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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Scophthalmidae: [ 40 ] records


aculeatus, Rhombus Gottsche [C. M.] 1835:172 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 2 (pt 2, no. 2); ref. 1862] No types known. •Synonym of Psetta maxima (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:618 [ref. 6885]). •Synonym of Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aquosus, Pleuronectes Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:389, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Scopthalmus [sic] aquosus (Mitchill 1815) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:294 [ref. 23100], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:548 [ref. 26158]). •Valid as Scophthalmus aquosus (Mitchill 1815) -- (Gutherz 1967:45 [ref. 23862], Smith 1986:455 [ref. 22186], Scott & Scott 1988:539 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Murdy et al. 1997:274 [ref. 23144], Evseenko 1998:57 [ref. 23643], Munroe 2003:1896 [ref. 27118], Chanet 2003:280 [ref. 27526], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:831 [ref. 28815], Bailly & Chanet 2010:260 [ref. 31030], Voronina 2010:695 [ref. 31094], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Scophthalmus aquosus (Mitchill 1815). Scophthalmidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

barbatus, Rhombus Risso [A.] 1827:251 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922] as type not at MNHN. •Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:616 [ref. 6885], Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535], Bailly & Chanet 2010:260 [ref. 31030] by inference). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

borali, Lepidorhombus Kyle [H. M.] 1913:13 [Dana Report No. 1; ref. 14962] North Atlantic. Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

borealis, Lepidorhombus megastoma Kyle [H. M.] 1913:13 [Dana Report No. 1; ref. 14962] No types known. •Synonym of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:617 [ref. 6885]). Current status: Synonym of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

boscii, Pleuronectes Risso [A.] 1810:319, Pl. 7 (fig. 33) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:336-337 [ref. 25922] with no types at MNHN. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:52 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Lepidorhombus boscii (Risso 1810) [usually as bosci] -- (Nielsen 1973:617 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1288 [ref. 13677], Nielsen 1990:1026 [ref. 16246], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Fricke 1999:52 [ref. 24101], Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:147 [ref. 26753], Chanet 2003:281 [ref. 27526], Golani 2005:62 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:113 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:71 [ref. 36649], Voronina 2010:695 [ref. 31094], Munroe & Chanet in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2965 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:76 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:187 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:101 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:28 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Lepidorhombus boscii (Risso 1810). Scophthalmidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Western Sahara, including Azores. Habitat: marine.

calimanda, Pleuronectes Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:599, 654 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] The Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922] as no types at MNHN. •Synonym of Phrynorhombus regius (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Nielsen 1973:617 [ref. 6885]). •Synonym of Zeugopterus regius (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Zeugopterus regius (Bonnaterre 1788). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

cardina, Pleuronectes Cuvier [G.] 1829:341 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] "Côtes de la Manche." No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922] with no types at MNHN. Brief description and citation to "Duham., sect. IX, Pl. vi, f. 5 et Rai, 170, Pl. 1, no. 2." •In part synonym of Phrynorhombus regius (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Nielsen 1973:617 [ref. 6885]). •Synonym of Zeugopterus regius (Bonnaterre 1788) on fig. 5 and synonym of Lepidothombus wiffiaignois (Walbaum 1792) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Zeugopterus regius (Bonnaterre 1788). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

cristatus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Lichtenstein) 1801:153 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] European Ocean. Holotype (unique): ? ZMB 2391. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:130-131 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:616 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535], Bailly & Chanet 2010:260 [ref. 31030] by inference). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

cyclops, Pleuronectes Donovan [E.] 1806:5 unnum. pp., Pl. 90 [The natural history of British fishes, including scientific and general descriptions of the most interesting species, and an extensive selection of accurately finished coloured plates.; ref. 17408] Wales, England. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Psetta maxima (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:618 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535]). •Synonym of Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hirtus, Pleuronectes Müller [O. F.] (ex Abildgaard) 1789:36, Pl. 103 [Zoologia Danica, seu animalium Daniae et Norvegiae rariorum ac minus notorum (icones) descriptiones et historia. v. 3; ref. 17297] Norwegian sea. No types known. •Synonym of Zeugopterus punctatus (Bloch 1787) -- (Nielsen 1973:619 [ref. 6885]). Current status: Synonym of Zeugopterus punctatus (Bloch 1787). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Pleuronectes Turton [W.] 1800:764 [A general system of nature v. 1; ref. 17934] Europe. No types known. •Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parin et al. 2014:524 [ref. 33547], Munroe & Chanet in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2969 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

linnei, Rhombus Malm [A. W.] 1877:111, 513 [ ref. 2881] Original as Linnéi. Tentatively regarded as an unneeded replacement name for Pleuronectes rhombus Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid "Strickland tautonomy"). Locality Sweden. •Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:616 [ref. 6885]). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

lioderma, Pleuronectes Nardo [G. D.] 1827:32, 39 (no. 132) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 481 and 487 [ref. 19740]. •Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:616 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535]). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Pleuronectes Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:9 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pleuronectes maculatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Synonym of Scophthalmus aquosus (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus aquosus (Mitchill 1815). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

maeoticus, Pleuronectes Pallas [P. S.] 1814:419 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Black Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:354 [ref. 25922], Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). See Coad 1995:32 [ref. 23608]. •Synonym of Psetta maxima (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1291 [ref. 13677], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:185 [ref. 28369]). •Synonym of Psetta maxima (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:148 [ref. 26753]). •Synonym of Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Chanet 2003:277 [ref. 27526], Bailly & Chanet 2010:260 [ref. 31030]). •Valid as Psetta maeotica (Pallas 1814) -- (Nielsen 1973:618 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 2003:S57 [ref. 28535], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:240 [ref. 28183], Fricke et al. 2007:113 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas 1814) -- (Michajlova 1989:26 [ref. 20062], Evseenko 1998:57 [ref. 23643], Vasil'eva 2007:187 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:173 [ref. 31251], Parin et al. 2014:522 [ref. 33547], Çiçek et al. 2015:152 [ref. 35151], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas 1814). Scophthalmidae. Distribution: Black Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

maximus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:271 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.135 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:242 [ref. 13434], Wheeler 1985:70 [ref. 20705]. •Valid as Psetta maxima (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:618 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1290 [ref. 13677], Coad 1995:32 [ref. 23608], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Coad 1996:86 [ref. 25304], Evseenko 1998:57 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:148 [ref. 26753], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535], Fricke 2007:29 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:113 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:72 [ref. 36649]). •Valid as Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Chanet 2003:280 [ref. 27526], Bailly & Chanet 2010:257 [ref. 31030], Voronina 2010:695 [ref. 31094], Parin et al. 2014:523 [ref. 33547], Munroe & Chanet in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2967 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:73 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:187 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:101 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:28 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Distribution: Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; northeastern Atlantic: Norway south to Western Sahara, including Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

megastoma, Pleuronectes Donovan [E.] 1804:5 unnum. pp., Pl. 51 [The natural history of British fishes, including scientific and general descriptions of the most interesting species, and an extensive selection of accurately finished coloured plates.; ref. 17408] England. No types known. Based on literature sources. •Synonym of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:617 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1288 [ref. 13677], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:147 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:72 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

norvegicus, Rhombus Günther [A.] 1862:412 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] West coast of Norway. No types known. Based on literature sources. •Valid as Phrynorhombus norvegicus (Günther 1862) -- (Nielsen 1973:618 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1289 [ref. 13677], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chanet et al. 2003:227 [ref. 27376], Chanet 2003:281 [ref. 27526], Evseenko 2003:S57 [ref. 28535], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Bañon et al. 2010:23 [ref. 31029], Voronina 2010:695 [ref. 31094], Parin et al. 2014:522 [ref. 33547]). •Valid as Zeugopterus norvegicus (Günther 1862). Current status: Valid as Zeugopterus norvegicus (Günther 1862). Scophthalmidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, eastern North Atlantic, north to the Barents Sea. Habitat: marine.

papillosus, Pleuronectes Güldenstädt [J. A. von] in Pallas 1814:419 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Abrif, about 17 kilometers south-southwest of Taganrog, Rostov Oblast, Russia, Sea of Azov. Not available, name in the synonymy of Pleronectes maeoticus Pallas 1814. Based on Pleuronectes sp., vernacular name Polurybiza, of Güldenstädt 1791:86 [ref. 18175]. Also described in Pallas 1831:419 [ref. 30187]. •In the synonymy of Scophthalmus maeoticus(Pallas 1814). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas 1814). Scophthalmidae.

papillosus, Zeugopterus Brook [G.] 1886:367, Pl. 15 [Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh. v. 9 (for 1885-88) (art. 28); ref. 17285] Clyde estuary, Scotland. Syntypes: (at least 2) BMNH 1892.12.10.15 (1). •Synonym of Zeugopterus punctatus (Bloch 1787) -- (Nielsen 1973:619 [ref. 6885]). Current status: Synonym of Zeugopterus punctatus (Bloch 1787). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

pavonina, Platessa Costa [O. G.] 1847:Pleuronettidae p. 5, Pl. 39 (fig. 2) [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] Near Posilipo, Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Published Feb 1847. •Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Evseenko pers. comm. June 2003). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

ponticus, Scophthalmus Ninni [E.] 1932:83 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 57; ref. 16385] Black Sea; Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Psetta maeotica (Pallas 1814) -- (Nielsen 1973:619 [ref. 6885]). •Synonym of Psetta maxima (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies maeotica (Pallas 1814) -- (Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1291 [ref. 13677], Evseenko 2003:S57 [ref. 28535]). •Synonym of Psetta maxima (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:148 [ref. 26753]). •Synonym of Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas 1814) -- (Parin et al. 2014:523 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas 1814). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pseudopalus, Pleuronectes Pennant [T.] 1812:375 [British zoology. 5th edition. v. 3; ref. 18529] Cornwall, England. No types known. •Synonym of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:617 [ref. 6885]). Current status: Synonym of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] 1787:31, Pl. 189 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] North Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 2392 (2), 7402 (1, left skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:131 [ref. 24282]. On p. 23 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Zeugopterus punctatus (Bloch 1787) -- (Nielsen 1973:619 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1292 [ref. 13677], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chanet & Desoutter 2000:203 [ref. 24742], Chanet 2003:281 [ref. 27526], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Voronina 2010:695 [ref. 31094], Psomadakis et al. 2012:18 [ref. 33457], Parin et al. 2014:524 [ref. 33547], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:188 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Zeugopterus punctatus (Bloch 1787). Scophthalmidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; northern and northeastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

regius, Pleuronectes Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Duhamel du Monceau) 1788:79 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] The Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922] as no types at MNHN. Based on 'Le Calimande Royale or Petite Limande' of Duhamel 1781:270 [ref.30232] Pl. VI, fig. 5. •Valid as Phrynorhombus regius (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Nielsen 1973:617 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1290 [ref. 13677], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:148 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:72 [ref. 36649]). •Valid as Zeugopterus regius (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922], Chanet 2003:281 [ref. 27526], Fricke et al. 2007:114 [ref. 29533], Voronina 2010:695 [ref. 31094], Munroe & Chanet in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2971 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:188 [ref. 37250], Kovačić et al. 2020:28 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Zeugopterus regius (Bonnaterre 1788). Scophthalmidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern North Atlantic: British Isles south to Morocco. Habitat: marine.

rhombea, Psetta Forster [J. R.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:421 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Not available, name mentioned in account of Trachinotus myrias Cuvier; from San Jago, Cape Verde Islands. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Scophthalmidae.

rhombitis, Rhombus Rathke [H.] 1836:60 [351] [Mémoires présentés à l'Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg par divers savaus et lus dans ses assemblées. Mémoires des savaus étrangers v. 3; ref. 18611] From market in Kerch, Crimea. No types known. •Synonym of Psetta maeotica (Pallas 1814) -- (Evseenko 2003:S57 [ref. 28535]). •Synonym of Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallis 1814) -- (Parin et al. 2014:522 [ref. 33547] as rhombitus). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas 1814). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

rhombus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:271 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European Ocean. Syntypes: (possible syntypes) LS 43 (left half-skin plus parts), ?NRM 21 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:272 [ref. 20707], Wheeler 1985:70-71 [ref. 20705]. •Valid as Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:616 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1291 [ref. 13677], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:57 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:148 [ref. 26753], Chanet 2003:280 [ref. 27526], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535], Fricke 2007:29 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:113 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:188 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:72 [ref. 36649], Voronina 2010:702 [ref. 31094], Parin et al. 2014:524 [ref. 33547], Munroe & Chanet in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2969 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:71 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:188 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Kovačić et al. 2020:28 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; northeastern Atlantic: Iceland and Norway south to Western Sahara. Habitat: marine.

setiger, Rhombus Michahelles [C. W.] 1829:1016 [Isis (Oken) v. 22 (no. 9); ref. 17700] Trieste, Italy, Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

stellosus, Rhombus Bennett [E. T.] 1835:92 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1835 (pt 3); ref. 16793] Erzeroum [Erzurum], Turkey. Holotype (?): BMNH 1852.9.13.147 [ex Zool. Soc.]. •Synonym of Psetta maeotica (Pallas 1814) -- (Nielsen 1973:618 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S57 [ref. 2853]). •Synonym of Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas 1814). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas 1814). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

torosus, Rhombus Rathke [H.] 1836:59 [349] [Mémoires présentés à l'Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg par divers savaus et lus dans ses assemblées. Mémoires des savaus étrangers v. 3; ref. 18611] Sea of Asow. No types known. •Synonym of Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas 1814) -- (Evseenko 2003:S57 [ref. 28535], Parin et al. 2014:522 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas 1814). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

tuberculatus, Pleuronectes Shaw [G.] 1803:312, Pl. 45, bottom [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Mediterranean Sea, [northern seas] North Sea. No types known. Based mostly on Pleuronectes maximus Linnaeus 1758; other references cited. •Synonym of Psetta maxima (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535]). •Synonym of Scophthalmus maximus (Linneus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

turbot, Pleuronectes Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:597, 645 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] North, Baltic, and Mediterranean seas. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Psetta maxima (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:618 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535]). •Synonym of Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

unimaculatus, Rhombus Risso [A.] 1820:246 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 91; ref. 18636] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): Not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922]. See also Risso 1827:252, Pl. 13 (fig. 35) [ref. 3757]. •Synonym of Phrynorhombus regius (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Nielsen 1973:617 [ref. 6885], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:148 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:72 [ref. 36649]). •Synonym of Zeugopterus regius (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Zeugopterus regius (Bonnaterre 1788). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

uniocellatus, Pleuronectes Nardo [G. D.] 1824:233 [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) v. 7; ref. 3144] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Synonym of Phrynorhombus regius (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Nielsen 1973:617 [ref. 6885]). •Synonym of Zeugopterus regius (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Zeugopterus regius (Bonnaterre 1788). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

velivolans, Zeugopterus Richardson [J.] in Yarrell 1859:656a, Fig. [A history of British fishes. Third edition.; ref. 17752] Northeastern Atlantic. No types known. An account inserted by the editor (Richardson) of the third edition of Yarrell. •Synonym of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:617 [ref. 6885]). Current status: Synonym of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Rhombus Cuvier [G.] in Krøyer 1846:405, fig. No types known. Krøyer cites Yarr[ell] as author of name; Yarrell cites Cuvier, Regne An. t. ii, p. 341. Cuvier not yet examined. •Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:616 [ref. 6885], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535]). Current status: Synonym of Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus 1758). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

whiff, Lepidorhombus Smitt [F. A.] 1892:448, Fig. 115 [A history of Scandinavian fishes; ref. 4146] Apparently can be regarded as an unjustified emendation of Whiff-Iagonis Walbaum 1792, appearing in Smitt's synonymy. •Synonym of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:617 [ref. 6885]). Current status: Synonym of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792). Scophthalmidae. Habitat: marine.

whiffiagonis, Pleuronectes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:120 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Cornwall, southwestern England. Lectotype: Spec. in Pl. 1 (fig. 2) in Rajus 1713 [not known]. Originally Whiff-Iagonis. Spelled whiffiagonis by some early authors. Spelled whiff-jasonis by Donndorff 1798:385 [ref. 17407]. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:52-53 [ref. 24101] as [the specimen in] Pl. 1 (fig. 2) in Rajus 1713 [specimen not in existence]. •Valid as Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792) -- (Nielsen 1973:616 [ref. 6885], Nielsen in Whitehead et al. 1986:1288 [ref. 13677], Golani 1996:29 [ref. 22271], Santos et al. 1997:113 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:118 [ref. 24952], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Fricke 1999:52 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:147 [ref. 26753], Chanet 2003:281 [ref. 27526], Golani 2005:62 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:113 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:72 [ref. 36649], Voronina 2010:695 [ref. 31094], Parin et al. 2014:522 [ref. 33547], Munroe & Chanet in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2966 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:75 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:187 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:101 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:28 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum 1792). Scophthalmidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Norway south to Western Sahara, including Azores and Madeira. Habitat: marine.