or possibly a synonym of Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843 -- (Trewavas 1977:279 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843 -- (Talwar 1995:12 [ref. 25194], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843. Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

soldado, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:344, 389 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] "Cayenne" [erroneous, should be Indo-West Pacific]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7606 (1, dry) no locality. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:9 [ref. 6382], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:11 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Pseudosciaena soldado (Lacepède 1802) -- (Allen & Coates 1990:88 [ref. 25561], Allen et al. 1992:301 [ref. 21400]). •Valid as Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:378 [ref. 4459], Allen 1991:140 [ref. 21090], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Talwar 1995:83 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:371 [ref. 27969], Sasaki 1996:89 [ref. 22156], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122] as saldado, Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Sasaki 2001:3162 [ref. 26108], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S110 [ref. 27377], Bray et al. 2006:1262 [ref. 29091], Motomura 2009:171 [ref. 30446], Larson et al. 2013:149 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2015:63 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:277 [ref. 34104], Miesen et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34492], Lo et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35288], Ali et al. 2018:333 [ref. 36183], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:186 [ref. 36460], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439], Psomadakis et al. 2020:493 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan and India east to Philippines, north to northern Vietnam, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

sparoides, Argyrosomus De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:532 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] Not available, no distinguishing features. From Baie de Bourg-Neuf, France. Sciaenidae.

squamipennis, Pachyurus Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:128, Pl. 71 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] São Francisco River basin, Brazil. No types known. The spelling squamipennis is perfectly acceptable; Jordan & Eigenmann 1889:410 [ref. 2439] regarded the spelling squamipennis as a misprint; squamipinnis Jordan & Eigenmann is an unjustified emendation (contrary to the discussion in Casatti 2001:145 [ref. 25918]). •Valid as Pachyurus squamipennis Agassiz 1831 -- (Chao 1978:43 [ref. 6983], Soares & Casatti 2000:500 [ref. 24955] as squamipinnis, Casatti 2001:139 [ref. 25918] as squamipinnis, Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192] as squamipinnis, Parenti 2020:38 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachyurus squamipennis Agassiz 1831. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: São Francisco River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

squamipennis, Sciaena Cuvier [G.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:128 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Not available, name only. Sciaenidae.

squamipinnis, Otolithus Günther [A.] 1867:601 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Panama (Pacific). Syntypes: BMNH 1865.7.20.20-21 (2). Described in more detail in Günther 1868:429 [ref. 1994]. •Valid as Cynoscion squamipinnis (Günther 1867) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:160 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1461 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:317 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:360 [ref. 24550], Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:451 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion squamipinnis (Günther 1867). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

squamosa, Nibea Sasaki [K.] 1992:1, Figs. 1-4 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 39 (no. 1); ref. 19227] Lake Herbert Hoover, main stream of Middle Fly River, Fly River, Papua New Guinea, 7°14'S, 141°08'18"E. Holotype: USNM 217221. Paratypes: AMS I.21481-001 [ex USNM 217223] (1), I.22081-015 (1); NTM S.11197-001 (1), S.11400-001 (2), S.11401-001 (1), S.11566-001 (3), S.12585-001 (1); QM I.11560 (1), I.20043-44 (1, 1), I.20066 (1), I.25443 (1), I.26267 (1); USNM 217222 (2). •Valid as Austronibea squamosa (Sasaki 1992) -- (Lo et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35288]). •Valid as Nibea squamosa Sasaki 1992 -- (Allen et al. 2000:111 [ref. 27467], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2002:347 [ref. 25930], Sasaki 2001:3163 [ref. 26108], Morgan et al. 2004:151 [ref. 27718], Bray et al. 2006:1262 [ref. 29091], Allen et al. 2008:138 [ref. 30265], Larson et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32988], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Nibea squamosa Sasaki 1992. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: northern Australia and south-central New Guinea (Papua Province, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

squamosissima, Sciaena Heckel [J. J.] 1840:438, Pl. 30 (figs. 26-28) [Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte v. 2; ref. 2064] Rio Negro and Rio Branco, South America. Syntypes: NMW 75985 (4), 83543 (1), 92124 (1); SMF 2961 [ex NMW in 1844] (1, dry). Soares & Casatti 2000:512 [ref. 24955] treat NMW 92124 as the holotype. •Valid as Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) -- (Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983], Ortega & Vari 1986:20 [ref. 9708], Gómez & Chebez 1996:65 [ref. 23791], Keith et al. 2000:138 [ref. 24547], Soares & Casatti 2000:512 [ref. 24955], Aguilera & Rodrigues de Aguilera 2001:66 [ref. 25927], Lasso et al. 2001:101 [ref. 25928], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27366], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Menni 2004:87 [ref. 28131], Casatti 2005:42 [ref. 28401], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Ramos et al. 2014:5 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:133, 189 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:55 [ref. 35117], Melo et al. 2016:377 [ref. 35317], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:103 [ref. 35633], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35773], Parenti 2020:44 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840). Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon, Orinoco, Paraná, Paraguay and São Francisco basins and rivers of the Guianas (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paru, Suriname and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

squeteague, Labrus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:396, Pl. 2 (fig. 6) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:433 [ref. 22186], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

stahli, Monosira Poey [F.] 1881:326, Pl. 6 [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 10; ref. 3511] Puerto Rico. No types known. •Synonym of Larimus breviceps Cuvier 1830 -- (Chao 1978:31 [ref. 6983]). Current status: Synonym of Larimus breviceps Cuvier 1830. Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

starksi, Sciaena Evermann [B. W.] & Radcliffe [L.] 1917:104 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 95; ref. 1284] Callao, Peru. Holotype: USNM 53464. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9859 (1). Replacement name for Sciaena gilberti Starks 1906, preoccupied by Sciaena gilberti Abbott 1899. •Valid as Sciaena starksi Evermann & Radcliffe 1917 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:323 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Robaloscion wieneri (Sauvage 1883) -- (Béarez & Schwarzhans 2014:273 [ref. 33019], Parenti 2020:48 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Robaloscion wieneri (Sauvage 1883). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

stearnsii, Corvina Steindachner [F.] 1875:50 [22] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 18040 (3); NMW 14624 (1), 76994 (1). On p. 22 of separate. •Valid as Roncador stearnsii (Steindachner 1875) (sometimes dated to 1876) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:221 [ref. 9277], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1499 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:250 [ref. 35888], Parenti 2020:49 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Roncador stearnsii (Steindachner 1875). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

steindachneri, Cestraeus Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Eigenmann 1889:372 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 3); ref. 2439] Ponta Curuçá, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 10922. •Valid as Cynoscion steindachneri (Jordan 1889) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:401 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:263 [ref. 24474], Keith et al. 2000:126 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:10 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1615 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion steindachneri (Jordan 1889). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Central America south to northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

steindachneri, Umbrina Cadenat [J.] 1951:221, Fig. 156 [Initiations Africaines. III. Poissons de mer du Sénégal; ref. 12676] Senegal. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:26 [ref. 6382]. Based on Umbrina cirrhosa var. canariensis of Steindachner. •Questionably a synonym of Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843 -- (Chao in Whitehead et al. 1986:872 [ref. 13676]). •Valid as Umbrina steindachneri Cadenat 1951 -- (Chao & Trewavas 1990:826 [ref. 18934], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2654[ref. 34618], Parenti 2020:56 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina steindachneri Cadenat 1951. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

stellifer, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:55, Pl. 231 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa [probably Suriname]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 885. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:128 [ref. 24282]. On p. 41 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. Spelled stellatus in Lacepède 1802:285, 297 [ref. 4929]. See Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983] for locality comment. •Valid as Stellifer stellifer (Bloch 1790) -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:413 [ref. 23827], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2003:1645 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:53 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer stellifer (Bloch 1790). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

stewarti, Pachyurus Casatti [L.] & Chao [L. N.] 2002:2, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 38; ref. 26002] Río Aguarico, in the confluence with Río Pushino, 0°2.6'N, 76°54.4'W, Sucumbios, Ecuador. Holotype: FMNH 101957. Paratypes: FMNH 94410 (2), 94116 (1), 101956 (1). •Valid as Pachyurus stewarti Casatti & Chao 2002 -- (Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Parenti 2020:39 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachyurus stewarti Casatti & Chao 2002. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Napo River drainage (Ecuador). Habitat: freshwater.

stolzmanni, Otolithus Steindachner [F.] 1879:33 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Tumbes, Peru. Syntypes: (several) NMW. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:35, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [ref. 4228]. •Valid as Cynoscion stolzmanni (Steindachner 1879) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:160 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1462 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:318 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:364 [ref. 24550], Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:451 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion stolzmanni (Steindachner 1879). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

strabo, Ophioscion Gilbert [C. H.] 1897:444, Pl. 50 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] San Juan Lagoon, south of Guaymas, western coast of Mexico. Holotype: USNM 47742. Paratypes: (5) CAS-SU 436 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Ophioscion strabo Gilbert 1897 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:165 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:134 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1487 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:375 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Ophioscion strabo Gilbert 1897. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

striata, Umbrina Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:181 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Umbrina striata Boulenger 1887. Sciaenidae.

striata, Umbrina Boulenger [G. A.] 1888:660 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 4); ref. 14479] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.11.11.164 (stuffed). •Synonym of Umbrina sinuata Day 1876 and a possible synonym of Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1834 -- (Trewavas 1977:279 [ref. 4459]). •Synonym of Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843 -- (Talwar 1995:12 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:84 [ref. 22156], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843. Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] 1829:173 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Brazil. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:24 [ref. 6382]. Available from footnote as, "Ot. striatus, Nob., ou guatucupa, Margr., Bras., 177." Senior synonym of Otolithus guatucupa Cuvier 1830, but O. guatucupa is in prevailing usage. •Valid as Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:224 [ref. 14235], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). •Regarded as a nomen dubium as Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Figueiredo 1992:117 [ref. 21464]). •In the synonymy of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1829). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic (if valid). Habitat: marine.

suavis, Sciaena de Buen [F.] 1961:17 [Montemar No. 1; ref. 698] Arica, Chile. Holotype: EBMC 10377. Paratypes: EBMC 10378 (1). •Valid as Sciaena suavis de Buen 1961 -- (Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Corvina deliciosa Tschudi 1846 -- (L. Ning, pers. com. 6/2000). •Synonym of Callaus deliciosa (Tschudi 1846) -- (Parenti 2020:10 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Callaus deliciosa (Tschudi 1846). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

subaequalis, Corvina Poey [F.] 1875:58 [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 11 (nos 3-4) (art. 6); ref. 18564] Cuba. Holotype (unique): ?ZMB [lost]. •Nomen dubium -- (Marceniuk et al. 2019:14 [ref. 36684]). •Synonym of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:384 [ref. 24550], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

submaculatus, Otolithus Blyth [E.] 1860:141 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 477] Sitang River, Myanmar (correct locality Calcutta, India.) Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Pterotolithus maculatus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:355 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:64 [ref. 25194], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:48 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Pterotolithus maculatus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

subtruncatus, Homoprion Gill [T. N.] 1861:33 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 13 (Suppl.); ref. 1766] South Carolina, U.S.A. Based on Leiostomus xanthurus of Storer 1846:69 [ref. 18840]. •Synonym of Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802) -- (Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

surinamensis, Pseudosciaena Bleeker [P.] 1873:458, Pl. 21 (side figure) [Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles v. 8; ref. 17099] Suriname. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5995. •Valid as Plagioscion surinamensis (Bleeker 1873) -- (Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983], Keith et al. 2000:140 [ref. 24547], Soares & Casatti 2000:513 [ref. 24955], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Casatti 2005:42 [ref. 28401]). Current status: Valid as Plagioscion surinamensis (Bleeker 1873). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Amazon and Magdalena River basins and coastal rivers of Suriname: Brazil, Colombia and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

taipingensis, Nibea Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1932:436 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 11 (no. 3); ref. 10975] Market at Taiping, Kwangtung, China. Holotype: CAS-SU 25723. Paratypes: CAS-SU 69834 [ex CAS-SU 25723] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Bahaba taipingensis (Herre 1932) -- (Trewavas 1977:285 [ref. 4459], Zheng 1989:320 [ref. 21202], Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:380 [ref. 23876], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Parenti 2020:8 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Bahaba taipingensis (Herre 1932). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: South China Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taiwanensis, Johnius Chao [N. L.], Chang [C.-W.], Chen [M.-H.], Guo [C.-C.], Lin [B.-A.], Liou [Y.-Y.], Shen [K.-N.] & Liu [M.] 2019:262, Figs. 3b-9 [Zootaxa 4651 (no. 2); ref. 36884] Jiangjun Port, Tainan, Taiwan. Holotype: NMMBP 23063. Paratypes: CAS, MCZ, NMMBP, USNM. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Johnius taiwanensis Chao, Chang, Chen, Guo, Lin, Liou, Shen & Liu 2019 -- (Parenti 2020:23 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius taiwanensis Chao, Chang, Chen, Guo, Lin, Liou, Shen & Liu 2019. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan Strait (China and Taiwan) endemic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tenlo, Sciaena Basilewsky [S.] 1855:220, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [not Pl. 1 (fig. 3)] [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Gulf of Pechili; Beijing [Peking], China. No types at ZIN. Originally as ten-lo, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Nibea albiflora (Richardson 1846) -- (Parenti 2020:32 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Nibea albiflora (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

teraglin, Otolithus Macleay [W.] 1880:48 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 17579] Sydney market, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.9773. •Synonym of Atractoscion aequidens (Cuvier 1830) -- (Trewavas 1977:283 [ref. 4459], Chao & Trewavas 1990:815 [ref. 18934], Sasaki 1996:84 [ref. 22156], Bray et al. 2006:1258 [ref. 29091]). •Synonym of Atractoscion atelodus (Günther 1867) -- (Song et al. 2017:223 [ref. 35529]). Current status: Synonym of Atractoscion atelodus (Günther 1867). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

terengganui, Larimichthys Seah [Y. G.], Hanafi [N.], Mazlan [A. G.] & Chao [N. L.] 2015:272, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 3956 (no. 2); ref. 33796] Fish landing port at Pulau Kambing, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Holotype: NMMB-P 21523. Paratypes: KAUM I, NMMB-P, UNTF. •Valid as Pseudolarimichthys terengganui (Seah, Hanafi, Mazlan & Chao 2015) -- (Parenti 2020:46 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pseudolarimichthys terengganui (Seah, Hanafi, Mazlan & Chao 2015). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Habitat: marine.

ternetzi, Plagioscion Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:523 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1895 (pt 3); ref. 14576] Remanso, Rio Grande, Paraguay. Lectotype: BMNH 1895.5.17.1. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.17.2 (1). Lectotype selected by Casatti 2005:56 [ref. 28401]. •Valid as Plagioscion ternetzi Boulenger 1895 -- (Chao 1978:44 [ref. 6983], Gómez & Chebez 1996:65 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:142 [ref. 24147], Soares & Casatti 2000:513 [ref. 24955], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:601 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27366], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Menni 2004:87 [ref. 28131], Casatti 2005:55 [ref. 28401], Koerber 2011:8 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:55 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35267], Parenti 2020:44 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Plagioscion ternetzi Boulenger 1895. Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Paraguay and lower Paraná River basins (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay). Habitat: freshwater.

thalassinus, Otolithus Holbrook [J. E.] 1855:132, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology of South Carolina; ref. 2184] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. Also appeared in second edition, 1860:133, Pl. 18 (fig. 2). •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thallapinus, Otolithus Holbrook [J. E.] 1848:Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [Southern ichthyology: or, a description of the fishes inhabiting the waters of South Carolina Georgia and Florida. No. III; ref. 24519] South Carolina. No types known. See Anderson & Stephens 2002:327 [ref. 26596] for information on this obscure work. •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Anderson & Stephens 2002:327 [ref. 26596], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thompsoni, Sciaena Hubbs [C. L.] 1921:1, Pl. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 92; ref. 15315] Avalon, Santa Catalina Island, California, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 55053 [ex FMNH 9098]. •Synonym of Umbrina roncador Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Walker & Radford 1992:576 [ref. 20257], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1516 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:56 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina roncador Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

thorax, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:77 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname [Cayenne, French Guiana]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5502. Both Cheilodipterus acoupa Lacepède 1801 and Johnius thorax Bloch & Schneider described from the same holotype in the same year; publication date of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710] established as 18 Oct. 1801, which is earlier than that of Bloch & Schneider 1801 [ref. 471] (unknown, therefore set to 31 Dec. 1801). Also, Johnius thorax was not used as valid by later authors, and is here treated as a nomen oblitum. •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

thorpei, Argyrosomus Smith [M. M.] 1977:562, Pls. 1 (fig. C), 2 [Journal of Zoology (London) v. 181 (no. 4); ref. 7284] Off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 674. Paratypes: BMNH 1976.10.18.1 (10); RUSI 675-680 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 2587 (1), 2651 (2). •Valid as Argyrosomus thorpei Smith 1977 -- (Trewavas 1977:337 [ref. 4459], Heemstra 1986:617 [ref. 5660], Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:19 [ref. 22038], Sasaki 1996:86 [ref. 22156], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:270 [ref. 28072], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:2 [ref. 32775], Fricke et al. 2018:223 [ref. 35805], Begum et al. 2018:196 [ref. 36440], Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Argyrosomus thorpei Smith 1977. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa and Mozambique to Madagascar; northeastern Indian Ocean: Bangladesh? Habitat: marine.

timpanistria, Sciaena Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:384 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Appeared as S. timpanistria vel alba in Devincenzi 1925:304, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Micropogon opercularis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Sciaenidae.

tingi, Pseudosciaena Tang [D.-S.] 1937:54, Fig. 1 [The Amoy Marine Biological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 17889] Amoy, China. Holotype: ZMUA 14367. Paratypes: ZMUA 21421-24 (4). •Valid as Johnius tingi (Tang 1937) -- (Trewavas 1977:445 [ref. 4459]). •Valid as Waku tingi (Tang 1937) -- (Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:162 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Johnius distinctus (Tanaka 1916) -- (Sasaki & Amaoka 1989:466 [ref. 12749], Sasaki 1999:276 [ref. 24049], Parenti 2020:21 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius distinctus (Tanaka 1916). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

toeroe, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:72, Pls. 103, 138 (part) [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Cayenne, French Guiana; Suriname; Brazil; Lake Maracaibo. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4616 (1) Cayenne, 0000-5500 (1) Brazil, 0000-5502 (1) Cayenne, A-0456 (1, dry) Brazil, A-0528 (1, dry) Brazil, A-5617 (1, dry) Lake Maricaibo; SMF 2167 [ex MNHN in 1830] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:16 [ref. 6382]. Originally as toe-roe. Possibly an unneeded new name for Lutjanus cayanensis Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

trachycephalus, Corvina Bleeker [P.] 1851:269 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 325] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5973 [?5975] (1 of 4). •Valid as Johnius trachycephalus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Trewavas 1977:421 [ref. 4459], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3151 [ref. 26108], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Lo et al. 2017:15 [ref. 35288], Parenti 2020:24 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius trachycephalus (Bleeker 1851). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Sumatra (Indonesia), Borneo, Thailand and South China Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

trewavasae, Atrobucca Talwar [P. K.] & Sathiarajan [R.] 1975:575, Fig. 1 [Journal of Natural History v. 9 (no. 5); ref. 7476] Bay of Bengal off Madras, India, depth 250 meters. Holotype: ZSI F7131/2. Paratypes: (9) BMNH 1974.7.5.4-5 [wx ZSI 7132/2 and 7138/2] (2); ZSI F7133/2-7137/2 and 7139-7140/2 (7). See Das 2003:375 [ref. 27706] with second author as Sathiarajan. •Valid as Atrobucca trewavasae Talwar & Sathiarajan 1975 -- (Trewavas 1977:343 [ref. 4459], Sasaki & Kailola 1988:274 [ref. 12553], Talwar 1995:50 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:88 [ref. 22156], Parenti 2020:7 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Atrobucca trewavasae Talwar & Sathiarajan 1975. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Bay of Bengal (India). Habitat: marine.

trewavasae, Johnius (Johnius) Sasaki [K.] 1992:191, Figs. 1, 2A [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 39 (no. 3); ref. 15769] Taiwan Strait. Holotype: HUMZ 109504. Paratypes: ANSP 52863 (1), 53478 (2); CAS-SU 60859 (1), 60870 (1), 60918 (1), 61045 (3, 2 c&s), 61080 (2), 61484 (2); HUMZ 109501 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:47 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Johnius trewavasae Sasaki 1992 -- (Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3152 [ref. 26108], Ho & Shao 2011:47 [ref. 31432], Lo et al. 2017:15 [ref. 35288], Ali et al. 2018:332 [ref. 36183], Arshad in Kimura et al. 2018:184 [ref. 36460], Chao et al. 2019:267 [ref. 36884], Parenti 2020:24 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius trewavasae Sasaki 1992. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: South China Sea, East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

trewavasae, Sciaena Chao [L. N.] & Miller [R. V.] 1975:262, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 25 (no. 2); ref. 7412] Caribbean Sea, off Colombia, 11°8'30"N, 74°29'W, Oregon station 4843, depth 100-120 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 211513. Paratypes: AMNH 33469 (1); ANSP 126873 (2); BMNH 1974.4.1.1-2 (2); CAS 29739 (1); FMNH 77046 (1); MCZ 49118 (1); UF 19888 (1), 23588 [ex UMML 31588] (2); USNM 211573-76 (5, 3, 10, 3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Sciaena trewavasae Chao & Miller 1975 -- (Chao 1978:28 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:411 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:297 [ref. 24474], Dennis et al. 2004:77 [ref. 31601]). •Valid as Protosciaena trewavasae (Chao & Miller 1975) -- (Chao 2003:1638 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:46 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Protosciaena trewavasae (Chao & Miller 1975). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Puerto Rico to Colombia and Venezuela (Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

triangulum, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:181 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Eastern U.S.A. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:39 [ref. 21549], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:23 [ref. 6382]. Figured on Pl. 24 (fig. 3) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710]. Based on Commerson drawing and manuscript. •Synonym of Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:34 [ref. 6983] as ocellata, Parenti 2020:50 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tridentifer, Otolithus Richardson [J.] 1846:225 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Holotype (unique) (?): BMNH 2004.11.24.3 (left half skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:214 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Trewavas 1977:350 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:58 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:88 [ref. 22156], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

trifilis, Micropogon Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:622 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Guyana. Holotype: ZMB 936. •Valid as Pachypops trifilis (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Chao 1978:42 [ref. 6983], Casatti 2002:10 [ref. 25936], Casatti in Reis et al. 2003:600 [ref. 27061], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:87 [ref. 27192] dated 1848, Sarmiento et al. 2014:133, 189 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:103 [ref. 35633], Parenti 2020:37 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pachypops trifilis (Müller & Troschel 1849). Sciaenidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River basins and rivers of the Guianas (Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Guyana). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

trispinosa, Corvina Cuvier [G.] 1829:109 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] South Africa. Cuvier specimens: MNHN 0000-5428 (1) Brazil, 7620 (1) Cayenne, A-5544 (2, dry) Brazil. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:10 [ref. 6382] dating to 1830. Based on Bodianus stellifer Bloch, Pl. 331. See also Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:109 [ref. 999]. •Synonym of Stellifer stellifer (Bloch 1790) -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:53 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Stellifer stellifer (Bloch 1790). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tumacoensis, Umbrina Wilson [C.] 1916:67, Pl. 10 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1/2); ref. 12398] Tumaco, Department of Nariño, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56840 [ex CM 5654] (missing). Paratypes: CAS 62852 [IU 13438 b-c] (2), FMNH 56840 [ex CM 5654b-c] (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:92 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:84 [ref. 12367]. IU catalogue entry for 13438 is a-c (3 specimens), with "a" the "type" (holotype), but that specimen is 183 mm TL and cannot be the type; recataloged as CAS 62853. Original spelling of the species was tumacoënsis. •Synonym of Umbrina analis Günther 1868 -- (Walker & Radford 1992:581 [ref. 20257], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1512 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:54 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina analis Günther 1868. Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

typicus, Ophioscion Gill [T. N.] 1863:165 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 5163 [= 22861]. Type catalog: Smith 2018:76 [ref. 36061]. •Valid as Ophioscion typicus Gill 1863 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:165 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:134 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1488 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1003 [ref. 33194], González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Ophioscion typicus Gill 1863. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica south to Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

typus, Pseudotolithus Bleeker [P.] 1863:60, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Ashantee, Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 752. •Valid as Pseudotolithus typus Bleeker 1863 -- (Trewavas 1973:398 [ref. 7201], Chao in Whitehead et al. 1986:869 [ref. 13676], Chao & Trewavas 1990:821 [ref. 18934], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2648 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:276 [ref. 37250], Parenti 2020:47 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pseudotolithus typus Bleeker 1863. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Angola, including Madeira and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

umbra, Perca Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:396, 414 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mediterranean Sea; Antilles; etc. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:117 [ref. 12478], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:24 [ref. 6382]. Unnecessary replacement name for Sciaena cirrosa Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Trewavas 1973:399 [ref. 7201], Chao & Trewavas 1990:824 [ref. 18934], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

umbra, Sciaena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:289 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] [Zara], Zadar, Dalmatia, Croatia, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Neotype: BMNH 1893.9.21.10. Neotype designated by Trewavas 1966:5 [ref. 21252] -- see ICZN Opinion 988. •Valid as Sciaena umbra Linnaeus 1758 -- (Trewavas 1973:396 [ref. 7201], Chao in Whitehead et al. 1986:871 [ref. 13676], Chao & Trewavas 1990:822 [ref. 18934], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:750 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:121 [ref. 23588], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:100 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S13 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:46 [ref. 37112], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:178 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:90 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:109 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:171 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:50 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:373 [ref. 33547], Chao in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2650 [ref. 34618], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:276 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:81 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Parenti 2020:49 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Sciaena umbra Linnaeus 1758. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: English Channel south to Senegal and possibly Gabon, including Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

umbra, Sciaena Hasselquist [F.] 1762:397 [Reise nach Palästina; ref. 18250] Damiatae [Damietta] of Domyāt, Egypt, Mediterranean Sea. Not available, published in a rejected work (ICZN, Opinion 57). Original spelling 'Sciæna vmbra' due to historical typeset, equals 'Sparus niloticus'. Based on Hasselquist 1757:352 [ref. 30181], also a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). •In the synonymy of Sciaena umbra Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Sciaena umbra Linnaeus 1758. Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

umbrina, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xviii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Not available, name only; from Malta. Sciaenidae.

umbrosus, Eques acuminatus var. Jordan [D. S.] & Eigenmann [C. H.] 1889:440 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 3); ref. 2439] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 25981 [or CAS 18958]. For type information see Chao 1978:28 [ref. 6983]. •Valid as Equetus umbrosus Jordan & Eigenmann 1889 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:186 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:145 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:403 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:272 [ref. 24474], Schwartz 2001:129 [ref. 25391]). •Valid as Pareques umbrosus (Jordan & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Chao 1978:28 [ref. 6983], Holt & Riley 1999:825 [ref. 24428], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:270 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Chao 2003:1649 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:441 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:41 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pareques umbrosus (Jordan & Eigenmann 1889). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Atlantic: Chesapeake Bay south to Florida (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

undovittata, Pseudosciaena Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1905:11, Pl. 6 [Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Sciences (Iowa). v. 10; ref. 10645] Market at Hong Kong, China. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 9065. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Larimichthys crocea (Richardson 1846) -- (Trewavas 1977:392 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:24 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Larimichthys crocea (Richardson 1846). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

undulata, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1766:483 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina] and Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, U.S.A. Syntypes: LS 112 (right half-skin), 113 (left half-skin). Type catalog: Goode & Bean 1885:202 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:61 [ref. 20705]. Based on multiple sources, including the 'Croker' of Catesby 1743:3, Pl. 3, fig. 1 (v. 2) [ref. 774] ['Chesapeak' Bay, Virginia], the 'Croker' in manuscript description, and 2 specimens sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983], Lee et al. 1980:760 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:434 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:188 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:146 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:194 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:367 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:409 [ref. 25838], Chao 2003:1630 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:609 [ref. 27995], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:435 [ref. 28815], Miller 2006:352 [ref. 28615], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:359 [ref. 35886], Parenti 2020:31 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Argentina, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

undulata, Umbrina Girard [C. F.] 1854:148 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 370 (1). •Valid as Menticirrhus undulatus (Girard 1854) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:220 [ref. 9277], Cervigón 1992:407 [ref. 23827], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1477 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:307 [ref. 24555], Fuller et al. 1999:407 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:250 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:77 [ref. 37205], Parenti 2020:29 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Menticirrhus undulatus (Girard 1854). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of Baja California (Mexico), and Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

undulatus, Lutjanus Suckow [G. A.] 1799:549 [Naturgeschichte der Thiere v. 4, pt. 1; ref. 18858] New combination for Perca undulata Linnaeus 1766; not an original description. Current status: Synonym of Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus 1766). Sciaenidae.

unicirrata, Sciaena Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:384 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:205, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Ophioscion adustus (Agassiz 1831). •Synonym of Ophioscion adustus (Agassiz 1831) -- (Parenti 2020:34 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Ophioscion adustus (Agassiz 1831). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

valenciennii, Johnius Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Souleyet [F. A.] 1850:159, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 4501] Near Macao, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7623. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:12 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:364 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:69 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:89 [ref. 22156], Kottelat 2013:360 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:45 [ref. 37439] as diacantha). Current status: Synonym of Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

valida, Umbrina Jordan [D. S.] & Gunn [J. A., Jr.] 1898:342 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 50; ref. 10630] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 10584. •Synonym of Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843 -- (Trewavas 1973:401 [ref. 7201], Trewavas 1977:279 [ref. 4459], Chao & Trewavas 1990:824 [ref. 18934], Sasaki 1996:84 [ref. 22156], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina canariensis Valenciennes 1843. Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

vanloo, Perca Risso [A.] 1810:298, Pl. 9 (fig. 30) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:24 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801) -- (Trewavas 1973:397 [ref. 7201], Trewavas 1977:325 [ref. 4459], Chao & Trewavas 1990:814 [ref. 18934], Griffiths & Heemstra 1995:8 [ref. 22038], Parenti 2020:5 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrosomus regius (Asso y del Rio 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

venezuelae, Ophioscion Schultz [L. P.] 1945:131, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 96 (no. 3192); ref. 10151] Near mouth of Caño de Sagua, 25 kilometers north of Sinamaica, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121749. Paratypes: FMNH 62622 [ex USNM 121570] (1), MCZ 37217 [ex USNM 121750], USNM 121750 (orig. 6, now 4). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:62 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Ophioscion venezuelae Schultz 1945 -- (González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960]). •Valid as Stellifer venezuelae (Schultz 1945) -- (Chao 1978:41 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:413 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:311 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Chao 2003:1646 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:53 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer venezuelae (Schultz 1945). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela. Habitat: brackish, marine.

veraecrucis, Bairdiella Jordan [D. S.] & Dickerson [M. C.] 1908:16, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 34 (no. 1592); ref. 10569] Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 61676. Paratypes: CAS-SU 20654 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:77 [ref. 12291]. Originally as verae-crucis. •Synonym of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:39 [ref. 6983], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:384 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Bairdiella veraecrucis Jordan & Dickerson 1908 -- (Marceniuk et al. 2019:14 [ref. 36684], Parenti 2020:9 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Bairdiella veraecrucis Jordan & Dickerson 1908. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Northern Greater Caribbean Province, Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vermicularis, Corvina Günther [A.] 1867:601 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1865.7.20.13. Described in more detail in Günther 1868:427, Pl. 67 (fig. 2) [ref. 1994]. •Valid as Ophioscion vermicularis (Günther 1867) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:165 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:134 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1489 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:320 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Ophioscion vermicularis (Günther 1867). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Panama south to northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

versicolor, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] 1829:173 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:24 [ref. 6382]. Available from footnote as, "Ot. versicolor, N., Russel, II, cix." Also in Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:64 [ref. 999]. •Questionably a synonym of Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Trewavas 1977:350 [ref. 4459], Parenti 2020:35 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Uncertain as Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vigintioctoradiata, Perca Larrañaga [D. A.] in Devincenzi 1925:305 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Serie 2) v. 1 (pt. 6); ref. 20322] Corresponds to Perca mollis Larrañaga 1923:380 [ref. 22561]. Appeared as P. mollis vel 28-radiata in Devincenzi 1925:306, 321 [ref. 20322] [from Uruguay]; Devincenzi treated vigintioctoradiata as a synonym of Sagenichthys ancylodon or Lonchurus ancylodon Bloch & Schneider 1801; therefore name was not treated as valid and is unavailable (Art. 11.5 of the Code). •In the synonymy of Macrodon atricauda (Günther 1880) -- (Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:52 [ref. 30861]). Current status: Synonym of Macrodon atricauda (Günther 1880). Sciaenidae.

vigintiuniradiata, Perca Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:384 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Corresponds to Perca decimvittata in Devincenzi 1925:305 [ref. 20322] which Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829). •Synonym of Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). •Synonym of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

viola, Eques Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1486 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] Bay of Panama, (Pacific) Panama. Lectotype: CAS-SU 5521. Paralectotypes: (2) and Gilbert specimens: BMNH 1903.5.15.157-158 (2), CAS-SU 5909 (3), USNM 50420 (1), ZMB 15991 [ex CAS-SU] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291]. Author is C. H. Gilbert. Also appeared as Gilbert in Gilbert & Starks 1904:138, Pl. 21 (fig. 42) [ref. 1639] with corrections for original description; and with lectotype established by use of "type specimen" in caption to Fig. 42 if the specimen was part of the 3 mentioned with the original description and is identifiable. •Valid as Pareques viola (Gilbert 1898) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:167 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:132 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1498 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:319 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:42 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Pareques viola (Gilbert 1898). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Panama south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

virescens, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:72 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:24 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion virescens (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:372 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:402 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:265 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:128 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:10 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1616 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion virescens (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vogleri, Otolithus Bleeker [P.] 1853:253 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] Benculen [Bengkulu], Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5979 (2). •Valid as Johnius vogleri (Bleeker 1853) -- (Trewavas 1977:441 [ref. 4459], Allen & Swainston 1988:92 [ref. 25477], Sasaki & Amaoka 1989 [ref. 19778], Randall 1995:231 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:144 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:190 [ref. 23922], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471]). •Valid as Johnieops vogleri (Bleeker 1853) -- (Talwar 1995:112 [ref. 25194], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:366 [ref. 27969]). •Synonym of Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156], Sasaki 1999:275 [ref. 24049], Sasaki 2001:3154 [ref. 26108], Bray et al. 2006:1260 [ref. 29091], Kottelat 2013:358 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:20 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Johnius borneensis (Bleeker 1851). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Umbrina Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:171 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Provence, France; Italy; Spain; Gulf of Gascony. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7463 (1) Iviça, 0000-7466 (1) Morée; non-types MNHN 0000-7462 (1) Naples, 0000-1962 (1) Egypt. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:20 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Trewavas 1973:400 [ref. 7201], Parin 2003:S13 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:373 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

walkeri, Stellifer Chao [L. N.] 2001:68, Figs. 1-3 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 49 (Suppl. 1); ref. 26029] Bahia Matenchen in vicinity of San Blas, Nayarit, Mexico, 21°30'N, 105°30'W, depth 2.7-13.5 meters. Holotype: USNM 208556. Paratypes: CAS 16051 (3); LACM 58-40 (7); MCZ 156816 (1); NMC 68-1380 (1); SIO 13-238 (2) (ex UCLA W58-38), 23-52 (2), 62-37 (1); UNAM 8900 (2); USNM 208557 (7). •Valid as Stellifer walkeri Chao 2001 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:53 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer walkeri Chao 2001. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central coast of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

weberi, Johnius Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1936:251 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 15 (pt 3); ref. 13698] Telok Pekadai, Kapaus River, Borneo; mouth of Pekadai; mouth of Peniti River; Pedang Tukar Bay. Syntypes: (6) ZMA 113119 (2), 113120 (2). •Synonym of Johnius novaehollandiae (Steindachner 1866) -- (Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471]). •Valid as Johnius weberi Hardenberg 1936 -- (Trewavas 1977:410 [ref. 4459], Kottelat et al. 1993:119 [ref. 23448], Sasaki in Randall & Lim 2000:621 [ref. 25122], Sasaki 2001:3153 [ref. 26108], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:24 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Johnius weberi Hardenberg 1936. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Papua New Guinea, north to Vietnam and Hong Kong (China). Habitat: marine.

wieneri, Sciaena Sauvage [H.-E.] 1883:156 [13] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 7; ref. 3897] Peru. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4852. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:18 [ref. 6382]. On p. 13 of separate. •Valid as Sciaena wieneri Sauvage 1883 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:324 [ref. 24555]). •Valid as Robaloscion wieneri (Sauvage 1883) -- (Béarez & Schwarzhans 2014:273, 276 [ref. 33019], Béarez et al. 2020:39 [ref. 37424], Parenti 2020:48 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Robaloscion wieneri (Sauvage 1883). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Puerto Eten (06°56’S, northern Peru) south to Arica (18°28’S, northern Chile). Habitat: marine.

wintersteeni, Umbrina Walker [H. J., Jr.] & Radford [K. W.] 1992:582, Fig. 10 [Fishery Bulletin v. 90; ref. 20257] Bahia Almejas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: SIO 60-366. Paratypes: AMNH 5498 (1), 5299 [ex 5514a] (1); CAS 35536 (4); LACM 38104-26 (4); SIO 15-622 (2) (ex UCLA W50-27), 15-1696 (5) (ex UCLA W52-48), 15-631 (6) (ex UCLA W53-84), 15-636 (8) (ex UCLA W53-95), 15-1136 (1) (ex UCLA W57-34), 15-1697 (4) (ex UCLA 57-36), 15-1698 (4) (ex UCLA W57-42), 60-366 (29), 62-126 (10), 64-84 (49), 65-281 (3), 76-275 (2); CAS-SU 375 (1), 2855 (3), 4827 (1), 47933 (1); UCLA W52-49 (2), W62-50 (1); USNM 316655 (5). •Valid as Umbrina wintersteeni Walker & Radford 1992 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1517 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:270 [ref. 24545], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:57 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina wintersteeni Walker & Radford 1992. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of southern Baja California and Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

wintersteenorum, Stellifer Chao [L. N.] 2001:71, Figs. 4-6 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 49 (Suppl. 1); ref. 26029] Bahia Matenchen in vicinity of San Blas, Nayarit, Mexico, depth to 13.7 meters. Holotype: USNM 208559. Paratypes: ANSP 122063 (40); BMNH 1973.6.1.20 (20); CAS 16052 (80); FMNH 71706 (40); LACM 50-43 (1), 56-123 (2), 56-148 (1), 58-31 (87), 58-33 (27), 58-39 (43), 58-40 (8), 6545-1 (1); NMC 68-111 (12); SIO 60-87 (4), 62-71 (4), 62-72 (2), 64-375 (1), 65-104 (1), 73-51 (40); UCLA 58-31 (22), 58-34 (35), 58-35 (11); UNAM 8901 (10); USNM 208560 (60). •Valid as Stellifer wintersteenorum Chao 2001 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:53 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer wintersteenorum Chao 2001. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: eastern shore of the Gulf of California (Mexico) Habitat: marine.

wolffii, Corvina Bleeker [P.] 1851:66 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 327] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5982 (1 of 20). •Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802) -- (Trewavas 1977:379 [ref. 4459], Talwar 1995:84 [ref. 25194], Sasaki 1996:90 [ref. 22156], Kottelat 2013:359 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2020:33 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Nibea soldado (Lacepède 1802). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

woodwardi, Ophioscion Fowler [H. W.] 1937:311, Fig. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 89; ref. 15275] Port-au-Prince, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: ANSP 68257. Paratypes: ANSP 68258-60 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823) -- (Chao 1978:32 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:30 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

xanthops, Odontoscion Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1426 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 5519. Author is C. H. Gilbert. Also appeared as Gilbert in Gilbert & Starks 1904:124, Pl. 17 (fig. 35) [ref. 1639]. •Valid as Odontoscion xanthops Gilbert 1898 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:164 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:132 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1483 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:318 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:148 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], Parenti 2020:34 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Odontoscion xanthops Gilbert 1898. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

xanthulum, Cynoscion Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:460 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 254) (for 4 Aug. 1882); ref. 10610] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 28109 (not found in 1980). •Valid as Cynoscion xanthulus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Page & Burr 1991:327 [ref. 18983], Allen & Robertson 1994:160 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1463 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:364 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:406 [ref. 25838], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250] dated 1881, Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Minckley & Marsh 2009:305 [ref. 31114], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion xanthulus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Revillagigedo Islands and Gulf of California south to Acapulco (Guerrero, Mexico); introduced elsewhere. Habitat: brackish, marine.

xanthurus, Leiostomus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:438, 439, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7599 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:13 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède 1802 -- (Chao 1978:29 [ref. 6983], Lee et al. 1980:759 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:433 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:188 [ref. 23100], Govoni 1987:1041 [ref. 22449], Boschung 1992:145 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:203 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:374 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:406 [ref. 25838], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:440 [ref. 26158], Chao 2003:1622 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:608 [ref. 27995], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:430 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:357 [ref. 35886], Parenti 2020:26 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède 1802. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts south to northern Florida (U.S.A.); Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

xanti, Umbrina Gill [T. N.] 1862:257 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Baja California, Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 7156. Paralectotypes: MCZ 35976 [ex USNM 3693] (1); USNM 2296 (2), 3693 + 3694 (5), 316653 [ex USNM 7156] (2). Lectotype selected by Walker & Radford 1992:577 [ref. 20257]. •Valid as Umbrina xanti Gill 1862 -- (Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Walker & Radford 1992:577 [ref. 20257], Allen & Robertson 1994:169 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:130 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1518 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:270 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:304 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:369 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:153 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:57 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Umbrina xanti Gill 1862. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Chile. Habitat: marine.

yeddoensis, Corvina Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:35 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 48 (1. Abth.); ref. 4247] Not available, name mentioned in passing under Sciaena bleekeri. •Unavailable -- (Parenti 2020:60 [ref. 37439]). Sciaenidae.

zestocarus, Stellifer Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1445 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] Panama Bay, (Pacific) Panama. Lectotype: CAS-SU 5518. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1903.5.15.144 (1), CAS-SU 6908 (3), ?ZMB 15980 [ex SU] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291]. Author is C. H. Gilbert. Also appeared as Gilbert in Gilbert & Starks 1904:129, Pl. 18 (fig. 37) [ref. 1639]; with lectotype established by use of "type specimen" in caption to Fig. 37. •Valid as Stellifer zestocarus Gilbert 1898 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:169 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:124 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1510 [ref. 22830], Chao 2001:79 [ref. 26029], González-Murcia et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:53 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Stellifer zestocarus Gilbert 1898. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

zestus, Nebris Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1417 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: CAS-SU 433 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:78 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Nebris occidentalis Vaillant 1897 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1481 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:378 [ref. 24550], Chao et al. 2001:84 [ref. 26030], Parenti 2020:32 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Nebris occidentalis Vaillant 1897. Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.