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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Scorpaenidae: [ 399 ] records


accraensis, Pontinus Norman [J. R.] 1935:23 [Discovery Reports v. 12; ref. 13911] Accra, Ghana, western Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1963.3.24.42. •Valid as Pontinus accraensis Norman 1935 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:34 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:667 [ref. 17613], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Motomura et al. 2005:14 [ref. 28289], Wirtz et al. 2007:8, 29 [ref. 30263], Poss 2016:2264 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus accraensis Norman 1935. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau to Namibia, islands of Gulf of Guinea and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

acutus, Pteroidichthys Motomura [H.] & Kanade [Y.] 2015:495, Figs. 1C-D, 3B [Zootaxa 4057 (no. 4); ref. 34096] South of Vele, Wallis and Futuna Islands, 14°19'05"S, 178°04'05"W, depth 245-400 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2001-2851. Paratypes: ASIZP, KAUM, MNHN. •Valid as Pteroidichthys acutus Motomura & Kanade 2015. Current status: Valid as Pteroidichthys acutus Motomura & Kanade 2015. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Philippines, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna Islands. Habitat: marine.

adenensis, Phenacoscorpius Norman [J. R.] 1939:94, Fig. 29 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Gulf of Aden, northwestern Indian Ocean, station 177, depth 274-366 meters. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1939.5.24.1545. •Valid as Phenacoscorpius adenensis Norman 1939 -- (Eschmeyer 1986:470 [ref. 5652], Mandrytsa 1992:13 [ref. 20774], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Motomura 2008:778 [ref. 30292], Motomura et al. 2011:64 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2012:148 [ref. 32375], Motomura et al. 2012:156 [ref. 32376], Okamoto et al. 2012:77 [ref. 33660], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1093 [ref. 34285], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:261 [ref. 35599], Fricke et al. 2018:132 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius adenensis Norman 1939. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: South Africa and Madagascar east to Fiji, south to New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

afimbria, Scorpaena scrofa infra. Slastenenko [E. P.] 1935:75, Fig. [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Ser. A (Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS), Leningrad v. 1; ref. 14713] Near Glendzhyk, Russia; Sevastopol and Balaklava, Ukraine, Black Sea. Syntypes: ZIN 30456 (1). Described as an "infraspecies" and probably should be regarded as infrasubspecific and not available. •Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1219 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Parin et al. 2002:S64 [ref. 28300], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Parin et al. 2014:224 [ref. 33547], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

africanus, Hypomacrus Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:177-178 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 12; ref. 4120] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 323. Paratypes: (21) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 397-404 (1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Scorpaenodes by Scorpaenodes africanus Pfaff 1933. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes albaiensis (Evermann & Seale 1907) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Motomura et al. 2009:77 [ref. 30328]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes albaiensis (Evermann & Seale 1907). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

africanus, Scorpaenodes Pfaff [J. R.] 1933:311, Fig. 13 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 16517] Dakar, Senegal, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): ZMUC. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:80 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes africanus Pfaff 1933 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:89 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:677 [ref. 17613], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Wirtz et al. 2007:8, 29 [ref. 30263], Poss 2016:2284 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes africanus Pfaff 1933. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

afuerae, Scorpaena Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:443, Fig. 85 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 128130. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena afuerae Hildebrand 1946 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1553 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:268 [ref. 24555], Gómez C. et al. 2001:200 [ref. 26149], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena afuerae Hildebrand 1946. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica south to Peru, including Cocos Island. Habitat: marine.

agassizii, Scorpaena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:247, Pl. 67 (fig. 243) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Gulf of Mexico, 23°13'N, 89°10'W, Blake station 36. Holotype (unique): MCZ 27996. Non-type taken with the holotype: USNM 153583 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. Original type locality in error (see Eschmeyer 1965:144 [ref. 9211]). •Valid as Scorpaena agassizi Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:97 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192]). •Valid as Scorpaena agassizii Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:141 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:61 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:433 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:286 [ref. 24472], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:64 [ref. 26475], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1250 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:37 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena agassizii Goode & Bean 1896. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

albaiensis, Hypomacrus Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:102, Fig. 20 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bacon, Sorsogon Province, Philippines, Albay Gulf, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 55902. Paratypes: CAS-SU 20006 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Hypomacrus albaiensis Evermann & Seale 1907 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636]). •Valid as Scorpaenodes albaiensis (Evermann & Seale 1907) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:81 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:81 [ref. 25919], Poss 1999:2336 [ref. 24796], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:39 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:119 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Motomura 2009:66 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2009:77 [ref. 30328], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:228 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2016:326 [ref. 35035], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes albaiensis (Evermann & Seale 1907). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, East Africa east to Fiji and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

albifimbria, Scorpaena Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:275, Fig. 82 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Off Culebra Island, 5.25 miles southwest of Culebritas Light-house, Puerto Rico, Fish Hawk station 6093, depth 15 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49532. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena albifimbria Evermann & Marsh 1900 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:116 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:58 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:64 [ref. 26475], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:105 [ref. 26784], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1251 [ref. 27048], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:38 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena albifimbria Evermann & Marsh 1900. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to Netherlands Antilles. Habitat: marine.

albobrunnea, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1874:77 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Palau Islands [Pelew Islands]. Syntypes: BMNH 1874.11.9.27-29 (3) Pelew Is., 1881.10.18.8 (2) New Britain. Spelled albo-brunnea originally. •Valid as Scorpaena albobrunnea Günther 1874 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:475 [ref. 5652], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

albofasciata, Scorpaena Metzelaar [J.] 1919:145, Fig. 43 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Bonaire and Aruba. Syntypes: ZMA 110242 (1) Bonaire; RMNH 9771 (1) Aruba. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:82 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

altirostris, Scorpaenopsis Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:628, Fig. 244 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off southern coast of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3849, depth 43-73 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51636. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8620 (2), USNM 51671 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis altirostris Gilbert 1905 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:309 [ref. 6389], Nakabo et al. 1993:31 [ref. 20716], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:12 [ref. 25801], Mundy 2005:330 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:176 [ref. 30952], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis altirostris Gilbert 1905. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

amboinensis, Pteroidichthys Bleeker [P.] 1856:34 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1; ref. 311] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Manado, Sulawesi. Lectotype: RMNH.PISC 5873. Paralectotypes: RMNH.PISC 5873 (1, head missing). Lectotype selected by Motomura & Kanade 2015:499 [ref. 34096]. •Valid as Pteroidichthys amboinensis Bleeker 1856 -- (Eschmeyer et al. 1973:305 [ref. 6390], Dor 1984:85 [ref. 29757], Chen & Liu 1984:101 [ref. 13451], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:572 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:572 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Shinohara & Imamura 2004:65 [ref. 28198], Randall 2005:118 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:219 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:50 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33892], Motomura & Kanade 2015:499 [ref. 34096], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pteroidichthys amboinensis Bleeker 1856. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: India east to Philippines and Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

amplisquamiceps, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:55, Fig. 21 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Matoco Point, Verde Island Passage and Batangas Bay, Philippines, 13°44'36"N, 120°59'15"E, Albatross station D.5266, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98883. Paratypes: (a series) USNM 98985-88 (1, 2, 1, 2). •Valid as Sebastapistes amplisquamiceps (Fowler 1938) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:574 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Neomerinthe amplisquamiceps (Fowler 1938) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:444 [ref. 12442], Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Poss 1999:2322 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe amplisquamiceps (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

andover, Pterois Allen [G. R.] & Erdmann [M. V.] 2008:129, Figs. 1-2, 4-6 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 13 (nos 3-4); ref. 29479] Marai, 01°43.862'S, 135°46.398'E, southwestern Yapen Island, Cenderawasih Bay, Papua Province, Indonesia, depth 17 meters. Holotype: NCIP 6307. Paratypes: BMNH 2007.11.26.1 (1), MNHN 2007-1930 (1), NCIP 6317 (1), USNM 390776 (1), WAM P.32893-001 (1). •Valid as Pterois andover Allen & Erdmann 2008 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:220 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Pterois andover Allen & Erdmann 2008. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

angolensis, Scorpaena Norman [J. R.] 1935:(26) 28, Fig. 10 [Discovery Reports v. 12; ref. 13911] Elephant Bay, Angola. Holotype: BMNH 1910.2.24.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1905.2.24.13 (1), 1935.5.11.199 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena angolensis Norman 1935 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:64 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:669 [ref. 17613], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2268 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena angolensis Norman 1935. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

annobonae, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1969:75, Fig. 8c [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 79; ref. 1274] Annobón Island, Equatorial Guinea, Gulf of Guinea, 1°24'N, 5°38'E, Pillsbury station 275, depth 5-26 fathoms. Holotype (unique): CAS 14214 [ex UMML 22219]. Not treated by Wirtz et al. 2007 [ref. 30263]. •Valid as Scorpaena annobonae Eschmeyer 1969 -- (Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2269 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena annobonae Eschmeyer 1969. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Annobón Island, Equatorial Guinea. Habitat: marine.

antennaria, Pterois Swainson [W.] 1839:264 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Not available; an incorrect subsequent spelling of antennata of Bloch; based on Bloch, pl. 185 -- which is Bloch 1787:Pl. 185 [ref. 468] Scorpaena antennata. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

antennata, Scorpaena Bloch [M. E.] 1787:21, Pl. 185 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: ZMB 796. Paralectotypes: ZMB (1, lost). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:269 [ref. 19946], Paepke 1999:131 [ref. 24282], Matsunuma & Motomura 2018:96 [ref. 36416]. On p. 16 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Pteropterus antennatus (Bloch 1787) -- (Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636]). •Valid as Pterois antennata (Bloch 1787) -- (Paulin 1982:445 [ref. 23678] with authors Bloch & Schneider 1801, Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:466 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:446 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:79 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:115 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:108 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:90 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:79 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:101 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:157 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2329 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:569 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:164 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:569 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:39 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:144 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:116 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:879 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:65 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Hubert et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31846], Allen & Erdmann 2012:220 [ref. 31980], Matsunuma et al. 2011:3 [ref. 32398], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:343 [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:24 [ref. 33935], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:112 [ref. 36167], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1095 [ref. 34285] as cf. antennata, Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333], Matsunuma et al. 2017:333 [ref. 35034], Fricke et al. 2018:132 [ref. 35805], Matsunuma & Motomura 2018:96 [ref. 36416]). Current status: Valid as Pterois antennata (Bloch 1787). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll, northern Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Kermadec Islands and to Rapa. Habitat: marine.

aphanes, Rhinopias Eschmeyer [W. N.] in Eschmeyer, Hirosaki & Abe 1973:300, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 16); ref. 6390] New Caledonia, outside barrier reef facing Nouméa, depth 30 meters. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.7079. •Valid as Rhinopias aphanes Eschmeyer 1973 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:80 [ref. 15987], Randall & DiSalvo 1997:1035 [ref. 22982], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:88 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:80 [ref. 25919], Poss 1999:2332 [ref. 24796], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:166 [ref. 25191], Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Randall 2005:119 [ref. 28239], Motomura & Johnson 2006:500 [ref. 28799], Allen et al. 2006:884 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias aphanes Eschmeyer 1973. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Paua New Guinea, Great Barrier Reef (Australia), New Caledonia and Japan. Habitat: marine.

apistus, Amphiprionichthys Bleeker [P.] 1855:173 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 347] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (2) ?RMNH 5893 (1), SMNS 10577 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:10 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:23 [ref. 29864]. •Considered the same as Caracanthus unipinna by authors. Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Habitat: marine.

aplodactylus, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1853:698 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 16833] Wahai, Ceram, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: AMS B.8277 (1); RMNH 5861 (up to 3 of 22 are in size range). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2000:295 [ref. 25110]. Spelled aplodactylus on p. 690 and 691 and aplodactylos on p. 698. Scorpaena haplodactylus is an unjustified emendation. •Questionably valid as Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1853 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Uncertain as Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1853. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

aqabae, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] & Steinitz [H.] 1956:282, Fig. 25 [Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel v. 5B (no. 3-4); ref. 1478] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: ANSP 72139. Paratypes: HUJ 2138 [ex ANSP 72140] (1), SFRS A127 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621], Golani 2006:24 [ref. 28840]. •Synonym of Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

arenai, Scorpaenodes Torchio [M.] 1962:113, Pl. 17; Fig. 1 [Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano v. 101 (no. 2); ref. 6544] Punta Pezzo, Ganzirri, Straits of Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MSNM 61 [ex 5734b]. Paratypes: MSNM 62 [ex MSNM 5734a] (1), 63 [ex MSNM 5640b] (1), 4612 (1, not present in 1995); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 617 (1). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:228 [ref. 21560]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes arenai Torchio 1962 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:90 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:583 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1222 [ref. 13677], Azevedo & Heemstra 1995:4 [ref. 22269], Santos et al. 1997:78 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:117 [ref. 24952], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes arenai Torchio 1962. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Azores. Habitat: marine.

argoliba, Rhinopias Eschmeyer [W. N.], Hirosaki [Y.] & Abe [T.] 1973:288, Fig. 1-2A [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 16); ref. 6390] Off Izu Ocean Park, Sagami Bay, Japan, depth 50 meters. Holotype (unique): Enoshima Aquarium No. 1. An excellent color photograph appears in I.O.P. Diving News, v. 2 (no. 3) in 1991. •Valid as Rhinopias argoliba Eschmeyer, Hirosaki & Abe 1973 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Randall & DiSalvo 1997:1035 [ref. 22982], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:573 [ref. 25086], Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Nakabo 2002:573 [ref. 26001], Mandrytsa 2002:570 [ref. 26272], Motomura & Johnson 2006:500 [ref. 28799]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias argoliba Eschmeyer, Hirosaki & Abe 1973. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Japan and Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

armata, Scorpaena Sauvage [H.-E.] 1873:49, Pl. 6 (figs. 1-1a) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 9 (pt 2, Bulletin); ref. 18661] East Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4762 (1), B-1453 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:10 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Parascorpaena armata (Sauvage 1873) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena armata (Sauvage 1873). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

armatus, Hoplosebastes Schmidt [P. J.] 1929:194, Figs. 1-2 [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Ser. A (Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS), Leningrad No. 8 (1929); ref. 3936] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZIN 22695. •Valid as Hoplosebastes armatus Schmidt 1929 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:581 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:581 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:424 [ref. 28370], Poss et al. 2010:251 [ref. 30744]). Current status: Valid as Hoplosebastes armatus Schmidt 1929. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ascensionis, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1971:503, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 17); ref. 894] Off Ascension Island, Discovery station 1, depth 16-27 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1935.5.2.33. Paratypes: BMNH 1935.5.2.34 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena ascensionis Eschmeyer 1971 -- (Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Poss 2016:2270 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena ascensionis Eschmeyer 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

asperella, Scorpaena Bennett [E. T.] 1828:40 [Zoological Journal, London v. 4 (no. 13, art. 3); ref. 16783] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): lost. Scorpaena asperella Bennett 1828 is a forgotten name that would be a senior synonym of Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903, but was not used as valid after 1899, therefore reversal of precedence according to ICZN Art. 23.9 in favor of I. signifer. •Status uncertain -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:319 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903 (R. Fricke, pers. comm. June 2016). Current status: Synonym of Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

asperrimus, Paronescodes Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:177 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 12; ref. 4120] La Digue Island, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 112. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 377-387 (1, 3, 1, 4, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1). •Synonym of Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:473 [ref. 5652], Motomura et al. 2010:23 [ref. 30748]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

atlantica, Scorpaena russula Nichols [J. T.] & Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1924:21, Pl. 7 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 37; ref. 15461] Off Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 28°56'N, 94°48'W, depth 10.5 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 86167. Paratypes: AMNH 8194 (3), USNM 86150-51 (1, 6). •Synonym of Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:135 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

aurita, Scorpaena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:106, Pl. 27 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 1266. Possible type: RMNH 591 [ex SMF] (1). •Valid as Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dor 1984:81 [ref. 29757], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30319], Motomura 2009:64 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Motomura et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:224 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135], Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

axillaris, Scorpaena Bliss [R.] 1883:51 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 6028. •Synonym of Sebastapistes mauritiana Cuvier 1829 -- (Fricke 1999:163 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (W. Eschmeyer, pers. observation of holotype, Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Motomura & Shinohara 2005:300 [ref. 29181]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

azorica, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1969:80, Fig. 8a [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 79; ref. 1274] Terceira, Azores, northeastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): USNM 94463. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena azorica Eschmeyer 1969 -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1215 [ref. 13677], Golani 1996:25 [ref. 22271], Santos et al. 1997:76 [ref. 23531] with question, Arruda 1997:115 [ref. 24952], Psomadakis et al. 2012:16 [ref. 33457], Poss 2016:2271 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena azorica Eschmeyer 1969. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northeastern Atlantic: Azores. Habitat: marine.

badiorufus, Sebastapistes Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:409 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 18 (no. 12); ref. 2109] Takaroa Atoll, Tuamotu Islands. Holotype (unique): FMNH 17337. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. Original as badio-rufus. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis fowleri Pietschmann 1934 -- (authors). •Synonym of Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934) -- (Randall & Poss 2002:57 [ref. 25855], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239], Motomura & Senou 2009:3 [ref. 30176]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bakeri, Scorpaena Seale [A.] 1901:120 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: (4) ANSP 87606 (1), BPBM 254 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

ballieui, Scorpaena Sauvage [H.-E.] in Vaillant & Sauvage 1875:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 3; ref. 17853] Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6883 (2), 0000-8993 (1), 0000-9557 (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:10-11 [ref. 20738]. Genus misspelled Scorpoena in the original description. •Valid as Scorpaena ballieui Sauvage 1875 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:317 [ref. 6389]). •Valid as Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875) -- (Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Mundy 2005:330 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2014:138 [ref. 33591]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

bandanensis, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1851:237 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 331] Banda Neira, Banda Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 10632. Type Catalog: Fricke 2005:57 [ref. 29864]. Appeared first in the abstract as above, then in Steindachner 1866:438, Pl. 3 (figs. 2-2a) [ref. 4210]; also on p. 15 of separate. •Valid as Parascorpaena bandanensis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Allen & Erdmann 2012:225 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena bandanensis (Bleeker 1851). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

bankiensis, Trachycephalus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:456 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] Banks Group, Vanuatu, southwestern Pacific. Syntypes: AMS I.14330 (2). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae.

barbata, Scorpaena Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Gronow) 1788:70 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] No locality stated. No types known. Based on Scorpaena capite cavernoso, cirris geminis in maxilla inferiore of Gronow 1754:46, No. 103 [ref. 20783]. See also Scorpaena gronovii Walbaum 1792. Homonym of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 and S. barbata Gronow 1854; not used as valid after 1899 (see ICZN Art. 23.9.1.1); therefore permanently invalid due to reversal of precendence in favor of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 following ICZN Art. 23.9. •Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). •Homonym of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 and S. barbata Gronow 1854; not used as valid after 1899 (see Art. 23.9.1.1); therefore permanently invalid due to reversal of precedence in favor of Scorpaena barbara Rüppell 1838 following ICZN Art. 23.9. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barbata, Scorpaena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:116 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.8 (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:237 [ref. 13434]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838. •Scorpaena sp. -- (Wheeler 1958:237 [ref. 13434]). •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). •Homonym of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 and S. barbata Gronow 1854; not used as valid after 1899 (see Art. 23.9.1.1); therefore permanently invalid due to reversal of precedence in favor of Scorpaena barbara Rüppell 1838 following ICZN Art. 23.9. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barbata, Scorpaena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:105, Pl. 27 (fig. 1) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 1381. Scorpaenopsis is feminine, so correct spelling is barbata. Preoccupied by Scorpaena barbata Bonnaterre 1788, but available due to reversal of precedence following ICZN Art. 23.9 (see also comments under Scorpaena barbata Bonnaterre 1788). We are aware of 25 publications that use Scorpaenopsis barbata or barbatus as valid, published in 1984-2013 (R. Fricke, personal communication, Apr. 2016), to meet the conditions of ICZN Art. 23.9.1.2. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis barbata (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356] as barbatus, Randall 1995:111 [ref. 22896] as barbatus, Carpenter et al. 1997:137 [ref. 23922] as barbatus, Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:13 [ref. 25801], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis barbata (Rüppell 1838). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Somalia to Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

barberi, Pterois Steindachner [F.] 1900:175 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 37 (no. 16) (for 21 June 1900); ref. 20498] Honolulu to Cape Horn, pelagic [actual at or near Hawaiian Islands]. Holotype (unique): UMB 164 [RK UMB 4562]. Type catalog: Wahlert 1955:326 [ref. 21527]. Species later illustrated and described in detail in Steindachner 1900:491 Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [ref. 14892]; on p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:275 [ref. 6389], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Mundy 2005:324 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:171 [ref. 30952], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

barffi, Scorpaena Curtiss [A.] 1944:11 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829 -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[11] [ref. 33935]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

barrybrowni, Scorpaenodes Pitassy [D. E.] & Baldwin [C. C.] in Baldwin, Pitassy & Robertson 2016:143, Figs. 1-2A [ZooKeys No. 606; ref. 34588] Curaçao, eastward of Substation Curaçao downline, 12.0832°N, 68.8991°W, depth 95-160 meters. Holotype: USNM 406390. Paratypes: CAS, USNM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Scorpaenodes barrybrowni Pitassy & Baldwin 2016. Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes barrybrowni Pitassy & Baldwin 2016. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Curaçao, Bonaire and Dominica, western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bathycolus, Scorpaenodes Allen [G. R.] & Erdmann [M. V.] 2012:229, 1104, Figs. 1-2 [Reef fishes of the East Indies.; ref. 31980] Pulau Panjang, 2°58.560'S, 123°17.732'E, southern Fakfak Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, depth 60 meters, Holotype: MZB 20605. Paratypes: WAM P.33090-007 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis bathycolus Allen & Erdmann 2012 -- (Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932]). •Valid as Scorpaenodes bathycolus Allen & Erdmann 2012 -- (Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes bathycolus Allen & Erdmann 2012. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: West Papua (Indonesia) and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

bathyperimensis, Neomerinthe Zajonz [U.] & Klausewitz [W.] 2002:1482, Figs. 1-2, 3a [Journal of Fish Biology v. 61 (no. 6); ref. 26817] Strait of Perim, northwestern of Perim Island, Yemen, southern Red Sea, 12°43.7'N, 43°15.0'E, MINDIK-Expedition, River V. Meteor cruise 5, station 230, depth 228-235 meters. Holotype (unique): SMF 29278. The specimen is an abnormal one, lacking anal fin spines. •Valid as Neomerinthe bathyperimensis Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002-- (Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308]). •Synonym of Neomerinths erostris (Alcock 1896) -- (Motomura et al. 2015:530 [ref. 33980], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bauchotae, Neomerinthe Poss [S. G.] & Duhamel [G.] 1991:94, Figs. 1-2 [Cybium v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 15728] Saint Paul Island [not Amsterdam Island], southern Indian Ocean, 38°48'S, 77°34'E, depth 350-412 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1989-0273. Paratypes: CAS 70095 (1); GCRL 23319 (1); MNHN 1989-0274 to 0276 (1, 1, 3), 1989-0277 (4, 1 c&s), 1989-0278 to 0279 (1, 3), 1990-1500 (1, badly damaged). •Valid as Neomerinthe bauchotae Poss & Duhamel 1991 -- (Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2015:537 [ref. 33980], Motomura et al. 2016:112 [ref. 35079]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe bauchotae Poss & Duhamel 1991. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

beanorum, Pontinus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:279, Fig. 85 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] 1.25 miles north of the entrance to San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico, Fish Hawk station 6050, depth 91 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49534. •Valid as Neomerinthe beanorum (Evermann & Marsh 1900) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:42 [ref. 1274], Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:63 [ref. 26475], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1242 [ref. 27048], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:32 [ref. 28815]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe beanorum (Evermann & Marsh 1900). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bellicosa, Scorpaena Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:17 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Nicol Bay, Queensland, Australia. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena picta Cuvier 1829 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Paracorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829) -- (Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066] with Kuhl and van Hasselt as authors). •Synonym of Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838) -- (Motomura et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30319], Motomura et al. 2011:330 [ref. 31618]) Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bellus, Brachirus Jordan [D. S.] & Hubbs [C. L.] 1925:274, Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 2486] Misaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): FMNH 58783 [ex CM 7894]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:93 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:16 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Dendrochirus bellus (Jordan & Hubbs 1925) -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:570 [ref. 27969], Shimizu & Hatooka 1997:3 [ref. 24377], Poss 1999:2312 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:568 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Shinohara et al. 2001:314 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:568 [ref. 26001], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus bellus (Jordan & Hubbs 1925). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan, East China Sea, Taiwan, China and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

bergii, Scorpaena Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:276, Fig. 83 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Harbor of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Fish Hawk station 6065, depth 4-6 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 49533. Paratypes: USNM 126190 [ex USFC 813, USBF 877] (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena bergii Evermann & Marsh 1900 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:101 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:55 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100] as bergi, Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827] as bergi, Villamizar 1996:37 [ref. 23496] as bergi, Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1252 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:39 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena bergii Evermann & Marsh 1900. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: New York (U.S.A.) and Bermuda south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

bibroni, Sebastes (Sebastichthys) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:116, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7032. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:87 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:36 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:583 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1213 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:668 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2265 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

biocellatus, Nemapterois Fowler [H. W.] 1938:81, Fig. 36 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Jolo Light, Philippines, Jolo Island, Sulu Sea, 6°04'20"N, 120°59'20"E, Albatross station D.5136, depth 22 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98894. •Valid as Dendrochirus biocellatus (Fowler 1938) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:154 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2313 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:568 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:568 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:115 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:878 [ref. 29002], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:217 [ref. 31980], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[40] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus biocellatus (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, western Mascarenes, Maldives and Sri Lanka east to Mariana and Tuamotu islands, Line Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northwestern Australian shelf, New Caledonia and Soloman Islands and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Pterois Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:200 [32], Pl. 6 (figs. 1-1a) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Tokyo, Japan. Syntypes: MZS 892 (1); NMW 75648 (1). Type information (MZS) from Amaoka & Fujii 1999:151 [ref. 26515]. •Valid as Ebosia bleekeri (Döderlein 1884) -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978:68 [ref. 6386], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:569, 718 [ref. 8056], Chen et al. 1997:166 [ref. 26476] dated 1844, Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:567 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:567 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:242, 559 [ref. 26218], Allen & Erdmann 2012:219 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Iwamoto & McCosker 2014:286 [ref. 33298], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:300 [ref. 33570], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[9] [ref. 33899]). Current status: Valid as Ebosia bleekeri (Döderlein 1884). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Australia to Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, Indonesia, Vanuatu (few records inbetween). Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Scorpaena Day [F.] 1878:747 [149], Pl. 36 (fig. 2) [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Andaman Islands, east of Bay of Bengal. Syntypes: AMS B.8277 (1), ZSI 1751 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. Based on Day's treatment on Scorpaena Haplodactylus (not of Bleeker) on p. 149. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

brachyptera, Pterois Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:368 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Unknown locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6565. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:8 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Dendrochirus brachypterus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor 1984:85 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:465 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:440 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:78 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:116 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:92 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:78 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2313 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:568 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:162 [ref. 25191], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:568 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:115 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:878 [ref. 29002], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:88 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:218 [ref. 31980], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:112 [ref. 36167], Francis & Duffy 2015:483 [ref. 36161], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1091 [ref. 34285], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[21] [ref. 35277], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus brachypterus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Hawaiian Islands and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island, northern New Zealand and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

brachyptera, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:111, Figs 7a-b [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] Off Venezuela, 10°50'N, 66°55'W, Oregon station 4461, depth 53 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198153 [ex UMML 13334]. Paratypes: UF 213335 [ex UMML 13335] (3), USNM 198148 [ex UMML 13333] (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena brachyptera Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:56 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:289 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1253 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena brachyptera Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Panama and Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:305 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6672 (1), 0000-6688 (1), 0000-7300 (1, dry); ZMB 747 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:11 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:269 [ref. 19946], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:127 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:60 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:434 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:288 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:584 [ref. 16204], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1254 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:40 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Virginia (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

brevifrons, Scorpaenopsis Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Randall [J. E.] 1975:299, Figs. 14-15 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 40 (no. 11); ref. 6389] Kaneohe Bay, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: BPBM 10958. Paratypes: ANSP 84921 (1); BPBM 4350 (1), 7816 (3), 10182 (1), 11985 (1), 13350-51 (1, 1); CAS 30231 (2); USNM 214047 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis brevifrons Eschmeyer & Randall 1975 -- (Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Poss 1999:2340 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:575 [ref. 25086], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:14 [ref. 25801], Nakabo 2002:575 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:330 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:176 [ref. 30952], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis brevifrons Eschmeyer & Randall 1975. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

brevipectoralis, Pteropterus Mandrytsa [S. A.] 2002:129, Fig. [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 42 (no. 1); ref. 25958] Indian Ocean, Saya de Malha Bank, 10°02'S, 61°37'E, depth 70-80 meters. Holotype: ZIN 50137. Paratypes: ZIN 50138-39 (1, 1). •Valid as Pterois brevipectoralis (Mandrytsa 2002) based on status of Pteropterus -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:165 [ref. 33130], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:x [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[25] [ref. 33935]). Current status: Valid as Pterois brevipectoralis (Mandrytsa 2002). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Mascarene Islands and Saya de Malha Bank. Habitat: marine.

brevispina, Scorpaena Motomura [H.] & Senou [H.] 2008:1762, Figs. 1-5 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 72; ref. 29593] Off Futo, Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture, east coast of Izu Peninsula, Pacific coast of Honshu Island, Japan, 34°52'N, 139°08'E, depth 45 meters. Holotype (unique): KPM-NI 16667 [ex IOP-O-120]. Plus two photographed specimens (Fig. 5) that were not preserved. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena brevispina Motomura & Senou 2008 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena brevispina Motomura & Senou 2008. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Izu Peninsula, Japan. Habitat: marine.

brocki, Hypomacrus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1966:39, Figs. 138i, 143 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 3; ref. 5366] Talisse Island, Indonesia. Holotype: USNM 99782. Paratypes: USNM 99783 (1), 133076-77 (1, 1), 136430 (1), 136438 (1), 140090-91 (1, 1), 140228 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaenodes minor (Smith 1958) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Motomura et al. 2009:84 [ref. 30328]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes minor (Smith 1958). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bucephalus, Scorpaena Alcock [A. W.] 1896:302 [2] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 65 (pt 2, No. 3); ref. 91] Off Malabar, Investigator station 146, depth 36 fathoms; off Coromandel, Investigator, depth 33 fathoms. Syntypes: ZSI F13737 (1) depth 36 fathoms, F14084 (1) depth 33 fathoms. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:155 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:42 [ref. 22148]. On p. 2 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 18 (fig. 7) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Neomerinthe bucephalus (Alcock 1896) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe bucephalus (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: India. Habitat: marine.

bufo, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Brazil; Martinique Island, West Indies; Cuba. Syntypes (?): ZMB 8750 (1, dry) Martinique, SMF 1703 [ex MNHN] (1) Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:60 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:269 [ref. 19946]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:122 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bulacephala, Scorpaena Motomura [H.], Last [P. R.] & Yearsley [G. K.] 2005:19, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 1043; ref. 28339] South of Norfolk Island, 28°54'-55'S, 167°40'-41'E, Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea, depth 111-113 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 6009-05. Paratypes: AMS I. 43470-001 (1); CSIRO H 6009-06 (1), H 6028-03 (1), H 6028-07 (2); NMV A.25132-005 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena bulacephala Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2005 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena bulacephala Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2005. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

burra, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1842:215 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Depuch Island, Western Australia. No type known. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Scorpaena picta Kuhl & van Hasselt 1829 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442] with Kuhl & van Hasselt as authors). •Synonym of Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829) -- (Allen et al. 2006:883 [ref. 29066] with Kuhl & van Hasselt as authors). •Nomen dubium -- (Motomura et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30319]). Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bynoensis, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1845:22, Pl. 14 (figs. 3-5) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Northwestern coast of Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Scorpaena bynoensis Richarson 1845 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Sebastapistes bynoensis (Richardson 1845) -- (Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122]). •Synonym of Scorpaena picta Cuvier 1829 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:353 [ref. 23967], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:325 [ref. 28867], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239]). •Synonym of Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829) -- (Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066] with Kuhl & van Hasselt as authors). •Synonym of Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838) -- (Motomura et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30319]). Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cacopsis, Scorpaenopsis Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:401, Figs. 13-14 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 (1899); ref. 2340] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 49690. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis cacopsis Jenkins 1901 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:308 [ref. 6389], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:16 [ref. 25801], Mundy 2005:330 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:177 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis cacopsis Jenkins 1901. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

calcarata, Scorpaena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:422 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Clearwater Harbor, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 23556 [not 23566]. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:134 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:60 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:482 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:184 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:290 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1255 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:41 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

canariensis, Sebastes (Sebastichthys) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:117, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7031. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:19 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:79 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Motomura et al. 2005:3 [ref. 28289], Poss 2016:2272 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Canary Islands, Madeira and Azores. Habitat: marine.

cardinalis, Scorpaena Solander [D. C.] & Richardson [J.] in Richardson 1842:212 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] White Island, 37°30'S, 177°09'E, New Zealand, depth 19-21 meters [Original locality: Motuaro, Queen Charlotte's Sound [probably Bay of Islands], Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand]. Neotype: NMNZ P.044152. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. Taken in large part from Solander manuscript, authorship as above is here suggested. Neotype selected in Motomura et al. 2011:319 [ref. 31618]. •Valid as Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Paulin 1982:439 [ref. 23678], Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:119 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Poss 1999:2334 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Allen et al. 2006:884 [ref. 29066] with authorship as Richardson, Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2011:317 [ref. 31618], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:112 [ref. 36167], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1097 [ref. 34285], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Zealand to Lord Howe, Norfolk and Kermadec islands. Habitat: marine.

caribbaeus, Scorpaenodes Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:847, Pl. 82 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Toro Point, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81619. •Valid as Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:88 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:276 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:292 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:67 [ref. 26475], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:198 [ref. 25013], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Collette et al. 2003:105 [ref. 26784], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1262 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:47 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Baldwin et al. 2016:153 [ref. 34588]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

castor, Pontinus Poey [F.] 1860:173 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Pontinus castor Poey 1860 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:30 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:281 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:420 [ref. 23827], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:196 [ref. 25013], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1245 [ref. 27048], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:104 [ref. 27795], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:36 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus castor Poey 1860. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.), Bermuda, Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

castus, Pterois volitans Whitley [G. P.] 1951:406, Fig. 14 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 4715] Point Hedland, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS I.12941. •Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Schultz 1986:686 [ref. 22245], Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Allen & Erdmann 2008:129 [ref. 29479]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

catocala, Scorpaenopsis Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:201, Pl. 56 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50651. Paratypes: AMNH 2293 [ex CAS-SU 7466] (1); ANSP 24221 (1); BPBM 1698 (1); FMNH 3966 (1); MCZ 54338 (1); CAS-SU 7466 (1), 7754 (6); USFC 2717 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:305 [ref. 6389], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:19 [ref. 25801], Mundy 2005:331 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

caussei, Pteroidichthys Motomura [H.] & Kanade [Y.] 2015:504, Figs. 2D-F, 3D [Zootaxa 4057 (no. 4); ref. 34096] Chesterfield Islands, New Caledonia, 19°12'S, 158°42'E, depth 68 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2005-2607. Paratypes: BPBM, MNHN. •Valid as Pteroidichthys caussei Motomura & Kanade 2015. Current status: Valid as Pteroidichthys caussei Motomura & Kanade 2015. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia) and Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

cea, Rhinopias Randall [J. E.] & DiSalvo [L. H.] 1997:1036, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22982] Motu Iti, Easter Island, depth 5 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 36317. •Valid as Rhinopias cea Randall & DiSalvo 1997 -- (Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Motomura & Johnson 2006:500 [ref. 28799]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias cea Randall & DiSalvo 1997. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

chilioprista, Scorpaena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:107, Pl. 27 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 476. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

chincha, Sebastodes Nichols [J. T.] & Murphy [R. C.] 1922:511, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 46 (art. 9); ref. 15356] Chincha Islands, Ica Province, Peru. Holotype: AMNH 7784. Paratypes: AMNH 7941 (6), 7958 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaenodes xyris (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes xyris (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

chloreus, Dendrochirus Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:498, Fig. 41 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50701. Paratypes: (8) CAS-SU 23315 (1), 23294 (5); USNM 126089 (1). •Synonym of Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:275 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:324 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:171 [ref. 30952], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Synonym of Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

chorista, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1860:103 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Not available, name on specimen mentioned under Sebastes kuhlii. •In the synonymy of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

cincta, Pterois Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:108, Pl. 26 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 349. •Synonym of Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829 -- (Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:x [ref. 33609]). •Valid as Pterois cincta Rüppell 1838 -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[3] [ref. 33935], Matsunuma et al. 2017:333 [ref. 35034], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pterois cincta Rüppell 1838. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

cirrosa, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1793:199, Pl. 7 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 14 (for 1793); ref. 26701] Miyake-jima Island, Izu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMUU 315. Type catalog: Wallin 1996:62 [ref. 32133]. The correct original spelling is cirrosa, but often seen as cirrhosa. Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308] states neotype designated by Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:17 [25801], but the holotype is apparently available. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis oxycephalus (Bleeker 1849) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis cirrosa (Thunberg 1793) [sometimes as cirrhosa] -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:332 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:271 [ref. 19754], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:87 [ref. 15964] as cirrhosa, Chen et al. 1997:165 [ref. 26476] as cirrhosa, Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:130 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2341 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:576 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:64 [ref. 25480] as cf. cirrhosa, Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:17 [ref. 25801], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:576 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:242, 564 [ref. 26218] as cirrhosa, Motomura et al. 2004:90 [ref. 28581], Motomura et al. 2010:91 [ref. 31256], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2011:64 [ref. 32410], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis cirrosa (Thunberg 1793). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

citrinellus, Taenianotus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:636, Pl. 81 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off south coast of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3849 [or 3810] [or 3810], depth 43-73 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 51634. •Synonym of Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:285 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:333 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

clemensi, Pontinus Fitch [J. E.] 1955:61, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 45 (no. 2); ref. 12270] 22 miles off the coast of Colombia, 2°25'N, 79°00'W, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 163597. •Valid as Pontinus clemensi Fitch 1955 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1549 [ref. 22830], Franke & Acero P. 1996:765 [ref. 22923], McCosker et al. 1997:25 [ref. 22816], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:294 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:271 [ref. 24555], Mora et al. 2000:85 [ref. 25678], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus clemensi Fitch 1955. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Colombia south to northern Peru, including offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

cocosensis, Scorpaena Motomura [H.] 2004:819, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2004 (no. 4); ref. 28049] Off Nuez Island, 5°34'00"N, 86°59'20"W, Cocos Island, eastern Pacific, 31-50 fathoms [57-92 meters]. Holotype (unique): CAS 219506. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena cocosensis Motomura 2004 -- (Motomura & McCosker 2009:135 [ref. 30886], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena cocosensis Motomura 2004. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Cocos Island and Galapágos Islands. Habitat: marine.

colesi, Scorpaena Nichols [J. T.] 1914:537, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 33 (art. 32); ref. 14161] Cape Lookout, Carteret County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): AMNH 4689. •Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:129 [ref. 9211], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1254 [ref. 27048], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

colonensis, Scorpaena Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:844, Pl. 81 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Tide pools, Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81606. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

coloratus, Sebastapistes Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:627, Fig. 243 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] South of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3849 [or 3810], depth 43-73 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51631. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8618 (1), USNM 51667 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena colorata (Gilbert 1905) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:326 [ref. 6389], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2005:29 [ref. 28339], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:174 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena colorata (Gilbert 1905). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

coniorta, Sebastapistes Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:495, Fig. 39 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50693. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23330 (122), 23589 (57). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Scorpaena coniorta (Jenkins 1903) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:316 [ref. 6389]). •Valid as Sebastapistes coniorta Jenkins 1903 -- (Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Mundy 2005:332 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:325 [ref. 28867], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes coniorta Jenkins 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia); Wake Atoll, Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands; probably antiequatorial but maybe more widespread. Habitat: marine.

cookii, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1874:78, Pl. 55 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Raoul Island [Sunday Island], Kermadec Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.8.16.88. •Valid as Scorpaena cookii Günther 1874 -- (Eschmeyer & Allen 1971:521 [ref. 893], Paulin 1982:440 [ref. 23678], Kuiter 1993:119 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Poss 1999:2334 [ref. 24796], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066]). •Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Motomura et al. 2011:318 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

corallicola, Sebastapistes Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:493, Fig. 38 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50691. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7729 (35), U.S. Fish Comm. 2756 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Sebastapistes nuchalis (Günther 1874) -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:585 [ref. 7218]). •Synonym of Scorpaena ballieui Sauvage 1875 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:317 [ref. 6389]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875) -- (Mundy 2005:331 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2014:138 [ref. 33591]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

corallinus, Pontinus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:178 [35] [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] 1903 (nos 4-7); ref. 3709] East-southeast of Ilha Rasa, off coast of Brazil, depth 100 meters. Lectotype: MNRJ 1889A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 1889 (2). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1953:406 [ref. 12732]. On p. 35 of separate. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:406 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps not isolated]. •Questionably valid as Pontinus corallinus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:34 [ref. 1274]). •Valid as Pontinus corallinus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 -- (Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1238 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus corallinus Miranda Ribeiro 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

corallinus, Scorpaenodes Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:64, Pl. 3 (fig. E), Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 4; ref. 4112] Baixo Pinda, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 301. Paratypes: (14) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 368-376 (1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes corallinus Smith 1957 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:283 [ref. 6389], Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:120 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:174 [ref. 30952], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:65 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:229 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes corallinus Smith 1957. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Hawaiian and Society islands. Habitat: marine.

cotticeps, Scorpaenopsis Fowler [H. W.] 1938:65, Fig. 27 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Tinakta Island, Tawi Tawi Islands, Sulu Archipelago, 5°11'50"N, 119°54'E, Albatross station D.5159, depth 10 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98891. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938 -- (Nakabo et al. 1993:31 [ref. 20716], Poss 1999:2341 [ref. 24796], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:18 [ref. 25801], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Motomura et al. 2004:93 [ref. 28581], Allen et al. 2006:889 [ref. 29066], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Allen & Erdmann 2012:232 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden, Somalia and Seychelles east to Philippines, north to Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

crenulata, Scorpaenopsis Motomura [H.] & Causse [R.] 2011:46, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 87 (no. 1); ref. 31125] Wallis and Futuna Islands, 11°54'00"S, 179°31'06"W, depth 600 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1995-746. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis crenulata Motomura & Causse 2011 -- (Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis crenulata Motomura & Causse 2011. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Wallis and Futuna Islands. Habitat: marine.

cristatus, Pterois Swainson [W.] 1839:264 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Sri Lanka. No types known. Based on Benn. Cey. pl. 1 -- which is Bennett 1828:Pl. 1 [ref. 16785]. •Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Schultz 1986:686 [ref. 22245]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

crossotus, Thysanichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:123, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Off Ose Point, Suruga Bay, Japan, Albatross station 3720, depth 63 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 50907. •Valid as Thysanichthys crossotus Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:313 [ref. 6441], Mandrytsa 1993 [ref. 21231], Nakabo 2000:581 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:581 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Motomura et al. 2010:71 [ref. 31103]). Current status: Valid as Thysanichthys crossotus Jordan & Starks 1904. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

cruenta, Scorpaena Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1842:217 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Cape Kidnappers, New Zealand. Holotype: BMNH. •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider and Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1982:438 [ref. 23678], Motomura et al. 2011:330 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

curvispina, Brachypterois Matsunuma [M.], Sakurai [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2013:407, Figs. 3-5, 6a,7, 9A-C, 10-11 19, 20a [Zootaxa 3693 (no. 4); ref. 32811] Southeast of Weary Bay, Queensland, Australia, 15°55.36'S, 145°39.60E, to 15°55.15'S, 145°40.14'S, depth 40 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H7204-02 (X.). Paratypes: Many at CSIRI, ROM. •Valid as Brachypterois curvispina Matsunuma, Sakurai & Motomura 2013. Current status: Valid as Brachypterois curvispina Matsunuma, Sakurai & Motomura 2013. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Queensland. Australia. Habitat: marine.

cyanostigma, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1856:400 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 353] Kajeli, Buru, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (6) RMNH 4756 (up to 6 of 9). •Valid as Scorpaena cyanostigma Bleeker 1856 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:475 [ref. 5652], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:84 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:88 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:84 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:163 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2344 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:579 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:28 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:579 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:891 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2010:92 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:237 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:54 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Aldabra, Comores and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Mariana Islands and Phoenix Islands (Kiribati), north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

dabryi, Scorpaena Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:124, Pl. 1 (fig. 8) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] China. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6882 (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:11 [ref. 20738]. Scorpaena dabryi Sauvage 1878 is a forgotten name that would be a senior synonym of Neomerinthe procurva Chen 1981, but was not used as valid after 1899, therefore reversal of precedence according to ICZN Art. 23.9 in favor of N. procurva. •Synonym of Neomerinthe procurva Chen 1981 -- (R. Fricke, pers. comm. June 2016). Current status: Synonym of Neomerinthe procurva Chen 1981. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

decemradiata, Scorpaena Fricke [R.], Golani [D], Appelbaum-Golani [B.] & Zajonz [U.] 2018:[2] 170, Fig. 1 [Scientia Marina v. 82 (no. 3); ref. 36159] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: HUJ 2418. Paratype: HUJ 20671 (1). •Valid as Scorpaena decemradiata Fricke, Golani, Appelbaum-Golani & Zajonz 2018. Current status: Valid as Scorpaena decemradiata Fricke, Golani, Appelbaum-Golani & Zajonz 2018. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

dentata, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1874:76 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Palau Islands [Pelew Islands]. Syntypes: BMNH 1873.4.3.192-192b (2). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

diabolus, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] (ex Duhamel du Monceau) 1829:166 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Mer du Croisic [northern Bay of Biscay, eastern Atlantic; erroneous, is Indo-West Pacific]. No types known. Non-types: MNHN 0000-6684 (1) New Guinea, 0000-6718 (1) New Guinea, 0000-6719 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:12 [ref. 20738] with types from ref. 998. Available from footnote as, "Aj. Sc. diabolus. Nob., Duham., sect. V, pl. iii, f. 1." Also in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:312 [ref. 998] with source more detailed as "Duhamel, Pêches, 2e part., sect. 5, p. 92, pl. 3, fig. 1" (Duhamel 1778:92 [ref. 30232]). Duhamel's type locality 'Mer du Croisic' corrected by Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:313 [ref. 998] to 'Grand Océan oriental' (Indo-West Pacific) with Indian Ocean, Java, Moluccas and Tahiti as actual localities. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:305 [ref. 6389], Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:83 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:111 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:353 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:296 [ref. 24023] [in error -- see McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025]], Kuiter 1997:84 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:83 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:161 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2342 [ref. 24796], Motomura & Iwatsuki 2000:2 [ref. 24401], Nakabo 2000:575 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:167 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:65 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:19 [ref. 25801], Nakabo 2002:575 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:242, 564 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:145 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2004:94 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:122 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:331 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:889 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:177 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:67 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:91 [ref. 31256], Motomura & Causse 2011:51 [ref. 31125], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:233 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:134 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian, Marquesas and Society islands, north to Korea and southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Elizabeth and Middleton reefs, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

didymogramma, Holoscorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1944:277, Figs. 214-215 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Saboga, Perlas Islands, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: ANSP 70109. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789, subspecies mystes Jordan & Starks 1895 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1556 [ref. 22830], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610] and H. didymogramma). •Synonym of Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

dispar, Scorpaena Longley [W. H.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1940:246, Fig. 12 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 32; ref. 2822] South of Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., depth about 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 108867. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:132 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:60 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:435 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:291 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:585 [ref. 16204], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:239 [ref. 24550], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1256 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:42 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Pontinus Steindachner [F.] 1902:124 [36], Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 72 (for 11 July 1901); ref. 10435] Paita, northern Peru. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:280 [ref. 28925]. Originally published as "Pontius dubius n. sp.? (an P. fucirhinus Garm.). Not included in earlier abstract [ref. 14771]. On p. 36 of separate. •Synonym of Pontinus furcirhinus Garman 1899 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1550 [ref. 22830]). •Valid as Pontinus dubius Steindachner 1902 -- (Franke & Acero P. 1996:765 [ref. 22923], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:272 [ref. 24555] with question). Current status: Valid as Pontinus dubius Steindachner 1902. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

durbanensis, Scorpaena Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1909:236 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 3, no. 5); ref. 1650] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: SAM 10009. Paralectotypes: SAM 10010 (2). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:475 [ref. 5652], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:68 [ref. 25801]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

echinatus, Centropogon Macleay [W.] 1881:436 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 3); ref. 17577] Endeavour River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16353-001 [ex MAMU F794]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

elachys, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:114, Fig. 7c [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] North of Puerto Rico, 18°15'N, 67°33'W, Silver Bay station 5192, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198149 [ex UMML 14874]. Paratypes: UF 214872-73 [ex UMML 14872-73] (1, 1); USNM 198151 [ex UMML 14875] (1). Other non-type material: USNM 153127 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena elachys Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:57 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:276 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1257 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:43 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena elachys Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

ellioti, Pterois Meek [S. E.] 1897:169, Pl. 40 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 1 (no. 8); ref. 17627] Berbera, Somalia [not "West coast of Africa"]. Holotype: FMNH 484. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:71 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Pterois antennata (Bloch 1787) -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:x [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:24 [ref. 33935], Matsunuma & Motomura 2018:96 [ref. 36416]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois antennata (Bloch 1787). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:552, Figs. 1(4), 9 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Cap Blanc, Mauritania, depth about 100 meters. Syntypes: (5) MHNLR P.798 (2). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena elongata Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:67 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1216 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:153 [ref. 25472], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:76 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Poss 2016:2273 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:107 [ref. 36550]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena elongata Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Namibia. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Scorpaenodes Cadenat [J.] 1950:665, Fig. [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 21 (no. 6); ref. 12939] Senegal coast, West Africa. Syntypes: (3) IFAN 1176 (1), MNHN 1950-0070 (1) Gorée. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:18 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes elongatus Cadenat 1950 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:91 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:677 [ref. 17613], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Poss 2016:2285 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes elongatus Cadenat 1950. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

englerti, Scorpaenodes Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Allen [G. R.] 1971:525, Figs. 1c, 4 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 19); ref. 893] Tidepools between Hanga Roa & Hanga Piko, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Holotype: CAS 24806 [ex BPBM 6780]. Paratypes: BPBM 6778-79 (2, 1); CAS 24807 (3), 24808 (1 c&s); LACM 6560-44 (1); UBC 65-455 (1); USNM 205211 (2). •Valid as Scorpaenodes englerti Eschmeyer & Allen 1971 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Meléndez C. & Cornejo C. 2001:68 [ref. 26163], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:175 [ref. 30952], Dyer & Westneat 2010:604 [ref. 31446]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes englerti Eschmeyer & Allen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island and Isla San Félix (Chile). Habitat: marine.

ergastulorum, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1842:217 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1982:438 [ref. 23678], Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:492 [ref. 22532], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

erinacea, Scorpaena Garman [S.] 1903:231, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 39 (no. 8); ref. 15030] Suva Reef, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28313. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

erostris, Scorpaena Alcock [A. W.] 1896:302 [2] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 65 (pt 2, No. 3); ref. 91] Off southern Sri Lanka, 6°06'30"N, 81°23'00"E, Investigator station 59, depth 34 or 42 fathoms. Lectotype: ZSI F 12977. Paralectotypes: ZSI F 12978 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:155 [ref. 20743]. On p. 2 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 18 (fig. 6) [ref. 20534]. Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2015:530 [ref. 33980]. •Valid as Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308] with possible synonyms, Motomura et al. 2015:530 [ref. 33980], Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to French Polynesia, north to Taiwan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

erythraea, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Egypt, Red Sea [probably erronous, is Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea]. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-6706 (larger specimen). Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6706 (1, smaller specimen), ZMB 759 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:12 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:270 [ref. 19946]. Lectotype designation by Fricke et al. 2018:[6] [ref. 36159]. Discussion of type locality see Fricke et al. 2018:[5] [ref. 36159]. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 36159], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

eschmeyeri, Phenacoscorpius Parin [N. V.] & Mandrytsa [S. A.] in Mandrytsa 1992:10 [100], Fig. 1 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 32 (no. 4); ref. 20774] Sala y Gomez Ridge, southeastern Pacific, 25°02'S, 90°41'W, depth 630 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN 49328. On p. 100 of English translation. •Valid as Phenacoscorpius eschmeyeri Parin & Mandrytsa 1992 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Motomura 2008:778 [ref. 30292], Motomura et al. 2012:146 [ref. 32375], Okamoto et al. 2012:77 [ref. 33660], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:262 [ref. 35599]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius eschmeyeri Parin & Mandrytsa 1992. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Sala y Gomez Ridge, Nazca Ridge. Habitat: marine.

eschmeyeri, Rhinopias Condé [B.] 1977:19, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 7241] Mahébourg, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MAN [formerly MZUVN] 10475. •Valid as Rhinopias eschmeyeri Condé 1977 -- (Randall & DiSalvo 1997:1035 [ref. 22982], Fricke 1999:159 [ref. 24106], Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Motomura & Johnson 2006:501 [ref. 28799], Shao et al. 2008:246 [ref. 29952], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:227 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias eschmeyeri Condé 1977. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Réunion and Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Seychelles east to Vietnam and New Caledonia, north to southern Japan and Taiwan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

eschmeyeri, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Greenfield [D. W.] 2004:385, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 55 (no. 19); ref. 27899] Rabi Island, northwestern shore, 16°26.701'S, 179°56.261'W, Vanua Levu, Fiji, depth 1-2 meters. Holotype: CAS 218804. Paratypes: AMS I.42980-001 (1); BPBM 33775 (1), 34264 (2), 39423 (1), 39424 (2); CAS 214577 (1), 219133 (2), 219134 (1), 219135 (1); MNHN 2004-1171 (1); NSMT-P 67891 (1); USNM 243332 (1), 259405 (1), 375892 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis eschmeyeri Randall & Greenfield 2004 -- (Allen et al. 2006:889 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis eschmeyeri Randall & Greenfield 2004. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Australia, New Caledonia and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

evides, Thysanichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1914:272, Pl. 32 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 2543] Misaki, Japan. Holotype: FMNH 57082 [ex CM 6019a]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 22611 (5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:93 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:124 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367]. •Probably a senior synonym of Scorpaenodes littoralis Tanaka 1917 -- (Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Scorpaenodes evides (Jordan & Thompson 1914) -- (Motomura et al. 2010:71 [ref. 31103], Allen & Erdmann 2012:229 [ref. 31980], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:112 [ref. 36167], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1100 [ref. 34285], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes evides (Jordan & Thompson 1914). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Hawaiian Islands, north to Japan, south to Australia, New Zealand, Kermadec Islands and east to Rapa and French Polynesia [true evides may be restricted to Japan and Taiwan [ref. 31103]]. Habitat: marine.

exul, Apistes Gosse [P. H.] 1851:207 [A naturalist's sojourn in Jamaica; ref. 18149] Jamaica. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

falcata, Ebosia Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Rama-Rao [K. V.] 1978:66, Figs. 1, 3 [Matsya No. 3 [for 1977]; ref. 6386] Somalia, 11°04'N, 51°15'E, depth 76-80 meters. Holotype: USNM 218411. Paratypes: CAS 40766-67 (1, 1); ZSI F7400/2 (1). Additional material: ZMH 5581-82 (1, 21). See Das 2003:377 [ref. 27706] with date as 1979. •Valid as Ebosia falcata Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:300 [ref. 33570], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[9] [ref. 33899], Psomadakis et al. 2015:183 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Ebosia falcata Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean east to Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Scorpaena Costa [O. G.] 1842-53:Scorpaena p. 3, Pl. 4 [Fauna del regno di Napoli v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 980] Gulf of Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:83 [ref. 1274] with question, Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fernandeziana, Scorpaena Steindachner [F.] 1875:451 [9], Pl. 1 (figs. 1, 1a) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (1. Abth.); ref. 4222] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. On p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Scorpaena fernandeziana Steindachner 1875 -- (Pequeño 1989:56 [ref. 14125], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Meléndez C. & Cornejo C. 2001:68 [ref. 26163], Dyer & Westneat 2010:604 [ref. 31446], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena fernandeziana Steindachner 1875. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández Islands, Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

filamentosa, Hipposcorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:72, Fig. 31 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Linao Pt., Davao Gulf, Philippines, 7°04'48"N, 125°39'38"E, Albatross station D.5253, depth 28 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98819. •Apparently valid as Hipposcorpaena filamentosa Fowler 1938 -- (Eschmeyer et al. 1973:305 [ref. 6390]). •Valid as Rhinopias filamentosa (Fowler 1938) -- (Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796]). •Valid as Hipposcorpaena filamentosa Fowler 1938 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Motomura & Senou 2005:213 [ref. 28253], Allen & Erdmann 2012:224 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Hipposcorpaena filamentosus Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

filifer, Sebastes Valenciennes [A.] 1840:[21], Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-3879 (1, dry), B-2567 (1, dry), B-2568 (1, dry). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:19 [ref. 20738]. Dates to Pl. 2 in 1840, p. 21 published in 1843. •Synonym of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:36 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:583 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1213 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:668 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2265 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

fimbriata, Scorpaena Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:195 [27] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Tokyo, Japan. Syntypes: MZS 1145 (1); NMW (several). Type information (MZS) from Amaoka & Fujii 1999:154 [ref. 26515], who identified MZS 1145 as Scorpaena picta Cuvier 1829. •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843, but a valid subspecies fimbriata Döderlein 1884 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:86 [ref. 15964]). •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

floridae, Scorpaenodes Hildebrand [S. F.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1940:251, Fig. 14 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 32; ref. 2822] South of Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., depth 45 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 108875. Paratypes: USNM 108876 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:86 [ref. 1274]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus (Metzelaar 1919). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

folgori, Scorpaena Postel [E.] & Roux [C.] 1964:167, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 3082] Brava, Cape Verde Islands, depth 180-200 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1963-0600. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:12 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Neomerinthe folgori (Postel & Roux 1964) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:44 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer 1986:468 [ref. 5652], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:667 [ref. 17613], Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:152 [ref. 25472], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Tweddle & Anderson 2008:9 [ref. 29604], Poss 2016:2263 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe folgori (Postel & Roux 1964). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fowleri, Scorpaena Pietschmann [V.] 1934:100 [1] [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71; ref. 16452] Makaua, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Lectotype: NMW 6341. Paralectotypes: NMW 6342-43 (2). On p. 1 of separate (probably published first). Also in Pietschmann 1938:30, Pl. 9 [ref. 17214]. Lectotype selected by Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:297 [ref. 6389]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis fowleri (Pietschmann 1934) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:297 [ref. 6389], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2342 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829]). •Valid as Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934) -- (Randall & Poss 2002:57 [ref. 25855], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:332 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Motomura & Senou 2009:3 [ref. 30176], Motomura et al. 2010:92 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:237 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:54 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Comores, Agalega Islands, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Maldives east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group and Society Islands, north to Taiwan and Japan, south to Papua New Guinea, Chesterfield Islands and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

fragilis, Acanthodes Fourmanoir [P.] & Crosnier [A.] 1964:23, Fig. 14 [Cahiers O. R. S. T. O. M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Série Océanographie No. 6 (1963); ref. 5568] Nosy Be [Nossi-Bé], Mozambique Channel, Madagascar. Syntypes: IRSMNB (3) probably lost. Appeared previously as name only in caption of Fourmanoir 1963:Pl. 2 D [ref. 34925]. •Juvenile, uncertain status. Scorpaenidae. Habitat: marine.

frondosa, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1892:482, Pl. 39 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891 (pt 4); ref. 14509] Mauritius [Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1891.4.30.3. •Valid as Rhinopias frondosa (Günther 1892) -- (Eschmeyer et al. 1973 [ref. 6390], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Randall & DiSalvo 1997:1035 [ref. 22982], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:159 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2333 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:573 [ref. 25086], Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:573 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Motomura & Johnson 2006:508 [ref. 28799], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:228 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias frondosa (Günther 1892). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Caroline Islands, north to Philippines and Japan. Habitat: marine.

fucata, Scorpaena Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7310. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:13 [ref. 20738]. Genus misspelled Scorpoena by Valenciennes. Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:313 [ref. 4504]. •Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1555 [ref. 22830], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

furcirhinus, Pontinus Garman [S.] 1899:51, Pl. 7 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Northeast of Galápagos Islands, Albatross stations 3355, 3367, 3368, 3378, 3387, 3389, 3391, 3397, depth 66-210 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28767-70 (1, 6, 2), 28770 (1), 68368-73 (3, 6, 1, 1, 1, 1); USNM 153608 [ex MCZ 28767] (2), 292825 (1). •Valid as Pontinus furcirhinus Garman 1899 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1550 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:295 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:272 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus furcirhinus Garman 1899. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja and western Gulf of California to northern Peru and Galápagos Islands and offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

furneauxi, Scorpaenopsis palmeri Whitley [G. P.] 1959:24 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1957-58; ref. 4730] 11 miles northwest of Pine Peak Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS E.2896. Paratypes: IB.3978, IB.3983 (2) •Valid as Scorpaenopsis furneauxi Whitley 1959 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:23 [ref. 25801], Allen et al. 2006:889 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis furneauxi Whitley 1959. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Queensland (Australia) endemic. Habitat: marine.

gaillardae, Scorpaena Roux [C.] 1954:470 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 12469] Marine station at Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1970-0003. •Synonym of Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:66 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:676 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2283 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

galactacma, Sebastapistes Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:496, Fig. 40 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50692. Paratypes: (80) USNM 205645 (2). •Valid as Scorpaena galactacma (Jenkins 1903) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:314 [ref. 6389]). •Valid as Sebastapistes galactacma Jenkins 1903 -- (Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2345 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Randall et al. 2002:156 [ref. 26192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:332 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes galactacma Jenkins 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Ogasawara Islands and Caroline Islands east to Hawaiian Islands; Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia) east to Marquesas Islands, Pitcairn Group and Society Islands, south to Rapa; probably antiequatorial. Habitat: marine.

garretti, Taenianotus Günther [A.] 1874:83, Pl. 57 (fig. C) [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:285 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:333 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

gasta, Scorpaena Motomura [H.], Last [P. R.] & Yearsley [G. K.] 2006:361, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2006 (no. 3); ref. 28789] Kalbarri, off mouth of Murchison River, 27°30'S, 114°25'E, Western Australia, Australia, depth 16-17 meters. Holotype: WAM P.27960-006. Paratypes: AMS I.43480-001 (1); CSIRO H 6186-01 (1); WAM P.26069-002 (1), P.32317-005 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:18 [ref. 30117], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena gasta Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2006 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena gasta Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2006. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

geniserra, Pterois Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:366 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Ava coast, Myanmar. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6558. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:8 [ref. 20738]. The name geniserra predates russelii but can be supressed on the basis of Art. 23.9.1 (Allen & Erdmann 2008:137 [ref. 29479]). •Synonym of Pterois russelii Bennett 1831 [after suppression of geniserra] -- (Allen & Erdmann 2008:129 [ref. 29479]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois russelii Bennett 1831. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

gibbifrons, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:58, Fig. 23 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Cabugan Grande Island, vicinity of Surigao Strait, Philippines, 10°27'30"N, 125°18'E, Albatross station D.5482, depth 67 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98900. •Valid as Scorpaena gibbifrons Fowler 1938 -- (Poss 1999:2335 [ref. 24796], Motomura et al. 2005:29 [ref. 28339]). •Belongs in genus Neomerinthe -- (Motomura et al. 2006:367 [ref. 28789]). •Valid as Neomerinthe gibbifrons (Fower 1938) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308]). •Synonym of Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896) -- (Motomura et al. 2015:530 [ref. 33980]). Current status: Synonym of Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Philippines (if valid). Habitat: marine.

gibbosa, Scorpaena Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:192, Pl. 44 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] "America" [erroneous, is Indo-West Pacific]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 768. Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:270 [ref. 19946], Paepke 1999:132 [ref. 24282]. See McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025]. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis barbata (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1901) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:305 [ref. 6389], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:88 [ref. 15964], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:573 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:166 [ref. 26476], Fricke 1999:162 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:24 [ref. 25801], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:26 [ref. 27712], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:145 [ref. 28072], Motomura & Shinohara 2005:300 [ref. 29181], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:65 [ref. 35264], Motomura & Causse 2011:51 [ref. 31125], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2018:134 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Seychelles, Aldabra, Comoros, Madagascar, Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues (Mascarenes), and Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

gilchristi, Dendroscorpaena Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:61, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 4; ref. 4112] Off the Tugela River, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 11851. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis gilchristi (Smith 1957) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Nakabo et al. 1993:31 [ref. 20716], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:26 [ref. 25801], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis gilchristi (Smith 1957). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa and possibly western Pacific at New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

ginsburgi, Scorpaena Gunter [G.] 1942:105, Fig. [Copeia 1942 (no. 2); ref. 13204] 10 miles southeast of Aransas Pass jetties, Texas, U.S.A., depth 10 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 119016. Paratypes: USNM 119015 (1), 119017-18 (1, 1). Additional material: AMNH 15202 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:239 [ref. 24550], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

godfreyi, Rhinopias Whitley [G. P.] 1954:60, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Australian Zoologist v. 12 (pt 1); ref. 4720] Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.2977. •Status uncertain -- (see Eschmeyer et al. 1973:306 [ref. 6390]). •Valid as Rhinopias godfreyi Whitley 1954 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636]). •Mention -- (Chen & Liu 1984:103 [ref. 13451]). •Valid as Pteroidichthys godfreyi (Whitley 1954) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:446 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:884 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33892]). •Synonym of Pteroidichthys amboinensis Bleeker 1856 -- (Motomura & Kanade 2015:499 [ref. 34096]). Current status: Synonym of Pteroidichthys amboinensis Bleeker 1856. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Australia and Papua New Guinea [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

grandicornis, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:309, Pl. 86 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Martinique Island, West Indies; Puerto Rico; Havana, Cuba; San Domingo. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6681 (1) Dominican Republic, 0000-6689 (1) Puerto Rico, 0000-6900 (1) Martinique; SMF 440 [ex RMNH] (1); ZMB 752 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:13 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:270 [ref. 19946], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena grandicornis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:118 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:58 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:276 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:66 [ref. 26475], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:238 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1258 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:44 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena grandicornis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western and central Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Bermuda south to southern Brazil; Saint Helena and Ascension islands. Habitat: marine.

grandisquamis, Scorpaena Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:107 [On some new fishes from the Queensland coast; ref. 3289] North West Islet, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS E.1418. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena grandisquamis Ogilby 1910 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena grandisquamis Ogilby 1910. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

grattanica, Scorpaena Trunov [I. A.] 2006:472, Fig. 2 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 46 (no. 4); ref. 28786] Grattan Bank, near Ascension Island, 9°46'S, 12°48'W, depth 120-170 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN RAN 52148. Additional material: one not preserved. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena grattanica Trunov 2006 - (Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena grattanica Trunov 2006. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Grattan Bank, near Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

gronovii, Scorpaena Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Gronow) 1792:383 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Based on Scorpaena capite cavernoso, cirris geminis in maxilla inferiore of Gronow 1754:46, No. 103 [ref. 20783]. See also Scorpaena barbata Bonnaterre 1788. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Uncertain as Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guadalupae, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1944:429, Figs. 217-218 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Guadalupe Island, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: ANSP 70298. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1554 [ref. 22830], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

guamensis, Scorpaena Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:326 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Lectotype: MNHN 6667. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6667 (1). Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Paulin 1982:448 [ref. 23678], Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:81 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:81 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:160 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2336 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:583 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Sakai et al. 2001:92 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:583 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:39 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:120 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:66 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:90 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:230 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake, Marshall and Marquesas islands, north to southern Japan, south to northwestern Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, Kermadec Islands, and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Scorpaena Girard [C. F.] 1854:145 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] Monterey, California, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 350. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:132 [ref. 9277], Swift 1986:176 [ref. 20823], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:322 [ref. 24939], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1554 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:126 [ref. 35888], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) to Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

hageyi, Idiastion McCosker [J. E.] 2008:119, Figs. 4-5 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 59 (no. 3); ref. 29639] Isla Fernandina, Cabo Douglas, 00°17.53'S, 91°38.35'W, Galápagos Islands, depth 522 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 87916. •Valid as Idiastion hageyi McCosker 2008 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Idiastion hageyi McCosker 2008. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

haplodactylus, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1860:117 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Incorrect subsequent spelling of Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1852. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1853 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1853. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

hassi, Sebastapistes Klausewitz [W.] 1970:72, Fig. 1 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 51 (nos 1/2); ref. 7999] Addu Atoll, Maldives Islands, depth 38 meters. Holotype (unique): SMF 9860. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis fowleri (Pietschmann 1934) -- (auhors). •Synonym of Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934) -- (Randall & Poss 2002:57 [ref. 25855], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239] but as Sebastapistes klausewitz, Motomura & Senou 2009:3 [ref. 30176]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

hatizyoensis, Scorpaena Matsubara [K.] 1943:301, Fig. 103 [Transactions Sigenkagaku Kenkyusyo No. 2; ref. 2905] Hatizyô-zima, Japan. Holotype (unique): FAKU 6083. •Valid as Scorpaena hatizyoensis Matsubara 1943 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829) -- (Motomura et al. 2014:138 [ref. 33591]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

helena, Pontinus Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:528, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 3); ref. 1273] Gulf of Triste, off Venezuela, 11°10'N, 68°08'W, Oregon station 4451, depth 220 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 231728 [ex UMML 16164 and USNM 260470-F3]. Paratypes: UF 216164 [ex UMML 16164] (1). •Valid as Pontinus helena Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:25 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:430 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1246 [ref. 27048]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus helena Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hemilepidota, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:63, Fig. 26 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Tubig Point, between Samar and Masbate, Philippines, 12°12'35"N, 124°02'48"E, Albatross station D.5392, depth 135 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98884. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena hemilepidota Fowler 1938 -- (Poss 1999:2335 [ref. 24796], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899] as hemilepidotus, Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena hemilepidota Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

hemingwayi, Neomerinthe Fowler [H. W.] 1935:42, Fig. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 1420] About 70 miles southeast of Cape May, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 63482. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Neomerinthe hemingwayi Fowler 1935 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:41 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:272 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:97 [ref. 23239], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1243 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:33 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Motomura et al. 2015:537 [ref. 33980]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe hemingwayi Fowler 1935. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hemprichi, Dendrochirus Matsunuma [M.], Motomura [H.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] 2017:[30], Figs. 2a, 6, 17-20 [Ichthyological Research v. 64 (no. 4); ref. 35277] Near Eilat, Gulf of Aqaba, Israel. Holotype: USNM 362229. Paratypes: BPBM, CAS, HUJ, KAUM, MNHN, SAIAB, SMF, USNM. Plus additional non-type specimens. •Valid as Dendrochirus hemprichi Matsunuma, Motomura & Bogorodsky 2017 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus hemprichi Matsunuma, Motomura & Bogorodsky 2017. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East and South Africa to Seychelles and Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

heterurus, Pterois Bleeker [P.] 1856:33 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1; ref. 311] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5872. Parapterois is feminine, and the species name probably should be heterura. •Valid as Parabrachirus heterurus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978:66 [ref. 6386]). •Valid as Parapterois heterurus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:466 [ref. 5652], Chen et al. 1997:168 [ref. 26476], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:128 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2326 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:567 [ref. 25086] as heterura, Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:567 [ref. 26001] as heterura, Youn 2002:242, 559 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830] as hetururus, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Motomura 2004:1 [ref. 27693], Shinohara et al. 2005:424 [ref. 28370], Allen & Erdmann 2012:219 [ref. 31980] as heterura, Matsunuma et al. 2013:50 [ref. 33131] as heterura, Yoshida et al. 2013:78 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805] as heterura). Current status: Valid as Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: South Africa, Madagascar, Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan and Japan. Habitat: marine.

hexanema, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1880:40, Pl. 17 (fig. B) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Kai Islands, Challenger station 192, Indonesia, Banda Sea, depth 129 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.230 and 240-241 (3); MNHN 1890-0094 (1); NMI block reg. no. 114.1899 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:19-20 [ref. 20738], Wheeler & O'Riordan 1969:98 [ref. 20752]. •Valid as Pontinus hexanema (Günther 1880) -- (Eschmeyer 1983:1 [ref. 8231]). •Synonym of Pontinus rhodochrous (Günther 1872) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus rhodochrous (Günther 1872). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

hirsutus, Parascorpaenodes Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:63, Pl. 1 (fig. E), Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 4; ref. 4112] Bazaruto Island, 21°30'S, 35°30'E, Mozambique, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 331. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 388 (2), 389 (1), ?390 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes hirsutus (Smith 1957) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:277 [ref. 6389], Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:81 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:81 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:160 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2337 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:582 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:582 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:120 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:175 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:230 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035], Fricke et al. 2018:134 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes hirsutus (Smith 1957). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Seychelles and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marshall Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) at 35°03'S, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

histrio, Scorpaena Jenyns [L.] 1840:35, Pl. 8 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: BMNH 1917.7.14.73, 1917.7.14.74 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840 -- (Pequeño 1989:56 [ref. 14125] as hystrio, Allen & Robertson 1994:99 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1555 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:290 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:268 [ref. 24555], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Chile, including some offshore islands, Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

hudsoni, Dendrochirus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:202 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Waikiki, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50652. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7467 (2), USFC 2718 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:275 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:324 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:171 [ref. 30952], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Synonym of Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

immaculatus, Scorpaenodes Poss [S. G.] & Collette [B. B.] 1990:543, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 103 (no. 3); ref. 16730] Walters Shoals, western Indian Ocean, 33°11'06"S, 43°51'42"E to 33°11'30"S, 43°51'36"E, depth 40-49 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 307748. •Valid as Scorpaenodes immaculatus Poss & Collette 1990 -- (Collette & Parin 1991:8 [ref. 19110], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes immaculatus Poss & Collette 1990. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

inermis, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:311 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0693. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:13 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:138 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:61 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:436 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:290 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:66 [ref. 26475], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1259 [ref. 27048], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to Dutch West Indies. Habitat: marine.

insperatus, Scorpaenopsis Motomura [H.] 2004:546, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2004 (no. 3); ref. 27914] Near end of fuel wharf, east side of Chowder Bay, Sydney Harbour, New South Wales, Australia, 33°50'48"S, 151°15'35"E, depth 14.4 meters. Holotype: AMS I.40868-011. Paratypes: AMS I.40868-030 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis insperatus Motomura 2004 -- (Allen et al. 2006:889 [ref. 29066], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis insperatus Motomura 2004. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: New South Wales, Australia. Habitat: marine.

insularis, Scorpaenodes Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1971:506, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 17); ref. 894] James Bay, St. Helena Island, South Atlantic. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1969.3.10.9. •Valid as Scorpaena [sic] insularis (Eschmeyer 1971) -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192]). •Valid as Scorpaenodes insularis Eschmeyer 1971 -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:635 [ref. 9166], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:677 [ref. 17613], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155] as Scorpaenoides i., Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Poss 2016:2284 [ref. 34610], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes insularis Eschmeyer 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks (Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago); southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

investigatoris, Scorpaenodes Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Rama-Rao [K. V.] 1972:57 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 5); ref. 7611] Arabian Sea off Pakistan, 24°13'N, 65°52'E, depth 93 fathoms. Holotype: CAS 24264. Paratypes: CAS 24265-66 (2, 1); USNM 204030 (1); ZSI 916/1 (1), 917/1 (1). See Das 2003:378 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes investigatoris Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972 -- (Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Psomadakis et al. 2015:184 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes investigatoris Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

iop, Scorpaenopsis Nakabo [T.], Senou [H.] & Masuda [H.] 1993:29, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 40 (no. 1); ref. 20716] Izu Oceanic Park, Futo, Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture, east coast of Izu Peninsula, Japan, depth 30 meters. Holotype: FAKU 58788. Paratypes: IOPM 2080 (1); NSMT-P 35788 [or 35785] (1); TKPM-P 1305 (1); FAKU 188 (1), 192 (1), 57333 (1), 59113 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis iop Nakabo, Senou & Masuda 1993 -- (Nakabo 2000:575 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:575 [ref. 26001]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938 -- (Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:18 [ref. 25801], Motomura et al. 2004:93 [ref. 28581]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

isthmensis, Scorpaena Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:842, Pl. 80 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Porto Bello, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81617. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena isthmensis Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:103 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:54 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:437 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:285 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Villamizar 1996:40 [ref. 23496], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:67 [ref. 26475], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:198 [ref. 25013], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1260 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena isthmensis Meek & Hildebrand 1928. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama south to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

istriensis, Scorpaena Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

izensis, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:134, Fig. 10 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Suruga Bay, Japan. Holotype: USNM 50909. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7366 (2). Additional material: CAS-SU 7398 (2); USNM 51242 (2), 51266 (1), 51279 (4), 51392 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena izensis Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:563, 715 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:83 [ref. 15964], Cheng & Zhou 1997:415 [ref. 26385], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena izensis Jordan & Starks 1904. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific, southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

jacksoniensis, Scorpaena Steindachner [F.] 1866:50 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 20460] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): NMW 75379. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. Appeared first in the abstract as above, then in Steindachner 1866:438, Pl. 3 (figs. 2-2a) [ref. 4210]; also on p. 15 of separate. •Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:884 [ref. 29066]). •Valid as Scorpaena jacksoniensis Steindachner 1866 -- (Motomura et al. 2011:323 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena jacksoniensis Steindachner 1866. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Queensland to Victoria (Australia). Habitat: marine.

jordani, Pterois Regan [C. T.] 1905:20 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 85) (art. 2); ref. 3624] Inland Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.6.265. •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693], Matsunuma et al. 2013:52 [ref. 33131]). Current status: Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

kagoshimae, Ebosia Oshima [M.] 1956:237, Figs. [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 65 (no. 6); ref. 12218] Offshore of Shibushi, Osumi, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Ebosia bleekeri (Döderlein 1884) -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978:68 [ref. 6386], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:307 [ref. 33570]). Current status: Synonym of Ebosia bleekeri (Döderlein 1884). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

kagoshimana, Scorpaena Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:196 [28] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Kagoshima, Japan. Syntypes: MZS 1144 (1); NMW 76575 (2). Type information (MZS) from Amaoka & Fujii 1999:153 [ref. 26515], who identified MZS 1144 as Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis neglecta Heckel 1839 -- (Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:36 [ref. 25801], Motomura et al. 2004:97 [ref. 28581]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis neglecta Heckel 1839. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

kaufmani, Scorpaena Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1952:397 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 80 (no. 4) (for Dec. 1951); ref. 11045] Entrance to Manila Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines, depth 65 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 202511 [ex UW 7239]. Paratypes: USNM 202570 [ex UW 7254] (1). Additional material: (1). Type catalog: Meldrim & Wadley 1968:873 [ref. 31181]. •In genus Neomerinthe -- (Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817]). •Valid as Neomerinthe kaufmani (Herre 1952) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe kaufmani (Herre 1952). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Philippines and Soloman Islands. Habitat: marine.

keelingensis, Scorpaenodes Marshall [N. B.] 1950:199, Pl. 19 (fig. 3) [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 22; ref. 12960] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1949.11.29.659. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes kelloggi (Jenkins 1903) -- (Allen & Smith-Vaniz 1994:3 [ref. 22386]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes kelloggi (Jenkins 1903). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

kelloggi, Sebastopsis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:492, Fig. 37 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50694. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23306 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:124 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes kelloggi (Jenkins 1903) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:279 [ref. 6389], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:160 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2337 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:120 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:329 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:175 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:230 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes kelloggi (Jenkins 1903). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa, Réunion (Mascarenes) and Agalega Islands east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Philippines, southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

kitai, Ursinoscorpaenopsis Nakabo [T.] & Yamada [U.] 1996:143, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 43 (no. 2); ref. 22261] East China Sea, 28°15'N, 126°45'E, depth 138 meters. Holotype (unique): FAKU 61187. •Valid as Ursinoscorpaenopsis kitai Nakabo & Yamada 1996 -- (Nakabo 2000:574 [ref. 25086], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:574 [ref. 26001]). Current status: Valid as Ursinoscorpaenopsis kitai Nakabo & Yamada 1996. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

klausewitzi, Scorpaena Frøiland [Ø.] in Dor 1984:82 [Checklist of the fishes of the Red Sea. CLOFRES.; ref. 29757] Not available. Described in an unpublished thesis [ref. 33847] as Frøiland 1972, and was intended to be published but the manuscript was withdrawn. Cited in synonymy of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 by Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757]. From Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, based on TAU P.2578. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kodipungi, Pterois Bleeker [P.] 1852:450 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 16828] Bangka; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (11) BMNH 1880.4.21.108 (1) Bleeker specimen; RMNH (about 8 of 11). •Valid as Pterois kodipungi Bleeker 1852 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830]). •Synonym of Pterois russelli Bennett 1831 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2008:129 [ref. 29479], Allen & Erdmann 2012:222 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois russelii Bennett 1831. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

koenigii, Scorpaena Bloch [M. E.] 1789:235, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 10; ref. 17256] •In genus Dendrochirus Swainson 1839. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

kowiensis, Scorpaena Smith [J. L. B.] 1935:224 [Records of the Albany Museum Grahamstown v. 4; ref. 4066] Port Alfred, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 123 [ex AMG]. •Valid as Scorpaena kowienesis Smith 1935 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes nuchalis (Günther 1874) -- (Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1223 [ref. 13677]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:475 [ref. 5652], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

koyo, Dendrochirus Matsunuma [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2019:[22], Figs. 11d-e, 15-17 [Ichthyological Research Online First; ref. 36536] 150 m south of Chichi-jima Island, Ogasawara Islands, Japan, 27°00'06"N, 142°12'01"E, depth 143 meters. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 114734. •Valid as Dendrochirus koyo Matsunuma & Motomura 2019. Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus koyo Matsunuma & Motomura 2019. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Habitat: marine.

kuhlii, Scorpaena Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:123 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Non-types: SMF 14 (1) from Lowe. •Valid as Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:35 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:583 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1213 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:668 [ref. 17613], Merella et al. 1998:177 [ref. 23484], Santos et al. 1997:76 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:115 [ref. 24952], Uiblein et al. 1999:64 [ref. 24045], Afonso et al. 1999:71 [ref. 25466], López Abellán et al. 2001:259 [ref. 25935], Pais et al. 2005:143 [ref. 28486], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Poss 2016:2265 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Mediterranean Sea (rare), eastern Atlantic: Portugal to South Africa, including Azores, Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde islands. Habitat: marine.

kyphos, Idiastion Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:530, Figs. 3-5 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 3); ref. 1273] Southeastern Caribbean Sea, between Venezuela and Grenada, 11°40'N, 62°33'W, Oregon station 5039, depth 320-340 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 231726 [ex USNM 260470-F1 and UMML 16162]. •Valid as Idiastion kyphos Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:53 [ref. 1274], Anderson et al. 1975 [ref. 7056], Ishida & Amaoka 1992:357 [ref. 19515], Mandrytsa 1993:198 [ref. 20724], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1241 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192] dated 1964, McCosker 2008:122 [ref. 29639], Okamoto et al. 2012:5 [ref. 32019], Poss 2016:2262 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Idiastion kyphos Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lacrimata, Scorpaena Randall [J. E.] & Greenfield [D. W.] 2004:391, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 55 (no. 19); ref. 27899] Tahiti, Society Islands, depth 400 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 31706. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena lacrimata Randall & Greenfield 2004 -- (Motomura et al. 2007:42 [ref. 29012], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena lacrimata Randall & Greenfield 2004. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: South Pacific: Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

lactomaculata, Scorpaena Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1945:400 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 35 (no. 12); ref. 2141] Near Mumbai, India. Holotype: ZSI. Paratypes: CAS-SU 14661 (1). Originally as lacto-maculata. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis lactomaculata (Herre 1945) -- (Randall 1995:111 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:137 [ref. 23922], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:28 [ref. 25801], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:185 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis lactomaculata (Herre 1945). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Scorpaena Troschel [F. H.] 1866:206 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 32 (pt. 1); ref. 4465] Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): NMW 5632. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:71 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1217 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:671 [ref. 17613], Santos et al. 1997:76 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:115 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:71 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2274 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Azores and Madeira south to Gulf of Guinea; Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

laniaria, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:324 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6657. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:13-14 [ref. 20738]. Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308] served as first revisers selecting strongia over laniaria -- both species described in the same publication. •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

laotale, Sebastapistes Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:376, Fig. 72 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51761. Paratypes: AMS I.7378 (1), BPBM 5329 [ex USNM 51761] (1), CAS-SU 8849 (4), USNM 126358 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291]. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

leda, Pontinus Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1969:38, Fig. 3a [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 79; ref. 1274] South Gulf of Guinea, 3°31'S, 9°53'E, depth 400 meters. Holotype: CAS 24282. Paratypes: CAS 24283 (1), 24284 (1, c&s); USNM 204097 (4). Additional material: CAS 24285-88 (4, 7, 4, 1); USNM 204096 (2). •Valid as Pontinus leda Eschmeyer 1969 -- (Eschmeyer 1986:470 [ref. 5652], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:668 [ref. 17613], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:152 [ref. 25472], Adam et al. 1998:11 [ref. 23610], Motomura et al. 2005:10 [ref. 28289], Poss 2016:2266 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus leda Eschmeyer 1969. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

leonina, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1846:216 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based on drawings, one specimen not examined (see Whitehead 1970:211, Pl. 2b [ref. 11606]). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis leonina Richardson 1846 -- (Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:185 [ref. 25703] [misidentification]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cirrosa (Thunbert 1793) -- (Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:17 [ref. 25801]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cirrosa (Thunberg 1793). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

lineagula, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1955:380, Fig. 2 [Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 83 (pt 2); ref. 12272] Off Suva Point, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71985. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

littoralis, Sebastella Tanaka [S.] 1917:10 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29 (no. 339); ref. 4329] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 7439. •Valid as Scorpaenodes littoralis (Tanaka 1917) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:282 [ref. 6389], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556], Randall 1995:110 [ref. 22896], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Randall et al. 1997:82 [ref. 25919], Poss 1999:2338 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:582 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Shinohara et al. 2000:177 [ref. 25987], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:582 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:242, 564 [ref. 26218], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:329 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:175 [ref. 30952], Poss et al. 2010:243 [ref. 30744], Motomura et al. 2010:90 [ref. 31256], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). •Synonym of Scorpaenodes evides (Jordan & Thompson 1914) -- (Motomura et al. 2010:71 [ref. 31103], Allen & Erdmann 2012:229 [ref. 31980], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes evides (Jordan & Thompson 1914). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

longicauda, Pterois (Pteroleptus) Swainson [W.] 1839:264 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Russ. ii. pl. 133 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 133 [ref. 13862]. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

longicornis, Scorpaena Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:47, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1865.2.27.36-38, 1865.3.18.10. •Synonym of Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855) -- (Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Fricke et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34135], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

longilineatus, Phenacoscorpius Motomura [H.], Causse [R.] & Struthers [C. D.] 2012:152, Fig. 1 [Species Diversity v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 32376] Norfolk Ridge, New Caledonia, 23°39'00"S, 168°01'01"E, depth 345 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2010-0942. Paratypes: Many at KAUM-I, MNHN, NMNZ. •Valid as Phenacoscorpius longilineatus Motomura, Causse & Struthers 2012 -- (Motomura & Struthers 2015:1094 [ref. 34285], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:261 [ref. 35599]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius longilineatus Motomura, Causse & Struthers 2012. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: New Caledonia and New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

longipinnis, Micropus Jatzow [R.] & Lenz [H.] 1898:505, Pl. 34 (fig. 2) [Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft v. 21; ref. 14685] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. •Synonym of Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:481 [ref. 19539]). Current status: Synonym of Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Phenacoscorpius Motomura [H.] & Last [P. R.] 2009:28, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 2290; ref. 30568] South of Lord Howe Rise, Tasman Sea, 29°113'S, 159°00'E, depth 300 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 6007-14. Paratypes: CSIRO H 6024-04 (1). •Valid as Phenacoscorpius longirostris Motomura & Last 2009 -- (Okamoto et al. 2012:77 [ref. 33660], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:262 [ref. 35599]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius longirostris Motomura & Last 2009. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Tasman Sea, southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

longispina, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2001:29, Pl. IV (figs. B-C) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34; ref. 25801] Eastern coast of Flamand Islet, lagoon side, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 7 meters. Holotype: BPBM 20148. Paratypes: BPBM 38851 (1); CAS 214203 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 2146 (1), 14361 (1), 52116 (1), 52133 (1), 62353 (2), 63536 (1); USNM 364593 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis longispina Randall & Eschmeyer 2001 -- (Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Naranji & Velamala 2016:87 [ref. 35147], Fricke et al. 2018:135 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis longispina Randall & Eschmeyer 2001. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Philippines and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Dampier Archipelago (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

longispinis, Pontinus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:258, Pl. 68 (fig. 246) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Gulf of Mexico, 28°36'N, 85°33'30"W, Albatross station 2402, depth 111 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 39323 (largest specimen). Paralectotypes: USNM 39322 (1), 39323 (2 of 3). The largest specimen in 39323 (126 mm SL originally) had been regarded as the holotype, and the description was based primarily on it; it was designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:938 [ref. 23416]. •Valid as Pontinus longispinis Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:25 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:431 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:263 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:97 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1991:282 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:63 [ref. 26475], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1247 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192] as longispinnis dated 1897, Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:35 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus longispinis Goode & Bean 1896. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

loppei, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:541, Figs. 1(3), 3 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Gulf de Gascogne, depth about 200 meters. Syntypes: (33) MHNLR P.797 (4); MNHN 1947-0002 to 0003 (2), 1887-0305 to 0306 (2), 1887-0307 to 0308 (2), 1887-0310 (1). Type catalog: Aloncle 1968:690 [ref. 20713], Blanc & Hureau 1968:14 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena loppei Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:74 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1217 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:671 [ref. 17613], Uiblein et al. 1999:64 [ref. 24045], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:176 [ref. 26753], Bañon et al. 2010:15 [ref. 31029], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Poss 2016:2275 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:109 [ref. 36550]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena loppei Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Western Sahara. Habitat: marine.

luckei, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1941:87, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 13237] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 69716. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:139 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

lunulata, Pterois Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:45, Pl. 19 (figs. 1, 3) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Nagasaki Bay, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D602 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D603 (1, stuffed), 666 (3); ZMB 799 (1) Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:269 [ref. 19946]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:55 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Pterois lunulata Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:93 [ref. 15964], Chen et al. 1997:166 [ref. 26476] dated 1842, Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2329 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:569 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:569 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:242, 558 [ref. 26218], Allen et al. 2006:879 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Pterois lunulata Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

lutea, Scorpaena Risso [A.] 1810:190 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:70 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1221 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:675 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrocephalus, Sebastes Sauvage [H.-E.] 1882:169 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 6; ref. 3894] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4165. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:20 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Pontinus macrocephalus (Sauvage 1882) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:294 [ref. 6389], Kyushin et al. 1977:328 [ref. 19756], Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:271, 393 [ref. 8256], Eschmeyer 1983:1 [ref. 8231], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:82 [ref. 15964], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:572 [ref. 27969], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Nakabo 2000:577 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:577 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:327 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:172 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:64 [ref. 31308], Shinohara et al. 2014:245 [ref. 33330], Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus macrocephalus (Sauvage 1882). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

macrochir, Scorpaenopsis Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:29 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Bulwer Island, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1544 [ex AFAQ 1305]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis macrochir Ogilby 1910 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:305 [ref. 6389], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2343 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:33 [ref. 25801], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:40 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Motomura et al. 2004:96 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:122 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Motomura & Causse 2011:51 [ref. 31125], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:233 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:314 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis macrochir Ogilby 1910. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius (Mascarenes); eastern Indonesia east to Tuamotu Archipelago and Marquesas Islands and Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Dampier Archipelago (Western Australia) and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrolepis, Pontinus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:257, Pl. 69 (fig. 247) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Off Yucatán, Mexico, 20°59'30"N, 86°23'45"W, Albatross station 235, depth 130 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 39324. •Synonym of Pontinus nematophthalmus (Günther 1860) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:27 [ref. 1274], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus nematophthalmus (Günther 1860). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

macrura, Pterois Alcock [A. W.] 1896:303 [3], Pl. 18 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 65 (pt 2, No. 3); ref. 91] Malabar Coast off Calicut, Investigator station 123, depth 45 fathoms. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1900.1.21.1 (1), ZSI F13823-28 (6). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:155 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:42 [ref. 22148]. On p. 3 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 18 (fig. 4) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Parapterois macrura (Alcock 1896) -- (Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Motomura 2004:1 [ref. 27693], Matsunuma et al. 2013:50 [ref. 33131], Psomadakis et al. 2015:183 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Parapterois macrura (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Pakistan, India, Oman and Somalia. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Micropus Gray [J. E.] 1831:20 [Zoological Miscellany [No. 1]; ref. 1881] Hao Island, Tuamotu Islands, French Polynesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1969.11.3.1. •Valid as Caracanthus maculatus (Gray 1831) -- (Nakabo in Masuda et al. 1984:318 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:458 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:85 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:85 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:102 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2353 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:603 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:603 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:30 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Shinohara & Imamura 2004:64 [ref. 28198], Randall 2005:130 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:920 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:181 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2014:49 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Caracanthus maculatus (Gray 1831). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Cocos-Keeling Islands and Indonesia east to Marshall and Tuamotu islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

maculipinnis, Parascorpaena Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:57, Fig. 2; Pl. 2 (fig. A) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 4; ref. 4112] Bazaruto Island, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 335. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 391-396 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Parascorpaena mcadamsi (Fowler 1938) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:469 [ref. 5652]). •Valid as Scorpaena maculipinnis (Smith 1957) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Parascorpaena maculipinnis Smith 1957 -- (Nakabo 2000:578 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:578 [ref. 26001], Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135], Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena maculipinnis Smith 1957. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: East Africa and Madagascar; Ryukyu Islands and southern Japan; northern Australia. Probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

madagascariense, Crossoderma Guichenot [A.] 1869:195, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 5 (fasc. 3); ref. 1952] Tuléar, Madagascar. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5656 (9). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:26 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Caracanthus madagascariensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:481 [ref. 19539], Winterbottom et al. 1989:22 [ref. 13251], Fricke 1999:1676 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:38 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:129 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Caracanthus madagascariensis (Guichenot 1869). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Distribution: Sodwana Bay (South Africa) and East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascaranes east to Maldives and Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

maderensis, Sebastus Lowe [R. T.] 1841:36 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1840 (pt. 8, no. 89); ref. 2830] Off Madeira, eastern Atlantic. No types known. Listed in passing under Scorpaena ustulata without distinguishing features, apparently not available. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

madurensis, Scorpaena Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:463 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Madeira. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6682 [ex BMNH] (4), 0000-6683 [ex BMNH] (4). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:14-15 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Original spelling usually corrected to maderensis; that spelling can be retained to maintain current usage. •Valid as Sebastapistes maderensis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:76 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1218 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:115 [ref. 24952], Vacchi et al. 1999:326 [ref. 24369], Cardona & Elices 2000:36 [ref. 25633], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Motomura et al. 2005:14 [ref. 28289], Fricke et al. 2007:76 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2276 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Senegal, including Azores, Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mahe, Scorpaena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:259, 278 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Mahé, Seychelles. No types known. •In Pterois -- (Allen & Erdmann 2008:137 [ref. 29479]). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

marmorata, Scorpaena Parkinson [S.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Tahiti, Society Islands. Name only. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

marmorata, Scorpaena Parkinson [S.] in Bleeker 1876:37 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 16 (art. 2); ref. 12248] Not available, name mentioned in passing under Scorpaenopsis diabolus. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

marmoratus, Scorpaenopsis von Bonde [C.] 1923:30, Pl. 7 [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 386, depth 38 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI]. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Uncertain as Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

massiliensis, Cottus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:24, x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Marseille, France. No types known. Authorship and type locality see Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182]. Gmelin's (1789:1213 [ref. 18139]) use of this name apparently refers to this species, although Forsskål not mentioned. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:83 [ref. 1274] with question, Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mauritiana, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:322 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5711. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:15 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Randall et al. 1997:504 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:163 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2345 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:579 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:579 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:891 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:237 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2014:138 [ref. 33591], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:136 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, East and South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll and Pitcairn Group, south to New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

mcadamsi, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:60, Fig. 24 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Jolo Light, vicinity of Jolo, Philippines [Sulu Archipelago, Sulawesi Sea], 6°03'45"N, 120°57'E, Albatross station D.5174, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98904. Paratypes: (a series) USNM 99013 (1), 133068 (1). •Valid as Parascorpaena mcadamsi (Fowler 1938) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:469 [ref. 5652], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:503 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:156 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2326 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:578 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:578 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:118 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:225 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:50 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135], Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena mcadamsi (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: South and East Africa, Comoros and Réunion east to Marshall Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

mccoskeri, Phenacoscorpius Wibowo [K.] & Motomura [H.] 2017:262, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4323 (no. 2); ref. 35599] Off Darwin Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, eastern Pacific, 01°41'N, 91°59'W, depth 515 meters. Holotype: CAS 86551. Paratypes: CAS, KAUM. •Valid as Phenacoscorpius mccoskeri Wibowo & Motomura 2017. Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius mccoskeri Wibowo & Motomura 2017. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

megalepis, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:56, Fig. 22 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Vicinity of Hong Kong, China Sea, 21°54'N, 114°46'E, Albatross station D.5305, depth 37 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98897. Paratypes: (several) USNM. •Valid as Scorpaena megalepis Fowler 1938 -- (Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728]). •Valid as Sebastapistes megalepis (Fowler 1932) -- (Chen et al. 1997:165 [ref. 26476] dated 1932). •Valid as Neomerinthe megalepis (Fowler 1938) -- (Poss 1999:2322 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Motomura et al. 2011:60, 61 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Fricke 2015:3 [ref. 33807], Fricke et al. 2015:3 [ref. 33930]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe megalepis (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

megalops, Phenacoscorpius Fowler [H. W.] 1938:70, Fig. 30 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] 27 miles southeast of Bagatao Island Light, between Burias and Luzon, Philippines [Burias Pass, Sibuyan Sea, western Pacific], 12°54'40"N, 123°20'30"E, Albatross station D.5387, depth 209 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98903. Paratypes: CAS-SU 40198-200 [ex USNM 136466-68] (2, 1, 1); USNM 136370-86 (0, 5, 1, 3, 3, 2, 2, 5, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 136466-68 (0, 0, 0); ZSI [ex USNM 136370] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. Some paratypes represent different species (see Motomura 2009:776, 778 [ref. 30292]). •Valid as Phenacoscorpius megalops Fowler 1938 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:293 [ref. 6389], Paulin 1982:442 [ref. 23678], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556], Poss 1999:2328 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Mundy 2005:326 [ref. 28379], Motomura 2008:776 [ref. 30292], Motomura & Last 2009:27 [ref. 30568], Motomura et al. 2011:64 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Okamoto et al. 2012:77 [ref. 33660], Fricke et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33930], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:262 [ref. 35599]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius megalops Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific, east to Hawaiian Islands, and south to Malo Island, Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

megastoma, Scorpaena Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:127, Pl. 1 (fig. 7) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4069. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:15 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Fricke 1999:164 [ref. 24106], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2014:138 [ref. 33591]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

melasma, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:109, Fig. 6c [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] Off Brazil, 2°10'S, 41°33'W, Oregon station 4243, depth 36 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198154. Paratypes: UF 213330 [ex UMML 13330] (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena melasma Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:55 [ref. 1274], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1238 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena melasma Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: off Brazil. Habitat: marine.

mellissii, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1868:228, Pl. 19 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 2) (art. 4) (for 26 Mar. 1868); ref. 1991] Saint Helena Island, Southern central Atlantic (15°58'S, 5°43'W). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.10.8.6. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena mellissii Günther 1868 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:79 [ref. 1274], Edwards & Glass 1987:634 [ref. 9166], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Trunov 2006:472 [ref. 28786], Poss 2016:2277 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Brown et al. 2019:179 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena mellissii Günther 1868. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena endemic. Habitat: marine.

mercatoris, Scorpaena Delsman [N. C.] 1941:74, Fig. 11 [Mémoires du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique (Ser. 2) No. 21; ref. 13171] Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas, depth 5-7 fathoms. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 57. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:24 [ref. 20755]. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:139 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Pontinus Bean [T. H.] 1912:125 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 25; ref. 232] Bermuda. Holotype (unique): USNM 74113. •Synonym of Pontinus castor Poey 1860 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:30 [ref. 1274], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:196 [ref. 25013], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1248 [ref. 27048]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus castor Poey 1860. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Scorpaena Gunter [G.] 1948:162, Pl. 2 [Copeia 1948 (no. 3); ref. 13055] Eastern Pacific [erroneously as off Englewood, Florida, U.S.A.]. Holotype (unique): UMMZ 110161. •Synonym of the eastern Pacific Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Bailey 1970 [ref. 21186], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1554 [ref. 22830], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

miles, Scorpaena Bennett [J. W.] 1828:unnum. p., Pl. 9 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka [eastern Indian Ocean]. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:159 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. See Kochzius et al. 2003:401 [ref. 27290]. See Hare & Whitfield 2004:2 [ref. 27631]. •Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Pterois miles (Bennett 1828) -- (Schultz 1986:687 [ref. 22245], Eschmeyer 1986:467 [ref. 5652], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Golani & Sonin 1992:167 [ref. 20428], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43-44 [ref. 21456], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:108 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:136 [ref. 23922], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Fricke 1999:158 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2330 [ref. 24796], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:26 [ref. 27712], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:144 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:117 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Freshwater et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30268], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:65 [ref. 30463], Lasso-Alcalá et al. 2011:575 [ref. 31520], Betancur-R. et al. 2011:1 [ref. 32977], Allen & Erdmann 2012:221[ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Matsunuma et al. 2017:333 [ref. 35034], Wilcox et al. 2017:1, 10 [ref. 35525] with hybrids in the Atlantic, Ali et al. 2018:316 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:132 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pterois miles (Bennett 1828). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East and South Africa, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Indonesia; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant); invasive in the Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

miles, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1842:18 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 55); ref. 21245] Unknown locality. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442] as papillosus, Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

militaris, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1842:90 (71) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 3 (pt 1) (art. 5); ref. 13097] Tasmania. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) [with authors as Bloch & Schneider] -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442] as papillosus, Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

minor, Hypomacrus Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:178 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 12; ref. 4120] Bazaruto Island, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 320. Paratypes: (29) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 405-410 (1, 1, 3, 2, 7, 2), 412-413 (2, 15). •Valid as Hypomacrus minor Smith 1958 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636]). •Valid as Scorpaenodes minor (Smith 1958) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:161 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2338 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:581 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:581 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2009:84 [ref. 30328], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:231 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2016:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes minor (Smith 1958). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia, Austral Islands, and Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

minutus, Sebastes Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:348 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Molucca Islands; Marianas Islands; Society Islands. Lectotype: MNHN 6667. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6667 (1) Guam, 0000-6668 (2) Tahiti, 0000-6669 (2) Bora Bora, 0000-6670 (1) Waigiou; RMNH 657 [ex MNHN] (1) Bora Bora; SMF 1473 [ex MNHN in 1830] (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:20-21 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quioy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

minutus, Taenianotes Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:132 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines. No types known. Original name should have been Taenianotus. Apparently an overlooked available name. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

miostoma, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1877:435 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] Yokohama (market), Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.235. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Also described as new in Günther 1880:65 [ref. 2011]. •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843, but a valid subspecies -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:86 [ref. 15964]). •Valid as Scorpaena miostoma Günther 1877 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Shimizu & Hatooka 1997:3 [ref. 24377], Nakabo 2000:580 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:580 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:242, 565 [ref. 26218], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena miostoma Günther 1877. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan to China. Habitat: marine.

mombasae, Pteropterus Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:80, Fig. 7; Pl. 6 (fig. D) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 5; ref. 12168] Reef near Mombasa, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 117. •Valid as Pterois mombasae (Smith 1957) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:467 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:446 [ref. 12442], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:219 [ref. 24016], Randall 1995:109 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:90 [ref. 25488], Poss 1999:2330 [ref. 24796], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Allen et al. 2006:879 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Motomura 2009:65 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:98 [ref. 31717], Matsunuma et al. 2011:4 [ref. 32398], Allen & Erdmann 2012:221[ref. 31980], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:172 [ref. 33130], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:[2] 328 [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[25] [ref. 33935], Psomadakis et al. 2015:184 [ref. 34104], Matsunuma et al. 2017:333 [ref. 35034], Fricke et al. 2018:132 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pterois mombasae (Smith 1957). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East and South Africa and Madagascar east to western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

mossambica, Scorpaena Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:434 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Ibo, 12°S, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: ZMB 772. Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:271 [ref. 19946]. Also described as new in Peters 1855:241 [ref. 13448]. •Valid as Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855) -- (Dor 1984:81 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:469 [ref. 5652], Randall et al. 1990:79 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Randall et al. 1997:79 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2327 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:577 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:164 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:63 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:577 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:118 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:883 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:64 [ref. 35264], Motomura et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:225 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135], Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa east to western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

moultoni, Scorpaena Whitley [G. P.] 1961:9, Fig. 1 [North Queensland Naturalist v. 29 (no. 127); ref. 9390] North of Wilson Island, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.5062. •Synonym of Parascorpaena mcadamsi (Fowler 1938) -- (Allen et al. 2006:883 [ref. 29066]). •Valid as Scorpaena moultoni Whitley 1961 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Parascorpaena moultoni (Whitley 1961) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena moultoni (Whitley 1961). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

muciparus, Sebastes Alcock [A. W.] 1889:298, Pl. 22 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 84] 26 miles north by east of Golpalpur, Investigator station 42, depth 23 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F12432. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:155 [ref. 20743] but corrected by Talwar 1977:367 [ref. 20565], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:43 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 18 (fig. 5) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes muciparus (Alcock 1889) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:4 [ref. 7813], Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972:59 [ref. 7611], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Psomadakis et al. 2015:185 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes muciparus (Alcock 1889). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

multicolor, Scorpaena Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1876:37 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 16 (art. 2); ref. 12248] Not available, name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

multicolor, Scorpaena Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Not available, name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829); from Java, Indonesia. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

muricata, Pterois Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:363 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Red Sea; Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6597 (1) Red Sea, 0000-6598 (1) Réunion I. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:8-9 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Pterois miles (Bennett 1828) -- (Schultz 1986:687 [ref. 22245], Fricke 1999:158 [ref. 24106], Allen & Erdmann 2008:129 [ref. 29479], Matsunuma et al. 2017:333 [ref. 35034]). •Valid as Pterois muricata Cuvier 1829 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois miles (Bennett 1828). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea: Saudi Arabia and Réunion [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

mystes, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:491, Pl. 52 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: ?CAS-SU [old no.] 2919 (missing). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.81 (1) from Jordan; CAS-SU 2980 (1), 11601 (1), 11616-17 (1, 1), 18083 (2); USNM 47450 (1); ZMB 14150 [ex CAS-SU 2919] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Paepke & Fricke 1992:271 [ref. 19946], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 277, p. 3288 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789, but a valid subspecies -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:100 [ref. 22193], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1556 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:271 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:239 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Franke & Acero P. 1996:766 [ref. 22923], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:291 [ref. 24023], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:198 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:69 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:126 [ref. 35888], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) and Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Chile, including offshore islands, Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

naevosa, Neomerinthe Motomura [H.], Béarez [P.] & Causse [R.] 2011:56, Figs. 1-2 [Cybium v. 35 (no. 1); ref. 31308] Hiva Oa Island, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia, 9°43'59"S, 135°41'00"W, depth 107-108 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2010-0952. Paratypes: Many at AMS, CSIRO, MNHN. •Valid as Neomerinthe naevosa Motomura, Béarez & Causse 2011 -- (Motomura et al. 2015:537 [ref. 33980]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe naevosa Motomura, Béarez & Causse 2011. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Pterois von Bonde [C.] 1923:32, Pl. 8 [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal coast, 29°26'30"S, 31°25'40"E, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 169, depth 29 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 802. Type information: Winterbottom 1974:8 [ref. 19544]. •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:466 [ref. 5652] as heterurus, Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693]). Current status: Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Scorpaena Regan [C. T.] 1906:5, Pl. 5 [Annals of the Natal Government Museum v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 3628] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.8.49. •Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:70 [ref. 1274] with question, Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nebris, Phenacoscorpius Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:523, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 3); ref. 1273] Peninsula de Guajira, Venezuela, 12°46'N, 70°59'W, Oregon station 4396, depth 190 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 231727 [ex 260470-F2 and ex UMML 14358]. Paratypes: UF 216163 [ex UMML 16163] (2). •Valid as Phenacoscorpius nebris Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:52 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:272 [ref. 23100], Mandrytsa 1992:13 [ref. 20774], Mandrytsa 1993:200 [ref. 20724], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1244 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:34 [ref. 28815], Motomura 2008:779 [ref. 30292], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:261 [ref. 35599]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius nebris Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Phenacoscorpius Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:177, Pl. 8 (fig. K) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 12; ref. 4120] Bazaruto (21°30'S), South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 324. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 414 (1). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

neglecta, Scorpaena Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:43, Pl. 17 (fig. 4) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: RMNH D618-623 (6, stuffed). Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:24 [ref. 12876], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:330 [ref. 19756], Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:273, 394 [ref. 8256], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:565, 716 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:83 [ref. 15964] as neglecta neglecta, Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Chen et al. 1997:165 [ref. 26476] dated 1844, Cheng & Zhou 1997:414 [ref. 26385], Nakabo 2000:580 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:580 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:242, 565 [ref. 26218], Takahashi et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27520], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Shinohara et al.2014:245 [ref. 33330], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Islands east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

neglecta, Scorpaenopsis Heckel [J. J.] 1839:159 [Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 2079] Sea of East Indies. No types known. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis neglecta Heckel 1839 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:305 [ref. 6389], Kyushin et al. 1982:270 [ref. 19754], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:130 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:575 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:36 [ref. 25801], Nakabo 2002:575 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Motomura et al. 2004:97 [ref. 28581], Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Motomura 2009:67 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:91 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura & Causse 2011:51 [ref. 31125], Allen & Erdmann 2012:234 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:80 [ref. 34464], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35490], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:77 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis neglecta Heckel 1839. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: India and Andaman Sea east to Philippines and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia), north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

nematophthalmus, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1860:99 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Caribbean Sea. Lectotype: BMNH 2007.11.9.1. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1840.12.12.39 (1, stuffed) [not this species]. Lectotype selected by Ginsburg 1953:51 [ref. 1807]. Second syntype (paralectotype) is from the Indian Ocean and a different species (see Eschmeyer 1969:28 [ref. 1274], Fricke 1999:157 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Pontinus nematophthalmus (Günther 1860) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:27 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100] as nematopthalmus, Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1248 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus nematophthalmus (Günther 1860). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nesogallica, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:315 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0774 (1), 0000-6671 (1). Non-types?: ZMB 754 (1), 755 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:15-16 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:271 [ref. 19946]. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Fricke 1999:162 [ref. 24106], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:24 [ref. 25801], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

nielseni, Sebastapistes Smith [J. L. B.] 1964:298, Pl. 30 (fig. C) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 126; ref. 3444] Off Durban, South Africa, 29°56'S, 31°19'E, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 405 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P79192. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:80 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Neomerinthe nielseni (Smith 1964) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:469 [ref. 5652], Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847] (not this species per ref. 31308), Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817]). •Valid as Neoscorpaena nielseni (Smith 1964) -- (Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Motomura et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2015:537 [ref. 33980] genus needs evalation, Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Neoscorpaena nielseni (Smith 1964). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Réunion. Habitat: marine.

nigerimum, Pontinus Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1983:3, Fig. 1 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 28; ref. 8231] Off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 146 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 11132. •Valid as Pontinus nigerimum Eschmeyer 1983 -- (Eschmeyer 1986:470 [ref. 5652], Adam et al. 1998:11 [ref. 23610], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495] as cf. nigerimum, Motomura et al. 2011:64 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2018:132 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus nigerimum Eschmeyer 1983. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: South Africa to Madagascar and Réunion. Habitat: marine.

nigripinnis, Pterois Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:2, Pl. 20 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] 2.5 miles off Umhlanga River mouth, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 22-26 fathoms. Syntypes: (3) ?BMNH 1903.12.31.6 (1), ?1930.1.14.3 (1); SAM 11855 (3). •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:466 [ref. 5652] as heterurus, Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693], Matsunuma et al. 2013:52 [ref. 33131]). Current status: Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

nigropunctatus, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1868:227 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 2) (art. 4) (for 26 Mar. 1868); ref. 1991] St. Helena Island, South Atlantic (15°58'S, 5°43'W). Syntypes: BMNH 1867.10.8.4-5 (2). •Valid as Pontinus nigropunctatus (Günther 1868) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:40 [ref. 1274], Edwards & Glass 1987:634 [ref. 9166], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:669 [ref. 17613], Trunov 2006:475 [ref. 28786], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Poss 2016:2267 [ref. 34610], Brown et al. 2019:179 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus nigropunctatus (Günther 1868). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands, Bonaparte and Grattan seamounts. Habitat: marine.

nivifer, Sebastapistes Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1905:791, Fig. 10 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 28 (no. 1407); ref. 2495] Bais, Negros Oriental Province, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 51954 [or 52053]. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

normani, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:539, Fig. 2 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Coast of Mauritania, depth 90-100 meters. Syntypes: (17) MNHN B-2548 (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:16 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Based in part on Scorpaena canariensis of Norman 1935. •Valid as Scorpaena normani Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:62 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2278 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena normani Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

noronhai, Pteropelor Fowler [H. W.] 1938:78, Fig. 34 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Vicinity of Hong Kong, China Sea, 21°33'00"N, 116°13'00"E, Albatross station D.5310, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98892. Paratypes: USNM 99009 (1). •Status uncertain -- (see Eschmeyer et al. 1973:305-306 [ref. 6390]). •Valid as Pteropelor noronhai Fowler 1938 -- (Chen & Liu 1984:101 [ref. 13451], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Mandrytsa 2002:567 [ref. 26272]). •Valid as Pteroidichthys noronhai (Fowler 1938) -- (Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33892], Motomura & Kanade 2015:492 [ref. 34096]). Current status: Valid as Pteroidichthys noronhai (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China Sea, Japan, Vietnam, Philippines, western Australia, Vanuatu east to Wallis and Futuna Islands. Habitat: marine.

notata, Scorpaena Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:33 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicilia [Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea]. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:27 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1219 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:116 [ref. 24952], Caputo & Sorice 1999:81 [ref. 25260], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Parin et al. 2002:S64 [ref. 28300], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:79 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:39 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:224 [ref. 33547], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:110 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Senegal, including Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

novaeguineae, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:320 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6676. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:16 [ref. 20738]. Originally as Novae-guineae. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1995:112 [ref. 22896], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:68 [ref. 25801] once as novaguineae, Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

nuchalis, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1874:76 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Raratonga Island, Cook Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.9.13.232. •Valid as Sebastapistes nuchalis (Günther 1874) -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:585 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1223 [ref. 13677]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

nuttingi, Scorpaena Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1924:39, Pl. 1 [University of Iowa Studies in Natural History v. 10 (no. 4); ref. 15444] Carlisle Bay, Barbados, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MSUI (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

obtusa, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2001:37, Fig. 10 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34; ref. 25801] Observation Island, Sulu Archipelago, Tawitawi Group, Philippines, depth 16.5 meters. Holotype: USNM 169475. Paratypes: CAS 54231 (1), 213340 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis obtusa Randall & Eschmeyer 2001 -- (Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Motomura & Shinohara 2005:296 [ref. 29181], Motomura & Causse 2011:51 [ref. 31125], Motomura et al. 2011:100 [ref. 31717], Allen & Erdmann 2012:234 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis obtusa Randall & Eschmeyer 2001. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: central Indonesia east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

occipitalis, Scorpaena Poey [F.] 1860:171 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 13894 (4), 13897 (2); USNM 153576 [ex MCZ 13894] (1), 153577 [ex MCZ 13897] (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:206 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 13894 as types and largest as the holotype. •Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:138 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

oglinus, Kantapus Smith [J. L. B.] 1947:817 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 13 (no. 108) (art. 77); ref. 4073] Inhaca Island, Delagoa Bay, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 314. •Synonym of Sebastapistes tristis -- (Frøiland 1972:358 [ref. 30490], Dor 1984:85 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Scorpaena oglinus (Smith 1947) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:326 [ref. 28867], Allen et al. 2006:891 [ref. 29066], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

onaria, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1900:365, Pl. 16 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1213); ref. 2502] Misaki, Japan. Holotype: USNM 49405. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6275 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena onaria Jordan & Snyder 1900 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Nakabo 2000:580 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:580 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:242, 566 [ref. 26218], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:865 [ref. 28254], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Motomura et al. 2007:42 [ref. 29012], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Motomura & Peristiwady 2010:127 [ref. 31100], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Shinohara et al. 2014:245 [ref. 33330], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1098 [ref. 34285], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena onaria Jordan & Snyder 1900. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Northwestern Pacific from southern Korea and Japan to Taiwan, southwestern Pacific from eastern Australia and northern New Zealand to New Caledonia, and eastern Indian Ocean off northwestern Australia and Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

orgila, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Allen [G. R.] 1971:517, Figs. 1a, 2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 19); ref. 893] Off Ahu Akapu, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 70 feet. Holotype: CAS 24809 [ex BPBM 6770]. Paratypes: BPBM 6771-72 (1, 1), 6774 (1), 6776-77 (1, 1); CAS 24810-11 (2, 1); LACM 31198-1 [ex UBC 65-421] (1); UBC 65-438 (1), 65-439 (1), 65-457 (1); USNM 205209 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena orgila Eschmeyer & Allen 1971 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2011:330 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena orgila Eschmeyer & Allen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island endemic. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2001:41, Pls. V (figs. B-C), XI (fig. C) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34; ref. 25801] Oshima, 31°31.9'N, 131°23.5'E, Mietsu, Nango, Miyazaki, Japan, depth less than 8 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 60913. Paratypes: AMS I.40743-001 (1); BPBM 35164 (1), 35252 (1), 35341 (1), 38850 (1); CAS 214202 (1); MNHN 2001-458 (1); MUFS 14065 (1), 154096 (1), 16338 (1), 16392 (1); USNM 364592 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis orientalis Randall & Eschmeyer 2001 -- (Motomura et al. 2004:97 [ref. 28581], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis orientalis Randall & Eschmeyer 2001. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: southern Japan. Habitat: freshwater, marine.

oxycephalus, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1849:7 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [5]; ref. 16881] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5865. Lectotype established by Dor 1984:19 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis oxycephalus (Bleeker 1849) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis oxycephala (Bleeker 1849) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:83 [ref. 15987], Baranes & Golani 1993:306 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:83 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Motomura & Iwatsuki 2000:3 [ref. 24401], Poss 1999:2343 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:576 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:169 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:45 [ref. 25801], Nakabo 2002:576 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Motomura et al. 2004:99 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:123 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Motomura 2009:68 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:235 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis oxycephala (Bleeker 1849). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Palau and New Guinea, north to Philippines, southern Japan, south to Timor Sea (northern Australia). Habitat: marine.

pacificum, Idiastion Ishida [M.] & Amaoka [K.] 1992:357, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 38 (no. 4); ref. 19515] Kyushu-Palau Ridge, 26°11.5'N, 135°45.4'E to 26°04.7'N, 135°50.4'E, depth 355-375 meters. Holotype (unique): BSKU 31153. •Valid as Idiastion pacificum Ishida & Amaoka 1992 -- (Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:571 [ref. 25086], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:571 [ref. 26001], McCosker 2008:122 [ref. 29639], Okamoto et al. 2012:2 [ref. 32019]). Current status: Valid as Idiastion pacificum Ishida & Amaoka 1992. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western North Pacific (Kyushu-Palau Ridge) and Kyoto Seamount, central North PAcific (35°343.00'N, 171°34.50'E - 35°34.90'N, 171°38.60'E). Habitat: marine.

pallidimacula, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:61, Fig. 25 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Uanivan Island, Pujada Bay and vicinity, Philippines, 6°50'45"N, 126°14'38"E, Albatross station D.5241, depth 215 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98889. •Valid as Scorpaena pallidimacula Fowler 1938 -- (Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728]). •Valid as Neomerinthe pallidimacula (Fowler 1938) -- (Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2016:110 [ref. 35079]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe pallidimacula (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

palmeri, Scorpaenopsis Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:27 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.1528. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis palmeri Ogilby 1910 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:68 [ref. 25801], Allen et al. 2006:891 [ref. 29066]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

pannosa, Scorpaena Cramer [F.] in Gilbert 1897:446, Pl. 52 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 47573. Author is F. Cramer. •Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1555 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

papillosus, Synanceia Schneider [J. G.] & Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:196 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New Zealand. No types known. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. Name attributable to Schneider, description taken from Forster manuscript (reproduced in Lichtenstein 1844:128-130 [ref. 17531] as "Scorpaena cottoides"). Genus spelled Synanceja on p. 195 but corrected in Corrigenda. •Valid as Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1982:438 [ref. 23678], Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556] as papillosus, Paulin & Roberts 1992:137 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 1993:120 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:491 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2005:29 [ref. 28339], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066] with authors as Boch & Schneider, Johnson & Motomura 2008:488 [ref. 30648], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1099 [ref. 34285], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southeastern Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

papuensis, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:321 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6701. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:16 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis papuensis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall et al. 1997:504 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:48 [ref. 25801], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:40 [ref. 27510], Motomura et al. 2004:100 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:123 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:235 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2014:53 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis papuensis (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia east to Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

parvipinnis, Scorpaena Garrett [A.] 1864:105 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 3; ref. 18276] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS [destroyed in 1906 fire]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:280 [ref. 6389], Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757] as parvipinis, Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:473 [ref. 5652], Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:82 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:82 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:161 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2339 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:581 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:167 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:581 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:40 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:329 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:175 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:23 [ref. 30748], Motomura et al. 2010:90 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:231 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands and Society Islands, north to Taiwan and southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island, and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

parvus, Scorpaena De la Blanchère [H.] 1868:621 [La Pêche et les Poissons; ref. 36060] Probably a misspelling of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus, not an original description. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pascuensis, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Allen [G. R.] 1971:523, Figs. 1b, 3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 19); ref. 893] Offshore between Hanga Roa and Hanga Piko, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 10-15 feet. Holotype: CAS 24812 [ex BPBM 6783]. Paratypes: BPBM 6782 (3), 6784 (5); CAS 24813 (3), 24814 (1 c&s), 24815-16 (1, 3); LACM 6560-14 (6); UBC 65-417 (1), 65-451 (4); USNM 205210 (2). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena pascuensis Eschmeyer & Allen 1971 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena pascuensis Eschmeyer & Allen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island endemic. Habitat: marine.

patriacha, Scorpaena Berthelot [S.] (ex Valenciennes) 1840:120 [De la pêche dur la côte occidentale d'Afrique; ref. 30346] Not available, name only. Source given as 'Val.' (A. Valenciennes) from Canary Islands. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

patui, Scorpaena Curtiss [A.] 1938:113 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

paucispinula, Pterois Matsunuma [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2014:[3] 329, Figs. 2-3, 11a [Ichthyological Research v. 62 (no. 3); ref. 33609] Kashiwa-jima Island, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: KBKU 61062. Paratypes: AMS, BSKU, CMNH-ZF, FAKU, KAUM-I, KPM-NI, MNHN, NSMT-P, KSHS, SMF, URM-P, USNM. •Valid as Pterois paucispinula Matsunuma & Motomura 2014 -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[25] [ref. 33935], Matsunuma & Motomura 2018:110 [ref. 36416]). Current status: Valid as Pterois paucispinula Matsunuma & Motomura 2014. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: South China Sea and Philippines east to Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia, Solomon Islands and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Habitat: marine.

pavo, Ebosia Schmidt [P. J.] 1931:109, Figs. 18-19 [Transactions of the Pacific Committee of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. v. 2; ref. 16332] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype: ZIN 22720 (1 of 2, 269 mm). Paratypes: ZIN 22720 (1 of 2, 184 mm). •Synonym of Parabrachirus heterurus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978:66 [ref. 6386]). •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693]). Current status: Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

pele, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Randall [J. E.] 1975:320, Figs. 24, 25a [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 40 (no. 11); ref. 6389] North coast of Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, 21°40'N, 158°08'W, depth 176-202 meters. Holotype: USNM 214046. Paratypes: ANSP 130800 (1); BPBM 29363 [ex BPBM 4350] (1), 13635 (1), 17247 (2); CAS 15707 (1), 30236-39 (1, 2, 3, 1); USNM 214042-45 (1, 1, 2, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena pele Eschmeyer & Randall 1975 -- (Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379], Motomura et al. 2007:42 [ref. 29012], Randall 2007:174 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena pele Eschmeyer & Randall 1975. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

pepo, Scorpaena Motomura [H.], Poss [S. G.] & Shao [K.-T.] 2007:36, Figs. 1, 2A [Zoological Studies v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 29012] Off northeastern coast of Taiwan, Taipei fish market, depth about 200 meters (market purchase). Holotype: ASIZP 65020. Paratypes: AMS I.43631-001 (1); ASIZP 65021 (1); NTUM 4555 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena pepo Motomura, Poss & Shao 2007 -- (Motomura et al. 2009:139 [ref. 30729], Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena pepo Motomura, Poss & Shao 2007. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

perplexa, Sebastapistes Motomura [H.], Aizawa [M.] & Endo [H.] 2014:135, Figs. 1-2 [Species Diversity 19; ref. 33591] Hirane off Hasama, Tateyama, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, 34°58'42"N, 137°47'33"E, depth 15 meters. Holotype: CMNH-ZF 15719. Paratypes: BSKU, CMNH-ZF, FAKU, KAUM-I, KPM-NI, NSMT-P. •Valid as Sebastapistes perplexa Motomura, Aizawa & Endo 2014. Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes perplexa Motomura, Aizawa & Endo 2014. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Pacific coast of Japan. Habitat: marine.

peruana, Scorpaena Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:445, Fig. 86 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Hawaiian Islands [not Peru]. Holotype: USNM 83346. Paratypes: USNM 83001 (1), 121957 (2). •Synonym of Scorpaena ballieui Sauvage 1875 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:318 [ref. 6389]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

petricola, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:107, Fig. 6b [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] Off Brazil, 1°59'S, 42°05'W, Oregon station 4239, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198150 [ex UMML 13336]. Paratypes: UF 212311 [ex UMML 12311] (1), 213328 [ex UMML 13328] (1), 213332 [ex UMML 13332] (7); USNM 198152 [ex UMML 13337] (2); plus additional material (12). •Valid as Scorpaena petricola Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:55 [ref. 1274], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1238 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena petricola Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

phorcus, Scorpaena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:117 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Apparently an incorrect subsequent spelling of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

picta, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:321 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6707. Types: ?RMNH 5859 (3), ?SMF 309 [ex RMNH in 1829] (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:16-17 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Scorpaena picta Cuvier 1829 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:574 [ref. 27969] with authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Larson & Williams 1997:353 [ref. 23967], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:503 [ref. 25919], Poss 1999:2327 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Allen et al. 2006:883 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2009:51 [ref. 30319], Allen & Erdmann 2012:226 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Sri Lanka to Indo-Malaysian Archipelago, Indonesia to Australia and Fiji, north to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

plebeia, Scorpaena Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1842:214 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Tolaga, New Zealand [not Australia]. No type known. Based on a Solander manuscript. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Paulin 1982:439 [ref. 23678]). •Incertae sedis -- (Allen et al. 2006:892 [ref. 29066]). •Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Motomura et al. 2011:318 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

plumieri, Scorpaena Bloch [M. E.] 1789:234, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 10; ref. 17256] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. •Valid as Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 [sometimes as subspecies plumieri] -- (Eschmeyer 1965:121 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:59 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:438 [ref. 14275] as plumierii, Swift 1986:176 [ref. 20823], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:634 [ref. 9166], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Cervigón 1991:287 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:585 [ref. 16204], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:292 [ref. 24023], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:271 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:238 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:198 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1261 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:46 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

pluralis, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2001:50, Fig. 12 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34; ref. 25801] Laysan, northwestern Hawaiian Islands, depth 110 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 22431. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis pluralis Randall & Eschmeyer 2001 -- (Mundy 2005:331 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis pluralis Randall & Eschmeyer 2001. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands (probably endemic). Habitat: marine.

pollux, Pontinus Poey [F.] 1860:174 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Pontinus castor Poey 1860 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:30 [ref. 1274], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1245 [ref. 27048]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus castor Poey 1860. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

polylepis, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1851:173 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 16895] Western Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5855 (32 mm). Paralectotypes: RMNH 35642 (ex 5855) (1), SMNS 10633 (1). Syntypes: AMS B. 8267 (1), RMNH 5855 (10, some syntypes), SMNS 10633 (4). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:19 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:58 [ref. 29864]. Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2016:347 [ref. 34411]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

polyprion, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1849:7 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [5]; ref. 16881] Boleling, northern Bali, and Tappanoli, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?NMW 21518-20 (3), RMNH 5849 (1 or more of 4). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

porcus, Scorpaena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:266 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic. Possible syntypes: NRM 22 (21), 23 (1), 123 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:232-233 [ref. 20707] who regard only LP 23a as porcus of current authors. •Valid as Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:83 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1220 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:116 [ref. 24952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:757 [ref. 24702], Reshetnikov 1998:149 [ref. 23570], Caputo & Sorice 1999:81 [ref. 25260], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:70 [ref. 26753], Parin et al. 2002:S64 [ref. 28300], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:184 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:79 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:225 [ref. 33547], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:108 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Morocco, including Azores and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

possi, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2001:54, Pl. VII (figs. B-D), XII (A-C) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34; ref. 25801] Pitcairn Island, 25°4'S, 130°6'E, southern side off McCoy, South Pacific, depth 23-26 meters. Holotype: BPBM 16770. Paratypes: ANSP 177970 (1); ASIZT 60749 (2); BPBM 10336 (1), 15450 (1), 12309 (2), 29332 (1); CAS 54120 (1), 54196 (3), 54199 (1), 54220 (1), 54224 (1), 54228 (1); FMNH 109196 (1); LACM 55927-1 (1); MNHN 2001-1052 (1); NSMT-P 61030 (1); ROM 72492 (7); USNM 364997 (1). Additional paratypes at AMS, BMNH, BPBM, CAS, ROM, SAIAB [formerly RUSI], SMF, USNM, and WAM. Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:17 [ref. 30117], Ho & Shao 2011:41 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis possi Randall & Eschmeyer 2001 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495] dated 2001, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:41 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall & Greenfield 2004:385 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2004:102 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:123 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011:41 [ref. 31432], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:235 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Larson et al. 2013:83 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:53 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:135 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis possi Randall & Eschmeyer 2001. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros and Masagascar east to Caroline and Marquesas Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

pristigenys, Hoplosebastes Fowler [H. W.] 1938:52, Fig. 19 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Vicinity of Hong Kong, China Sea, 21°54'N, 114°46'E, Albatross station D.5305, depth 37 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98898. Matsubara 1943:269 questionably places as a synonym of Hoplosebastes armatus Schmidt 1929. •Mention -- (Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507]). Current status: Uncertain as Hoplosebastes armatus Schmidt 1929. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

procurva, Neomerinthe Chen [L.-C.] 1981:54, Figs. 22, 49 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 34 (nos 1/2); ref. 8619] Off Ta-chi [Daxi], northeastern Taiwan. Holotype: CAS 47306. Paratypes: CAS 42141 (19); SDSU 77-7 (1); SIO 80-212 (5), 80-223 (2). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Neomerinthe procurva Chen 1981 -- (Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Poss 1999:2323 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:571 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:571 [ref. 26001], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308], Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432], Yoshida et al. 2013:78 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe procurva Chen 1981. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: North Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean off Australia. Habitat: marine.

pusilla, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2001:60, Pl. VIII (fig. A). [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34; ref. 25801] Sentinelle de l'Est, northwestern side, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, depth 17 meters. Holotype: BPBM 11130. Paratypes: CAS 214037 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis pusilla Randall & Eschmeyer 2001 -- (Randall 2005:124 [ref. 28239], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis pusilla Randall & Eschmeyer 2001. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: South Pacific: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

quadrispinosus, Scorpaenodes Greenfield [D. W.] & Matsuura [K.] 2002:973, Figs. 1-2A [Copeia 2002 (no. 4); ref. 26507] Barrier reef off Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji, depth 4.6-6.4 meters. Holotype: CAS 214498. Paratypes: BPBM 38826-27 (1, 1); FMNH 110236 (1); USNM 367135 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes quadrispinosus Greenfield & Matsuura 2002 -- (Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Motomura et al. 2010:18 [ref. 30748], Motomura et al. 2010:91 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:231 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes quadrispinosus Greenfield & Matsuura 2002. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean (Christmas Island and Australia) and Western North Pacific: Papua New Guinea north to Ryukyu Islands, east to Micronesia, Marshall Islands and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

quiescens, Scorpaenopsis Seale [A.] 1906:80, Fig. 2 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 1352. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

radiata, Pterois Cuvier [G.] (ex Parkinson) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:369 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific. Neotype: FMNH 23176. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:60 [ref. 20738]. Based on drawing by Parkinson (Sydney Parkinson, ca. 1745-1771, British natural history artist on Cook's first voyage) in Banks Library. •Valid as Pteropterus radiatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636]). •Valid as Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829 -- (Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:467 [ref. 5652], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:109 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:101 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2331 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:569 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:165 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:569 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:116 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:879 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Motomura 2009:66 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:221 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:344 [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[10] [ref. 33935], Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:173 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Comoros and Madagascar east to southern Japan, Marshall, Line and Marquesas islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

ramaraoi, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2001:64, Pls. VIII (Figs B-), XII (fig. D) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34; ref. 25801] Off Hikkaduwa, 1/2 mile offshore, Sri Lanka, depth 10-12 meters. Holotype: BPBM 27202. Paratypes: AMS I.40819-001 (1); ANSP 177971 (3); ASIZP 60750 (1); BMNH 2001.5.2.35 (1); BPBM 18629 (2), 22107 (1), 26694 (1), 27201 (1); CAS 31474 (3), 54153 (1), 54157 (4), 54168 (16), 54189 (3), 54193 (3), 54195 (16); FMNH 23205 (1); MNHN 2001-1051 (1); NSMT-P 61029 (6); ROM 72491 (10); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 63482 (3); CAS-SU 27871 (1); USNM 364995 (7), ?WAM P.31778-001 (5). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:17 [ref. 30117], Ho & Shao 2011:41 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis ramaraoi Randall & Eschmeyer 2001 -- (Motomura 2002:237 [ref. 26559], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:41 [ref. 27510], Motomura et al. 2004:103 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:124 [ref. 28239], Motomura 2009:68 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:92 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011:41 [ref. 31432], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:236 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Psomadakis et al. 2015:185 [ref. 34104], Naranji & Velamala 2016:87 [ref. 35147], Motomura et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35490], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:77 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis ramaraoi Randall & Eschmeyer 2001. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan, Sri Lanka and India east to Philippines, Palau and Papua New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

rarotongae, Iracundus signifer Whitley [G. P.] 1965:114 [Australian Zoologist v. 13 (pt 2); ref. 9267] Cook Islands. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.5226. •Synonym of Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:287 [ref. 6389]). Current status: Synonym of Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rascacio, Scorpaena Poey [F.] 1860:169 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 13889 (1), 13947-49 (1, 2, 1), 13957 (1); USNM 153578 [ex MCZ 13950] (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:206 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rascasio, Scorpoena Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:7 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. No types known. Based on the 'Rascacio' of Parra 1787:34, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840] which Castelnau treated as valid; apparently Castelnau's treatment can stand as an available name with authorship as Castelnau 1855. Later described by Poey 1860 as Scorpaena rascacio. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rascassa, Scorpaena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:275 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Mediterranean Sea and other seas. Unnecessary replacement name for Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rathbuni, Pontinus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:255, Pl. 68 (fig. 245) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, U.S.A., 35°39'N, 74°52'W, Albatross station 2298, depth 80 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 39325. •Valid as Pontinus rathbuni Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:32 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:432 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:97 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:584 [ref. 16204], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:63 [ref. 26475], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1249 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:36 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus rathbuni Goode & Bean 1896. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

rawakensis, Scorpaena Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:325 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Waigeo [Waigiou], Indonesia; Rawak Island, Bismarck Archipelago. lost. Reversal of precedence selecting Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864) over Scorpaena rawakensis Quoy & Gaimard 1824 by reversal of precedence [ref. 35035]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864) -- (Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rebel, Pterois Montrouzier [X.] 1857:432 [154] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 154 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy; Woodlark I., South Pacific. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

rhodochrous, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1872:659 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1871.7.20.52 (1). •Valid as Pontinus rhodochrous (Günther 1872) -- (Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Randall 2007:173 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Fricke 2015:4 [ref. 33807]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus rhodochrous (Günther 1872). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

rosea, Scorpaena Day [F.] 1868:703 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3); ref. 14045] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1868.5.14.3. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis rosea (Day 1868) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1995:112 [ref. 22896], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:68 [ref. 25801]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rotunda, Neomerinthe Chen [L.-C.] 1981:53, Figs. 22, 47 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 34 (nos 1/2); ref. 8619] Off Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Holotype: CAS 42139. Paratypes: CAS 42140 (1), 42155 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Neomerinthe rotunda Chen 1981 -- (Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Poss 1999:2323 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Motomura et al. 2011:60, 61 [ref. 31308] as possible a synonym of N. erostris, Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432], Yoshida et al. 2013:78 [ref. 34464]). •Synonym of Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896) -- (Motomura et al. 2015:530 [ref. 33980]). Current status: Synonym of Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: western Pacific (Taiwan, Chesterfield Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu) to French Polynesia and to western Indian Ocean (Madagascar, Réunion) (if valid). Habitat: marine.

rubellio, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gunn [J. A., Jr.] 1898:344 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 50; ref. 10630] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 4291. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:76 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2276 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rubrimarginatus, Scorpaenopsis Fricke [R.], Durville [P.] & Mulochau [T.] 2013:208, Figs. 1-4 [Cybium v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 32769] Off Saint-Gilles, La Réunion, 21°03’23’’S, 55°13’04’’E, depth 80 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 2012-0401. The gender of rubrimarginata in feminine. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis rubrimarginata Fricke, Durville & Mulochau 2013. Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis rubrimarginata Fricke, Durville & Mulochau 2013. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Réunion. Habitat: marine.

rubrivinctus, Scorpaenodes Poss [S. G.], McCosker [J. E.] & Baldwin [C. C.] 2010:237, Figs. 1-3, 4A, 11-12 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 61 (no. 2); ref. 30744] San Cristobal I., seamount south-east of San Cristobal I., 01°06'24"S, 89°07'02"W, depth 203 m. Holotype: CAS 90384. Paratypes: CAS 86511 (2), 86524 (1), 86532 (1), 201883 (1); USNM 396088 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes rubrivinctus Poss, McCosker & Baldwin 2010 -- (Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes rubrivinctus Poss, McCosker & Baldwin 2010. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos and Cocos islands. Habitat: marine.

rubropunctata, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:324 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMB 766. Paralectotypes: ZMB 765 (5, poor condition, 1 lost), 766 (1). Plus additional non-type material: ZMB 772 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:271 [ref. 19946]. Originally as rubro-punctata. Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2016:347 [ref. 34411]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rufescens, Helicolenus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:631, Fig. 246 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Vicinity of Kauai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4133, depth 41-165 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51628. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8619 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Neomerinthe rufescens (Gilbert 1905) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:313 [ref. 6389], Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Mundy 2005:326 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:172 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:60, 61 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2015:537 [ref. 33980]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe rufescens (Gilbert 1905). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll. Habitat: marine.

russelii, Pterois Bennett [E. T.] (ex Russell) 1831:128 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 16790] India [Coromandel coast, India, eastern Indian Ocean]. No types preserved. Based on the 'Kodipungi' in "Russel [P. Russell], Coromandel Fishes, no. 133." •Valid as Pterois russelii Bennett 1831 (variously spelled, above is the original) -- (Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:467 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:446 [ref. 12442], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:219 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356] as russelli, Randall 1995:110 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:573 [ref. 27969] as russelli, Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:136 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:167 [ref. 26476] as russellii, Kuiter 1997:90 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:503 [ref. 25919], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:241 [ref. 24754] as russellii, Poss 1999:2331 [ref. 24796] as russellii, Mishra et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25315] as russelli, Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122] as russellii, Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:144 [ref. 28072], Allen et al. 2006:880 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Allen & Erdmann 2012:221[ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988] as russellii, Yoshida et al. 2013:79 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:184 [ref. 34104], Matsunuma et al. 2017:334 [ref. 35034], Motomura et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35490], Wilcox et al. 2017:1 [ref. 35525], Ali et al. 2018:316 [ref. 36183] as russellii, Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Pterois russelii Bennett 1831. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Philippines, north to Vietnam and southern China, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

russelli, Scorpaenodes Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1928:189, Fig. [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 15836] Bizoton Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, West Indies, depth 12 feet. Holotype (unique): USNM 170573 [ex NYZS 7207]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:88 [ref. 1274]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

russula, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:165 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific coast of Colombia, depth 33 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.189 (1) from Jordan; NMW 8864 (1); CAS-SU 384 (4); USNM 41138 (1), 41140 (1), 41146 (1), 41154 (1) 41160 (1), 41191 (1), 41208-09 (1, 1), 41366 (1), 41379 (1), 41487-88 (1, 1), 205651 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena russula Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:100 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1557 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:268 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:238 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena russula Jordan & Bollman 1890. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

sausaulele, Dendrochirus Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:378, Pl. 52 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51760 (1 of 2). Paratypes: CAS-SU 8673 (2), USNM 51760 (1 of 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829) -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[41] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[16] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Synonym of Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

saya, Ebosia Matsunuma [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2014:294, Figs. 1-2, 3a-c, 4a, 10a-c [Ichthyological Research v. 62 (no. 3); ref. 33570] Saya de Malha Bank, western Indian Ocean, 10°30'S, 61°10'E, depth 110-115 meters. Holotype: USNM 307910. Paratypes: HUMZ, KAUM-I, LACM, USNM. •Valid as Ebosia saya Matsunuma & Motomura 2014 -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[9] [ref. 33899]). Current status: Valid as Ebosia saya Matsunuma & Motomura 2014. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank. Habitat: marine.

scaber, Sebastes Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:577 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 10 (pt 4); ref. 18597] Shark Reef, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS B.8450-51 (2). New South Wales is apparently in error for a warmer water location. •Valid as Scorpaenodes scaber (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886) -- (Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441] as scabra, Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:82 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:119 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356] dated 1866, Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:88 [ref. 25488], Poss 1999:2339 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:583 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:583 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:40 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:120 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:888 [ref. 29066], Shao et al. 2008:246 [ref. 29952], Motomura et al. 2010:90 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34411] as a valid species in southeastern Australia). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes scaber (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Marshall and Society Islands, north to Taiwan and Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Rapa, and Society Islands. Species limited to southern Australia (Motomura et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34411] but needs investigation). Habitat: brackish, marine.

scarpaena, Scorpaena Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

scorpius, Cottus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xviii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Not available, name only; from Malta; perhaps intended for Cottus scorpius Linnaeus 1758. See discussion in Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182]. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

scrofa, Scorpaena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:266 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea: Rome (Italy) and Marseille (France). No types known. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:237 [ref. 13434], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. Based on “Scorpaena tota rubens, cirris plurimis ad os“ of Artedi 1738:47 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:76 [ref. 30349], and “Scorpaena cavite cavernoso, cirris geminis in maxilla inferiore“ of Gronow 1754:v. 1, p. 46, no. 103 [ref. 20783]; Artedi’s compilation based on various pre-Linnaean sources. Species name misspelled scropha by Cuvier 1831:122 [ref. 30376]. •Valid as Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:69 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1221 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:675 [ref. 17613], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:116 [ref. 24952], Caputo & Sorice 1999:81 [ref. 25260], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466] with question, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:70 [ref. 26753], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:39 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:106 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Cape Verde Islands including Madeira; southwestern Indian Ocean; South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scrofina, Scorpaena Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:465 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): not MNHN 0000-6702. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

sechellensis, Pogonoscorpius Regan [C. T.] 1908:236, Pl. 28 (fig. 3) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Seychelles, Indian Ocean, depth 37 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.3.23.172. •Valid as Pogonoscorpius sechellensis Regan 1908 -- (Eschmeyer et al. 1973:303 [ref. 6390], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636]). Current status: Valid as Pogonoscorpius sechellensis Regan 1908. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

senegalensis, Scorpaena Steindachner [F.] 1881:159 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 16) (for 23 June 1881); ref. 20482] Rufisque, Senegal. Holotype (unique): NMW 35556 [=89881]. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:31 [p. 15 of separate], Pl. 4 [ref. 13333]. •Synonym of Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:72 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1217 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:671 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2274 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

serrulatus, Sebastes Richardson [J.] 1846:215 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Off Dong Kang, Picgtung, southern Taiwan (23°31'N, 120°22'E), depth 100 meters. Neotype: ASIZP 62399 (X). Neotype selected by Matsunuma et al. 2013:416 [ref. 32811]. •Valid as Brachypterois serrulata (Richardson 1846) -- (Kanayama & Amaoka 1981:181 [ref. 5584] as serrulatus, Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441] as serrulatus, Dor 1984:85 [ref. 29757], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477] as serrulatus, Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:106 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977] as serrulatus, Chen et al. 1997:168 [ref. 26476] as serrulatus, Poss 1999:2310 [ref. 24796] as serrulatus, Nakabo 2000:567 [ref. 25086], Krupp et al. 2000:325 [ref. 25117], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Shinohara et al. 2001:314 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:567 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Allen et al. 2006:877 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2012:217 [ref. 31980], Matsunuma et al. 2013:416 [ref. 32811], Larson et al. 2013:80 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:77 [ref. 34464], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Brachypterois serrulata (Richardson 1846). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand, Borneo and Vietnam to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

serrulifer, Brachypterois Fowler [H. W.] 1938:79, Fig. 35 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off San Fernando Pt. Light, western coast of Luzon Island, Philippines, 16°30'36"N, 120°11'06"E, Albatross station D.5542, depth 45 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98886. •Synonym of Brachypterois serrulata (Richardson 1846) -- (Kanayama & Amaoka 1981:181 [ref. 5584] as serrulatus, Dor 1984:85 [ref. 29757], Allen et al. 2006:877 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Brachypterois serrulifer (Fowler 1936) -- (Matsunuma et al. 2013:426 [ref. 32811], Psomadakis et al. 2015:183 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:129 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Brachypterois serrulifer Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Oman and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

sierra, Scorpaena (Sebastoplus) Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:82 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Gulf of California, Mexico, Albatross station 2996 and 3011, depth 71-112 fathoms. Syntypes: (4) CAS-SU 307 (1); USNM 46469 (1), 124331 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Pontinus sierra (Gilbert 1890) -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1551 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:295 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:271 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], Robertson et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus sierra (Gilbert 1890). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California and Gulf of California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

signifer, Iracundus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:210 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2449] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50886 (= 51079). See also discussion under Scorpaena asperella Bennett 1828. •Valid as Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:287 [ref. 6389], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:468 [ref. 5652], Fricke 1999:156 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2317 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:572 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:572 [ref. 26001], Randall 2005:117 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:326 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:172 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:224 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:50 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: South Africa and Madagascar to western Mascarenes; Taiwan north to southern Japan; New Caledonia, Hawaiian Islands; Cook Islands to Pitcairn Group, south to Rapa (probably more widespread). Habitat: marine.

similis, Scorpaena Gunter [G.] 1948:161, Pl. 1 [Copeia 1948 (no. 3); ref. 13055] East of mouth of Mississippi River, U.S.A., 29°04'N, 88°44.5'W, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 124332. •Synonym of Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:132 [ref. 9211], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:240 [ref. 24550], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

simulata, Scorpaenopsis de Beaufort [L. F.] in Weber & de Beaufort 1962:19 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 11; ref. 16095] Sulu Islands. Holotype: ZMA 110244. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:83 [ref. 19236]. Based on Scorpaena rosea of Weber 1913:496 (not of Day). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis simulata de Beaufort 1962 -- (Nakabo et al. 1993:31 [ref. 20716]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938 -- (Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:18 [ref. 25801]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Scorpaenodes Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Rama-Rao [K. V.] 1972:59, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 5); ref. 7611] Andaman Sea, off western Malaya, Andaman Islands, 5°45'N, 98°20'E, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1929.6.12.6. Paratypes: BMNH 1929.6.12.7-15 (12), 1932.2.15.15-20 (6), 1933.8.11.4 (1), 1972.1.17.1-9 (9); CAS 13616 (4); NMS uncat. (10); USNM 206501 (4); ZMC P7978-81 (4), P7982-3 (2), P7991-2 (2), P79100-112 (13), P79113-132 (20); ZSI F6254/2 (1). See Das 2003:378 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes smithi Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen et al. 2006:888 [ref. 29066], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Allen & Erdmann 2012:232 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988] with 2nd author as Rao, Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes smithi Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Andaman Sea, southern China, Singapore, Arafura Sea and northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

sonorae, Scorpaena Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:150 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 39644. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena sonorae Jenkins & Evermann 1889 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:101 [ref. 22193], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1558 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena sonorae Jenkins & Evermann 1889. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, Gulf of California and western Mexico. Habitat: marine.

sphex, Pterois Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:201 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50650. •Valid as Pteropterus sphex (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636]). •Valid as Pterois sphex Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:272 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:327 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:171 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Matsunum & Motomura 2013:172 [ref. 33130], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:x [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:25 [ref. 33935]). Current status: Valid as Pterois sphex Jordan & Evermann 1903. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

spilistius, Pontinus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:633, Fig. 247 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off north coast of Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4077, depth 99-106 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51644. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8638 (1), USNM 51663 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Pontinus macrocephalus (Sauvage 1882) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:294 [ref. 6389], Eschmeyer 1983:1 [ref. 8231], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:82 [ref. 15964], Mundy 2005:327 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:173 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus macrocephalus (Sauvage 1882). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

starksi, Ebosia Franz [V.] 1910:72, Pl. 9 (fig. 69) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Yokohama, Misaki, and Dzushi, Japan. Syntypes: (4 + 2 + 1) ZSM [old collection] (4 + 2 + 1) destroyed in WW II. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:280 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Parabrachirus heterurus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978:66 [ref. 6386]). •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693]). Current status: Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

staurophorus, Centropus Kner [R.] 1860:531 [3], Pl. (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 39 (no. 4); ref. 2633] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. No types known. On p. 3 of separate. •Synonym of Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:481 [ref. 19539]). Current status: Synonym of Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Habitat: marine.

stearnsii, Scorpaena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:421 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 30169. Additional material: USNM 30185 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:128 [ref. 9211], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1254 [ref. 27048], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

steenei, Scorpaenodes Allen [G. R.] 1977:145, Pl. 1 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 101 (pt 3); ref. 7226] Off northeastern side of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, depth 6 meters. Holotype: WAM P.25178-006. Paratypes: AMS I.18461-001 (1), USNM 214679 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:16 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:17 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes steenei Allen 1977 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Allen et al. 2006:888 [ref. 29066], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes steenei Allen 1977. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Houtman Abrolhos south to Albany (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

steinitzi, Scorpaenodes Klausewitz [W.] & Frøiland [Ø.] 1970:318, Figs. 1-2 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 51 (nos 5/6); ref. 7969] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: HUJ 10097. Paratypes: HUJ 10098-99 (9, 1), SMF 10546-49 (4). Type catalog: Golani 2006:24 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes steinitzi Klausewitz & Frøiland 1970 -- (Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes steinitzi Klausewitz & Frøiland 1970. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

stephanica, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:550, Figs. 1(5), 8 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Port-Etienne, Cap Blanc, Mauritania, depth 95-100 meters. Syntypes: (15) MNHN 1947-0004 (1), 1947-0005 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:66 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:676 [ref. 17613], Zenetos et al. 2010:413 [ref. 31201], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972] record needs checking, Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

stigma, Scorpaenopsis Fowler [H. W.] 1938:66, Fig. 28 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] 8.7 miles wouthwest of Point Tagolo Light, northern Mindanao and vicinity, Philippines, 8°48'N, 123°31'E, Albatross station D.5518, depth 200 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98896. Paratypes: USNM 99012 (1). •Synonym of Phenacoscorpius megalops Fowler 1938 -- (Motomura 2008:776 [ref. 30292], Motomura & Last 2009:27 [ref. 30568], Okamoto et al. 2012:77 [ref. 33660]). Current status: Synonym of Phenacoscorpius megalops Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

stokesii, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1846:487, Pl. 2 (figs. 6-9) [Discoveries in Australia; ref. 3743] Coasts of Australia/northern Australia. Holotype (unique): HMG or BMNH uncat (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Scorpaena picta Cuvier 1829 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829) -- (Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066] with authors as Kuhl & van Hasselt). Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

strigatus, Pontinus Heller [E.] & Snodgrass [R. E.] 1903:208 [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 5; ref. 2089] Wenman Island, Galápagos Islands (stomach content). Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6343. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Pontinus strigatus Heller & Snodgrass 1903 -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:294 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:25 [ref. 22816], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus strigatus Heller & Snodgrass 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands and Cocos Island. Habitat: marine.

strongensis, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1860:105 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Strong Island, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Unjustified emendation of Scorpaena strongia Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

strongia, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:323 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN 1940 (3). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17 [ref. 20738]. Sebastes strongensis Günther is an unneeded emendation. •Valid as Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:84 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Randall et al. 1997:84 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:164 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2346 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:577 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:577 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:41 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624] dated 1839, Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:891 [ref. 29066], Motomura 2009:63 [ref. 30037], Motomura et al. 2010:92 [ref. 31256], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:65 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:238 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:54 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2014:133 [ref. 33591], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:136 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Aldabra, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Mariana, Gilbert, Marquesas and Gambier islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

sumptuosa, Scorpaena Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:17 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Fremantle, Western Australia. Syntypes: MNHN A-4409 (1, dry), B-2570 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17 [ref. 20738] as somptuosa with a holotype, Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena sumptuosa Castelnau 1875 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:492 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2005:29 [ref. 28339], Motomura et al. 2006:367 [ref. 28789], Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Johnson & Motomura 2008:489 [ref. 30648], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena sumptuosa Castelnau 1875. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Shark Bay south to Albany (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

taeniophrys, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1943:66, Fig. 12 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 14 (pt 2); ref. 1441] Cammahana Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 99522. Paratypes: USNM 99523 (1). •Valid as Sebastapistes taeniophrys (Fowler 1943) -- (Motomura 2009:62 [ref. 30037], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:238 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:136 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes taeniophrys (Fowler 1943). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Madagascar; Philippines. Habitat: marine.

tanabensis, Pterois Tanaka [S.] 1918:225 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 30 (no. 356); ref. 17357] Tanabe, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT (lost). •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693]). Current status: Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

teneriffea, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gunn [J. A., Jr.] 1898:345 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 50; ref. 10630] Teneriffa, Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 3111. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tentacularis, Nemapontinus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:73, Fig. 32 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Point Tagolo Light, northern Mindanao and vicinity, Philippines [Bohol Sea], 8°47'N, 123°31'15"E, Albatross station D.5519, depth 182 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98887. Paratypes: USNM 99008 (2). •Probably a synonym of Pontinus hexanema (Günther 1880) -- (Eschmeyer 1983:1 [ref. 8231]). •Valid as Pontinus tentacularis (Fowler 1938) -- (Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:273, 393 [ref. 8256], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:569, 718 [ref. 8056], Fricke 1999:157 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus tentacularis (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: western Mascarenes east to Philippines and Kyushu-Palau Ridge. Habitat: marine.

thomsoni, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1880:24, Pl. 12 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.232. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. Spelled thomsoni in text and on p. 77, thomsonii on plate. •Valid as Scorpaena thomsoni Günther 1880 -- (Eschmeyer & Allen 1971:521 [ref. 893], Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125] as thompson, Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Dyer & Westneat 2010:604 [ref. 31446], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena thomsoni Günther 1880. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández Islands, Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

tierrae, Scorpaena Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:441, Fig. 84 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Tierra Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128128. Paratypes: USNM 88775 (1), 128129 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena tierrae Hildebrand 1946 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena tierrae Hildebrand 1946. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Peru south to Chile. Habitat: marine.

tinkhami, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1946:208, Fig. 72 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 98; ref. 1456] Aguni Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: ANSP 72081 (with paratypes). Paratypes: ANSP 72082 (1), 72803 (1, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Scorpaena tinkhami Fowler 1946 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:317 [ref. 6389]). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis tinkhami (Fowler 1946) -- (Fricke et al. 2014:53 [ref. 33932]). •Valid as Sebastapistes tinkhami (Fowler 1946) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Randall et al. 1997:504 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:164 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2346 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:170 [ref. 25191], Nakabo 2000:579 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:579 [ref. 26001], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:892 [ref. 29066], Shao et al. 2008:246 [ref. 29952], Fricke et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Hubert et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31846], Allen & Erdmann 2012:238 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes tinkhami (Fowler 1946). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, western Mascarenes, Christmas Island, East Coral Sea, Loyalty Islands, Rotuma, Fiji and Wake Atoll east to Pitcairn Group and Society Islands, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

tortugae, Neomerinthe Hildebrand [S. F.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1940:247, Fig. 13 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 32; ref. 2822] South of Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., depth 60 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 108871. Paratypes: USNM 108872 (2). •Synonym of Neomerinthe hemingwayi Fowler 1935 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:41 [ref. 1274], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1243 [ref. 27048]). Current status: Synonym of Neomerinthe hemingwayi Fowler 1935. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

tredecimspinosa, Scorpaena Metzelaar [J.] 1919:146, Fig. 44 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Bonaire Island, West Indies. Lectotype: USNM 160660 [ex ZMA 110241]. Paralectotypes: RMNH 9772 [ex ZMA] (1); CAS-SU 23303 (1); ZMA 110241 (2), 113332 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:82 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Eschmeyer 1969:86 [ref. 1274]. Misspelled tridecimspinosa by authors. •Valid as Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:86 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:276 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:293 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:67 [ref. 26475], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1263 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:48 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Baldwin et al. 2016:154 [ref. 34588]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus (Metzelaar 1919). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

triacanthus, Scorpaenodes Parr [A. E.] 1930:115, Fig. 30 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 4); ref. 3370] Bennet's Harbor, Cat Island, Bahamas. Holotype: YPM 2533. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:25 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:88 [ref. 1274], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1262 [ref. 27048]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

triacanthus, Taenianotus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:303, 306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4051. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:25 [ref. 20738]. Based on the unique holotype which was donated from RMNH. •Valid as Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:285 [ref. 6389], Nakabo in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:452 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:85 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:116 [ref. 23929] as Taenionotus, Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:296 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:88 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:85 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:164 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2349 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:728 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:572 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:171 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:28 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:572 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830] with genus as Taenionotus, Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:147 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:127 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:333 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:892 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Motomura 2009:69 [ref. 30463], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:92 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:239 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:54 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:136 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Galápagos Archipelago, north to southern Japan, Midway Atoll and Hawaiian Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales and Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

tribulosus, Scorpaenodes Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1969:8, Fig. 1c [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 76; ref. 7813] Off Kenya, Indian Ocean, 2°42'S, 40°53'E, depth 77 fathoms. Holotype: CAS 24267. Paratypes: USNM 204031 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes tribulosus Eschmeyer 1969 -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972:59 [ref. 7611], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes tribulosus Eschmeyer 1969. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

tristis, Scorpaena Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:802 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 1413. Paralectotypes: SMF 10626 (1); NMW 3550 (1), 19836 (2); ZMB 7870 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:271 [ref. 19946]. Lectotype established by Frøiland 1972:358, Figs. 1-3 [ref. 30490]. •Valid as Sebastapistes tristis (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Frøiland 1972:358 [ref. 30490], Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Randall et al. 1990:84 [ref. 15987], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:65 [ref. 35264], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

tuamotuensis, Dendrochirus Matsunuma [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2013:2, Figs. 1-3 [Species Diversity v. 18; ref. 32776] Makemo Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia, 16°34'12"S, 143°27'06"W, depth 120 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 37140 [not 31740]. •Valid as Dendrochirus tuamotuensis Matsunuma & Motomura 2013 -- (Matsunuma et al. 2017:[37] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus tuamotuensis Matsunuma & Motomura 2013. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia, South Pacific Ocean. Habitat: marine.

typicus, Caracanthus Krøyer [H. N.] 1845:264 [Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift (Kjøbenhavn) (n. s.) v. 1; ref. 2689] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: ZMUC 36. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:80 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Caracanthus typicus Krøyer 1845 -- (Mundy 2005:334 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:181 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Caracanthus typicus Krøyer 1845. Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

uncinata, Scorpaena de Buen [F.] 1961:32, Fig. 9 [Montemar No. 1; ref. 698] Isla de San Ambrosio, Chile, depth 75 fathoms (137 meters). Holotype (unique): EBMC 10478. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena uncinata de Buen 1961 -- (Eschmeyer & Allen 1971:521 [ref. 893], Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125] as unicincta, Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena uncinata de Buen 1961. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Chile. Habitat: marine.

unipinna, Micropus Gray [J. E.] 1831:20 [Zoological Miscellany [No. 1]; ref. 1881] Pacific. Holotype: BMNH 1971.7.16.2 (missing in 2007). •Valid as Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831) -- (Nakabo in Masuda et al. 1984:318 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:481 [ref. 19539], Paxton et al. 1989:458 [ref. 12442] as unipinnis, Winterbottom et al. 1989:22 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:85 [ref. 15987], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:288 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:85 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:102 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:168 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2353 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:603 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:28 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:603 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S103 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624] as unipinnis, Shinohara & Imamura 2004:64 [ref. 28198], Randall 2005:131 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:920 [ref. 28997], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:64 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:250 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:49 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Distribution: South and East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Great Barrier Reef (Australia), Loyalty Islands, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

ustulata, Scorpaena Lowe [R. T.] 1841:36 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1840 (pt. 8, no. 89); ref. 2830] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Holotype: BMNH 1917.7.14.87. •Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1219 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:39 [ref. 36649], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

varipinnis, Scorpaenodes Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:65, Fig. 5; Pl. 3 (fig. D) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 4; ref. 4112] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 119. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 364-367 (2, 4, 1, 1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes varipinnis Smith 1957 -- (Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:473 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:82 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:88 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:82 [ref. 25919], Shinohara 1998:37 [ref. 24511], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2340 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:583 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:583 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:122 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:888 [ref. 29066], Motomura 2009:67 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:232 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:134 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes varipinnis Smith 1957. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Comoro Islands and Madagascar east to Guam and Vanuatu, to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Society Islands. Former Red Sea records are now assigned to S. steinitzi Klausewitz & Frøiland 1970. Habitat: marine.

vaughani, Pontinus Barnhart [P. S.] & Hubbs [C. L.] 1946:373, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California v. 5 (no. 5); ref. 13119] Pacific off Cedros Island, Baja California. Holotype (unique): SIO 64-275. •Valid as Pontinus vaughani Barnhart & Hubbs 1946 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1552 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus vaughani Barnhart & Hubbs 1946. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

venosa, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] 1829:166 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] India. Non-types: MNHN 0000-6703 (1) Bay of Bengal. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17-18 [ref. 20738] with types from ref. 998. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:163 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Available from footnote as, "Sc. venosa, N., Russ., 56..." See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:317 [ref. 998]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:163 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:475 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:83 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:112 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:137 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:83 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:162 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2344 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Krupp et al. 2000:326 [ref. 25117], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:68 [ref. 25801], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:145 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2004:104 [ref. 28581], Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Shao et al. 2008:246 [ref. 29952], Motomura 2009:68 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:236 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Larson et al. 2013:83 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:80 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:53 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:135 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles and Madagascar east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Japan, south to New Caledonia and Australia. Habitat: marine.

vespertina, Ebosia Matsunuma [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2015:112, Figs. 1-7 [Ichthyological Research v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 33899] Off Mozambique, 18°20'S, 37°20'E, depth 68 meters. Holotype: SAM 41190. Paratypes: KAUM-I, SAM, SAIAB, USNM. •Valid as Ebosia vespertina Matsunuma & Motomura 2015 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Ebosia vespertina Matsunuma & Motomura 2015. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and Mozambique to southern Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

villosus, Amphiprionichthys Schmeltz [J. D. E.] 1869:16 Still researching, apparently name only and not available; from Kandavu I. Fiji Is. In Museum Godeffroy Catalog 4? Also seen as Amphiprionichthys villosus Kner. Current status: Synonym of Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae.

vittapinna, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2001:71, Pls. IX (fig. D), XII (figs. G-H) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34; ref. 25801] Reef off Sodwana Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 27-28 meters. Holotype: BPBM 27360. Paratypes: AMS I.40818-001 (1); ASIZT 60748 (1); BMNH 2001.5.2.36 (1); BPBM 32290 (1), 33809 (1), 37809 (1), 38824 (1), 38836 (1); CAS 35038 (2), 35210 (2), 54049 (3), 54052 (1), 54060 (1), 54062 (1), 214038 (1); MNHN 2001-1050 (1); NSMT-P61031 (1); ROM 60615 (1), 72490 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 14389 (1), 57824 (1); USNM 224492 (2), 364998 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis vittapinna Randall & Eschmeyer 2001 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Motomura et al. 2004:105 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:124 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:176 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2011:103 [ref. 31717], Allen & Erdmann 2012:236 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2014:54 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:135 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis vittapinna Randall & Eschmeyer 2001. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marquesas and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

vittata, Pterois (Pseudomonopterus) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:135, Pl. 1 (fig. 10) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] Nuka Hiva, Marquesas Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6625. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:9 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829 -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:x [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[11], [18] [ref. 33935]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

voelzkowi, Scorpaena Jatzow [R.] & Lenz [H.] 1898:503, Pl. 34 (fig. 1) [Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft v. 21; ref. 14685] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

volitans, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:296 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:237-238 [ref. 13434]. See Kochzius et al. 2003:401 [ref. 27290]. The "syntype" BMNH 1853.11.12.9 is not this species (Allen & Erdmann 2008:137 [ref. 29479]). •Valid as Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Paulin 1982:445 [ref. 23678], Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:575, 721 [ref. 8056], Schultz 1986:66 [ref. 22245], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:167 [ref. 24556], Randall et al. 1990:80 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:114 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:108 [ref. 22896], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:353 [ref. 23967], Chen et al. 1997:167 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:90 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:80 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:101 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2332 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:569 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:165 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:64 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Whitfield et al. 2002:289 [ref. 26090], Nakabo 2002:569 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1238 [ref. 27048], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:26 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Hare & Whitfield 2004:2 [ref. 27631], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:117 [ref. 28239], Fishelson 2006:343 [ref. 28669], Allen et al. 2006:880 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Freshwater et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30268], Lasso-Alcala & Posada 2010:S53 [ref. 30893], Motomura et al. 2010:90 [ref. 31256], Aguilar-Perera & Tuz-Sulun 2010:S9 [ref. 31683], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Lasso-Alcalá et al. 2011:575 [ref. 31520], Betancur-R. et al. 2011:1 [ref. 32977], Allen & Erdmann 2012:223 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:170 [ref. 32953], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:79 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:112 [ref. 36167], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1096 [ref. 34285], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709], Robertson et al. 2016:143, 144 [ref. 34961], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Tornabene & Baldwin 2017:10 [ref. 35339], Motomura et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35490], Wilcox et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35525] with hybrids in the western Atlantic, Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Christmas and Cocos-Keeling islands north to southern Japan, east to Marquesas Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Jervis Bay (New South Wales, Australia), Lord Howe Island, Kermadec Islands and French Polynesia; invasive in the western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

wellingtoni, Scorpaena Victor [B. C.] 2013:32, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 8; ref. 32943] Galápagos Islands, Isla Isabela, Tagus Cove, 0°15'36''S, 91°22'12''W. Holotype: SIO 13-2. Paratypes: CAS 90378 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena wellingtoni Victor 2013 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena wellingtoni Victor 2013. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

xenops, Peloropsis Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:630, Fig. 245 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Avau Channel, between Maui Island and Lanai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3872, depth 32-43 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 51604. •Valid as Rhinopias xenops (Gilbert 1905) -- (Eschmeyer et al. 1973 [ref. 6390], Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:311 [ref. 6389], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Randall & DiSalvo 1997:1035 [ref. 22982], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:573 [ref. 25086], Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Nakabo 2002:573 [ref. 26001], Mandrytsa 2002:569 [ref. 26272], Mundy 2005:327 [ref. 28379], Motomura & Johnson 2006:500 [ref. 28799], Randall 2007:173 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias xenops (Gilbert 1905). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

xyris, Sebastopsis Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:369 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 290); ref. 12308] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 30979 (6). •Valid as Scorpaenodes xyris (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:133 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:324 [ref. 24939], Allen & Robertson 1994:101 [ref. 22193], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1559 [ref. 22830], Franke & Acero P. 1996:766 [ref. 22923], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:292 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:267 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:121 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Richards & Engle 2001:178 [ref. 25759], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Béarez & Séret 2009:147 [ref. 36646], Poss et al. 2010:241 [ref. 30744], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:126 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes xyris (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) and Gulf of California south to Peru, including Clipperton and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

zanzibarensis, Scorpaena Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:47, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1867.3.9.184. Non-types: BMNH 1865.3.18.50 (1). •Synonym of Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855). Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Pterois Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:329 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Bay of Coupang, Timor Island, southern Malay Archipelago. No types known. Not available, on Official Index (Opinion 1121). •In the synonymy of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Schultz 1986:686 [ref. 22245]). •Wrongly valid as Dendrochirus zebra (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:570 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:167 [ref. 26476] dated 1824). •In the synonymy of Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829) -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[17] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Synonym of Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

zebra, Pterois Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Mauritius. Lectotype: MNHN 6627. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6545 (1) Mauritius, 0000-6554 (1, lost, probably no type specimen) New Guinea, 0000-6624 (2) Ambon (probably no type specimens), 0000-6629 (1) Mauritius. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:9-10 [ref. 20738]. Lectotype designated by Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[15] [ref. 36536]. •Valid as Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:466 [ref. 5652], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:440 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:78 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:115 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:128 [ref. 23963], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:90 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:78 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:101 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:155 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2314 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:568 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:163 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:60 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:568 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:38 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:116 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:878 [ref. 29002], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:64 [ref. 30446], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:218 [ref. 31980], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:49 [ref. 33932], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1092 [ref. 34285], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[41] [ref. 35277], Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[2] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

zeylonensis, Amphiprionichthys Day [F.] 1870:515 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 3) (art. 7) (for 11 Nov. 1869); ref. 18819] Off Galle, Sri Lanka. Syntypes: (3) ZSI A.114 (3, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. Treated as Micropus zeylonicus in Day 1875:158, Pl. 38 (fig. 6) [ref. 1080]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Habitat: marine.